A MAJOR INTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION AND ITS AMENDMENTS, TO GUARANTEE EQUAL RIGHTS TO ALL CITIZENS REGARDLESS OF RACE, CREED, OR COLOR, HAS BEEN REINFORCED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES OF MANY STATES. IN SOME STATES SUCH LAWS HAVE BEEN ON RECORD FOR THREE-QUARTERS OF A CENTURY. IN OTHER STATES THE SAME CONSTITUTIONAL INTENT HAS BEEN DENIED BY…
Court decision reflect the widely felt lack of clarity about the present legal situation in the field of high technology. This confusion is also due to the fact that this legal situation is surrounded by civil rights constellations, which have more and more eroded the contours of our legal system in recent years: Today, civil rights are no longer specific, well-definable bulwarks for the citizen, but are more and more frequently interpreted by the supreme courts as sources of procedural requirements with more or less certain often vague consequences. This shifting of the accent in civil rights towards procedural matters is due to an innate logical necessity, however: The same civil right considered in the same situation, e.g., in planning for high technology, may give rise to very different, even contradictory individual claims. Therefore, one of the main modern objectives of civil rights becoming more and more apparent is the need to reconcile conflicting positions, which makes civil rights a driving force in balancing interests in the easiest possible way. Yet, one of the main deficiencies in this rapidly growing procedural approach is the one-sidedness often to be found as a result of isolated, punctual actions. This misses the objective of achieving adequate harmonization. As examples of such one-sided, isolated civil rights approaches, legal opinions are cited on the so-called public participation (possibility to object for those concerned) in the licensing procedures under the German Atomic Energy Act and for protection against environmental impacts. Quity rightly, this participation of the public is interpreted as an advance protection of civil rights. However, its consequences quite often are exaggerated. (orig.) [de
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable civil...
Keywords : racism, stereotype, prejudice, discrimination Slavery in the United States is closely connected to the American CivilWar between the North and the South which was happened in 1861-1865. Slavery deals with the ill-treatment of the Whites to the Blacks. Moreover, thosetreatments to the Blacks became the bad issues in illustrating the racism duringAmerican Civil War. Besides, the writer conducted a study by using sociologicalapproach about racism of critical race theory during the Ame...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...
Author reflects on forty years of experience writing about the civil rights movement. The Institute for Healing Racism, a grassroots movement for participants of diverse backgrounds to study racism and to help discover the oneness of humankind, grew out of the author's concerns. The principles and processes of the Institute are described.…
This paper examines the significance of racism in fueling the recent rise of the Tea Party and related Right-Wing political groups and activity. It briefly explores some of the history of racism in this country that has been directed toward African Americans and how it has influenced political developments from Colonial times to the present. It suggests that this racist resurgence can be seen, in part, as a re-enactment of the trauma of the Civil War by the descendants, and those who identify with them, who were on the losing side of that conflict.
The medium of film is uniquely suited to the representation of social problems such as racism. By stressing major issues of racism--slavery, the black cultural heritage, black power, and the black civil rights movement--and coupling these issues with films which give a realistic view of the substance and problems of racism, both concepts…
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 302.20 Section 302... TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.20 Civil rights. (a) Discrimination is prohibited... 601 of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) (proscribing...
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination complaints...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all requirements imposed by or pursuant to...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State or local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations against...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer its... amended by Executive Order 12259, as applicable. The civil rights compliance requirements for RHS are in 7...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that “no... the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations promulgated...
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will be administered in accordance with applicable Federal Civil Rights Law. All grants made under this subpart are...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on the... funds under the Act are also subject to the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations promulgated...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 21.7310... Bill-Active Duty) Administrative § 21.7310 Civil rights. (a) Delegation of authority concerning Federal... her jurisdiction. See part 18 of this chapter. These equal opportunity laws are: (1) Title VI, Civil...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.21 Civil... Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights...
The book deals with the constitutional obligations which substantive civil rights demand from administrative procedures. The Federal Constitutional Court distinguishes between protection of civil rights in, and by, administrative and judicial procedures. The author analyses the example of the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court concerning the atomic power plant of Muelheim-Kaerlich. In the licensing procedure pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act, the civil rights of persons concerned are guaranteed by the governmental obligation to its protection. (CW) [de
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) and in...
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1738.17 Civil rights...
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations on...
What is framed as political contestation today is a culmination of abuses of human rights, including political, civil, social and economic rights. Using a historical analysis, this article points out that there has been selective amnesia in Zimbabwe's human rights discourse, and argues for the equal treatment of civil and political ...
Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.
Full Text Available Personality rights have long been described as the youngest member of the civil law family of absolute subjective (individual civil rights. By establishing these rights, an individual is guaranteed full and direct legal authority and control over one's personal assets, which include the most important human values such as: life, integrity, dignity and privacy. The ultimate importance of these personal assets is supported by appropriate legal protection of personality rights, which have been guaranteed in numerous provisions of constitutional law, civil law, criminal law and administrative law. The legal protection of personality rights stems from the understanding that a human being cannot be reduced to a biological entity; being part of the community, man is also a social being. Taking into account constant interactions and mutual relations between members of the society, man should be guaranteed certain rights. It primarily implies the guaranteed right to inviolability of one's personality, which is the basis for generating other personality rights. These rights are inherent, inalienable and absolute in terms of their effects; as such, they provide protection from the interference of the state and any third party. Focusing on the rules of civil law, the authors have explored the potentials and the scope of legal protection of personality rights provided by awarding a civil sanction. Although civil sanction is basically monetary sanction, it is deemed to be quite appropriate for the protection of personal (non-patrimonial assets.
This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on the Voting Rights Act--a law, extended in 1970, which provided for federal registrars in any state or county having a substantial minority population and a literacy test where voter participation fell below 50 percent-which is due to…
The question of how the consequences of technological development are to be mastered on the legal level is not primarily a problem of the administrative procedure. The essential point in the discussion on protection of basic rights is not to be seen in the citizen's right to participate in administrative procedures, but rather in the substantive civil rights of individual persons as against the government, together with the system of values established in the Basic Law and derived from the basic rights, as well as in the proper functioning of the principle of separation of powers (legislature, administration, and judicature). The law on procedure and thus the idea of (protection of civil rights by rules of procedure) in this context only have an enhancing effect. Practical protection of civil rights is also ascertained in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly well-established guarantee of access to the courts. Another idea to be mentioned in this context is an approach that can be termed as 'protection of civil rights by government-funded research'. Other facts contributing to building a protective shield against infringement of civil rights by technology, activities or installations, include e.g. the federal structure of the state and the administration, type and scope of organisation of the public service, the established system of environmental protection and the safety provided by the current system of expert opinions. (orig./HSCH).
The question of how the consequences of technological development are to be mastered on the legal level is not primarily a problem of the administrative procedure. The essential point in the discussion on protection of basic rights is not to be seen in the citizen's right to participate in administrative procedures, but rather in the substantive civil rights of individual persons as against the government, together with the system of values established in the Basic Law and derived from the basic rights, as well as in the proper functioning of the principle of separation of powers (legislature, administration, and judicature). The law on procedure and thus the idea of (protection of civil rights by rules of procedure) in this context only have an enhancing effect. Practical protection of civil rights is also ascertained in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly well-established guarantee of access to the courts. Another idea to be mentioned in this context is an approach that can be termed as 'protection of civil rights by government-funded research'. Other facts contributing to building a protective shield against infringement of civil rights by technology, activities or installations, include e.g. the federal structure of the state and the administration, type and scope of organisation of the public service, the established system of environmental protection and the safety provided by the current system of expert opinions. (orig./HSCH) [de
This article reports on the mission of the Office for Civil Rights in the U.S. Department of Education to ensure equal access to education through compliance reviews. The Office hopes to use these reviews to provide technical assistance to help districts improve their performance. In late March, the Los Angeles Unified School District became the…
Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.21 Civil rights, powers, and duties. In any case in... the laws of the United States or this part, the civil rights, powers, and duties as they obtain under... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights, powers, and duties. 935.21 Section...
Since the end of the Civil Rights era, a new paradigm has emerged for understanding race and racism in American society. This neoliberal hegemonic discourse argues that systemic racism ended with the abolishment of formal, juridical racism and that any continued investment in race is both unnecessary and deeply problematic. Critical race theorists…
Full Text Available The civil and political rights as protected under the Covenant from the core of human rights protection on the international plane. This paper seeks to demonstrate how this goal may be archieved. The genesis of the Covenant will be discussed in the context of the evolution of human rights law. Starting from the normative framework and its development after the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the scope of the Covenant rights as well as the duties of the State parties will be discussed. The monitoring role of th Human Rights Committee as major element in the implementation process will be closely examined. The paper will be focused on the status of the State parties and the Status of the Covenant in domestic law. Also will specifically focus on the State reporting system and the individual complaint procedure be carefully selected case studies. In conclusion, will be discussed the legal consequences of violations of rights protected by the Covenant.
Karatzas Konstantinos D.
Full Text Available The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 35.925-9 Section 35.925-9... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-9 Civil rights. That if the... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and part 7 of this chapter have been met. ...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil has the largest population of African descendants outside Africa. OBJECTIVE: Mindful of the imprint of slavery on their contemporary social position, we investigated the relationship of perceived racism to hypertension. METHODS: We analyzed data (1999 - 2001 from 3,056 civil servants (mean age 42 years; 56% females at university campuses in Rio participating in the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. RESULTS: Cases of prevalent hypertension had measured blood pressure equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg or used antihypertensive medication. Self-administered questionnaires assessed participants' perceived history of lifetime discrimination (due to race, gender, socioeconomic position, and other attributes at work and school, neighborhood, public places, and in contact with the police. Participants used 41 terms as responses to an open-ended question on racial self-identification; for these analyses, 48% were classified as afrodescendants. Racial discrimination in at least one setting was reported by 14% of afrodescendants. Compared to whites, the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was higher for afrodescendants with history of self-perceived racism (prevalence ratio - PR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.5 - 3.0 than for those with no such history (PR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.2 - 1.8. Comparing the former to whites, the adjusted association with hypertension was stronger for those with elementary education (PR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.3 - 6.7 than for those with a college degree (PR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0 - 3.1. CONCLUSION: Racism may increase the risk of hypertension of afrodescendants in Brazil, and socioeconomic disadvantage - also influenced by societal racism - may further potentiate this increased risk.
Faerstein, Eduardo; Chor, Dóra; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Kaplan, George
Brazil has the largest population of African descendants outside Africa. Mindful of the imprint of slavery on their contemporary social position, we investigated the relationship of perceived racism to hypertension. We analyzed data (1999 - 2001) from 3,056 civil servants (mean age 42 years; 56% females) at university campuses in Rio participating in the longitudinal Pró-Saúde Study. Cases of prevalent hypertension had measured blood pressure equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg or used antihypertensive medication. Self-administered questionnaires assessed participants' perceived history of lifetime discrimination (due to race, gender, socioeconomic position, and other attributes) at work and school, neighborhood, public places, and in contact with the police. Participants used 41 terms as responses to an open-ended question on racial self-identification; for these analyses, 48% were classified as afrodescendants. Racial discrimination in at least one setting was reported by 14% of afrodescendants. Compared to whites, the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was higher for afrodescendants with history of self-perceived racism (prevalence ratio--PR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.5-3.0) than for those with no such history (PR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.2-1.8). Comparing the former to whites, the adjusted association with hypertension was stronger for those with elementary education (PR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.3-6.7) than for those with a college degree (PR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.0-3.1). Racism may increase the risk of hypertension of afrodescendants in Brazil, and socioeconomic disadvantage--also influenced by societal racism--may further potentiate this increased risk.
Gallagher, James J.
In this article, James J. Gallagher explains, in the context of education, that "civil rights" means the guarantee of equal opportunity and justice for all and the actions taken against those barriers that stand in the way of such equality. How does the issue of civil rights bear on an area of special education such as the education of…
Following the Civil Rights legislation enacted in the 1960s in the United States, the notion of 'colorblind' racism has emerged within sociological literature. It has been used as a theoretical tool to explain the continuing presence of racism and racialised inequalities within a society where its significance in determining social location is increasingly disavowed. The use of the term has been restricted to those describing the politics of racism in America. However, this paper will conside...
Berger, Martin A.
Full Text Available "Fixing Images" argues that the iconic photographs of civil rights played a key role in limiting the racial reforms of the 1960s. The famous photographs of dogs and fire hoses turned against peaceful black marchers in Birmingham, or of tear gas and clubs wielded against voter-rights marchers in Selma are routinely credited with galvanizing the sympathy of liberal whites in the north for the plight of blacks in the south and of smoothing the wayfor civil rights legislation. What goes unsaid is how the photographs moved whites to accept legislative and social reforms by perpetuating a picture of white control. The article illustrates how white sympathy was contingent on images that consistently displayed blacks as the passive and hapless victims of active and violent whites. And it demonstrates how the iconic images of civil rights ultimately limited efforts to enact – or even imagine – reforms that threatened to upend the racial balance of power.
Racial representations on commodities in Danish supermarkets have been the subject of heated public debates about race and racism in recent years. Through an analysis of a 2014 media debate about a so-called ‘racist liquorice’, the article suggests that the fight for the right to consume racialized...... products sheds light on how ‘epistemologies of ignorance’ of race and colonialism operate in Denmark. Focusing on how questions of history, memory, and nationhood feature in the media texts, the article introduces the concepts of retro racism and racialized affective consumption to capture the affective...
Evans, Barbara J
In 2014, the United States granted individuals a right of access to their own laboratory test results, including genomic data. Many observers feel that this right is in tension with regulatory and bioethical standards designed to protect the safety of people who undergo genomic testing. This commentary attributes this tension to growing pains within an expanding federal regulatory program for genetic and genomic testing. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 expanded the regulatory agenda to encompass civil rights and consumer safety. The individual access right, as it applies to genomic data, is best understood as a civil-rights regulation. Competing regulatory objectives-safety and civil rights-were not successfully integrated during the initial rollout of genomic civil-rights regulations after 2008. Federal law clarifies how to prioritize safety and civil rights when the two come into conflict, although with careful policy design, the two need not collide. This commentary opens a dialog about possible solutions to advance safety and civil rights together. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Santoli, Susan; Vitulli, Paige; Giles, Rebecca
Exploring controversial and difficult events and issues with young children can be challenging. The Civil Rights Movement is an abstract, perhaps remote, issue for young children today. However, it is an important part of our country's history and a theme worthy of study. This article suggests ways to use photographs to explore this mature subject…
This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) to inform Canadian policy on human rights and global justice. ... in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and ...
Full Text Available The abuse of rights is qualified as civil offence and it may not be different from that of aquilian responsibility, the purpose of its sanction is to protect the victim and not to punish the author. In the Romanian legal doctrine, the abuse of rights was defined as “the exercise of a civil subjective right by breaching the principles of its exercise.” The Constitutional Court held that the person exercising in bad faith and abusively his/her subjective or procedural rights is punishable by appropriate penalties, such as: dismissal of his/her legal action, obligation to bear the costs, application of certain court fines, etc.
Zuriff, G. E.
Discusses the form racism takes in the United States, highlighting three types of racism that social scientists and scholars find to be pervasive today (modern racism, aversive racism, and implicit stereotypes). All three depart from traditional understandings of racism by being found not in overt actions and expressions but in political opinion,…
Badma V. Sangadzhiev
Full Text Available Civil legal proceedings are conducted according to the federal laws existing during consideration and permission of a civil case (making of separate legal proceedings or execution of court decrees. In case of lack of the regulation of a procedural law governing the relations which arose during civil legal proceedings, federal courts of the general jurisdiction and magistrate's courts apply the regulation governing the similar relations (analogy of the law. In the absence of such regulation of the judge work proceeding from the general principles of implementation of justice in the Russian Federation (analogy is right. Dispositions of general constitutional guarantees (which don't belong directly to judicial system, however their sense can quite be applied to judicial process of consideration of civil cases contain in the following articles of the Constitution of Russia: 17, 19, 29 and 45. Judicial activities are characterized by the major indicators: quality and efficiency (observance of procedural terms. According to the conventional principles and rules of international law to be an offender without unjustifiable delay constitutes one of the fundamental human rights inseparably linked with the right to fair legal proceeding. In a sense of the constitutional regulation, first, everyone has the right, but isn't obliged to protect the rights, secondly, to protect by all methods which aren't forbidden by the law. It is thought, the last purchases the force and the importance not as ascertaining (or transfer these methods in the law and as availability of real mechanisms of their use by the individual and availability of use.
Even in the 21st century, racism persists. People are confronted with racism on an everyday basis, though it manifests itself in different ways. There is unintentional racism, unconscious racism. There is also institutional racism--in schools in particular but also within governments, art, history, music, and language. Sometimes racism is right in…
Doris Koliqi Malaj
Full Text Available One of the basic principles of civil rights is that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. The life protection, liberty and property should be equally guaranteed to citizens to exclude discrimination of minorities or other parts of the population. These rights are an important part of civil liberties and are considered as an essential element for effective citizenship. Arbitrary arrest, terror, torture or other serious and unlawful interference, both by state and private actors, significantly affect the well-being of democracy as it affects the very essence of it. In liberal democracies, leaders legitimized by the people must be involved within the norms and principles of the rule of law in order to establish a healthy relationship between the state and the citizen. This relationship is considered to be damaged in non-liberal democracies as it is affected by the suspension of individual freedoms and rights. This paper aims to analyze whether these individual rights are guaranteed and protected in Albania, considering from the perspective of the legal framework as well as in the political reality. This study aims to analyze the development of human rights, judicial rights and their implementation in our country to come to the conclusion, whether our system is that of a liberal democracy or not.
Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective protection of human rights and provide for more than theoretical and illusory substantive rights, the need to define the right to a fair trial is emerging, along with the necessity that litigants become aware of the guarantees established by article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Thus, the article aims to approach the ample issue regarding the litigants’ right to a fair civil trial in light of current legal regulations, and in particular, in light of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Given the fact that the right to a fair civil trial involves establishing, throughout the trial, a set of rules of procedure aimed at creating a balance between the parties in the process - the so-called guarantees of a fair trial - in her scientific pursuits, the author analyzes both explicit and implicit guarantees of fair trial, highlighting relevant European standards as well as their degree of implementation in the national (procedural law.
Pollitt, Phoebe A
More than a decade before the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as an African American teenager from Baltimore, Maryland, Esther McCready challenged the discriminatory admissions policies of the University of Maryland School of Nursing (UMSON). The article explores nurse advocacy and how Esther McCready advocated for herself and greater racial equity in nursing education during a time of civil rights turmoil. Her actions eventually resulted in the formation of numerous schools of nursing for African Americans across the south. This article recounts McCready’s early life experiences and the powerful impact her actions had on creating educational options for nurses during a time when they were severely limited for African American women, including discussion of her student days at UMSON and her journey after nursing school. A review of pertinent legal cases and policies related to segregation and integration of higher education in the mid-twentieth century is presented, along with details of McCready’s continued education and advocacy.
Samar, V J
This essay explores, in two parts, the problems of justifying civil rights legislation for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Part I shows that discrimination against gays and lesbians at least in respect to employment, housing, and public accommodations is an evil unsupported by ethical traditions in utilitarianism, rights theory, and communitarianism. It also shows that two theories, Kantian theory and natural law theory, which do support such discrimination on the claim that homoerotic behavior is universally or objectively immoral only do so because of a failure to make precise the concept of "natural" which underlies those theories. Part II argues that anti-discrimination legislation is both an appropriate and effective means to promote the idea that discrimination against lesbians and gays in respect to most employment, housing, and public accommodations is sufficiently injurious to both individuals and society that it should not be tolerated. The section also explains how such legislation might succeed practically in eliminating discrimination in these areas.
This article reviews the impacts of the civil rights policies framed in the 1960s and the anti-civil rights political and legal movements that reversed them. It documents rising segregation by race and poverty. The policy reversals and transformation of U.S. demography require a new civil rights strategy. Vast immigrations, the sinking White…
High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty.
... civil rights, civil liberties, such as profiling on the basis of race, ethnicity, or religion, by.../ religion (CRCL does not solicit this information, it is tracked if individuals provide it); Allegation... Officer and Chief Freedom of Information Act Officer, Department of Homeland Security, 245 Murray Drive...
..., ethnic, or religious profiling related to the Department's activities. The system will also track and... agency for labor and employment relations; to an agency, organization, or individual when there could... civil rights and civil liberties, or to allege racial, ethnic, or religious profiling by DHS, its...
... with ongoing criminal or civil law enforcement proceedings and impose an impossible administrative... the records could interfere with ongoing criminal or civil law enforcement proceedings and impose an... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Civil Rights Division...
The Department of Defense (DoD) has a long history of supporting civil authorities in the wake of catastrophic events with specialized skills and assets that can rapidly stabilize and improve the situation...
In response to increasing public awareness of human trafficking in the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) was signed into law by President Bill Clinton in October of 2000. The TVPA consolidated existing legislation to create a comprehensive civil remedy; this ensures that trafficking victims are no longer forced to seek redress under multiple criminal and civil statutes that target only components of the human trafficking offense. However, despite its...
Nilsen, Alleen Pace
Drawing attention to widespread instances of discourteous speech and hate discourse that permeate US and world culture, Alleen Pace Nilsen maintains that our imperative as educators is to teach "students the benefits of being civil to each other." She proposes some avenues for enriching students' understanding of the power of civil…
Hale, Jon N.
This article examines the history of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools to illustrate how integrating the Civil Rights Movement into the social studies curriculum refocuses the aims of American education on participatory democracy. Teaching the Civil Rights Movement and employing the teaching strategies used in the Freedom Schools leads to the…
US Department of Education, 2009
This report details the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' (OCRs') accomplishments in enforcing the civil rights laws under which OCR has been granted jurisdiction to address and remedy discrimination. These enforcement efforts include complaint investigation and resolution, compliance reviews and technical assistance, as well…
... of 1975, and the Equal Pay Act. [53 FR 23761, June 24, 1988] ..., equal employment opportunity, and civil rights. It is the focal point for the agency's implementation of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978. The principal statutes covering the Civil Rights Program are...
Epstein, Richard A.
In January, 2014, the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Office for Civil Rights in the Department of Education (ED) issued a joint "Dear Colleague Letter" to K-12 schools. The topic discussed in their joint letter is whether administrators are punishing minority children more harshly than white children for…
Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2015
For nearly five decades, the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) has stood as a guardian of civil rights in educational institutions nationwide. This office takes very seriously the charge to remove barriers to students' full participation in every facet of educational life. As the contents of this report illustrate, OCR…
... consideration is given to Labor Surplus Area firms and Women Business Enterprises, and conducts an outreach... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Small Business and Civil Rights. 1.37 Section 1... Headquarters Staff Offices § 1.37 Office of Small Business and Civil Rights. The Office of Small Business and...
Hernández, Laura E.
Reformers today maintain the use of civil rights rhetoric when advocating for policies that address educational inequity. While continuing the legacy of earlier civil rights activists, the leaders invoking this rhetoric and the educational platforms they promote differ greatly from previous decades. Not only does this new crop of reformers differ…
Full Text Available
This analysis maps the deepening global crisis and the principles of its resolution by life-value analysis and method. Received theories of economics and justice and modern rights doctrines are shown to have no ground in life value and to be incapable of recognizing universal life goods and the rising threats to them. In response to this system failure at theoretical and operational levels, the unifying nature and measure of life value are defined to provide the long-missing basis for understanding the common interest, human rights and social justice—that is, the universal life necessities of humanity across cultures and the evolving civil commons infrastructures to ensure them. In contrast, the treaty-imposed corporate rights system miscalled “globalization” is structured to predate life means and support systems at all levels with no accountability beyond itself. Only the logic of life value, human rights and life-protective law, it is concluded, can comprehend or govern this inherently life-blind and cumulatively eco-genocidal regime.
Full Text Available This analysis maps the deepening global crisis and the principles of its resolution by life-value analysis and method. Received theories of economics and justice and modern rights doctrines are shown to have no ground in life value and to be incapable of recognizing universal life goods and the rising threats to them. In response to this system failure at theoretical and operational levels, the unifying nature and measure of life value are defined to provide the long-missing basis for understanding the common interest, human rights and social justice—that is, the universal life necessities of humanity across cultures and the evolving civil commons infrastructures to ensure them. In contrast, the treaty-imposed corporate rights system miscalled “globalization” is structured to predate life means and support systems at all levels with no accountability beyond itself. Only the logic of life value, human rights and life-protective law, it is concluded, can comprehend or govern this inherently life-blind and cumulatively eco-genocidal regime.
Two hundred venirepersons from the 12th Judicial Circuit in Bradenton, Florida completed the following measures: (1) one question that measured their level of support for the death penalty; (2) one question that categorized their death-qualification status; (3) 23 questions that measured their attitudes toward the death penalty (ATDP); (4) 22 questions that assessed their attitudes toward women (ATW); (5) 25 questions that measured their level of homophobia (H); (6) seven questions that assessed their level of modern racism (MR); (7) eight questions that measured their level of modern sexism (MS); and (8) standard demographic questions. Results indicated that as death-penalty support increased participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty, more negative attitudes toward women, and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Findings also suggested that death-qualified venirepersons exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Finally, more positive attitudes toward the death penalty were correlated with more negative attitudes toward women and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Legal implications are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lynch, Patrick D.
A discussion of the two legal traditions illuminates this comparison of student rights in common and civil law nations. The United States is among a minority of nations that use common law, a complex system cluttered with processes difficult to explain and loaded with protections for defendents in both criminal and civil cases. In American common…
Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.
Used meta-analytic techniques to compare men's and women's attitudes toward homosexual persons, homosexual behaviors, and gay people's civil rights. As expected, size of sex differences varied across these categories. Men were more negative than women toward homosexual persons and homosexual behavior, but the sexes viewed gay civil rights…
Williamson, Joy Ann
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and their students played a pivotal part in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and early 1960s. Private HBCUs, in particular, provided foot soldiers, intellectual leadership, and safe places to meet and plan civil disobedience. Their economic and political autonomy from the state enabled the…
... of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) has... regional operations. Part A, Office of the Secretary, Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations... management; (5) human resources activities, including position management, workforce planning, employee...
Chandra, Amitabh; Frakes, Michael; Malani, Anup
Fifty years after the passage of Civil Rights Act, minority healthcare remains separate and unequal. We combine insights from Civil Rights Law and research on racial-disparities to understand whether stronger enforcement of existing Civil Rights laws would improve minority healthcare today, or whether complementary approaches are also necessary. Despite earlier success, modern challenges to improving minority healthcare are different than those confronted during de jure segregation. We review these challenges and the potential effectiveness of existing Civil Rights legislation in overcoming them. We conclude that enforcement could be strengthened by executive orders that strengthen existing laws, but Congressional action would be required to allow private individuals to bring suits against discriminatory providers. We contrast the relative benefits of this approach to wider non-litigation-based solutions. We conclude that a combination of the two approaches would better address the challenge of improving minority healthcare in the 21st century. PMID:28583962
This contribution examines our age from the point of view of 'safeguarding' civil rights. The author discusses the concept of privacy and the conditions in industrial establishments which, in this context, are described as areas where the validity of civil rights is interrupted or diluted, and shows that the number of spheres of life where civil rights loose in validity are increasing, as e.g. research centres, and power generating industrial plants. The current concept of risk acceptance and security is discussed as well as the possibility and necessity to safeguard civil rights. The author concludes that security in the social meaning cannot be achieved by establishing a more or less rigid surveillance system. (orig./HSCH) [de
... are paid. In the first situation, Taylor got his civil-military relations right, even though he fought a losing battle with President Eisenhower over Ike's dangerous defense strategy of 'massive retaliation...
Senator Clare Engle was a United States senator from California who cast an important vote to end the filibuster of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, even as a brain tumor had left him with an expressive aphasia and would claim his life just a month later. This paper reviews the history of Senator Engle's illness in parallel with that of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Full Text Available The new Civil Code introduces several important changes and clarifications regarding the ownership right in general, and the private ownership right, in particular, so that it becomes necessary, for both the analyst in law and the practitioner, to make a comparison between the old regulation contained in the Civil Code of 1864 and the current regulation provided by the new Civil Code. At least in theory, the new legal framework in this area shows greater consistency and legal precision, although it is not entirely safe from any criticism.
Олег Степанович Ткачук
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of alternative civil dispute resolution and understanding of this phenomenon in western legal tradition and through the national paradigm of forms of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests. The conception of “alternative dispute resolution” was analyzed by foreign and national scholars, such as M. Cappelletti, B. Garth, F. Sander, E. I. Nosyreva, O. M. Spektor, V. V. Komarov and others. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the essence of alternative dispute resolution as an order of protection and as a form of protection of civil rights. The author delimits such categories as order of protection and form of protection. From this point of view alternative dispute resolution is considered to be an independent form of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests as well as judicial, administrative, notarial forms of protection and the protection in European court of human rights. As a result alternative dispute resolution can be understood as a form of protection of civil rights, freedoms and interests which consists of quasi-judicial and consensual methods of resolving civil disputes, based on voluntariness of treatment of persons, who was a participators of dispute, and voluntariness of enforcement of final decision of such procedure, which thought can be enforced coercively in a simplified procedure
Adélia Procópio Camilo
Just as every citizen has the right to a balanced environment, essential to their quality of life, every worker is entitled to the protection rules to a safe and healthy work environment. The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the working environment is part of the environmental protection system of the Constitution must be considered in its true perspective, as a fundamental right. Under this analysis, it should carry this protection, taking responsibility for one wh...
Ruggeri, A.; Burgoon, B.
The aim of this PEPS Letter is to clarify the effects of human rights "Naming and Shaming" by international actors, such as IOs, NGOs and the international media, on the intensity of violence in domestic conflict. The note carries out, evaluates and proposes empirical strategies to study such
McGraw, Marvin A.
A discussion by the Assistant to the Director, Office of Revenue Sharing, U.S. Treasury Department, of the four part approach of that agency to extending the ability of the federal government to combat discrimination in the state and local sector; human rights workers should focus on the monetary and economic impact these funds have on the…
deShazo, Richard D; Parker, Sara B
During the fight to end segregation in the United States, most of the 25 or so black physicians who had not already left Mississippi took risks to become active in civil rights locally and nationally. One of the first was T.R.M. Howard, MD, whose life story is both an encouragement and warning for today's physicians. Howard, the protégé of a white Adventist physician, became active in civil rights during medical school. While serving as chief surgeon of the all-black hospital in Mississippi, he formed his own civil rights organization in 1951 and worked to solve the shootings of 2 of its members, George Lee and Gus Courts, and the murder of Emmett Till in 1955. His reports of these events and collaborations with other civil rights icons helped trigger the modern civil rights movement. At the same time, he became a nationally known proponent of abortion rights and then fled to Chicago in 1956, after arming his Delta mansion with long guns and a Thompson machine gun. Howard will be remembered for many things, including his activism for the social determinants of health as president of the National Medical Association. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adélia Procópio Camilo
Full Text Available Just as every citizen has the right to a balanced environment, essential to their quality of life, every worker is entitled to the protection rules to a safe and healthy work environment. The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the working environment is part of the environmental protection system of the Constitution must be considered in its true perspective, as a fundamental right. Under this analysis, it should carry this protection, taking responsibility for one who infringe. Thus, the risks of the project belong to the employer, and if it violates the middle of the work environment and exposes the risk your employee, should be held responsible, since the danger was created by the activity - even if it is not, at first, considered harmful. For the development of the issue will be used observational- monographic method, from which works to query multiple reputable authors. There will be a comparison between the various schools of thought as well as the jurisprudential understanding of.
Full Text Available The UNCRPD is unique amongst international rights instruments because it empowers civil society organizations to represent the rights-bearers themselves—persons with disabilities. As such, DPOs in the Global South have become a major concern for UN agencies and international NGOs who believe that grassroots disability associations need political advocacy training in order to take up their role as rights advocates. These expectations contain implicit assumptions regarding civil society-state relations and the existence of governmental capacity. The authors, however, hypothesize that not all civil societies will fit the rights advocacy model due to the political culture and public resources available within their respective, local communities. Disability movements in Nicaragua and Uruguay are compared and contrasted. In Nicaragua, a disability rights coalition dismisses many international expectations in favor for continuing to follow traditional civil society expectations to provide services. In Uruguay, a long history of high levels of social spending and disability organizing enabled DPOs to successfully advocate for progressive laws. The deaf community, however, decided to implement their own, separate advocacy strategies to ensure a fairer distribution of public resources. The authors conclude that rather than top-down civil society training, the international movement should allow local organizations set their own priorities.
Schmidt, Sandra J.
Same-sex marriage is part of a global civil rights struggle for LGBQ rights. How this movement is framed, advanced, and critiqued across the globe can be linked to how young people in schools are prepared to deliberate social issues in the political sphere. This article examines national history books as cultural artifacts that present what is…
Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2013
This dialogue, extracted from a conversation among some members of the Equity Special Issue Editorial Panel, concerns racism in mathematics education. It raises issues about the use of various terms; about fields of research outside of mathematics education; and about the kinds of racialization processes that occur for students, teachers, and…
Necef, Mehmet Ümit
Jens Peter Frølund Thomsen, politolog fra Århus Universitet, har i bogen Konflikten om de nye danskere (2006) undersøgt danskernes holdninger til her-boende etniske minoriteter, herunder racismens omfang og dens former. Ar-tiklen diskuterer Thomsens definition på racisme og hans behandling af sin...
Rakočević Milka V.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of compensation for damage caused by the abuse of procedural rights as a measure within the oppressive apparatus for sanctioning the abuse of process in civil proceedings, which issue is, unlike others related to the idea of prohibition of abuse of rights within the system of civil procedure, the least treated in the procedural doctrine. The author deals with procedural aspects of certain essential issues that are important in the context of the matter concerned, highlighting the nature of the claim for damages caused by the abuse of process, the manner this right is realized (whether in the pending litigation or by initiating a separate civil procedure, the procedural form of the claim for compensation of damages, etc.
Brianne McGonigle Leyh
Full Text Available Wittingly or unwittingly, civil society actors have long been faced with the task of documenting serious human rights violations. Thirty years ago, such efforts were largely organised by grassroots movements, often with little support or funding from international actors. Sharing information and best practices was difficult. Today that situation has significantly changed. The purpose of this article is to explore the changing landscape of civil society documentation of serious human rights violations, and what that means for standardising and professionalising documentation efforts. Using the recent Hisséne Habré case as an example, this article begins by looking at how civil society documentation can successfully influence an accountability process. Next, the article touches upon barriers that continue to impede greater documentation efforts. The article examines the changing landscape of documentation, focusing on technological changes and the rise of citizen journalism and unofficial investigations, using Syria as an example, as well as on the increasing support for documentation efforts both in Syria and worldwide. The changing landscape has resulted in the proliferation of international documentation initiatives aimed at providing local civil society actors guidelines and practical assistance on how to recognise, collect, manage, store and use information about serious human rights violations, as well as on how to minimise the risks associated with the documentation of human rights violations. The recent initiatives undertaken by international civil society, including those by the Public International Law & Policy Group, play an important role in helping to standardise and professionalise documentation work and promote the foundational principles of documentation, namely the ‘do no harm’ principle, and the principles of informed consent and confidentiality. Recognising the drawback that greater professionalisation may bring, it
Юрій Миколайович Моісеєнко
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to analyze the forms of protection civil rights parties of the bank deposit contract considering the statistical data in regard to banks which allow violations of these rights and necessity to restore these rights by competent bodies. Fixing in civil legislation a number of opportunities to protect these rights with the existing economic crisis, especially in banking field, have practical importance that based on the efficiency of any form. Therewith, research the peculiarities of protection violated civil rights of the bank deposit contract in judicial, administrative and other forms. Attention is drawn on the peculiarities of some forms of protection. So, emphasizing the certain duration of judicial protection, alternatives opportunities of protection and restoration the violated rights of parties of the bank deposit contract is analyzed by the author. However, due to lack of effective mechanisms for protection the rights of parties of mentioned contract, the author proposed some ways for improving protection the violated rights of parties of the bank deposit contract.
Mills, Shirley J.
This article profiles Marian Wright Edelman, a crusader for civil and children's rights. She was born June 6, 1939, at a time when prejudice and segregation were the norm. The Wright family lived in a small, southern town of Bennetsville, South Carolina, where Marian was the youngest of five children. Her father, the Reverend Arthur Jerome Wright,…
National Education Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities.
The fourth conference dedicated itself to the topic "The Treatment of Minorities in Textbooks," intending to give educators, publishers, civil rights leaders, and government officials an unbiased understanding of textbook problems. Participants learned from each other and gained insight into differing points of view, stimulating cooperative team…
Mc Gonigle, B.N.
Wittingly or unwittingly, civil society actors have long been faced with the task of documenting serious human rights violations. Thirty years ago, such efforts were largely organised by grassroots movements, often with little support or funding from international actors. Sharing information and
Kim, Joon K.
This paper examines the politics of South Korea's multicultural discourse and locates its recent development in the context of a broader analytical discussion about multiculturalism. Utilizing the historical experience of the USA, this paper identifies the three orders of multiculturalism. Up until the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s,…
National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.
This packet provides primary source documents and lesson plans relating to the study of Jackie Robinson as a civil rights advocate. The legendary baseball player, Jack Roosevelt Robinson, was the first black man to "officially" play in the big leagues in the 20th century. Jackie Robinson was not only a stellar baseball player, but he…
...) (codified at 42 U.S.C. 12101-121213). (h) Equal Pay Act of 1963 (enacted as section 6(d) of the Fair Labor... Reorganization Act, 42 U.S.C. 290dd(b). (j) 29 CFR Parts 1600 through 1691 (Equal Employment Opportunity...' enforcement of these authorities. These authorities include: (a) Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as...
As a young child, Barack Obama learned about the civil rights movement from his mother. Obama's mother strove to instill in her multiracial son pride in being more than just literally African American. There is much to learn from Obama's history, understood both as the story of his life and as what Obama himself has said about his past and the…
Foster, Janet E.; Root, Tonja L.; Lee, Seungyoun
Considering the importance of the Civil Rights Movement, children need to be introduced to the related concepts early in their school experiences, and teachers need to consider students' developmental needs and curriculum standards in order to provide appropriate content and methods of instruction. The purpose of this article is to introduce a…
Canfield-Davis, Kathy; Gardiner, Mary E.
The purpose of this research was to identify community leadership praxis of an activist for Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual and Transgender civil rights in community housing, employment and public accommodations. The qualitative single-case study included data from city council meetings, interviews with Tony Stewart, the community leader/activist, other…
Karatzas Konstantinos D.
Full Text Available The roots of nonviolent direct action and the development into a powerful method of persuasion and coercion will be explored in an attempt to explain its distinctive role in the Civil Rights Movement. The paper will focus on the participation of the three actions, the political, the legal and the passive, in the victorious moments of the Movement.
Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Stowe, Matthew J.
This article analyzes the 1999 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, Sutton v. United Air Lines, as it pertains to people with disabilities, especially students covered by federal education and civil rights legislation. It sets out implications of the decision for special and general educators as they engage in Individualized Education Program…
instead of attacking the causes. The 1991 Act is a law of stratification that encourages racism , sexism , and litigation to further individual goals and...30 D. What About Those Statistics ? ............................ 31 E. Race Norming - The Dos and Don’ts of Test Scores...in Title VII to recognize group rights through a "disparate impact" theory of discrimination. In Griggs v. Duke Power Co.,` the Court recognized that
London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen
While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the
Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part V--Outdoor Pursuits as an Extracurricular Alternative for Addressing Office of Civil Rights Guidance
Davis, Timothy D.; Felix, Manny
The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) recently clarified that schools are required to provide students with disabilities (SWD) equal opportunities to participate in extracurricular activities (U.S. Department of Education [USDE] Office for Civil Rights, 2013). Schools have flexibility to design and expand extracurricular opportunities based on existing…
Rizwani, Muhammad Saqib
The topic of this thesis is how the use of drone technology relates to the international human rights law regime. Particular focus is on the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Articles 2, 6, 12, 17 and 21.
... VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964. 50.3 Section 50.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... to enforce compliance with other titles of the 1964 Act, other Civil Rights Acts, or constitutional... should not be rejected without consulting the Department of Justice. Once litigation has been begun, the...
Came, Heather; Griffith, Derek
Racism is a "wicked" public health problem that fuels systemic health inequities between population groups in New Zealand, the United States and elsewhere. While literature has examined racism and its effects on health, the work describing how to intervene to address racism in public health is less developed. While the notion of raising awareness of racism through socio-political education is not new, given the way racism has morphed into new narratives in health institutional settings, it has become critical to support allies to make informing efforts to address racism as a fundamental cause of health inequities. In this paper, we make the case for anti-racism praxis as a tool to address inequities in public health, and focus on describing an anti-racism praxis framework to inform the training and support of allies. The limited work on anti-racism rarely articulates the unique challenges or needs of allies or targets of racism, but we seek to help fill that gap. Our anti-racism praxis for allies includes five core elements: reflexive relational praxis, structural power analysis, socio-political education, monitoring and evaluation and systems change approaches. We recognize that racism is a modifiable determinant of health and racial inequities can be eliminated with the necessary political will and a planned system change approach. Anti-racism praxis provides the tools to examine the interconnection and interdependence of cultural and institutional factors as a foundation for examining where and how to intervene to address racism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McGowan, Angela K; Lee, Mary M; Meneses, Cristina M; Perkins, Jane; Youdelman, Mara
To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities--places where people live, learn, work, and play. Suggestions are offered for improving health and equity broadly, especially within societal groups and marginalized populations. These recommendations include multisectorial approaches that focus on the social determinants of health.
Luis Alberto Reichelt
Full Text Available The present study aims to reflect about the effectiveness of the fundamental right of proof considering the Civil Procedure Rules, taking as a measure the ideas of truth discovery through the process and of the rational persuasion. In this sense, it is examined the testimonial evidence with the introduction of the possibility of cross-examination and also the expert witness in the context of the procedural negotiation.
Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.
If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate
Levesque, Roger J R
The civil rights movement fostered dramatic shifts in legal responses to discrimination based on race, gender, and a host of other group characteristics. The legal system now evinces yet another dramatic shift, as it moves from considering difference to focusing on neutrality, from efforts that seek to counter subjugation to those that adopt a "color-blind" approach. The shifting approach already has reached laws regulating responses to the group that spurred massive civil rights reform: minority youth. The shift requires a different body of empirical evidence to address it and a new look at equality jurisprudence. This article notes the need to turn to the current understanding of prejudice and discrimination for guidance, and uses, as illustration, developmental science to shed light on the development, manifestation, and alleviation of invidious discrimination. Using that understanding, the analysis details how the legal system can benefit from that research and better address discrimination in light of dramatic changes in law. The article articulates the need to address discrimination by recognizing and enlisting the law's inculcative powers through multiple sites of inculcation, ranging from families, schools, health and justice systems to religious and community groups. The discussion concludes with brief suggestions for reform benefiting from understandings of prejudice and its expression. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Petrović Nikola M.
Full Text Available Treatment of persons with psychological difficulties varied in different historical periods, but in its essence remained similar until today. It included an inhumane relationship towards these persons, involuntary treatment through torture, and isolation from society as a kind of punishment for their diversity. It was not until the late 19th century that the relationship of society towards these individuals started to improve gradually, but in the 21st century isolation of these individuals still remained the dominant form of acceptable social solution for the “problem”, with a somewhat more humane attitude towards them and less cruel treatment. Serbia has followed the trends of treatment of the persons with psychological difficulties from the rest of Europe for centuries, but is still lagging behind the world in the introduction of new methods of treatment. Indeed the first legal solution to regulate the human rights of these people is currently in the process of implementation. The subject of this paper is the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the violation of their civil rights. In a subject specific context the goal of the analysis was the historical review of the treatment towards persons with psychological difficulties by doctors, other practicioners and the community in general, with reference to the current situation regarding their treatment within the psychiatric institutions, as well as the legal regulations and the protection of their civil rights.
Hahn, R A; Truman, B I; Williams, D R
This essay examines how civil rights and their implementation have affected and continue to affect the health of racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Civil rights are characterized as social determinants of health. A brief review of US history indicates that, particularly for Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians, the longstanding lack of civil rights is linked with persistent health inequities. Civil rights history since 1950 is explored in four domains-health care, education, employment, and housing. The first three domains show substantial benefits when civil rights are enforced. Discrimination and segregation in housing persist because anti-discrimination civil rights laws have not been well enforced. Enforcement is an essential component for the success of civil rights law. Civil rights and their enforcement may be considered a powerful arena for public health theorizing, research, policy, and action.
Chandra, Amitabh; Frakes, Michael; Malani, Anup
More than fifty years after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, health care for racial and ethnic minorities remains in many ways separate and unequal in the United States. Moreover, efforts to improve minority health care face challenges that differ from those confronted during de jure segregation. We review these challenges and examine whether stronger enforcement of existing civil rights legislation could help overcome them. We conclude that stronger enforcement of existing laws-for example, through executive orders to strengthen enforcement of the laws and congressional action to allow private individuals to bring lawsuits against providers who might have engaged in discrimination-would improve minority health care, but this approach is limited in what it can achieve. Complementary approaches outside the legal arena, such as quality improvement efforts and direct transfers of money to minority-serving providers-those seeing a disproportionate number of minority patients relative to their share of the population-might prove to be more effective. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the new rules securing the protection of rights introduced in the Russian Civil Code. New enforcement provisions in the Code will contribute to the stability and sustainability of business transactions in the market economy and the observance of contractual discipline. They aim at ensuring the most complete restoration of violated civil rights and restoring the situation that existed before the violation. Positive changes appear in Article 395 of the Code, including penalties prescribing interest payments on unpaid funds for nonperformance of a monetary obligation. The changes to this article have already been tested in practice, as found in a number of interpretations announced in the decisions of higher courts of the judiciary. Yet, an analysis of the Code reveals the absence of any form of penalty in the chapters on the individual types of obligations. Furthermore, a forfeiture occurs only in certain circumstances where it is required due to the nature of the legal relations, as under, for example, transport charters and codes, and laws on the supply of goods for state requirements.
Mauksch, Larry B; Fogarty, Colleen T
Social and economic disadvantage and civil rights infringement, worsens overall health (Adler, Glymour, & Fielding, 2016; McGowan, Lee, Meneses, Perkins, & Youdelman, 2016; Teitelbaum, 2005). While addressing these challenges is not new, there is reason to believe that the administration of Donald Trump and a republican majority in congress will exacerbate these challenges and their effects. How can collaborative family health care (CFHC) practitioners and our field help? The editors pondered this question and also asked a selection of leaders in the field. The editors will first share their ideas about the potential of CFHC to make a difference in daily interactions with patients. Next, they will identify key areas of risk and vulnerability. Finally, using the contributions of respected colleagues, they will propose a partial agenda for CFHC clinicians and the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Glenn T. Eskew
Full Text Available The watershed election in 2008 of Barack Obama as the first President of the United States to have African ancestry resulted from the life work of such civil rights activists as U.S. Congressman John Lewis. Born on a sharecropper’s farm in 1940, the African American Lewis grew up in segregated Alabama. As a college student in Nashville, he joined the sit-in protests and volunteered for the original Freedom Ride in 1961. He was elected chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, becoming the youngest speaker at the March on Washington in 1963. The radical shift to Black ultimately forced Lewis out of SNCC. Consequently Lewis capitalized on the Voting Rights Act of 1965, turned his attentions to voter registration campaigns, and continued working within the system. In 1986 he won election to the U.S. House of Representatives to represent Atlanta’s Fifth Congressional District, a seat he continues to hold today.
Full Text Available Today, the intellectual property protection is no longer an absolute social and legal that justifies adoption of any measures necessary to protect it. Initially seen as the prerequisite for sustainable development, implementation of new technologies, and encouragement of international trade, the intellectual property, especially prior to ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement international trial implementation, and also thereafter, was increasingly identified as a source of violation of fundamental rights and civil liberties, i.e. the right to protection of personal data, the right to privacy, freedom to send and receive information freedom of information, freedom to contract, and freedom to carry out economic activities (freedom of commerce. As far as international trade transactions have often a component of intellectual property that requires to be protected, it is necessary to identify the landmarks, the rules establishing de facto limits in order to protect the intellectual property without risk of infringement of fundamental rights and civil liberties of other persons, in particular users or potential users of goods and services incorporating intellectual property. The best guidelines in this regard may be provided by the CJEU (Court of Justice of the European Union case-law both due to its reasoning underlying the decision of the Parliament to reject ACTA ratification and the fact that the case-law of this Court, especially the most recent one, is highly complex and nuanced, not denying in any way the importance of intellectual property, and identifying certain cases where their primacy persist and whose analysis leads to laying down some general rules in the field.
Fernanda Sell de Souto Goulart Fernandes
Full Text Available On March 16th, 2015 was enacted Law 13,105. Known for having the intention to democratize the process, the new Civil Procedure Code innovated in many ways, and one of those that highlights is the introduction on the legal text of the Procedure Constitutional Principles, already provide in the Constitution. The legislator's attitude positivate in the Ordinary legislation the constitutional principles only embodies the wave of constitutionalization of rights. And the Civil Procedure could not be averse to this trend. Thus, this article aims to analyze the basic rules of civil procedure.
Full Text Available In this article I examine whether denominational resolutions on racial relations were in fact increasingly followed by action during the civil rights era. Focusing on the years 1963–1968, my study begins by considering broad denominational engagement through attention to the work of the Christian Citizenship Committee and to Covenant publications. Two congregational case studies follow. After briefer attention to Community Covenant Church of Minneapolis, I consider North Park Covenant Church of Chicago as an in-depth case study, enabled by extensive archival records housed at the Covenant Archives and Historical Library. My research bears witness to the leadership of the Holy Spirit in the church and denominational leaders that defied the status quo and proclaimed through their actions the presence of the kingdom of God on earth.
Victor H. Sundquist
Full Text Available The fundamental question of whether or not the Green Movement’s opposition leaders were successful in their attempts to change the political landscape in Iran first lies in understanding the premise behind the organization and secondly recognizing the actual goals of the leadership. Consequently, this article analyzes these questions as a framework for developing a comparative analysis between revolutions and civil rights movements as a means to understand both the intent and outcomes of the Green Movement. From this analysis, lessons learned are put forth as a means to establish a series of recommendations for future Western political engagements with Iran. In doing so, the hope is that a political dialogue will emerge between Western governments that both alleviate the current tensions while also addressing security concerns in the region.
Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S
Several studies investigating the health effects of racism have reported gender and socioeconomic differences in exposures to racism, with women typically reporting lower frequencies, and individuals with greater resources reporting higher frequencies. This study used diverse measures of socioeconomic position and multiple measures and methods to assess experienced racism. Socioeconomic position included education and financial and employment status. Quantitative racism measures assessed individual experiences with day-to-day and with major lifetime incidents and perceptions of the extent to which African Americans as a group experience racism. A brief qualitative question asked respondents to describe a racist incident that stood out in recent memory. Participants comprised a probability sample of N = 144 African American adults aged 19 to 87 residing in New York City. Results suggested that women reported fewer lifetime incidents but did not differ from men on everyday racism. These differences appear to be partly because of scale content. Socioeconomic position as measured by years of education was positively associated with reported racism in the total sample but differently patterned across gender; subjective social status showed a negative association. Qualitative responses describing memorable incidents fell into 5 key categories: resources/opportunity structures, criminal profiling, racial aggression/assault, interpersonal incivilities, and stereotyping. In these narratives, men were more likely to offer accounts involving criminal profiling, and women encountered incivilities more often. The findings highlight the need for closer attention to the intersection of gender and socioeconomic factors in investigations of the health effects of racism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Becker, Amy B; Scheufele, Dietram A
Objectives. This study examines the factors that shape public acceptance of homosexuality and support for same-sex marriage across age cohorts.Methods. We analyzed data from two national surveys. We constructed hierarchical logistic and hierarchical ordinary least squares regressions for relevant age cohorts in order to test our hypotheses and explore our research questions.Results. Our models suggest that personal contact has a greater impact on the attitudes of younger respondents, positively influencing public acceptance of homosexuality. Alternatively, religious and ideological predispositions have a greater impact on the attitudes of older individuals. When examining public support for gay marriage, we find that younger individuals have higher levels of deliberative engagement with the issue debate, while older individuals rely more heavily on their predispositions when determining issue stance. Interestingly, measures of media exposure are not significantly related to either public acceptance of homosexuality or support for same-sex marriage, suggesting that other factors may have a greater impact on public attitudes at this point in time.Conclusion. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the emergence of a new political generation and the continuing struggle for gay civil rights.
Rosenbaum, Sara; Schmucker, Sara
Enacted as part of the watershed Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI prohibits discrimination by federally assisted entities on the basis of race, color, or national origin. Indeed, the law is as broad as federal funding across the full range of programs and services that affect health. Over the years, governmental enforcement efforts have waxed and waned, and private litigants have confronted barriers to directly invoking its protections. But Title VI endures as the formal mechanism by which the nation rejects discrimination within federally funded programs and services. Enforcement efforts confront problems of proof, remedies whose effectiveness may be blunted by underlying residential segregation patterns, and a judiciary closed to legal challenges focusing on discriminatory impact rather than intentional discrimination. But Title VI enforcement has experienced a resurgence, with strategies that seek to use the law as a basic compliance tool across the range of federally assisted programs. This resurgence reflects an enduring commitment to more equitable outcomes in federally funded programs that bear directly on community health, and it stands as a testament to the vital importance of a legal framework designed to move the nation toward greater health equity. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.
Michael D.M. Bader
Full Text Available We argue that existing studies underestimate the degree to which racial change leads to residential segregation in post-Civil Rights American neighborhoods. This is because previous studies only measure the presence of racial groups in neighborhoods, not the degree of integration among those groups. As a result, those studies do not detect gradual racial succession that ends in racially segregated neighborhoods. We demonstrate how a new approach based on growth mixture models can be used to identify patterns of racial change that distinguish between durable integration and gradual racial succession. We use this approach to identify common trajectories of neighborhood racial change among blacks, whites, Latinos, and Asians from 1970 to 2010 in the New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston metropolitan areas. We show that many nominally integrated neighborhoods have experienced gradual succession. For blacks, this succession has caused the gradual concentric diffusion of the ghetto; in contrast, Latino and Asian growth has dispersed throughout both cities and suburbs in the metropolitan areas. Durable integration has come about largely in the suburbs.
N. V. Marchenko
Full Text Available Purpose. Statistical analysis of inventive activity in Ukraine shows that the largest number of applications is submitted by employees of universities and research institutions – almost 60% of all inventions. Practice of inventions execution proves that for researchers, especially for students, the most difficult part of the application and author documents is the claim. The purpose of research is a synthesis and supplying the general principles of quality drafting the patent claim, providing further legal protection of the patent. Methodology. Monitoring and analysis of the world documentary informational flow through the civil protection mechanism of the assignee rights on the basis of the patent claim allows us to compare the world systems of formulas development and summarize some key moments concerning the point in question. The example analysis of the correct patent claim drafting and its interpretation in court cases on intellectual property was made. Findings. The specific properties of the patent claim were described. They are conciseness, latitude, completeness and certainty, compliance with unity requirements and novelty of the invention. On the basis of the research it is established that there is a great difference between Ukrainian and American patent claims. A number of common mistakes and shortcomings during the claim drafting were identified. The need to restore the various forms of the invention training in universities of Ukraine was emphasized, since on this basis one should train a number of specialists who are able to carry out the commercialization of intellectual property results into productive findings. Originality. A number of issues and techniques was investigated and summarized. They can be applied by the courts in interpreting of the patent claim in the processing of intellectual property cases. Especially it concerns determining the correct drafting of the patent claim. Practical value. This work may be used
Singla, Rashmi; Busch-Jensen, Peter
Racisme forstås traditionelt som diskrimination og eksklusion af grupper eller individer ud fra forestillinger om, at mennesker tilhører forskellige racer, der kan rangordnes. I denne betydning indebærer racisme altså en ide om, at mennesket findes i forskellige racemæssige udgaver, karakterisere...
Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted…
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Dillard Univ., New Orleans, LA. Armistad Research Center.
This report contains transcripts of speeches given at the Amistad Symposium by lawyers, judges, and others active in the civil rights movement since the 1960s. Speakers include Clifton Johnson, J. Skelly Wright, John P. Nelson, Edwin King, Fred L. Banks, Jr., Lawrence A. Aschenbrenner, Frank R. Parker, Henry Schwarzschild, and Richard B. Sobol.…
The passage of the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988 was seen by advocates of women's sports as a powerful tool to redress sex imbalances in college sports programs, but few sex discrimination complaints have been filed as a result. The reasons are disputed and not fully understood. (MSE)
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
TITLE VII OF THE FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT (1964) PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN ADDITION TO THE USUAL GROUNDS OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, AND NATIONAL ORIGIN. IT COVERS PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN INDUSTRIES AFFECTING COMMERCE, AS WELL AS EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. IT IS UNLAWFUL FOR EMPLOYERS TO REFUSE TO HIRE,…
Full Text Available Objectives: Civil rights may cover different aspects of citizens’ lives. All the members of the society should have equal access to the public facilities and public transportation system. Barriers and obstacles in society may limit the accessibility of these facilities to the disabled people. Methods: This article contains a part of the results in a phenomenological study of the Disability Rights. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe experiences of disability rights among 11 physically disabled that were living in Tehran, Iran. The study involves secondary analysis of in-depth transcribed interview data, using colazzi’s method. Results: A total of 655 descriptive expressions were categorized in to 25 preliminary structural elements (sub themes. 7 essential structural elements (themes emerged from an analysis of the sub themes. One of these themes was right to access which was emerged from an analysis of 6 sub themes. Discussion: Disabled people who participated in the interviews. These sub themes that were obtained from an analysis of descriptive expressions of the participants, are: right to access to housing, right to access to education and information, right to access to job facilities, right to access to medical care and rehabilitation, right to access to rest, leisure and sport and right to access to places and transportation system. The right to access theme, was then categorized in to the civil rights field. In this article we will describe the right to access as it was experienced by those physically.
Bolzendahl, Catherine; Coffé, Hilde
Previous research has suggested that men are more engaged as citizens than are women. Yet, little is known about gender cleavages across a variety of citizenship norms. To what extent do men and women define citizenship differently? To address that question, this study examines the importance men and women assign various citizenship rights and responsibilities using 2004 ISSP data from 18 Western, industrialized nations. Using a disaggregated approach to understanding definitions of citizenship, we examine political, civil, and social rights and responsibilities. After controlling for a variety of demographic and attitudinal influences, we find that men and women are not different in their views regarding the importance of political responsibilities. However, women do view political rights as significantly more important than do men. Further, in comparison to men, women view both civil and social responsibilities and rights domains as significantly more important.
Roya Ghasemzadeh; Mohammad Kamali; Ali Chabok; Masoud Fallahi Khoshknab; Manuchehr Shirani
Objectives: Civil rights may cover different aspects of citizens’ lives. All the members of the society should have equal access to the public facilities and public transportation system. Barriers and obstacles in society may limit the accessibility of these facilities to the disabled people. Methods: This article contains a part of the results in a phenomenological study of the Disability Rights. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe experiences of disability r...
Halamandaris, Val J
In closing, it is clear that home care nurses are a very special breed. They are missionaries, committed to the goal of helping vulnerable Americans manage their health care needs and to preserving the freedoms and the independence that everyone cherishes. As is clear from the vignettes above, their first and last thoughts each day are for the well-being of their patients. They are so busy providing sophisticated care for a raft of complex medical problems common to their patients and filling out Medicare forms that they sometimes forget to take care of themselves. There is no doubt that they make a difference in the lives of patients and their families. Historically, nurses have been reluctant to take time away from caring for patients to take part in politics. As is evident from the summaries above and the stories of nurses from all 50 states that follow, nurses have had a change of heart. They have reached the conclusion that they must advocate for the aged, infirm, disabled and dying patients because patients cannot speak out for themselves. More and more nurses are becoming involved. One out of every 44 voters today is a nurse. Nurses show up at the polls; home care nurses have made it their responsibility to help make sure that homebound person vote by absentee ballot. They are also committed to march, to speak out for home care and hospice in what more and more are coming to call The Last Great Civil Rights Battle. They are also pushing for the inclusion of home and community based long-term care as part of national health care reform. They believe that home care is the answer to keeping the 12 percent of Americans who suffer from multiple chronic diseases and generate 75 percent of U.S. health care costs out of the hospital. The historian Arnold Toynbee put all these issues in perspective when he wrote that it is possible to measure the longevity and the accomplishment of any society by a common yardstick. I heard President John F. Kennedy quote Toynbee in
Full Text Available Racism has been one of the most devastating matters of the human being from the very beginning of the history, and it has been a topic of great debate and discussion since then. This severe fact does not have a special time and place. Actually, every society that has inhabited the earth has been virtually affected by this dispensable problem, racism. As all the important affairs of human being, the issue of the race is also one of the most significant themes that have a huge place in world- wide literature. Generally, most of the eras in the literature world have got their share of pleasure from this subject but Elizabethan Era was one of the most obvious times and Elizabethan Society was one of the most obvious places that discrimination of race was felt. The fascinating play of Shakespeare, Othello, is one of the plays that are shaped by the flaming effects of Racism. The unavoidable and destructive effects of racism on people’s lives and how a society that has the prejudice of racism can restrain love and what can be the limitation of the racist people at destroying the people’s happiness are constructing the main purpose and progress of this research. It is to touch on the bad development of a character that has the bad feeling of racism and shaping his life according to it even dedicating himself to working under the devastating power of the racism.
Democratic societies are based on the principle of equal legal capacity of all citizens to decide and act for themselves in all areas of social life. This "socio-civil capacity", which may involve both material property of an individual, as well as private life in matters ranging from health to personal relationships, is recognized by the law (both codified law and common law). These rights guarantee the autonomy and freedom of individuals in the name of respect for human dignity. Civil capacity of a person is legally diminished because his or her "natural" abilities, capacity, or competence are reduced. Recent social changes have lead to increased uses of legal measures of protection. The reasons for these changes are complex and they are accompanied by legislative reforms that modify the rights of half-capacitated persons. In this article, we examine certain issues of civil capacity rights based on the French example. We start present a perspective of the historical definition and practice of these rights as well as their democratization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
McDonald, Theodore W.; Stockton, James D.; Landrum, R. Eric
An alarming occurrence in academia involves the discipline of faculty, under the guise of violating civility or collegiality codes, for engaging in what should be protected academic free speech. This often occurs when unprincipled and/or corporate-minded administrators seek to punish or dissuade faculty from challenging or questioning their…
National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.
This paper summarizes a May 2000 conference about advancing the civil and human rights of people with disabilities from diverse cultures. The conference included people with disabilities from diverse cultures and members of national civil rights organizations. The conference identified five priority areas for attention: (1) cultivating leadership…
Reviews of Gurminder K Bhambra, Connected Sociologies; Peo Hansen and Stefan Jonsson, Eurafrica: The Untold History of European Integration and Colonialism; Wulf D. Hund, Alana Lentin (eds) Racism and Sociology
Celia Maria Marinho de Azevedo
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é examinar a proposta corrente de racialização da população brasileira pelo Estado, com vistas a amparar programas de ação afirmativa para o atendimento específico daqueles que se autodenominarem negros. Analisa-se, inicialmente, o ressurgimento da noção de raça entre acadêmicos, políticos e militantes do anti-racismo, bem como as dificuldades de se delimitar quem é negro no Brasil. Em seguida, examina-se o modelo de cota racial dos Estados Unidos e seu apregoado sucesso. Por fim, busca-se avaliar até que ponto a instituição de cota racial no emprego e na universidade deveria se impor como a única opção política para aqueles que pretendem a abolição do racismo na sociedade brasileira.The objective of this article is to examine the current government proposal of "racialization" in the Brazilian population, in order to offer support to affirmative action programs that meet the specific needs of those who classify themselves as black. Firstly we focused on the revival of the notion of race among scholars, politicians, and anti-racism activists, as well as on the difficulty in determining who is black in Brazil. Next we examined the racial quota system in the United States and its proclaimed success. Finally, we assessed the extent to which the introduction of racial quota in employment and university enrollment should be imposed as the sole political option for those intending to eliminate racism in Brazilian society.
Virdee, S.; McGeever, Brendan Francis
This article offers a conjunctural analysis of the financial and political crisis within which Brexit occurred with a specific attentiveness to race and racism. Brexit and its aftermath have been overdetermined by racism, including racist violence. We suggest that the Leave campaign secured its victory by bringing together two contradictory but inter-locking visions. The first comprises an imperial longing to restore Britain’s place in the world as primus inter pares that occludes any coming ...
Witvliet, Margot I; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Arah, Onyebuchi A
Responsiveness is a dimension of health system functioning and might be dependent upon contextual factors related to politics. Given this, we performed cross-national comparisons with the aim of investigating: 1) the associations of political factors with patients' reports of health system responsiveness and 2) the extent to which health input and output might explain these associations. World Health Survey data were analyzed for 44 countries (n = 103 541). Main outcomes included, respectively, 8 and 7 responsiveness domains for inpatient and outpatient care. Linear multilevel regressions were used to assess the associations of politics (namely, civil liberties and political rights), socioeconomic development, health system input, and health system output (measured by maternal mortality) with responsiveness domains, adjusted for demographic factors. Political rights showed positive associations with dignity (regression coefficient = 0.086 [standard error = 0.039]), quality (0.092 [0.049]), and support (0.113 [0.048]) for inpatient care and with dignity (0.075 [0.040]), confidentiality (0.089 [0.043]), and quality (0.124 [0.053]) for outpatient care. Positive associations were observed for civil liberties as well. Health system input and output reduced observed associations. Results tentatively suggest that strengthening political rights and, to a certain extent, civil liberties might improve health system responsiveness, in part through their effect on health system input and output. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hughes, Richard L
In 1964, Claude and Jeanne Nolen, who were white, joined an interracial NAACP team intent on desegregating local restaurants in Austin, Texas as a test of the recently passed Civil Rights ACt. Twenty-five years later, the Nolens pleaded "no contest" in a courtroom for their continued social activism. This time the issue was not racial segregation, but rather criminal trespassing for blockading abortion clinics with Operation Rescue. The Nolens served prison sentences for direct action protests that they believe stemmed from the same commitment to Christianity and social justice as the civil rights movements. Despite its relationship to political and cultural conservatism, the anti-abortion movement since Roe v. Wade (1973) was also a product of the progressive social movements of the turbulent sixties. Utilizing oral history interviews and organizational literature, the article explores the historical context of the anti-abortion movement, specifically how the lengthy struggle for racial justice shaped the rhetoric, tactics, and ideology of the anti-abortion activists. Even after political conservatives dominated the movement in the 1980s, the successes and failures of the sixties provided a cultural lens through which grassroots anti-abortion activists forged what was arguably the largest movement of civil disobedience in American history.
There are two wrong opinions on personal right of an author :one insists on that personal right of an author is the right of identity ,the other considers it as property right .The former view only sees the phenomenon of personal right of an author but ignores its essence ,and the latter view misunder-stands its essential characteristic .It is arguable that personal right of an author is a special social personal right w hich shouldn't be merged into the personal right of civil law ,and that personal right of an author should adhere to its primary meaning and be improved in details .%认为著作人身权是身份权的观点，只看到现象而忽视了著作人身权本质；认为著作人身权是财产权的观点，是对人格权的本质属性存在误解，没有看到社会人格权能够转让的属性。著作人身权是特殊的人格权，取缔或者合并到民法中的人格权中都是不可取的，而应该在现有基础上对著作人身权的内容加以完善。
Beccy Shipman; Carol Smart
In this paper we map briefly some of the arguments around the meaning and significance of the introduction of Civil Partnership in England and Wales, and in this way show how contested these meanings are with some groups profoundly against this legal reform and others supporting it, but for a mixture of reasons. We then turn to our empirical data based on interviews with same-sex couples to explore the extent to which these arguments and issues are part of the everyday decision making process...
Bobo, Lawrence D
Despite much positive change in the post civil rights era, U.S. notions of racism and white supremacy remain powerful elements of American culture. The adaptability and enduring power of these forces can be seen in the emergence of a new historical epoch best describe as the era of Laissez Faire Racism. Prevalent attitudes among white Americans, certain theoretical arguments and hypotheses in American sociology, as well the election of Donald Trump rest upon the on-going operation of racism. In particular, I attribute Trump's electoral success to three critical dilemmas of race that defined contours of the 2016 presidential election: (1) worsening economic inequality in the presence of rapidly changing ethno-racial demography; (2) intensified political partisanship in the presence of well-institutionalized racially coded campaign strategies and rhetoric; and (3) the failure of the Clinton campaign to simultaneously champion the interests of working and middle class families and galvanize the previously powerful multiracial Obama coalition. I speculate on how to forge more effective multiracial coalitions in the future. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Full Text Available In this paper we will keep under review the specificity of the reported pre-emption right to the sale contract, according to the article 1730-1740 of the New Civil Code. With the entry into force of the new future regulation, the pre-emption right will acquire a separate status, being currently known that the legal status of the right under the review is diverse; there are many legal provisions which provide this right in various areas, being excedentary to the sale contract, such as culture, privatization, franchising, intellectual property. According to the analysis of the future legal deposition, it shows that pre-emption right may have as a source both the law and the contract, in this case it is referred to the legal and conventional right of pre-emption. We note also that, in light of the new regulations, the mechanism for exercising the right of pre-emption is similar to the one applicable to the right of preference. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the usefulness of this new legislative measure designed to establish a proper legal support specific to the holder of this right in the conclusion of a contract in relation to third parties. Approach: This topic emphasizes the use of the following methods: observation, comparison and interpretation of laws.
Full Text Available After the last war it would have seemed racism and antisemitism were called to disappear. But today they have come back and the history of their return can be traced back. Antisemitism would seem to have been relaunched as anticapitalism and as support in the fight for freedom of the palestinian people —or asenvy, mainly islamic, of today’s jews’ success in their settlement—. Racism on the other hand has suffered a transformation from the physical to the cultural and is activated today through discriminations launched on a planetary scale rather than coming from within the nations and is often connected with international tensions provoked by immigration. Finally racism is also taking shape in the need to rewrite the beginning and legitimations of the histories ofsuffering.
Jensen, Tina Gudrun; Weibel, Kristina; Vitus, Kathrine
and racism are marginalized and de-legitimized within the dominant integration discourse, resulting in the marginalization of anti-racism in policymaking. The side-stepping of racism is being naturalized in public policies through strategies of denial and by addressing discrimination as a product...... of ignorance and individual prejudice rather than as embedded in social structures. The authors examine how immigration, integration and (anti-)racism as concepts and phenomena are understood and addressed in Danish public policies and discourses. Despite denials of racism in Denmark, Jensen, Weibel and Vitus...
LL.D. The starting point of this research is the observation that the protection of human rights and the prevention of human rights atrocities can only take place through a universal system of different means of accountability which create enough deterrence for the future state or individual offender. This research consists of four parts: Part A explores and outlines the different existing ways and means of traditional human rights protection under the international and regional human righ...
Marcus, Alan S.
In the United States, the right to a fair trial is protected by the Constitution. The ideal of justice is a critical underpinning of the democracy. However, while the United States is a model of an honorable and just court system most of the time, our constitutional rights are occasionally stretched or broken. The rationale is often national…
This article describes the two-day "Healing in Racism" training received by Jessie Longhurst when she was a teenager in her hometown of Albion, Michigan. She accepted an invitation from her father to attend the program, and states that the training gave her a better understanding of what it means to be African American in our country,…
Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine
Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…
Nielsen, Helene Pristed
This article reviews ENAR’s (European Network Against Racism) history from its inception in 1998 to the present – a development which reflects an increasing need for a professionalised lobby organisation with the ability to respond to Brussels-induced demands. Furthermore, against the backdrop...
Jeynes, William H.
This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…
Pomeranz, Jennifer L
Discrimination causes health inequities for stigmatized groups. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, in particular, are at significantly increased risk for disparate health outcomes when they reside in states that fail to extend equal protections to them or that actively deprive equal rights to them. Several states and the federal government have proposed or enacted laws that permit residents to discriminate against LGBTQ individuals. One such law, Arkansas's Intrastate Commerce Improvement Act of 2015, preempts or prohibits local governments from enacting civil rights protections for LGBTQ individuals that are also lacking at the state level. State laws such as Arkansas's undermine local control, damage the economy, and create injustices that harm LGBTQ people. I set forth 2 constitutional arguments to challenge such laws, and I provide information to help advocates support evidence-based policymaking and prevent the passage of similar laws in their states.
On January 23, 1989, 42 operatives of a revolutionary group, the Movimiento Todos por la Patria (MTP), attacked the General Belgrano Mechanized Infantry Regiment No. 3 at La Tablada in the province of Buenos Aires. This article analyzes the accusations of human rights violations committed by the armed forces and the police on the attackers in the aftermath of the assault; the skeptical Argentine government’s response to those allegations before the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights (I...
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is analyzing the prospect of reforming the organizational and legal mechanism for ensuring the rights and freedoms of individuals and citizens of Ukraine from the systemic approach. Based on the methodology of system analysis, the prospects of reforming the organizational and legal mechanism for ensuring the rights and freedoms of men and citizens of Ukraine in the context of association with the European Union are considered. The key factors that influence the effectiveness of the submitted organizational and legal mechanism are analyzed. The measures aimed at the improvement of normative-legal regulation, which shall promote the maintenance of constitutional rights and freedoms in the conditions of reforming all spheres of society's life, are presented.
State and other social service agencies as well as service providers are governed by laws that often provide unclear guidance regarding the rights of people with disabilities. Although some standards can be, and have been, developed to protect the rights of people with disabilities, all people with disabilities are not the same and therefore, each can require very different types of accommodations. Some aspects of disability rights must be individually based, including the requirement that people with disabilities receive educational services in the least restrictive environment and care in the most inclusive setting. The current interpretation of these mandates suggests that agency decisions rely on professional judgments. Unless professionals work with their clients, this reliance can serve to disempower those whom the law was intended to protect. Though much debated, the legal definition of a person with a disability is unclear. This article examines the concept of disability and that of the least restrictive environment as well as that of the "most inclusive setting," explains to whom they apply, discusses how they have been defined both in statutes and case law, and elaborates on the role of social workers as a result of the law's reliance on professional judgment in ascertaining client rights.
Global market participation of corporations often leads to a conflict of duties: the duty to its customers and shareholder to “do business” vs. the duty to protect the populations affected by these business operations. Today, in a reality where gross human rights violations are not only committed by states and individuals but increasingly by multinational corporations (MNCs) by aiding and abetting the actual perpetrators in the states where MNCs operate, the global recession has aggravated th...
María Martín de Almagro Iniesta
Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of the internal battles between activists in the transnational campaign for the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security and subsequent resolutions from a poststructuralist perspective. Based on extensive fieldwork, the article attempts to answer the question of how international activists participating in a transnational campaign affect local women’s rights campaigns in two post-conflict states: Burundi and Liberia. Or rather, why was the transnational campaign for the Resolution 1325 in Burundi considered a failure while the same campaign in Liberia was deemed a success by the international community?
Full Text Available Changes in security environment after the end of Cold War and 9/11 have strongly affected our security concepts and paradigms. In the field of counter-terrorism, a serious conceptual and practical debate on the relationship between security and human rights and freedoms has begun. The goal of this paper is to reflect on this complex relationship at the conceptual level and introduce the empirical debate on this relationship in the field of civil aviation (case of introducing body scanners. The paper’s results show that the concept of human security usefully integrates the care for human rights and security of individuals. The debate on the potential introduction of body scanners on the European airports was actually a debate on the ways of providing individual human security on the airports with simultaneous concern for other human rights. The output of this debate was a compromise: body scanners can be used at the discretion of individual airports and member states, but are not an obligatory measure on all European airports.
Full Text Available The racist approaches has began to take place on international area intensively after Cold-War period in the European Union countries. Generally, when we think about xenophobia and racism in Europe, Germany becomes the first country that comes to mind. However, the European Parliament Election in 2014 has shown that the racist approaches are not restricted to Germany. Xenophobia and racism are increasing day by day in nearly all the European Union countries. So far, the racism has been raised as a form of Islamophobia in expressions of far-right parties in Europe. Today the movement, which arised in September 2014 and called Pegida, has started to use these approaches. In this article the Pegida movement will be examined in the context of rising Islamophobia, racism and xenophobia in the European countries recently.
African-Americans have disproportionately higher rates of hypertension than any other U.S. ethnic group. Researchers have postulated that the psychosocial-stress association with racism may help explain these higher rates in African-Americans, as well as blood pressure variability among African-Americans. Using a quasi-experimental design, this study examined the relationship between perceived interethnic group racism (racism) and blood pressure responses in 39 African-American females. Measurements of blood pressure were obtained before, during, and after a laboratory challenge where participants spoke about their personal views and feelings concerning animal rights. Perceptions of racism, as well as psychological and coping responses to racism, were assessed via the Perceived Racism Scale. The results revealed that on average, participants perceived racism 75.25 times/year. Racist statements were perceived most often, and speaking up was the most frequently reported coping response. The overwhelming majority of participants (76.47%) used active and passive coping responses to deal with racism. Among the psychological responses to racism, the magnitude of emotional responding was greatest for anger. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that perceived racism was significantly and positively related to diastolic blood pressure changes during the speech (p = .01), early recovery (p world behavioral challenges in future research exploring blood pressure variability and hypertension risk in African-Americans.
В. В. Надьон
Full Text Available Problem setting. In accordance with the Civil Code of Ukraine guardianship and trusteeship are established to provide personal non-property and property rights and interests of minors, and adult persons who for health reasons can not independently exercise their rights and responsibilities (article 55 of the Civil Code. The main difference between guardianship and trusteeship is in the volume of civillaw responsibilities which the law imposes on Trustees and Guardians, based on the volume capacity and the health status of their wards. Thus, the trustee is appointed over the minor and persons wichare incapasitated individual, the trustee, the guardian is appointed over minors and individuals that have limited civil capacity. The Civil Code of Ukraine pays considerabl attention to the guardian's responsibilities, which include: 1 to care for a ward, about his education, training and development, to create the necessary living conditions; 2 to provide that minors and persons limited civil capacity of care and treatment; 3 to provide the necessary conditions for obtaining a General secondary education; 4 to take measures to protect civil rights and interests; 5 once a year to carry out a full medical examination; 6 to determine the place of residence of the ward person. To the rights of the Guardian in the legislation: 1 to demand in court the return of his child under his guardianship from any person who illegally hold on to it; 2 live together with the ward and can be registered on a residential square, the latter for the period of their responsibilities execution; 3 to manage the assets of the ward; 5 may be voluntarily released from fulfillment of the assumed obligations
Full Text Available The new Civil Code brings the institute of right abuse as a general clause. This clause, through its structural elements, as good-faith, good-customs and the social and economical aims, will find the responsibility of the agent into compensate another person who has overtook the limits of the law. The right abuse institute, however, goes further one to the civil order and the responsibility institute, coming around another fields of the law as well the institute of civil responsibility, matching with another law fields, reason that include a great situations and law probabilities, should be worked as a law principle.O Novo Código Civil traz o instituto do abuso de direito erigido a uma cláusula geral. Esta, através de seus elementos estruturais, como a boa-fé, os bons costumes e os fins econômicos e sociais, determinará a responsabilidade do agente em indenizar outrem caso este ultrapassar os limites do permitido. O instituto do abuso de direito, contudo, extravasa à ordem civil, bem como ao instituto da responsabilidade, permeando por outros campos do direito, fato pelo qual abrange uma vasta gama de situações e probabilidades jurídicas, devendo ser trabalhado como um princípio de direito.
Schmidt-Assmann, E.; Schoch, F.
On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law. The available arsenal of legal instruments for solving conflicts between proprietary titles to land surfaces and mines is more extensive and differentiated and, if properly deployed, more effective than one might at first expect. The control mechanisms become effective either immediately through laws or through administrative or private acts and are based on public or on private law. They range from the sphere of mining rights, operation planning law, the law on the prevention of damage to private persons over to the regulations under mining law on the payment of damages. The constitutionality of the mining regulations examined here is beyond dispute. They comply with the constitutional requirement to frame the issue concerned and afford protection while at the same time providing the required measure of openness and flexibility for conforming to the peculiarities of the mining business and permitting the necessary sensitivity of administrative control for managing this multipolar legal relationship. At the statutory level the regulatory purpose of the mining law in force is thus fulfilled. (orig./HSCH) [de
Washington, Harriet A; Baker, Robert B; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R
Between 1910 and 1968, the National Medical Association (NMA) repeatedly clashed with the American Medical Association (AMA) over the latter organization's racial bars to membership and other health policy issues. The NMA, founded in 1895 as a nonexclusionary medical society to provide a voice for disenfranchised black physicians and patients, struggled in its early years, during which AMA leadership took scant notice of it. But skirmishes ensued over such actions as stigmatizing racial labels in the AMA's American Medical Directory, which, beginning in 1906, listed all U.S. physicians but designated African Americans with the notation col. The NMA also repeatedly asked the AMA to take action against overt racial bars on blacks' membership in its constituent state and county societies. During the civil rights era, African American physicians received no AMA support in seeking legal remedies to hospital segregation. And the NMA and AMA found themselves opposed on other policy issues, including Medicaid and Medicare. These differences eventually catalyzed a series of direct confrontations. The 1965 AMA meeting in New York City, for example, was protested by about 200 NMA-led picketers. The NMA's quest for racial equality in medicine was supported by some other medical organizations, such as the Medical Committee for Human Rights. In 1966, the AMA House voted to amend the AMA Constitution and Bylaws, giving its Judicial Council (now the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs) the authority to investigate allegations of discrimination. This paved the way for a subsequent era of increasing cooperation and understanding.
Grekin, Emily R
Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Hall, Joanne M; Fields, Becky
Nursing values include diversity and a commitment to the elimination of health disparities. However, nursing comprises predominantly white, female nurses. The authors explore structural and interpersonal sources of disparities experienced by black persons, including white privilege. Here, the authors advocate for a continuation of the racism conversation, specifically among white nurses. Racial disadvantages stem from structural inequalities from daily slights, and usually unintended subtle racism toward black people on the part of white people, including white nurses. By raising consciousness on how we propagate subtle racism, nursing can progress faster in eliminating health disparities. Topics include postracialism, colorblindness, institutional racism, white privilege, health disparities, clinical encounters, subtle racism, and racial microaggressions. Suggestions for open dialogue, historical awareness, education, research, and practice are highlighted. Difficulties involved in confronting racism and white privilege are explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Willhelm, Sidney M.
The Marxist interpretation of the Black experience in America has always had difficulty explaining various noneconomic aspects of racism. A perspective is needed that can blend racism as a variable in relationship with economic variables. To reach this perspective, the labor process within capitalism must be more fully understood. (Author/GC)
Callander, Denton; Newman, Christy E; Holt, Martin
Sexual racism is a specific form of racial prejudice enacted in the context of sex or romance. Online, people use sex and dating profiles to describe racialized attraction through language such as "Not attracted to Asians." Among gay and bisexual men, sexual racism is a highly contentious issue. Although some characterize discrimination among partners on the basis of race as a form of racism, others present it as a matter of preference. In May 2011, 2177 gay and bisexual men in Australia participated in an online survey that assessed how acceptably they viewed online sexual racism. Although the men sampled displayed diverse attitudes, many were remarkably tolerant of sexual racism. We conducted two multiple linear regression analyses to compare factors related to men's attitudes toward sexual racism online and their racist attitudes more broadly. Almost every identified factor associated with men's racist attitudes was also related to their attitudes toward sexual racism. The only differences were between men who identified as Asian or Indian. Sexual racism, therefore, is closely associated with generic racist attitudes, which challenges the idea of racial attraction as solely a matter of personal preference.
In this article, Robert Honour, Training and Staff Development Manager, at the Fairfax, Virginia, Department of Family Services (DFS), reports on the outcome of "Healing Racism" training at his organization. Participants in "Healing Racism Institutes" are transforming relationships and creating an organizational culture that…
Full Text Available In the present study the regulation of the carrier of the civil servants is considered, especially the stability and continuity – essential elements at the European Union level. Unfortunately, in the Romanian legislation, as well as in the institutional case law, it remains a purely declarative issue. The study is based on a series of recent court decisions. We criticized the abusive use of the expeditious ordinances and the instruments of legislative regulation. This is considered as an abusive practice of the law maker and shows a legislative inability related to the regulation of the public office, especially by not observing the conditions in which a person could be relieved of his office. The conclusion of the study leads to the necessity for the law maker to revise the statute of the civil servant, especially by eliminating the fluctuation determined by the succession of the governing political forces.
In the context of the conclusion of contracts between entrepreneurs under the Czech Civil Code, it is a relatively common arrangement that the parties disclaim any and all liability for damage arising from non-compliance with contractual obligations, if they can prove that this failure was due to an obstacle independent of their will. This circumstance excluding liability for the damage is called force majeure by the theory. In many countries this circumstance is ruled upon directly by the le...
Full Text Available In the context of the conclusion of contracts between entrepreneurs under the Czech Civil Code, it is a relatively common arrangement that the parties disclaim any and all liability for damage arising from non-compliance with contractual obligations, if they can prove that this failure was due to an obstacle independent of their will. This circumstance excluding liability for the damage is called force majeure by the theory. In many countries this circumstance is ruled upon directly by the legislation (höhere Gewalt, vis major. The Czech regulations represented by the new Civil Code of 2012 (CivC, however, contains only a framework provision that mentions discharging reasons. The paper deals with the – rather disputable – issue that the force majeure does not affect the obligation to pay a contractual penalty under the new rules of the CivC. It should be therefore reflected in the arrangements for contractual penalties inter partes. To this effect the paper analyses the concepts of contractual penalties and force majeure in civil law legislation. Afterwards it compares their mutual relationship and impact on the obligations of the Contracting Parties. Finally, it draws recommendations for practice from the perspective of the contracting process.
Barnes, Clare; van Laerhoven, Frank; Driessen, Peter P J
Forest policy implementation is a political endeavor involving both state and non-state actors. We observe that civil society organizations (CSOs) often federate into civil society-led coalitions (CSCs) in order to shape forest policies in their favor. They appear to be successful in doing this
Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M
racism may not only harm the targets of stigma but also benefit those who wield the power to enact stigma and discrimination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Darden, Stephen M
As more and more individuals express themselves with tattoos and body piercings and push the envelope on what is deemed appropriate in the workplace, employers have an increased need for creation and enforcement of reasonable dress codes and appearance policies. As with any employment policy or practice, an appearance policy must be implemented and enforced without regard to an individual's race, color, gender, national origin, religion, disability, age, or other protected status. A policy governing dress and appearance based on the business needs of an employer that is applied fairly and consistently and does not have a disproportionate effect on any protected class will generally be upheld if challenged in court. By examining some of the more common legal challenges to dress codes and how courts have resolved the disputes, health care managers can avoid many potential problems. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of dress codes and appearance policies, focuses on the issue of gender under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Pertinent court cases that provide guidance for employers are addressed.
Mutius, A. von.
The uthor explains the significance of the Muehlheim-Kaerlich order of the Federal Constitutional Court, of Dec. 12 1979, which represents a landmark of the recent developments in the interpretation of civil rights, which tend to put the protection of civil rights on a procedural basis. The author gives a brief account of the developments, as reflected by Federal Constittuional Court decisions, and them goes into detail on the Muelheim-Kaerlich decision, the statement of facts, the grounds of judgment, the dissenting opinion, and the reaction the decision has met with in the relevant literature. The Court's decision is evaluated in terms of law and with a view to current legal practice. It is shown that protection of civil rights by way of and through administrative procedure is kept within reasonable limits. This order of the Court has by no means revolutionized the law of administrative procedure. It rather contributed to a change of attitude, allowing cautions changes to develop towards administrative rules of procedure which more strongly aim at protecting civil rights. (orig./HSCH) [de
Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie
"Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…
California State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.
The California State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights met on January 21-22, 1971, to discuss the political participation of Mexican Americans. This paper presents the committee's discussion and recommendations. Matters that are pertinent to the participation of Mexican Americans in the Political life of California are…
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.27 Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil... equal pay under the Equal Pay Act has no relationship to whether the employee is in the lower paying job...
Full Text Available Abstract: In the elaboration, the objective scope of obligatory civil liability insurance of entities conducting medical activities in the context of protection from damages resulting from violations of patients’ rights was presented. Based on art. 25 sec. 1 of the Act on Medical Activity, insurance protection covers damages that are the result of the provision of medical services or an illegal omission to provide them. It concerns consequences of erroneous actions related to the provision of medical services as well as damages occurring as a result of an unjustified refusal to provide a medical service or premature cessation of the provision of services if there was an objective prerequisite to continue them driven by medical grounds. The objective scope of insurance protection resulting from obligatory civil liability insurance of an entity conducting medical activities does not apply – as a rule – to damages resulting from violations of patients’ rights. It cannot be considered that a damage related to violation of a patient’s right constitutes a consequence of the provision of medical services or an illegal omission of the provisions of medical services. Such damage is a consequence of a violation of the patient’s right. Financial consequences of patients’ claims resulting from violations of patients’ rights will be borne by entities conducting medical activities. If a patient requests a financial redress, its payment will not be made from the obligatory civil liability insurance policy. The violation of patient’s right to medical services constitutes the only exception.
Full Text Available The subject. The article focuses on the need to improve legislative and law enforcement activities related to the consolidation of constituent entities of the Russian Federation additional guarantees of realization of constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms.The purpose of the article is to identify main ways of improvement the legal regulation additional guarantees of realization of constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.The methodology. The author uses a dialectical method, a method of analysis and synthesis, a formal legal method.The results and scope of application. The lack of unity in understanding the essence of additional guarantees of realization of rights and freedoms requires not only theoretical analysis of this legal category, but a consistent system of the legislation, and corresponding to the system of law enforcement practice. The legal establishment of the additional guarantees of realization of constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms, due solely to the will of the legislator of a constituent entitiy of the Russian Federation aimed at the concretization of constitutional rights and freedoms as well as of the security mechanisms (legal conditions, means of the implementation of these rights. Features of development of the corresponding constituent entitiy of the Russian Federation should be taken into account.One of the main directions of improvement of legal regulation in this field is legislative recognition of additional guarantees of realization of constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms established by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. This concept should be reflected in the Federal law of October 6, 1999 No. 184-FZ "On General principles of organization of legislative (representative and executive bodies of state power of constituent entities of the Russian Federation", as well as in the constitutions (charters
Chae, David H; Clouston, Sean; Martz, Connor D; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Turpin, Rodman; Stephens-Davidowitz, Seth; Kramer, Michael R
There is increasing evidence that racism is a cause of poor health outcomes in the United States, including adverse birth outcomes among Blacks. However, research on the health consequences of racism has faced measurement challenges due to the more subtle nature of contemporary racism, which is not necessarily amenable to assessment through traditionally used survey methods. In this study, we circumvent some of these limitations by examining a previously developed Internet query-based proxy of area racism (Stephens-Davidowitz, 2014) in relation to preterm birth and low birthweight among Blacks. Area racism was measured in 196 designated market areas as the proportion of total Google searches conducted between 2004 and 2007 containing the "n-word." This measure was linked to county-level birth data among Blacks between 2005 and 2008, which were compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics; preterm birth and low birthweight were defined as racism was associated with relative increases of 5% in the prevalence of preterm birth and 5% in the prevalence of low birthweight among Blacks. Our study provides evidence for the utility of an Internet query-based measure as a proxy for racism at the area-level in epidemiologic studies, and is also suggestive of the role of racism in contributing to poor birth outcomes among Blacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scruggs, Afi-Odelia E.
Kawania Wooten's voice tightens when she describes the struggle she's having at the school her son attends. When his class created a timeline of civilization, Wooten saw the Greeks, the Romans and the Incas. Nothing was said about Africa, even though the class has several African American students. This article discusses racial…
Augusto Caccia-Bava Junior
Full Text Available Este ensaio parte do reconhecimento de uma conjuntura de crise institucional, para analisar o contexto da formação dos direitos civis dos jovens e suas fragilidades ,com vista a alcançar, por meio dessa reflexão, uma exposição dos aspectos da insegurança urbana presentes na sociedade brasileira. Palavras-chave: Crise institucional. Direitos civis dos jovens. Insegurança urbana. This essay starts with the recognition of a particular political institutional crisis as a base to analyze the development of the youth civil wrights and their gaps in order to reach an exposition of the characteristics of urban insecurity that takes place in Brazilian society. Keywords: Institutional crisis; Youth civil wrigths; Urban insecurity.
This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among
Vitriol--and even violence--between U.S. citizens of different groups reaches another high mark this year. Racism is one of the strongest challenges of our time. But racism isn't insurmountable, U.S. institutions--with schools as ground zero--can lessen racism if they examine their own racist thinking and policies and, especially, encourage…
Graham, Jessica R; West, Lindsey M; Martinez, Jennifer; Roemer, Lizabeth
The current study explores the potential mediating role of internalized racism in the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptomology in a Black American sample. One hundred and 73 Black American participants, between 18 and 62 years of age, completed a questionnaire packet containing measures of anxious arousal and stress symptoms, internalized racism, and experiences of racist events. Results indicated that internalized racism mediated the relationship between past-year frequency of racist events and anxious arousal as well as past-year frequency of racist events and stress symptoms. Internalized racism may be 1 mechanism that underlies the relationship between racism and anxious symptomology for Black Americans. These preliminary findings suggest that internalized racism may be an avenue through which clinicians can target the anxiety elicited by racist experiences. The clinical implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Quezia Dornellas Fialho
Full Text Available The constitutional state requires den to fundamental rights within the process. The duty, while the guarantee, the evidence of judicial decisions should, together with other procedural principles, lead to a new way of thinking about the process, not aiming at the speed at any cost, but the safe conduct of the fundamental rights of parties during the procedural motion. Thus, with respect to this duty-assurance, the new Code of Civil Procedure innovated by establishing requirements for the goals adequate reasoning of judgments.
Turrittin, Jane; Hagey, Rebecca; Guruge, Sepali; Collins, Enid; Mitchell, Mitzi
This interpretive research analyses the discourse of nurses who migrated to Canada and experienced racism. They also experienced reprisals when they formally complained about racism in a context of denial of the problem of racism by colleagues and employers. The present work focuses on two issues arising from the data: the problem of how to make racism visible among those who have a vested interest in denying its existence and the emotional cool of those filing grievances or complaints in contrast with the hot reaction of those being challenged when racism is named. We introduce two theoretical perspectives to address these phenomena called democratic racism and cosmopolitan citizenship, respectively. The former, as defined by Henry et al. (The Colour of Democracy: Racism in Canadian Society. Harcourt Brace, Canada, Toronto, 1996), describes the coexistence of both democratic values and practices that discount people of colour advertently or inadvertently. We outline the notion of cosmopolitan citizenship that is argued by Turner (Politics of the Global City. Routledge, London, 2000) to be an orientation resulting from global microcosms in cities teeming with diversity. The characteristic orientations of cool and stewardship are useful for describing some of the discourse expressed by each participant in our study all of whom challenged racism practices, not on nationalistic grounds, but rather out of concern for universal human rights. Their characteristics qualify them for cosmopolitan citizenship under Turner's perspective. We suggest that anti-racist activists have been cosmopolitan citizens for decades and argue that while cosmopolitan citizenship may have taken root in neo-liberal movements, it appears to have tactical attributes in the struggle with democratic racism. In conclusion, we advocate for a cosmopolitan citizenship ethic to facilitate a rational move toward racial integration in the profession through the sharing of power and privilege. One goal in
Griffith, Derek M; Mason, Mondi; Yonas, Michael; Eng, Eugenia; Jeffries, Vanessa; Plihcik, Suzanne; Parks, Barton
Despite a strong commitment to promoting social change and liberation, there are few community psychology models for creating systems change to address oppression. Given how embedded racism is in institutions such as healthcare, a significant shift in the system's policies, practices, and procedures is required to address institutional racism and create organizational and institutional change. This paper describes a systemic intervention to address racial inequities in healthcare quality called dismantling racism. The dismantling racism approach assumes healthcare disparities are the result of the intersection of a complex system (healthcare) and a complex problem (racism). Thus, dismantling racism is a systemic and systematic intervention designed to illuminate where and how to intervene in a given healthcare system to address proximal and distal factors associated with healthcare disparities. This paper describes the theory behind dismantling racism, the elements of the intervention strategy, and the strengths and limitations of this systems change approach.
Тетяна Андріївна Цувіна
Full Text Available The article addresses recognition and enforcement of foreign judgements in civil cases in the context of the practice of European Court of Human Rights. The conclusion is made, that European Court of Human Rights analyzes institute of recognition and enforcement of foreign judgements through such procedural rights as right to a fair trial (art. 6 ECHR and right to an effective remedy (art. 13 ECHR as long as such substantive conventional rights as right to protection pf property (art. 1 of the First Protocol to ECHR and right to respect for private and family life (art. 8 ECHR. It is considered that the main article through which this institute should be analyzed is art. 6 ECHR containing procedural guaranties of fair trial. According to the art. 13 ECHR the effective remedies of protection of the right to a fair trial in reasonable time should be provided at national level. Moreover reforms of this sphere of judicial practice should be done in accordance with art. 8 ECHR and art. 1 of the First Protocol to ECHR which provide specific substantive rights. All of the above mentioned aspects are analyzed in detail.
Suess, Amets; Ruiz Pérez, Isabel; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; March Cerdà, Joan Carles
The recent publication of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 (RDL 16/2012), which introduces structural changes in the Spanish Public Healthcare System, can be placed in the broader context of budgetary adjustments in response to the current economic crisis. An analysis of the interrelationships among economic crisis, healthcare policies, and health reveals that citizen participation is one of several potential strategies for reducing the impact of this situation on the population. This observation raises the interest to know the citizens' perspectives on the modifications introduced by the RDL 16/2012. Narrative review of documents related to the RDL 16/2012 published by civil society organizations and professional associations in the Spanish context. A broad citizen response can be observed to the introduction of RDL 16/2012. The documents reviewed include an analysis of changes in the healthcare model inherent to the RDL 16/2012, as well as predictions on its impact on access to healthcare, healthcare quality, and health. The civil society organizations and professional associations offer recommendations and proposals, as well as collaboration in elaborating alternative strategies to reduce costs. The response of civil society organizations and professional associations underscores the importance of strengthening citizen participation in the development of healthcare policies aimed at maintaining the universal character and sustainability of the Spanish Public Healthcare System in the current moment of economic and systemic crisis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Essential facts Trade union Unite has developed a policy briefing on a new toolkit to combat racism in the NHS. It can help nurses and other staff tackle racial discrimination in health, with black and minority ethnic (BME) nurses often treated unequally compared with their white colleagues.
racepresent racism, the race of the racist figures as a term in her racist thinking; in own-race-absent racism it does not. While own-race-present racism might conform readily to commonsense understandings of racism, own-race-absent racism less clearly ...
Full Text Available Problem setting. European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR guarantees right to a fair trial within a reasonable time for everyone (par. 1 art. 6 ECHR. Reasonable time of the trial is an element of the right to a fair trial. One of the main directions for development of civil procedure in Ukraine is the implementation of international standards of fair trial, in particular standards of reasonable time of the trial. Recent research and publications analyses. Foreign and Ukrainian scientists such as Komarov V. V., Neshataeva T. M., Sakara N. U. and others in their works paid attention to different aspects of problems connected with the right to a fair trial within a reasonable time, but a comprehensive study devoted to a features of calculation of reasonable time of the trial taking into account the practice of the ECHR on this issue wasn’t conducted. Paper objective. Main objective of the article is to study decisions of the ECHR concerning the interpretation of Par. 1, Art. 6 ECHR and analyze features of calculation of reasonable time of the trial to make recommendations on implementation of such national level. Paper main body. As a rule, according to a practice of ECHR reasonable time of civil proceedings begins on the date on which the case is referred to a judicial authority. Thus ECHR can take as the starting point the date of a preliminary application to an administrative authority, especially when this is a prerequisite for commencement of proceedings. The end of reasonable time of the trial connected with the moment when the court decision become final or its execution. Conclusions of the research. Calculation of reasonable time of the trial in civil cases in circumstances when an application to the court was preceded by a seeking for protection from the authorities and public servants of executive power has features. In such situations a calculation of reasonable time of the trial doesn’t begin from the moment of seeking for
Márcia Regina Pitta Lopes Aquino
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the right of action in the Brazilian Civil Suit according to the Federal Constitution. This research highlights the crisis that the State, the Law and the Juridical Science have gone through go mainly after World War II. Proceduralism and substantialism are addressed in regard to their fundamental aspects as well as the existent dilemma between juridical positivism and jusnaturalism. Based on the theories that encompass the “third way”, this work attempts to show the importance of certain procedures for realizing values of constitutional principles that permeate the whole juridical order. It is concluded that the process is not only an instrument but also a dimension of law itself. The right of action as expressed in art. 5, Chapter XXXV of the Federal Constitution is eminently procedural and should be undertood as a right to process.O estudo objetiva a análise do direito de ação no processo civil brasileiro a partir da Constituição Federal. Aponta a crise por que passam Estado, Direito e Ciência Jurídica ,especialmente após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Procedimentalismo e substancialismo, bem como jusnaturalismo e positivismo jurídico são apresentados em seus pontos fundamentais. Com fundamento em teorias que compõem uma “terceira via”, busca demonstrar a importância dos procedimentos na realização dos valores consubstanciados em princípios constitucionais que se irradiam por todo o ordenamento jurídico. Conclui que o processo não é apenas um instrumento, mas uma dimensão do direito. O direito de ação expresso no artigo 5º , XXXV da Constituição Federal é eminentemente processual e deve ser entendido como direito ao processo.
Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Snyder, Cyndy R
Multiracial people are often lauded as evidence of the waning significance of race and racism in the United States. In reality, the experiences of multiracial people illuminate the ways that racism still exists and efforts to classify people based on assumed racial characteristics for the purposes of inclusion and exclusion are alive and well. Multiracial individuals experience racism from multiple sources and in various forms, which has the potential to negatively impact their development and well-being. Thus, scholars and practitioners must better understand how the growing population of multiracial individuals learns to cope with such racism. The central aim of this qualitative interview study was to shed light on the ways in which multiracial individuals of African descent in the United States cope with and respond to racism. Findings are organized around 5 broad conceptual themes for coping with and addressing racism: avoidance and internalization, anger and violence, education and advocacy, seeking culture and community, and chameleon identities. Findings of this study speak to the dynamic nature of strategies used to cope with racism and hold implications for practices and programs designed to support positive racial identity development among multiracial individuals of African descent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Helmkamp, Laura; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Osypuk, Theresa L; Platt, Robert W; Straughen, Jennifer K; Dailey-Okezie, Rhonda K; Abeysekara, Purni; Misra, Dawn P
This study sought to examine whether perceived interpersonal racism in the form of racial micro aggressions was associated with preterm birth (PTB) and whether the presence of depressive symptoms and perceived stress modified the association. Data stem from a cohort of 1410 black women residing in Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, enrolled into the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) study. The Daily Life Experiences of Racism and Bother (DLE-B) scale measured the frequency and perceived stressfulness of racial micro aggressions experienced during the past year. Severe past-week depressive symptomatology was measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) dichotomized at ≥ 23. Restricted cubic splines were used to model nonlinearity between perceived racism and PTB. We used the Perceived Stress Scale to assess general stress perceptions. Stratified spline regression analysis demonstrated that among those with severe depressive symptoms, perceived racism was not associated with PTB. However, perceived racism was significantly associated with PTB among women with mild to moderate (CES-D score ≤ 22) depressive symptoms. Perceived racism was not associated with PTB among women with or without high amounts of perceived stress. Our findings suggest that racism, at least in the form of racial micro aggressions, may not further impact a group already at high risk for PTB (those with severe depressive symptoms), but may increase the risk of PTB for women at lower baseline risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.
Full Text Available Racism and racial prejudice, considered a relic of obsolete and outdated social systems, is emerging in the depths of ultra-modern Western societies with different characteristics from the past but with a surprising and worrying virulence. These waves of prejudice and racism testify to the many fears that fill the horizons of advanced societies, undermining not only their internal reliability, but also just their democratic settings. This paper presents a critical review of Islamophobia as a racial prejudice, showing that two main definitions are at work: Islamophobia as xeno-racism or linked to the so-called clash of civilizations. Then, it presents the outcomes coming from a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI survey led among a representative sample of the Italian population (n = 1,523 on Antisemitic and Islamophobic attitudes. The cogency and structure of anti-Muslim public discourse and connected mass attitudes, revealed by our investigation, confirm the emergency of these two relevant dimensions of Islamophobia, which claim for a more accurate definition of Islamophobia. Moreover, the distribution of anti-Semitic and Islamophobic attitudes illustrate an interesting overlapping of Islamophobia and Antisemitism which claims that racism is multi-targeted and that there is not so much options between Antisemitism and Islamophobia. Finally, we use three main variables—anomie, ethnocentrism, and authoritarianism—as predictors of Islamophobia and Antisemitism. We tested the strength of these three predictors with the aid of path technique based on multiple regression analysis, which helps to determine the direct and indirect impacts of certain independent variables on dependent variables in a hypothetical causal system.
Racismo y derechos humanos en Colombia: avatares de las poblaciones afrocolombianas; Racismo e direitos humanos na Colômbia: avatares das populações afro- colombianas; Racism and human rights in Colombia: avatars of the Afro-Colombian peoples
Adriana Espinosa Bonilla
Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo pretende plantear una reflexión acerca de la forma en que se ha configurado el racismo frente a las poblaciones negras en Colombia y cómo las luchas en el campo político del movimiento social afrocolombiano, han esgrimido el discurso de los derechos humanos como estrategia de resistencia. Dicho análisis, describe las interacciones de los representantes del gobierno con los activistas de las organizaciones negras, en el escenario de las audiencias ante la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos en Washington, donde aparecen los discursos relacionados de racismo y derechos humanos, en la contienda entre representantes del estado y comunidades negras. Palabras clave: Racismo, Derechos Humanos, ciudadanía, Identidad, Movimiento Social, Organizaciones Negras. Resumo: Este artigo pretende expor uma reflexão sobre a forma como se configurou o racismo frente as populações negras na Colômbia e como as lutas no campo político do movimento social afro-colombiano brandiu o discurso dos direitos humanos como estratégia de resistência. Essa analise descreve as interações dos representantes do governo com os ativistas das organizações negras no cenário das audiências na Corte Interamericana de Direitos Humanos, em Washington, onde aparecem discursos relacionados com o racismo e os direitos humanos, nas disputas entre representantes do Estado e das comunidades negras. Palavras-chave: Racismo, DIreitos Humanos, cidadania, identidade, Movimento social, Organizações Negras. Abstract: This article aims at presenting a reflection on how racism against black populations in Colombia has been configured and how the fights in the political field of the Afro-Colombian social movement have employed the discourse of human rights as a strategy of resistance. Such analysis describes the interactions between the government representatives and the activists of black organizations on the stage of the
Luedke, Alicia Elaine; Logan, Hannah Faye
One of the most widely covered aspects of the current conflict in South Sudan has been the use sexual violence by rival factions of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and other armed groups. While this has had the positive effect of ensuring that sexual violence is an integral component of intervention strategies in the country, it has also had a number of unintended consequences. This paper demonstrates how the narrow focus on sexual violence as a 'weapon of war', and the broader emergency lens through which the plight of civilians, especially women, has been viewed, are overly simplistic, often neglecting the root causes of such violence. More specifically, it highlights how dominant discourses on sexual violence in South Sudan's conflict have disregarded the historically violent civil-military relations that have typified the SPLM/A's leadership, and the structural violence connected with the local political economy of bride wealth and the associated commodification of feminine identities and bodies. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Hilmert, Clayton J; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A
Research suggests that exposure to racism partially explains why African American women are 2 to 3 times more likely to deliver low birth weight and preterm infants. However, the physiological pathways by which racism exerts these effects are unclear. This study examined how lifetime exposure to racism, in combination with maternal blood pressure changes during pregnancy, was associated with fetal growth. African American pregnant women (n = 39) reported exposure to childhood and adulthood racism in several life domains (e.g., at school, at work), which were experienced directly or indirectly, meaning vicariously experienced when someone close to them was treated unfairly. A research nurse measured maternal blood pressure at 18 to 20 and 30 to 32 weeks gestation. Standardized questionnaires and trained interviewers assessed maternal demographics. Neonatal length of gestation and birth weight data were collected from medical charts. Childhood racism interacted with diastolic blood pressure to predict birth weight. Specifically, women with two or more domains of indirect exposure to racism in childhood and increases in diastolic blood pressure between 18 and 32 weeks had lower gestational age adjusted birth weight than the other women. A similar pattern was found for direct exposure to racism in childhood. Increases in diastolic blood pressure between the second and third trimesters predicted lower birth weight, but only when racism exposure in childhood (direct or indirect) was relatively high. Understanding pregnant African American women's lifetime direct and indirect experiences with racism in combination with prenatal blood pressure may improve identification of highest risk subgroups within this population. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Davis, Ashley; Livingstone, Allyson
Across-racial group of social work doctoral students engaged in an Anti-Racism Project. Through shared journaling and group discussions, participants explored and interrogated experiences of racism related to doctoral education. A thematic analysis of qualitative data surfaced several themes: experiences with racism as a doctoral student, noticing…
Nuria Sánches Madrid
Full Text Available This paper aims at shedding light on an obscure point in Kant's theory of the state. It discusses whether Kant's rational theory of the state recognises the fact that certain exceptional social situations, such as the extreme poverty of some parts of the population, could request institutional state support in order to guarantee the attainment of a minimum threshold of civil independence. It has three aims: 1 to show that Kant's Doctrine of Right can offer solutions for the complex relation between economics and politics in our present time; 2 to demonstrate the claim that Kant embraces a pragmatic standpoint when he tackles the social concerns of the state, and so to refute the idea that he argues for an abstract conception of politics; and 3 to suggest that a non-paternalistic theory of rights is not necessarily incompatible with the basic tenets of a welfare state.
Luis Anaya Merchant
Full Text Available This article reviews both the political circumstances that guided constitutional reforms regarding the reelection of legislators (1933 and the ones that led to the couter-refórm (1964 but were, however, lost in historical oblivion. It is very interesting to observe the process through which a civil right (reelection transforms into a political. principle (nonreelection and then into a taboo that impregnated social imagery well into the twentieth century. Although restablishing the right to reelection in itself contributes only fragmentarily to a better functioning of legislative power, it implies the possible emergence of both old and new institutional risks and costs, so in Mexico —during the twentieth century- this issue could not be discussed soberly and responsibly in all its complexities.
Race is a sensitive topic which can not be avoided in western countries. Many great writers have worked very hard to describe racism as they saw it and written a collection of stories that addresses the social realities faced by the blacks, such as Native Son, Invisible Man, Beloved and so on. This paper aims to investigate the devastating effects of racism on the development of individuals reflected in several novels. Racism can cause violence, crime, and lose of identity.
Full Text Available Russian police reform is another important step to modernize the country and public administration system. The main purpose of ongoing reforms is to create the modern and efficient law enforcement system, to form a new image of police officer in the XXI century and to change the social role of law enforcement agencies in society. Unfortunately, the results expected by society aren’t achieved. It’s stated that the reform is only at its beginning, many decisions are still to be made and implemented. The main focus is on comprehensive measures aimed at improving the police activities in ensuring the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen and interaction with civil society institutions. Some features and problems of interaction between police and civil society institutions are considered. Statistics is provided. A number of constructive conclusions concerning further progressive development of interaction of police with civil society institutions are made. Despite the significant number of papers devoted to these issues, it’s necessary to note the insufficient elaboration of problems in this area. The reason is the ongoing reforms in Russia in general and police reform in particular, the instability of the current legislation regulating these issues. A lack of a clear concept of the reform, arising from a clear understanding of the police role and functions, is evident. These and other circumstances determine the topicality and practical importance of the research, the necessity of studying the peculiarities of police activities to improve its efficiency. They also indicate the need for scientific and practical recommendations.
Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Stanley, James; Cormack, Donna
Children's exposure to racism via caregiver experience (vicarious racism) is associated with poorer health and development. However, the relationship with child healthcare utilisation is unknown. We aimed to investigate (1) the prevalence of vicarious racism by child ethnicity; (2) the association between caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation; and (3) the contribution of caregiver socioeconomic position and psychological distress to this association. Cross-sectional analysis of two instances of the New Zealand Health Survey (2006/2007: n=4535 child-primary caregiver dyads; 2011/2012: n=4420 dyads). Children's unmet need for healthcare, reporting no usual medical centre and caregiver-reported dissatisfaction with their child's medical centre. The prevalence of reporting 'any' experience of racism was higher among caregivers of indigenous Māori and Asian children (30.0% for both groups in 2006/2007) compared with European/Other children (14.4% in 2006/2007). Vicarious racism was independently associated with unmet need for child's healthcare (OR=2.30, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.20) and dissatisfaction with their child's medical centre (OR=2.00, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.16). Importantly, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of reported experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation (eg, unmet need: 1 report of racism, OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.67; 2+ reports of racism, OR=3.06, 95% CI 1.27 to 7.37). Adjustment for caregiver psychological distress attenuated the association between caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation. Vicarious racism is a serious health problem in New Zealand disproportionately affecting Māori and Asian children and significantly impacting children's healthcare utilisation. Tackling racism may be an important means of improving inequities in child healthcare utilisation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All
Ríos, Luis; Martínez, Berta; García-Rubio, Almudena; Herrasti, Lourdes; Etxeberria, Francisco
The presence of autopsy marks in human skeletal remains indicates a medicolegal procedure related to ascertaining the cause and manner of death. We present here four cases where signs of autopsy were observed in the remains recovered from mass graves and cemeteries of prisoners from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), victims of extrajudicial executions, and of death in prison, respectively. With respect to the former, historical evidence indicate that during the first weeks after the coup, official removal of cadavers and autopsy procedures were carried out to the first victims of extrajudicial killings, whose corpses were found abandoned in the road. Once the civil war was established and systematic extrajudicial killings were systematic, official military orders were issued to stop standard forensic proceedings. Therefore, autopsy marks observed in the remains exhumed from mass graves located in cemeteries may be indicative of an earlier chronology of the killings, and this information proved to be relevant for the identification process in one of the cases presented. In a cemetery of political prisoners, autopsy signs were also observed in two skeletal remains and in the official records of two prisoners, a corroboration of information also relevant for the identification process. These findings indicate that autopsy marks can be found in the remains of victims of human rights violations exhumed from cemeteries. Skeletal and archival information could be useful for the identification process in other cases of large-scale violence, where the first victims of extrajudicial executions were buried unidentified in cemeteries after autopsy procedures.
Full Text Available Civil disobedience is often seen as a political statement whilst conscientious objection is understood as a private matter. This article discusses real-life acts of disobedience in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The emphasis is on the argumentative strategies by which the potential for profound social change can be neutralised in legal argumentation. The cases discussed here concentrate on Turkey and represent acts of conscientious objection and civil disobedience. The main finding is that in legal argumentation there are two strategies for neutralising the potential for change: first, labelling the disobedient act as a private matter in order to deprive it of its political message, or second, labelling the act as violent, undemocratic behaviour so that it can be disregarded. The article shows that the law is unable, and perhaps unwilling, to fully acknowledge the political claims of disobedience. A menudo se percibe la desobediencia civil como una declaración política, mientras que la objeción de conciencia se entiende como un asunto privado. Este artículo analiza actos de desobediencia de la vida real a través de la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos. Se enfatizan las estrategias argumentativas por las que se puede neutralizar el potencial de cambio social profundo a través de la argumentación jurídica. Los casos analizados aquí se centran en Turquía y representan actos de objeción de conciencia y desobediencia civil. La conclusión principal es que en la argumentación jurídica existen dos estrategias para neutralizar el potencial de cambio: en primer lugar, etiquetar el acto de desobediencia como un asunto privado, para privarlo de su mensaje político, en segundo lugar, etiquetar el acto como un comportamiento violento y no democrático, para que pueda ser ignorado. El artículo demuestra que el derecho es incapaz de, y tal vez reticente a, reconocer totalmente las reivindicaciones pol
Israelsson, Magnus; Nordlöf, Kerstin; Gerdner, Arne
Laws on compulsory commitment to care (CCC) in mental health, social and criminal legislation for adult persons with alcohol and/or drug dependence or misuse problems are constructed to address different scenarios related to substance use disorders. This study examines how such CCC laws in European states vary in terms of legal rights, formal orders of decision and criteria for involuntary admission, and assesses whether three legal frameworks (criminal, mental and social law) equally well ensure human and civil rights. Thirty-nine laws, from 38 countries, were analysed. Respondents replied in web-based questionnaires concerning a) legal rights afforded the persons with substance use problems during commitment proceedings, b) sources of formal application, c) instances for decision on admission, and d) whether or not 36 different criteria could function as grounds for decisions on CCC according to the law in question. Analysis of a-c were conducted in bivariate cross-tabulations. The 36 criteria for admission were sorted in criteria groups based on principal component analysis (PCA). To investigate whether legal rights, decision-making authorities or legal criteria may discriminate between types of law on CCC, discriminant analyses (DA) were conducted. There are few differences between the three types of law on CCC concerning legal rights afforded the individual. However, proper safeguards of the rights against unlawful detention seem still to be lacking in some CCC laws, regardless type of law. Courts are the decision-making body in 80 % of the laws, but this varies clearly between law types. Criteria for CCC also differ between types of law, i.e. concerning who should be treated: dependent offenders, persons with substance use problems with acting out or aggressive behaviors, or other vulnerable persons with alcohol or drug problems. The study raises questions concerning whether various European CCC laws in relation to substance use disorder or misuse problems
The discussion about the law governing the energy sector is of topical interest at present because there have been a number of draft amendments at the national level for a reform of the laws during the past years as well as the approval of a draft for a European Directive for harmonising national regulations in pursuit of a single Market for electricity. The present paper first deals with the development of the basic energy laws up to the present. Then the author examines the constitutionality of the national bills and the compatibility of the draft for the European Directive with the European basic right of freedom to choose a profession, which he previously derives from general legal regulations. He comes to the conclusion that none of the bills presented so far fully comply with the requirements implicit in the basic rights. (orig./HP) [de
RAHAYU, MARGANING SULISTYO
Racism is the crucial issue in this world and has become a problem sincehundreds of years ago. The colonialist who came to America believes that blackpeople are inferior caste in society. This construction is used to legitimize theenslavement of blacks. This leads to the oppression of the whites toward theblacks. As human beings the blacks have no rights to live in freedom andprosperity. In society, they have a lower position than the whites. In contrast ofthe white still have a higher positi...
Alex J. Luchenitser
Full Text Available Over the last half-decade, there has been an explosion in the United States of lawsuits in which claims to religious liberty have been used to justify abridging the civil rights of women, LGBTQ people, and other minorities. This article surveys such litigation in several areas: health-insurance coverage, healthcare services, marriage-related services, employment, and housing. For each area, the article analyzes recent litigation, compares it to earlier activity (if any, and discusses the kinds of arguments that have been made, how courts have responded to them, and how such arguments are likely to fare in the future. The article concludes that the ultimate fate of many of these kinds of cases will likely be determined by who the next member is of a U.S. Supreme Court that is currently split four-four between social liberals and conservatives.
Poteat, V Paul; Spanierman, Lisa B
Among 342 white college students, we examined the effects of social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and racial color-blindness on modern racism attitudes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism attitudes through color-blind racial attitudes. We found strong indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism through racial color-blindness. We did not find support for an alternative model, in which we tested racial color-blindness as a moderator of the effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism. Findings suggest that highly dominant and authoritarian white students endorse color-blind racial attitudes, although likely for different reasons. In turn, this predicts their modern racism attitudes. These findings indicate racial color-blindness is important to address as part of anti-racism education.
Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine
This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…
Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Borrell, Carme; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen; Miralles, Juanjo; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos
We study the probability of perceived racism/other forms of discrimination on immigrant and Spanish populations within different public spheres and show their effect on the health of immigrants using a cross-sectional design (ENS-06). perceived racism/other forms of discrimination (exposure), socio-demographic (explicative), health indicators (dependent). Frequencies, prevalences, and bivariate/multivariate analysis were conducted separately for men (M) and women (W). We estimated the health problems attributable to racism through the population attributable proportion (PAP). Immigrants perceived more racism than Spaniards in workplace (ORM = 48.1; 95% CI 28.2-82.2), and receiving health care (ORW = 48.3; 95% CI 24.7-94.4). Racism and other forms of discrimination were associated with poor mental health (ORM = 5.6; 95% CI 3.9-8.2; ORW = 7.3; 95% CI 4.1-13.0) and injury (ORW = 30.6; 95% CI 13.6-68.7). It is attributed to perceived racism the 80.1% of consumption of psychotropics (M), and to racism with other forms of discrimination the 52.3% of cases of injury (W). Racism plays a role as a health determinant.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of effective anti-racism teaching in everyday contexts, where the traditional forms of racism are replaced by more sophisticated, subtle practices of exlusion, hatred and violence. Historical connotations of terms such as racism, xenophobia, homophobia, etc. specifically characterize certain groups of people and somehow further deepen divisions between the hegemonic majority and the oppressed minority; therefore, several indicators of inefficience in teaching anti-racism have appeared, particularly in applying theories into practices. Teaching anti-racism is presented through new attitudes towards performative pedagogy, for a long time understood in the context of the teacher as the actor who engage his/her students as spectators through variety of acting techniques and performative practies. Along with the theoretical and applied development of the field, more and more the performative pedagogy is recognized as a critical teaching approach, based on artistic expression, improvisation, continuous dialogue, and the body as an ideologically inscribed product.
Jackson, Jennifer; McGibbon, Elizabeth; Waldron, Ingrid
The social determinants of health (SDH) are recognized as a prominent influence on health outcomes across the lifespan. Racism is identified as a key SDH. In this article, the authors describe the concept of racism as an SDH, its impact in discriminatory actions and inactions, and the implications for cardiovascular nurses. Although research in Canada on the links among racism, stress, and cardiovascular disease is limited, there is growing evidence about the stress of racism and its long-term impact on cardiovascular health. The authors discuss how cardiovascular nursing could be enhanced through an understanding of racism-related stress, and race-based differences in cardiovascular care. The authors conclude with strategies for action to address this nursing concern.
Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Misra, Dawn P
Racism has been hypothesized as a barrier to accessing health care. No quantitative study has directly assessed its influence on women's initiation of prenatal care (PNC). We examined the relationship between PNC entry and experiences of personal and group racism among low-income, African-American (AA) women. We also examined whether the use of denial of racism as a coping mechanism was associated with a delay in accessing PNC. Using a prospective/retrospective cohort design we collected data from 872 AA women (prenatally, n = 484; postpartum, n = 388). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the overall denial of racism index and PNC initiation. PNC entry was not associated with personal experiences of racism (p = .33); it was significantly associated with group experiences (p racism experienced by other AAs was a barrier to early PNC among low-income, AA women. Delayed access to PNC may be rooted in the avoidance of racialized experiences among less empowered women when faced with discrimination. Our findings have important implication for the engagement of AA women into the PNC delivery system and the health care system postpartum. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
As the Child Reads: The Treatment of Minorities in Textbooks and Other Teaching Materials. Conference Report, National NEA-PR&R Conference on Civil and Human Rights in Education (Washington, D. C., February 8-10, 1967).
Hart, Elinor, Ed.
The conference on "The Treatment of Minorities in Textbooks and Other Teaching Materials" was held on February 8-10, 1967 in Washington, D.C. It was sponsored by the National Education Association and the Committee on Civil and Human Rights of Educators of the Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities. Attending the conference were…
由于我国缺乏专门的法律和良好的行业自律机制等原因，公民网络隐私权受到侵害的情况屡屡发生。鉴于公民个体在网络世界中的弱势地位，我国应借鉴其他国家的立法和行业管理经验，出台专门的法律，限制相关技术滥用，强化责任主体的保障义务，加强行业自律，加强政府在保护公民网络隐私权方面所应承担的责任。教育网民加强安全保密意识，提高网络道德修养也是保护公民网络隐私权的必然选择。%The civil privacy right is frequently invaded,due to lack of specific legal provisions and self-discipline system. Concerning the citizens’ unfavorable position in the internet world,China needs to make a special law to control the abuse of technology,to consolidate the precaution duty of the subject of liability,to strengthen the trade self-discipline,and to rein⁃force the governmental responsibility in the protection of civil privacy,by learning from the experiences of legislation and man⁃agement in other countries.It is an inevitable choice to educate the citizens to strengthen sense of confidentiality and enhance moral cultivation.
As the fourth contribution in the 'Land' section, this paper forms a research 'diptych' with the next paper by Levy. Whereas she focuses on the notarial institution in mid-nineteenth century Mexico, this contribution examines it in a contemporary context. The notary is one of the chief components of property rights protection in civil-law systems, performing various public functions such as writing deeds for real estate property. Yet notaries are considered an 'inefficient' institution by many, due to the perception of rent-seeking behavior enabled by their near-monopoly over validating property rights claims. This study examines notaries in Mexico to unpack the apparent contradiction in the role of notaries in economic development. I use a combination of interviews with notaries and clients, and data on notarial practice and bureaucratic outcomes across the country, to examine notaries' social function. The theoretical lens of endogenous development and institutional functionalism reveals an alternate explanation for their seemingly high-cost services, as well as their role in economic development. Mexican notaries have a dual social function: public representative and private service provider. They perform diverse and essential activities, which in other countries are performed by multiple actors such as real estate agents, escrow offices and title insurance companies. Thus, what is perceived as inefficiency by some can be interpreted as an efficient response to the context in which they operate, and their semi-privatized nature can overcome problems found in other bureaucratic arrangements.
As the fourth contribution in the ‘Land’ section, this paper forms a research ‘diptych’ with the next paper by Levy. Whereas she focuses on the notarial institution in mid-nineteenth century Mexico, this contribution examines it in a contemporary context. The notary is one of the chief components of property rights protection in civil-law systems, performing various public functions such as writing deeds for real estate property. Yet notaries are considered an ‘inefficient’ institution by many, due to the perception of rent-seeking behavior enabled by their near-monopoly over validating property rights claims. This study examines notaries in Mexico to unpack the apparent contradiction in the role of notaries in economic development. I use a combination of interviews with notaries and clients, and data on notarial practice and bureaucratic outcomes across the country, to examine notaries’ social function. The theoretical lens of endogenous development and institutional functionalism reveals an alternate explanation for their seemingly high-cost services, as well as their role in economic development. Mexican notaries have a dual social function: public representative and private service provider. They perform diverse and essential activities, which in other countries are performed by multiple actors such as real estate agents, escrow offices and title insurance companies. Thus, what is perceived as inefficiency by some can be interpreted as an efficient response to the context in which they operate, and their semi-privatized nature can overcome problems found in other bureaucratic arrangements. PMID:28615798
Bécares, Laia; Stafford, Mai; Nazroo, James
Racism has been argued to be a focal element of larger societal inequalities which generate ethnic health disparities. Despite suggestions that socio-demographic characteristics of the victim may influence the impact of racism on health, little is known in the United Kingdom about how self-reported experiences of racism vary by socio-demographic characteristics, whether racism contributes to ethnic differences in health and whether there is a differential association between racism and health for certain socio-demographic groups. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted using data from the 2005 Citizenship Survey to identify the demographic characteristics associated with reporting experienced racism; explore the association between health, racism and its contribution to ethnic inequalities in health; and explore the moderating role that gender, age, ethnicity and socio-economic position (SEP) have in the relationship between racism and health. Females were significantly more likely to report fear of racial and religious attacks, but reported lower odds of experiencing employment and expected organizational discrimination. A trend was observed for decreasing employment discrimination as SEP decreased. A reverse association was found for SEP and expected organizational discrimination, where people in the lowest employment categories reported lower odds of experiencing discrimination. This study highlights variations in the types of racial discrimination most commonly reported across different socio-demographic characteristics. Despite substantial differences in the experience of racial discrimination, the detrimental impact of racism on health was the same across socio-demographic groups.
The refusal of union leadership to accept the perspective of interracial unionism has meant the failure to organize the South. If unions are to implement the principle of democracy in the workplace, they must undergo a major transformation, becoming the voice of the unemployed, the working poor, and of women and racial minorities. (Author)
Full Text Available An adaption of McConahay, Harder and Batts’ (1981 moderm racism scale is presented for Chilean population andits psychometric properties, (reliability and validity are studied, along with its relationship with other relevantpsychosocial variables in studies on prejudice and ethnic discrimination (authoritarianism, religiousness, politicalposition, etc., as well as with other forms of prejudice (gender stereotypes and homophobia. The sample consistedof 120 participants, students of psychology, resident in the city of Antofagasta (a geographical zone with a highnumber of Latin-American inmigrants. Our findings show that the scale seems to be a reliable instrument to measurethe prejudice towards Bolivian immigrants in our social environment. Likewise, important differences among thesubjects are detected with high and low scores in the psychosocial variables used.
Luiz Fernando Belinetti
Full Text Available It presents problem resulting from the absence of assets belonging to the executed party in the civil execution. It particularly investigates the crisis generated by the absence of assets, as well as the procedure carried out in order to locate assets that can be seized. It also examines the issue pertaining to banking and fiscal privacy, including an exhibition of the theorical bases of the institutes, juridical disciplines and the doctrinal and jurisprudential position on the theme. It highlights the fact that both banking privacy and fiscal privacy are based on the right to privacy, and thus posses constitutional consent. It reinforces the relativity of the right to privacy which enables the executor to have acess to the information pertaining to banking and fiscal data belonging to the executed party, once all attempts at locating assets have been implemented without success. The dissertation affirms that a contrary judicial decision does not fulfill the principle of effectiveness of procedure. It concludes that the right to credit of the executor is also in the interests of justice, and thus the right to privacy must give way when confronted by the interests, as a result of the application of the principle of proporcionality.Trata da problemática resultante da ausência de bens do executado no processo de execução. Investiga, particularmente, a crise instalada com a ausência de bens do executado e as diligências realizadas na tentativa de localizar bens penhoráveis. Examina a questão do direito aos sigilos bancário e fiscal, com exposição das bases teóricas dos institutos, disciplina jurídica e o posicionamento doutrinário e jurisprudencial sobre o tema. Destaca que tanto o sigilo bancário quanto o sigilo fiscal são fundamentados no direito à privacidade, possuindo, ainda que por via oblíqua, assento constitucional. Sustenta a relatividade do direito ao sigilo, o que possibilita ao exeqüente, mediante seu pedido, o acesso
Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality, and Discrimination--A National Perspective. Executive Summary and Transcript of Hearing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights (Washington, D.C., May 21-22, 1992).
Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.
In February 1991 the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights began a long- term study of the factors contributing to increased racial and ethnic tensions in the United States. This document is a summary of key points made at a National Perspectives Hearing that was part of this study. Following 2 days of testimony and the discussions of eight panels, five…
Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P.
For Latina/o undergraduates, ethnic identity is an important construct linked to self-esteem and educational attainment. Internalized and perceived racism have been hypothesized to hinder ethnic identity development in Latina/o undergraduates. To assess if internalized and perceived racism were inversely related to ethnic identity, the author…
Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.; McGuire, Keon M.
In this article, the authors examine the role of vicarious racism in the experiences of doctoral students of color. The researchers conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 26 doctoral students who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during their doctoral studies. The analysis generated four themes that detail the…
Young, Evelyn Y.
This study used CRT to engage educators in critical discourse regarding the persistence of racism in urban schooling. A combined method of action research and critical case study was employed to raise a group of educators' race consciousness through antiracist training. Findings revealed conflicting views of racism as an individual pathology vs. a…
Full Text Available This article is concerned with attempts to pose videogames as solutions to systemic racism. The mobile app, Everyday Racism, is one such game. Its method is to directly address players as subjects of racism interpellating them as victims of racist language and behaviour within Australian society, implicating the impact of racism on mental health and wellbeing. While the game has politically laudable goals, its effectiveness is undermined by several issues themselves attributable to the dynamics of race and games. This paper will spell out those issues by addressing three separate facets of the game: the problematic relationship between the player and their elected avatar; the pedagogic compromises that are made in modelling racism as a game; finally, the superliminal narrative that attempts to transcend the limited diegetic world of the game.
Lewis, Jioni A; Williams, Marlene G; Peppers, Erica J; Gadson, Cecile A
The purpose of this study was to apply an intersectionality framework to explore the influence of gendered racism (i.e., intersection of racism and sexism) on health outcomes. Specifically, we applied intersectionality to extend a biopsychosocial model of racism to highlight the psychosocial variables that mediate and moderate the influence of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle gendered racism) on health outcomes. In addition, we tested aspects of this conceptual model by exploring the influence of gendered racial microaggressions on the mental and physical health of Black women. In addition, we explored the mediating role of coping strategies and the moderating role of gendered racial identity centrality. Participants were 231 Black women who completed an online survey. Results from regression analyses indicated that gendered racial microaggressions significantly predicted both self-reported mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, results from mediation analyses indicated that disengagement coping significantly mediated the link between gendered racial microaggressions and negative mental and physical health. In addition, a moderated mediation effect was found, such that individuals who reported a greater frequency of gendered racial microaggressions and reported lower levels of gendered racial identity centrality tended to use greater disengagement coping, which in turn, was negatively associated with mental and physical health outcomes. Findings of this study suggest that gendered racial identity centrality can serve a buffering role against the negative mental and physical health effects of gendered racism for Black women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kelaher, Margaret; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Warr, Deborah
There is a vast body of research demonstrating the deleterious effects of racism on health. Despite this, there is limited research that considers the health benefits of anti-racism interventions. We assess the mental health effects for young people participating in an anti-racism intervention that was based on the principles of intergroup contact theory and delivered through five projects addressing specific issues and contexts. An evaluation of the intervention used a before-and-after design. The analyses reported here focus on data collected from participants who completed both pre- and post-intervention surveys (n = 246). Analyses examine the characteristics of participants, the environment for intergroup contact (equal status between ethnic groups, shared goals, co-operation and institutional support for intergroup relationships) and basic psychological needs (competence, relatedness and autonomy) as defined by Self-Determination Theory. The results suggest that the projects met the criteria for promoting positive intergroup contact. There was also evidence that participants' involvement in these projects had positive effects on their autonomy, with particular improvements among people with ethnicities other than 'Australian'. The findings suggest that anti-racism interventions can have positive mental health effects for participants. These benefits redress some of the individual-level effects of racism experiences by supporting young people to develop confidence and self-esteem. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wallace, Maeve; Crear-Perry, Joia; Richardson, Lisa; Tarver, Meshawn; Theall, Katherine
We examined associations between state-level measures of structural racism and infant mortality among black and white populations across the US. Overall and race-specific infant mortality rates in each state were calculated from national linked birth and infant death records from 2010 to 2013. Structural racism in each state was characterized by racial inequity (ratio of black to white population estimates) in educational attainment, median household income, employment, imprisonment, and juvenile custody. Poisson regression with robust standard errors estimated infant mortality rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with an IQR increase in indicators of structural racism overall and separately within black and white populations. Across all states, increasing racial inequity in unemployment was associated with a 5% increase in black infant mortality (RR=1.05, 95% CI=1.01, 1.10). Decreasing racial inequity in education was associated with an almost 10% reduction in the black infant mortality rate (RR=0.92, 95% CI=0.85, 0.99). None of the structural racism measures were significantly associated with infant mortality among whites. Structural racism may contribute to the persisting racial inequity in infant mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neblett, Enrique W; Sosoo, Effua E; Willis, Henry A; Bernard, Donte L; Bae, Jiwoon; Billingsley, Janelle T
Racism constitutes a significant risk to the healthy development of African American youth. Fortunately, however, not all youth who experience racism evidence negative developmental outcomes. In this chapter, we examine person-centered analysis (PCA)-a quantitative technique that investigates how variables combine across individuals-as a useful tool for elucidating racial and ethnic protective processes that mitigate the negative impact of racism. We review recent studies employing PCA in examinations of racial identity, racial socialization, and other race-related experiences, as well as how these constructs correlate with and impact African American youth development. We also consider challenges and limitations of PCA and conclude with a discussion of future research and how PCA might be used to promote equity and justice for African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth who experience racism. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wong, Leonard; Lovelace, Douglas C., Jr
.... The conference examined national security issues related to civil liberties, immigration policy, privacy issues, first amendment rights, and the balance of executive and judicial power in relation...
This paper highlights recent developments in research on racism in the United States, and notes several conceptual issues of significance for the long-range planning work of those interested in reducing racism in America and particularly in Idaho. Growth in the number of minority researchers has resulted in increased attention toward racism as it…
Katz, Judy H.; Ivey, Allen
This article's purpose is to make white professional helpers aware of how racism undermines the helping field and to demonstrate how racism affects white people. A systematic training program for white people that develops an awareness of the masking effect of racism and develops interventions for changes is presented. (Author)
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.
Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of…
Gulliver, Trevor; Thurrell, Kristy
This critical discourse analysis examines denials of racism in descriptions of Canada and Canadians from English language textbooks. Denials of racism often accompany racist and nationalist discourse, preempting observations of racism. The study finds that in representations of Canada or Canadians, English language texts minimize and downplay…
Stevens, Peter A. J.; Charalambous, Panayiota; Mesaritou, Evgenia; Spyrou, Spyros; Van Praag, Lore; D'hondt, Fanny; Vervaet, Roselien; Van Houtte, Mieke
While research has focused on the role of racism in (re)producing ethnic/racial inequalities in education, there is very little research that investigates how variability in minority students' responses to racism can be explained. By using an ecological approach to integrate existing research on actors' responses to racism, this study finds that…
Salem, Sara; Thompson, Vanessa
Discourses on racism in Europe have largely been dominated by a US-centric lens that serves to universalize the North American experience of racism. This decenters the different historical and geographical experiences European contexts have had with continuing racist legacies as well as the multiple ways in which anti-racism can challenge such legacies. It also allows European societies to continue to construct a self-image that displaces racism onto other geographical contexts or isolates it...
Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of today’s role of racism and racist discrimination, and attempts to discuss the relationship between ideology and act (deed in cases of individual and collective violent deeds. The main question is whether racism represents above all an ideology, and if so, what kind of ideology this is and to which end it serves. Is racism in the first place an ideology of hatred that changes ideas and words into deeds, into violence, i.e. is racism above all an ideological blueprint for violence that emerges from hatred? On the basis of the thesis on neoracisms as cultural racisms, the article first drafts the contemporary understanding of racism as racism without the race. The second part is dedicated to the analysis of racist ideological features that emerged in the preparation of collective violence in cases of former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and to the question how those experiences could help understand today’s role of racism(s. The main observation is that violence did not emerge from the ideological/racist constructions of (elusive enemies, but that racist constructions represented complex constructs of inequality that served as buffers against (political responsibility. In the contemporary global world, such constructs above all justify racist institutions and deeds. In the conclusion, the EU anti-racist policy, which focuses on racist ideology like hate speech and hate crime and leaves the inconvenient questions of systematic structural racism of EU laws and institutions aside, is questioned.
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia
The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Kwate, Naa Oyo A
The negative health effects of racism have been well documented, but how to intervene to redress these effects has been little studied. This study reports on RISE (Racism Still Exists), a high-risk, high-reward public health intervention that used outdoor advertising to disseminate a "countermarketing" campaign in New York City (NYC). Over 6 months, the campaign advertised stark facts about the persistence of racism in the USA. A probability sample of N = 144 participants from two predominantly Black NYC neighborhoods completed measures of health status, health behaviors, and social attitudes. Three months postintervention, statistically significant declines in psychological distress were seen among study participants who were exposed to the campaign compared to those who were not. There were no changes in other hypothesized outcomes. The campaign also generated significant public discourse, particularly in social media. The results suggest that racism countermarketing campaigns may have promise as a community-based intervention to address health inequalities.
Ivey, Laurie C
Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."
Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kerr, Jelani; Brooms, Derrick; Rollins, Aaron
Recently, public health has acknowledged racism as a social determinant of health. Much evidence exists on the impact of individual-level racism and discrimination, with little to no examination of racism from the standpoint of systems and structures. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze the extent to which public health currently addresses systemic racism in the published literature. Utilizing the PRISMA guidelines, this review examines three widely used databases to examine published literature covering the topic as well as implications for future research and practice. A total of 85 articles were included in the review analysis after meeting study criteria. Across numerous articles, the terms racism and systemic racism are largely absent. A critical need exists for an examination of the historical impact of systemic racism on the social determinants of health and health of marginalized populations.
Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.
The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is
Kevin M Dunn
Full Text Available Cities are indeed places of everyday racism, experienced as ethnocentrism, prejudice and ethnic-based hatred. Drawing on an Australia-wide telephone survey of respondents' experiences of 'everyday' racism in various contexts, conducted in 2006, we examine forms of racist experience, as well as the contexts and responses to those experiences for Sydney, Melbourne and Perth, Australia’s main immigrant-receiving cities. Results show that between 1 in 10, and 1 in 3 respondents, depending on their background and situation, experience some form of 'everyday' racism. However, this particular aspect of urban incivility is shadowed by everyday good relations. There is what might be called a ‘geography of cultural repair’ and cultural maintenance within the cosmopolitan city. There is strong support for anti-racism policy. Where action is taken in response racism it is determined by everyday confrontations and attempts at direct reconciliation. Formal complaints and reports are much rarer forms of anti-racism. In this paper we advocate a pragmatic on-going, agonistic politics of cultural exchange and tolerance.
The article focuses on the question of today’s role of racism and racist discrimination, and attempts to discuss the relationship between ideology and act (deed) in cases of individual and collective violent deeds. The main question is whether racism represents above all an ideology, and if so, what kind of ideology this is and to which end it serves. Is racism in the first place an ideology of hatred that changes ideas and words into deeds, into violence, i.e. is racism above all an ideologi...
Clinical competence-including asking about and understanding the impact of a patient's culture-should be what we all expect when we seek treatment. Behavioral health organizations have opportunities to create culturally competent and responsive services. But we need to add another call to action-acknowledging and addressing the disparities caused by racism.
Chung, Jennifer Y.
This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…
Williams, Gary L.
The legacy of slavery and racism in America and the history of what John C. Calhoun and other Southern leaders of the 1800s called "our peculiar institution" has not gone unnoticed. Neither has the psychological damage that remains as baggage carried by the descendents of both the slave and the slave owner (Berry & Blassingame, 1982;…
scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...
Petersen, Lars Axel
In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...
Bastos, João L; Harnois, Catherine E; Paradies, Yin C
While racism has been shown to negatively affect health care quality, little is known about the extent to which racial discrimination works with and through gender, class, and sexuality to predict barriers to health care (e.g., perceived difficulty accessing health services). Additionally, most existing studies focus on racial disparities in the U.S. context, with few examining marginalized groups in other countries. To address these knowledge gaps, we analyze data from the 2014 Australian General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey of individuals aged 15 and older living in 12,932 private dwellings. Following an intersectional perspective, we estimate a series of multivariable logit regression models to assess three hypotheses: racial discrimination will be positively associated with perceived barriers to health care (H1); the effect of perceived racial discrimination will be particularly severe for women, sexual minorities, and low socio-economic status individuals (H2); and, in addition to racial discrimination, other forms of perceived discrimination will negatively impact perceived barriers to health care (H3). Findings show that perceptions of racial discrimination are significantly associated with perceived barriers to health care, though this relationship is not significantly stronger for low status groups. In addition, our analyses reveal that perceived racism and other forms of discrimination combine to predict perceived barriers to health care. Taken together, these results speak to the benefits of an intersectional approach for examining racial inequalities in perceived access to health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Feagin, Joe; Bennefield, Zinobia
This article draws upon a major social science theoretical approach-systemic racism theory-to assess decades of empirical research on racial dimensions of U.S. health care and public health institutions. From the 1600s, the oppression of Americans of color has been systemic and rationalized using a white racial framing-with its constituent racist stereotypes, ideologies, images, narratives, and emotions. We review historical literature on racially exploitative medical and public health practices that helped generate and sustain this racial framing and related structural discrimination targeting Americans of color. We examine contemporary research on racial differentials in medical practices, white clinicians' racial framing, and views of patients and physicians of color to demonstrate the continuing reality of systemic racism throughout health care and public health institutions. We conclude from research that institutionalized white socioeconomic resources, discrimination, and racialized framing from centuries of slavery, segregation, and contemporary white oppression severely limit and restrict access of many Americans of color to adequate socioeconomic resources-and to adequate health care and health outcomes. Dealing justly with continuing racial "disparities" in health and health care requires a conceptual paradigm that realistically assesses U.S. society's white-racist roots and contemporary racist realities. We conclude briefly with examples of successful public policies that have brought structural changes in racial and class differentials in health care and public health in the U.S. and other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Drazdowski, Tess K; Perrin, Paul B; Trujillo, Michael; Sutter, Megan; Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J
Experiences with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) discrimination and racism have both been associated with mental health problems and illicit drug use. However, the cumulative effects of both forms of discrimination--and resulting internalized oppression--on illicit drug use in LGBTQ people of color (POC) has not been examined in the research literature. Using online questionnaires, this study collected self-report data from 200 LGBTQ POC about their experiences with racism, LGBTQ discrimination, internalized racism, internalized LGBTQ discrimination, and illicit drug use. Two structural equation models yielded adequate fit indices in which experiences with racism and LGBTQ discrimination led to more internalized oppression, which then led to greater illicit drug use magnitude. LGBTQ discrimination was directly related to increased internalized oppression, which was positively associated with illicit drug use magnitude; the relationship between LGBTQ discrimination and illicit drug use magnitude was mediated by internalized oppression in both models. However, racism and the interaction between racism and LGBTQ discrimination did not show valid direct effects on internalized oppression or indirect effects on illicit drug use magnitude. LGBTQ POC can be the targets of both racism and LGBTQ discrimination, although the current study found that the most psychologically damaging effects may come from LGBTQ discrimination. Interventions meant to decrease or prevent illicit drug use in LGBTQ POC may benefit from helping participants examine the links among LGBTQ discrimination, internalized oppression, and illicit drug use as a coping strategy, focusing on substituting more adaptive coping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel
Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...
Azevedo, Celia Maria Marinho de
O objetivo deste artigo é examinar a proposta corrente de racialização da população brasileira pelo Estado, com vistas a amparar programas de ação afirmativa para o atendimento específico daqueles que se autodenominarem negros. Analisa-se, inicialmente, o ressurgimento da noção de raça entre acadêmicos, políticos e militantes do anti-racismo, bem como as dificuldades de se delimitar quem é negro no Brasil. Em seguida, examina-se o modelo de cota racial dos Estados Unidos e seu apregoado suces...
Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J
The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Greer, Tawanda M; Brondolo, Elizabeth; Brown, Porschia
The purpose of the current study was to examine perceived exposure to systemic racism as a moderator of the effects of perceived exposure to provider racial biases on treatment adherence and mistrust of health care for a sample of African American hypertensive patients. We hypothesized that patients who endorsed high levels of systemic racism would exhibit poor adherence to hypertension treatment and increased mistrust in health care in relation to perceptions of exposure to provider racial biases. The sample consisted of 100 African American patients who ranged in age from 24 to 82 years. All were diagnosed with hypertension and were recruited from an outpatient clinic located in the Southeastern region of the United States. Moderated regression analyses were performed to test the study hypotheses. Findings revealed a positive, significant main effect for perceived provider racial biases in predicting mistrust of care. This finding suggested that an increase in mistrust of health care was associated with increased perceptions of provider biases. In predicting treatment adherence, a significant interaction revealed that patients who endorsed low and moderate degrees of exposure to systemic racism displayed poor adherence to treatment in relation to greater perceptions of provider racial biases. The overall findings suggest that patients who perceive themselves as infrequently exposed to systemic racism possess the greatest risk for nonadherence to hypertension treatment in relation to increased perceptions of provider racial biases. Implications of the findings are discussed. 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Bailey, Zinzi D; Krieger, Nancy; Agénor, Madina; Graves, Jasmine; Linos, Natalia; Bassett, Mary T
Despite growing interest in understanding how social factors drive poor health outcomes, many academics, policy makers, scientists, elected officials, journalists, and others responsible for defining and responding to the public discourse remain reluctant to identify racism as a root cause of racial health inequities. In this conceptual report, the third in a Series on equity and equality in health in the USA, we use a contemporary and historical perspective to discuss research and interventions that grapple with the implications of what is known as structural racism on population health and health inequities. Structural racism refers to the totality of ways in which societies foster racial discrimination through mutually reinforcing systems of housing, education, employment, earnings, benefits, credit, media, health care, and criminal justice. These patterns and practices in turn reinforce discriminatory beliefs, values, and distribution of resources. We argue that a focus on structural racism offers a concrete, feasible, and promising approach towards advancing health equity and improving population health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The recourse right concerning nuclear power plants is analysed. It is emphasized that in the Brazilian civil liability legislation, the operator has this right against who admitted it through a written contract or against the individual who has acted or omitted to act whith the intent to provoke nuclear incidents. (A.L.S.L.) [pt
Kruger, Daniel J; Carty, Denise C; Turbeville, Ashley R; French-Turner, Tonya M; Brownlee, Shannon
Genesee County Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Program (REACH) is a Community-Based Public Health partnership for reducing African American infant mortality rates that hosts the Undoing Racism Workshop (URW). Assess the URW's effectiveness in promoting an understanding of racism, institutional racism, and how issues related to race/ethnicity can affect maternal and infant health. Recent URW participants (n=84) completed brief preassessment and postassessment forms; participants (n=101) also completed an on-line, long-term assessment (LTA). URWs promoted understanding of racism and institutional racism, although they were less effective in addressing racism as related to maternal and infant health. The URWs were most effective in the domains related to their standard content. Additional effort is necessary to customize URWs when utilized for activities beyond their original purpose of community mobilization.
Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.
There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United ...
Holly Raima Hippolite
Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that the intersection of two key ideologies – New Zealand’s purported history of good race relations, and the positive contribution sport is believed to make to racial equality – has created an environment in which it is difficult to talk about, let alone discuss constructively, Māori experiences of racism in the sport context. Our aim is to put the issue on the agenda by engaging with 10 experienced Māori sport participants, coaches and administrators whose experiences demonstrate the existence of, and pain caused by, cultural and institutional racism in New Zealand sport. In this aim, we do not seek to hide behind a veil of neutrality or objectivity. Rather, following a kaupapa Māori research approach, our interest is in bringing to light the voices, frustrations and concerns of Māori in order to contribute to a much-needed conversation.
It has been difficult for many blacks to say, 'Not in My Backyard.' Many of them don't even have a backyard, according to the author in describing what he calls 'environmental racism.' He defines environmental racism as the 'systematic targeting of black communities for the siting of sewer treatment plants, landfills, incinerators, hazardous-waste disposal sites, lead smelters, and other risky technologies.' Historically, poor and minority communities have received a disproportionate share of such facilities. Few are located in the suburbs, where most middle-class whites live. Today, Latino neighborhoods and Indian reservations also are feeling the impact of discriminatory siting decisions. The author feels state governments have done a miserable job of protecting minority communities from the ravages of industrial pollution. After placidly accepting their fate for years, many of the communities are fighting back, challenging siting decisions on equity grounds in state and federal courts and organizing a national movement against environmental injustice
Full Text Available This paper states that a main obstacle for the development of effective antiracist initiatives in the school lies on a minimalistic and narrow conceptualization of racism. In exploring this phenomenon on a multidimensional basis, it offers an overview of how racialized identifications at school are to be related with the widest context of the political culture coming after September 11th, with the institutional production of inequality and with the discursive construction of the other developed by school agents.
Garrett, Joyce Lynn
If the recent elections of a Black man to the presidency and a Hispanic woman to the Supreme Court of the United States, or news that Ku Klux Klan membership is down from its estimated high of 6 million in 1924 to about 8,000 in 2008 makes one think racism is gone from America, think again! Idaho residents still express concern about the image of…
Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns
Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns.
Full Text Available The article addresses the question of what kind of discursive strategies enable political parties the proliferation of racist and xenophobic ideas, in terms of a democratic society and within established politics. Theoretically, it is based on studies of racism, populism and the radical right. In the empirical part, elements of racism and (radical-right populism in the discourse of the Slovenian Democratic Party (SDS are analysed, with particular focus on the othering discourse. The discourse analysis includes interviews of party representatives and texts published on party’s websites. The SDS discourse analysis shows that the party articulates social problems through the use of nationalist, nativist and essentialist arguments, and proliferates and normalizes xenophobic and racist ideas by reproducing minorities and political opponents as threats to the Slovenian culture, values and lifestyle, as well as threats to the party itself.
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B
African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitrow, Melissa J; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Harding, Seeromanie
Recent studies suggest that stress can amplify the harm of air pollution. We examined whether experience of racism and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) had a synergistic influence on ethnic differences in asthma and lung function across adolescence. Analyses using multilevel models showed lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and lower rates of asthma among some ethnic minorities compared to Whites, but higher exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and racism. Racism appeared to amplify the relationship between asthma and air pollution for all ethnic groups, but did not explain ethnic differences in respiratory health. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.
There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural
This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…
A comparison of current civil liberties issues in Australia with the status of similar issues in Britain and the United States. Included are political affiliation of government employees, censorship, rights of the individual, privacy, and freedom of information. (JAB)
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 303.424 Section 303.424 Education... Civil action. Any party aggrieved by the findings and decision regarding an administrative complaint has the right to bring a civil action in State or Federal court under section 639(a)(1) of the Act...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 300.516 Section 300.516 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.516 Civil action. (a... aggrieved by the findings and decision under § 300.514(b), has the right to bring a civil action with...
Eliminating mental disability as a legal criterion in deprivation of liberty cases: The impact of the Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities on the insanity defense, civil commitment, and competency law.
A number of laws that are associated with deprivations of liberty, including the insanity defense, civil commitment, guardianship of the person and numerous competency doctrines in the criminal context, require proof of mental disability as a predicate. The Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities commands signatory states to eliminate that predicate. Summarizing principles set out in my book Minding Justice: Laws That Deprive People With Mental Disability of Life and Liberty, I explain how this seemingly radical stance can be implemented. Specifically, this article proposes adoption of an "integrationist defense" in the criminal context, an "undeterrability requirement" when the state seeks preventive detention outside of the criminal process, and a "basic rationality and self-regard test" for incompetency determinations. None of these proposals requires proof of a mental disorder as a predicate condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loya, Melody Aye; Cuevas, Mo
Teaching about racism creates challenging issues for educators and students alike. Using experiential learning and a public-access curriculum to teach about racism and social inequality, graduate and undergraduate students participated in this elective course. The hybrid "minimester" course focused on affective responses to classroom activities,…
Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming
Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…
Cabrera, Nolan L.
This qualitative study relies on Freire's conception of liberatory praxis to examine White male college students' becoming aware of racism and translating awareness into action. The participants developed racial cognizance via cross-racial contact and course content. They also tended to be open to interrogating racism and racial privilege due to…
Haywood, Jasmine M.
This article describes the Latino population that voted for the current president and overview reasons as to why they voted for the current president. I purposefully center the anti-Black racism within the Latino community and focus specifically on recent political and nationwide events that are connected to anti-Black Latino racism. Additionally,…
Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A
This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Rafighi, Elham; Poduval, Shoba; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Howard, Natasha
Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged 'health tourism,' could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 in-depth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. The experiences of those 'vulnerable migrants' (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access) able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over 'health tourism,' and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP) responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers). Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences
Full Text Available Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 indepth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. Results: The experiences of those ‘vulnerable migrants’ (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over ‘health tourism,’ and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Conclusion: Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers. Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health.
Kohli, Rita; Pizarro, Marcos; Nevárez, Arturo
While organizing efforts by movements such as Black Lives Matter and responses to the hate-filled policies and rhetoric of President Donald Trump are heightening public discourse of racism, much less attention is paid to mechanisms of racial oppression in the field of education. Instead, conceptualizations that allude to racial difference but are…
Griffith, Derek M.; Childs, Erica L.; Eng, Eugenia; Jeffries, Vanessa
Racism is part of the foundation of U.S. society and institutions, yet few studies in community psychology or organizational studies have examined how racism affects organizations. This paper proposes a conceptual framework of institutional racism, which describes how, in spite of professional standards and ethics, racism functions within…
In a climate of Islamophobic racism, where media racism saturates our TV screens and newspapers, where racism on the streets, on campus, in our community become everyday realities, I ask, what can we--teachers, lecturers and educationalists--do in the work of anti-racism in education? This article examines classroom debates on Islamophobia by…
State-Sponsored Homophobia and the Denial of the Right of Assembly in Central and Eastern Europe : The "Boomerang" and the "Ricochet" between European Organizations and Civil Society to Uphold Human Rights
State-sponsored homophobia emerged in certain Central and Eastern European states in the past decade, with the denial of the right of assembly for gay pride marches. However, more recently there has been progress in the recognition of the fundamental democratic right of assembly. What accounts for
Kozhimannil, Katy B; Henning-Smith, Carrie
This commentary responds to the recent article by Dr. James et al. on racial and ethnic health disparities in rural America, published in the November 16 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. We applaud Dr. James and colleagues for their important contribution uncovering intra-rural racial and ethnic disparities and build on their paper by discussing potential mechanisms, including structural racism. We also discuss several pragmatic steps that can be taken in research, policy, and practice to address racial and ethnic disparities in rural communities and to work toward health equity for all rural residents.
In the United States, women's movement always goes side by side with the Black people's movement. Many feminists once participated in the Black people's movement such as the Abolitionist Movement in the nineteenth century and the Civil Rights Movement in the twentieth century.
Bullard, R.D. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))
It has been difficult for many blacks to say, Not in My Backyard.' Many of them don't even have a backyard, according to the author in describing what he calls environmental racism.' He defines environmental racism as the systematic targeting of black communities for the siting of sewer treatment plants, landfills, incinerators, hazardous-waste disposal sites, lead smelters, and other risky technologies.' Historically, poor and minority communities have received a disproportionate share of such facilities. Few are located in the suburbs, where most middle-class whites live. Today, Latino neighborhoods and Indian reservations also are feeling the impact of discriminatory siting decisions. The author feels state governments have done a miserable job of protecting minority communities from the ravages of industrial pollution. After placidly accepting their fate for years, many of the communities are fighting back, challenging siting decisions on equity grounds in state and federal courts and organizing a national movement against environmental injustice.
Nelson, Jessica C; Adams, Glenn; Salter, Phia S
This study used a signal detection paradigm to explore the Marley hypothesis--that group differences in perception of racism reflect dominant-group denial of and ignorance about the extent of past racism. White American students from a midwestern university and Black American students from two historically Black universities completed surveys about their historical knowledge and perception of racism. Relative to Black participants, White participants perceived less racism in both isolated incidents and systemic manifestations of racism. They also performed worse on a measure of historical knowledge (i.e., they did not discriminate historical fact from fiction), and this group difference in historical knowledge mediated the differences in perception of racism. Racial identity relevance moderated group differences in perception of systemic manifestations of racism (but not isolated incidents), such that group differences were stronger among participants who scored higher on a measure of racial identity relevance. The results help illuminate the importance of epistemologies of ignorance: cultural-psychological tools that afford denial of and inaction about injustice.
The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type
Full Text Available In the 1950s in the American South religion was used by the White population to justify segregation. Though survey research the authors find that religious Whites perceive less institutional racism than their non-religious counterparts. Among Black respondents, the religious perceive more institutional racism than their non-religious counterparts. It seems that the legacy of traditional linkages between White churches and support for segregation in the South may still be found because religious White people are significantly less likely to acknowledge the persistence of institutional racism than White people who describe themselves as non-religious.
Choi, Andrew Young; Israel, Tania; Maeda, Hotaka
This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Internalized Racism in Asian Americans Scale (IRAAS), which was designed to measure the degree to which Asian Americans internalized hostile attitudes and negative messages targeted toward their racial identity. Items were developed on basis of prior literature, vetted through expert feedback and cognitive interviews, and administered to 655 Asian American participants through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Exploratory factor analysis with a random subsample (n = 324) yielded a psychometrically robust preliminary measurement model consisting of 3 factors: Self-Negativity, Weakness Stereotypes, and Appearance Bias. Confirmatory factor analysis with a separate subsample (n = 331) indicated that the proposed correlated factors model was strongly consistent with the observed data. Factor determinacies were high and demonstrated that the specified items adequately measured their intended factors. Bifactor modeling further indicated that this multidimensionality could be univocally represented for the purpose of measurement, including the use of a mean total score representing a single continuum of internalized racism on which individuals vary. The IRAAS statistically predicted depressive symptoms, and demonstrated statistically significant correlations in theoretically expected directions with four dimensions of collective self-esteem. These results provide initial validity evidence supporting the use of the IRAAS to measure aspects of internalized racism in this population. Limitations and research implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hicken, Margaret T; Lee, Hedwig; Hing, Anna K
In the United States, racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity are well-documented, particularly among women. Using the Chicago Community Adult Health Study, a probability-based sample in 2001-2003 (N = 3105), we examined the roles of discrimination and vigilance in racial inequalities in two weight-related measures, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), viewed through a cultural racism lens. Cultural racism creates a social environment in which Black Americans bear the stigma burden of their racial group while White Americans are allowed to view themselves as individuals. We propose that in this context, interpersonal discrimination holds a different meaning for Blacks and Whites, while vigilance captures the coping style for Blacks who carry the stigma burden of the racial group. By placing discrimination and vigilance within the context of cultural racism, we operationalize existing survey measures and utilize statistical models to clarify the ambiguous associations between discrimination and weight-related inequalities in the extant literature. Multivariate models were estimated for BMI and WC separately and were stratified by gender. Black women had higher mean BMI and WC than any other group, as well as highest levels of vigilance. White women did not show an association between vigilance and WC but did show a strong positive association between discrimination and WC. Conversely, Black women displayed an association between vigilance and WC, but not between discrimination and WC. These results demonstrate that vigilance and discrimination may hold different meanings for obesity by ethnoracial group that are concealed when all women are examined together and viewed without considering a cultural racism lens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In Section 1, politically correct racism (PC racism) is defined as an act with racist intent, justified by righteous appearance, with popularity or near-total acceptance because of its righteous appearance. In Section 2, after presenting a theory of jokes based on analyses by Sigmund Freud and Marvin Minsky, I show that the pleasure one derives from PC racism is similar to that derived from ethnic jokes. In Section 3, I point out the inaccuracies and prejudice contained in the novel Memoirs o...
Rosiejka, Veronica Ann
Il y a une nouvelle vague de racisme ouvert en France. Cependant, c'est un phénomène avec des racines sociales et historiques complexes. Ce mémoire cherche à comprendre le racisme de deux manières : généralement, aussi bien que spécifiquement à la France. Le centre d'attention principal de cette étude est la psychologie du racisme, comment le racisme fonctionne et ses conséquences, éléments qui sont étudiés à travers l'analyse d'une série de neuf courts-métrages,...
Arriola, Kimberly Jacob
There are clear and compelling racial disparities in access to renal transplant, which is the therapy of choice for many patients with end stage renal disease. This paper conceptualizes the role of racism (i.e., internalized, personally-mediated, and institutionalized) in creating and perpetuating these disparities at multiple levels of the social ecology by integrating two often-cited theories in the literature. Internalized racism is manifested at the intrapersonal level when, for example, African American patients devalue their self-worth, thereby not pursuing the most aggressive treatment available. Personally-mediated racism is manifested at the interpersonal level when, for example, physicians exhibit unconscious race bias that impacts their treatment decisions. One example of institutionalized racism being manifested at the institutional, community, and public policy levels is the longstanding existence of racial residential segregation and empirically established links between neighborhood racial composition and dialysis facility-level transplantation rates. This paper concludes with clinical, research, and policy recommendations.
Olayiwola, J Nwando
Medicine has historically been a field where the provider of the service (physician, nurse) has a significant amount of power as compared with the recipient of the service (the patient). For the most part, this power is relatively consistent, and the power dynamic is rarely disrupted. In this essay, I share a personal experience in which a racist rant by a patient seemingly reverses the power dynamic. As the physician, I faced the realization that I may not have as much power as I believed, but fortunately I had some tools that allowed for my resilience. It is my hope that this paper will strengthen other family physicians and professional minorities that are victims of racism, discrimination, and prejudice for their race, sex, ability, sexual orientation, religion, and other axes of discrimination. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Wakoh Shannon Hickey
Full Text Available Over the past several decades, observers of American Buddhism have created numerous typologies to describe different categories of Buddhists in the United States. These taxonomies use different criteria to categorize groups: style of practice, degree of institutional stability, mode of transmission to the U.S., ethnicity, etc. Each reveals some features of American Buddhism and obscures others. None accounts adequately for hybrids or for long-term changes within categories. Most include a divide between convert Buddhists, characterized as predominantly Caucasian, and “heritage” or “ethnic” Buddhists, characterized as Asian immigrants and refugees, as well as their descendants. This article examines several typologies, and considers two dynamics: the effects of white racism on the development of American Buddhist communities; and the effects of unconscious white privilege in scholarly discourse about these communities. It critiques “ethnic” categories and proposes other ways to conceptualize the diverse forms of Buddhism outside Asia.
Dominguez, Tyan Parker
While the biologic authenticity of race remains a contentious issue, the social significance of race is indisputable. The chronic stress of racism and the social inequality it engenders may be underlying social determinants of persistent racial disparities in health, including infant mortality, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. This article describes the problem of racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes; outlines the multidimensional nature of racism and the pathways by which it may adversely affect health; and discusses the implications for clinical practice.
Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa
This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.
Stanley, James; Cormack, Donna M.
Objectives Racism is an important health determinant that contributes to ethnic health inequities. This study sought to describe New Zealand adults’ reported recent experiences of racism over a 10 year period. It also sought to examine the association between recent experience of racism and a range of negative health and wellbeing measures. Methods The study utilised previously collected data from multiple cross-sectional national surveys (New Zealand Health Surveys 2002/03, 2006/07, 2011/12; and General Social Surveys 2008, 2010, 2012) to provide prevalence estimates of reported experience of racism (in the last 12 months) by major ethnic groupings in New Zealand. Meta-analytical techniques were used to provide improved estimates of the association between recent experience of racism and negative health from multivariable models, for the total cohorts and stratified by ethnicity. Results Reported recent experience of racism was highest among Asian participants followed by Māori and Pacific peoples, with Europeans reporting the lowest experience of racism. Among Asian participants, reported experience of racism was higher for those born overseas compared to those born in New Zealand. Recent experience of racism appeared to be declining for most groups over the time period examined. Experience of racism in the last 12 months was consistently associated with negative measures of health and wellbeing (SF-12 physical and mental health component scores, self-rated health, overall life satisfaction). While exposure to racism was more common in the non-European ethnic groups, the impact of recent exposure to racism on health was similar across ethnic groups, with the exception of SF-12 physical health. Conclusions The higher experience of racism among non-European groups remains an issue in New Zealand and its potential effects on health may contribute to ethnic health inequities. Ongoing focus and monitoring of racism as a determinant of health is required to inform
Allan A. Boesak
Full Text Available The revolutionary events sweeping North Africa and the Middle East, called the ‘Arab Spring’, are of great historic significance. They challenge not only political and social realities in those countries; they confront us, the spectators to these momentous events with serious questions about our own political, cultural and theological perceptions, concepts and prejudices. This article probes, from a Black Liberation theology point of view, these events at several levels: (1 what are the connections between the ‘Arab Spring’ and the two other historic movements for social change, the Civil Rights struggle in the United States of America, and the antiapartheid struggle in South Africa; (2 what lessons are to be learnt from these events?; (3 the article revisits the question of M.M. Thomas, in terms of whether God is at work in events of social upheaval and revolutionary change, and if so, ‘how?’; and (4 what is the meaning and consequences of international, and more importantly, inter-religious solidarity with the people of those regions? The article discusses the meaning, complexity and efficacy of nonviolence and choices for violence or nonviolence in such situations of conflict and the questions these raise for theological reflection, prophetic action and Christian integrity.
If electricity rate payment boycotters withhold parts of the payment due for electric energy supplied, this refusal to pay rates will give the electric utility the right to use its right of lien according to sect. 33 para. 2 of the General Terms and Conditions governing the supply with electricity, gas, district heat and water. This is also applicable if, in the individual case, it is a matter of only small amounts. (orig.) [de
The small community of Alsen provides and excellent example of how environmental racism can affect an area. However, before I discuss Alsen and its many problems, the author feels it is important to first briefly explain what environmental racism means to me, and second, distinguish environmental racism from environmental injustice. Environmental racism is a subtle form of racism that has not so subtle effects. It often has historical roots, where the initial problem was created many years ago by society's racism, with the practices then becoming entrenched in the system or institutionalized. In contrast, environmental injustice is broader than environmental racism because it includes Whites, as well as People of Color. In environmental injustice, socioeconomic class is the over-riding issue. Just as with environmental racism, it may have historical roots, and the practices may also become entrenched in the system. Political power, or the lack thereof, is the common thread interwoven between both concepts.
Ibañez, Gladys E; Van Oss Marin, Barbara; Flores, Stephen A; Millett, Gregorio; Diaz, Rafael M
Latino gay men report experiences of racial discrimination within and outside the gay community. This study focused on correlates of racism within general and gay contexts. Racism was assessed in a probability sample of 911 Latino gay men recruited from 3 U.S. cities. Factor analysis of the 10-item scale produced 2 factors: (a) General Racism Experiences, and (b) Racism Experiences in Gay Contexts. The scale and each factor showed adequate reliability and validity. Latino gay men with darker skin, more Indian features, more time in the United States, and low self-esteem reported more racism in both general and gay contexts. The authors examine the psychometric properties of a measure that assesses interpersonal racism among Latinos, report correlates of racism within a gay context, and provide an assessment tool for understanding the role of racism in the lives of Latino gay men.
Regina Célia Corrêa Landim
Full Text Available In many cities of Brazil, social inequality is illustrated by violence, poverty, and unemployment located next to luxurious residential towers and armored passenger cars. In the face of this situation, the National Movement of Urban Reform encouraged the inclusion of the social function of property in Brazil's new constitution of 1988. Surface rights represent an urbanistic instrument in the city statute that is best aligned to the constitutional principles and urban policies. The current article compares two laws that govern the principle of surface rights and provides a brief history of the evolution of the state based on illuminism and the consequent change in paradigm affecting individual rights, including property and civil rights, and their interpretation under the Constitution. The article concludes by suggesting the use of land surface rights in a joint operation, matching the ownership of the property with urban planning policies and social interest.
Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A
This article reviews the scientific research that indicates that despite marked declines in public support for negative racial attitudes in the United States, racism, in its multiple forms, remains embedded in American society. The focus of the article is on the review of empirical research that suggests that racism adversely affects the health of non-dominant racial populations in multiple ways. First, institutional racism developed policies and procedures that have reduced access to housing, neighborhood and educational quality, employment opportunities and other desirable resources in society. Second, cultural racism, at the societal and individual level, negatively affects economic status and health by creating a policy environment hostile to egalitarian policies, triggering negative stereotypes and discrimination that are pathogenic and fostering health damaging psychological responses such as stereotype threat and internalized racism. Finally, a large and growing body of evidence indicates that experiences of racial discrimination are an important type of psychosocial stressor that can lead to adverse changes in health status and altered behavioural patterns that increase health risks.
Mendez, Dara D; Hogan, Vijaya K; Culhane, Jennifer F
Institutional racism, also known as structural racism, can be defined as differential access to resources and opportunities by race as well as policies, laws, and practices that reinforce racial inequity. This study examines how institutional racism in the form of residential redlining (neighbourhood-level racial inequities in mortgage lending) and segregation (geographic separation of groups by race) is associated with self-reported stress among a diverse cohort of pregnant women. Institutional racism was measured by a residential redlining index using Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data and residential segregation using 2000 US Census data. These redlining and segregation indices were linked with data from a pregnancy cohort study (n = 4652), which included individual measures of reported stress. We ran multilevel linear regression models to examine the association between redlining, segregation and reported stress. Hispanic women compared with all other women were slightly more likely to report stress. There was no significant relationship between redlining and stress among this population. However, higher neighbourhood percentage black was inversely associated with stress. This study suggests that some forms of segregation may be associated with reported stress. Future studies should consider how redlining and segregation may provide an understanding of how institutional racism and the neighbourhood context may influence stress and health of populations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rozas, Lisa Werkmeister; Miller, Joshua
This article presents two conceptual frames to help with teaching about issues of race and racism. First the concept of the web of racism describes a matrix that helps students understand the depth of damage racism has instilled in contemporary U.S. society. Second, the web of resistance offers a model of anti-racist activities to help students…
Edwards, Jared F.
Interest in institutional racism, White privilege, and microaggressions appears to be growing. We are living in times when the impact of race and racism are debated--when even the existence of racism is debated along with the appropriateness of examining the worst parts of U.S. history. This special-issue invited article includes a brief…
Ward Randolph, Adah; Weems, Mary E.
This ethnodrama examines how two African American women experience racism in the academe. Both scholars examine the social/political context of racism in higher education and its manifestation in institutional practices. Both authors seek to "speak truth and shame the devil" by examining institutional responses to the racism they encounter in…
Derrick Bell's thesis, that racism is a permanent feature of society, is frequently misrepresented by detractors as signaling a view of racism as monolithic--bold, obvious, and unchanging. This paper argues that critical race theory [CRT] reveals a very different understanding of racism as relentless, yet fluid, and quick to morph depending on…
Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.
The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…
Lange, Carsten Hjort
David Armitage’s new monograph Civil Wars: A History in Ideas (2017) will undoubtedly long remain a standard reference work. It presents readers with a vision of civil war as part of the longue durée. The argument might be further strengthened, however, if a more inclusive Greco-Roman approach...... to ancient civil war is accepted. This essay focuses on stasis vs. bellum civile, the origins of the concept of civil war, the approach of later Roman writers (such as Appian and Cassius Dio) to the concepts of stasis and bellum civile, and, finally, the question of what makes a civil war a civil war....... Whatever concepts were used, the Romans were not the first to experience internal war as a civil war—that is, a war between the citizens of a polity....
Jee-Lyn García, Jennifer; Sharif, Mienah Zulfacar
The recent nonindictments of police officers who killed unarmed Black men have incited popular and scholarly discussions on racial injustices in our legal system, racialized police violence, and police (mis)conduct. What is glaringly absent is a public health perspective in response to these events. We aim to fill this gap and expand the current dialogue beyond these isolated incidents to a broader discussion of racism in America and how it affects the health and well-being of people of color. Our goal is not only to reiterate how salient structural racism is in our society, but how critical antiracist work is to the core goals and values of public health.
Shavers, Vickie L; Shavers, Brenda S
Research reports often cite socioeconomic status as an underlying factor in the pervasive disparities in health observed for racial/ethnic minority populations. However, often little information or consideration is given to the social history and prevailing social climate that is responsible for racial/ethnic socioeconomic disparities, namely, the role of racism/racial discrimination. Much of the epidemiologic research on health disparities has focused on the relationship between demographic/clinical characteristics and health outcomes in main-effects multivariate models. This approach, however, does not examine the relationship between covariate levels and the processes that create them. It is important to understand the synergistic nature of these relationships to fully understand the impact they have on health status. A review of the literature was conducted on the role that discrimination in education, housing, employment, the judicial system and the healthcare system plays in the origination, maintenance and perpetuation of racial/ethnic health disparities to serve as background information for funding Program Announcement, PA-05-006, The Effect of Racial/ Ethnic Discrimination/Bias on Healthcare Delivery (http:// grants.nih.gov/grants/ guide/pa-files/PA-05-006.html). The effect of targeted marketing of harmful products and environmental justice are also discussed as they relate to racial/ethnic disparities in health. Racial/ethnic disparities in health are the result of a combination of social factors that influence exposure to risk factors, health behavior and access to and receipt of appropriate care. Addressing these disparities will require a system that promotes equity and mandates accountability both in the social environment and within health delivery systems.
Lucas, Todd; Lumley, Mark A; Flack, John M; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan
According to worldview verification theory, inconsistencies between lived experiences and worldviews are psychologically threatening. These inconsistencies may be key determinants of stress processes that influence cardiovascular health disparities. This preliminary examination considers how experiencing injustice can affect perceived racism and biological stress reactivity among African Americans. Guided by worldview verification theory, it was hypothesized that responses to receiving an unfair outcome would be moderated by fairness of the accompanying decision process, and that this effect would further depend on the consistency of the decision process with preexisting justice beliefs. A sample of 118 healthy African American adults completed baseline measures of justice beliefs, followed by a laboratory-based social-evaluative stressor task. Two randomized fairness manipulations were implemented during the task: participants were given either high or low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice. Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biological responses were measured in oral fluids, and attributions of racism were also measured. The hypothesized 3-way interaction was generally obtained. Among African Americans with a strong belief in justice, perceived racism, cortisol, and C-reactive protein responses to low distributive justice were higher when procedural justice was low. Among African Americans with a weak belief in justice however, these responses were higher when a low level of distributive justice was coupled with high procedural justice. Biological and psychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities are affected by consistency between individual-level and contextual justice factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rosalía Romero Pérez
Full Text Available In this article, feminist civil disobedience is analysed as democracy’s daughter. As regards the analysis of different interpretations of natural rights, the path of the ownership of the own body is followed from Sufragism and its epoch until the global world. At the present time, the right to own your body is defended from opposite positions, such as Femen and Islamic Feminism.
Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...
Some contend that Whites’ application of values to form opinions about race-conscious policy may constitute a subtle form of racism. Others challenge the new racism thesis, suggesting that racism and values are exclusive in their influence. Proponents of the thesis assert that many Whites’ attitudes about such policy are structured by a mix of racism and American individualism. The author suggests that an even more subtle form of racism may exist. Racism may actually be expressed in opposition to big government. The test results presented here indicate that the effects of limited-government values on attitudes about race-conscious policy are conditional on levels of racial prejudice for many Whites, whereas the effects on racially ambiguous social welfare policy attitudes are not. The author contends that these results provide support to the argument that racism still exists and has found a new subtle expression.
This work brings together cutting-edge scholarship in language, education and society from all parts of the world. Celebrating the 60th birthday of Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, it is inspired by her work in minority, indigenous and immigrant education; multilingualism; linguistic human rights; and global...... language and power issues. Drawn from all parts of the world, the contributors are active in a range of scientific and professional areas including bilingual education; sociolinguistics; the sociology of education, law and language; economics and language; linguistics; sign language; racism; communication......; discourse analysis; language policy; minority issues; and language pedagogy. The book situates issues of minorities and bilingual education in broader perspectives of human rights, power and the ecology of language. It aims at a distillation of themes that are central to an understanding of language rights...
Update on Law-Related Education, 1997
Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)
Background There is now considerable evidence from around the world that racism is associated with both mental and physical ill-health. However, little is known about the mediating factors between racism and ill-health. This paper investigates relationships between racism and self-assessed mental and physical health among Indigenous Australians as well as potential mediators of these relationships. Methods A total of 164 adults in the Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes (DRUID) study completed a validated instrument assessing interpersonal racism and a separate item on discrimination-related stress. Self-assessed health status was measured using the SF-12. Stress, optimism, lack of control, social connections, cultural identity and reactions/responses to interpersonal racism were considered as mediators and moderators of the relationship between racism/discrimination and self-assessed health status. Results After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, interpersonal racism was significantly associated with the SF-12 mental (but not the physical) health component. Stress, lack of control and feeling powerless as a reaction to racism emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between racism and general mental health. Similar findings emerged for discrimination-related stress. Conclusions Racism/discrimination is significantly associated with poor general mental health among this indigenous population. The mediating factors between racism and mental health identified in this study suggest new approaches to ameliorating the detrimental effects of racism on health. In particular, the importance of reducing racism-related stress, enhancing general levels of mastery, and minimising negative social connections in order to ameliorate the negative consequences of racism. PMID:22333047
Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.
This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by
Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.
The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…
The fact that the majority of Indian students in Australia live in cheaper, more dangerous suburbs, often travel late at night, and so on, all complicate the question of whether racism has been at play in the recent attacks. Yet, this does not mean that the question of whether Australians are
This article tries to discuss the conditions Roma pupils face within the Greek educational system. In the first part, through a brief history of Roma groups in Greece followed by a short analysis of their legal status and leaving conditions, I attempt to present a critical approach in Romani Studies. Thereafter, using Institutional Racism as a…
Laramee, William A.
Examines racism on college campuses. Discusses group defamation and freedom of speech within that context. Concludes in this period of racial unrest and conflict, a reappraisal is in order of delicate balance between protection from group and class defamation on the one hand and free speech on other, using law as an important base from which to…
Racism, xenophobia and in particular Islamophobia have gained terrain in the European continent during the latest decades, and Denmark has taken a position as one of the iconic cases of this development. In this article, I approach this issue from the point of view of everyday life – from the inf...
Vora, Erika; Vora, Jay A.
Investigated whether a planned engagement of white college students, which had very little contact with African Americans, with members of a black community in a safe, welcoming environment (a black church) would significantly reduce racism. Participant surveys indicated that positive interactions between Blacks and Whites resulted in positive…
Ponds, Kenneth T.
With the election of Barack Obama as President, many believed that this nation was entering into a post-racial America, a color-blind society where racism could begin to be healed if not totally dismissed. However, a recent Associated Press poll has shown that this is not the case (AP, 2012). In fact, racial prejudice has increased slightly since…
Fallace, Thomas D.
The literature depicting educators' role in scientific racism and eugenics during the early 20th century has tended to approach the topic in dichotomous terms, as an ideology that one was either for or against. In this historical study, the author adds some nuance to this literature by tracing leading educators' inconsistent and evolving thoughts…
The problem created by racism could be traced to be the major factor behind most Black literature through the ages. In America, this gave rise to a new form of literary expression known as the Black American Literature or African American Literature. The main concern of this sub-genre of literature is to redeem the face of ...
This article is divided into two parts: in the first one, after mentioning episodes of violence against immigrants, the author discusses the issues of "race" and racism within the debate on immigration and diversity taking place in Italy. Pointing out a number of relevant indications and reflections that qualify such debate, she argues…
In this article, I want to show how my initial encounter with the work of Stuart Hall was grounded in my reading of the later philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, and was shaped by my interest in understanding the nature of racism across the three countries in which I had lived. Over the years, Hall's various writings have helped me to make sense of…
Dennis, Rutledge M.
Maintains that science is often used as a justification to propose, project, and enact racist social policies. The philosophy of Social Darwinism is reviewed, and its assumptions about race and human abilities is discussed. The consequences of scientific racism for dominant groups are analyzed. (GR)
D'Andrea, Michael; Daniels, Judy
A framework for examining racism in higher education is outlined. It distinguishes several stages of racist attitude: affective-impulsive, dualistic rational, libertarian, principled, and principled-activist. These stages of cognitive development are suggested as a model for planning intervention strategies. Some specific strategies are described.…
Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz
Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focus...... they move between "black" or "coloured" township areas and the "white" suburbs of Cape Town....
Acosta, David; Ackerman-Barger, Kupiri
Recent events in the United States have catalyzed the need for all educators to begin paying attention to and discovering ways to dialogue about race. No longer can health professions (HP) educators ignore or avoid these difficult conversations. HP students are now demanding them. Cultural sensitivity and unconscious bias training are not enough. Good will and good intentions are not enough. Current faculty development paradigms are no longer sufficient to meet the educational challenges of delving into issues of race, power, privilege, identity, and social justice.Engaging in such conversations, however, can be overwhelmingly stressful for untrained faculty. The authors argue that before any curriculum on race and racism can be developed for HP students, and before faculty members can begin facilitating conversations about race and racism, faculty must receive proper training through intense and introspective faculty development. Training should cover how best to engage in, sustain, and deepen interracial dialogue on difficult topics such as race and racism within academic health centers (AHCs). If such faculty development training-in how to conduct interracial dialogues on race, racism, oppression, and the invisibility of privilege-is made standard at all AHCs, HP educators might be poised to actualize the real benefits of open dialogue and change.
Lovern, Lavonna Lea
The following paper is a critical examination involving the misuse of sacred cultural tools and practices in the name of multicultural education. Native American practices are identified to illustrate how such inappropriate usages promote pedagogical racism. The misuse continues the hegemonic distribution of social capital. Through the…
Based on a 3-year ethnographic project at a public elementary school in North Carolina, this article discusses how the concept of racial realism can be useful to researchers trying to live up to the goals of critical race studies in school-based research. Racial realism maintains that racism is a permanent aspect of U.S. society and schools. A…
This article examines the attributions of responsibility for racism in the everyday talk of secondary school students. It draws on focus groups with a cross section of students from different ethnic backgrounds in three, very different, secondary schools. In these focus groups, students deploy six different, sometimes contradictory, racialised…
Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Carlson, Bronwyn
It may be argued that the emerging discourses focusing on the social, emotional, educational, and economic disadvantages identified for Australia's First Peoples (when compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts) are becoming increasingly dissociated with an understanding of the interplay between historical and current trends in racism.…
Analyzing schools as racial spaces can help researchers examine the role of teachers in the perpetuation of structural racism in schools. Based on ethnographic and autoethnographic work, this article offers examples of schools as racial spaces, spaces where whiteness controlled access. It also highlights four teachers who pursued racial equity in…
Studiet af racisme og racialisering i Danmark er komplekst og behæftet med stærke moralske og politiske interesser og følelser. Ofte omtales racisme og race uden reference til den foreliggende litteratur og betydningsfulde historiske erfaringer og uden inddragelse af de oplevelser, som især synlige...... minoriteter og danske statsborgere med ikke-vestlig oprindelse har med racistisk tænkning. I denne artikel fører jeg centrale aspekter ved racisme ind i en nutidig faglig diskussion. Jeg stiller en række vigtige spørgsmål og leverer robuste redskaber til at undersøge, hvornår en begivenhed, en trend eller...... rutine udgør racisme i en akademisk funderet analyse. I artiklen argumenterer jeg for, at analysen i hvert enkelt tilfælde må hvile på en analyse af den specifikke handling. Artiklen er skrevet på baggrund af min forskning i Danmark i de sidste to årtier og diskuterer begreberne race, ”race...
Came, H; Doole, C; McKenna, B; McCreanor, T
Public institutions within New Zealand have long been accused of mono-culturalism and institutional racism. This study sought to identify inconsistencies and bias by comparing government funded contracting processes for Māori public health providers (n = 60) with those of generic providers (n = 90). Qualitative and quantitative data were collected (November 2014-May 2015), through a nationwide telephone survey of public health providers, achieving a 75% response rate. Descriptive statistical analyses were applied to quantitative responses and an inductive approach was taken to analyse data from open-ended responses in the survey domains of relationships with portfolio contract managers, contracting and funding. The quantitative data showed four sites of statistically significant variation: length of contracts, intensity of monitoring, compliance costs and frequency of auditing. Non-significant data involved access to discretionary funding and cost of living adjustments, the frequency of monitoring, access to Crown (government) funders and representation on advisory groups. The qualitative material showed disparate provider experiences, dependent on individual portfolio managers, with nuanced differences between generic and Māori providers' experiences. This study showed that monitoring government performance through a nationwide survey was an innovative way to identify sites of institutional racism. In a policy context where health equity is a key directive to the health sector, this study suggests there is scope for New Zealand health funders to improve their contracting practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.
Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110
Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.
An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....
Jerome, Fred; Taylor, Rodger
It is little-known that physicist Albert Einstein strongly held the view that ``Racism is America's worst disease.'' Einstein was active in the fight against racism from the 1930's until his death in 1955. Included among his friends were a number of important Afro-American figures, including the educator W.E.B. DuBois, the actor and basso profundo singer Paul Robeson, and the soprano Marian Anderson. Based on the authors' work ``Einstein on Race and Racism.''
Racism and xenophobia have become a worldwide issue and challenge. The recent flood of immigrants and refugees into Europe and America has put this matter on the world map. In South Africa racism and xenophobia have, in recent times, reached explosive proportions and have greatly intensified the need for the Church to get more deeply involved in the creation of racial harmony and peace as it works towards the fullness of life for all people. This chapter explored the challenges of racism and ...
O?Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael
OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US wh...
Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger
This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....
Jee-Lyn García, Jennifer
The recent nonindictments of police officers who killed unarmed Black men have incited popular and scholarly discussions on racial injustices in our legal system, racialized police violence, and police (mis)conduct. What is glaringly absent is a public health perspective in response to these events. We aim to fill this gap and expand the current dialogue beyond these isolated incidents to a broader discussion of racism in America and how it affects the health and well-being of people of color. Our goal is not only to reiterate how salient structural racism is in our society, but how critical antiracist work is to the core goals and values of public health. PMID:26066958
Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina
The problems of racism and racially-motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the US are complex, multifactorial and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others. PMID:26982911
Gravlee, Clarence C; Sweet, Elizabeth
Researchers across the health sciences are engaged in a vigorous debate over the role that the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity" play in health research and clinical practice. Here we contribute to that debate by examining how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and racism are used in medical-anthropological research. We present a content analysis of Medical Anthropology and Medical Anthropology Quarterly, based on a systematic random sample of empirical research articles (n = 283) published in these journals from 1977 to 2002. We identify both differences and similarities in the use of race, ethnicity, and racism concepts in medical anthropology and neighboring disciplines, and we offer recommendations for ways that medical anthropologists can contribute to the broader debate over racial and ethnic inequalities in health.
It is controversial whether the development of Fascist racism was influenced by earlier Italian eugenic research. Before the First International Eugenics Congress held in London in 1912, Italian eugenics was not characterized by a clear program of scientific research. With the advent of Fascism, however, the equality "number = strength" became the foundation of its program. This idea, according to which the improvement of a nation relies on the amplitude of its population, was conceived by statistician Corrado Gini (1884-1965) already in 1912. Focusing on the problem of the degeneration of the Italian race, Gini had a tremendous influence on Benito Mussolini's (1883-1945) political campaign, and shaped Italian social sciences for almost two decades. He was also a committed racist, as documented by a series of indisputable statements from the primary literature. All these findings place Gini in a linking position among early Italian eugenics, Fascism and official state racism.
Danis, Marion; Wilson, Yolonda; White, Amina
The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and academic scholarship in response to the alarming and persistent patterns of racism and implicit biases associated with it. To make any useful contribution, bioethicists will require preparation and should expect to play a significant role through collaborative action with others.
Cozier, Yvette C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F.; Bethea, Traci N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.
We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of “everyday” racism (e.g., “people act as if you are dishonest”) and of “lifetime” racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women. PMID:24585257
Robinson, Ora V
Few studies have examined the health consequences of racism experienced by Black nursing professors. A cohort of nine Black nursing professors at various academic ranks responded to a series of questions on racism, coping and intervention strategies to reduce the harmful health consequences. Findings identified behavioral characteristics of racism, resiliency factors of coping, and suggested workshops to minimize the effects of racism within the nursing profession. Implications include workshops on critical self reflection and rules of engagement. A question raised for future research "how to create a racially/ethnic inclusive and psychosocial healthy academic work environment"?
Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R
We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women.
McGee, Adam Michael
I analyze the historical and cultural processes by which American racism is reproduced, approaching the issue through the lens of "imagined voodoo" (as distinct from Haitian Vodou). I posit that the American Marine occupation of Haiti (1915-34) was crucial in shaping the American racial imaginary. In film, television, and literature, imagined voodoo continues to serve as an outlet for white racist anxieties. Because it is usually found in low-brow entertainment (like horror) and rarely men...
John Cairns Jr.
Full Text Available The 11 September 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the US Pentagon in Washington, DC have seized our attention and undermined our sense of security. These terrorist actions showed a contempt for other persons and their beliefs and practices. They are extreme demonstrations of a feeling of superiority which ignores the inherent worth of life by killing or wounding some and depriving others of resources that improve their quality of life. In this respect, terrorism is similar to racism and speciesism in that all are expressions of feelings of superiority over other life forms and that all are incompatible with sustainable use of the planet. It is proposed that both terrorism and racism have their genesis in speciesism. Sustainability requires a mutualistic relationship between humans and the millions of other species that collectively constitute the planet's ecological life support system. It further requires enhancement and protection of natural capital, as well as the enhancement and protection of the technological and economic life support systems that depend upon natural capital. Both terrorism and racism endanger the fair and equitable allocation of resources and the quality of human life of present and future generations. This is probably both the cause and effect of resource allocations. However, to achieve sustainable use of the planet, humans must acknowledge the inherent worth of other life forms. There is no guarantee that abolishing terrorism, racism, and speciesism will enable human society to acheive sustainable use of the planet; however, it is difficult to envision achieving sustainability if they persist.
Bissenbakker, Mons; Myong, Lene
Regeringens plan om at ’nedbryde’ bestemte boligområder er heldigvis blevet mødt med kritik og modstand. En del af kritikken har rammesat retsstaten som lovpakkens egentlige offer, men hvilke perspektiver glider i baggrunden, når kritikken samler sig om retsstaten som lykkeobjekt? Lovpakken sætte...... endnu engang strukturel racisme og statssanktioneret vold på den politiske dagsorden....
D. Van Loggerenberg
Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.
This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…
The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....
Cousyn, Rene; Goubin, Jean.
Although it does not require a specifically new technicality, the Civil Engineering site of a nuclear power plant is a complex work. Considering as an example the power plant currently in construction at Tricastin, the authors describe the main Civil Engineering work and task organization applied to carry it out [fr
Full Text Available In this article, I ask which problematizations of racism and intolerance that substantiate a local implementation of a targeted educational program in Sweden, called the Tolerance Project. By participating in municipality-level meetings and conversations with front-line professionals concerning the recent implementation of the program in one specific region, I have found several motivations for the continuing work to reduce racism and intolerance at schools. To emphasize this point, I have divided the problematizations into four ideal types and applied a ‘what’s the problem represented to be’ analysis to each of them. The four problematizations can be described in the following terms: generational racism, growth of the Sweden Democrats, normalization of racist language, and general ‘at-risk’ youths. The first three problematizations are context dependent, in terms of both time (during the so-called refugee crisis and space (in a region with a long history of National Socialism. Problematizing generational racism, growth of the Sweden Democrats and normalization of racist language indicate that what is mainly to be prevented is anti-immigrant sentiments in the young as well as the adult population. This implies a limitation to the role of schools in prevention, as adults cannot be directly targeted by the school. The fourth ideal type, at-risk youth, emphasizes that there are certain risk factors that might cause young people to later radicalize or deviate in one way or another. This corresponds to the general discourse of radicalization, but, in line with other studies of front-line professionals’ perspectives, there is no clear distinction between preventing radicalization and fostering democratic citizens. Furthermore, the conglomeration of problematizations might decrease the stigmatizing effect that a targeted initiative can have, as opposed to initiatives that operate with one specific target group. The Tolerance Project might
This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...
Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar
This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera....... Finally, we argue that, in Asia, governments act as a structuration mechanism which challenges the current understanding of CSR.......This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...
.... Key among these has been human rights, which both countries view differently. Whereas the United States emphasizes individual civil and political liberties, the People's Republic of China (PRC...
The paper asserts that racism is still one of the most pervasive social evils in the world. Part of the problem is that attempts to eliminate racism have focused on surface differences of race, color, and biological supremacy. Such attempts do not get to the root of the problem, the deep-level value and belief systems that undergird racism. This…
There are a variety of methods by which the themes of White privilege and racism can be presented to White students. By using the concept of racial identity a continuum of racism can be considered. Furthermore, addressing White privilege and racism in the context of a multicultural psychology course allows White students to have a greater…
Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S
The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).
Samuels, Amy J.
Despite exposure of educational disparities for students of color, as well as the notion that educational training rarely discusses race and racism, there continues to be a lack of discourse on race, racism, and anti-racism in educational leadership. Subsequently, it is important to challenge deficit thinking and encourage further examination of…
Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P.
Internalized racism is rarely discussed in student affairs. Despite the negative effects of internalized racism on the mental health and identity development of college students of color, little is known about its etiology. Based on theoretical conceptions, the author explores if perceived racism and/or U.S. acculturation act as predictors of…
Bowser, Benjamin P.
The field of mental health has had difficulty in developing an adequate conceptualization of racism as a mental health problem. Based on conventional classifications of mental illness, racism might be described as a functional disorder. The racist, however, appears quite normal except for a paranoid disorder in the area of racial relations. The…
The purpose of this article is to describe how homophobic bullying and bullying based on racism intersect in graduate school through the personal narrative of a gay Japanese male graduate student. First, I will provide a critical incident that demonstrates when, where, and how bullying based on homophobia and racism occurred in a specific graduate…
Beharry, Pauline; Crozier, Sharon
The purpose of this investigation was to describe the lived experiences of racism for second-generation Canadian women of South Asian descent and how this affected their identity. Six adult co-researchers shared their experiences of what occurred when faced with racism. A phenomenological approach was employed, out of which five categories…
Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.
Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…
Sidanius, Jim; And Others
Defines symbolic racism theory and social dominance theory. Compares the two theories and how they affect racial policy attitudes such as busing, affirmative action, and welfare. Explains that the study reanalyses data previously collected. Discusses symbolic racism as a legitimizing myth. Reports that social dominance theory was more consistent…
Success of programs aimed at teaching racial tolerance depends on ability to confront three misconceptions about racism: life is good for racial minorities; racism is declining; and America can be a color-blind society. These myths have been absorbed into beliefs and attitudes of well-educated, open-minded people. Today's Gallup Polls actually…
This paper addresses racism and white privilege in America. Racism is generally discriminatory policy and behavior aimed at oppressing non whites whereas white privilege is the advantage gained by whites that is not due to ability or merit. It is argued that white privilege is largely invisible and that this allows the current unacceptable status…
Unnever, James D.; Cullen, Francis T.
Using data from the 2000 National Election Study, this research investigates the sources of the racial divide in support for capital punishment with a specific focus on white racism. After delineating a measure of white racism, we explore whether it can account for why a majority of African Americans oppose the death penalty while most whites…
Reviews Dinesh D'Souza's "The End of Racism: Principles for a Multiracial Society" (1995), exploring his neoconservative ideology in the context of concepts of the underclass and what it means to be Asian American or an immigrant. D'Souza perpetuates the Model Minority thesis, which is itself a form of inferential racism. (SLD)
Carter, Robert T.
The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color. Psychological models and research on racism, discrimination, stress, and trauma will be integrated to promote a model to be used to understand, recognize, and assess race-based traumatic stress to aid counseling and psychological…
Hopson, Anna C.
In U.S. history, racism has existed in traditional brick-and-mortar academic institutions for hundreds of years. With the increase of online learning--a strategic and effective form of education for many academic institutions of higher education--the question being asked is, Does racism exist in the online classroom learning environment? This…
Scott, Chaunda L.
The problem highlighted in this qualitative inquiry is that literature in HRD exploring racism in the United States in the forms of individual, institutional, and cultural racism is scant. This inquiry serves to encourage research and dialogue in HRD for the purpose of getting HRD more involved in developing strategies that can be used to…
Johnson-Ahorlu, Robin Nicole
Using Critical Race Theory as a framework, this article reveals how racism and stereotypes obstruct the academic success of black students. Through the use of focus groups, African American undergraduates from a large California State University campus, share the ways in which campus racism impacts their achievement potential as well as their…
Kelaher, Margaret A; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin
To examine experiences of racism in health settings and their impact on mental health among Aboriginal Australians. A cross-sectional survey of experiences of racism and mental health was conducted in two metropolitan and two rural Victorian local government areas (LGAs) between 1 December 2010 and 31 October 2011. Participants included 755 Aboriginal Australians aged over 18 years who had resided in the relevant LGA for at least a year. The response rate across all LGAs was 99%. Being above or below the threshold for high or very high psychological distress on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. 221 participants reported experiences of racism in health settings in the past 12 months. The results suggested that people experiencing racism in health settings (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 2.28-8.86) and non-health settings (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.39-5.08) were more likely than people who did not experience racism to be above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. Experiencing interpersonal racism in health settings is associated with increased psychological distress over and above what would be expected in other settings. This finding supports the rationale for improving cultural competency and reducing racism as a means of closing the health gap between Aboriginal and other Australians. Capitalising on this investment will require explicitly evaluating the impact of these initiatives on reducing patient experiences of racism.
Joseph, Nicole M.; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Bianco, Margarita
This article takes up the questions: (a) How do Black female adolescents define racism?, (b) What kind of experiences with racism to they report having in schools?, and (c) How can these perspectives and experiences inform educational reform efforts? The in-depth analysis of 18 student surveys and interviews revealed that most of the definitions…
Siebers, H.G.; Dennissen, Marjolein
Like elsewhere in Europe, a discourse that is hostile to migrants in general and Muslims in particular has emerged in Dutch politics and media. Can we understand this Dutch migrant-hostile discourse as a kind of racism, i.e. cultural racism? The authors studied this discourse (Dutch political and
Robbins, Claire K.
This study explored how White women learned about racism and White privilege in higher education and student affairs (HESA) master's degree programs. Drawn from a grounded theory, findings included 16 coursework and pre-professional experiences that generated racial dissonance, leading to "hunger" for more knowledge about racism and…
Anti-racist pedagogy typically focuses on helping learners identify and counter racist ideas and actions they detect in themselves and others. Sympathetically and skillfully, the leader of this activity is charged with helping people detect subtle racism as evident in racial micro-aggressions and aversive racism. This pedagogic process is crucial…
Within racial inequitable educational conditions, students of color in US schools are susceptible to internalizing racism. If these students go on to be teachers, the consequences can be particularly detrimental if internalized racism influences their teaching. Framed in Critical Race Theory, this article investigates the process pre-service…
Brown, Danice L.; Segrist, Daniel
The present study examined the relative influence of aspects of internalized racism on the career aspirations of a sample of African American adults. Participants (N = 315), ranging in age from 18 to 62 years, completed measures of internalized racism and career aspirations online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to…
Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.
In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…
Full Text Available This paper examines the exclusion of specific means of evidence as instruments for determining the object of evidence, as well as the taking of evidence in the framework of the Croatian civil procedure law. The introduction lays the grounds for classifying and qualifying exclusion of evidence (general, special; absolute, relative; removable, irremovable; direct, indirect, after which greater attention is paid to the so called absolute and relative type; exclusionary evidence of the direct relative type pertaining to the establishing of facts, and evidence dismissals. With regard to the indirect relative type, the paper examines exclusionary evidence concerning the object of evidence. The remainder of the paper focuses on illegally obtained evidence, while outlining the constitutional, statutory, judicature and doctrinaire premises of bearing for such evidence. Subsequently, the question of evidence obtained in violation of the Constitutional guarantee of respect and legal protection of private and family life, dignity, reputation and honour, as well as evidence obtained by breach of the Constitutional guarantee of freedom and secrecy of correspondence and all other forms of communication, and in violation of the right to safety and privacy of personal data, are discussed too. In addition, the paper analyses the institutions of preclusion of evidence and the so called informative evidence. Concluding, the author points to a lacking regulation of inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law, underlining the need to determine de lege ferenda legal requirements with a view to operationalizing inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law.
Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has historically speaking been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil p...
Full Text Available Despite a growing body of epidemiological evidence in recent years documenting the health impacts of racism, the cumulative evidence base has yet to be synthesized in a comprehensive meta-analysis focused specifically on racism as a determinant of health. This meta-analysis reviewed the literature focusing on the relationship between reported racism and mental and physical health outcomes. Data from 293 studies reported in 333 articles published between 1983 and 2013, and conducted predominately in the U.S., were analysed using random effects models and mean weighted effect sizes. Racism was associated with poorer mental health (negative mental health: r = -.23, 95% CI [-.24,-.21], k = 227; positive mental health: r = -.13, 95% CI [-.16,-.10], k = 113, including depression, anxiety, psychological stress and various other outcomes. Racism was also associated with poorer general health (r = -.13 (95% CI [-.18,-.09], k = 30, and poorer physical health (r = -.09, 95% CI [-.12,-.06], k = 50. Moderation effects were found for some outcomes with regard to study and exposure characteristics. Effect sizes of racism on mental health were stronger in cross-sectional compared with longitudinal data and in non-representative samples compared with representative samples. Age, sex, birthplace and education level did not moderate the effects of racism on health. Ethnicity significantly moderated the effect of racism on negative mental health and physical health: the association between racism and negative mental health was significantly stronger for Asian American and Latino(a American participants compared with African American participants, and the association between racism and physical health was significantly stronger for Latino(a American participants compared with African American participants. Protocol PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005464.
Paradies, Yin; Ben, Jehonathan; Denson, Nida; Elias, Amanuel; Priest, Naomi; Pieterse, Alex; Gupta, Arpana; Kelaher, Margaret; Gee, Gilbert
Despite a growing body of epidemiological evidence in recent years documenting the health impacts of racism, the cumulative evidence base has yet to be synthesized in a comprehensive meta-analysis focused specifically on racism as a determinant of health. This meta-analysis reviewed the literature focusing on the relationship between reported racism and mental and physical health outcomes. Data from 293 studies reported in 333 articles published between 1983 and 2013, and conducted predominately in the U.S., were analysed using random effects models and mean weighted effect sizes. Racism was associated with poorer mental health (negative mental health: r = -.23, 95% CI [-.24,-.21], k = 227; positive mental health: r = -.13, 95% CI [-.16,-.10], k = 113), including depression, anxiety, psychological stress and various other outcomes. Racism was also associated with poorer general health (r = -.13 (95% CI [-.18,-.09], k = 30), and poorer physical health (r = -.09, 95% CI [-.12,-.06], k = 50). Moderation effects were found for some outcomes with regard to study and exposure characteristics. Effect sizes of racism on mental health were stronger in cross-sectional compared with longitudinal data and in non-representative samples compared with representative samples. Age, sex, birthplace and education level did not moderate the effects of racism on health. Ethnicity significantly moderated the effect of racism on negative mental health and physical health: the association between racism and negative mental health was significantly stronger for Asian American and Latino(a) American participants compared with African American participants, and the association between racism and physical health was significantly stronger for Latino(a) American participants compared with African American participants. Protocol PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005464. PMID:26398658
Paradies, Yin; Ben, Jehonathan; Denson, Nida; Elias, Amanuel; Priest, Naomi; Pieterse, Alex; Gupta, Arpana; Kelaher, Margaret; Gee, Gilbert
Despite a growing body of epidemiological evidence in recent years documenting the health impacts of racism, the cumulative evidence base has yet to be synthesized in a comprehensive meta-analysis focused specifically on racism as a determinant of health. This meta-analysis reviewed the literature focusing on the relationship between reported racism and mental and physical health outcomes. Data from 293 studies reported in 333 articles published between 1983 and 2013, and conducted predominately in the U.S., were analysed using random effects models and mean weighted effect sizes. Racism was associated with poorer mental health (negative mental health: r = -.23, 95% CI [-.24,-.21], k = 227; positive mental health: r = -.13, 95% CI [-.16,-.10], k = 113), including depression, anxiety, psychological stress and various other outcomes. Racism was also associated with poorer general health (r = -.13 (95% CI [-.18,-.09], k = 30), and poorer physical health (r = -.09, 95% CI [-.12,-.06], k = 50). Moderation effects were found for some outcomes with regard to study and exposure characteristics. Effect sizes of racism on mental health were stronger in cross-sectional compared with longitudinal data and in non-representative samples compared with representative samples. Age, sex, birthplace and education level did not moderate the effects of racism on health. Ethnicity significantly moderated the effect of racism on negative mental health and physical health: the association between racism and negative mental health was significantly stronger for Asian American and Latino(a) American participants compared with African American participants, and the association between racism and physical health was significantly stronger for Latino(a) American participants compared with African American participants. Protocol PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005464.
Ben, J; Jamieson, L M; Priest, N; Parker, E J; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Lawrence, H P; Broughton, J; Paradies, Y
Despite burgeoning evidence regarding the pathways by which experiences of racism influence health outcomes, little attention has been paid to the relationship between racism and oral health-related behaviours in particular. We hypothesised that self-reported racism was associated with tooth brushing, and that this association was mediated by perceived stress and sense of control and moderated by social support. Data from 365 pregnant Aboriginal Australian women were used to evaluate tooth brushing behaviour, sociodemographic factors, psychosocial factors, general health, risk behaviours and racism exposure. Bivariate associations were explored and hierarchical logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for tooth brushing. Perceived stress and sense of control were examined as mediators of the association between self-reported racism and tooth brushing using binary mediation with bootstrapping. High levels of self-reported racism persisted as a risk indicator for tooth brushing (OR 0.51, 95%CI 0.27,0.98) after controlling for significant covariates. Perceived stress mediated the relationship between self-reported racism and tooth brushing: the direct effect of racism on tooth brushing was attenuated, and the indirect effect on tooth brushing was significant (beta coefficient -0.09; bias-corrected 95%CI -0.166,-0.028; 48.1% of effect mediated). Sense of control was insignificant as a mediator of the relationship between racism and tooth brushing. High levels of self-reported racism were associated with non-optimal tooth brushing behaviours, and perceived stress mediated this association among this sample of pregnant Aboriginal women.. Limitations and implications are discussed.
Minnigerode, Fred A.
Early data suggest that homosexuals are becoming more aware of their civil rights and more willing to fight for them. Men and women no longer have to repent for their homosexual feelings and behavior. Presented at the 1976 American Psychological Association Convention, Washington, D.C. (Author)
US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...
Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...
Mendez, Dara D; Hogan, Vijaya K; Culhane, Jennifer F
Racial/ethnic disparities in the risk of preterm birth may be explained by various factors, and previous studies are limited in examining the role of institutional racism. This study focused on the following questions: what is the association between preterm birth and institutional racism as measured by residential racial segregation (geographic separation by race) and redlining (black-white disparity in mortgage loan denial); and what is the association between preterm birth and reported stress, discrimination, and neighborhood quality. We used data from a clinic-based sample of pregnant women (n = 3462) participating in a stress and pregnancy study conducted from 1999 to 2004 in Philadelphia, PA (USA). We linked data from the 2000 US Census and Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data from 1999 to 2004 and developed measures of residential redlining and segregation. Among the entire population, there was an increased risk for preterm birth among women who were older, unmarried, tobacco users, higher number of previous births, high levels of experiences of everyday discrimination, owned their homes, lived in nonredlined areas, and areas with high levels of segregation measured by the isolation index. Among black women, living in a redlined area (where blacks were more likely to be denied mortgage loans compared to whites) was moderately associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth (aRR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.6, 0.99). Residential redlining as a form institutional racism and neighborhood characteristic may be important for understanding racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy and preterm birth.
Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.
The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)
Full Text Available The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same sex, including the legal recognition of the civil union.
Hilario, Carla T; Browne, Annette J; McFadden, Alysha
Neoliberal ideology and exclusionary policies based on racialized identities characterize the current contexts in North America and Western Europe. Nursing knowledge cannot be abstracted from social, political and historical contexts; the task of examining the influence of race and racial ideologies on disciplinary knowledge and inquiry therefore remains an important task. Contemporary analyses of the role and responsibility of the discipline in addressing race-based health and social inequities as a focus of nursing inquiry remain underdeveloped. In this article, we examine nursing's engagement with ideas about race and racism and explore the ways in which nursing knowledge and inquiry have been influenced by race-based ideological discourses. Drawing on Henry and Tator's framework of democratic racism, we consider how strategic discursive responses-the discourses of individualism, multiculturalism, colour-blindness, political correctness and denial-have been deployed within nursing knowledge and inquiry to reinforce the belief in an essentially fair and just society while avoiding the need to acknowledge the persistence of racist discourses and ideologies. Greater theoretical, conceptual and methodological clarity regarding race, racialization and related concepts in nursing inquiry is needed to address health and social inequities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The current political economic crisis in the United States places in sharp relief the tensions and contradictions of racial capitalism as it manifests materially in health care and in knowledge-producing practices. Despite nearly two decades of investment in research on racial inequality in disease, inequality persists. While the reasons for persistence of inequality are manifold, little attention has been directed to the role of medical education. Importantly, medical education has failed to foster critical theorizing on race and racism to illuminate the often-invisible ways in which race and racism shape biomedical knowledge and clinical practice. Medical students across the nation are advocating for more critical anti-racist education that centers the perspectives and knowledge of marginalized communities. This Article examines the contemporary resurgence in explicit forms of white supremacy in light of growing student activism and research that privileges notions of innate differences between races. It calls for a theoretical framework that draws on Critical Race Theory and the Black Radical Tradition to interrogate epistemological practices and advocacy initiatives in medical education.
Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi C
Objective To find the internal consistency of the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) among medical students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods A total of 352 medical students, mean age=20.0 years (SD=1.9) reported their attitudes towards Afro-Colombians; 59.4 % were women. Students completed the 10-item version of MRS. Cronbach alpha and McDonald omega were calculated. Exploratory factor analyses were done to propose a brief version of the MRS. Results The 10-item version showed a Cronbach alpha of 0.48 and a McDonald omega of 0.15. The short version, the Brief Modern Racism Scale (BMRS) (items 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8) presented a Cronbach alpha of 0.64 and McDonald omega of 0.65. The BMRS showed one salient factor responsible of 41.6 % of the total variance. Conclusions A Spanish-language short version of the MRS shows better psychometric performance than the original version. Further study is needed to corroborate these findings or make adjustments for Colombian cultural regions.
... same-sex couples as envisaged in the Act, and not to an analysis of the nature of the institution of marriage itself or the theological and social dimensions of same-sex marriages. Keywords: same-sex marriages; civil union; equality; constitutional rights; constitutional protection of homosexual relationships; Civil Union Act ...
Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C.; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Helmkamp, Laura; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Osypuk, Theresa L.; Platt, Robert W.; Straughen, Jennifer K.; Dailey-Okezie, Rhonda K.; Abeysekara, Purni; Misra, Dawn P.
Purpose This study sought to examine whether perceived interpersonal racism in the form of racial micro aggressions was associated with preterm birth (PTB) and whether the presence of depressive symptoms and perceived stress modified the association. Methods Data stem from a cohort of 1410 Black women residing in Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan enrolled into the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) Study. The Daily Life Experiences of Racism and Bother (DLE-B) scale measured the frequency and perceived stressfulness of racial micro aggressions experienced during the past year. Severe past-week depressive symptomatology was measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) dichotomized at ≥23. Restricted cubic splines were used to model non-linearity between perceived racism and PTB. We used the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to assess general stress perceptions. Results Stratified spline regression analysis demonstrated that among those with severe depressive symptoms, perceived racism was not associated with PTB. However, perceived racism was significantly associated with PTB among women with mild to moderate (CES-D score ≤22) depressive symptoms. Perceived racism was not associated with PTB among women with or without high amounts of perceived stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that racism, at least in the form of racial micro aggressions, may not further impact a group already at high risk for PTB (those with severe depressive symptoms), but may increase the risk of PTB for women at lower baseline risk. PMID:26549132
Full Text Available While racism is widely recognised as a complex social phenomenon, the basis for defining and identifying everyday racism from a lay perspective is not well understood. This exploration of factors used to frame everyday racism draws on seven cognitive interviews and four focus groups conducted in November 2010 and January 2011 with Australian adults predominantly from Anglo ethnic and cultural backgrounds. The study reveals lay theorising centring on tropes of intentionality, effect of speech, relationality and acceptability. Participants were more likely to think of racism as having negative, overtly offensive and emotional connotations. Racialised speech that was not considered to be blatantly racist was more contested, with participants engaging in complex theorising to determine whether or not such speech constituted racism. The study also highlights the potential of qualitative research to inform survey development as an unobtrusive method for in-depth participant reflection. The ambiguous nature of everyday racism demonstrated in this paper indicates a need to foster more nuanced lay understandings of racism that encompass the subtle, rational and complementary expressions that can be situated within institutions and society.
Paradies, Yin; Truong, Mandy; Priest, Naomi
Although considered a key driver of racial disparities in healthcare, relatively little is known about the extent of interpersonal racism perpetrated by healthcare providers, nor is there a good understanding of how best to measure such racism. This paper reviews worldwide evidence (from 1995 onwards) for racism among healthcare providers; as well as comparing existing measurement approaches to emerging best practice, it focuses on the assessment of interpersonal racism, rather than internalized or systemic/institutional racism. The following databases and electronic journal collections were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2012: Medline, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts. Included studies were published empirical studies of any design measuring and/or reporting on healthcare provider racism in the English language. Data on study design and objectives; method of measurement, constructs measured, type of tool; study population and healthcare setting; country and language of study; and study outcomes were extracted from each study. The 37 studies included in this review were almost solely conducted in the U.S. and with physicians. Statistically significant evidence of racist beliefs, emotions or practices among healthcare providers in relation to minority groups was evident in 26 of these studies. Although a number of measurement approaches were utilized, a limited range of constructs was assessed. Despite burgeoning interest in racism as a contributor to racial disparities in healthcare, we still know little about the extent of healthcare provider racism or how best to measure it. Studies using more sophisticated approaches to assess healthcare provider racism are required to inform interventions aimed at reducing racial disparities in health.
Carlos Villán Durán
Full Text Available The international codification of the human right to peace was brought to the United Nations by civil society organizations. The draft declaration submitted to the States has a holistic nature, is very rooted in the international human rights law, and considers peace as the absence of all forms of violence (Santiago Declaration on the Human Right to Peace of 10 December 2010. A working group appointed by the UN Human Rights Council should achieve a new and consensual text to bridge the existing gap between developed and developing States in this field, the former being more supportive of the thesis maintained by civil society.
Full Text Available Racism and xenophobia have become a worldwide issue and challenge. The recent flood of immigrants and refugees into Europe and America has put this matter on the world map. In South Africa racism and xenophobia have, in recent times, reached explosive proportions and have greatly intensified the need for the Church to get more deeply involved in the creation of racial harmony and peace as it works towards the fullness of life for all people. This chapter explored the challenges of racism and xenophobia in South Africa and concluded by discussing the role of the Church in combating these realities.
Although slavery was abolished in the 1860s, its influence still continued and the blacks were not readily assimilated in-to the large American culture. Most of them remain in the South, where they were legally segregated from whites. This paper takes the Hollywood movie The Help as an example, and describes racism embodied in the movie and analyzes the root of racism. It is hoped that this paper will help readers to have a better understanding of racism in the United States.
Nelson, Stephen C; Prasad, Shailendra; Hackman, Heather W
Race is an independent factor in health disparity. We developed a training module to address race, racism, and health care. A group of 19 physicians participated in our training module. Anonymous survey results before and after the training were compared using a two-sample t-test. The awareness of racism and its impact on care increased in all participants. White participants showed a decrease in self-efficacy in caring for patients of color when compared to white patients. This training was successful in deconstructing white providers' previously held beliefs about race and racism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard
Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...
the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....
Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias
Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...
Full Text Available This report examines intersectionality as a feminist approach that significantly impacted the discourses and conversations that took place at the World Conference Against Racism and its parallel NGO Forum, in Durban, South Africa in 2001. The term intersectionality refers to the links between gender discrimination, homophobia, racism and class exploitation. As women of color feminist scholars positioned within the geographic territories of the U.S., the authors specifically highlight key issues and social movement trends that were ignored by the U.S. media. Alternatively, this report focuses on how the conference framework of related intolerance allowed for broader conversations on how racism is exacerbated by globalization as well as on multiple oppressions in relation to sexual orientation and sexual rights. The authors emphasize how an insistence on discussing the significance of race and gender as well as class, in the context of neo-liberal capitalism, puts important new coordinates on the maps of transnational feminist organizing and anti-globalization movement.
Puig, Diva E.
This paper analyses the historical aspects of the nuclear right development. It makes the evolution of the fundamental principles of nuclear right, in special, the civil responsibility for nuclear damages. (author)
Bécares, Laia; Nazroo, James; Jackson, James; Heuvelman, Hein
Studies indicate an ethnic density effect, whereby an increase in the proportion of racial/ethnic minority people in an area is associated with reduced morbidity among its residents, though evidence is varied. Discrepancies may arise due to differences in the reasons for and periods of migration, and socioeconomic profiles of the racial/ethnic groups and the places where they live. It is important to increase our understanding of how these factors might promote or mitigate ethnic density effects. Cross-national comparative analyses might help in this respect, as they provide greater heterogeneity in historical and contemporary characteristics in the populations of interest, and it is when we consider this heterogeneity in the contexts of peoples' lives that we can more fully understand how social conditions and neighbourhood environments influence the health of migrant and racial/ethnic minority populations. This study analysed two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys, in the US and in England, to explore and contrast the association between two ethnic density measures (black and Caribbean ethnic density) and health and experienced racism among Caribbean people. Results of multilevel logistic regressions show that nominally similar measures of ethnic density perform differently across health outcomes and measures of experienced racism in the two countries. In the US, increased Caribbean ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism, but the opposite was observed in England. On the other hand, increased black ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism of Caribbean English (results not statistically significant), but not of Caribbean Americans. By comparing mutually adjusted Caribbean and black ethnic density effects in the US and England, this study examined the social construction of race and ethnicity as it depends on the racialised and stigmatised meaning attributed to it
Mason, Tyler B; Maduro, Ralitsa S; Derlega, Valerian J; Hacker, Desi S; Winstead, Barbara A; Haywood, Jacqueline E
This research focused on how race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-Race) and components of racial identity intensify negative psychological reactions to an incident of vicarious racism. We examined how these individual difference variables directly and/or indirectly predicted African American students' reactions to the trial of George Zimmerman in the killing of the African American teenager, Trayvon Martin. In Study 1, 471 African American students completed measures of RS-Race, thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, and outcome variables (negative affect about the Zimmerman trial and forgiveness for Mr. Zimmerman). In Study 2, 304 African American students completed measures of racial identity (centrality, private regard, and public regard), thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, negative affect, and forgiveness. In Study 1, higher RS-Race was either directly and/or indirectly (via thought intrusions) related to more negative affect and lower forgiveness. In Study 2, high racial centrality and low public regard either directly and/or indirectly (via thought intrusions) predicted more negative affect and lower forgiveness. RS-Race and specific components of racial identity are likely to sensitize African Americans to incidents of racism that happen to other African Americans, leading to negative psychological reactions when these events occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Yu, Jeffrey; O’Connor, George T.; Brown, Timothy A.; Cozier, Yvette C.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn
Background: Chronic stress resulting from experiences of racism may increase the incidence of adult-onset asthma through effects on the immune system and the airways. We conducted prospective analyses of the relation of experiences of racism with asthma incidence in the Black Women’s Health Study, a prospective cohort of black women in the United States followed since 1995 with mailed biennial questionnaires. Methods: Among 38,142 participants followed from 1997 to 2011, 1,068 reported incident asthma. An everyday racism score was created based on five questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency in daily life of experiences of racism (eg, poor service in stores), and a lifetime racism score was based on questions about racism on the job, in housing, and by police. We used Cox regression models to derive multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs for categories of each racism score in relation to incident asthma. Results: The IRRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.19-1.78) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of the 1997 everyday racism score (P for trend racism. Among women who reported the same levels of racism in 1997 and 2009, the IRRs for the highest categories of everyday and lifetime racism were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.55-2.91) and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.20-2.30), respectively. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of experiences of racism and asthma in black women in the United States, a positive association between racism and asthma is of public health importance. PMID:23887828
Spero, Andrea McEvoy
Urban youth in the United States often experience daily human rights violations such as racism and violence. Therefore, Human Rights Education (HRE) can strengthen their understanding of these issues and unleash their power to act toward positive change. This qualitative study attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the use of performance arts…
de Kogel, C.H.; Schrama, W.M.; Smit, M.
The relationship between the brain and human behaviour is receiving increasing attention in legal practice. Much has already been published about the role of neuroscience in criminal law, but surprisingly little is known about its role in civil law. In this contribution, the relevance of
An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt
The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…
Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to ones fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.
Carlos Federico Campos Rivas
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the presence of the concept of blood cleansing in scientific racism, by drawing equivalences and analogies with the caste discourse that prevailed in 18th century Spanish America. With the study of this conjuncture it is intended to demonstrate the existence of a taxonomical dialogue and mutual influence between the fronts of the scientific racism and the traditional conception of caste in the colonial society. Through the study of the main authors and printed works of the scientific racism paradigm, it is intended to discover the genealogical conception of the posterity of mixed lineages, reviewing its compatibility with the main theories of monogenism and polygenism, and demonstrating the survival of traditional concepts about blood and temperament. This work contributes to explain how Spanish America was taken as a sort of social laboratory for the cause of scientific racism, providing its long-lived experience in the theme of miscegenation.
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Tyson, Karolyn
This article uses data drawn from nine months of fieldwork and student, teacher, and administrator interviews at a southern high school to analyze school racial conflict and the construction of racism. We find that institutional inequalities that stratify students by race and class are routinely ignored by school actors who, we argue, use the presence of so-called redneck students to plausibly deny racism while furthering the standard definition of racism as blatant prejudice and an individual trait. The historical prominence of rednecks as a southern cultural identity augments these claims, leading to an implicit division of school actors into friendly/nonracist and unfriendly/racist and allowing school actors to set boundaries on the meaning of racism. Yet these rhetorical practices and the institutional structures they mask contributed to racial tensions, culminating in a race riot during our time at the school. PMID:23710099
Gustavo Távora Rodrigues
Full Text Available RESUMO A ineficiência do combate à conduta racial no Brasil resulta da impropriedade da legislação ordinária posta, mesmo em face de expresso Mandado de Criminalização da Constituição Federal. Por consequência disso, a omissão estatal acoberta a ocorrência de criminosa conduta racial velada. Prova disso são os índices de desenvolvimento humano, que sem exceção mostram-se sempre desfavoráveis à população negra. A interpretação sistemática da Lei nº 7.716/89, diante das normas gerais do processo penal brasileiro, esvaziam a pretensão formulada pelo constituinte originário em apenar com rigor a ofensa ao bem jurídico especialmente relevante do direito a igualdade, por tratar-se de direito fundamental. No entanto, a sociedade brasileira, mesmo diante dessa inexplicável evidência no tratamento diferenciado aos seus cidadãos em razão da raça, demonstra apatia e não se importar com esta questão. Palavras-chave: Racismo, Mandado, Criminalização, Proteção, Insuficiência. ABSTRACT The inefficiency of combat against the racist behavior in Brazil it is the result of inadequacy of ordinary legislation put even in the face of express Warrant Criminalization of the Federal Constitution. Consequently, the omission of the state encourages the occurrence of racism. Proof of this are the indices of human development, without exception show always unfavorable to the black population. The systematic interpretation of Law No. 7.716/89, according to brazilian processual criminal code, the claim made by original constituent to accurately the offense and the legal especially relevant for the right to equality, because it is fundamental right. However, Brazilian society, even in the face of this evidence of this unexplained differential treatment to its citizens with different race, shows apathy and not caring about this question. Keywords: Racism, Warrant, Criminalization, Protection, Inefficiency.
Reality Checks: The state of civil society organizations in Ethiopia. ... limit the space for CSOs working on human rights and governance and it is legitimate and ... This paper contains contextualized arguments based on empirical data as reality ...
... COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Limitations § 104.61 Limitation on civil actions. (a) General. Section 405(c)(3)(B) of the Act provides that upon the submission of a claim under the Fund, the claimant waives the right...
was the opening to the debate that has been a constant in a identitary formation of the United States: the implicit and explicit dynamics which show the racism in the contemporaneous world. And, despite the struggle done by Martin Luther King and Abraham Lincoln, it questions until what point this practice have finished and contrary how big sectors of the society legitimize the exclusion of differences. For this reason, from theories of Charles Darwin and Harbert Spencer (Social Darwinism and racial determinism with the postmodern approach of the International Relations, we make an analysis of the subtlest forms of social and racial exclusion. Taking into account the challenges presented by those topics in the present.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Patient Safety and Quality Improvement: Civil Money... Civil Rights has determined that an adjustment to the maximum civil money penalty amount for violations... confidentiality and privilege protections of Patient Safety Work Product (PSWP), and procedures for enforcement...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties: Waiver of hearing, reduction... Civil money penalties: Waiver of hearing, reduction of penalty amount. (a) Waiver of a hearing. The... the civil money penalty. (b) Reduction of penalty amount. (1) If the facility waives its right to a...
This Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (CMPS) is published and maintained at : the direction of the Program Manager for Civil Applications, Global Positioning Systems : Wing (GPSW). The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive ...
Full Text Available This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.
Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann
The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.
Bacon, Kathryn L; Stuver, Sherri O; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A
Our aim was to assess the association of perceived racism with type 2 diabetes, and the possible mediating influence of diet and BMI. The Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up of 59,000 African-American women, began in 1995. Over 16 years 5344 incident cases of diabetes occurred during 576,577 person-years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimated HRs and 95% CIs for categories of 'everyday racism' (interpersonal racism in daily life) and 'lifetime racism' (reporting ever treated unfairly due to race with respect to police, housing or work) and incident type 2 diabetes. Models were adjusted for age, questionnaire cycle, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, family history of diabetes, physical activity, alcohol use and smoking status, with and without inclusion of terms for dietary patterns and adult BMI. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of exposure, women in the highest quartile of exposure to everyday racism had a 31% increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.20, 1.42) and women with the highest exposure to lifetime racism had a 16% increased risk (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05, 1.27). Mediation analysis estimated that BMI accounted for half of the association between either the everyday or lifetime racism measure and incident diabetes. Perceived everyday and lifetime racism were associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in this cohort of African-American women and appear to be at least partly mediated by BMI.
Smith, Timothy B.
The study and measurement of attitudes toward racial and ethnic groups are important parts of the field of cross-cultural psychology. The present study examined a theory of racial attitudes, that of symbolic racism, and several demographic variables. The sample population consisted of 575 Caucasians and 122 Far-East Asian college students. Results indicated that Symbolic Racism is a unique theoretical construct, that Caucasian students were less racially biased than their Asian peers, and tha...
O'Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael
Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.
Rutilio Martinez; Cris de la Torre
Since the mid nineteen nineties most Latin American nations have implemented free market policies. The ensuing economic stability has attracted investment from non-Latin corporations, thereby causing the transfer of non-Latin executives to Latin nations. For many of these executives, their Latin assignments include an unexpected challenge: Dealing with Latin America’s subtle but pervasive racism. Such racism contributes to the mistreatment of labor and influences the promotion and hiring of e...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty. This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. RESULTS: After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58 was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46, which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns. CONCLUSIONS: Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.
Hardeman, Rachel R; Murphy, Katy A; Karbeah, J'Mag; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes
Although a range of factors shapes health and well-being, institutionalized racism (societal allocation of privilege based on race) plays an important role in generating inequities by race. The goal of this analysis was to review the contemporary peer-reviewed public health literature from 2002-2015 to determine whether the concept of institutionalized racism was named (ie, explicitly mentioned) and whether it was a core concept in the article. We used a systematic literature review methodology to find articles from the top 50 highest-impact journals in each of 6 categories (249 journals in total) that most closely represented the public health field, were published during 2002-2015, were US focused, were indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE and/or Ovid/MEDLINE, and mentioned terms relating to institutionalized racism in their titles or abstracts. We analyzed the content of these articles for the use of related terms and concepts. We found only 25 articles that named institutionalized racism in the title or abstract among all articles published in the public health literature during 2002-2015 in the 50 highest-impact journals and 6 categories representing the public health field in the United States. Institutionalized racism was a core concept in 16 of the 25 articles. Although institutionalized racism is recognized as a fundamental cause of health inequities, it was not often explicitly named in the titles or abstracts of articles published in the public health literature during 2002-2015. Our results highlight the need to explicitly name institutionalized racism in articles in the public health literature and to make it a central concept in inequities research. More public health research on institutionalized racism could help efforts to overcome its substantial, longstanding effects on health and well-being.
O’Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael
Objective Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. Method The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. Results After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Conclusions Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites’ paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions. PMID:24204867
Riley, Alicia R
A recent surge of interest in identifying the health effects of structural racism has coincided with the ongoing attention to neighborhood effects in both epidemiology and sociology. Mindful of these currents in the literature, it makes sense that we are seeing an emergent tendency in health disparities research to operationalize structural racism as either neighborhood disadvantage or racial residential segregation. This review essay synthesizes findings on the relevance of neighborhood disadvantage and residential segregation to the study of structural racism and health. It then draws on recent literature to propose four lessons for moving beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches in the study of structural racism and health. These lessons are (1) to shift the focus of research from census tracts to theoretically meaningful units of analysis, (2) to leverage historic and geographic variation in race relations, (3) to combine data from multiple sources, and (4) to challenge normative framing that aims to explain away racial health disparities without discussing racism or racial hierarchy. The author concludes that research on the health effects of structural racism should go beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches if it is to guide intervention to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities.
Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci; Paradies, Yin
Although racism has been posited as driver of racial/ethnic inequities in healthcare, the relationship between racism and health service use and experience has yet to be systematically reviewed or meta-analysed. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of quantitative empirical studies that report associations between self-reported racism and various measures of healthcare service utilisation. Data were reviewed and extracted from 83 papers reporting 70 studies. Studies included 250,850 participants and were conducted predominately in the U.S. The meta-analysis included 59 papers reporting 52 studies, which were analysed using random effects models and mean weighted effect sizes. Racism was associated with more negative patient experiences of health services (HSU-E) (OR = 0.351 (95% CI [0.236,0.521], k = 19), including lower levels of healthcare-related trust, satisfaction, and communication. Racism was not associated with health service use (HSU-U) as an outcome group, and was not associated with most individual HSU-U outcomes, including having had examinations, health service visits and admissions to health professionals and services. Racism was associated with health service use outcomes such as delaying/not getting healthcare, and lack of adherence to treatment uptake, although these effects may be influenced by a small sample of studies, and publication bias, respectively. Limitations to the literature reviewed in terms of study designs, sampling methods and measurements are discussed along with suggested future directions in the field. PMID:29253855
Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L
African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.
Ben, Jehonathan; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci; Paradies, Yin
Although racism has been posited as driver of racial/ethnic inequities in healthcare, the relationship between racism and health service use and experience has yet to be systematically reviewed or meta-analysed. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of quantitative empirical studies that report associations between self-reported racism and various measures of healthcare service utilisation. Data were reviewed and extracted from 83 papers reporting 70 studies. Studies included 250,850 participants and were conducted predominately in the U.S. The meta-analysis included 59 papers reporting 52 studies, which were analysed using random effects models and mean weighted effect sizes. Racism was associated with more negative patient experiences of health services (HSU-E) (OR = 0.351 (95% CI [0.236,0.521], k = 19), including lower levels of healthcare-related trust, satisfaction, and communication. Racism was not associated with health service use (HSU-U) as an outcome group, and was not associated with most individual HSU-U outcomes, including having had examinations, health service visits and admissions to health professionals and services. Racism was associated with health service use outcomes such as delaying/not getting healthcare, and lack of adherence to treatment uptake, although these effects may be influenced by a small sample of studies, and publication bias, respectively. Limitations to the literature reviewed in terms of study designs, sampling methods and measurements are discussed along with suggested future directions in the field.
... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0131; Notice 1] RIN 2127-AL16 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposes to increase the maximum civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements... and consumer information provisions. Specifically, this proposes increases in maximum civil penalty...
... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0114; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AK78 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for related series of violations of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety... Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection...
... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0066; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AK40 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements involving school buses, bumper... theft protection requirements. This action is taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty...
... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0131; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AL16 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements for the National Traffic and... provisions. Specifically, this increases the maximum civil penalty amounts for single violations of motor...
... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0114; Notice 1] RIN 2127-AK78 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposes to increase the maximum civil penalty amounts for violations covering a related series of... action would be taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as...
Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Antonio, Mapuana C K; Ing, Claire K Townsend; Hermosura, Andrea; Hall, Kimberly E; Knight, Rebecca; Wills, Thomas A
Studies have linked perceived racism to psychological distress via certain coping strategies in several different racial and ethnic groups, but few of these studies included indigenous populations. Elucidating modifiable factors for intervention to reduce the adverse effects of racism on psychological well-being is another avenue to addressing health inequities. We examined the potential mediating effects of 14 distinct coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress in a community-based sample of 145 Native Hawaiians using structural equation modeling. Perceived racism had a significant indirect effect on psychological distress, mediated through venting and behavioral disengagement coping strategies, with control for age, gender, educational level, and marital status. The findings suggest that certain coping strategies may exacerbate the deleterious effects of racism on a person's psychological well-being. Our study adds Native Hawaiians to the list of U.S. racial and ethnic minorities whose psychological well-being is adversely affected by racism.
The civil union between persons of the same sex is analyzed in this essay through the discussion of the roots of the anti-homosexual prejudice and the fight for the citizenship of gays, lesbians and transgenders in Brazil, and through listing the different manifestations of homofobia in our social environment. We deconstruct the contrary opinions against the homosexual marriage, justifying with etho-historical evidences the extending of equal rights to the couples of the same s...
Coogan, Patricia F; Yu, Jeffrey; O'Connor, George T; Brown, Timothy A; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn
Chronic stress resulting from experiences of racism may increase the incidence of adult-onset asthma through effects on the immune system and the airways. We conducted prospective analyses of the relation of experiences of racism with asthma incidence in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort of black women in the United States followed since 1995 with mailed biennial questionnaires. Among 38,142 participants followed from 1997 to 2011, 1,068 reported incident asthma. An everyday racism score was created based on five questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency in daily life of experiences of racism (eg, poor service in stores), and a lifetime racism score was based on questions about racism on the job, in housing, and by police. We used Cox regression models to derive multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs for categories of each racism score in relation to incident asthma. The IRRs were 1.45 (95% CI, 1.19-1.78) for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of the 1997 everyday racism score (P for trendracism. Among women who reported the same levels of racism in 1997 and 2009, the IRRs for the highest categories of everyday and lifetime racism were 2.12 (95% CI, 1.55-2.91) and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.20-2.30), respectively. Given the high prevalence of experiences of racism and asthma in black women in the United States, a positive association between racism and asthma is of public health importance.
Duran González, Javier
Full Text Available ResumenAunque el problema del racismo parecía haber sido superado en Europa, recientes sucesos como la emisión de sonidos simiescos contra jugadores negros, cánticos anti-semitas e incluso la utilización de eslóganes y símbolos racistas de la extrema derecha parecen mostrar lo contrario. En este sentido la alarma parece haberse disparado en España. Este artículo muestra la política de actuación que se ha implantado en nuestro país para luchar contra este problema traducida en la creación del Observatorio contra el Racismo y la Violencia en el Deporte. Los contenidos han sido estructurados en una introducción sobre las líneas de intervención en el marco del racismo y el deporte en general incidiendo sobre algunas de las principales dificultades con las que nos enfrentamos a la hora de intervenir en este marco; la presentación de las políticas de actuación europeas y los órganos responsables en la lucha y prevención del racismo dentro del fútbol; las actuaciones específicas que se han adoptado sobre este respecto en España materializadas a través de la creación del Observatorio del Racismo y la Violencia en el Deporte el 22 de diciembre de 2004 dentro de la Comisión Nacional contra la Violencia en los Espectáculos Deportivos y las medidas adoptadas; concluyendo con algunas recomendaciones para asegurar la eficacia en la lucha contra el racismo en el deporte en España.AbstractAlthough the problem of the racism seemed to have been overcome in Europe, recent events like the emission of monkey sounds against black players, anti-Semitic songs and even the use of slogans and racist symbols of the extreme right seem to show the opposite. In this sense, the alarm has raised in Spain. This article shows the politic proceedings that have been implanted in this country to fight against this problem, leading to the formation of the Observatory against Racism and Violence in Sport. The paper have been structured into an introduction
Director Departamento de Obras Civiles
Full Text Available Es la unidad académica que se crea como estructura básica para la formación profesional del Constructor Civil. El departamento está orientado a las siguientes áreas: Obras Viales, Fluviales y Marítimas; Hormigones y Mecánica de Suelos; Laboratorios y Control de Calidad; Planificación y Programación; Administración; Organización y Gestión Financiera, conocimientos insertos en un total de 33 asignaturas, prácticas y seminarios siendo equivalentes a más de 100 créditos, lo cual representa un 42% del total de las asignaturas correspondientes al Plan de Estudios de la Carrera de Construcción Civil.
Gustavo Bordes Leone
Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.
Jackson, F M; Phillips, M T; Hogue, C J; Curry-Owens, T Y
As investigators increasingly identify racism as a risk factor for poor health outcomes (with implications for adverse birth outcomes), research efforts must explore individual experiences with and responses to racism. In this study, our aim was to determine how African American college-educated women experience racism that is linked to their identities and roles as African American women (gendered racism). Four hundred seventy-four (474) African American women collaborated in an iterative research process that included focus groups, interviews, and the administration of a pilot stress instrument developed from the qualitative data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data from the responses of a subsample of 167 college-educated women was conducted to determine how the women experienced racism as a stressor. The responses of the women and the results from correlational analysis revealed that a felt sense of obligations for protecting children from racism and the racism that African American women encountered in the workplace were significant stressors. Strong associations were found between pilot scale items where the women acknowledged concerns for their abilities to provide for their children's needs and to the women's specific experiences with racism in the workplace (r = 0.408, p gendered racism that precede and accompany pregnancy may be risk factors for adverse birth outcomes.
A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.
Judicialização da política e Sistema Interamericano de Direitos Humanos: uma investigação empírica da atuação das organizações da sociedade civil / Judicialization of Politics and Inter-American Human Rights system
Carolina Alves Vestena
ção destes mecanismos de controle social pela sociedade civil organizada. Palavras-chave: Sistema Interamericano de Direitos Humanos, Judicialização da Política, Pesquisa Empírica, Organizações não governamentais. Abstract This article brings analysis on the third stage of the research lead by the group Human Rights, Judiciary and Society – DHPJS (in portuguese – about the justice system and the performance of its agents in Rio de Janeiro. Its focus is set on the usage of international human rights laws by national courts. During previous stages, judges (both of district and circuit courts were interviewed and asked about the usage of such norms in their decision-making process and about their education on the theme. This time, attention is brought to those recurring to the system, especially when organized collectively in civil associations. Our hypothesis sustains that judicial courts have been looked for as locations for disputes, both in an internal perspective (which may be proved by many theoretical outlooks as in an international one. The phenomenon identified in the national arena can be interpreted in the context of regional protection system for Human Rights: the Inter-American Court and Commission may be developing into a “para-judicial” stage in the concretization of those rights. This second hypothesis may be spoken of theoretically and proven empirically so as to check if civil organizations are used to turning their social struggles into cases before the mentioned system. The empirical research lead by the group supplies data for reflections on the hypothesis aside from showing threads to pursue. The group talked to 36 NGOs registered on ABONG – Brazilian Association of Non-Governmental Organizations –who aim at Human Rights protection so as to gather information on their articulation with both the national justice system and the regional one. The article presents possible connections between judicialization of politics and the regional
McCluney, Courtney L; Schmitz, Lauren L; Hicken, Margaret T; Sonnega, Amanda
Structural racism has been linked to racial health inequalities and may operate through an unequal labor market that results in inequalities in psychosocial workplace environments (PWE). Experiences of the PWE may be a critical but understudied source of racial health disparities as most adults spend a large portion of their lives in the workplace, and work-related stress affects health outcomes. Further, it is not clear if the objective characteristics of the workplace are important for health inequalities or if these inequalities are driven by the perception of the workplace. Using data from the 2008 to 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a probability-based sample of US adults 50 years of age and older and the Department of Labor's Occupational Information Network (O*NET), we examine the role of both standardized, objective (O*NET) and survey-based, subjective (as in HRS) measures of PWEs on health and Black-White health inequalities. We find that Blacks experience more stressful PWEs and have poorer health as measured by self-rated health, episodic memory function, and mean arterial pressure. Mediation analyses suggest that these objective O*NET ratings, but not the subjective perceptions, partially explain the relationship between race and health. We discuss these results within the extant literature on workplace and health and health inequalities. Furthermore, we discuss the use of standardized objective measures of the PWE to capture racial inequalities in workplace environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karmali, Francine; Kawakami, Kerry; Page-Gould, Elizabeth
Responses to outgroup racism can have serious implications for the perpetuation of bias, yet research examining this process is rare. The present research investigated self-reported, physiological, and cognitive responses among "experiencers" who witnessed and "forecasters" who imagined a racist comment targeting an outgroup member. Although previous research indicates that experiencers self-reported less distress and chose a racist partner more often than forecasters, the present results explored the possibility that experiencers may actually be distressed in such situation but regulate their initial affective reactions. The results from Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants in both roles showed (a) no activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal stress axis (decreased cortisol) and (b) activation of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (increased skin conductance). However, experiencers but not forecasters displayed a physiological profile indicative of an orienting response (decreased heart rate and increased skin conductance) rather than a defensive response (increased heart rate and increased skin conductance). Furthermore, the results from Experiment 2 provided additional evidence that experiencers are not distressed or regulating their emotional responses. In particular, experiencers showed less cognitive impairment on a Stroop task than forecasters. Together these findings indicate that when people actually encounter outgroup bias, they respond with apathy and do not censure the racist. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The Eastern Partnership (EaP launched in 2009 as the Eastern dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy introduced the civil society as a new strategic actor in the EU's relations with Eastern Partnership countries. The civil society‟s role is to participate in policy making, to suggest new initiatives and to promote shared values of partnership, such as: democracy, promoting better governance, state law, sustainable development, respect for human rights and for the fundamental freedoms. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, we analyse the role of the civil society in the EaP and we ask whether the increasing role of the civil society in the EaP will lead to the success of this project. In the second part, we analyse the perceptions and the attitudes of civil society towards European integration.
《杀死一只知更鸟》是一部描述美国种族歧视的作品。通过对小说中两个女性人物Aunt Alexan-dra和Scout的比较,可以更清晰的体现出美国内战以后人们对黑人的态度转变：从极度的歧视到理解性的接受。%To Kill a Mocking Bird is a work which successfully described racism in America. This paper makes a comparative analysis of two female characters： Aunt Alexandra and Scout. The comparisons of these two female characters illustrate the great change from racism to acceptance towards the blacks in America after the Civil War.
Europeanul Costa-Foru şi Liga drepturilor Omului şi ale Cetăţenilor pentru integrarea Basarabiei în viaţa politică a României după 1918 / European Costa-Foru and the League for Human and Civil Rights in the integration of Bessarabia into the political life of Romania after 1918
C.G. Costa-Foru (1856-1935) was an outstanding personality of the Romanian culture, well-known journalist, lawyer, human rights activist and secretary of the League for Human and Civil Rights (1923-1929), the founder of the Committee on Amnesty (1928-1929) and the Bloc for Defense of Democratic Freedoms (1935). As a vice-president of the General Association of the Romanian Press, founded December 2, 1918 in Bucharest, C.G. Costa-Foru had an audience with the king and boldly expressed to him h...