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Sample records for racially segregated public

  1. School Segregation and Racial Academic Achievement Gaps

    Sean F. Reardon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is clear that racial segregation is linked to academic achievement gaps, the mechanisms underlying this link have been debated since James Coleman published his eponymous 1966 report. In this paper, I examine sixteen distinct measures of segregation to determine which is most strongly associated with academic achievement gaps. I find clear evidence that one aspect of segregation in particular—the disparity in average school poverty rates between white and black students’ schools—is consistently the single most powerful correlate of achievement gaps, a pattern that holds in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. This implies that high-poverty schools are, on average, much less effective than lower-poverty schools and suggests that strategies that reduce the differential exposure of black, Hispanic, and white students to poor schoolmates may lead to meaningful reductions in academic achievement gaps.

  2. Seeing Race: Teaching Residential Segregation with the Racial Dot Map

    Seguin, Charles; Nierobisz, Annette; Kozlowski, Karen Phelan

    2017-01-01

    Students commonly hold erroneous notions of a "post-racial" world and individualistic worldviews that discount the role of structure in social outcomes. Jointly, these two preconceived beliefs can be powerful barriers to effective teaching of racial segregation: Students may be skeptical that racial segregation continues to exist, and…

  3. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis.

    Rugh, Jacob S; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-10-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble.

  4. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973

  5. Racial segregation patterns in selective universities

    Peter Arcidiacono; Esteban M. Aucejo; Andrew Hussey; Kenneth Spenner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines sorting into interracial friendships at selective universities. We show significant friendship segregation, particularly for blacks. Indeed, blacks' friendships are no more diverse in college than in high school, despite the fact that the colleges that blacks attend have substantially smaller black populations. We demonstrate that the segregation patterns occur in part because affirmative action results in large differences in the academic backgrounds of students of differ...

  6. The Connection between Worship Attendance and Racial Segregation Attitudes among White and Black Americans

    R. Khari Brown

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study finds that, for Whites, worship attendance is associated with heightened support for racial segregation. This has much to do with the fact that the individuals that attend worship service the least, secular and young adults, tend to be more racially progressive. That is, the extent to which secular and Generation X and Y individuals attend worship services as often as others, worship attendance is associated with weakened opposition to racial segregation. Conversely, worship attendance, religious affiliation, and age cohort are largely unrelated to Black racial segregation attitudes.

  7. A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010

    Flaxman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…

  8. Racial Residential Segregation: Measuring Location Choice Attributes of Environmental Quality and Self-Segregation

    Zhaohua Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Both sorting on public goods and tastes for segregation contribute to the persistence of segregation in America. Incorporating Schelling’s (1969, 1971 concept of “neighborhood tipping” into a two-stage equilibrium sorting model, in which both neighborhood demographic composition and public goods (e.g., environmental quality affect households’ residential location choice, this study investigates how preferences for neighborhood demographic composition could obscure the role of exogenous public goods on segregation. The results reveal that non-white households face higher level of exposure to air pollution, suggesting the presence of environmental injustice in Franklin County, OH. Using a counterfactual scenario of switching off heterogeneous taste for environmental quality, this study identifies that sorting on Toxic Release Inventory (TRI emissions drives little correlations between emissions and demographics. However, when taste parameters of the interactions between neighborhood demographic composition and household race are eliminated, segregation (as measured by over-exposure to households of the same race of black and white households decreases by 7.63% and 16.36%, respectively, and own-race neighbor preferences contribute to segregation differently according to household income. These results may help explain some recent puzzles in the relationship between environmental quality and demographics.

  9. The Impact of the Louisiana Scholarship Program on Racial Segregation in Louisiana Schools. Louisiana Scholarship Program Evaluation Report #3. Technical Report

    Egalite, Anna J.; Mills, Jonathan N.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    The question of how school choice programs affect the racial stratification of schools is highly salient in the field of education policy. We use a student-level panel data set to analyze the impacts of the Louisiana Scholarship Program (LSP) on racial segregation in public and private schools. This targeted school voucher program provides funding…

  10. Racial residential segregation, socioeconomic disparities, and the White-Black survival gap

    Duffy, Erin; Mendelsohn, Joshua; Escarce, José J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between racial residential segregation, a prominent manifestation of systemic racism, and the White-Black survival gap in a contemporary cohort of adults, and to assess the extent to which socioeconomic inequality explains this association. Design This was a cross sectional study of White and Black men and women aged 35–75 living in 102 large US Core Based Statistical Areas. The main outcome was the White-Black survival gap. We used 2009–2013 CDC mortality data for Black and White men and women to calculate age-, sex- and race adjusted White and Black mortality rates. We measured segregation using the Dissimilarity index, obtained from the Manhattan Institute. We used the 2009–2013 American Community Survey to define indicators of socioeconomic inequality. We estimated the CBSA-level White–Black gap in probability of survival using sequential linear regression models accounting for the CBSA dissimilarity index and race-specific socioeconomic indicators. Results Black men and women had a 14% and 9% lower probability of survival from age 35 to 75 than their white counterparts. Residential segregation was strongly associated with the survival gap, and this relationship was partly, but not fully, explained by socioeconomic inequality. At the lowest observed level of segregation, and with the Black socioeconomic status (SES) assumed to be at the White SES level scenario, the survival gap is essentially eliminated. Conclusion White-Black differences in survival remain wide notwithstanding public health efforts to improve life expectancy and initiatives to reduce health disparities. Eliminating racial residential segregation and bringing Black socioeconomic status (SES) to White SES levels would eliminate the White-Black survival gap. PMID:29474451

  11. Racial residential segregation, socioeconomic disparities, and the White-Black survival gap.

    Ioana Popescu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association between racial residential segregation, a prominent manifestation of systemic racism, and the White-Black survival gap in a contemporary cohort of adults, and to assess the extent to which socioeconomic inequality explains this association.This was a cross sectional study of White and Black men and women aged 35-75 living in 102 large US Core Based Statistical Areas. The main outcome was the White-Black survival gap. We used 2009-2013 CDC mortality data for Black and White men and women to calculate age-, sex- and race adjusted White and Black mortality rates. We measured segregation using the Dissimilarity index, obtained from the Manhattan Institute. We used the 2009-2013 American Community Survey to define indicators of socioeconomic inequality. We estimated the CBSA-level White-Black gap in probability of survival using sequential linear regression models accounting for the CBSA dissimilarity index and race-specific socioeconomic indicators.Black men and women had a 14% and 9% lower probability of survival from age 35 to 75 than their white counterparts. Residential segregation was strongly associated with the survival gap, and this relationship was partly, but not fully, explained by socioeconomic inequality. At the lowest observed level of segregation, and with the Black socioeconomic status (SES assumed to be at the White SES level scenario, the survival gap is essentially eliminated.White-Black differences in survival remain wide notwithstanding public health efforts to improve life expectancy and initiatives to reduce health disparities. Eliminating racial residential segregation and bringing Black socioeconomic status (SES to White SES levels would eliminate the White-Black survival gap.

  12. Residential segregation and birth weight among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States.

    Walton, Emily

    2009-12-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel analyses to examine the associations of residential isolation and clustering with birth weight among Asian, black, and Latino Americans using data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Natality Files and the U.S. Census. Findings indicate that segregation has a negative effect on the likelihood of having a low birth weight baby among Asian Americans, suggesting a possible concentration of social and structural resources in highly-segregated communities. On the contrary, segregation marginally increases the odds of low birth weight among African Americans, but only in the presence of higher poverty rates. Segregation does not affect birth weight among Latino Americans.

  13. Are Public School Teacher Salaries Paid Compensating Wage Differentials for Student Racial and Ethnic Characteristics?

    Martin, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between public school teacher salaries and the racial concentration and segregation of students in the district. A particularly rich set of control variables is included to better measure the effect of racial characteristics. Additional analyses included Metropolitan Statistical Area fixed effects and…

  14. Racial Residential Segregation of School-Age Children and Adults: The Role of Schooling as a Segregating Force

    Ann Owens

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhoods are critical contexts for children’s well-being, but differences in neighborhood inequality among children and adults are understudied. I document racial segregation between neighborhoods among school-age children and adults in 2000 and 2010 and find that though the racial composition of children’s and adults’ neighborhoods is similar, exposure to own-age neighbors varies. Compared with adults’ exposure to other adults, children are exposed to fewer white and more minority, particularly Hispanic, children. This is due in part to compositional differences, but children are also more unevenly sorted across neighborhoods by race than adults. One explanation for higher segregation among children is that parents consider school options when making residential choices. Consistent with this hypothesis, I find that school district boundaries account for a larger proportion of neighborhood segregation among children than among adults. Future research on spatial inequality must consider the multiple contexts differentially contributing to inequality among children and adults.

  15. Freedom from Racial Barriers: The Empirical Evidence on Vouchers and Segregation. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available studies using valid empirical methods to compare segregation in public and private schools, both in general and in the context of school voucher programs. Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this report…

  16. An Exploration of Teacher Attrition and Mobility in High Poverty Racially Segregated Schools

    Djonko-Moore, Cara M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mobility (movement to a new school) and attrition (quitting teaching) patterns of teachers in high poverty, racially segregated (HPRS) schools in the US. Using 2007-9 survey data from the National Center for Education Statistics, a multi-level multinomial logistic regression was performed to examine the…

  17. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  18. School Choice and Segregation: "Tracking" Racial Equity in Magnet Schools

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2014-01-01

    Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…

  19. Post-Slavery? Post-Segregation? Post-Racial? A History of the Impact of Slavery, Segregation, and Racism on the Education of African Americans

    Span, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter details how slavery, segregation, and racism impacted the educational experiences of African Americans from the colonial era to the present. It argues that America has yet to be a truly post-slavery and post-segregation society, let alone a post-racial society.

  20. Associations of neighborhood-level racial residential segregation with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Salow, Arturo D; Pool, Lindsay R; Grobman, William A; Kershaw, Kiarri N

    2018-03-01

    Previous analyses utilizing birth certificate data have shown environmental factors such as racial residential segregation may contribute to disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, birth certificate data are ill equipped to reliably differentiate among small for gestational age, spontaneous preterm birth, and medically indicated preterm birth. We sought to utilize data from electronic medical records to determine whether residential segregation among Black women is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study population was composed of 4770 non-Hispanic Black women who delivered during the years 2009 through 2013 at a single urban medical center. Addresses were geocoded at the level of census tract, and this tract was used to determine the degree of residential segregation for an individual's neighborhood. Residential segregation was measured using the Gi* statistic, a z-score that measures the extent to which the neighborhood racial composition deviates from the composition of the larger surrounding area. The Gi* statistic z-scores were categorized as follows: low (z  1.96). Adverse pregnancy outcomes included overall preterm birth, spontaneous preterm birth, medically indicated preterm birth, and small for gestational age. Hierarchical logistic regression models accounting for clustering by census tract and repeated births among mothers were used to estimate odds ratios of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with segregation. In high segregation areas, the prevalence of overall preterm birth was significantly higher than that in low segregation areas (15.5% vs 10.7%, respectively; P < .001). Likewise, the prevalence of spontaneous preterm birth and medically indicated preterm birth were higher in high (9.5% and 6.0%) vs low (6.2% and 4.6%) segregation neighborhoods (P < .001 and P = .046, respectively). The associations of high segregation with overall preterm birth (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1

  1. Managing racial integration in South African public schools: In ...

    The paper explores what racial integration is. Furthermore, it scrutinises how racial integration is currently managed in South African Public schools. The main argument of the paper defends a deliberative conception of managing racial integration in South African public schools. In light of this, there is some form of hope to ...

  2. Racial and Economic Diversity in U.S. Public Montessori Schools

    Mira Catherine Debs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As public Montessori schools rapidly expand through the United States, the question then arises: What population of students do the schools serve? This study presents a new empirical data set examining the racial and economic diversity of 300 whole-school, public Montessori programs open in 2012–2013, where the entire school uses the Montessori Method. While school-choice scholars are concerned that choice programs like Montessori lead to greater student segregation by race and social class, this study finds a variety of outcomes for public Montessori. Public Montessori as a sector has strengths in student racial and socioeconomic diversity, but it also has diversity challenges, particularly among Montessori charters. The study concludes with recommended strategies for public Montessori schools to enroll a racially and economically diverse student body.

  3. Patterns of Intergroup Contact in Public Spaces: Micro-Ecology of Segregation in Australian Communities

    Naomi Priest

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of public spaces can promote social cohesion and facilitate interpersonal interactions within the community. However, the ways racial and ethnic groups interact in public spaces can also reflect and influence informal segregation in the wider community. The present study aimed to examine patterns of intergroup contact within public spaces in Victoria, Australia through short-term observation in four localities. Data were collected on within-group, intergroup and absence of contact for people from minority and majority groups. A total of 974 contacts were observed. Findings indicate that in the observed public spaces, people from visible minority groups tended to have no contact with others or to interact with people from other ethnic/racial groups. In contrast, those from the majority group tended to interact predominately with other majority group members. This suggests that majority group members are more likely to ‘self-segregate’ in public spaces than those from minority groups.

  4. Do measures matter? Comparing surface-density-derived and census-tract-derived measures of racial residential segregation

    Waller Lance A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial residential segregation is hypothesized to affect population health by systematically patterning health-relevant exposures and opportunities according to individuals' race or income. Growing interest into the association between residential segregation and health disparities demands more rigorous appraisal of commonly used measures of segregation. Most current studies rely on census tracts as approximations of the local residential environment when calculating segregation indices of either neighborhoods or metropolitan areas. Because census tracts are arbitrary in size and shape, reliance on this geographic scale limits understanding of place-health associations. More flexible, explicitly spatial derivations of traditional segregation indices have been proposed but have not been compared with tract-derived measures in the context of health disparities studies common to social epidemiology, health demography, or medical geography. We compared segregation measured with tract-derived as well as GIS surface-density-derived indices. Measures were compared by region and population size, and segregation measures were linked to birth record to estimate the difference in association between segregation and very preterm birth. Separate analyses focus on metropolitan segregation and on neighborhood segregation. Results Across 231 metropolitan areas, tract-derived and surface-density-derived segregation measures are highly correlated. However overall correlation obscures important differences by region and metropolitan size. In general the discrepancy between measure types is greatest for small metropolitan areas, declining with increasing population size. Discrepancies in measures are greatest in the South, and smallest in Western metropolitan areas. Choice of segregation index changed the magnitude of the measured association between segregation and very preterm birth. For example among black women, the risk ratio for very

  5. Is Opportunity Knocking or Slipping Away? Racial Diversity and Segregation in Pennsylvania

    Kotok, Stephen; Reed, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Pennsylvania has struggled to integrate its public schools, especially with much of the racial diversity concentrated in urban regions. Starting in the 1960s, the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission (PHRC) was the state's enforcing body to combat school desegregation, but since the early 1980s, when it comes to education, the…

  6. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  7. Gender & Racial Inequality at Work: The Sources & Consequences of Job Segregation. Cornell Studies in Industrial and Labor Relations Number 27.

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald

    This book proposes that job-level segregation by sex and race is a fundamentally important source of black-white and male-female inequalities in employment. Drawing on the North Carolina Employment and Health Survey, the first general population survey that measures the gender and racial compositions of jobs, the book explores this thesis in the…

  8. Blacked Out: Racial and Gender Segregation in Gifted Education 60 Years after "Brown vs. Board of Education"

    Ford, Donna Y.; King, Robert A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the under-representation of African American students in gifted education, with attention to how representation differs for Black males and females. We contend that social injustices (e.g., prejudice and discrimination) contribute to racially segregated gifted education classes (Ford, 2013b). For support, gifted…

  9. Black Gold, White Power: Mapping Oil, Real Estate, and Racial Segregation in the Los Angeles Basin, 1900-1939

    Daniel G. Cumming

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1923, Southern California produced over twenty percent of the world’s oil. At the epicenter of an oil boom from 1892 to the 1930s, Los Angeles grew into the nation’s fifth largest city. By the end of the rush, it had also become one of the most racially segregated cities in the country. Historians have overlooked the relationship between industrialists drilling for oil and real estate developers codifying a racist housing market, namely through “redlining” maps and mortgage lending. While redlining is typically understood as a problem of horizontal territory, this paper argues that the mapping of the underground—the location and volume of subterranean oil fields, in particular—was a crucial technique in underwriting urban apartheid. Mapping technologies linked oil exploitation with restrictive property rights, constructing oil as a resource and vertically engineering a racialized housing market. By focusing on petro-industrialization interlocked with segregationist housing, this article reveals an unexamined chapter in Los Angeles’s history of resource exploitation and racial capitalism. Moreover, it contributes to a growing literature on the social production of resources, extractive technology and political exclusion, and the technoscientific practices used by states and corporations to mine the underground while constructing metropolitan inequality above ground.

  10. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts. CEPA Working Paper No. 16-04

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in "income" segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over…

  11. 76 FR 22414 - Amended Proposed Withdrawal, Notice of Public Meetings, Partial Termination of Segregative Effect...

    2011-04-21

    ... Withdrawal, Notice of Public Meetings, Partial Termination of Segregative Effect; Arizona, California... the proposed SEZs to include some additional lands. It also terminates the segregative effect as to... proposal is cancelled and the segregative effect established by the June 30, 2009, Notice of Proposed...

  12. School Context Matters: The Impacts of Concentrated Poverty and Racial Segregation on Childhood Obesity

    Piontak, Joy Rayanne; Schulman, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are important sites for interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This study examines how variables measuring the socioeconomic and racial composition of schools and counties affect the likelihood of obesity among third to fifth grade children. Methods: Body mass index data were collected from third to fifth grade public…

  13. The Role of Residential Segregation in Explaining Racial Gaps in Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

    Ryabov, Igor

    2018-01-01

    The present study used nationally representative data from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) merged with census-track data from the American Community Survey (ACS) to model race-ethnic disparities in overweight, obesity, and obesity-related disease among children and adolescents as a function of neighborhood race-ethnic segregation,…

  14. Racial Segregation Patterns in Selective Universities. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1219

    Arcidiacono, Peter; Aucejo, Esteban; Hussey, Andrew; Spenner, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines sorting into interracial friendships at selective universities. We show significant friendship segregation, particularly for blacks. Indeed, black friendships are no more diverse in college than in high school despite the colleges blacks attend having substantially smaller black populations. We show that part of the reason for…

  15. The Changing Urban Landscape: Interconnections Between Racial/Ethnic Segregation and Exposure in the Study of Race-Specific Violence Over Time.

    Parker, Karen F; Stansfield, Richard

    2015-09-01

    We investigated how racial/ethnic shifts in the urban landscape influence race-specific violence by considering changes in the size of the Hispanic population, racial/ethnic contact, and racial segregation patterns. We used a time-series approach incorporating 4 decennial periods (1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010) to determine whether racial/ethnic demographic changes in 144 US cities influenced White and Black homicide rates. Sources included census and Uniform Crime Reports Supplemental Homicide Report data. The growing diversity in the residential population of US cities contributed to the dramatic decline in homicide rates over time, but the effects differed by racial group. Exposure between Hispanics and Blacks and the growing presence of Hispanics led to a reduced Black homicide trend but had no impact on Whites, after adjustment for economic shifts and other important structural features in US cities. Our research highlights the importance of paying closer attention to exposure and integration between immigrants and existing racial groups. Failure to consider racial/ethnic contact and the racial nature of urban violence may produce misleading results in studies of associations between Hispanic immigration and crime.

  16. The Favelas of Rio de Janeiro: A study of socio-spatial segregation and racial discrimination

    OLAVARRIA BERENGUER, Leticia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Race relations in Brazil are characterized by the coexistence of miscegenation (interracial social contact and racial discrimination. This paper examines to what extent Brazilian race relations are expressed in the urban space, how they inflect its physical configuration and influence the social processes that take place within it. In this sense, it states that as long as it is considered that the space is subjected to power relations it can be asserted that these dynamics are expressed in the configuration of Brazilian cities, particularly in Rio de Janeiro. Thus, the urban structure of Rio reflects certain level of interracial sociability in terms of residence and the social hyper-inequalities of Brazilian society. In addition, the study of the favelas shows how discourses about race and urban space are interconnected and reinforce racial discrimination.

  17. Socio-spatial differentiation and racial segregation in Spain / Diferenciación socio-espacial y segregación racial en España

    Teodoro Hernández de Frutos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The rise in the population of Spain as a result of emigration from the year 2000 onwards situated it among the countries with the highest immigration rates in the world: three or four times the average rate of the US and eight times that of France. The arrival of more than four million immigrants (more than 10% of the population between 2001 and 2005, the period in which the housing bubble occurred, placed the focus of attention on the theories of urban development, stratification of cities, residential segregation and racial inequality. Urban planning undertaken to house this new population was in keeping with the neo-liberal policies of the central government, the autonomous communities and town councils. This brought about situations of inequality, a polarization of society and did not solve the problem of meeting the demand for housing for the immigrant population. In a country where ethnic ghettoes had never existed, 112 of such areas were created and 1.029.699 people found themselves in a vulnerable situation.

  18. Segregation and the gender wage gaps in the private and the public sector

    Albæk, Karsten; Larsen, Mona; Stage Thomsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between segregation and the gender wage gap in the public and the private sectors in Denmark from 2002 to 2012. The analysis shows that male–female differences in the share of females in occupations, industries,establishments and job cells (occupations within...... establishments) constitute 46% of the raw gender wage gap in the private sector, while segregation in t he public sector accounts for as much as 63 %. Segregation thus plays a substantially more important role in accounting for the gender wage gap in the public sector than in the private sector. While...... the importance of segregation for wage formation decreased substantially in the public sector over time, it only decreased slightly in the private sector. Although the remaining gender wage gap, after controlling for segregation, is close to zero in the public sector, a substantial within-job cell differential...

  19. Racialized Space: Framing Latino and Latina Experience in Public Schools

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Ronnkvist, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Educational research shows differences in experience, access, and outcomes across racial groups with some groups advantaged and others disadvantaged. One of the concepts used to explain racial differences, racialization, is a taken-for-granted term that is yet to be fully defined in the context of the school. We differentiate the term…

  20. Gender segregation by occupation in the public and the private sector : the case of Spain

    Mora, Ricardo; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2003-01-01

    In many countries, recruiting and promotion procedures in the public sector would appear to leave less room for gender discrimination than in the private sector. Using data for Spain in 1977 and 1992, this paper explores the consequences of these practices for gender segregation in those occupations where there is a private and a public sector of a minimum size. In particular, an additive index based on the entropy concept is used to compare occupational gender segregation in the private vers...

  1. Effects of racialized tracking on racial gaps in science self-efficacy, identity, engagement, and aspirations: Connection to science and school segregation

    Chang, Briana L.

    Given the concentration of economic growth and power in science fields and the current levels of racial stratification in schooling, this study examined (1) the effects of race on students' connectedness to science and career aspirations, (2) the extent to which these effects were moderated by school racial composition and racialized tracking, and (3) the differences in modeling effects using separate variables for race and gender (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, female) versus race/gender (e.g., White female, Black male, etc.). Using the lens of racial formation theory, this study situated access to science knowledge as a racial project, conferring and denying access to resources along racial lines. Reviews of the literature on science self-efficacy, identity, engagement, and career aspirations revealed an under-emphasis on school institutional factors, such as racial composition and racialized tracking (which are important in sociological literature), as shaping student outcomes. The study analyzed data from the nationally representative High School Longitudinal Study that surveyed students in 2009 during their freshman year in high school and again in 2012 during most students' junior year (n = 6,998). Affective ratings (in self-efficacy, identity, engagement) and career aspirations for students measured in 2012 were examined as dependent variables and a variable for racialized tracking was estimated given schools' placement of students in advanced science coursework in 2012. Although school racial composition was not found to moderate race on outcome effects, primary analyses demonstrated that the presence of racialized tracking in the students' schools did moderate these effects. Overall these results suggested that the student subgroups most often at a disadvantage compared to White students for the science outcomes studied were Hispanic males and females; Black students' ratings and aspirations were largely on par or exceeded those of their White counterparts

  2. Impact of change in neighborhood racial/ethnic segregation on cardiovascular health in minority youth attending a park-based afterschool program.

    D'Agostino, Emily M; Patel, Hersila H; Ahmed, Zafar; Hansen, Eric; Sunil Mathew, M; Nardi, Maria I; Messiah, Sarah E

    2018-05-01

    Research on the mechanistic factors associating racial/ethnic residential segregation with health is needed to identify effective points of intervention to ultimately reduce health disparities in youth. We examined the association of changes in racial/ethnic segregation and cardiovascular health outcomes including body mass index percentile, sum of skinfold thicknesses, systolic and diastolic blood pressure percentile, and 400 m run time in non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Hispanic youth (n = 2,250, mean age 9.1 years, 54% male; 51% Hispanic, 49% NHB; 49% high area poverty; 25% obese) attending Fit2Play™, a multisite park-based afterschool program in Miami, Florida, USA. A series of crude and adjusted two-level longitudinal generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts for park effects were fit to assess the association of change in segregation between home and program/park site and cardiovascular health outcomes for youth who participated for up to two school years in Fit2Play™. After adjusting for individual-level factors (sex, age, time, and park-area poverty) models showed significantly greater improvements in cardiovascular health if youth attended Fit2Play™ in an area less segregated than their home area (p < 0.05 for all outcomes) except 400 m run time and diastolic blood pressure percentile in Hispanics (p<.001 and p = 0.11, respectively). Area poverty was not found to confound or significantly modify this association. These findings have implications for youth programming focused on reducing health disparities and improving cardiovascular outcomes in NHB and Hispanic youth, particularly in light of a continually expanding obesity epidemic in these groups. Parks and Recreation Departments have potential to expand geographic mobility for minorities, therein supporting the national effort to reduce health inequalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Segregation Levels in Cleveland Public Schools and the Cleveland Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Examining the widespread claims that private schools have high segregation levels and vouchers will lead to greater segregation, this study finds that both assertions are empirically unsupportable. Private schools participating in Cleveland's voucher program are much less segregated than Cleveland's public schools. This means that students using…

  4. 77 FR 7600 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona for the Restoration Design Energy...

    2012-02-13

    ...] Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona for the Restoration Design Energy Project... Arizona from all forms of appropriation under the public land laws, including the mining law, but... the Restoration Design Energy Project (RDEP). The public lands contained in this segregation total...

  5. Older Adults in Public Open Spaces: Age and Gender Segregation.

    Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-01-18

    There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 78 FR 58555 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Stateline Solar Farm, CA

    2013-09-24

    ...; CACA-048669] Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Stateline Solar Farm, CA AGENCY...-way lease/grant CACA-49504, dated October 7, 2010, on file at the BLM field office in Needles, CA... the legal description of the Ivanpah-3 BLM right- of-way lease/grant CACA-49504, dated October 7, 2010...

  7. Racial and Economic Diversity in U.S. Public Montessori Schools

    Debs, Mira C.

    2016-01-01

    As public Montessori schools rapidly expand through the United States, the question then arises: What population of students do the schools serve? This study presents a new empirical data set examining the racial and economic diversity of 300 whole-school, public Montessori programs open in 2012-2013, where the entire school uses the Montessori…

  8. New Jersey's Segregated Schools: Trends and Paths Forward

    Orfield, Gary; Ee, Jongyeon; Coughlan, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This report updates earlier research published by the Civil Rights Project in 2013. That report detailed troubling racial and economic segregation trends and patterns from 1989-2010. The latest report includes new data from 2010-2015. The research updates public school enrollment trends and details segregation in the state's schools by race and…

  9. Segregation Levels in Milwaukee Public Schools and the Milwaukee Voucher Program. School Choice Issues in the State

    Forster, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This study compares segregation levels in Milwaukee public schools and in private schools participating in the Milwaukee voucher program. Using a segregation index that measures the difference between the percent of students in a school who are white and the percentage of school-age children in the greater metro area who are white, it finds that…

  10. The 21st Century Cures Act Implications for the Reduction of Racial Health Disparities in the US Criminal Justice System: a Public Health Approach.

    Cole, Donna M; Thomas, Dawna Marie; Field, Kelsi; Wool, Amelia; Lipiner, Taryn; Massenberg, Natalie; Guthrie, Barbara J

    2017-11-09

    Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues. The 21st Century Cures Act is a progressive step in the right direction; however, given the historical context of segregation and the criminalization of drug addiction among African Americans, the goals of health equity are at risk of being compromised. This paper discusses the implications of this landmark legislation and its potential to decrease racial health disparities, highlighting the importance of ensuring that access to treatment and alternatives to incarceration must include communities of color. In this paper, the authors explain the key components of the 21st Century Cures Act that are specific to criminal justice reform, including a key objective, which is treatment over incarceration. We suggest that without proper attention to how, and where, funding mechanisms are distributed, the 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to increase racial health disparities rather than alleviate them.

  11. Gentrification in black and white: the racial impact of public housing demolition in American cities.

    Goetz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The gentrification that has transformed high-poverty neighbourhoods in US cities since the mid 1990s has been characterised by high levels of state reinvestment. Prominent among public-sector interventions has been the demolition of public housing and in some cases multimillion dollar redevelopment efforts. In this paper, the racial dimension of state-supported gentrification in large US cities is examined by looking at the direct and indirect displacement induced by public housing transformation. The data show a clear tendency towards the demolition of public housing projects with disproportionately high African American occupancy. The pattern of indirect displacement is more varied; public housing transformation has produced a number of paths of neighbourhood change. The most common, however, involve significant reductions in poverty, sometimes associated with Black to White racial turnover and sometimes not. The findings underscore the central importance of race in understanding the dynamics of gentrification in US cities.

  12. Racial Mismatch and School Type: Teacher Satisfaction and Retention in Charter and Traditional Public Schools

    Renzulli, Linda A.; Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Beattie, Irenee R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of teacher satisfaction suggest that satisfaction is related to both the racial composition and the organizational structure of the schools in which teachers work. In this article, the authors draw from theories of race and organizations to examine simultaneously the effects of school type (traditional public vs. charter) and racial…

  13. State Public Policies and the Racial/Ethnic Stratification of College Access and Choice in the State of Maryland

    Perna, Laura W.; Steele, Patricia; Woda, Susan; Hibbert, Taifa

    2005-01-01

    This study uses descriptive analyses of data from multiple sources to examine changes during the 1990s in the racial/ethnic stratification of college access and choice in Maryland and to explore state public policies that may have influenced changes in the demand for and supply of higher education for students of different racial/ethnic groups…

  14. Public Sector Transformation, Racial Inequality and Downward Occupational Mobility

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Huffman, Matt L.

    2013-01-01

    New "governance" reforms entailing shifts toward privatization have permeated the public sector over the last decade, possibly affecting workplace-based attainments. We examine the consequences of this reform for African American men, who during the civil rights era reached relative parity with whites. We analyze race-based inequities on one…

  15. Social inequalities, spatial inequities? Analysis of the socio-racial segregation in Bogotá (2005-2011

    Sebastián F. Villamizar Santamaría

    2015-07-01

    public goods such as communal soup kitchens and both public and private schools. In other words, the spatial distribution of these goods in the city is not completely equal, which means that the neighborhoods where there is a higher percentage of black population do not have a significant provision of these goods. As such, this research concludes that one should employ the lenses of both class and race to better understand spatial justice inequalities in the city.

  16. 76 FR 38416 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New...

    2011-06-30

    ... Segregation of Public Lands in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah... laws, but not the mineral leasing or material sales acts, for a period of 2 years for the purpose of..., approximately 677,384 acres of public lands located in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New...

  17. Civil rights as determinants of public health and racial and ethnic health equity: Health care, education, employment, and housing in the United States.

    Hahn, R A; Truman, B I; Williams, D R

    2018-04-01

    This essay examines how civil rights and their implementation have affected and continue to affect the health of racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Civil rights are characterized as social determinants of health. A brief review of US history indicates that, particularly for Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians, the longstanding lack of civil rights is linked with persistent health inequities. Civil rights history since 1950 is explored in four domains-health care, education, employment, and housing. The first three domains show substantial benefits when civil rights are enforced. Discrimination and segregation in housing persist because anti-discrimination civil rights laws have not been well enforced. Enforcement is an essential component for the success of civil rights law. Civil rights and their enforcement may be considered a powerful arena for public health theorizing, research, policy, and action.

  18. Gatekeepers and Homeseekers: Institutional Factors in Racial Steering.

    Pearce, Diana M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper explores the problem of segregation due to racial patterns in housing by examining the role of real estate agents, acting as a community of gatekeepers, in the perpetration of racial segregation. (Author/EB)

  19. Waste segregation

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    A scoping study has been undertaken to determine the state-of-the-art of waste segregation technology as applied to the management of low-level waste (LLW). Present-day waste segregation practices were surveyed through a review of the recent literature and by means of personal interviews with personnel at selected facilities. Among the nuclear establishments surveyed were Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and plants, nuclear fuel cycle plants, public and private laboratories, institutions, industrial plants, and DOE and commercially operated shallow land burial sites. These survey data were used to analyze the relationship between waste segregation practices and waste treatment/disposal processes, to assess the developmental needs for improved segregation technology, and to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the implementation of waste segregation controls. This task was planned for completion in FY 1981. It should be noted that LLW management practices are now undergoing rapid change such that the technology and requirements for waste segregation in the near future may differ significantly from those of the present day. 8 figures

  20. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Katie E. Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011. Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.

  1. Residential segregation and public policies: São Paulo in the 1990's

    Haroldo da Gama Torres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at assessing the evolution of residential segregation in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, in the 1990's, which saw a significant increase of socioeconomic segregation. In addition to interpreting the phenomenon, the article proposes a discussion on the reasons the residential segregation should be considered a fundamental issue for the formulation of social urban policies.

  2. 77 FR 31037 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in...

    2012-05-24

    ...; AZA34425] Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in... of up to 2 years. This is for the purpose of processing one solar energy right-of-way (ROW) application submitted by Pacific Solar Investments, LLC, to construct and operate the Hyder Valley Solar...

  3. 77 FR 7601 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Pattern Energy Group Ocotillo Express Wind Energy...

    2012-02-13

    ... LVRWB10B3980] Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Pattern Energy Group Ocotillo Express Wind Energy... Acts, for a period of 2 years for the purpose of processing a wind energy right-of-way (ROW... filed by Pattern Energy Group for the Ocotillo Express Wind Project on the above described lands while...

  4. Settle for Segregation or Strive for Diversity? A Defining Moment for Maryland's Public Schools

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Maryland, as one of 17 states that had de jure segregation, has an intense history of school segregation. Following the 1954 Brown decision, school districts across the state employed various methods to desegregate their schools, including mandatory busing in Prince George's County, magnet schools in Montgomery County, and a freedom of choice plan…

  5. Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population.

    Wong, Li Ping; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne

    2011-03-30

    Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (α-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in β-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4%) have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03), out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia.

  6. Images of illness: how causal claims and racial associations influence public preferences toward diabetes research spending.

    Gollust, Sarah E; Lantz, Paula M; Ubel, Peter A

    2010-12-01

    Despite the salience of health disparities in media and policy discourse, little previous research has investigated if imagery associating an illness with a certain racial group influences public perceptions. This study evaluated the influence of the media's presentation of the causes of type 2 diabetes and its implicit racial associations on attitudes toward people with diabetes and preferences toward research spending. Survey participants who viewed an article on genetic causation or social determinants of diabetes were more likely to support increased government spending on research than those viewing an article with no causal language, while participants viewing an article on behavioral choices were more likely to attribute negative stereotypes to people with diabetes. Participants who viewed a photo of a black woman accompanying the article were less likely to endorse negative stereotypes than those viewing a photo of a white woman, but those who viewed a photo of a glucose-testing device expressed the lowest negative stereotypes. The effect of social determinants language was significantly different for blacks and whites, lowering stereotypes only among blacks. Emphasizing the behavioral causes of diabetes, as is common in media coverage, may perpetuate negative stereotypes. While drawing attention to the social determinants that shape these behaviors could mitigate stereotypes, this strategy is unlikely to influence the public uniformly.

  7. Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis

    Baron, Juan; Cobb-Clark, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    We use HILDA data from 2001 - 2006 to analyse the source of the gender wage gap across public- and private-sector wage distributions in Australia. We are particularly interested in the role of gender segregation within sector-specific occupations in explaining relative wages. We find that, irrespective of labour market sector, the gender wage gap among low-paid, Australian workers is more than explained by differences in wage-related characteristics. The gender wage gap among high-wage worker...

  8. The Western States: Profound Diversity but Severe Segregation for Latino Students

    Kucsera, John; Flaxman, Greg

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Western region and its public schools are in the midst of its largest racial and economic transformation, as the area witnesses a shrinking white majority, a surging Latino minority, and a growing class of poor. These groups, along with blacks and Asian, more often than not attend very different and segregated schools both in educational…

  9. Shopping for Schools or Shopping for Peers: Public Schools and Catchment Area Segregation

    Rowe, Emma E.; Lubienski, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Market theory positions the consumer as a rational choice actor, making informed schooling choices on the basis of "hard" evidence of relative school effectiveness. Yet there are concerns that parents simply choose schools based on socio-demographic characteristics, thus leading to greater social segregation and undercutting the…

  10. Gender wage gap and segregation in enterprises and the public sector in late transition countries

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2003), s. 199-222 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : gender wage gap * segregation * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2003

  11. Residential Segregation in Texas in 1980.

    Hwang, Sean-Shong; Murdock, Steve H.

    1982-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1980 racial and ethnic segregation for major Texas cities declined for all groups, but declines were small between Anglo and Spanish groups. Segregation is unaffected by variation in size of city, percent of population that is Spanish or Black, or central city status. (Author/AM)

  12. The New Frontier: Envisioning an America beyond Racial Preferences and Color-Coded Public Policy

    Hicks, Joe R.

    2008-01-01

    Significant voices have begun challenging the orthodox view of America as a land of limited opportunities for minorities, with the Obama phenomena constituting the most conspicuous case in point. Mr. Hicks explains why racial preferences have failed and discusses the challenges Americans face in transcending divisions caused by identity politics.…

  13. Understanding Segregation Processes

    Bruch, Elizabeth

    There is growing consensus that living in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty increases the likelihood of social problems such as teenage parenthood, drug and alcohol use, crime victimization, and chronic unemployment. Neighborhood inequality is also implicated in studies of enduring race/ethnic health disparities, and there are recent moves to broaden the definition of health care policy to policies targeting social inequality (Mechanic 2007). Residential segregation affects health outcomes in several different ways. First, income, education, and occupation are all strongly related to health (Adler and Newman 2002). Segregation is a key mechanism through which socioeconomic inequality is perpetuated and reinforced, as it hinders the upward mobility of disadvantaged groups by limiting their educational and employment opportunities. Second, segregation increases minority exposure to unhealthy neighborhood environments. Residential segregation creates areas with concentrated poverty and unemployment, both of which are key factors that predict violence and create racial differences in homicide (Samson and Wilson 1995). Neighborhood characteristics, such as exposure to environmental hazards, fear of violence, and access to grocery stores, affect health risks and health behaviors (Cheadle et al. 1991). Tobacco and alcohol industries also advertise their products disproportionately in poor, minority areas (Moore, Williams, and Qualls 1996). Finally, residential segregation leads to inequalitie in health care resources, which contributes to disparities in quality of treatment (Smedley, Stith, and Nelson 2002).

  14. 78 FR 64005 - Notice of Realty Action: Classification and Segregation for Conveyance for Recreation and Public...

    2013-10-25

    ... result in the disposal, placement, or release of any hazardous substance. Upon publication of this notice... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLNVC02000.L14300000.E0000; NVN082004; 13... Purposes Classification of Public Lands in Storey County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...

  15. From segregation to pensions for all? Chinese elites’ search to establish a nationwide public pension system

    Stepan, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the establishment of a public pension system in China that has the potential to extent its coverage to the large majority of the Chinese population and constitutes a break with the legacy of selective, work-unit based pension system that neglected the rural population at

  16. 76 FR 76180 - Notice of Realty Action: Termination of Segregation, Opening of Public Lands; Montana

    2011-12-06

    ... the general mining laws prior to the date and time of restoration is unauthorized. Any such attempted..., location, and entry under the public land laws and the mining and mineral leasing laws. This order also opens 601.09 acres to the mining and mineral leasing laws. DATES: December 6, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  17. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education. PMID:29430018

  18. Interracial interactions at racially diverse university campuses.

    Cowan, Gloria

    2005-02-01

    The present research was an observational study of casual interracial and intraracial public-group interactions among African American, Asian American, Latino, and White students at 6 southern California State University campuses. Results indicated (a) that at these racially diverse public-university campuses, there was no difference between the percentages of interracial and intraracial groups; (b) specifically, that at the campus with the second largest percentage of non-White students, there were more interracial than intraracial interactions; and (c) that for each of the 4 ethnic groups, at the campuses with the largest percentages of the specific group, interactions were more likely to be intraracial than they were at campuses that had smaller percentages of the specific group. Despite reports of self-segregation, these findings suggest that when Whites are not the majority of students, interracial interactions are common.

  19. Parents' expectations of public schooling in the Northern Province of ...

    Not only have residential areas become largely mixed but also schools. This is, of course, a result of the abolishing of apartheid-era policies and legislation that enforced racial segregation. However, the phenomenon sketched above was accompanied by parents moving children from public schools to independent schools ...

  20. 36 CFR 254.6 - Segregative effect.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregative effect. 254.6... ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.6 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal lands... segregative effect terminates as follows: (1) Automatically, upon issuance of a patent or other document of...

  1. The limits of racial prejudice

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008

  2. The Influence of the Cold War on the Racial Desegregation of American Schools

    Watras, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of the Cold War, federal officials in the United States sought to end the racial segregation that the U.S. Supreme Court had accepted in the 1896 decision of "Plessy v. Ferguson." Although the reforms began with changes in the armed services, they moved to reduce racial segregation in schools. Many forces brought about the…

  3. Segregation 2.0: The New Generation of School Segregation in the 21st Century

    Thompson Dorsey, Dana N.

    2013-01-01

    Students are more racially segregated in schools today than they were in the late 1960s and prior to the enforcement of court-ordered desegregation in school districts across the country. This special issue addresses the overarching theme of policies, practices, or roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders that may directly or indirectly…

  4. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  5. Racial Isolation, Poverty and the Limits of Local Control as a Means for Holding Public Schools Accountable

    Noguera, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on research in Oakland, California over a twenty-year period, Noguera considers how poverty and racial isolation have contributed to the problems confronted by schools in that district and other inner-city communities around the state. He illuminates the factors that hinder the development of social capital in low-income communities, and, in doing so, demonstrates why local control does not make it easier for school systems to address the academic needs of poor students. The wide vari...

  6. Out of sight, out of mind: racial retrieval cues increase the accessibility of social justice concepts.

    Salter, Phia S; Kelley, Nicholas J; Molina, Ludwin E; Thai, Luyen T

    2017-09-01

    Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesised that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them. In Study 2, we manipulated participants' gaze behaviour by either directing visual attention toward racial retrieval cues, away from racial retrieval cues, or directing attention within photographs where racial retrieval cues were missing. Across Studies 1 and 2, visual attention to racial retrieval cues in photographs documenting historical segregation predicted social justice concept accessibility.

  7. How Segregation Makes Us Fat: Food Behaviors and Food Environment as Mediators of the Relationship Between Residential Segregation and Individual Body Mass Index

    Melody Goodman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesRacial residential segregation affects food landscapes that dictate residents’ food environments and is associated with obesity risk factors, including individual dietary patterns and behaviors. We examine if food behaviors and environments mediate the association between segregation and body mass index (BMI.MethodsNon-Hispanic Whites and Blacks living in the St. Louis and Kansas City metro regions from 2012 to 2013 were surveyed on dietary behaviors, food environment, and BMI (n = 1,412. These data were combined with the CDC’s modified retail food environment index and 2012 American Community Survey data to calculate racial segregation using various evenness and exposure indices. Multi-level mediation analyses were conducted to determine if dietary behavior and food environment mediate the association between racial residential segregation and individual BMI.ResultsThe positive association between racial segregation and individual BMI is partially mediated by dietary behaviors and fully mediated by food environments.ConclusionRacial segregation (evenness and exposure is associated with BMI, mediated by dietary behaviors and food environment. Elements of the food environment, which form the context for dietary behaviors, are potential targets for interventions to reduce obesity in residentially segregated areas.

  8. Surface Segregation in YSZ

    Bay, Lasse; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    The space charge layer formed due to segregation of yttria and oxygen ion vacancies in YSZ is described by a simple model. Effects of impurities segregation are omitted.......The space charge layer formed due to segregation of yttria and oxygen ion vacancies in YSZ is described by a simple model. Effects of impurities segregation are omitted....

  9. 75 FR 65649 - Notice of Realty Action: Segregation To Consider Proposed Sale of Public Lands in Blaine County, ID

    2010-10-26

    ... Policy Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), at no less than the appraised fair market value. DATES: In order...), and implementing regulations at 43 CFR part 2710 and 2720, at no less than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 1 S., R. 20 E., Sec. 15, that portion of public lands in the NW\\1/4\\SW\\1/4...

  10. The residential segregation patterns of whites by socioeconomic status, 2000–2011

    Sharp, Gregory; Iceland, John

    2013-01-01

    In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007–2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indic...

  11. Searching for Silver Linings: Is Perceived Medical Discrimination Weaker in Segregated Areas?

    Gibbons, Joseph; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2018-03-01

    An ongoing obstacle in dealing with minority health disparities is discriminatory behavior from healthcare practitioners, also known as medical discrimination. It is not clear, however, if the effects of medical discriminations onto health are constant across space. For example, there is evidence to suspect minorities in racially segregated neighborhoods suffer less from discrimination compared to those living elsewhere. To determine the presence of spatial heterogeneity underlying medical discrimination, we implement logistic geographically weighted regression (GWR) using individual data in the city of Philadelphia from the 2006 and 2008 Public Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Surveys. Evaluating the potential role residential segregation has in offsetting medical discrimination, we compare the GWR results to tract data from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey. Through this comparison, we find that the effects of medical discrimination on self-rated health are weaker in magnitude in areas that are mostly minority. However, evidence of direct health benefits for minorities in segregated communities is inconclusive. Thus, while we cannot say living in segregated neighborhoods leads to better minority health, the sting of medical discrimination can be weaker in these places. These results emphasize the importance of local variation, even within a city like Philadelphia, challenging the aspatial one-model-fits-all approach normally found in population studies.

  12. Gender Segregation: Separate but Effective?

    Holthouse, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, only 11 public schools in the United States had gender-segregated classrooms. As of December 2009, there were more than 550. The movement is based on the hypothesis that hard-wired differences in the ways that male and female brains develop and function in childhood through adolescence require classrooms in which boys and girls are not…

  13. "Outstanding Individuals Do Not Arise from Ancestrally Poor Stock": Racial Science and the Education of Black South Africans.

    Appel, Stephen W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the construction of racial scientific discourse within the milieu of an extremely racially segregated society. Traces the influence of capitalism, racism, Social Darwinism, eugenics, and "racial science" on the pedagogy of modern apartheid in South Africa. Finds evidence of pervasive effects of "scientific" ideas on…

  14. The residential segregation patterns of whites by socioeconomic status, 2000-2011.

    Sharp, Gregory; Iceland, John

    2013-07-01

    In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indicate that SES matters for the segregation patterns of whites from minorities. In particular, we find that whites as a whole are less segregated from higher-SES minority group members than lower-SES ones. Among whites, those of higher SES are more segregated from blacks and Hispanics as a whole and less segregated from Asians, indicating the importance of SES differentials across racial/ethnic groups in shaping residential patterns. We also find that during the 2000s, white-black segregation remained stable or declined, while whites became more segregated from Hispanics and Asians by all SES indicators. Fixed-effects models indicate that increasing white-minority SES segregation was fueled in part by increases in a metropolitan area's immigrant and elderly populations, minority poverty rate, and home values, while declining segregation was associated with rising education levels and new housing construction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The residential segregation patterns of whites by socioeconomic status, 2000–2011

    Sharp, Gregory; Iceland, John

    2013-01-01

    In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007–2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indicate that SES matters for the segregation patterns of whites from minorities. In particular, we find that whites as a whole are less segregated from higher-SES minority group members than lower-SES ones. Among whites, those of higher SES are more segregated from blacks and Hispanics as a whole and less segregated from Asians, indicating the importance of SES differentials across racial/ethnic groups in shaping residential patterns. We also find that during the 2000s, white-black segregation remained stable or declined, while whites became more segregated from Hispanics and Asians by all SES indicators. Fixed-effects models indicate that increasing white-minority SES segregation was fueled in part by increases in a metropolitan area’s immigrant and elderly populations, minority poverty rate, and home values, while declining segregation was associated with rising education levels and new housing construction. PMID:23721673

  16. The Shaping of Postcollege Colorblind Orientation among Whites: Residential Segregation and Campus Diversity Experiences

    Jayakumar, Uma M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Uma M. Jayakumar investigates the cumulative impact of experiences with segregation or racial diversity prior to and during college on colorblind ideological orientation among white adults. An analysis of longitudinal data spanning ten years reveals that, for whites from segregated and diverse childhood neighborhoods, some…

  17. Gender Segregation Small Firms

    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  18. 41 CFR 60-1.8 - Segregated facilities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Segregated facilities. 60...; Compliance Reports § 60-1.8 Segregated facilities. To comply with its obligations under the Order, a contractor must ensure that facilities provided for employees are provided in such a manner that segregation...

  19. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  20. Diversifying the academic public health workforce: strategies to extend the discourse about limited racial and ethnic diversity in the public health academy.

    Annang, Lucy; Richter, Donna L; Fletcher, Faith E; Weis, Megan A; Fernandes, Pearl R; Clary, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    While public health has gained increased attention and placement on the national health agenda, little progress has been made in achieving a critical mass of underrepresented minority (URM) academicians in the public health workforce. In 2008, a telephone-based qualitative assessment was conducted with URM faculty of schools of public health to discuss this issue. As a result, we present successful strategies that institutional leaders can employ to extend the discourse about addressing limited diversity in the public health academy.

  1. Can we become friends? Students' cross-racial interaction in post ...

    Findings identified three overarching themes found among students including contradiction within and across racial groups, Afrikaner white vs. English white and racial segregation on campus. These themes directly correspond with personal and societal aspects that influence meaning making in South Africa, including ...

  2. Are the walls giving way to fences? Is racial integration within ...

    The purpose of this study is to measure whether the changes in racial integration are leading to class-based segregation in KwaDukuza, South Africa. The Neighbourhood Diversity Index was used to investigate how the racial patterns changed over the years and a Geographic Weighted Regression (GWR) model was used ...

  3. Racial Exclusion in the Online World

    Bhoomi K. Thakore

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As the internet has become an integral part of everyday life, it is understood that patterns of racial stereotyping and discrimination found in the offline world are often reproduced online. In our paper, we examine two exclusionary practices in an online environment for adult toy collectors: First, the exclusion of non-white individuals who are expected to form immediate friendships with other non-white members; and second, the essentializing of racial issues when concerns over the lack of racial diversity in the toys are discussed. This dismissal is often directly connected to non-white members’ decisions to no longer participate, resulting in a new form of segregation within virtual space.

  4. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care: an Assessment and Analysis of the Awareness and Perceptions of Public Health Workers Implementing a Statewide Community Transformation Grant in Texas.

    Akinboro, Oladimeji; Ottenbacher, Allison; Martin, Marcus; Harrison, Roderick; James, Thomas; Martin, Eddilisa; Murdoch, James; Linnear, Kim; Cardarelli, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the awareness of public health professionals regarding racial and ethnic disparities in health in the United States of America (USA). Our study objective was to assess the awareness and perceptions of a group of public health workers in Texas regarding racial health disparities and their chief contributing causes. We surveyed public health professionals working on a statewide grant in Texas, who were participants at health disparities' training workshops. Multivariable logistic regression was employed in examining the association between the participants' characteristics and their perceptions of the social determinants of health as principal causes of health disparities. There were 106 respondents, of whom 38 and 35 % worked in health departments and non-profit organizations, respectively. The racial/ethnic groups with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS and hypertension were correctly identified by 63 and 50 % of respondents, respectively, but only 17, and 32 % were knowledgeable regarding diabetes and cancer, respectively. Seventy-one percent of respondents perceived that health disparities are driven by the major axes of the social determinants of health. Exposure to information about racial/ethnic health disparities within the prior year was associated with a higher odds of perceiving that social determinants of health were causes of health disparities (OR 9.62; 95 % CI 2.77, 33.41). Among public health workers, recent exposure to information regarding health disparities may be associated with their perceptions of health disparities. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of such exposure on their long-term perception of disparities, as well as the equity of services and programs they administer.

  5. Segregation and civic virtue

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Michael Merry defends the following prima facie argument: that civic virtue is not dependent on integration and in fact may be best fostered under conditions of segregation. He demonstrates that civic virtue can and does take place under conditions of involuntary segregation, but that

  6. The unnatural racial naturalism.

    Spencer, Quayshawn

    2014-06-01

    In the recent article, "Against the New Racial Naturalism", Adam Hochman (2013, p. 332) argues that new racial naturalists have been too hasty in their racial interpretation of genetic clustering results of human populations. While Hochman makes a number of good points, the purpose of this paper is to show that Hochman's attack on new racial naturalists is misguided due to his definition of 'racial naturalism'. Thus, I will show that Hochman's critique is merely a consequence of an unnatural interpretation of racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Racial/Ethnic Test Score Gaps and the Urban Continuum

    Gagnon, Douglas J.; Mattingly, Marybeth J.

    2018-01-01

    Research is just beginning to describe with precision determinants of racial and ethnic achievement gaps. Work by Reardon, Kalogrides, and Shores found that factors such as parental income, parental education, and segregation are the strongest predictors of achievement gaps. In this study we expand this line of inquiry to examine the role of…

  8. Is racial integration within Kwadukuza municipality leading to ...

    VishanthS

    relationship between income and racial segregation in certain areas. ... living spaces of the Black, Coloured and Indian race groups, apartheid policies ..... middle class and affluent) as determined in relation to the poverty line. .... areas will attract economic growth and developments due to their higher spending power.

  9. How Segregation Makes Us Fat: Food Behaviors and Food Environment as Mediators of the Relationship Between Residential Segregation and Individual Body Mass Index

    Melody Goodman; Sarah Lyons; Lorraine T. Dean; Cassandra Arroyo; James Aaron Hipp

    2018-01-01

    ObjectivesRacial residential segregation affects food landscapes that dictate residents’ food environments and is associated with obesity risk factors, including individual dietary patterns and behaviors. We examine if food behaviors and environments mediate the association between segregation and body mass index (BMI).MethodsNon-Hispanic Whites and Blacks living in the St. Louis and Kansas City metro regions from 2012 to 2013 were surveyed on dietary behaviors, food environment, and BMI (n =...

  10. Racial/Ethnic Patterns of Kindergarten School Enrollment in the United States.

    Lawrence, Elizabeth; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2017-09-01

    Enrollment into unequal schools at the start of formal education is an important mechanism for the reproduction of racial/ethnic educational inequalities. We examine whether there are racial/ethnic differences in school enrollment options at kindergarten, the start of schooling. We use nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) to model whether parents seek information about their child's school before enrolling, whether parents move to a location so that a child can attend a certain school, or whether parents enroll their child in a school other than the assigned public school. Results indicate that enrollment patterns differ greatly across race/ethnicity. Whereas Black families are the most likely to seek information on a school's performance, White families are the most likely to use the elite option of choosing their residential location to access a particular school. These differences persist when controlling for socioeconomic status and sociogeographic location. Kindergarten enrollment patterns preserve the advantages of White families, perpetuating racial/ethnic disparities through multiple institutions and contributing to intergenerational processes of social stratification. Research should continue to examine specific educational consequences of housing inequities and residential segregation.

  11. Socioeconomic residential segregation and public housing policies. An approach from the Program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida”. Case study in the city of Cordoba, Argentina

    Florencia Molinatti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the possible effects of the housing program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida” in socioeconomic residential segregation in the city of Córdoba (Argentina. These effects are estimated from the study of the socioeconomic residential composition (before and after the implementation of the program, the mapping of residential movements generated by the program and the application of bivariate autocorrelation techniques. Among the key findings, most of the program beneficiaries are concentrated in poor areas surrounded by others in similar conditions. This fact favors the existence of a large cluster of poverty in the peripheries of the city and promotes marginalization and social exclusion.

  12. Segregation in cast products

    Unknown

    The agreement with experimental data is mostly qualitative. The paper also ... For example, a high degree of positive segregation in the central region .... solute in a cast product, important ones being: size of casting, rate of solidification, mode.

  13. Plasmid segregation mechanisms

    Ebersbach, G.; Gerdes, Kenn

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that ensure ordered plasmid segregation prior to cell division. par loci come in two types: those that encode actin-like ATPases and those that encode deviant Walker-type ATPases. ParM, the actin-like ATPase of plasmid R1, forms dynamic filaments...... that segregate plasmids paired at mid-cell to daughter cells. Like microtubules, ParM filaments exhibit dynamic instability (i.e., catastrophic decay) whose regulation is an important component of the DNA segregation process. The Walker box ParA ATPases are related to MinD and form highly dynamic, oscillating...... filaments that are required for the subcellular movement and positioning of plasmids. The role of the observed ATPase oscillation is not yet understood. However, we propose a simple model that couples plasmid segregation to ParA oscillation. The model is consistent with the observed movement...

  14. The Buffering Hypothesis: Growing Diversity and Declining Black-White Segregation in America’s Cities, Suburbs, and Small Towns?

    Domenico Parisi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The conventional wisdom is that racial diversity promotes positive race relations and reduces racial residential segregation between blacks and whites. We use data from the 1990–2010 decennial censuses and 2007–2011 ACS to test this so-called “buffering hypothesis.” We identify cities, suburbs, and small towns that are virtually all white, all black, all Asian, all Hispanic, and everything in between. The results show that the most racially diverse places—those with all four racial groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian present—had the lowest black-white levels of segregation in 2010. Black-white segregation also declined most rapidly in the most racially diverse places and in places that experienced the largest recent increases in diversity. Support for the buffering hypothesis, however, is counterbalanced by continuing high segregation across cities and communities and by rapid white depopulation in the most rapidly diversifying communities. We argue for a new, spatially inclusive perspective on racial residential segregation.

  15. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population ar...

  16. Source Segregation and Collection of Source-Segregated Waste

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    of optimal handling of the waste. But in a few cases, the waste must also be separated at source, for example removing the protective plastic cover from a commercial advertisement received by mail, prior to putting the advertisement into the waste collection bin for recyclable paper. These issues are often...... in wastes segregation addressing: - Purpose of source segregation. - Segregation criteria and guidance. - Segregation potentials and efficiencies. - Systems for collecting segregated fraction....

  17. The Interaction of Residential Segregation and Employment Discrimination

    Leonard, Jonathan S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper seeks to disentangle the impactof residential segregation from that of employment discrimination in determining black employment share. The major finding is that distance of a workplace from the main ghetto is one of the strongest and most significant determinants of both changes over time and levels of the racial composition of the workforce. This paper presents evidence of more heterogeneous micro labor supply within SMSA's than has usually been recognized for policy purposes. Co...

  18. Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups

    Shervin Assari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks’ diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites. Even in the presence of equal access to resources and assets, such unequal health gain constantly generates a racial health gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. In this paper, a number of public policies are recommended based on these findings. First and foremost, public policies should not merely focus on equalizing access to resources and assets, but also reduce the societal and structural barriers that hinder Blacks. Policy solutions should aim to reduce various manifestations of structural racism including but not limited to differential pay, residential segregation, lower quality of education, and crime in Black and urban communities. As income was not found to follow the same pattern demonstrated for other resources and assets (ie, income generated similar decline in risk of mortality for Whites and Blacks, policies that enforce equal income and increase minimum wage for marginalized populations are essential. Improving quality of education of youth and employability of young adults will enable Blacks to compete for high paying jobs. Policies that reduce racism and discrimination in the labor market are also needed. Without such policies, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate the sustained racial health gap in the United States.

  19. Segregation and Hispanic Homicide

    Michael G. Bisciglia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the overall population of Hispanics within the United States has eclipsed that of African Americans, a mounting concern has developed regarding the rise in Hispanic lethal violence as a result of social and economic inequality. One means to measure this inequality is in the form of segregation. Research indicates that in many Hispanic communities, their levels of segregation from the White non-Hispanic population are similar to that of African Americans. Although a multitude of previous studies have looked at the impact of segregation among African Americans, the literature remains under-represented in terms of multi-city macro-level analyses among Hispanics. This current study extends the analysis of segregation’s effects on lethal violence to this population. To this end, two measures of segregation were used, the index of dissimilarity and exposure. Using data from the census and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC mortality files, negative binominal regression models were created using a sample of 236 U.S. cities. The results indicated that both measures of segregation show a strong positive influence on rates of Hispanic homicides.

  20. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  1. Targeting energy justice: Exploring spatial, racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in urban residential heating energy efficiency

    Reames, Tony Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty, the inability of households to afford adequate energy services, such as heating, is a major energy justice concern. Increasing residential energy efficiency is a strategic fuel poverty intervention. However, the absence of easily accessible household energy data impedes effective targeting of energy efficiency programs. This paper uses publicly available data, bottom-up modeling and small-area estimation techniques to predict the mean census block group residential heating energy use intensity (EUI), an energy efficiency proxy, in Kansas City, Missouri. Results mapped using geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical analysis, show disparities in the relationship between heating EUI and spatial, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic block group characteristics. Block groups with lower median incomes, a greater percentage of households below poverty, a greater percentage of racial/ethnic minority headed-households, and a larger percentage of adults with less than a high school education were, on average, less energy efficient (higher EUIs). Results also imply that racial segregation, which continues to influence urban housing choices, exposes Black and Hispanic households to increased fuel poverty vulnerability. Lastly, the spatial concentration and demographics of vulnerable block groups suggest proactive, area- and community-based targeting of energy efficiency assistance programs may be more effective than existing self-referral approaches. - Highlights: • Develops statistical model to predict block group (BG) residential heating energy use intensity (EUI), an energy efficiency proxy. • Bivariate and multivariate analyses explore racial/ethnic and socioeconomic relationships with heating EUI. • BGs with more racial/ethnic minority households had higher heating EUI. • BGs with lower socioeconomics had higher heating EUI. • Mapping heating EUI can facilitate effective energy efficiency intervention targeting.

  2. Nearly 50 Years Post-Jim Crow: Persisting and Expansive School Segregation for African American, Latina/o, and ELL Students in Texas

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Holme, Jennifer Jellison

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the segregation of English language learner (ELL) students in schools across Texas. We descriptively analyze levels of racial, economic, and linguistic isolation experienced by ELL students across the state of Texas. We also examine the association between segregation by race/ethnicity, economic disadvantage, and language…

  3. Residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults: A critical review

    Irma eCorral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with any certainty in light of the considerable methodological problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided.

  4. The Neighborhood Unit: Schools, Segregation, and the Shaping of the Modern Metropolitan Landscape

    Erickson, Ansley T.; Highsmith, Andrew R.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: In the first half of the 20th century, American policy makers at all levels of government, alongside housing and real estate industry figures, crafted mechanisms of racial exclusion that helped to segregate metropolitan residential landscapes. Although educators and historians have recognized the long-term consequences of these…

  5. Unnaturalised racial naturalism.

    Hochman, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as "races are subspecies", if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. However, he supports his preferred version of 'racial naturalism' with arguments that are not well described as 'naturalistic'. I argue that Spencer offers us an unnaturalised racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exorcising the Racism Phantasm: Racial Realism in Educational Research

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 3-year ethnographic project at a public elementary school in North Carolina, this article discusses how the concept of racial realism can be useful to researchers trying to live up to the goals of critical race studies in school-based research. Racial realism maintains that racism is a permanent aspect of U.S. society and schools. A…

  7. Solute segregation during irradiation

    Wiedersich, H.; Okamoto, P.R.; Lam, N.Q.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiation at elevated temperature induces redistribution of the elements in alloys on a microstructural level. This phenomenon is caused by differences in the coupling of the various alloy constituents to the radiation-induced defect fluxes. A simple model of the segregation process based on coupled reaction-rate and diffusion equations is discussed. The model gives a good description of the experimentally observed consequences of radiation-induced segregation, including enrichment or depletion of solute elements near defect sinks such as surfaces, voids and dislocations; precipitation of second phases in solid solutions; precipitate redistribution in two-phase alloys; and effects of defect-production rates on void-swelling rates in alloys with minor solute additions

  8. Applied Thermodynamics: Grain Boundary Segregation

    Pavel Lejček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of interfaces—free surfaces and grain boundaries—is generally described by the Langmuir–McLean segregation isotherm controlled by Gibbs energy of segregation. Various components of the Gibbs energy of segregation, the standard and the excess ones as well as other thermodynamic state functions—enthalpy, entropy and volume—of interfacial segregation are derived and their physical meaning is elucidated. The importance of the thermodynamic state functions of grain boundary segregation, their dependence on volume solid solubility, mutual solute–solute interaction and pressure effect in ferrous alloys is demonstrated.

  9. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches

    Yoo Min Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  10. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches.

    Park, Yoo Min; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2017-10-10

    Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  11. Hating the Neighbors: The Role of Hate Crime in the Perpetuation of Black Residential Segregation

    Ami M. Lynch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grounded in group conflict theory and the defended neighborhoods thesis, this nationwide empirical study of cities and their residential segregation levels examines the occurrence of hate crime using data for all U.S. cities with populations over 95,000 and Uniform Crime Reporting data for hate crime, in conjunction with 2000 census data. Hate crime is any illegal act motivated by pre-formed bias against, in this case, a person’s real or perceived race. This research asks: Do hate crime levels predict white/black segregation levels? How does hate crime predict different measures of white/black segregation? I use the dissimilarity index measure of segregation operationalized as a continuous, binary, and ordinal variable, to explore whether hate crime predicts segrega- tion of blacks from whites. In cities with higher rates of hate crime there was higher dissimilarity between whites and blacks, controlling for other factors. The segregation level was more likely to be “high” in a city where hate crime occurred. Blacks are continually multiply disadvantaged and distinctly affected by hate crime and residential segregation. Prior studies of residential segregation have focused almost exclusively on individual choice, residents’ lack of finances, or discriminatory actions that prevent racial minorities from moving, to explore the correlates of segregation. Notably absent from these studies are measures reflecting the level of hate crime occurring in cities. This study demonstrates the importance of considering hate crime and neighborhood conflict when contemplating the causes of residential segregation.

  12. Segregation in Religion Networks

    Hu, Jiantao; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Religious beliefs could facilitate human cooperation [1-6], promote civic engagement [7-10], improve life satisfaction [11-13] and even boom economic development [14-16]. On the other side, some aspects of religion may lead to regional violence, intergroup conflict and moral prejudice against atheists [17-23]. Analogous to the separation of races [24], the religious segregation is a major ingredient resulting in increasing alienation, misunderstanding, cultural conflict and even violence amon...

  13. Integrated schools, segregated curriculum: effects of within-school segregation on adolescent health behaviors and educational aspirations.

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Bell, Bethany A

    2010-09-01

    We examined the extent to which within-school segregation, as measured by unevenness in the distribution of Black and White adolescents across levels of the English curriculum (advanced placement-international baccalaureate-honors, general, remedial, or no English), was associated with smoking, drinking, and educational aspirations, which previous studies found are related to school racial/ethnic composition. We analyzed data from wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, restricting our sample to non-Hispanic Blacks (n=2731) and Whites (n=4158) who from 1994 to 1995 attended high schools that enrolled Black and White students. White female students had higher predicted probabilities of smoking or drinking than did Black female students; the largest differences were in schools with high levels of within-school segregation. Black male students had higher predicted probabilities of high educational aspirations than did White male students in schools with low levels of within-school segregation; this association was attenuated for Black males attending schools with moderate or high levels of within-school segregation. Our results provide evidence that within-school segregation may influence both students' aspirations and their behaviors.

  14. Segregation by onset asynchrony.

    Hancock, P J B; Walton, L; Mitchell, G; Plenderleith, Y; Phillips, W A

    2008-08-05

    We describe a simple psychophysical paradigm for studying figure-ground segregation by onset asynchrony. Two pseudorandom arrays of Gabor patches are displayed, to left and right of fixation. Within one array, a subset of elements form a figure, such as a randomly curving path, that can only be reliably detected when their onset is not synchronized with that of the background elements. Several findings are reported. First, for most participants, segregation required an onset asynchrony of 20-40 ms. Second, detection was no better when the figure was presented first, and thus by itself, than when the background elements were presented first, even though in the latter case the figure could not be detected in either of the two successive displays alone. Third, asynchrony segregated subsets of randomly oriented elements equally well. Fourth, asynchronous onsets aligned with the path could be discriminated from those lying on the path but not aligned with it. Fifth, both transient and sustained neural activity contribute to detection. We argue that these findings are compatible with neural signaling by synchronized rate codes. Finally, schizophrenic disorganization is associated with reduced sensitivity. Thus, in addition to bearing upon basic theoretical issues, this paradigm may have clinical utility.

  15. The Marginalized "Model" Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…

  16. Racial Trade Barriers?

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  17. White Privilege? The Intersection of Hip-Hop and Whiteness as a Catalyst for Cross-Racial Interaction among White Males

    Sulé, Venice Thandi

    2015-01-01

    Given the prevalence of racial segregation in the U.S., college is an opportunity to prepare students for diversity through cross-racial interaction. Hip-hop, a culture steeped in black and Latino experiences, has significant white supporters. Through diversity and critical whiteness frameworks, this research considers how white hip-hop collegians…

  18. Patterns of Residential Segregation.

    Rémi Louf

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of income shapes the structure and organisation of cities and its understanding has broad societal implications. Despite an abundant literature, many issues remain unclear. In particular, all definitions of segregation are implicitely tied to a single indicator, usually rely on an ambiguous definition of income classes, without any consensus on how to define neighbourhoods and to deal with the polycentric organization of large cities. In this paper, we address all these questions within a unique conceptual framework. We avoid the challenge of providing a direct definition of segregation and instead start from a definition of what segregation is not. This naturally leads to the measure of representation that is able to identify locations where categories are over- or underrepresented. From there, we provide a new measure of exposure that discriminates between situations where categories co-locate or repel one another. We then use this feature to provide an unambiguous, parameter-free method to find meaningful breaks in the income distribution, thus defining classes. Applied to the 2014 American Community Survey, we find 3 emerging classes-low, middle and higher income-out of the original 16 income categories. The higher-income households are proportionally more present in larger cities, while lower-income households are not, invalidating the idea of an increased social polarisation. Finally, using the density-and not the distance to a center which is meaningless in polycentric cities-we find that the richer class is overrepresented in high density zones, especially for larger cities. This suggests that density is a relevant factor for understanding the income structure of cities and might explain some of the differences observed between US and European cities.

  19. The Fragmented Evolution of Racial Integration since the Civil Rights Movement

    Michael D.M. Bader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We argue that existing studies underestimate the degree to which racial change leads to residential segregation in post-Civil Rights American neighborhoods. This is because previous studies only measure the presence of racial groups in neighborhoods, not the degree of integration among those groups. As a result, those studies do not detect gradual racial succession that ends in racially segregated neighborhoods. We demonstrate how a new approach based on growth mixture models can be used to identify patterns of racial change that distinguish between durable integration and gradual racial succession. We use this approach to identify common trajectories of neighborhood racial change among blacks, whites, Latinos, and Asians from 1970 to 2010 in the New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Houston metropolitan areas. We show that many nominally integrated neighborhoods have experienced gradual succession. For blacks, this succession has caused the gradual concentric diffusion of the ghetto; in contrast, Latino and Asian growth has dispersed throughout both cities and suburbs in the metropolitan areas. Durable integration has come about largely in the suburbs.

  20. RACIAL DISPARITIES IN HEALTH

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread assumption that racial differences in stress exist and that stress is a key mediator linking racial status to poor health, relatively few studies have explicitly examined this premise. We examine the distribution of stress across racial groups and the role of stress vulnerability and exposure in explaining racial differences in health in a community sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adults, employing a modeling strategy that accounts for the correlation between types of stressors and the accumulation of stressors in the prediction of health outcomes. We find significant racial differences in overall and cumulative exposure to eight stress domains. Blacks exhibit a higher prevalence and greater clustering of high stress scores than Whites. American-born Hispanics show prevalence rates and patterns of accumulation of stressors comparable to Blacks, while foreign-born Hispanics have stress profiles similar to Whites. Multiple stressors correlate with poor physical and mental health, with financial and relationship stressors exhibiting the largest and most consistent effects. Though we find no support for the stress-vulnerability hypothesis, the stress-exposure hypothesis does account for some racial health disparities. We discuss implications for future research and policy.

  1. Waste segregation procedures and benefits

    Fish, J.D.; Massey, C.D.; Ward, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Segregation is a critical first step in handling hazardous and radioactive materials to minimize the generation of regulated wastes. In addition, segregation can significantly reduce the complexity and the total cost of managing waste. Procedures at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque require that wastes be segregated, first, by waste type (acids, solvents, low level radioactive, mixed, classified, etc.). Higher level segregation requirements, currently under development, are aimed at enhancing the possibilities for recovery, recycle and reapplication; reducing waste volumes; reducing waste disposal costs, and facilitating packaging storage, shipping and disposal. 2 tabs

  2. Diversity in the Distance: The Onset of Racial Change in Northern New England Schools

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Jau, Shoshee

    2014-01-01

    Northern New England, comprised of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, has the opportunity to plan carefully and intentionally so that the region is not plagued by problems of segregation and can instead benefit from the impending racial change and increased diversity to create and sustain diverse learning environments. There are no serious…

  3. Diverse Housing, Diverse Schooling: How Policy Can Stabilize Racial Demographic Change in Cities and Suburbs

    Wells, Amy Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief provides a review of the social science evidence on the housing-school nexus, highlighting the problem of reoccurring racial segregation and inequality absent strong, proactive federal or state integration policies. Three areas of research are covered: (a) the nature of the housing-school nexus; (b) the impact of school…

  4. Visible and Invisible Trends in Black Men's Health: Pitfalls and Promises for Addressing Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Inequities in Health.

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Shetty, Shivan; Baker, Elizabeth A; Elder, Keith; Griffith, Derek M

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e.g., violence, prostate cancer, and HIV/AIDS) and determinants of health (e.g., education and male gender socialization). This limited focus omits age-specific leading causes of death and other social determinants of health, such as discrimination, segregation, access to health care, employment, and income. This review discusses the leading causes of death for black men and the associated risk factors, as well as identifies gaps in the literature and presents a racialized and gendered framework to guide efforts to address the persistent inequities in health affecting black men.

  5. Conditions for spatial segregation: some European perspectives.

    Musterd, S.; de Winter, M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates some theses on the theme of spatial segregation in Europe. Spatial segregation as an important issue on the political agendas of European nations; Two views of segregation in Europe; Strategies of European nations to deal with segregation; Segregation in European cities

  6. Estimating the mental health costs of racial discrimination

    Amanuel Elias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial discrimination is a pervasive social problem in several advanced countries such as the U.S., U.K., and Australia. Public health research also indicates a range of associations between exposure to racial discrimination and negative health, particularly, mental health including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the direct negative health impact of racial discrimination has not been costed so far although economists have previously estimated indirect non-health related productivity costs. In this study, we estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to racial discrimination and measure the cost of this exposure. Methods Using prevalence surveys and data on the association of racial discrimination with health outcomes from a global meta-analysis, we apply a cost of illness method to measure the impact of racial discrimination. This estimate indicates the direct health cost attributable to racial discrimination and we convert the estimates to monetary values based on conventional parameters. Results Racial discrimination costs the Australian economy 235,452 in disability adjusted life years lost, equivalent to $37.9 billion per annum, roughly 3.02% of annual gross domestic product (GDP over 2001–11, indicating a sizeable loss for the economy. Conclusion Substantial cost is incurred due to increased prevalence of racial discrimination as a result of its association with negative health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety and PTSD. This implies that potentially significant cost savings can be made through measures that target racial discrimination. Our research contributes to the debate on the social impact of racial discrimination, with implications for policies and efforts addressing it.

  7. Shaping Segregation: Convexity vs. concavity

    Gonzalez Briones, Sebastián; Windows-Yule, Kit; Luding, Stefan; Parker, D.J.; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    2014-01-01

    Controlling segregation is both a practical and a theoretical challenge. In this Letter we demonstrate a manner in which rotation-induced segregation may be controlled by altering the geometry of the rotating containers in which granular systems are housed. Using a novel drum design comprising

  8. Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups.

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-05

    The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place) and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions) are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks' diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites. Even in the presence of equal access to resources and assets, such unequal health gain constantly generates a racial health gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. In this paper, a number of public policies are recommended based on these findings. First and foremost, public policies should not merely focus on equalizing access to resources and assets, but also reduce the societal and structural barriers that hinder Blacks. Policy solutions should aim to reduce various manifestations of structural racism including but not limited to differential pay, residential segregation, lower quality of education, and crime in Black and urban communities. As income was not found to follow the same pattern demonstrated for other resources and assets (ie, income generated similar decline in risk of mortality for Whites and Blacks), policies that enforce equal income and increase minimum wage for marginalized populations are essential. Improving quality of education of youth and employability of young adults will enable Blacks to compete for high paying jobs. Policies that reduce racism and discrimination in the labor market are also needed. Without such policies, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate the sustained racial health gap in the United States. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open

  9. Queering Black Racial Identity Development

    Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…

  10. Neighbors Like Me? Religious Affiliation and Neighborhood Racial Preferences among Non-Hispanic Whites

    Stephen M. Merino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on racial residential segregation has paid little attention to the role that social institutions play in either isolating or integrating racial and ethnic groups in American communities. Scholars have argued that racial segregation within American religion may contribute to and consolidate racial division elsewhere in social life. However, no previous study has employed national survey data to examine the relationship between religious affiliation and the preferences people have about the racial and ethnic composition of their neighborhoods. Using data from the “Multi-Ethnic United States” module on the 2000 General Social Survey, this study finds that white evangelical Protestants have a significantly stronger preference for same-race neighbors than do Catholics, Jews, adherents of “other” faiths, and the unaffiliated. Group differences in preferences are largely accounted for by socio-demographic characteristics. Negative racial stereotyping and social isolation from minorities, both topics of interest in recent research on evangelical Protestants and race, fail to explain group differences in preferences.

  11. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    Linda eZamariola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved.

  12. Facing the Racial Divide.

    Molnar, Alex

    1993-01-01

    Whatever its causes, racial isolation is social dynamite. Problems and destiny of America and American education cannot be separated from fate of American cities, which daily grow poorer, more violent, less socially cohesive, and more isolated. Problems cannot be addressed without taking racism into account. Schools can help students understand…

  13. Surface segregation during irradiation

    Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

    1985-10-01

    Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs

  14. Framing the Genetics Curriculum for Social Justice: An Experimental Exploration of How the Biology Curriculum Influences Beliefs about Racial Difference

    Donovan, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    This field experiment manipulated the racial framing of a reading on human genetic disease to explore whether racial terminology in the biology curriculum affects how adolescents explain and respond to the racial achievement gap in American education. Carried out in a public high school in the San Francisco Bay Area, students recruited for the…

  15. There Still Be Dragons: Racial Disparity in School Funding Is No Myth

    Miller, Raegen; Epstein, Diana

    2011-01-01

    It's hard to debunk a myth that's not a myth, but Jason Richwine of the Heritage Foundation has given it a try in his recent backgrounder, "The Myth of Racial Disparities in Public School Financing." The report suggests that public education spending is broadly similar across racial and ethnic groups, and it has found a predictably receptive…

  16. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Methods Data were collected from 1,139 Austra...

  17. Applied thermodynamics: Grain boundary segregation

    Lejček, Pavel; Zheng, L.; Hofmann, S.; Šob, Mojmír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2014), s. 1462-1484 ISSN 1099-4300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA ČR GAP108/12/0144; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : interfacial segregation * Gibbs energy of segregation * enthalpy * entropy * volume * grain boundaries * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.502, year: 2014

  18. PICH promotes mitotic chromosome segregation

    Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Hickson, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    PICH is an SNF2-family DNA translocase that appears to play a role specifically in mitosis. Characterization of PICH in human cells led to the initial discovery of "ultra-fine DNA bridges" (UFBs) that connect the 2 segregating DNA masses in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures, which...... further the role of PICH in the timely segregation of the rDNA locus....

  19. Habitat segregation in fish assemblages

    Ibbotson, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    The segregation of habitats of fish assemblages found in the chalk streams and rivers within the Wessex, South West and Southern Water Authority boundaries in southern England have been examined. Habitat segregation is the most frequent type of resource partitioning in natural communities. The habitat of individual fish species will be defined in order to determine the following: (1) the requirements of each species in terms of depth, current velocity, substrate, cover etc.; (2) identify the ...

  20. Critical Race Theory, Democratization, and the Public Good: Deploying Postmodern Understandings of Racial Identity in the Social Justice Classroom to Contest Academic Capitalism

    Ross, Sabrina N.

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses an academic capitalist knowledge regime (i.e. the increasing engagement of public institutions of higher education in market-based ventures) and the alterations to teacher and student behavior and the learning environment that result. Social justice-oriented university courses are positioned as sites where democratization and…

  1. Is the New Heroin Epidemic Really New? Racializing Heroin.

    Bowser, Benjamin; Fullilove, Robert; Word, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Heroin abuse as an outcome of the prior use of painkillers increased rapidly over the past decade. This "new epidemic" is unique because the new heroin users are primarily young White Americans in rural areas of virtually every state. This commentary argues that the painkiller-to-heroin transition could not be the only cause of heroin use on such a scale and that the new and old heroin epidemics are linked. The social marketing that so successfully drove the old heroin epidemic has innovated and expanded due to the use of cell-phones, text messaging and the "dark web" which requires a Tor browser, and software that allows one to communicate with encrypted sites without detection. Central city gentrification has forced traffickers to take advantage of larger and more lucrative markets. A second outcome is that urban black and Latino communities are no longer needed as heroin stages areas for suburban and exurban illicit drug distribution. Drug dealing can be done directly in predominantly white suburbs and rural areas without the accompanying violence associated with the old epidemic. Denial of the link between the new and old heroin epidemics racially segregates heroin users and more proactive prevention and treatment in the new epidemic than in the old. It also cuts off a half-century of knowledge about the supply-side of heroin drug dealing and the inevitable public policy measures that will have to be implemented to effectively slow and stop both the old and new epidemic. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Visionary medicine: speculative fiction, racial justice and Octavia Butler's 'Bloodchild'.

    Pasco, John Carlo; Anderson, Camille; DasGupta, Sayantani

    2016-12-01

    Medical students across the USA have increasingly made the medical institution a place for speculating racially just futures. From die-ins in Fall 2014 to silent protests in response to racially motivated police brutality, medical schools have responded to the public health crisis that is racial injustice in the USA. Reading science fiction may benefit healthcare practitioners who are already invested in imagining a more just, healthier futurity. Fiction that rewrites the future in ways that undermine contemporary power regimes has been termed 'visionary fiction'. In this paper, the authors introduce 'visionary medicine' as a tool for teaching medical students to imagine and produce futures that preserve health and racial justice for all. This essay establishes the connections between racial justice, medicine and speculative fiction by examining medicine's racially unjust past practices, and the intersections of racial justice and traditional science and speculative fiction. It then examines speculative fiction author Octavia Butler's short story 'Bloodchild' as a text that can introduce students of the medical humanities to a liberatory imagining of health and embodiment, one that does not reify and reinscribe boundaries of difference, but reimagines the nature of Self and Other, power and collaboration, agency and justice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Variations in clinicopathologic characteristics of thyroid cancer among racial ethnic groups: analysis of a large public city hospital and the SEER database.

    Moo-Young, Tricia A; Panergo, Jessel; Wang, Chih E; Patel, Subhash; Duh, Hong Yan; Winchester, David J; Prinz, Richard A; Fogelfeld, Leon

    2013-11-01

    Clinicopathologic variables influence the treatment and prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer. A retrospective analysis of public hospital thyroid cancer database and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 17 database was conducted. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic data were compared across ethnic groups. Within the public hospital database, Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites were younger and had more lymph node involvement (34% vs 17%, P ethnic groups. Similar findings were demonstrated within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. African Americans aged ethnic groups. Such disparities persist within an equal-access health care system. These findings suggest that factors beyond socioeconomics may contribute to such differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Segregation, and Beyond-Lessons for Studying Structural Racism and Health.

    Riley, Alicia R

    2018-04-01

    A recent surge of interest in identifying the health effects of structural racism has coincided with the ongoing attention to neighborhood effects in both epidemiology and sociology. Mindful of these currents in the literature, it makes sense that we are seeing an emergent tendency in health disparities research to operationalize structural racism as either neighborhood disadvantage or racial residential segregation. This review essay synthesizes findings on the relevance of neighborhood disadvantage and residential segregation to the study of structural racism and health. It then draws on recent literature to propose four lessons for moving beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches in the study of structural racism and health. These lessons are (1) to shift the focus of research from census tracts to theoretically meaningful units of analysis, (2) to leverage historic and geographic variation in race relations, (3) to combine data from multiple sources, and (4) to challenge normative framing that aims to explain away racial health disparities without discussing racism or racial hierarchy. The author concludes that research on the health effects of structural racism should go beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches if it is to guide intervention to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities.

  5. Image segregation in strabismic amblyopia.

    Levi, Dennis M

    2007-06-01

    Humans with naturally occurring amblyopia show deficits thought to involve mechanisms downstream of V1. These include excessive crowding, abnormal global image processing, spatial sampling and symmetry detection and undercounting. Several recent studies suggest that humans with naturally occurring amblyopia show deficits in global image segregation. The current experiments were designed to study figure-ground segregation in amblyopic observers with documented deficits in crowding, symmetry detection, spatial sampling and counting, using similar stimuli. Observers had to discriminate the orientation of a figure (an "E"-like pattern made up of 17 horizontal Gabor patches), embedded in a 7x7 array of Gabor patches. When the 32 "background" patches are vertical, the "E" pops-out, due to segregation by orientation and performance is perfect; however, if the background patches are all, or mostly horizontal, the "E" is camouflaged, and performance is random. Using a method of constant stimuli, we varied the number of "background" patches that were vertical and measured the probability of correct discrimination of the global orientation of the E (up/down/left/right). Surprisingly, amblyopes who showed strong crowding and deficits in symmetry detection and counting, perform normally or very nearly so in this segregation task. I therefore conclude that these deficits are not a consequence of abnormal segregation of figure from background.

  6. Theorizing Critical Placemaking as a Tool for Reclaiming Public Space.

    Toolis, Erin E

    2017-03-01

    As economic inequality and segregation continue to grow in the U.S., psychology has an important role to play in exploring and promoting processes that can disrupt social injustice. This paper identifies the privatization of public space as a social problem that contributes to the entrenchment of social, economic, and racial inequality, and advances "critical placemaking" as a tool for reclaiming public space for public use. Drawing from key concepts in environmental psychology, narrative psychology, and community psychology, the proposed framework seeks to theorize the processes by which placemaking may contribute to transforming community narratives and building more inclusive, participatory, and democratic communities. Policy implications and future directions for empirical work are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  7. Unsightly urban menaces and the rescaling of residential segregation in the United States.

    Hanlon, James

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author uses a slum clearance project in Lexington, Kentucky, as a lens through which to examine the spatial dynamics of racial residential segregation during the first half of the twentieth century. At the time, urban migration and upward socioeconomic mobility on the part of African Americans destabilized extant residential segregation patterns. Amid this instability, various spatial practices were employed in the interest of maintaining white social and economic supremacy. The author argues that such practices were indicative of a thoroughgoing reinvention of urban socio-spatial order that in turn precipitated the vastly expanded scale of residential segregation still found in U.S. cities today. Evidence of this reinvented ordering of urban space lies in the rendering of some long-standing African American neighborhoods as “out of place” within it and the use of slum clearance to remove the “menace” such neighborhoods posed to it.

  8. 14 CFR 1206.202 - Deletion of segregable portions of a record.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deletion of segregable portions of a record... AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.202 Deletion of segregable... that indication would harm an interest protected by the exemption in Subpart 3 under which the deletion...

  9. Racial Differences in Access to High-Paying Jobs and the Wage Gap between Black and White Women.

    Anderson, Deborah; Shapiro, David

    1996-01-01

    Data from black and white women ages 34-44 (1968-88) showed that differences in characteristics did not explain occupational segregation by race nor the racial wage gap. During the 1980s, the gap was influenced by widening differences in access to occupations and an increase in returns to education. (SK)

  10. Segregation in a Galton Board

    Benito, J G; Vidales, A M; Ippolito, I

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with a numerical study of the problem of separation of particles with different elastic properties. The separation procedure uses a Galton Board which consist in a bidimensional system of obstacles arranged in a triangular lattice. Disks of equal diameters but different elastic properties are launched from the top of the device. The Galton Board is commonly used for mixing particles, but here, we intend to find special conditions under which one can use it as a segregating device. We introduce a mixture of particles and generate, through simulations, different conditions to favor the segregation process based on the different elastic coefficients of the particles. We inspect which is the best configuration of size, density of obstacles and wall separation to favor the separations of particles. Our results prove that the Galton Board can be used as a segregation device under certain conditions.

  11. LOCAL POPULATION CHANGE AND VARIATIONS IN RACIAL INTEGRATION IN THE UNITED STATES, 2000-2010.

    Bellman, Benjamin; Spielman, Seth E; Franklin, Rachel S

    2018-03-01

    While population growth has been consistently tied to decreasing racial segregation at the metropolitan level in the United States, little work has been done to relate small-scale changes in population size to integration. We address this question through a novel technique that tracks population changes by race and ethnicity for comparable geographies in both 2000 and 2010. Using the Theil Index, we analyze the fifty most populous Metropolitan Statistical Areas in 2010 for changes in multigroup segregation. We classify local areas by their net population change between 2000 and 2010 using a novel unit of analysis based on aggregating census blocks. We find strong evidence that growing parts of rapidly growing metropolitan areas of the United States are crucial to understanding regional differences in segregation that have emerged in past decades. Multigroup segregation declined the most in growing parts of growing metropolitan areas. Comparatively, growing parts of shrinking or stagnant metropolitan areas were less diverse and had smaller declines in segregation. We also find that local areas with shrinking populations had disproportionately high minority representation in 2000 before population loss took place. We conclude that the regional context of population growth or decline has important consequences for the residential mixing of racial groups.

  12. The residential segregation of detailed Hispanic and Asian groups in the United States: 1980-2010

    John Iceland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial and ethnic diversity continues to grow in communities across the United States,raising questions about the extent to which different ethnic groups will become residentially integrated. Objective: While a number of studies have examined the residential patterns of pan-ethnic groups, our goal is to examine the segregation of several Asian and Hispanic ethnic groups - Cubans, Dominicans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorans, Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We gauge the segregation of each group from several alternative reference groups using two measures over the 1980 to 2010 period. Results: We find that the dissimilarity of Hispanics and Asians from other groups generally held steady or declined, though, because most Hispanic and Asian groups are growing, interaction with Whites also often declined. Our analyses also indicate that pan-ethnic segregation indexes do not always capture the experience of specific groups. Among Hispanics, Mexicans are typically less residentially segregated (as measured using the dissimilarity index from Whites, Blacks, Asians, and other Hispanics than are other Hispanic-origin groups. Among Asian ethnic groups, Japanese and Filipinos tend to have lower levels of dissimilarity from Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics than other Asian groups. Examining different dimensions of segregation also indicates that dissimilarity scores alone often do not capture to what extent various ethnic groups are actually sharing neighborhoods with each other. Finally, color lines vary across groups in some important ways, even as the dominant trend has been toward reduced racial and ethnic residential segregation over time. Conclusions: The overarching trend is that ethnic groups are becoming more residentially integrated,suggestive of assimilation, though there is significant variation across ethnic groups.

  13. [Extreme types - a comparison of public health systems in Thuringia and the Warthegau].

    Vossen, J

    2013-11-01

    Special policing measures in Nazi Germany required centralisation in the public health service which was mainly achieved through the Law for the Unification of Municipal and State Health Administration in 1934. The long-term aim for public health officers was now hereditary and racial welfare. Several following legal regulations contributed to the implementation of a specific national-socialist health and social policy on the basis of racial hygiene and gave immense power to the health officers. Especially with the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Sick Offspring, compulsory sterilisation was legalised and resulted in about 400,000 victims up to 1945. The central force in this new system was the public health office. The most extreme variation of public health administration was launched in Thuringia, where professional powers and state authority implemented an extensive institutional machinery which managed to reinforce Nazi population policy almost to perfection. After the invasion of western Poland the Germans built up an inhumane regime in the annexed and occupied regions, persecuted and murdered the Polish population and tried to exterminate the Jewish people. Here the health officers of the Warthegau could promote a rigorously racial dominated population policy of segregation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  15. Correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity.

    Chao, Seh-Huang; Liao, Yin-To; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Li, Cheng-Jui; McIntyre, Roger S; Lee, Yena; Weng, Jun-Cheng

    2018-01-30

    Obesity is a major public health problem. Herein, we aim to identify the correlation between brain circuit segregation and obesity using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and analysis. Twenty obese patients (BMI=37.66±5.07) and 30 healthy controls (BMI=22.64±3.45) were compared using neuroimaging and assessed for symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). All participants underwent resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and T1-weighted imaging using a 1.5T MRI. Multimodal MRI techniques and analyses were used to assess obese patients, including the functional connectivity (FC), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), graph theoretical analysis (GTA), and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Correlations between brain circuit segregation and obesity were also calculated. In the VBM, obese patients showed altered gray matter volumes in the amygdala, thalamus and putamen. In the FC, the obesity group showed increased functional connectivity in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and decreased functional connectivity in the frontal gyrus of default mode network. The obesity group also exhibited altered ALFF and ReHo in the prefrontal cortex and precuneus. In the GTA, the obese patients showed a significant decrease in local segregation and a significant increase in global integration, suggesting a shift toward randomization in their functional networks. Our results may provide additional evidence for potential structural and functional imaging markers for clinical diagnosis and future research, and they may improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual orientation, prejudice and segregation

    Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation

  17. America's Moral Dilemma: Will It Be Color Blindness or Racial Equality?

    Loury, Glenn C.

    2000-01-01

    Contends that the nation will begin to resolve the debate over racial preferences only when public commentators begin to draw a clear distinction between the procedural morality of color blindness and the historical morality of racial justice. Explains that it matters very much how college admissions decisions are made and recommends that people…

  18. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  19. Socioeconomic Segregation in Large Cities in France and the United States.

    Quillian, Lincoln; Lagrange, Hugues

    2016-08-01

    Past cross-national comparisons of socioeconomic segregation have been undercut by lack of comparability in measures, data, and concepts. Using IRIS data from the French Census of 2008 and the French Ministry of Finance as well as tract data from the American Community Survey (2006-2010) and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Picture of Subsidized Households, and constructing measures to be as similar as possible, we compare socioeconomic segregation in metropolitan areas with a population of more than 1 million in France and the United States. We find much higher socioeconomic segregation in large metropolitan areas in the United States than in France. We also find (1) a strong pattern of low-income neighborhoods in central cities and high-income neighborhoods in suburbs in the United States, but varying patterns across metropolitan areas in France; (2) that high-income persons are the most segregated group in both countries; (3) that the shares of neighborhood income differences that can be explained by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition are similar in France and the United States; and (4) that government-assisted housing is disproportionately located in the poorest neighborhoods in the United States but is spread across many neighborhood income levels in France. We conclude that differences in government provision of housing assistance and levels of income inequality are likely important contributing factors to the Franco-U.S. difference in socioeconomic segregation.

  20. Racial Prejudice, Interracial Contact, and Personality Variables.

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…

  1. Can neighborhoods explain racial/ethnic differences in adolescent inactivity?

    Richmond, Tracy K; Field, Alison E; Rich, Michael

    2007-01-01

    To determine if neighborhoods and their attributes contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity. We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 17,007), a nationally representative school-based study in the United States. Stratifying by gender, we used multivariate linear regression and multi-level modeling to determine whether neighborhood of residence may partially explain racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical inactivity, defined as hours viewing television or videos/DVDs and/or playing computer/video games each week. Participants lived in largely segregated communities. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported higher levels of inactivity than White adolescent girls (21 vs. 15 vs. 13 hours/week, respectively, p violent crime in the neighborhood was associated with inactivity, despite the individual's perception of his/her neighborhood as safe not being predictive. Although inactivity varies by race/ethnicity and gender, only in Hispanic adolescent girls does neighborhood fully explain the differential use. Our findings suggest that approaches other than changing neighborhood characteristics are needed to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent inactivity.

  2. The Relationships of Racial Identity and Gender Role Conflict to Self-Esteem of Asian American Undergraduate Men

    Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…

  3. Unperturbed Schelling Segregation in Two or Three Dimensions

    Barmpalias, George; Elwes, Richard; Lewis-Pye, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Schelling's models of segregation, first described in 1969 (Am Econ Rev 59:488-493, 1969) are among the best known models of self-organising behaviour. Their original purpose was to identify mechanisms of urban racial segregation. But his models form part of a family which arises in statistical mechanics, neural networks, social science, and beyond, where populations of agents interact on networks. Despite extensive study, unperturbed Schelling models have largely resisted rigorous analysis, prior results generally focusing on variants in which noise is introduced into the dynamics, the resulting system being amenable to standard techniques from statistical mechanics or stochastic evolutionary game theory (Young in Individual strategy and social structure: an evolutionary theory of institutions, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1998). A series of recent papers (Brandt et al. in: Proceedings of the 44th annual ACM symposium on theory of computing (STOC 2012), 2012); Barmpalias et al. in: 55th annual IEEE symposium on foundations of computer science, Philadelphia, 2014, J Stat Phys 158:806-852, 2015), has seen the first rigorous analyses of 1-dimensional unperturbed Schelling models, in an asymptotic framework largely unknown in statistical mechanics. Here we provide the first such analysis of 2- and 3-dimensional unperturbed models, establishing most of the phase diagram, and answering a challenge from Brandt et al. in: Proceedings of the 44th annual ACM symposium on theory of computing (STOC 2012), 2012).

  4. High School Racial Confrontation, A Study of the White Plains, New York, Student Boycott. Student Unrest and Changing Student-Staff Relationships in the White Plains Public Schools, September, 1967 to December, 1968.

    Dodson, Dan W.; And Others

    This case study examines a racial confrontation in the high school of White Plains, New York. The study includes a chronology of the White Plains incident, a report of the community background, discussion of various hypotheses concerning the reasons for the incident (social class factors, youths testing new roles, and breakdown of authority),…

  5. Nonequilibrium Segregation in Petroleum Reservoirs

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  6. Marketization, occupational segregation, and gender earnings inequality in urban China.

    He, Guangye; Wu, Xiaogang

    2017-07-01

    This article analyzes a large sample of the 2005 population mini-census data and prefecture-level statistics of China to investigate gender earnings inequality in the context of economic marketization, paying special attention to the changing role of occupational segregation in the process. We approximate marketization by employment sectors and also construct an index of marketization at the prefecture level. Results show that, despite the tremendous economic growth, marketization has exacerbated gender earnings inequality in urban China's labor markets. Gender earnings inequality is the smallest in government/public institutions, followed by public enterprises, and then private enterprises. The gender inequality also increases with the prefecture's level of marketization. Multilevel analyses show that occupational segregation plays an important role in affecting gender earnings inequality: the greater the occupational segregation, the more disadvantaged women are relative to men in earnings in a prefecture's labor market. Moreover, the impact of occupational segregation on gender earnings inequality increases with the prefectural level of marketization. These findings contribute to understanding the dynamics of gender earnings inequality and have important implications for policy to promote gender equality in urban China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Desegregation, Racial Conflict and Education for Democracy in the New South Africa: A Case Study of Institutional Change

    Harber, Clive

    1998-09-01

    Education under apartheid in South Africa was characterised by racism and segregation. Since the first democratic election in 1994 a process of racial desegregation has begun in South African schools. However, desegregation is not the same as integration. Given the historical context of South Africa, simply mixing students from different racial groups in one school is likely to result in racial conflict and violence unless the structure and processes of schooling are changed at the same time. This article examines the experience of one school in South Africa which has not only desegregated its intake but has also attempted to democratise its management structures in order to teach democratic values through experience and in particular to foster a climate of mutual respect among students so as to decrease racial distrust. So far, the changes appear to be successful but there are a number of important lessons to be learned.

  8. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2012-04-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.

  9. Racial Differences in Job Satisfaction

    Marshall-Miles, Joanne

    2000-01-01

    ..., and overall quality of Army life. Black soldiers also subscribe to more egalitarian attitudes concerning male/female work teams and performance but are more negative about racial discrimination and equal opportunity issues...

  10. School Personnel-Student Racial Congruence and the Achievement Gap

    Moore, Allison B.; MacGregor, Cynthia; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the relationship between student achievement and racial congruence of school personnel and students to help educators and policy makers narrow the achievement gap. Design/methodology/approach: This quasi-experimental, correlational study used publicly available data from 158 elementary schools in the Houston…

  11. Campus Racial Politics and a "Rhetoric of Injury"

    Hoang, Haivan V.

    2009-01-01

    If college writing faculty wish to prepare students to engage in civic forums, then how might we prepare students to write and speak amid racial politics on our campuses? This article explores the college student discourse that shaped an interracial conflict at a public California university in 2002 and questions the "rhetoric of injury"…

  12. Destabilizing the American Racial Order

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla; Burch, Traci

    2011-01-01

    Are racial disparities in the United States just as deep-rooted as they were before the 2008 presidential election, largely eliminated, or persistent but on the decline? One can easily find all of these pronouncements; rather than trying to adjudicate among them, this essay seeks to identify what is changing in the American racial order, what persists or is becoming even more entrenched, and what is likely to affect the balance between change and continuity. The authors focus on young America...

  13. Racial Profiling and Criminal Justice

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    According to the main argument in favour of the practice of racial profiling as a low enforcement tactic, the use of race as a targeting factor helps the police to apprehend more criminals. In the following, this argument is challenged. It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals...... are currently being punished too severely in Western countries, the apprehension of more criminals may not constitute a reason in favour of racial profiling at all....

  14. Racial Discrimination and Racial Socialization as Predictors of African American Adolescents’ Racial Identity Development using Latent Transition Analysis

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared to the Achieved group. PMID:21875184

  15. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  16. Beyond Post-Racial Narratives: Barack Obama and the (Re)shaping of Racial Memory in US Schools and Society

    Smith, William L.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the work of "cultural memory" and "racial formation theory" (Omi and Winant 1994) we explore the ascension of Barack Obama as an illustration of how "race" is understood and remembered. This article focuses on the public media discourse of the 2012 Obama re-election to illustrate how the narrative morphed…

  17. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    LaShanta J. Rice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  18. Post What? The Liminality of Multi-Racial Identity

    Danielle Fuentes Morgan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, “Post What? The Liminality of Multi-Racial Identity,” argues that the successes and failures of 21st-century satire reveal the myth of post-raciality while simultaneously dismissing racial essentialism. I focus on three critical moments: the commercial success of Mat Johnson’s Loving Day, a text and forthcoming television show that examines the shifting self-identities of mixed-race individuals; the inability of a potential love interest on the television series, Louie, to accept a black woman as the ex-wife of the titular protagonist’s phenotypically white daughters; and Barack Obama’s self-designation as “black” on the census shortly after his election. I argue that the widespread reach of these instances, coupled with audience engagement and response, underscores the ways that the public realm frames a contemporary understanding of race as both meaningful and absurd.

  19. Lifecourse approach to racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity.

    Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child's diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children.

  20. Can school income and racial/ethnic composition explain the racial/ethnic disparity in adolescent physical activity participation?

    Richmond, Tracy K; Hayward, Rodney A; Gahagan, Sheila; Field, Alison E; Heisler, Michele

    2006-06-01

    Our goal was to determine if racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent boys' and girls' physical activity participation exist and persist once the school attended is considered. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 17,007 teens in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Using multivariate linear regression, we examined the association between adolescent self-reported physical activity and individual race/ethnicity stratified by gender, controlling for a wide range of sociodemographic, attitudinal, behavioral, and health factors. We used multilevel analyses to determine if the relationship between race/ethnicity and physical activity varied by the school attended. Participants attended racially segregated schools; approximately 80% of Hispanic and black adolescent boys and girls attended schools with student populations that were schools that were >94% white. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported lower levels of physical activity than white adolescent girls. There were more similar levels of physical activity reported in adolescent boys, with black boys reporting slightly more activities. Although black and Hispanic adolescent girls were more likely to attend poorer schools with overall lower levels of physical activity in girls; there was no difference within schools between black, white, and Hispanic adolescent girls' physical activity levels. Within the same schools, both black and Hispanic adolescent boys had higher rates of physical activity when compared with white adolescent boys. In this nationally representative sample, lower physical activity levels in Hispanic and black adolescent girls were largely attributable to the schools they attended. In contrast, black and Hispanic males had higher activity levels than white males when attending the same schools. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which school environments contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical activity and will need to

  1. Progressive segregation of the Escherichia coli chromosome

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2006-01-01

    We have followed the fate of 14 different loci around the Escherichia coli chromosome in living cells at slow growth rate using a highly efficient labelling system and automated measurements. Loci are segregated as they are replicated, but with a marked delay. Most markers segregate in a smooth...... temporal progression from origin to terminus. Thus, the overall pattern is one of continuous segregation during replication and is not consistent with recently published models invoking extensive sister chromosome cohesion followed by simultaneous segregation of the bulk of the chromosome. The terminus......, and a region immediately clockwise from the origin, are exceptions to the overall pattern and are subjected to a more extensive delay prior to segregation. The origin region and nearby loci are replicated and segregated from the cell centre, later markers from the various positions where they lie...

  2. The role of ethnic school segregation for adolescents’ religious salience

    Van der Bracht, Koen; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van de Putte, Bart; Stevens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Public concerns over the possible effects of school segregation on immigrant and ethnic majority religiosity have been on the rise over the last few years. In this paper we focus on (1) the association between ethnic school composition and religious salience, (2) intergenerational differences in religious salience and (3) the role of ethnic school composition for intergenerational differences in religious salience. We perform analyses on religious salience, one five-point Likert scale item me...

  3. Metropolitan isolation segregation and Black-White disparities in very preterm birth: a test of mediating pathways and variance explained.

    Kramer, Michael R; Cooper, Hannah L; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Waller, Lance A; Hogue, Carol R

    2010-12-01

    Residential isolation segregation (a measure of residential inter-racial exposure) has been associated with rates of preterm birth (births (32-36 weeks) raise questions about whether this association is similar across gestational ages, and through what pathways it might be mediated. Hierarchical Bayesian models were fit to answer three questions: is the isolation-prematurity association similar for very and moderately preterm birth; is this association mediated by maternal chronic disease, socioeconomic status, or metropolitan area crime and poverty rates; and how much of the geographic variation in Black-White very preterm birth disparities is explained by isolation segregation? Singleton births to Black and White women in 231 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas in 2000-2002 were analyzed and isolation segregation was calculated for each. We found that among Black women, isolation is associated with very preterm birth and moderately preterm birth. The association may be partially mediated by individual level socioeconomic characteristics and metropolitan level violent crime rates. There is no association between segregation and prematurity among White women. Isolation segregation explains 28% of the geographic variation in Black-White very preterm birth disparities. Our findings highlight the importance of isolation segregation for the high-burden outcome of very preterm birth, but unexplained excess risk for prematurity among Black women is substantial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Are segregated sports classes scientifically justified?

    Lawson, Sian; Hall, Edward

    2014-01-01

    School sports classes are a key part of physical and mental development, yet in many countries these classes are gender segregated. Before institutionalised segregation can be condoned it is important to tackle assumptions and check for an evidence-based rationale. This presentation aims to analyse the key arguments for segregation given in comment-form response to a recent media article discussing mixed school sports (Lawson, 2013).\\ud \\ud The primary argument given was division for strength...

  5. Digital morphogenesis via Schelling segregation

    Barmpalias, George; Elwes, Richard; Lewis-Pye, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Schelling’s model of segregation looks to explain the way in which particles or agents of two types may come to arrange themselves spatially into configurations consisting of large homogeneous clusters, i.e. connected regions consisting of only one type. As one of the earliest agent based models studied by economists and perhaps the most famous model of self-organising behaviour, it also has direct links to areas at the interface between computer science and statistical mechanics, such as the Ising model and the study of contagion and cascading phenomena in networks. While the model has been extensively studied it has largely resisted rigorous analysis, prior results from the literature generally pertaining to variants of the model which are tweaked so as to be amenable to standard techniques from statistical mechanics or stochastic evolutionary game theory. In Brandt et al (2012 Proc. 44th Annual ACM Symp. on Theory of Computing) provided the first rigorous analysis of the unperturbed model, for a specific set of input parameters. Here we provide a rigorous analysis of the model’s behaviour much more generally and establish some surprising forms of threshold behaviour, notably the existence of situations where an increased level of intolerance for neighbouring agents of opposite type leads almost certainly to decreased segregation.

  6. Desigualdades raciais no Brasil: síntese de indicadores e desafios no campo das políticas públicas Racial inequalities in Brazil: a synthesis of social indicators and challenges for public policies

    Rosana Heringer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende sistematizar e analisar indicadores que revelam a dimensão das desigualdades raciais no Brasil. Parte-se do princípio de que as desigualdades raciais, ao afetarem a capacidade de inserção dos negros na sociedade brasileira, comprometem o projeto de construção de um país democrático e com oportunidades iguais para todos. Essas desigualdades estão presentes em diferentes momentos do ciclo de vida do indivíduo, desde a infância, passando pelo acesso à educação, à infra-estrutura urbana e cristalizando-se no mercado de trabalho e, por conseqüência, no valor dos rendimentos obtidos e nas condições de vida como um todo. Também serão apresentadas as principais vertentes do atual debate político sobre desigualdades raciais no Brasil, identificando as iniciativas por parte do Estado brasileiro e da sociedade civil destinadas a enfrentar a discriminação e as desigualdades raciais. Finalmente, pretende-se apontar alguns desafios colocados para os formuladores de políticas de saúde a partir deste quadro.This article aims to systematize and analyze social data that reveal the dimension of racial inequalities in Brazil. The point of departure is that racial inequalities affect the capacity for integration of Blacks into Brazilian society and jeopardize the proposal to build a democratic society with equal opportunities for all. Such inequalities are present at different moments in the individual life cycle, beginning in childhood and continuing through school years, in access to urban infrastructure, and crystallizing in the labor market, consequently determining the income and living conditions of Afro-Brazilians as a whole. The article also analyzes the main positions in the political debate on racial inequalities in Brazil, identifying recent initiatives by both the Brazilian government and civil society to deal with racial discrimination and racial inequalities. The article concludes by identifying key

  7. From particle segregation to the granular clock

    Lambiotte, R.; Salazar, J.M.; Brenig, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recently several authors studied the segregation of particles for a system composed of mono-dispersed inelastic spheres contained in a box divided by a wall in the middle. The system exhibited a symmetry breaking leading to an overpopulation of particles in one side of the box. Here we study the segregation of a mixture of particles composed of inelastic hard spheres and fluidized by a vibrating wall. Our numerical simulations show a rich phenomenology: horizontal segregation and periodic behavior. We also propose an empirical system of ODEs representing the proportion of each type of particles and the segregation flux of particles. These equations reproduce the major features observed by the simulations

  8. From particle segregation to the granular clock

    Lambiotte, R. [Physique Statistique, Plasmas et Optique Non-lineaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, Code Postal 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: rlambiot@ulb.ac.be; Salazar, J.M. [Universite De Bougogne-LRRS UMR-5613 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, 9 Av. Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jmarcos@u-bourgogne.fr; Brenig, L. [Physique Statistique, Plasmas et Optique Non-lineaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, Code Postal 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: lbrenig@ulb.ac.be

    2005-08-01

    Recently several authors studied the segregation of particles for a system composed of mono-dispersed inelastic spheres contained in a box divided by a wall in the middle. The system exhibited a symmetry breaking leading to an overpopulation of particles in one side of the box. Here we study the segregation of a mixture of particles composed of inelastic hard spheres and fluidized by a vibrating wall. Our numerical simulations show a rich phenomenology: horizontal segregation and periodic behavior. We also propose an empirical system of ODEs representing the proportion of each type of particles and the segregation flux of particles. These equations reproduce the major features observed by the simulations.

  9. The effect of school quality on black-white health differences: evidence from segregated southern schools.

    Frisvold, David; Golberstein, Ezra

    2013-12-01

    This study assesses the effect of black-white differences in school quality on black-white differences in health in later life resulting from the racial convergence in school quality for cohorts born between 1910 and 1950 in southern states with segregated schools. Using data from the 1984-2007 National Health Interview Surveys linked to race-specific data on school quality, we find that reductions in the black-white gap in school quality led to modest reductions in the black-white gap in disability.

  10. The Saudi Arabian International Student Experience: From a Gender-Segregated Society to Studying in a Mixed-Gender Environment

    Alhazmi, Ahmed; Nyland, Berenice

    2013-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia gender segregation is a cultural practice that occurs across all public and private domains. This segregation has shaped the lives of Saudi citizens and is driven socially through cultural and religious discourses and politically through regulation and policy. For Saudi students undertaking their education in western countries, the…

  11. Publicity.

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  12. Using Students' Racial Memories to Teach about Racial Inequality

    Macomber, Kris; Rusche, Sarah Nell

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, the authors' lessons about contemporary racial inequality are complicated and contradicted by the rhetoric of color-blindness--the belief that race no longer matters for determining life chances--entrenched in the culture. Students remain attracted to notions of racism as a problem of the "past" and often reject the idea that racism…

  13. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...

  14. Losing Ground: School Segregation in Massachuestts

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Greenberg, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    Though once a leader in school integration, Massachusetts has regressed over the last two decades as its students of color have experienced intensifying school segregation. This report investigates trends in school segregation in Massachusetts by examining concentration, exposure, and evenness measures by both race and class. First, the report…

  15. Occupational Segregation by Sex: Determinants and Changes.

    Beller, Andrea H.

    1982-01-01

    This study found that occupational sex segregation began to diminish during the 1970s, in conjunction with enforcement of the equal employment opportunity laws against sex discrimination in employment. The success of these laws suggests that discrimination was originally a determinant of occupational segregation. (Author/SK)

  16. Sex Segregation in Undergraduate Engineering Majors

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher…

  17. Administrative Segregation for Mentally Ill Inmates

    O'Keefe, Maureen L.

    2007-01-01

    Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…

  18. Class, Kinship Density, and Conjugal Role Segregation.

    Hill, Malcolm D.

    1988-01-01

    Studied conjugal role segregation in 150 married women from intact families in working-class community. Found that, although involvement in dense kinship networks was associated with conjugal role segregation, respondents' attitudes toward marital roles and phase of family cycle when young children were present were more powerful predictors of…

  19. A sexy spin on nonrandom chromosome segregation.

    Charville, Gregory W; Rando, Thomas A

    2013-06-06

    Nonrandom chromosome segregation is an intriguing phenomenon linked to certain asymmetric stem cell divisions. In a recent report in Nature, Yadlapalli and Yamashita (2013) observe nonrandom segregation of X and Y chromosomes in Drosophila germline stem cells and shed light on the complex mechanisms of this fascinating process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cultural humility and racial microaggressions in counseling.

    Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O

    2016-04-01

    Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Racial Inequity in Special Education Undefined

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…

  2. Racialized Aggressions and Social Media on Campus

    Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.; Hottell, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Using a phenomenological approach, rooted in critical theory's desire to challenge systemic structures of inequality, we explored the impact of racialized hate encountered on social media by students of color at a predominately White institution. The encounters of racialized hostility manifested as anti-Black sentiments and produced racial battle…

  3. "It Wasn't Racism; It Was More Misunderstanding." White Teachers, Latino/a Students, and Racial Battle Fatigue

    Call-Cummings, Meagan; Martinez, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how and why a group of Latino/a high school students identify and explain racism differently over the course of an 18-month participatory action research (PAR) project. To do this we examine what recent scholarship has termed racial microaggressions in what is thought of as the Post-Racial America public school system.…

  4. Racialism and Representation in the Rainbow Nation

    Fileve T. Palmer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite a commitment to non-racialism in the South African Constitution and anthropology’s steadfast position that race is a social construction, race is still a highly valued ideology with real-life implications for citizens. In South Africa, racialism particularly affects heterogeneous, multigenerational, multiethnic creole people known as “Coloureds.” The larger category of Coloured is often essentialized based on its intermediary status between Black and White and its relationship to South Africa’s “mother city” (Cape Town, where the majority of Coloured people live. Through research on Coloured identity in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, I show how the nuances of personal and collective histories, spatial constraints, and education affect the identities of youth and elders differently from their Cape counterparts. By incorporating a photo-voice methodology, which I called Photo Ethnography Project (PEP, participants produced their own visual materials and challenged essentialized versions of themselves (specifically and South Africa (in general. Through three public displays of photography and narratives, youth in three communities answered the question of what it means to be Coloured in today’s rainbow nation.

  5. [Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses].

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano

    2017-01-01

    The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.

  6. Grain boundary segregation and intergranular failure

    White, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Trace elements and impurities often segregate strongly to grain boundaries in metals and alloys. Concentrations of these elements at grain boundaries are often 10 3 to 10 5 times as great as their overall concentration in the alloy. Because of such segregation, certain trace elements can exert a disproportionate influence on material properties. One frequently observed consequence of trace element segregation to grain boundaries is the occurrence of grain boundary failure and low ductility. Less well known are incidences of improved ductility and inhibition of grain boundary fracture resulting from trace element segregation to grain boundaries in certain systems. An overview of trace element segregation and intergranular failure in a variety of alloy systems as well as preliminary results from studies on Al 3% Li will be presented

  7. Segregation practices in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.

    1981-10-01

    A scoping study has been undertaken to determine the state-of-the-art of waste segregation technology as applied to the management of low-level waste (LLW). Present-day waste segregation practices were surveyed through a review of the recent literature and by means of personal interviews with personnel at selected facilities. Among the nuclear establishments surveyed were Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and plants, nuclear fuel cycle plants, public and private laboratories, institutions, industrial plants, and DOE and commercially operated shallow land burial sites. These survey data were used to analyze the relationship between waste segregation practices and waste treatment/disposal processes, to assess the developmental needs for improved segregation technology, and to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with the implementation of waste segregation controls. For improved processing and disposal of LLW, it is recommended that waste segregation be practiced wherever it is technically feasible and cost-effective to do so. It is noted that LLW management practices are now undergoing rapid change such that the technology and requirements for waste segregation in the near future may differ significantly from those of the present day

  8. On Reconstructing School Segregation: The Efficacy and Equity of Single-Sex Schooling

    Billger, Sherrilyn M.

    2009-01-01

    A change to Title IX has spurred new single-sex public schooling in the US. Until recently, nearly all gender-segregated schools were private, and comprehensive data for public school comparisons are not yet available. To investigate the effects of single-sex education, I focus on within private sector comparisons, and additionally address…

  9. Creating a segregated medical profession: African American physicians and organized medicine, 1846-1910.

    Baker, Robert B; Washington, Harriet A; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R

    2009-06-01

    An independent panel of experts, convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) Institute for Ethics, analyzed the roots of the racial divide within American medical organizations. In this, the first of a 2-part report, we describe 2 watershed moments that helped institutionalize the racial divide. The first occurred in the 1870s, when 2 medical societies from Washington, DC, sent rival delegations to the AMA's national meetings: an all-white delegation from a medical society that the US courts and Congress had formally censured for discriminating against black physicians; and an integrated delegation from a medical society led by physicians from Howard University. Through parliamentary maneuvers and variable enforcement of credentialing standards, the integrated delegation was twice excluded from the AMA's meetings, while the all-white society's delegations were admitted. AMA leaders then voted to devolve the power to select delegates to state societies, thereby accepting segregation in constituent societies and forcing African American physicians to create their own, separate organizations. A second watershed involved AMA-promoted educational reforms, including the 1910 Flexner report. Straightforwardly applied, the report's population-based criterion for determining the need for phySicians would have recommended increased training of African American physicians to serve the approximately 9 million African Americans in the segregated south. Instead, the report recommended closing all but 2 African American medical schools, helping to cement in place an African American educational system that was separate, unequal, and destined to be insufficient to the needs of African Americans nationwide.

  10. Rapid mass segregation in small stellar clusters

    Spera, Mario; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on small-to-intermediate N-body systems that are, initially, distributed uniformly in space and dynamically `cool' (virial ratios Q=2T/|Ω| below ˜0.3). In this work, we study the mass segregation that emerges after the initial violent dynamical evolution. At this scope, we ran a set of high precision N-body simulations of isolated clusters by means of HiGPUs, our direct summation N-body code. After the collapse, the system shows a clear mass segregation. This (quick) mass segregation occurs in two phases: the first shows up in clumps originated by sub-fragmentation before the deep overall collapse; this segregation is partly erased during the deep collapse to re-emerge, abruptly, during the second phase, that follows the first bounce of the system. In this second stage, the proper clock to measure the rate of segregation is the dynamical time after virialization, which (for cold and cool systems) may be significantly different from the crossing time evaluated from initial conditions. This result is obtained for isolated clusters composed of stars of two different masses (in the ratio mh/ml=2), at varying their number ratio, and is confirmed also in presence of a massive central object (simulating a black hole of stellar size). Actually, in stellar systems starting their dynamical evolution from cool conditions, the fast mass segregation adds to the following, slow, secular segregation which is collisionally induced. The violent mass segregation is an effect persistent over the whole range of N (128 ≤ N ≤1,024) investigated, and is an interesting feature on the astronomical-observational side, too. The semi-steady state reached after virialization corresponds to a mass segregated distribution function rather than that of equipartition of kinetic energy per unit mass as it should result from violent relaxation.

  11. IMPACT OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL ON PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DELINQUENCY, SCHOOL DROPOUTS, POVERTY, RACIAL SEGREGATION.

    TOTTEN, W. FRED

    THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL IS DESIGNED TO HELP PEOPLE LEARN HOW TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS, IT IS THE CENTER OF SERVICE FOR ALL THE PEOPLE OF A COMMUNITY REGARDLESS OF AGE, RACE, RELIGION, ETHNIC BACKGROUND, OR SOCIOECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES. SCHOOL FACILITIES AND SCHOOL PERSONNEL ARE AVAILABLE FOR SERVICE TO PEOPLE AT ALL TIMES OF THE DAY ON ALL DAYS OF…

  12. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

    Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  14. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

    Pierre Grognet

    Full Text Available Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs, complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  15. Veil: A Wall of Segregation

    Tayebeh Nowrouzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moving behind the confines of the race has been the continuous efforts of African-Americans so as to reveal and confirm their true humanity and abilities to white race as well as their own race. African-Americans, Dubois posited, are shut out of the white America, inhabiting behind a vast veil which creates a deep division between the races. Veil is made of the fabric of racism interwoven thread by thread and imposed by white world. It is thrown discourteously and forcibly to the African-Americans whom their distorted images are imposed on them and their true humanity and identity are hidden behind the veil. This study overtakes to present how Loraine Hansberry, in her first and the most outstanding drama, A Raisin in the Sun examines the world within the veil. She demonstrated that Duboisian metaphoric veil is operating in the racist American society so that not only African-Americans are segregated physically and psychologically from the rest of the world but also are inflicted with obscurity of vision that are neither able to see themselves clearly nor be seen truly. On the other hand, it presents how the veil provides blacks with the second sight to observe and comprehend the racist nature of whites which is hidden and incomprehensible for them.

  16. Neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain.

    Mendez, Dara D; Thorpe, Roland J; Amutah, Ndidi; Davis, Esa M; Walker, Renee E; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Bodnar, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Studies of neighborhood racial composition or neighborhood poverty in association with pregnancy-related weight are limited. Prior studies of neighborhood racial density and poverty has been in association with adverse birth outcomes and suggest that neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and racial composition of black residents are typically segregated and systematically isolated from opportunities and resources. These neighborhood factors may help explain the racial disparities in pre-pregnancy weight and inadequate weight gain. This study examined whether neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty was associated with weight before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy and if this association differed by race. We used vital birth records of singleton births of 73,061 non-Hispanic black and white women in Allegheny County, PA (2003-2010). Maternal race and ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI), gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth record data, and measures of neighborhood racial composition (percentage of black residents in the neighborhood) and poverty (percentage of households in the neighborhood below the federal poverty) were derived using US Census data. Multilevel log binomial regression models were performed to estimate neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight (i.e., overweight/obese) and gestational weight gain (i.e., inadequate and excessive). Black women as compared to white women were more likely to be overweight/obese before pregnancy and to have inadequate gestational weight gain (53.6% vs. 38.8%; 22.5% vs. 14.75 respectively). Black women living in predominately black neighborhoods were slightly more likely to be obese prior to pregnancy compared to black women living in predominately white neighborhoods (PR 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16). Black and white women living in high poverty areas compared with women living in

  17. Neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain

    Dara D. Mendez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of neighborhood racial composition or neighborhood poverty in association with pregnancy-related weight are limited. Prior studies of neighborhood racial density and poverty has been in association with adverse birth outcomes and suggest that neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and racial composition of black residents are typically segregated and systematically isolated from opportunities and resources. These neighborhood factors may help explain the racial disparities in pre-pregnancy weight and inadequate weight gain. This study examined whether neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty was associated with weight before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy and if this association differed by race. Methods: We used vital birth records of singleton births of 73,061 non-Hispanic black and white women in Allegheny County, PA (2003–2010. Maternal race and ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI, gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth record data, and measures of neighborhood racial composition (percentage of black residents in the neighborhood and poverty (percentage of households in the neighborhood below the federal poverty were derived using US Census data. Multilevel log binomial regression models were performed to estimate neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight (i.e., overweight/obese and gestational weight gain (i.e., inadequate and excessive. Results: Black women as compared to white women were more likely to be overweight/obese before pregnancy and to have inadequate gestational weight gain (53.6% vs. 38.8%; 22.5% vs. 14.75 respectively. Black women living in predominately black neighborhoods were slightly more likely to be obese prior to pregnancy compared to black women living in predominately white neighborhoods (PR 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16. Black and white women living in high

  18. Changes in racial identity among African American college students following the election of Barack Obama.

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Burrow, Anthony L; Ong, Anthony D

    2011-11-01

    The current study considered the influence of the 2008 presidential election on the racial identity of African American college students (M(age) = 19.3 years; 26.3% male). The design of the study consisted of 2 components: longitudinal and daily. The longitudinal component assessed 3 dimensions of racial identity (centrality, private regard, and public regard) 2 weeks before and 5 months after the election, and the daily diary component assessed racial identity and identity exploration on the days immediately before and after the election. Daily items measuring identity exploration focused on how much individuals thought about issues relating to their race. Analyses considered the immediate effects of the election on identity exploration and the extent to which changes in exploration were shaped by racial identity measured prior to the election. We also considered immediate and longer term changes in racial identity following the election and the extent to which longer term changes were conditioned by identity exploration. Findings suggest that the election served as an "encounter" experience (Cross, 1991, 1995, pp. 60-61), which led to increases in identity exploration. Moreover, analyses confirmed that changes in identity exploration were most pronounced among those with higher levels of racial centrality. Results also suggest that the election had both an immediate and a longer term influence on racial identity, which in some instances was conditioned by identity exploration.

  19. Granular Segregation by an Oscillating Ratchet Mechanism

    Igarashi, A.; Horiuchi, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a method to segregate granular mixtures which consist of two kinds of particles by an oscillating ''ratchet'' mechanism. The segregation system has an asymmetrical sawtooth-shaped base which is vertically oscillating. Such a ratchet base produces a directional current of particles owing to its transport property. It is a counterintuitive and interesting phenomenon that a vertically vibrated base transports particles horizontally. This system is studied with numerical simulations, and it is found that we can apply such a system to segregation of mixtures of particles with different properties (radius or mass). Furthermore, we find out that an appropriate inclination of the ratchet-base makes the quality of segregation high. (author)

  20. Gender Differences in the Effect of Residential Segregation on Workplace Segregation among Newly Arrived Immigrants

    Tammaru, Tiit; Strömgren, Magnus; van Ham, Maarten; Danzer, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cities are becoming more and more diverse in population as a result of immigration. Research also shows that within cities residential neighborhoods are becoming ethnically more diverse, but that residential segregation has remained persistently high. High levels of segregation are often seen as negative, preventing integration of immigrants in their host society and having a negative impact on people's lives. Segregation research often focuses on residential neighborhoods, but i...

  1. Gender Segregation in the Retail Industry

    Lynch, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of occupational gender segregation in the retail industry, with a particular focus on part time working. The empirical data was gathered through a series of 59 interviews, and a small survey of employees, with store level managers in three UK retail organisations. The paper illustrates the extent of occupational gender segregation and considers the impact of such stereotyping on the gender pay gap, training and career development.\\ud \\ud Occupational gender ...

  2. The relationship between racial identity and self-esteem in African American college and high school students.

    Rowley, S J; Sellers, R M; Chavous, T M; Smith, M A

    1998-03-01

    The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity was used to examine the relationship between racial identity and personal self-esteem (PSE) in a sample of African American college students (n = 173) and a sample of African American high school students (n = 72). Racial identity was assessed using the Centrality and Regard scales of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, whereas the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess PSE. Four predictions were tested: (a) racial centrality is weakly but positively related to PSE; (b) private regard is moderately related to PSE; (c) public regard is unrelated to PSE; and (d) racial centrality moderates the relationship between private regard and PSE. Multiple regression analysis found that racial centrality and public racial regard were unrelated to PSE in both samples. Private regard was positively related to PSE in the college sample. Racial centrality moderated the relationship between private regard and PSE in both samples, such that the relationship was significant for those with high levels of centrality but nonsignificant for those with low levels.

  3. A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON RACIAL AND LINGUISTIC INTEGRATIONIN SOUTH AFRICAN CHRISTIAN CONGREGATIONS

    Dawid Venter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a study that uses data from a national survey of multicultural and multilingual Christian congregations in South Africa to examine the institutional factors that support the dominance of English in formerly segregated churches without a formal language policy. Data were collected by qualitative methods on the levels and types of linguistic integration (as well as racial and cultural incorporation in each of 60 congregations from nine Christian denominations across South Africa. The patterns found are best explained in terms of the articulation of formal and popular ideologies that contribute to institutional isomorphism across state and civil institutions.

  4. Gender Segregation in the Spanish Labor Market: An Alternative Approach

    del Rio, Coral; Alonso-Villar, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study occupational segregation by gender in Spain, which is a country where occupational segregation explains a large part of the gender wage gap. As opposed to previous studies, this paper measures not only overall segregation, but also the segregation of several population subgroups. For this purpose, this paper uses…

  5. Across Racial/Ethnic Groups in Effects of Racial Incidents on Satisfaction with Military Service

    Stewart, James

    2001-01-01

    This study compares the effects of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service across racial/ethnic groups by analyzing responses to the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey (AFEOS...

  6. Variation Across Racial/Ethnic Groups in Effects of Racial Incidents on Satisfaction with Military Service

    Stewart, James

    2001-01-01

    This study compares the effects of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service across racial/ethnic groups by analyzing responses to the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey (AFEOS...

  7. The Importance of History in the Racial Inequality and Racial Inequity in Education: New Orleans as a Case Example

    Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Turner, Kea

    2014-01-01

    Racial equality and racial equity in U.S. education has been elusive although decades of education reform have them as goals. Current discourse advocate colorblind and post-racial solutions to racial inequality and racial inequity in education; these solutions implicate presentism, a view that exclusively circumscribes the existence of present-day…

  8. Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization

    Martin, Cathlena

    2008-01-01

    Cathlena Martin explores in her paper "Children's Video Games as Interactive Racialization" selected children's video games. Martin argues that children's video games often act as reinforcement for the games' television and film counterparts and their racializing characteristics and features. In Martin's analysis the video games discussed represent media through which to analyze racial identities and ideologies. In making the case for positive female minority leads in children's video games, ...

  9. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...

  10. The process of Ethno-Racialization and Resistance in the Multicultural Age: Being Black in Bogota

    Klára Hellebrandová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the process of ethno-racialization in the multicultural era specifically in the context of Colombia nowadays. A wide comprehensive theoretical framework is taken as the basis (racialization, structural racism, multiculturalism, intersectionality, everyday racism. The analysis of primary sources and in-depth interviews to young African descents from Bogotá are used to argue that multiculturalism, as it has been developed on a legislative level and in the colombian public policies, is not a challenge for the racialized foundations of power and social relations and that there is a variety of mechanisms that seek to defend the privileges of the white-mestizo. However and simultaneously, we suggest that multiculturalism provides a number of opportunities to question the racialized social and political system and to develop strategies of resistance.

  11. Racial Identity and Reflected Appraisals as Influences on Asian Americans' Racial Adjustment.

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Helms, Janet E.

    2001-01-01

    The racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N=188) was assessed to examine the importance of race in their lives. Both racial identity status and reflected appraisals were significantly related to collective self-esteem as one measure of Asian American racial adjustment. Discusses the importance of the counselor's awareness of…

  12. Ações afirmativas: política de cotas raciais para o ingresso nas universidades públicas = Affirmative action: politics of racial quota for admission in universities publics

    Pereira, Andresa Braga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio temático tem por objetivo analisar a implantação das ações afirmativas a partir da política de cotas raciais, como critério para ingresso nas universidades públicas, tendo como pressuposto o exemplo da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria/RS – UFSM. A discussão permeia os critérios de avaliação para a inclusão de negros/pardos nas instituições públicas, concebendo que há uma exclusão/discriminação da população negra no que diz respeito ao acesso à educação superior. Esta discussão torna-se pertinente no que tange aos critérios de inclusão, uma vez que a formação social e racial no Brasil perpassa pela mistura de culturas, já que a política de cotas é uma forma de garantir a inclusão social de segmentos excluídos

  13. Illuminating cancer health disparities using ethnogenetic layering (EL) and phenotype segregation network analysis (PSNA).

    Jackson, Fatimah L C

    2006-01-01

    Resolving cancer health disparities continues to befuddle simplistic racial models. The racial groups alluded to in biomedicine, public health, and epidemiology are often profoundly substructured. EL and PSNA are computational assisted techniques that focus on microethnic group (MEG) substructure. Geographical variations in cancer may be due to differences in MEG ancestry or similar environmental exposures to a recognized carcinogen. Examples include breast and prostate cancers in the Chesapeake Bay region and Bight of Biafra biological ancestry, hypertension and stroke in the Carolina Coast region and Central African biological ancestry, and pancreatic cancer in the Mississippi Delta region and dietary/medicinal exposure to safrol from Sassafras albidum.

  14. Racializing drug design: implications of pharmacogenomics for health disparities.

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2005-12-01

    Current practices of using "race" in pharmacogenomics research demands consideration of the ethical and social implications for understandings of group difference and for efforts to eliminate health disparities. This discussion focuses on an "infrastructure of racialization" created by current trajectories of research on genetic differences among racially identified groups, the use of race as a proxy for risk in clinical practice, and increasing interest in new market niches by the pharmaceutical industry. The confluence of these factors has resulted in the conflation of genes, disease, and race. I argue that public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of current inequities in health status and social and ethical concerns over reifying race and issues of distributive justice.

  15. Starry white trek: Science fiction and racial discourse

    Krstić Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that the science fiction’s visions of the future are not exempt from problems of rasism even when openly opposed it. Film and TV Star Trek production is commonly regarded as a significant example of courageous and effective intervention of mass culture on the widespread racial prejudices legitimized by the public policy. Subsequent interpretations, however, in its ‘emancipatory text’ finds smuggled recurrences of the same racial discourse against which it acted, whether it concerns other ‘races’ on Earth or space aliens. A fair interpretation would have to conclude that the white male norm requires effort of its ‘deconstruction’ that would be more extensive then involvement in the program the non-white characters - if we do not want to extend his exclusive and discriminatory rule, in mitigated or disguised form, to the galaxy.

  16. Segregation, civil rights, and health disparities: the legacy of African American physicians and organized medicine, 1910-1968.

    Washington, Harriet A; Baker, Robert B; Olakanmi, Ololade; Savitt, Todd L; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Eddie; Wynia, Matthew K; Blanchard, Janice; Boulware, L Ebony; Braddock, Clarence; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Crawley, LaVera; LaVeist, Thomas A; Maxey, Randall; Mills, Charles; Moseley, Kathryn L; Williams, David R

    2009-06-01

    Between 1910 and 1968, the National Medical Association (NMA) repeatedly clashed with the American Medical Association (AMA) over the latter organization's racial bars to membership and other health policy issues. The NMA, founded in 1895 as a nonexclusionary medical society to provide a voice for disenfranchised black physicians and patients, struggled in its early years, during which AMA leadership took scant notice of it. But skirmishes ensued over such actions as stigmatizing racial labels in the AMA's American Medical Directory, which, beginning in 1906, listed all U.S. physicians but designated African Americans with the notation col. The NMA also repeatedly asked the AMA to take action against overt racial bars on blacks' membership in its constituent state and county societies. During the civil rights era, African American physicians received no AMA support in seeking legal remedies to hospital segregation. And the NMA and AMA found themselves opposed on other policy issues, including Medicaid and Medicare. These differences eventually catalyzed a series of direct confrontations. The 1965 AMA meeting in New York City, for example, was protested by about 200 NMA-led picketers. The NMA's quest for racial equality in medicine was supported by some other medical organizations, such as the Medical Committee for Human Rights. In 1966, the AMA House voted to amend the AMA Constitution and Bylaws, giving its Judicial Council (now the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs) the authority to investigate allegations of discrimination. This paved the way for a subsequent era of increasing cooperation and understanding.

  17. Racial differences in venous thromboembolism.

    Zakai, N A; McClure, L A

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of venous thrombosis (VTE) varies by race, with African-Americans having over 5-fold greater incidence than Asian-ancestry populations, and an intermediate risk for European and Hispanic populations. Known racial differences in genetic polymorphisms associated with thrombosis do not account for this gradient of risk, nor do known racial variations in environmental risk factors. Data on the incidence of and risk factors for VTE outside of Europe and North America and in non-European ancestry populations are sparse. Common genetic polymorphisms in European-Ancestry populations, such as factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, and environmental risk factors, such as obesity, may account for some of the increased risk in European populations, and high factor VIII, high von Willebrand factor and low protein C levels and increased prevalence of obesity may explain some of the increased risk in African-Americans. The low rates in Asian populations may be partially explained by low clinical suspicion in a perceived low-risk population and lack of access to healthcare in other populations. As risk factors for thrombosis, such as surgery and treatment for cancer, are applicable to more people, as obesity increases in prevalence in the developing world, and as surveillance systems for VTE improve, VTE may increase in previously low-risk populations. While differences in VTE by race due to genetic predisposition will probably always be present, understanding the reasons for racial differences in VTE will help providers develop strategies to minimize VTE in all populations. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  18. Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Residential Segregation, and Spatial Variation in Noise Exposure in the Contiguous United States.

    Casey, Joan A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Mennitt, Daniel J; Fristrup, Kurt; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; James, Peter

    2017-07-25

    Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. We aimed to a ) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b ) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L 50 ) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L 10 ) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.3–47.8 dBA] and 42.3 dBA (IQR: 40.4–45.5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46.9 dBA (IQR: 44.7–48.5 dBA) and 44.0 dBA (IQR: 42.2–45.5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor

  19. Towards deep learning with segregated dendrites.

    Guerguiev, Jordan; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Richards, Blake A

    2017-12-05

    Deep learning has led to significant advances in artificial intelligence, in part, by adopting strategies motivated by neurophysiology. However, it is unclear whether deep learning could occur in the real brain. Here, we show that a deep learning algorithm that utilizes multi-compartment neurons might help us to understand how the neocortex optimizes cost functions. Like neocortical pyramidal neurons, neurons in our model receive sensory information and higher-order feedback in electrotonically segregated compartments. Thanks to this segregation, neurons in different layers of the network can coordinate synaptic weight updates. As a result, the network learns to categorize images better than a single layer network. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm takes advantage of multilayer architectures to identify useful higher-order representations-the hallmark of deep learning. This work demonstrates that deep learning can be achieved using segregated dendritic compartments, which may help to explain the morphology of neocortical pyramidal neurons.

  20. Race, Racialization and Indigeneity in Canadian Universities

    Henry, Frances; Dua, Enakshi; Kobayashi, Audrey; James, Carl; Li, Peter; Ramos, Howard; Smith, Malinda S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is based on data from a four-year national study of racialization and Indigeneity at Canadian universities. Its main conclusion is that whether one examines representation in terms of numbers of racialized and Indigenous faculty members and their positioning within the system, their earned income as compared to white faculty, their…

  1. Reframing the Racialization of Disabilities in Policy

    Kramarczuk Voulgarides, Catherine; Tefera, Adai

    2017-01-01

    Racial disproportionality in special education is a deep seated and complex educational inequity plaguing the United States educational system. In this article we outline how the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, although a civil rights based legislation, cannot sufficiently address racially disproportionate outcomes in special…

  2. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  3. Invited commentary: integrating a life-course perspective and social theory to advance research on residential segregation and health.

    Osypuk, Theresa L

    2013-02-15

    Research on racial residential segregation and health typically uses multilevel, population-based, slice-in-time data. Although research using this approach, including that by Kershaw et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(4):299-309), has been valuable, I argue that to advance our understanding of how residential segregation influences health and health disparities, it is critical to incorporate a life-course perspective and integrate social theory. Applying a life-course perspective would entail modeling transitions, cumulative risk, and developmental and dynamic processes and mechanisms, as well as recognizing the contingency of contextual effects on different social groups. I discuss the need for analytic methods appropriate for modeling health effects of distal causes experienced across the life course, such as segregation, that operate through multiple levels and sequences of mediators, potentially across decades. Sociological theories of neighborhood attainment (e.g., segmented assimilation, ethnic resurgence, and place stratification theories) can guide effect-modification tests to help illuminate health effects resulting from intersections of residential processes, race/ethnicity, immigration, and other social determinants of health. For example, nativity and immigration history may crucially shape residential processes and exposures, but these have received limited attention in prior segregation-health literature.

  4. Measuring Between-School Segregation in an Open Enrollment System: The Case of Rio de Janeiro

    Bartholo, Tiago Lisboa

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in Rio de Janeiro public schools has brought to light a "Hidden Quasi-Market" that combines purported freedom of choice for parents with school control over their pupil intake. The article analyzes patterns of segregation among schools, from 2004 to 2010, according to three indicators of potentially disadvantaged pupils:…

  5. Chemical segregation and self polarisation in ferroelectrics

    Bernard E. Watts

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical partitioning or segregation is commonly encountered in solid-state syntheses. It is driven by compositional, thermal and electric field gradients. These phenomena can be quite extreme in thin films and lead to notable effects on the electrical properties of ferroelectrics. The segregation in ferroelectric thin films will be illustrated and the mechanisms explained in terms of diffusion processes driven by a potential gradient of the oxygen. The hypothesis can also explain self polarisation and imprint in ferroelectric hysteresis.

  6. Particle segregation in pneumatic conveying lines

    McGlinchey, D.; Marjanovic, P.; Cook, S.; Jones, M.G. [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2000-07-01

    This investigation studied segregation of particles during pneumatic transport from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Dilute phase or suspension flow and dense phase (non-suspension flow) were both considered. A computer model was generated based on the conservation equations to investigate dilute phase conditions; an initial qualitative investigation of material behaviour being conveyed in dense phase was made with plastic pellets and salt as a segregating mixture in a small test rig and the results from a full scale test rig conveying two grades of coal of different size distributions are discussed. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The fallacy of racial pharmacogenomics

    S.D.J. Pena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Personalized pharmacogenomics aims to use individual genotypes to direct medical treatment. Unfortunately, the loci relevant for the pharmacokinetics and especially the pharmacodynamics of most drugs are still unknown. Moreover, we still do not understand the role that individual genotypes play in modulating the pathogenesis, the clinical course and the susceptibility to drugs of human diseases which, although appearing homogeneous on the surface, may vary from patient to patient. To try to deal with this situation, it has been proposed to use interpopulational variability as a reference for drug development and prescription, leading to the development of "race-targeted drugs". Given the present limitations of genomic knowledge and of the tools needed to fully implement it today, some investigators have proposed to use racial criteria as a palliative measure until personalized pharmacogenomics is fully developed. This was the rationale for the FDA approval of BiDil for treatment of heart failure in African Americans. I will evaluate the efficacy and safety of racial pharmacogenomics here and conclude that it fails on both counts. Next I shall review the perspectives and the predicted rate of development of clinical genomic studies. The conclusion is that "next-generation" genomic sequencing is advancing at a tremendous rate and that true personalized pharmacogenomics, based on individual genotyping, should soon become a clinical reality.

  8. Revealing Racial Purity Ideology: Fear of Black-White Intimacy as a Framework for Understanding School Discipline in Post-"Brown" Schools

    Irby, Decoteau J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, I explore White racial purity desire as an underexamined ideology that might help us understand the compulsion of disciplinary violence against Black boys in U.S. public schools. By pointing to the dearth of research on sexual desire as a site of racial conflict and through revisiting Civil Rights-era fears about…

  9. Pathways from Racial Discrimination to Multiple Sexual Partners Among Male African American Adolescents

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A.; Pocock, Alexandra M.; Brody, Gene H.

    2014-01-01

    African American male adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners has important implications for public health as well as for their development of ideas regarding masculinity and sexuality. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses regarding the pathways through which racial discrimination affects African American adolescents’ involvement with multiple sexual partners. We hypothesized that racial discrimination would engender psychological distress, which would promote attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple sexual partnerships. The study also examined the protective influence of parenting practices in buffering the influence of contextual stressors. Participants were 221 African American male youth who provided data at ages 16 and 18; their parents provided data on family socioeconomic disadvantages. Of these young men, 18.5% reported having 3 or more sexual partners during the past 3 months. Structural equation models indicated that racial discrimination contributed to sexual activity with multiple partners by inducing psychological distress, which in turn affected attitudes and peer affiliations conducive to multiple partners. The experience of protective parenting, which included racial socialization, closeness and harmony in parent-child relationships, and parental monitoring, buffered the influence of racial discrimination on psychological distress. These findings suggest targets for prevention programming and underscore the importance of efforts to reduce young men’s experience with racial discrimination. PMID:25937821

  10. School Segregation, Charter Schools, and Access to Quality Education*

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Race, class, neighborhood, and school quality are all highly inter-related in the American educational system. In the last decade a new factor has come into play, the option of attending a charter school. We offer a comprehensive analysis of the disparities among public schools attended by white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American children in 2010–2011, including all districts in which charter schools existed. We compare schools in terms of poverty concentration, racial composition, and standardized test scores, and we also examine how attending a charter or non-charter school affects these differences. Black and Hispanic (and to a lesser extent Native American and Asian) students attend elementary and high schools with higher rates of poverty than white students. Especially for whites and Asians, attending a charter school means lower exposure to poverty. Children’s own race and the poverty and charter status of their schools affect the test scores and racial isolation of schools that children attend in complex combinations. Most intriguing, attending a charter school means attending a better performing school in high-poverty areas but a lower performing school in low-poverty areas. Yet even in the best case the positive effect of attending a charter school only slightly offsets the disadvantages of black and Hispanic students. PMID:27616813

  11. Engineering economic evaluations of trash segregation alternatives

    Collins, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Health physicists are becoming increasingly involved in the selection of equipment to segregate a contaminated trash from clean trash in the effort to reduce low level waste disposal costs. Although well qualified to evaluate the technical merits of different equipment, health physicists also need to be aware of the elements of economic comparisons of different alternatives that meet all technical requirements

  12. Koedukation oder Geschlechtertrennung = Coeducation or Gender Segregation.

    Baumert, Jurgen

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results examining recruitment practice differences between coeducational and gender segregated secondary schools in Germany. Discusses the impact of organizational form on teacher judgments, achievement in specific subjects, school subject-related interests, and school commitment. Reports that under conditions of free school choice,…

  13. Segregation reinforced by urban planning | IDRC - International ...

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... ... What is driving urban violence? Segregated urban planning can leave a legacy of community tension and insecurity. Potential solutions? Include vulnerable communities in city planning decisions; invest in transport infrastructure; and regularly update city development plans to reflect population growth.

  14. 49 CFR 176.83 - Segregation.

    2010-10-01

    ... presence of one or more steel bulkheads or decks between them or a combination thereof. Intervening spaces... substance but vary only in their water content (for example, sodium sulfide in Division 4.2 or Class 8) or... applied. (11) Certain exceptions from segregation for waste cyanides or waste cyanide mixtures or...

  15. Plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotes

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Gerdes, Kenn

    2000-01-01

    Recent major advances in the understanding of prokaryotic DNA segregation have been achieved by using fluorescence microscopy to visualize the localization of cellular components. Plasmids and bacterial chromosomes are partitioned in a highly dynamic fashion, suggesting the presence of a mitotic...

  16. Educational Justice, Segregated Schooling and Vocational Education

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The philosophical debate on educational justice currently focusses on the Anglo-American situation. This essay brings in an additional perspective. It provides a justice-oriented critique of the segregated education systems in German-speaking countries. First, arguments that are commonly put forward in favour of these systems are rejected. Second,…

  17. A Social Network Analysis of Occupational Segregation

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian; van der Leij, Marco

    We develop a social network model of occupational segregation between different social groups, generated by the existence of positive inbreeding bias among individuals from the same group. If network referrals are important for job search, then expected homophily in the contact network structure...

  18. Sex segregation in undergraduate engineering majors

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not

  19. Social segregation of indigenous migrants in Mexico: An overview from Monterrey

    Arun Kumar Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, rural to urban migration is a clearly noticeable phenomenon. During the last few years, there has been spontaneous growth in the migration of indigenous people towards the northern cities of Mexico, especially to Monterrey, in search of employment. Once the migrants arrive in this metropolis, they face difficulties adjusting and adapting to the city environment because of hidden discrimination. The main argument and hypothesis of this paper is that indigenous people isolate themselves and segregate themselves socially due to fear of (cultural and racial discrimination and violence. For this study, data were obtained from fieldwork carried out during 2009 and 2010 in Monterrey, Mexico, where we interviewed 350 indigenous people that had moved there from different parts of the country.

  20. Ab-initio study of surface segregation in aluminum alloys

    Qin, Yifa, E-mail: yfqin10s@imr.ac.cn; Wang, Shaoqing

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • A thorough study of surface segregation energies of 41 elements in Al is performed. • Segregation energies vary periodically with the atomic numbers of impurities. • 41 elements are classified into 3 groups according to the signs of segregation energies. • The results are validated by the surface/total concentration ratio in Al alloys. - Abstract: We have calculated surface segregation energies of 41 impurities by means of density functional theory calculations. An interesting periodical variation tendency was found for surface segregation energies derived. For the majority of main group elements, segregation energies are negative which means solute elements enrichment at Al surface is energetically more favorable than uniformly dissolution. Half of transition elements possess positive segregation energies and the energies are sensitive to surface crystallographic orientations. A strong correlation is found between the segregation energies at the Al surface and the surface energ of solute elements.

  1. Charles J. McMahon Interfacial Segregation and Embrittlement Symposium

    Vitek, Vaclav

    2003-01-01

    .... McMahon Interfacial Segregation and Embrittlement Symposium: Grain Boundary Segregation and Fracture in Steels was sponsored by ASM International, Materials Science Critical Technology Sector, Structural Materials Division, Materials Processing...

  2. The Effect of Post-Racial Theory on Education

    Warren, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of post-racial theory (PRT) in both social and political spheres of dominant American hegemony has illustrated a desire among academic circles to move past race and racial categories in social analysis. However, absent within post-racial rhetoric is critical language on how to abolish racism and racial inequality. (Samad 2009) It…

  3. Racial Prejudice in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination

    Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William

    2014-01-01

    Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle of…

  4. Predictors of Racial Prejudice in White American Counseling Students

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…

  5. The American dilemma: from slavery to the institucionalization of the racial discrimination

    Francisco Javier MAESTRO BACKSBACKA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article «The American Dilemma: from slavery to the institucionalization of the racial discrimination» is an approach to Afroamerican history, from slavery to 1929. The first part deals with the roots and development of slavery as related to Americas muti-ethnic build-up and how it became embedded into the cultural and political system. The abolitionist movement marked in the pre-war years the difficulties to fully integrate Afroamericans as citizens to the extent that prevailing racism, blatant in the Southern States, but also present in the Northern States, was the main obstacle thereto. The second part focuses on the legacy of the Civil War and the Reconstruction period —which can be labelled as the Second American Revolution— leading to the abolition of slavery and the constitutional entitlement of Afroamericans as citizens. However, in the aftermath, racial segregation became institutionalized throughout the nation, but severely so in the Southern States. This outcome goes hand in hand with failed colonization plans to create a white homogeneous America. The last part highlights the new 20th century context: the «racial dilemma» shifts from south to north. The new industrial cities and plants witnessed the growth of different Afroamerican approaches to create a black selfidentity —the «new negro»— both at a cultural as well as at a political and social level.

  6. Ethnic/racial disparities in adolescents' home food environments and linkages to dietary intake and weight status

    Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Berge, Jerica M.; Arcan, Chrisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Research is needed to confirm that public health recommendations for home/family food environments are equally relevant for diverse populations. This study examined ethnic/racial differences in the home/family environments of adolescents and associations with dietary intake and weight status. The sample included 2,382 ethnically/racially diverse adolescents and their parents enrolled in coordinated studies, EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) and Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Act...

  7. Examining Racial and Ethnic Differences in Nursing Home Quality.

    Hefele, Jennifer Gaudet; Ritter, Grant A; Bishop, Christine E; Acevedo, Andrea; Ramos, Candi; Nsiah-Jefferson, Laurie A; Katz, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    Identifying racial/ethnic differences in quality is central to identifying, monitoring, and reducing disparities. Although disparities across all individual nursing home residents and disparities associated with between-nursing home differences have been established, little is known about the degree to which quality of care varies by race//ethnicity within nursing homes. A study was conducted to measure within-facility differences for a range of publicly reported nursing home quality measures. Resident assessment data on approximately 15,000 nursing homes and approximately 3 million residents (2009) were used to assess eight commonly used and publicly reported long-stay quality measures: the proportion of residents with weight loss, with high-risk and low-risk pressure ulcers, with incontinence, with depressive symptoms, in restraints daily, and who experienced a urinary tract infection or functional decline. Each measure was stratified by resident race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic), and within-facility differences were examined. Small but significant differences in care on average were found, often in an unexpected direction; in many cases, white residents were experiencing poorer outcomes than black and Hispanic residents in the same facility. However, a broad range of differences in care by race/ethnicity within nursing homes was also found. The results suggest that care is delivered equally across all racial/ethnic groups in the same nursing home, on average. The results support the call for publicly reporting stratified nursing home quality measures and suggest that nursing home providers should attempt to identify racial/ethnic within-facility differences in care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Racial isolation and exposure to airborne particulate matter and ozone in understudied US populations: Environmental justice applications of downscaled numerical model output.

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Bell, Michelle L; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers are increasingly focused on combined exposures to social and environmental stressors, especially given how often these stressors tend to co-locate. Such exposures are equally relevant in urban and rural areas and may accrue disproportionately to particular communities or specific subpopulations. To estimate relationships between racial isolation (RI), a measure of the extent to which minority racial/ethnic group members are exposed to only one another, and long-term particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of poverty. RI is associated with higher 5year estimated PM2.5 concentrations in urban, suburban, and rural census tracts, adding to evidence that segregation is broadly associated with disparate air pollution exposures. Disproportionate burdens to adverse exposures such as air pollution may be a pathway to racial/ethnic disparities in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advantages of the segregation step for the radioactive waste management

    Medeiros, Regina Bitelli; Mattos, Maria Fernanda S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the increasing use of radioactive materials in the research activities, the waste management is essential to guarantee personnel safety and the preservation of the environmental quality. It is possible to determine the date of discharge in the public sewage treatment system based on the estimated activity of the radioactive waste and on the solid waste discharge limit of 74 Bq/g as recommended by the radiation protection rules. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the advantages of the waste segregation by specific activity as a means of minimization of the stored waste. The residual specific activity and volume were estimated in the several steps of assays using 32 P and 3 H. The storage times were calculated and compared with the estimated time considering the residual activity as 2 % of the total activity used in the experiment. The segregation by steps of the assay allowed for the reduction of the waste volume and stored time. In the assays with 3 H only 20 % of the total waste generated was stored and in the assays with 32 P it was possible to discharge 90 % of the radioactive waste after 38 days. (author)

  10. Gender Segregation in Nursery School: Predictors and Outcomes.

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.; Jacklin, Carol Nagy

    Sex segregation is a powerful phenomenon in childhood. It occurs universally whenever children have a choice of playmates and is found in sub-human primates too. Adults are not directly responsible for sex segregation. Data do not support the hypothesis that the most ladylike girls and the most rough and active boys first form the segregated play…

  11. "E Pluribus"... Separation: Deepening Double Segregation for More Students

    Orfield, Gary; Kucsera, John; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    This report shows segregation has increased dramatically across the country for Latino students, who are attending more intensely segregated and impoverished schools than they have for generations. The segregation increases have been the most dramatic in the West. The typical Latino student in the region attends a school where less than a quarter…

  12. Segregation effects and phase developments during solidification of alloy 625

    Højerslev, Christian; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John

    2006-01-01

    contained gamma-phase, Laves phase and, if carbon was dissolved in the liquid, niobium rich carbides formed. Molybdenum and niobium showed strong tendencies to segregate. Their segregation was balanced by inverse segregation of nickel and iron. The chromium concentration remained almost constant in gamma...

  13. Requirements for the evaluation of computational speech segregation systems

    May, Tobias; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on computational speech segregation reported improved speech intelligibility in noise when estimating and applying an ideal binary mask with supervised learning algorithms. However, an important requirement for such systems in technical applications is their robustness to acoustic...... associated with perceptual attributes in speech segregation. The results could help establish a framework for a systematic evaluation of future segregation systems....

  14. Residential segregation of socioeconomic variables and health indices in Iran

    Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Correlation of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status with segregation of health indices is an indicator of existence of hot zones of health problems across some provinces. Further studies using multilevel modeling and individual data in health outcomes at individual level and segregation measures at appropriate geographic levels are required to confirm these relations.

  15. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  16. Redesigning Racial Caste in America via Mass Incarceration.

    Graff, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a new tactic in the history of American racism. Slavery was ended by the Civil War, but after Reconstruction, the gains of the former slaves were eroded by Jim Crow (a rigid pattern of racial segregation), lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, tenantry, unequal educational resources, terrorism, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Movement struck down legal barriers, but we have chosen to deal with the problems of poverty and race not so differently than we have in the past. The modern version of convict leasing, is mass incarceration. This article documents the dramatic change in American drug policy beginning with Reagan's October, 1982 announcement of the War on Drugs, the subsequent 274 percent growth in the prison and jail populations, and the devastating and disproportionate effect on inner city African Americans. Just as the Jim Crow laws were a reaction to the freeing of the slaves after the Civil War, mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement.

  17. In blind pursuit of racial equality?

    Apfelbaum, Evan P; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-11-01

    Despite receiving little empirical assessment, the color-blind approach to managing diversity has become a leading institutional strategy for promoting racial equality, across domains and scales of practice. We gauged the utility of color blindness as a means to eliminating future racial inequity--its central objective--by assessing its impact on a sample of elementary-school students. Results demonstrated that students exposed to a color-blind mind-set, as opposed to a value-diversity mind-set, were actually less likely both to detect overt instances of racial discrimination and to describe such events in a manner that would prompt intervention by certified teachers. Institutional messages of color blindness may therefore artificially depress formal reporting of racial injustice. Color-blind messages may thus appear to function effectively on the surface even as they allow explicit forms of bias to persist.

  18. Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay

    Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.

  19. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  20. The Relationship Between Race and Racial Attitudes and Adolescent Perceptions of Black Television Characters.

    Dates, Jannette Lake

    This study conducted with eleventh graders in the Baltimore City Public Schools was based on a correlational survey which explored the relationship between viewer perceptions of black television characters, race, racial attitudes, and viewing frequency. One questionnaire measured viewing frequency, the viewer's perceptions of eight black and…

  1. Outdoor recreation and nontraditional users: results of focus group interviews with racial and ethnic minorities

    Robert C. Burns; Elizabeth Covelli; Alan Graefe

    2008-01-01

    Resource managers in Oregon State Parks and the Pacific Northwest Region of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (U.S. Forest Service) identified a need to better understand the needs of existing and potential stakeholders who may visit public recreation lands in Oregon. Specifically, this research was designed to understand the perceptions of racial and...

  2. Conflict Management in Inter-racial Relationships

    Sakti D, Andika; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul

    2016-01-01

    Based on the principle of conformity, a person tends to prefer a partner who has in common with him. But as the times goes by along with the era which is increasingly open, we have encountered inter-racial relationships, including in Indonesia. When couples come from different cultural backgrounds, the values, rules, standpoints, habits, and methods that used in relationship must also be different. The characteristics differences are tend to be the cause of conflict on inter-racial relationsh...

  3. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II

    Wassmann, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed—deprotected”—for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection. PMID:23574717

  4. Segregation effects in welded stainless steels

    Akhter, J.I.; Shoaid, K.A.; Ahmed, M.; Malik, A.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Welding of steels causes changes in the microstructure and chemical composition which could adversely affect the mechanical and corrosion properties. The report describes the experimental results of an investigation of segregation effects in welded austenitic stainless steels of AISI type 304, 304L, 316 and 316L using the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Considerable enhancement of chromium and carbon has been observed in certain well-defined zones on the parent metal and on composition, particularly in the parent metal, in attributed to the formation of (M 23 C 6 ) precipitates. The formation of geometrically well-defined segregation zones is explained on the basis of the time-temperature-precipitation curve of (M 23 C 6 ). (author)

  5. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  6. Segregation in welded nickel-base alloys

    Akhtar, J.I.; Shoaib, K.A.; Ahmad, M.; Shaikh, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    Segregation effects have been investigated in nickel-base alloys monel 400, inconel 625, hastelloy C-276 and incoloy 825, test welded under controlled conditions. Deviations from the normal composition have been observed to varying extents in the welded zone of these alloys. Least effect of this type occurred in Monel 400 where the content of Cu increased in some of the areas. Enhancement of Al and Ti has been found over large areas in the other alloys which has been attributed to the formation of low melting slag. Another common feature is the segregation of Cr, Fe or Ti, most likely in the form of carbides. Enrichment of Al, Ti, Nb, Mb, Mo, etc., to different amounts in some of the areas of these materials is in- terpretted in terms of the formation of gamma prime precipitates or of Laves phases. (author)

  7. Racism, Segregation, and Risk of Obesity in the Black Women's Health Study

    Cozier, Yvette C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F.; Bethea, Traci N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of “everyday” racism (e.g., “people act as if you are dishonest”) and of “lifetime” racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women. PMID:24585257

  8. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women.

  9. Racial discrimination: how not to do it.

    Hochman, Adam

    2013-09-01

    The UNESCO Statements on Race of the early 1950s are understood to have marked a consensus amongst natural scientists and social scientists that 'race' is a social construct. Human biological diversity was shown to be predominantly clinal, or gradual, not discreet, and clustered, as racial naturalism implied. From the seventies social constructionists added that the vast majority of human genetic diversity resides within any given racialised group. While social constructionism about race became the majority consensus view on the topic, social constructionism has always had its critics. Sesardic (2010) has compiled these criticisms into one of the strongest defences of racial naturalism in recent times. In this paper I argue that Sesardic equivocates between two versions of racial naturalism: a weak version and a strong version. As I shall argue, the strong version is not supported by the relevant science. The weak version, on the other hand, does not contrast properly with what social constructionists think about 'race'. By leaning on this weak view Sesardic's racial naturalism intermittently gains an appearance of plausibility, but this view is too weak to revive racial naturalism. As Sesardic demonstrates, there are new arguments for racial naturalism post-Human Genome Diversity Project. The positive message behind my critique is how to be a social constructionist about race in the post-genomic era. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Underemployment in a gender segregated labour market

    Kjeldstad, Randi; Nymoen, Erik H.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses factors behind underemployment in Norway and has a focus on gender. The analysis, based on Labour Force Survey data, shows that economic fluctuations during the latest one and a half decade bring about changing underemployment levels of both women and men. The Norwegian labour market is strongly gender segregated and the processes and characteristics of underemployment differ between male and female dominated labour market sectors. The former sectors are generally more e...

  11. Blood Cell Interactions and Segregation in Flow

    Munn, Lance L.; Dupin, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allo...

  12. Chromosomal organization and segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Isabelle Vallet-Gely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic γ-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed.

  13. Wages, Promotions, and Gender Workplace Segregation (Japanese)

    HASHIMOTO Yuki; SATO Kaori

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how job assignments affect gender pay gap and the promotion rate of female workers using personnel records from a large Japanese manufacturing firm, where newly-hired male and female workers are systematically assigned to different workplaces ("gender job segregation"). According to our gender pay gap analysis, we find that controlling for workplace heterogeneity leads to a larger, rather than smaller, gender pay gap, implying that female workers are sorted into work...

  14. Wages, Promotions, and Gender Workplace Segregation

    橋本, 由紀; 佐藤, 香織

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how job assignments affect gender pay gap and the promotion rate of female workers using personnel records from a large Japanese manufacturing firm, where newly-hired male and female workers are systematically assigned to different workplaces ("gender job segregation"). According to our gender pay gap analysis, we find that controlling for workplace heterogeneity leads to a larger, rather than smaller, gender pay gap, implying that female workers are sorted into work...

  15. The Impact of African American Parents' Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices.

    Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-07-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender.

  16. The Impact of African American Parents’ Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices

    English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents’ racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents’ racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents’ perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents’ gender moderate associations between parents’ racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents’ racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents’ gender. PMID:27189721

  17. Self-organized Segregation on the Grid

    Omidvar, Hamed; Franceschetti, Massimo

    2018-02-01

    We consider an agent-based model with exponentially distributed waiting times in which two types of agents interact locally over a graph, and based on this interaction and on the value of a common intolerance threshold τ , decide whether to change their types. This is equivalent to a zero-temperature ising model with Glauber dynamics, an asynchronous cellular automaton with extended Moore neighborhoods, or a Schelling model of self-organized segregation in an open system, and has applications in the analysis of social and biological networks, and spin glasses systems. Some rigorous results were recently obtained in the theoretical computer science literature, and this work provides several extensions. We enlarge the intolerance interval leading to the expected formation of large segregated regions of agents of a single type from the known size ɛ >0 to size ≈ 0.134. Namely, we show that for 0.433sites can be observed within any sufficiently large region of the occupied percolation cluster. The exponential bounds that we provide also imply that complete segregation, where agents of a single type cover the whole grid, does not occur with high probability for p=1/2 and the range of intolerance considered.

  18. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  19. Audiovisual segregation in cochlear implant users.

    Simon Landry

    Full Text Available It has traditionally been assumed that cochlear implant users de facto perform atypically in audiovisual tasks. However, a recent study that combined an auditory task with visual distractors suggests that only those cochlear implant users that are not proficient at recognizing speech sounds might show abnormal audiovisual interactions. The present study aims at reinforcing this notion by investigating the audiovisual segregation abilities of cochlear implant users in a visual task with auditory distractors. Speechreading was assessed in two groups of cochlear implant users (proficient and non-proficient at sound recognition, as well as in normal controls. A visual speech recognition task (i.e. speechreading was administered either in silence or in combination with three types of auditory distractors: i noise ii reverse speech sound and iii non-altered speech sound. Cochlear implant users proficient at speech recognition performed like normal controls in all conditions, whereas non-proficient users showed significantly different audiovisual segregation patterns in both speech conditions. These results confirm that normal-like audiovisual segregation is possible in highly skilled cochlear implant users and, consequently, that proficient and non-proficient CI users cannot be lumped into a single group. This important feature must be taken into account in further studies of audiovisual interactions in cochlear implant users.

  20. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  1. Minimization and segregation of radioactive wastes

    1992-07-01

    The report will serve as one of a series of technical manuals providing reference material and direct know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in Member States without nuclear power and the associated range of complex waste management operations. Considerations are limited to the minimization and segregation of wastes, these being initial steps on which the efficiency of the whole waste management system depends. The minimization and segregation operations are examined in the context of the restricted quantities and predominantly shorter lived activities of wastes from nuclear research, production and usage of radioisotopes. Liquid and solid wastes only are considered in the report. Gaseous waste minimization and treatment are specialized subjects and are not examined in this document. Gaseous effluent treatment in facilities handling low and intermediate level radioactive materials has been already the subject of a detailed IAEA report. Management of spent sealed sources has specifically been covered in a previous manual. Conditioned sealed sources must be taken into account in segregation arrangements for interim storage and disposal where there are exceptional long lived highly radiotoxic isotopes, particularly radium or americium. These are unlikely ever to be suitable for shallow land burial along with the remaining wastes. 30 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  2. Implementing spatial segregation measures in R.

    Seong-Yun Hong

    Full Text Available Reliable and accurate estimation of residential segregation between population groups is important for understanding the extent of social cohesion and integration in our society. Although there have been considerable methodological advances in the measurement of segregation over the last several decades, the recently developed measures have not been widely used in the literature, in part due to their complex calculation. To address this problem, we have implemented several newly proposed segregation indices in R, an open source software environment for statistical computing and graphics, as a package called seg. Although there are already a few standalone applications and add-on packages that provide access to similar methods, our implementation has a number of advantages over the existing tools. First, our implementation is flexible in the sense that it provides detailed control over the calculation process with a wide range of input parameters. Most of the parameters have carefully chosen defaults, which perform acceptably in many situations, so less experienced users can also use the implemented functions without too much difficulty. Second, there is no need to export results to other software programs for further analysis. We provide coercion methods that enable the transformation of our output classes into general R classes, so the user can use thousands of standard and modern statistical techniques, which are already available in R, for the post-processing of the results. Third, our implementation does not require commercial software to operate, so it is accessible to a wider group of people.

  3. Segregation in handling processes of blended industrial coal

    Jones, M.G.; Marjanovic, P.; McGlinchy, D.; McLaren, R. [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Department of Physical Sciences, Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    1998-09-01

    A comparison was made between two belt blending methods; using either a compartment hopper or feeder belts. The results indicated that in this case the system with feeder belts gave a more consistent proportioning of materials. Coal when formed into a heap was shown to segregate dependent on size fraction. The level of segregation for each size fraction was quantified using ANOVA statistics. Any measure taken to mitigate this segregation could then be properly assessed. Some aspects of the segregation evident in the heap arose in previous handling steps showing that such effects are transmittable along a process stream. Singles coal when pneumatically conveyed in dilute phase will segregate in the conveying pipeline. Segregation in the direction of travel was minimal in dense phase conveying although the materials tested separated through the depth of the pipe. A full scale experimental programme investigating segregation in both dense and dilute phase is currently underway. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Asachi Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  5. Analysis of the System of Racial Quotas in Brazil as Affirmative Action Combined with the General Right to Equality

    Alisson Magela Moreira Damasceno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the system of racial quotas in Brazil, considering them as unequal treatment, which aims to promote equality. In the light of the thought of Alexy, it has been proposed to analyze the General Equality Law, to then justify the reasons for the unequal state treatment. Such unequal treatment in such cases will be addressed from the perspective of affirmative action. These measures are promoted in order to promote social redemption of company shares historically segregated. Thus, this study proposes an analysis of the general right to equality in the construction and application of the law.

  6. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey.

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-04-18

    Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Data were collected from 1,139 Australians regarding types of racial discrimination experienced, settings for these incidents, response mechanisms and psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6) Psychological Distress Scale. Age, education, religion, gender, visibility and rurality were all significantly associated with differences in the frequency of experiencing racial discrimination. Experiencing racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. Mental health impacts were not associated with the type of discriminatory experience, but experiencing racial discrimination in shops and in employment and government settings was associated with being above the threshold for high or very high psychological distress. One out of twelve response mechanisms was found to be associated with lower stress following a discriminatory incident. Study results indicate that poorer mental health was associated with the volume of discrimination experienced, rather than the type of experience. However, the impact of experiencing discrimination in some settings was shown to be particularly associated with high or very high psychological distress. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to prevent the occurrence of racism have more potential to increase mental health in racial and ethnic minority communities than interventions that work with individuals in response to experiencing racism.

  7. Modeling Racial Differences in the Effects of Racial Representation on 2-Year College Student Success

    Museus, Samuel D.; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Robinson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The failure of many 2-year college students to persist and complete a post-secondary credential or degree remains a problem of paramount importance to higher education policymakers and practitioners. While racial representation--or the extent to which a student's racial group is represented on their respective campus--might be one factor that…

  8. When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

  9. The Racial Stress of Membership: Development of the Faculty Inventory of Racialized Experiences in Schools

    Coleman, Sherry; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the experience of faculty of color in predominately White independent schools (PWIS) is limited. This study explored faculty of varying racial backgrounds and their initiation of, interactions with, and stress reactions to racial conflicts within the school settings using an online survey. Several measures were developed according to…

  10. Lifecourse Approach to Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Obesity123

    Dixon, Brittany; Peña, Michelle-Marie; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2012-01-01

    Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care is a national priority, and obesity is a prime target. During the last 30 y in the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children has dramatically increased, sparing no age group. Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse cardio-metabolic outcomes such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type II diabetes and with other long-term adverse outcomes, including both physical and psychosocial consequences. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present, suggesting that disparities in childhood obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. Several risk factors during pregnancy are associated with increased risk of offspring obesity, including excessive maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, antenatal depression, and biological stress. During infancy and early childhood, rapid infant weight gain, infant feeding practices, sleep duration, child’s diet, physical activity, and sedentary practices are associated with the development of obesity. Studies have found substantial racial/ethnic differences in many of these early life risk factors for childhood obesity. It is possible that racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for obesity might contribute to the high prevalence of obesity among minority preschool-age children and beyond. Understanding these differences may help inform the design of clinical and public health interventions and policies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and eliminate disparities among racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22332105

  11. The effects of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and social identity threat on racial minorities' attitudes about police.

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Lee, J Katherine; Renauer, Brian; Henning, Kris R; Stewart, Greg

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the role of perceived phenotypic racial stereotypicality and race-based social identity threat on racial minorities' trust and cooperation with police. We hypothesize that in police interactions, racial minorities' phenotypic racial stereotypicality may increase race-based social identity threat, which will lead to distrust and decreased participation with police. Racial minorities (Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and multi-racials) and Whites from a representative random sample of city residents were surveyed about policing attitudes. A serial multiple mediation model confirmed that racial minorities' self-rated phenotypic racial stereotypicality indirectly affected future cooperation through social identity threat and trust. Due to the lack of negative group stereotypes in policing, the model did not hold for Whites. This study provides evidence that phenotypic stereotypicality influences racial minorities' psychological experiences interacting with police.

  12. Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo

    2014-10-01

    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Sound segregation via embedded repetition is robust to inattention.

    Masutomi, Keiko; Barascud, Nicolas; Kashino, Makio; McDermott, Josh H; Chait, Maria

    2016-03-01

    The segregation of sound sources from the mixture of sounds that enters the ear is a core capacity of human hearing, but the extent to which this process is dependent on attention remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of attention on the ability to segregate sounds via repetition. We utilized a dual task design in which stimuli to be segregated were presented along with stimuli for a "decoy" task that required continuous monitoring. The task to assess segregation presented a target sound 10 times in a row, each time concurrent with a different distractor sound. McDermott, Wrobleski, and Oxenham (2011) demonstrated that repetition causes the target sound to be segregated from the distractors. Segregation was queried by asking listeners whether a subsequent probe sound was identical to the target. A control task presented similar stimuli but probed discrimination without engaging segregation processes. We present results from 3 different decoy tasks: a visual multiple object tracking task, a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) digit encoding task, and a demanding auditory monitoring task. Load was manipulated by using high- and low-demand versions of each decoy task. The data provide converging evidence of a small effect of attention that is nonspecific, in that it affected the segregation and control tasks to a similar extent. In all cases, segregation performance remained high despite the presence of a concurrent, objectively demanding decoy task. The results suggest that repetition-based segregation is robust to inattention. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Continuum modelling of segregating tridisperse granular chute flow

    Deng, Zhekai; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2018-03-01

    Segregation and mixing of size multidisperse granular materials remain challenging problems in many industrial applications. In this paper, we apply a continuum-based model that captures the effects of segregation, diffusion and advection for size tridisperse granular flow in quasi-two-dimensional chute flow. The model uses the kinematics of the flow and other physical parameters such as the diffusion coefficient and the percolation length scale, quantities that can be determined directly from experiment, simulation or theory and that are not arbitrarily adjustable. The predictions from the model are consistent with experimentally validated discrete element method (DEM) simulations over a wide range of flow conditions and particle sizes. The degree of segregation depends on the Péclet number, Pe, defined as the ratio of the segregation rate to the diffusion rate, the relative segregation strength κij between particle species i and j, and a characteristic length L, which is determined by the strength of segregation between smallest and largest particles. A parametric study of particle size, κij, Pe and L demonstrates how particle segregation patterns depend on the interplay of advection, segregation and diffusion. Finally, the segregation pattern is also affected by the velocity profile and the degree of basal slip at the chute surface. The model is applicable to different flow geometries, and should be easily adapted to segregation driven by other particle properties such as density and shape.

  15. Mediators of the relationship between racial identity and life satisfaction in a community sample of African American women and men.

    Yap, Stevie C Y; Settles, Isis H; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S

    2011-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the mechanisms through which racial identity, the importance of racial group membership, affects well-being for racial/ethnic minorities. Using a community sample of 161 African American adults, the present study examined whether the association between racial identity (centrality, public regard, and private regard) and life satisfaction is mediated by two identity functions, belongingness and discrimination. Our results indicated that the relationships of centrality and private regard with life satisfaction were mediated by perceptions of belongingness. Furthermore, gender moderated the strength of each of these mediating effects, such that belongingness mediated these relationships for women but not for men. Our results also indicated that the relationship between public regard and life satisfaction was mediated by perceptions of discrimination. Furthermore, higher public regard was related to lower perceptions of discrimination for women but not men. However, a combined model for public regard and life satisfaction as mediated by discrimination failed to show moderated mediation. We discuss these results in relation to research and theory on racial identity and intersectionality.

  16. Contested Campuses: Politics, race, and the battles over public education in the Greater Los Angeles Area, 1949-1972

    Kovalesky, Brian Robert

    2017-01-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, during the height of protests and actions by civil rights activists against de facto school segregation in the Los Angeles area, the residents of a group of small cities fought to break away from the Los Angeles City Schools and create a new, independent school district. If established, the district would serve white pupils nearly exclusively, preserving and reinforcing racially segregated schools in the area. Proponents of the plan were residents of the maj...

  17. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  18. Measuring racial microaggression in medical practice.

    Almond, Amanda Lee

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the already existing Racial Microaggression in Counseling Scale (RMCS) when the term 'therapist' was replaced with 'physician', thus constituting the modification as the Racial Microaggression in Medical Practice Scale (RMMPS). Racial microaggressions work at reinforcing inferior social status on a cognitive level. Unlike overt racism, messages behind microaggression are subtler and more every day. A lack of acceptance, respect, and regard emerges from interactions in medical contexts as there are layers of in-group and out-group statuses at play (e.g. physician-patient, Black-White, expert-lay, and Westernized-alternative). The layer focused on in this study was that of race or skin color. A sample of racial minorities in the Northeast (n = 91) was investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively to validate the modification and future use of a RMMPS. The scale was related to the racial incongruence between patient and provider. Qualitative findings support the original concepts and themes used when developing the 10-item measure in a counseling setting. Psychometric findings for the scale also supported its factorial structure using generalizability theory estimates. Future implications of this research relate to health behavior, trustworthiness, and health outcomes of minority patients. Its potential for use among various practitioners, educators, and researchers is also discussed.

  19. Racial Otherness and National Construction: a Report of the Studies on the Relationship Between Race and Nation in Colombia

    Álvaro Villegas Vélez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates, through eight main areas, the publications that make the relations between racial otherness and the Nation in Colombia problematic. These areas are: 1 Pioneer Articles (1989-1994 which tende to reduce racial discourses to exclusively racist strategies, 2 Works focused on standardization practices, 3 Publications focused on the political and intellectual debates about these practices, 4 Research on the interactions between race and Nation in the nineteenth century, 5 Publications dealing with the link between discursive and territorial practices about population differences; 6 Research that has focused on the tension between the homogenization and differentiation project in national states, from a perspective attentive to the regional and local , 7 Works linking racial otherness and the past; 8 Finally, the article presents and outline of some unexplored investigative possibilities.

  20. Components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster

    Ganetzky, B.

    1977-01-01

    The segregation distorter (SD) complex is a naturally occurring meiotic drive system with the property that males heterozygous for an SD-bearing chromosome 2 and an SD+-bearing homolog transmit the SD-bearing chromosome almost exclusively. This distorted segregation is the consequence of an induced dysfunction of those sperm that receive the SD+ homolog. From previous studies, two loci have been implicated in this phenomenon: the Sd locus which is required to produce distortion, and the Responder (Rsp) locus that is the site at which Sd acts. There are two allelic alternatives of Rsp-sensitive (Rsp/sup sens/) and insensitive (Rsp/sup ins/); a chromosome carrying Rsp/sup ins/ is not distorted by SD. In the present study, the function and location of each of these elements was examined by a genetic and cytological characterization of x-ray-induced mutations at each locus. The results indicate the following: the Rsp locus is located in the proximal heterochromatin of 2R; a deletion for the Rsp locus renders a chromosome insensitive to distortion; the Sd locus is located to the left of pr (2-54.5), in the region from 37D2-D7 to 38A6-B2 of the salivary chromosome map; an SD chromosome deleted for Sd loses its ability to distort; there is another important component of the SD system, E(SD), in or near the proximal heterochromatin of 2L, that behaves as a strong enhancer of distortion. The results of these studies allow a reinterpretation of results from earlier analyses of the SD system and serve to limit the possible mechanisms to account for segregation distortion

  1. The impact of housing policies and housing markets on ethnic spatial segregation

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how ethnic segregation is connected to an ethnic division of the housing market and a spatial separation of different housing tenures in four Nordic cities. Explanations for the differences across the cities are found by comparing housing markets and housing policies....... The housing markets are in all four cities ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. We further discuss the reasons for the observed pattern. The paper shows that the spatial distribution...... housing, while co-operative housing is crucial in the fourth. It is also shown that a policy of neighbourhood tenure mix in one of the cities has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations of immigrants in social/public housing....

  2. Dynamics of chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1960’es the conformation and segregation of the chromosome in Escherichia coli has been a subject of interest for many scientists. However, after 40 years of research, we still know incredibly little about how the chromosome is organized inside the cell, how it manages to duplicate...... this incredibly big molecule and separate the two daughter chromosomes and how it makes sure that the daughter cells receives one copy each. The fully extended chromosome is two orders of magnitude larger than the cell in which it is contained. Hence the chromosome is heavily compacted in the cell...

  3. Grain size segregation in debris discs

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.; Augereau, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Context. In most debris discs, dust grain dynamics is strongly affected by stellar radiation pressure. Because this mechanism is size-dependent, we expect dust grains to be spatially segregated according to their sizes. However, because of the complex interplay between radiation pressure, grain processing by collisions, and dynamical perturbations, this spatial segregation of the particle size distribution (PSD) has proven difficult to investigate and quantify with numerical models. Aims: We propose to thoroughly investigate this problem by using a new-generation code that can handle some of the complex coupling between dynamical and collisional effects. We intend to explore how PSDs behave in both unperturbed discs at rest and in discs pertubed by planetary objects. Methods: We used the DyCoSS code to investigate the coupled effect of collisions, radiation pressure, and dynamical perturbations in systems that have reached a steady-state. We considered two setups: a narrow ring perturbed by an exterior planet, and an extended disc into which a planet is embedded. For both setups we considered an additional unperturbed case without a planet. We also investigated the effect of possible spatial size segregation on disc images at different wavelengths. Results: We find that PSDs are always spatially segregated. The only case for which the PSD follows a standard dn ∝ s-3.5ds law is for an unperturbed narrow ring, but only within the parent-body ring itself. For all other configurations, the size distributions can strongly depart from such power laws and have steep spatial gradients. As an example, the geometrical cross-section of the disc is very rarely dominated by the smallest grains on bound orbits, as it is expected to be in standard PSDs in sq with q ≤ -3. Although the exact profiles and spatial variations of PSDs are a complex function of the set-up that is considered, we are still able to derive some reliable results that will be useful for image or SED

  4. Cost segregation of assets offers tax benefits.

    Grant, D A

    2001-04-01

    A cost-segregation study is an asset-reclassification strategy that accelerates tax-depreciation deductions. By using this strategy, healthcare facility owners can lower their current income-tax liability and increase current cash flow. Simply put, certain real estate is reclassified from long-lived real property to shorter-lived personal property for depreciation purposes. Depreciation deductions for the personal property then can be greatly accelerated, thereby producing greater present-value tax savings. An analysis of costs can be conducted from either detailed construction records, when such records are available, or by using qualified appraisers, architects, or engineers to perform the allocation analysis.

  5. Radiation induced phosphorus segregation in austenitic and ferritic alloys

    Brimhall, J.L.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation induced surface segregation (RIS) of phosphorus in stainless steel attained a maximum at a dose of 0.8 dpa then decreased continually with dose. This decrease in the surface segregation of phosphorus at high dose levels has been attributed to removal of the phosphorus layer by ion sputtering. Phosphorus is not replenished since essentially all of the phosphorus within the irradiation zone has been segregated to the surface. Sputter removal can explain the previously reported absence of phosphorus segregation in ferritic alloys irradiated at high dosessup(1,2) (>1 dpa) since irradiation of ferritic alloys to low doses has shown measurable RIS. This sputtering phenomenon places an inherent limitation to the heavy ion irradiation technique for the study of surface segregation of impurity elements. The magnitude of the segregation in ferritics is still much less than in stainless steel which can be related to the low damage accumulation in these alloys. (orig.)

  6. Reconstructing school segregation: on the efficacy and equity of single-sex schooling

    Billger, Sherrilyn M.

    2006-01-01

    A change to Title IX has spurred new single-sex public schooling in the US. Until recently, nearly all gender-segregated schools were private, and I therefore address potential selection bias in the effects on educational and labor market outcomes using within private sector comparisons, an index comparing expectations to outcomes, quantile regressions, and other techniques. Descriptive statistics suggest significant benefits, but more consideration of selection bias reveals less consistency....

  7. Is racial prejudice declining in Britain?

    Ford, Robert

    2008-12-01

    This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.

  8. Introduction: Racial and Ethnic Conflict and Violence

    Robert D. Crutchfield

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic violence takes many forms. Genocides, ethnic cleansing, pogroms, civil wars, and violent separatist movements are the most obvious and extreme expressions, but less organized violence such as rioting, and hate crimes by individuals or small groups are products of racial and ethnic conflict as well. Also, the distribution of criminal violence within societies, which may or may not be aimed at members of another group, is in some places a by-product of ongoing conflicts between superior and subordinated racial or ethnic groups. Although estimates of the number of deaths attributable to ethnic violence vary widely, range of eleven to twenty million given for the period between 1945 and the early 1990s show the gravity of this type of conflict (Williams 1994, 50. So it comes as no surprise that scholars have paid increasing attention to such conflicts over the last decades.

  9. Examining Post-Racial Ideology in Higher Education

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

    2015-01-01

    Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of "post-racialism."

  10. Growth Conditions Regulate the Requirements for Caulobacter Chromosome Segregation

    Shebelut, Conrad W.; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Gitai, Zemer

    2009-01-01

    Growth environments are important metabolic and developmental regulators. Here we demonstrate a growth environment-dependent effect on Caulobacter chromosome segregation of a small-molecule inhibitor of the MreB bacterial actin cytoskeleton. Our results also implicate ParAB as important segregation...... determinants, suggesting that multiple distinct mechanisms can mediate Caulobacter chromosome segregation and that their relative contributions can be environmentally regulated....

  11. Segregation-mobility feedback for bidisperse shallow granular flows: Towards understanding segregation in geophysical flows

    Thornton, A.; Denissen, I.; Weinhart, T.; Van der Vaart, K.

    2017-12-01

    The flow behaviour of shallow granular chute flows for uniform particles is well-described by the hstop-rheology [1]. Geophysical flows, however, are often composed of highly non-uniform particles that differ in particle (size, shape, composition) or contact (friction, dissipation, cohesion) properties. The flow behaviour of such mixtures can be strongly influenced by particle segregation effects. Here, we study the influence of particle size-segregation on the flow behaviour of bidisperse flows using experiments and the discrete particle method. We use periodic DPM to derive hstop-rheology for the bi-dispersed granular shallow layer equations, and study their dependence on the segregation profile. In the periodic box simulations, size-segregation results in an upward coarsening of the size distribution with the largest grains collecting at the top of the flow. In geophysical flows, the fact the flow velocity is greatest at the top couples with the vertical segregation to preferentially transported large particles to the front. The large grains may be overrun, resegregated towards the surface and recirculated before being shouldered aside into lateral levees. Theoretically it has been suggested this process should lead to a breaking size-segregation (BSS) wave located between a large-particle-rich front and a small-particle-rich tail [2,3]. In the BSS wave large particles that have been overrun rise up again to the free-surface while small particles sink to the bed. We present evidence for the existences of the BSS wave. This is achieved through the study of three-dimensional bidisperse granular flows in a moving-bed channel. Our analysis demonstrates a relation between the concentration of small particles in the flow and the amount of basal slip, in which the structure of the BSS wave plays a key role. This leads to a feedback between the mean bulk flow velocity and the process of size-segregation. Ultimately, these findings shed new light on the recirculation of

  12. Implicit and Explicit Racial Attitudes Changed During Black Lives Matter

    Sawyer, Jeremy; Gampa, Anup

    2018-01-01

    Lab-based interventions have been ineffective in changing individuals’ implicit racial attitudes for more than brief durations, and exposure to high-status Black exemplars like Obama has proven ineffective in shifting societal-level racial attitudes. Anti-racist social movements, however, offer a potential societal-level alternative for reducing racial bias. Racial attitudes were examined before and during Black Lives Matter (BLM) and its high points of struggle with 1,369,204 participants fr...

  13. Decentralization as a Cause of Spatial Segregation

    Jasarovic Ema Alihodzic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available City represents an incomplete dynamic process prone to the expansion with a causal link between urban expansion and socio-spatial segregation. The socio-spatial distribution in the city is mostly related to the increased social polarization and inequality. There is a clear connection between divided society and divided city: if society is divided, urban space must be divided. It is the question of the relations between the social inequalities on one hand, and spatial segregation on the other. In the last 10 years, Podgorica is the city that shows alarming statistic values when it comes to demographic trends and the influx of the residents from the northern municipalities, which necessarily causes the city sprawl. Past experiences show that city is unevenly expanding, creating new functions and zones expressed by socio-spatial differences. The beginning of this process lies in modernist conception of the city, by which city was mostly developed, while the current functional organization is based on the same concept. With the first urban plans, which carried similarproblems mentioned in previous section, Podgorica was divided into three clearly differentiated zones: Stara Varoš, Nova Varoš and Novi grad, which became a platform for hierarchical divisions within the space, reflecting them in the society.

  14. Binaural segregation in multisource reverberant environments.

    Roman, Nicoleta; Srinivasan, Soundararajan; Wang, DeLiang

    2006-12-01

    In a natural environment, speech signals are degraded by both reverberation and concurrent noise sources. While human listening is robust under these conditions using only two ears, current two-microphone algorithms perform poorly. The psychological process of figure-ground segregation suggests that the target signal is perceived as a foreground while the remaining stimuli are perceived as a background. Accordingly, the goal is to estimate an ideal time-frequency (T-F) binary mask, which selects the target if it is stronger than the interference in a local T-F unit. In this paper, a binaural segregation system that extracts the reverberant target signal from multisource reverberant mixtures by utilizing only the location information of target source is proposed. The proposed system combines target cancellation through adaptive filtering and a binary decision rule to estimate the ideal T-F binary mask. The main observation in this work is that the target attenuation in a T-F unit resulting from adaptive filtering is correlated with the relative strength of target to mixture. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the proposed system results in large SNR gains. In addition, comparisons using SNR as well as automatic speech recognition measures show that this system outperforms standard two-microphone beamforming approaches and a recent binaural processor.

  15. Sound source localization and segregation with internally coupled ears

    Bee, Mark A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    to their correct sources (sound source segregation). Here, we review anatomical, biophysical, neurophysiological, and behavioral studies aimed at identifying how the internally coupled ears of frogs contribute to sound source localization and segregation. Our review focuses on treefrogs in the genus Hyla......, as they are the most thoroughly studied frogs in terms of sound source localization and segregation. They also represent promising model systems for future work aimed at understanding better how internally coupled ears contribute to sound source localization and segregation. We conclude our review by enumerating...

  16. Dysfunctional MreB inhibits chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    Kruse, Thomas; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism of prokaryotic chromosome segregation is not known. MreB, an actin homolog, is a shape-determining factor in rod-shaped prokaryotic cells. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we found that MreB of Escherichia coli formed helical filaments located beneath the cell surface. Flow...... cytometric and cytological analyses indicated that MreB-depleted cells segregated their chromosomes in pairs, consistent with chromosome cohesion. Overexpression of wild-type MreB inhibited cell division but did not perturb chromosome segregation. Overexpression of mutant forms of MreB inhibited cell...... that MreB filaments participate in directional chromosome movement and segregation....

  17. Chromosome and cell wall segregation in Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790

    Higgins, M.L.; Glaser, D.; Dicker, D.T.; Zito, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Segregation was studied by measuring the positions of autoradiographic grain clusters in chains formed from single cells containing on average less than one radiolabeled chromosome strand. The degree to which chromosomal and cell wall material cosegregated was quantified by using the methods of S. Cooper and M. Weinberger, dividing the number of chains labeled at the middle. This analysis indicated that in contrast to chromosomal segregation in Escherichia coli and, in some studies, to that in gram-positive rods, chromosomal segregation in Streptococcus faecium was slightly nonrandom and did not vary with growth rate. Results were not significantly affected by strand exchange. In contrast, labeled cell wall segregated predominantly nonrandomly

  18. Birth outcome racial disparities: A result of intersecting social and environmental factors.

    Burris, Heather H; Hacker, Michele R

    2017-10-01

    Adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low-birth weight, and infant mortality continue to disproportionately affect black and poor infants in the United States. Improvements in healthcare quality and access have not eliminated these disparities. The objective of this review was to consider societal factors, including suboptimal education, income inequality, and residential segregation, that together lead to toxic environmental exposures and psychosocial stress. Many toxic chemicals, as well as psychosocial stress, contribute to the risk of adverse birth outcomes and black women often are more highly exposed than white women. The extent to which environmental exposures combine with stress and culminate in racial disparities in birth outcomes has not been quantified but is likely substantial. Primary prevention of adverse birth outcomes and elimination of disparities will require a societal approach to improve education quality, income equity, and neighborhoods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  20. The Neoliberal Racial Project: The Tiger Mother and Governmentality

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    Combining the conceptual approach of racial formation and racial projects with the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, Jeong-eun Rhee theorizes the "neoliberal racial project" (NRP) and examines contemporary meanings and operations of race and racism in relation to neoliberalism. She analyzes Amy Chua's popular parenting memoir,…

  1. Addressing Racial Awareness and Color-Blindness in Higher Education

    Diggles, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Racial awareness is a critical foundation to racial sensitivity, and it is a necessity for future professionals who want to be prepared to succeed in an increasingly diverse society. Several factors have been shown to influence racial awareness in professionals including their own race, their personal experience with racism, and the amount/quality…

  2. Contradictions of Identity: Education and the Problem of Racial Absolutism.

    McCarthy, Cameron

    1995-01-01

    Critiques tendencies toward dogmatism and essentialism in current educational theories of racial inequality. Argues that different gender, class, and ethnic interests intersect with racial coordination and affiliation, and that to reduce racial antagonism or ameliorate educational inequities educators must consider the powerful role of nuance,…

  3. School Politics and Conflict in Racially Isolated Schools.

    Michel, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Compares areas and levels of political conflict in racially isolated school districts by surveying six superintendents from racially isolated African-American schools and six superintendents from racially isolated white schools. Similar issues arise at every conflict level with small variations among issues between African-American and white…

  4. The Serious Games of Racial Accounting in Schools

    Martinez, Martha Irene

    2011-01-01

    Educational disparities are frequently framed in racial comparisons that are based on data generated by sorting and counting racial subgroups. Our reliance on these data, and the sorting and counting mechanisms entailed therein, is fundamental to debates about racial inequalities. What is largely ignored in achievement gap discourse is how racial…

  5. Racial and Ethnic Backlash in College Peer Culture.

    Dalton, Jon C.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews racial bias and racial intolerance among college students during the late 1980s. Asserts that campus bias-related indents are predictable outcomes of increasingly self-interested values and limited personal experience with racial and ethnic diversity. Discusses the need to create more opportunities for contact and interaction among…

  6. Exploring How African American Faculty Cope with Classroom Racial Stressors

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2010-01-01

    This study was an examination of how African American faculty discussed their coping with racially stressful classrooms. Despite aims for racial equality in higher education, the classroom has been a significant site of racial stressors for African American facility. Analysis of interviews with 16 (8 women, 8 men) African American faculty at a…

  7. Urbanism and Racial Attitudes: A Test of Some Urban Theories.

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1984-01-01

    National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)

  8. Schools as Racial Spaces: Understanding and Resisting Structural Racism

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing schools as racial spaces can help researchers examine the role of teachers in the perpetuation of structural racism in schools. Based on ethnographic and autoethnographic work, this article offers examples of schools as racial spaces, spaces where whiteness controlled access. It also highlights four teachers who pursued racial equity in…

  9. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  10. Micro and Macro Segregation in Alloys Solidifying with Equiaxed Morphology

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Leon-Torres, Jose; Sen, Subhayu

    1996-01-01

    To understand macro segregation formation in Al-Cu alloys, experiments were run under terrestrial gravity (1g) and under low gravity during parabolic flights (10(exp -2) g). Alloys of two different compositions (2% and 5% Cu) were solidified at two different cooling rates. Systematic microscopic and SEM observations produced microstructural and segregation maps for all samples. These maps may be used as benchmark experiments for validation of microstructure evolution and segregation models. As expected, the macro segregation maps are very complex. When segregation was measured along the central axis of the sample, the highest macro segregation for samples solidified at 1g was obtained for the lowest cooling rate. This behavior is attributed to the longer time available for natural convection and shrinkage flow to affect solute redistribution. In samples solidified under low-g, the highest macro-segregation was obtained at the highest cooling rate. In general, low-gravity solidification resulted in less segregation. To explain the experimental findings, an analytical (Flemings-Nereo) and a numerical model were used. For the numerical model, the continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the microscopic transport phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model proposed considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The Flemings-Nereo model explains well macro segregation in the initial stages of low-gravity segregation. The numerical model can describe the complex macro segregation pattern and the differences between low- and high-gravity solidification.

  11. Auditory stream segregation using amplitude modulated bandpass noise

    Yingjiu eNie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of spectral overlap and amplitude modulation (AM rate for stream segregation for noise signals, as well as to test the build-up effect based on these two cues. Segregation ability was evaluated using an objective paradigm with listeners’ attention focused on stream segregation. Stimulus sequences consisted of two interleaved sets of bandpass noise bursts (A and B bursts. The A and B bursts differed in spectrum, AM-rate, or both. The amount of the difference between the two sets of noise bursts was varied. Long and short sequences were studied to investigate the build-up effect for segregation based on spectral and AM-rate differences. Results showed the following: 1. Stream segregation ability increased with greater spectral separation. 2. Larger AM-rate separations were associated with stronger segregation abilities. 3. Spectral separation was found to elicit the build-up effect for the range of spectral differences assessed in the current study. 4. AM-rate separation interacted with spectral separation suggesting an additive effect of spectral separation and AM-rate separation on segregation build-up. The findings suggest that, when normal-hearing listeners direct their attention toward segregation, they are able to segregate auditory streams based on reduced spectral contrast cues that vary by the amount of spectral overlap. Further, regardless of the spectral separation they were able to use AM-rate difference as a secondary/weaker cue. Based on the spectral differences, listeners can segregate auditory streams better as the listening duration is prolonged—i.e. sparse spectral cues elicit build-up segregation; however, AM-rate differences only appear to elicit build-up when in combination with spectral difference cues.

  12. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-Sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…

  13. The Significance of Post-Racial Ideology, Black Political Struggle, and Racial Literacy for Brazilian Anti-Racist Education Policy

    Da Costa, Alexandre Emboaba

    2016-01-01

    This paper furthers current analysis of anti-racist, critical multicultural, and decolonial educational reforms in Brazil through a focus on the significant role played by post-racial ideology, black politics, and racial literacy in policy design and implementation. The paper first details the ways in which post-racial commonsense and anti-black…

  14. Racial Microaggressions and School Psychology Students: Who Gets Targeted and How Intern Supervisors Can Facilitate Racial Justice

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Kyle, Jennifer; Lau, Cindy; Fefer, Keren; Fischetti, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students' experiences with racial microaggressions in school psychology graduate training. Through a national survey of ethnically and racially diverse school psychology students (N = 228), the study examined if level of graduate training (i.e., interns…

  15. Knowing about Racial Stereotypes versus Believing Them

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; McKinney de Royston, Maxine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Wischnia, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Despite post-racial rhetoric, stereotypes remain salient for American youth. We surveyed 150 elementary and middle schoolers in Northern California and conducted case studies of 12 students. Findings showed that (a) students hold school-related stereotypes that get stronger in middle school, (b) African American and Latino students experience…

  16. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  17. Making Commitments to Racial Justice Actionable

    Diab, Rasha; Ferrel, Thomas; Godbee, Beth; Simpkins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we articulate a framework for making our commitments to racial justice actionable, a framework that moves from narrating confessional accounts to articulating our commitments and then acting on them through both self-work and work-with-others, a dialectic possibility we identify and explore. We model a method for moving beyond…

  18. Racial targeting of sexual violence in Darfur.

    Hagan, John; Rymond-Richmond, Wenona; Palloni, Alberto

    2009-08-01

    We used the Atrocities Documentation Survey to determine whether Sudanese government forces were involved in racially targeting sexual victimization toward ethnically African women in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The US State Department conducted the survey by interviewing a randomized multistage probability sample of 1136 Darfur refugees at 20 sites in Chad in 2004. For a subset of 932 respondents who had fled from village clusters that accounted for 15 or more respondents per cluster, we used hierarchical linear models to analyze village-level patterns of reported sexual violence. We statistically controlled for individual sexual victimization to remove bias. Respondents reported being subjected to racial epithets associated with sexual victimization significantly more often during combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces than during separate attacks by either force. Combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces led to racial epithets being used more often during sexual victimization in Darfur. Our results suggest that the Sudanese government is participating in the use of sexual assault as a racially targeted weapon against ethnically African civilians.

  19. Group Norms, Threat, and Children's Racial Prejudice

    Nesdale, Drew; Maass, Anne; Durkin, Kevin; Griffiths, Judith

    2005-01-01

    To assess predictions from social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 2004) concerning children's ethnic/racial prejudice, 197 Anglo-Australian children ages 7 or 9 years participated in a minimal group study as a member of a team that had a norm of inclusion or exclusion. The team was threatened or not threatened by an out-group that was…

  20. On implicit racial prejudice against infants

    Wolf, L.J.; Maio, G.R.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Leygue, C.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the innocence and dependence of children, it would be reassuring to believe that implicit racial prejudice against out-group children is lower than implicit prejudice against out-group adults. Yet, prior research has not directly tested whether or not adults exhibit less spontaneous

  1. The Campus Racial Climate: Contexts of Conflict.

    Hurtado, Sylvia

    1992-01-01

    An examination of data from several studies investigated white (n=1,825), African-American (n=328), and Chicano (n=340) college student perceptions of campus racial climate and institutional commitment to cultural diversity. Student demographic variables were considered. Results indicated common and distinct views concerning the environment types…

  2. Challenging Speculation about "Dewey's Racialized Visions"

    Eldridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Michael Eldridge maintains that Frank Margonis has in a recent article ill-advisedly speculated about John Dewey's pedagogy, suggesting that his "racialized visions" of students and classroom communities involve a "false universalism" that is problematic for our multicultural society. Based on this understanding, Margonis concludes…

  3. To Imagine and Pursue Racial Justice

    Desmond, Matthew; Emirbayer, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    At the conclusion of many courses on race and racism, students, having learned, some for the first time, about the existence, origins, and complex dimensions of racial domination in America, are left pondering their next steps. "What is to be done?" many ask. "And what, exactly, is it that we want?" Important as they are, these…

  4. Racial background and possible relationships between physical ...

    The aim of this research was to investigate possible relationships between physical activity and physical fitness of girls between the ages of 13 and 15 years and the role of different racial backgrounds in this relationship. A cross-sectional research design was used to obtain information from 290 girls between the ages of 13 ...

  5. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  6. The Racial School-Climate Gap

    Voight, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Education inequity is a persistent reality of American culture. As early as kindergarten, there are marked differences in academic performance between racial minority students and their peers. These differences are sustained as students progress through school. One aspect of students' social experience that may help to explain the gap is school…

  7. Dealing with Racial Conflicts in School

    Holman, Ben

    1975-01-01

    The roots of racial conflict can be identified, and often predicted, says this author who directs the Community Relations Service of the Justice Department that has helped administrators in 2,000 cases. He lists 10 tension-breeding factors that, if found in your school, may mean you're flirting with a crisis. (Editor)

  8. "Dealing with Racial Conflicts in Schools."

    Holman, Ben

    In dealing with racial tension and conflict, the principal is not limited to a wing and a prayer and benign neglect. The roots of conflict can be identified. Conflict can be planned for and utilized constructively. For 10 years, in approximately 2,000 instances, conciliators and mediators of the Community Relations Service have stood side-by-side…

  9. Student Solutions to Racial Conflict

    Gutierrez, Richard

    2005-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Education, 39% of public school students were considered to be part of a minority group in 2000, as opposed to just 22% in 1972. Although the increased diversity offers many opportunities for staff members and students to learn from one another, not all members of the school community adjust quickly to a…

  10. White racial identity, color-blind racial attitudes, and multicultural counseling competence.

    Johnson, Alex; Jackson Williams, Dahra

    2015-07-01

    Multicultural counseling competence (awareness, knowledge, and skills) is necessary to provide effective psychotherapy to an increasingly diverse client population (Sue, 2001). Previous research on predictors of competency among White clinicians finds that above having multicultural training, exposure to racially diverse clients, and social desirability, that White racial identity stages predict multicultural counseling competence (Ottavi et al., 1994). Research also suggests that higher color-blind racial attitudes (denying or minimizing racism in society) correlates with less advanced White racial identity stages (Gushue & Constantine, 2007). However, no studies have examined these variables together as they relate to and possibly predict multicultural counseling competence. The current study aims to add to this literature by investigating the effects of these variables together as potential predictors of multicultural counseling competence among (N = 487) White doctoral students studying clinical, counseling, and school psychology. Results of 3 hierarchical multiple regressions found above the effects of social desirability, demographic variables, and multicultural training, that colorblind racial attitudes and White racial identity stages added significant incremental variance in predicting multicultural counseling knowledge, awareness, and skills. These results add to the literature by finding different predictors for each domain of multicultural competence. Implications of the findings for future research and the clinical training of White doctoral trainees are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Is racial bias malleable? Whites' lay theories of racial bias predict divergent strategies for interracial interactions.

    Neel, Rebecca; Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2012-07-01

    How do Whites approach interracial interactions? We argue that a previously unexamined factor-beliefs about the malleability of racial bias-guides Whites' strategies for difficult interracial interactions. We predicted and found that those who believe racial bias is malleable favor learning-oriented strategies such as taking the other person's perspective and trying to learn why an interaction is challenging, whereas those who believe racial bias is fixed favor performance-oriented strategies such as overcompensating in the interaction and trying to end the interaction as quickly as possible. Four studies support these predictions. Whether measured (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or manipulated (Study 2), beliefs that racial bias is fixed versus malleable yielded these divergent strategies for difficult interracial interactions. Furthermore, beliefs about the malleability of racial bias are distinct from related constructs (e.g., prejudice and motivations to respond without prejudice; Studies 1, 3, and 4) and influence self-reported (Studies 1-3) and actual (Study 4) strategies in imagined (Studies 1-2) and real (Studies 3-4) interracial interactions. Together, these findings demonstrate that beliefs about the malleability of racial bias influence Whites' approaches to and strategies within interracial interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

  13. Social status correlates of reporting gender discrimination and racial discrimination among racially diverse women.

    Ro, Annie E; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in North California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design.

  14. Residential Racial Isolation and Spatial Patterning of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Durham, North Carolina.

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Kimbro, Rachel T; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2018-05-14

    Neighborhood characteristics such as racial segregation may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but studies have not examined these relationships using spatial models appropriate for geographically patterned health outcomes. We construct a local, spatial index of racial isolation (RI) for blacks, which measures the extent to which blacks are exposed to only one another, to estimate associations of diabetes with RI and examine how RI relates to spatial patterning in diabetes. We obtained 2007-2011 electronic health records from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse. Patient data were linked to RI based on census block of residence. We use aspatial and spatial Bayesian models to assess spatial variation in diabetes and relationships with RI. Compared to spatial models with patient age and sex, residual geographic heterogeneity in diabetes in spatial models that also included RI was 29% and 24% lower for non-Hispanic whites and blacks, respectively. A 0.20 unit increase in RI was associated with 1.24 (95% credible interval: 1.17, 1.31) and 1.07 (1.05, 1.10) increased risk of diabetes for whites and blacks, respectively. Improved understanding of neighborhood characteristics associated with diabetes can inform development of policy interventions.

  15. Segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings

    Farinato, R.S.; Mahmoudkhani, A.; Fenderson, T.; Watson, P. [Kemira, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Untreated oil sands tailings have a high solids content, have poor dewaterability, and contain no aggregates. This PowerPoint presentation investigated segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings. Tailings were treated with gypsum and various polymers. Cylinder settling, dynamic rheometry, particle size analysis, and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composite tailings. The particles sizes of the samples were evaluated in relation to shear rate, bed depth, and treatment. The study showed that the gypsum-treated tailings had small aggregates, size stratification, a high solids content, and poor dewaterability. The polymer N-treated tailings had the lowest solids content, good dewaterability, and weak aggregates. The polymer A-treated tailings had a low solids content, very good dewaterability, and strong aggregates. The addition of a coagulant to the polymer-A treated tailings provided weaker aggregates and a higher solids content. tabs., figs.

  16. Blood cell interactions and segregation in flow.

    Munn, Lance L; Dupin, Michael M

    2008-04-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allowing blood to perform a variety of critical functions. Our current understanding of these unusual flow properties of blood have been made possible by the ingenuity and diligence of a number of researchers, including Harry Goldsmith, who developed novel technologies to visualize and quantify the flow of blood at the level of individual cells. Here we summarize efforts in our lab to continue this tradition and to further our understanding of how blood cells interact with each other and with the blood vessel wall.

  17. Heider balance, asymmetric ties, and gender segregation

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Hernández-Ramírez, Eric; Naumis, Gerardo G.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    To remove a cognitive dissonance in interpersonal relations, people tend to divide their acquaintances into friendly and hostile parts, both groups internally friendly and mutually hostile. This process is modeled as an evolution toward the Heider balance. A set of differential equations have been proposed and validated (Kułakowski et al., 2005) to model the Heider dynamics of this social and psychological process. Here we generalize the model by including the initial asymmetry of the interpersonal relations and the direct reciprocity effect which removes this asymmetry. Our model is applied to the data on enmity and friendship in 37 school classes and 4 groups of teachers in México. For each class, a stable balanced partition is obtained into two groups. The gender structure of the groups reveals stronger gender segregation in younger classes, i.e. of age below 12 years, a fact consistent with other general empirical results.

  18. Centromeric heterochromatin: the primordial segregation machine.

    Bloom, Kerry S

    2014-01-01

    Centromeres are specialized domains of heterochromatin that provide the foundation for the kinetochore. Centromeric heterochromatin is characterized by specific histone modifications, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CENP-A), and the enrichment of cohesin, condensin, and topoisomerase II. Centromere DNA varies orders of magnitude in size from 125 bp (budding yeast) to several megabases (human). In metaphase, sister kinetochores on the surface of replicated chromosomes face away from each other, where they establish microtubule attachment and bi-orientation. Despite the disparity in centromere size, the distance between separated sister kinetochores is remarkably conserved (approximately 1 μm) throughout phylogeny. The centromere functions as a molecular spring that resists microtubule-based extensional forces in mitosis. This review explores the physical properties of DNA in order to understand how the molecular spring is built and how it contributes to the fidelity of chromosome segregation.

  19. Radiation-induced segregation in model alloys

    Ezawa, T.; Wakai, E.; Oshima, R.

    2000-12-01

    The dependence of the size factor of solutes on radiation-induced segregation (RIS) was studied. Ni-Si, Ni-Co, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn, Ni-Pd, and Ni-Nb binary solid solution alloys were irradiated with electrons in a high voltage electron microscope at the same irradiation conditions. A focused beam and a grain boundary were utilized to generate a flow of point defects to cause RIS. From the concentration profile obtained by an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, the amount of RIS was calculated. The amount of RIS decreased as the size of the solute increased up to about 10%. However, as the size increased further, the amount of RIS increased. This result shows that RIS is not simply determined by the size effect rule.

  20. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Roelfsema, P.R.; Spekreijse, H.; Bosch, H.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a model of how the visual brain segregate textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped together

  1. Figure-ground segregation in a recurrent network architecture

    Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Lamme, Victor A. F.; Spekreijse, Henk; Bosch, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Here we propose a model of how the visual brain segregates textured scenes into figures and background. During texture segregation, locations where the properties of texture elements change abruptly are assigned to boundaries, whereas image regions that are relatively homogeneous are grouped

  2. "Brown" at 62: School Segregation by Race, Poverty and State

    Orfield, Gary; Ee, Jongyeon; Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    As the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education" decision arrives again without any major initiatives to mitigate spreading and deepening segregation in the nation's schools, the Civil Rights Project adds to a growing national discussion with a research brief drawn from a much broader study of school segregation to be published in…

  3. A new principle of figure-ground segregation : The accentuation

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam; Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Deiana, Katia

    2018-01-01

    The problem of perceptual organization was studied by Gestalt psychologists in terms of figure-ground segregation. In this paper we explore a new principle of figure-ground segregation: accentuation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of accentuation relative to other Gestalt principles, and also

  4. The Emergence of Gender Segregation in Toddler Playgroups.

    Serbin, Lisa A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A naturalistic study of toddler playgroups examined factors that might encourage gender segregation. Results revealed that play in same-sex contexts facilitates social interaction, whereas in mixed-sex contexts, play leads to passive social relations. Toddlers who segregated were more behaviorally sex-typed. Preferences for sex-typed toys did not…

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of adsorption-induced segregation

    Christoffersen, Ebbe; Stoltze, Per; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    Through the use of Monte Carlo simulations we study the effect of adsorption-induced segregation. From the bulk composition, degree of dispersion and the partial pressure of the gas phase species we calculate the surface composition of bimetallic alloys. We show that both segregation and adsorption...

  6. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Diane P Genereux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  7. Standardized Testing and School Segregation: Like Tinder for Fire?

    Knoester, Matthew; Au, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that high-stakes standardized testing has played a negative role in the segregation of children by race and class in schools. In this article we review research on the overall effects of segregation, the positive and negative aspects of how desegregation plans were carried out following the 1954 Supreme Court decision…

  8. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall meet...

  9. El prejuicio racial en Brasil: medidas comparativas O preconceito racial no Brasil: medidas comparativas Racial prejudice in Brazil: comparative measures

    Ana Maria Lacerda Teixeira Pires

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El estudio trataba de medir las manifestaciones del prejuicio racial en una muestra de la población brasileña, utilizando las escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee y Batts (1981 y la escala de racismo cordial de Turra y Venturi (1995 y Venturi (2003. Se aplicó los cuestionarios a un total de 101 estudiantes de diversas universidades en la región sur de Brasil. Los resultados muestran que las dos escalas difieren entre si respecto a captar las expresiones del prejuicio. Las personas declararon mayor racismo moderno que racismo cordial. También hemos estudiado las variables que influyen en el prejuicio racial declarado por los participantes. La variable género y orientación a la dominancia social son variables que predicen el racismo moderno en la muestra estudiada. Los participantes indicaron, en mayor medida, la manifestación del prejuicio racial de forma encubierta y lo hacen más abiertamente cuando hay la posibilidad del contacto personal y estrecho.O estudo avaliou as manifestações de preconceito racial em uma amostra da população brasileira, usando escalas de racismo moderno de McConahay, Hardee e Batts (1981, escala racismo cordial do Datafolha (1995 e Venturi, G. (2003. Os questionários foram aplicados a um total de 101 estudantes de várias universidades da região sul do Brasil. Os resultados mostram que as duas escalas diferem entre si sobre como capturar as expressões de preconceito. As pessoas relataram mais racismo moderno que racismo cordial. Estudamos também as variáveis que influenciam o preconceito racial declarado pelos participantes. As variáveis gênero e orientação à dominância social são preditores do racismo moderno na amostra estudada. Os participantes indicaram, em maior medida, a manifestação do preconceito racial dissimulado e o fazem mais abertamente quando existe a possibilidade do contato pessoal e estreito.This study measured the manifestations of racial prejudice in a sample of

  10. The grain boundary segregation of phosphorus in thermally aged and irradiated C-Mn submerged-are weld metal

    Mendes, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The segregation of free phosphorus atoms to grain boundaries in C-Mn steels has been identified as an embrittlement mechanism. A change in the brittle fracture mechanism from transgranular to intergranular has been observed for materials with higher phosphorus grain boundary coverage. The grain boundary segregation of phosphorus in various steels used in the nuclear power industry has been thermodynamically and kinetically modelled mostly with the Langmuir-McLean model. Recent publications have also suggested that neutron irradiation can affect segregation and various attempts at modelling this are currently under way. The present paper describes a data base assembled on phosphorus grain boundary coverage measured by Auger electron spectroscopy on thermally aged and irradiated C-Mn submerged-arc weld specimens. Software tools were developed to evaluate the changes in phosphorus grain boundary coverage associated with instantaneous temperature changes and temperature gradients. The phosphorus free energy change associated with grain boundary segregation was modelled from the thermally aged data and used with the software to determine the phosphorus segregation in submerged-arc weld metals following the post weld stress relief heat treatments received prior to plant operation. The phosphorus grain boundary coverage changes arising from the thermal history of submerged-arc weld materials during irradiation were also modelled and found to compare well with data obtained on irradiated materials. It was concluded that under the irradiation conditions sampled, phosphorus grain boundary segregation in submerged-arc weld materials can be modelled successfully using only the thermal term without appealing to an irradiation induced segregation process. (author)

  11. Improvement in dry active waste segregation and processing

    Hillmer, T.P.; Anderson, K.D.; Dahlen, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    At the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) the majority of dry active waste (DAW) volume reduction activities are performed in the site's new DAW processing and storage facility. This facility houses an interim storage area for a five year volume of compacted DAW, a shredder/compactor, and a DAW segregation area. The DAW segregation program locates and separates non-radioactive and reusable materials from DAW generated at the three unit PVNGS site. This program has saved more than 24,000 cubic feet of burial space and has reclaimed more than $1,000,000 worth of materials. Palo Verde has made numerous changes to the DAW segregation program since its inception. To ensure that the DAW segregation program remained cost effective and in compliance with applicable regulatory guidance, segregation techniques were revised and new equipment was evaluated and procured. This paper details that effort and summarizes the operational data that has been collected

  12. Racial Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Vulnerability Following Hurricane Katrina Among a Sample of Adult Cigarette Smokers from New Orleans.

    Alexander, Adam C; Ali, Jeanelle; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Forde, David R; Stockton, Michelle; Read, Mary; Ward, Kenneth D

    2017-02-01

    Although blacks are more likely than whites to experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a natural disaster, the reasons for this disparity are unclear. This study explores whether race is associated with PTSD after adjusting for differences in preexisting vulnerabilities, exposure to stressors, and loss of social support due to Hurricane Katrina using a representative sample of 279 black and white adult current and past smokers who were present when Hurricane Katrina struck, and identified it as the most traumatic event in their lifetime. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated whether differential vulnerability (pre-hurricane physical and mental health functioning, and education level), differential exposure to hurricane-related stressors, and loss of social support deterioration reduced the association of race with PTSD. Blacks were more likely than whites to screen positive for PTSD (49 vs. 39 %, respectively, p = 0.030). Although blacks reported greater pre-hurricane vulnerability (worse mental health functioning and lower educational attainment) and hurricane-related stressor exposure and had less social support after the hurricane, only pre-hurricane mental health functioning attenuated the association of race with screening positive for PTSD. Thus, racial differences in pre-hurricane functioning, particularly poorer mental health, may partially explain racial disparities in PTSD after natural disasters, such as Hurricane Katrina. Future studies should examine these associations prospectively using representative cohorts of black and whites and include measures of residential segregation and discrimination, which may further our understanding of racial disparities in PTSD after a natural disaster.

  13. Segregation and Socialization: Academic Segregation and Citizenship Attitudes of Adolescents in Comparative Perspective?

    Dimokritos Kavadias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is a tendency to assess educational systems in terms of their efficiency in gaining high scores on cognitive skills. Schools perform, however, also a socializing function. The whole policy debate tends to ignore the impact of educational systems on attitudes or democratic values. This contribution focuses on the impact of the organization of education in European societies on the civic attitudes of adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: We explore the impact of academic segregation – the practice of segregating children on the basis of their scholastic achievement – on attitudes of adolescents living in different educational systems. We use the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (2009 relying on multilevel models. Findings: Pupils differ in their outlook on fellow citizens, according to the ways in which educational systems select and differentiate throughout school careers. More specifically, there is a negative impact of academic segregation on the attitudes towards immigrants and ethnic minorities. Research limitations/implications: The experience of adolescents based on their educational achievement seems to affect how they perceive other people. We have not answered the question why this is the case. We hope to have provided a minimal indication of the impact of inequality on social outcomes.

  14. Racial Geography, Economic Growth and Natural Disaster Resilience

    Li, Huiping [University of North Carolina at Charlotte; Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Ganguly, Auroop [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2014-03-01

    Recent development of National Response Plans and National Incident Management Plans has emphasized the need for interoperability of plans, systems, technology, and command structures. However, much less emphasis has been placed on equally important elements such as the at-risk populations’ response to those plans, systems, and directions. The community-wide consequences of Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that the protection of communities should no longer be considered only a function of public organizations. Private organizations, nonprofit organizations and individual households have significant roles to play in these plans (Comfort 2006, Salamon 2002). This study is a first attempt to characterize the effect on the resilience (recovery) of metropolitan areas by the presence (or absence) of separate small communities within a larger jurisdiction. These communities can be based on many different social cleavages (ethnic, racial, economic, social, geographic, linguistic, etc.).

  15. Gender inequality in the welfare state: sex segregation in housework, 1965-2003.

    Hook, Jennifer L

    2010-03-01

    National context may influence sex segregation of household tasks through both pragmatic decision making and the normative context in which decision making is embedded. This study utilizes 36 time use surveys from 19 countries (spanning 1965-2003) combined with original national-level data in multilevel models to examine household task segregation. Analyses reveal that men do less and women do more time-inflexible housework in nations where work hours and parental leave are long. Women do less of this work where there is more public child care and men are eligible to take parental leave. National context affects the character of gender inequality in the home through individual- and national-level pathways.

  16. [In times of racialization: the case of the 'health of the black population' in Brazil].

    Maio, Marcos Chor; Monteiro, Simone

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzes initiatives aimed at creating a field of reflection and political intervention called the 'health of the black population,' which occurred between 1996 and 2004, that is, under the administration of Fernando Henrique Cardoso and part of Luis Inácio Lula da Silva's administration. During this period, the process of discussing and enacting affirmative action policies in Brazil gained greater visibility, especially following the UN-sponsored Third World Conference on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance (Durban, South Africa, September, 2001). The article describes the emergence of a proposal of compensatory policy within the Brazilian public health system. It then addresses the contemporary debate on race and health, especially the U.S. biomedical literature, and explores how this discussion has been appropriated by agencies and agents concerned with drawing up a 'racial policy' for the public health sector in Brazil.

  17. The color of child mortality in Brazil, 1950-2000: social progress and persistent racial inequality.

    Wood, Charles H; Magno de Carvalho, José Alberto; Guimarães Horta, Cláudia Júlia

    2010-01-01

    Now that racism has been officially recognized in Brazil, and some universities have adopted affirmative-action admission policies, measures of the magnitude of racial inequality and analyses that identify the factors associated with changes in racial disparities over time assume particular relevance to the conduct of public debate. This study uses census data from 1950 to 2000 to estimate the probability of death in the early years of life, a robust indicator of the standard of living among the white and Afro-Brazilian populations. Associated estimates of the average number of years of life expectancy at birth show that the 6.6-year advantage that the white population enjoyed in the 1950s remained virtually unchanged throughout the second half of the twentieth century, despite the significant improvements that accrued to both racial groups. The application of multivariate techniques to samples selected from the 1960, 1980, and 2000 census enumerations further shows that, controlling for key determinants of child survival, the white mortality advantage persisted and even increased somewhat in 2000. The article discusses evidence of continued racial inequality during an era of deep transformation in social structure, with reference to the challenges of skin color classification in a multiracial society and the evolution of debates about color, class, and discrimination in Brazil.

  18. Faculty self-reported experience with racial and ethnic discrimination in academic medicine.

    Peterson, Neeraja B; Friedman, Robert H; Ash, Arlene S; Franco, Shakira; Carr, Phyllis L

    2004-03-01

    Despite the need to recruit and retain minority faculty in academic medicine, little is known about the experiences of minority faculty, in particular their self-reported experience of racial and ethnic discrimination at their institutions. To determine the frequency of self-reported experience of racial/ethnic discrimination among faculty of U.S. medical schools, as well as associations with outcomes, such as career satisfaction, academic rank, and number of peer-reviewed publications. A 177-item self-administered mailed survey of U.S. medical school faculty. Twenty-four randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 1,979 full-time faculty, stratified by medical school, specialty, graduation cohort, and gender. Frequency of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic bias and discrimination. The response rate was 60%. Of 1,833 faculty eligible, 82% were non-Hispanic white, 10% underrepresented minority (URM), and 8% non-underrepresented minority (NURM). URM and NURM faculty were substantially more likely than majority faculty to perceive racial/ethnic bias in their academic environment (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; P discrimination by a superior or colleague. Faculty with such reported experiences had lower career satisfaction scores than other faculty (P discrimination achieved academic productivity similar to that of other faculty.

  19. A Social Network Analysis of Occupational Segregation

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian

    conference paper, NOT PUBLICATION. In Economics, for being accepted to a major conference, it will be peer reviewed, but this is not a publication in the usual cross-disciplinary sense of the word......conference paper, NOT PUBLICATION. In Economics, for being accepted to a major conference, it will be peer reviewed, but this is not a publication in the usual cross-disciplinary sense of the word...

  20. Racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric renal allograft survival in the United States

    Patzer, Rachel E; Mohan, Sumit; Kutner, Nancy; McClellan, William M; Amaral, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to describe the association of patient race/ethnicity and renal allograft survival among the national cohort of pediatric renal allograft recipients. Additionally, we determined whether racial and ethnic differences in graft survival exist among individuals living in low or high poverty neighborhoods and those with private or public insurance. Among 6,216 incident, pediatric End Stage Renal Disease patients in the United States Renal Data System (kidney transplant fr...

  1. Selective mobility, segregation and neighbourhood effects

    Sanne Boschman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The residential neighbourhood is thought to affect residents because of presumed neighbourhood effects; the independent effects of a neighbourhood’s characteristics on the life chances of its residents. An enormous body of research has tried to measure neighbourhood effects, however, there are no clear conclusions on how much, if any, effect the neighbourhood has on its residents. There is non-random selection of people into neighbourhoods which causes a bias in the modelling of neighbourhood effects. Any correlation found between neighbourhood characteristics and individual outcomes might be explained by selection bias and can therefore not prove the existence of a causal neighbourhood effect. The question is; do poor neighbourhoods make people poor, or do poor people live in unattractive neighbourhoods because they cannot afford to live elsewhere (Cheshire, 2007. Therefore, insight in selection is important to gain more insight in neighbourhood effects (Van Ham and Manley, 2012. For neighbourhood effects research it is important to study selective mobility and neighbourhood choice and to combine neighbourhood effects research with neighbourhood selection research (Doff, 2010a; Van Ham and Manley, 2012; Van Ham et al., 2012; Galster, 2003; Hedman, 2011. The aim of this thesis therefore is to gain more insight in both the causes and the consequences of segregation and thus to study both individual residential mobility and neighbourhood selection and neighbourhood effects. Besides the neighbourhood effects literature, also the segregation literature will benefit from better insights in selective residential mobility because selective residential mobility is one of the main driving forces of segregation.  There are two main research questions for this thesis. Firstly, I try to give insight in selective mobility and neighbourhood choice and thus to study where, when and why which people move. What is the effect of personal

  2. Notes of a Racial Caste Baby. Color Blindness and the End of Affirmative Action. Critical America Series.

    Fair, Bryan K.

    This book is a defense of remedial affirmative action and an assertion that it is a policy that is a fair and workable solution to the chronic problem of racial caste in the United States. The personal narrative of the author, eighth of 10 children born to a single mother on public assistance, is combined with the discussion of American history…

  3. Individualistic and Collectivistic Worldviews: Implications for Understanding Perceptions of Racial Discrimination in African Americans and British Caribbean Americans

    Hunter, Carla D.

    2008-01-01

    Cultural worldviews and perceived racial discrimination were examined among Americans (n = 106) and British Caribbean Americans (n = 95), both of African descent, who were recruited through university student organizations, community organizations, and snowball sampling. Consistent with public perceptions of differences in the experience of race…

  4. Comparing Mental Health of US Children of Immigrants and Non-Immigrants in 4 Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Kim, JaHun; Nicodimos, Semret; Kushner, Siri E.; Rhew, Isaac C.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background: To compare the mental health status of children of immigrant (COI) and non-immigrant (NI) parents and to determine whether differences in mental health status between COI and NI vary across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Methods: We conducted universal mental health screening of 2374 sixth graders in an urban public school district. To…

  5. Racial/ethnic disparities in the associations between environmental quality and mortality in the contiguous U.S.

    Introduction: Understanding racial/ethnic disparities in mortality is an important goal for public health in the U.S. We examined the role environmental quality may have on mortality across race/ethnicity. Methods: The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) and its domain indices (air...

  6. Taylor revisited: Gender segregation and division of labour in the ICT - sector (information and communication technology)

    Nygaard, Else

    2001-01-01

    Information and communication technology, division of labour, gender segregation, working conditions......Information and communication technology, division of labour, gender segregation, working conditions...

  7. Texture segregation, surface representation and figure-ground separation.

    Grossberg, S; Pessoa, L

    1998-09-01

    A widespread view is that most texture segregation can be accounted for by differences in the spatial frequency content of texture regions. Evidence from both psychophysical and physiological studies indicate, however, that beyond these early filtering stages, there are stages of 3-D boundary segmentation and surface representation that are used to segregate textures. Chromatic segregation of element-arrangement patterns--as studied by Beck and colleagues--cannot be completely explained by the filtering mechanisms previously employed to account for achromatic segregation. An element arrangement pattern is composed of two types of elements that are arranged differently in different image regions (e.g. vertically on top and diagonally on the bottom). FACADE theory mechanisms that have previously been used to explain data about 3-D vision and figure-ground separation are here used to simulate chromatic texture segregation data, including data with equiluminant elements on dark or light homogeneous backgrounds, or backgrounds composed of vertical and horizontal dark or light stripes, or horizontal notched stripes. These data include the fact that segregation of patterns composed of red and blue squares decreases with increasing luminance of the interspaces. Asymmetric segregation properties under 3-D viewing conditions with the equiluminant elements close or far are also simulated. Two key model properties are a spatial impenetrability property that inhibits boundary grouping across regions with non-collinear texture elements and a boundary-surface consistency property that uses feedback between boundary and surface representations to eliminate spurious boundary groupings and separate figures from their backgrounds.

  8. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  9. Mechanisms of time-based figure-ground segregation.

    Kandil, Farid I; Fahle, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal information, that is, on short temporal delays between positional changes of elements in figure and ground (Kandil, F.I. & Fahle, M. (2001) Eur. J. Neurosci., 13, 2004-2008). Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms by measuring temporal segregation thresholds for various kinds of motion cues. Segregation can rely on monocular first-order motion (based on luminance modulation) and second-order motion cues (contrast modulation) with a high temporal resolution of approximately 20 ms. The mechanism can also use isoluminant motion with a reduced temporal resolution of 60 ms. Figure-ground segregation can be achieved even at presentation frequencies too high for human subjects to inspect successive frames individually. In contrast, when stimuli are presented dichoptically, i.e. separately to both eyes, subjects are unable to perceive any segregation, irrespective of temporal frequency. We propose that segregation in these displays is detected by a mechanism consisting of at least two stages. On the first level, standard motion or flicker detectors signal local positional changes (flips). On the second level, a segregation mechanism combines the local activities of the low-level detectors with high temporal precision. Our findings suggest that the segregation mechanism can rely on monocular detectors but not on binocular mechanisms. Moreover, the results oppose the idea that segregation in these displays is achieved by motion detectors of a higher order (motion-from-motion), but favour mechanisms sensitive to short temporal delays even without activation of higher-order motion detectors.

  10. [Racial discrimination in the care environment].

    Labache, Lucette

    2018-05-01

    Based on interviews carried out with people from overseas working in Parisian hospitals and observations made of women from Central and North Africa working in care facilities for elderly or disabled people, this article discusses the issue of racial discrimination. We focus on the way discrimination develops, its manifestations in the care sector and the way in which it is handled. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Segregation of granular binary mixtures by a ratchet mechanism.

    Farkas, Zénó; Szalai, Ferenc; Wolf, Dietrich E; Vicsek, Tamás

    2002-02-01

    We report on a segregation scheme for granular binary mixtures, where the segregation is performed by a ratchet mechanism realized by a vertically shaken asymmetric sawtooth-shaped base in a quasi-two-dimensional box. We have studied this system by computer simulations and found that most binary mixtures can be segregated using an appropriately chosen ratchet, even when the particles in the two components have the same size and differ only in their normal restitution coefficient or friction coefficient. These results suggest that the components of otherwise nonsegregating granular mixtures may be separated using our method.

  12. Segregation effect of radiation induced crosslinking of HDPE: morphology change

    Deng Pengyang; Zhong Xiaoguang

    2000-01-01

    Scanning Electronic Microscopy has been used to study morphology of pure gel; sol-gel blend and sol-gel segregation samples of radiation induced crosslinking of HDPE. The results show that the morphology of segregation sample is the same as that of pure gel and different from that of sol-gel blend. This kind of morphology change proves that the sol-gel blend have occurred a liquid---solid phase segregation in the melting state. The liquid phase (sol) will naturally immersed in the network of the gel. (author)

  13. Correlates of figure-ground segregation in fMRI.

    Skiera, G; Petersen, D; Skalej, M; Fahle, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated which correlates of figure-ground-segregation can be detected by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Five subjects were scanned with a Siemens Vision 1.5 T system. Motion, colour, and luminance-defined checkerboards were presented with alternating control conditions containing one of the two features of the checkerboard. We find a segregation-specific activation in V1 for all subjects and all stimuli and conclude that neural mechanisms exist as early as in the primary visual cortex that are sensitive to figure-ground segregation.

  14. Flow Induced segregation in full scale castings with SCC

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2007-01-01

    induced segregation is a major risk during casting and it is not yet clear how this phenomenon should be modelled. In this paper testing and numerical simulations of full-scale wall castings are compared. Two different SCCs and three different filling methods were applied resulting in different flow...... patterns during form filling. Results show that the flow patterns have a major influence on the risk of flow induced segregation and the surface finish of the hardened concrete. A hypothesis for the mechanism of flow induced segregation is put forth....

  15. Surface, segregation profile for Ni50Pd50(100)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    A recent dynamical LEED study [G.N. Derry, C.B. McVey, P.J. Rous, Surf. Sci. 326 (1995) 59] reported an oscillatory surface segregation profile in the Ni50Pd50(100) system with the surface layer enriched by Pd. We have performed ab-initio total-energy calculations for the surface of this alloy...... system using the coherent potential approximation and obtain an oscillatory segregation profile, in agreement with experiments. We discuss the energetic origin of the oscillatory segregation profile in terms of effective cluster interactions. We include relaxation effects by means of the semi...

  16. Bayesian linkage and segregation analysis: factoring the problem.

    Matthysse, S

    2000-01-01

    Complex segregation analysis and linkage methods are mathematical techniques for the genetic dissection of complex diseases. They are used to delineate complex modes of familial transmission and to localize putative disease susceptibility loci to specific chromosomal locations. The computational problem of Bayesian linkage and segregation analysis is one of integration in high-dimensional spaces. In this paper, three available techniques for Bayesian linkage and segregation analysis are discussed: Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), importance sampling, and exact calculation. The contribution of each to the overall integration will be explicitly discussed.

  17. MINORITY LANGUAGES IN ESTONIAN SEGREGATIVE LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

    Elvira Küün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project in Estonia was to determine what languages are spoken by students from the 2nd to the 5th year of basic school at their homes in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. At the same time, this problem was also studied in other segregated regions of Estonia: Kohtla-Järve and Maardu. According to the database of the population census from the year 2000 (Estonian Statistics Executive Office's census 2000, there are representatives of 142 ethnic groups living in Estonia, speaking a total of 109 native languages. At the same time, the database doesn’t state which languages are spoken at homes. The material presented in this article belongs to the research topic “Home Language of Basic School Students in Tallinn” from years 2007–2008, specifically financed and ordered by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (grant No. ETF 7065 in the framework of an international study called “Multilingual Project”. It was determined what language is dominating in everyday use, what are the factors for choosing the language for communication, what are the preferred languages and language skills. This study reflects the actual trends of the language situation in these cities.

  18. New segregation analysis of panic disorder

    Vieland, V.J.; Fyer, A.J.; Chapman, T. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-09

    We performed simple segregation analyses of panic disorder using 126 families of probands with DSM-III-R panic disorder who were ascertained for a family study of anxiety disorders at an anxiety disorders research clinic. We present parameter estimates for dominant, recessive, and arbitrary single major locus models without sex effects, as well as for a nongenetic transmission model, and compare these models to each other and to models obtained by other investigators. We rejected the nongenetic transmission model when comparing it to the recessive model. Consistent with some previous reports, we find comparable support for dominant and recessive models, and in both cases estimate nonzero phenocopy rates. The effect of restricting the analysis to families of probands without any lifetime history of comorbid major depression (MDD) was also examined. No notable differences in parameter estimates were found in that subsample, although the power of that analysis was low. Consistency between the findings in our sample and in another independently collected sample suggests the possibility of pooling such samples in the future in order to achieve the necessary power for more complex analyses. 32 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. An agent-based simulation of persistent inequalities in health behavior: Understanding the interdependent roles of segregation, clustering, and social influence

    Brent A. Langellier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Health inequalities are conspicuously persistent through time and often durable even in spite of interventions. In this study, I use agent-based simulation models (ABMs to understand how the complex interrelationships between residential segregation, social network formation, group-level preferences, and social influence may contribute to this persistence. I use a more-stylized ABM, Bubblegum Village (BV, to understand how initial inequalities in bubblegum-chewing behaviors either endure, increase, or decrease over time given group-level differences in preferences, neighborhood-level barriers or facilitators of bubblegum chewing (e.g., access to bubblegum shops, and agents’ preferences for segregation, homophily, and clustering (i.e., the ‘tightness’ of social networks. I further use BV to understand whether segregation and social network characteristics impact whether the effects of a bubblegum-reduction intervention that is very effective in the short term are durable over time, as well as to identify intervention strategies to reduce attenuation of the intervention effects. In addition to BV, I also present results from an ABM based on the distribution and social characteristics of the population in Philadelphia, PA. This model explores similar questions to BV, but examines racial/ethnic inequalities in soda consumption based on agents’ social characteristics and baseline soda consumption probabilities informed by the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Collectively, the models suggest that residential segregation is a fundamental process for the production and persistence of health inequalities. The other major conclusion of the study is that, for behaviors that are subject to social influence and that cluster within social groups, interventions that are randomly-targeted to individuals with ‘bad’ behaviors will likely experience a large degree of recidivism to pre-intervention behaviors. In contrast

  20. "Being Asian American Is a Lot Different Here": Influences of Geography on Racial Identity

    Chan, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Studies on college students' racial identities seldom focus on geographic context, despite existing research documenting its role in how racial groups construct and express racial identities. Drawing on theories of ecological systems and racial formation, I explored experiences of race and racial identity among 10 Asian American students who…

  1. Childhood school segregation and later life sense of control and physical performance in the African American Health cohort.

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Andresen, Elena M; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, J Philip; Schootman, Mario; Miller, Douglas K

    2012-09-27

    The association between childhood school desegregation and later life sense of control and physical performance among African Americans is not clear. We hypothesized that childhood school desegregation adversely affected the sense of control of in later life, and that this reduced sense of control accounts in part for reduced physical performance. In-home follow-up assessments were completed in 2010 with 582 of the 58-74 year old men and women participating in the on-going African American Health cohort. We used these data to examine the relationship between (a) retrospective self-reports of attending segregated schools during one's 1st-to-12th grade education and one's current sense of control, as well as (b) the association between current sense of control and physical performance. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score re-weighting was used. Attending segregated schools for at least half of one's 1st-to-12th grade education was significantly associated with higher scores on the sense of control. Adjusting for all covariates and potential confounders, those receiving half or more of their 1st-to-12th grade education in segregated schools had sense of control scores that were .886 points higher (p ≤ .01; standardized effect size = .22). Sense of control scores were independently (all p school segregation and physical performance. Childhood school desegregation was adversely associated with the sense of control of African Americans in later life, and this reduced sense of control appears, in part, to account for their poorer physical performance. The etiologic mechanism through which childhood school segregation at the time that this cohort experienced it improved the sense of control in later life, which subsequently led to better physical performance, has not been identified. We suspect, however, that the pathway involves greater exposure to racial solidarity, same-race students as peer role models and same-race teachers and

  2. Adding to the Education Debt: Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association between Racial Discrimination and Academic Performance in African Americans

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Although the United States faces a seemingly intractable divide between white and African American academic performance, there remains a dearth of longitudinal research investigating factors that work to maintain this gap. The present study examined whether racial discrimination predicted the academic performance of African American students through its effect on depressive symptoms. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N = 495) attending urban public schools from grade 7 to grade 9 (Mage = 12.5). Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination predicted increases in depressive symptoms 1 year later, which, in turn, predicted decreases in academic performance the following year. These results suggest that racial discrimination continues to play a critical role in the academic performance of African American students and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of the race-based academic achievement gap in the United States. PMID:27425564

  3. Racialization, Othering, and Coping Among Adult International Adoptees in Finland

    Koskinen, Maarit

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative interview study examined experiences of racialization and coping among 14 adult international adoptees in Finland. The results show that adoptees encounter a range of racializations by which they are made ‘other’ and excluded from Finnishness. Racialization mostly occurs indirectly and subtly, and often by significant others, and consequently is more difficult to cope with. The findings suggest that the Finnish adoption community and adoption research should pa...

  4. The Influence of Explicit Racial Cues on Candidate Evaluation

    Green, Joshua Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Since Barack Obama's presidential campaign of 2008, media outlets have changed how race is covered and framed during political campaigns. In the so-called "post-racial" era of American politics when race is supposed to matter less, we are still very much attuned to stories that are framed by racial conflict. When the media wraps a "racial mode of interpretation" around a conflict between two candidates, there are potential electoral penalties involved for either a white or black candidate who...

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Correlates of Mental Health Services Use among Pregnant Women with Depressive Symptoms.

    Chang, Jen Jen; Tabet, Maya; Elder, Keith; Kiel, Deborah W; Flick, Louise H

    2016-09-01

    Objectives To examine correlates of lifetime mental health services (MHS) use among pregnant women reporting prenatal depressive symptoms by race/ethnicity. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study included 81,910 pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms using data from the Florida Healthy Start prenatal screening program (2008-2012). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to ascertain adjusted odds ratios and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals for racial/ethnic differences in the correlates of lifetime MHS use. Results Findings of this study revealed racial/ethnic differences in MHS use among women with prenatal depressive symptoms, the highest rates being among non-Hispanic Whites and the lowest rates among Mexicans and other Hispanics. Most need for care factors, including illness, tobacco use, and physical or emotional abuse, consistently predicted MHS use across racial/ethnic groups after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted associations between predisposing and enabling/restricting factors and MHS use were different for different racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in MHS use were found, with pregnant Hispanic women reporting prenatal depressive symptoms being the least likely to use MHS. Our study findings have significant public health implications for targeted intervention for pregnant women with prenatal depressive symptoms.

  6. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    Nascimento Viana, R.; Vianna Mariano, N.; Antonio do Amaral, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  7. Variability and Character Association in F2 Segregating Population ...

    Michael Horsfall

    Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 1Department of Horticulture. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University. Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh. ABSTRACT: The F2 segregating generations of exotic tomato hybrids were studied to measure variability, character association and path coefficient analysis.

  8. Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the ...

    Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the Japanese Black and Limousin cattle breeds (Short communication). NOM Tshipuliso, LJ Alexander, TW Geary, VM Snelling, DC Rule, JE Koltes, BE Mote, MD MacNeil ...

  9. Performance monitoring pavements with thermal segregation in Texas.

    2012-04-01

    This project conducted work to investigate the performance of asphalt surface mixtures that exhibited : thermal segregation during construction. From 2004 to 2009, a total of 14 construction projects were : identified for monitoring. Five of these pr...

  10. Stochastic correlative firing for figure-ground segregation.

    Chen, Zhe

    2005-03-01

    Segregation of sensory inputs into separate objects is a central aspect of perception and arises in all sensory modalities. The figure-ground segregation problem requires identifying an object of interest in a complex scene, in many cases given binaural auditory or binocular visual observations. The computations required for visual and auditory figure-ground segregation share many common features and can be cast within a unified framework. Sensory perception can be viewed as a problem of optimizing information transmission. Here we suggest a stochastic correlative firing mechanism and an associative learning rule for figure-ground segregation in several classic sensory perception tasks, including the cocktail party problem in binaural hearing, binocular fusion of stereo images, and Gestalt grouping in motion perception.

  11. A genetic analysis of segregation distortion revealed by molecular ...

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 90, No. ... Segregation analysis was based on 64 molecular markers, including 26 .... FHB of RIL populations was controlled by quantitative trait ... The authors acknowledge financial support by the National Basic.

  12. Somatically segregating clone of apomictic maize-tripsacum hybrid

    Yudin, B.F.; Lukina, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of further study on clone AM-5, isolated in the progeny of γ-irradiated plants of the apomictic hybrid of maize with tripsacum (2n = 38) are reported. The variegated-leaf seedlings of the clone segregate somatically and produce variegated, mottled, green (phenotypically normal) plants in different ratios in the apomictic progenies. The variegated, and to a lesser degree, green segregants segregate further. The mottled apomictics as well as mottled branches of variegated seedlings maintain their phenotype on transplantation, however, these is a progressive enhancement of the characters of vegetative lethality. Lethals of two extra maize genomes to the AM-5 nucleus does not affect significantly the scope and nature of segregation. At the same time, the loss of tripsacum genome restores normal phenotype. Clone AM-5 is an example of hybrid apomictic form causing significant morphological variability, which is, nevertheless, not related with apomictic and reversion to the sexual process

  13. The role of temporal coherence in auditory stream segregation

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt

    The ability to perceptually segregate concurrent sound sources and focus one’s attention on a single source at a time is essential for the ability to use acoustic information. While perceptual experiments have determined a range of acoustic cues that help facilitate auditory stream segregation......, it is not clear how the auditory system realizes the task. This thesis presents a study of the mechanisms involved in auditory stream segregation. Through a combination of psychoacoustic experiments, designed to characterize the influence of acoustic cues on auditory stream formation, and computational models...... of auditory processing, the role of auditory preprocessing and temporal coherence in auditory stream formation was evaluated. The computational model presented in this study assumes that auditory stream segregation occurs when sounds stimulate non-overlapping neural populations in a temporally incoherent...

  14. Phase-oriented surface segregation in an aluminium casting alloy

    Nguyen, Chuong L.; Atanacio, Armand; Zhang, Wei; Prince, Kathryn E.; Hyland, Margaret M.; Metson, James B.

    2009-01-01

    There have been many reports of the surface segregation of minor elements, especially Mg, into surface layers and oxide films on the surface of Al alloys. LM6 casting alloy (Al-12%Si) represents a challenging system to examine such segregation as the alloy features a particularly inhomogeneous phase structure. The very low but mobile Mg content (approximately 0.001 wt.%), and the surface segregation of modifiers such as Na, mean the surface composition responds in a complex manner to thermal treatment conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to determine the distribution of these elements within the oxide film. Further investigation by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS) confirmed a strong alignment of segregated Na and Mg into distinct phases of the structure.

  15. Prokaryotic DNA segregation by an actin-like filament

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Löwe, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for prokaryotic DNA segregation are largely unknown. The partitioning locus (par) encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R1 actively segregates its replicon to daughter cells. We show here that the ParM ATPase encoded by par forms dynamic actin-like filaments with prop...... point for ParM polymerization. Hence, we provide evidence for a simple prokaryotic analogue of the eukaryotic mitotic spindle apparatus.......The mechanisms responsible for prokaryotic DNA segregation are largely unknown. The partitioning locus (par) encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R1 actively segregates its replicon to daughter cells. We show here that the ParM ATPase encoded by par forms dynamic actin-like filaments...

  16. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa

    influence of cultural beliefs, racial prejudices and super- stitions on public attimdes ... added, free of charge, to existing market research ques- tionnaires. ..... changing attitude. The Xhosa ... lack of knowledge about brain death, organ donation.

  17. Racial identity invalidation with multiracial individuals: An instrument development study.

    Franco, Marisa G; O'Brien, Karen M

    2018-01-01

    Racial identity invalidation, others' denial of an individual's racial identity, is a salient racial stressor with harmful effects on the mental health and well-being of Multiracial individuals. The purpose of this study was to create a psychometrically sound measure to assess racial identity invalidation for use with Multiracial individuals (N = 497). The present sample was mostly female (75%) with a mean age of 26.52 years (SD = 9.60). The most common racial backgrounds represented were Asian/White (33.4%) and Black/White (23.7%). Participants completed several online measures via Qualtrics. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 3 racial identity invalidation factors: behavior invalidation, phenotype invalidation, and identity incongruent discrimination. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the initial factor structure. Alternative model testing indicated that the bifactor model was superior to the 3-factor model. Thus, a total score and/or 3 subscale scores can be used when administering this instrument. Support was found for the reliability and validity of the total scale and subscales. In line with the minority stress theory, challenges with racial identity mediated relationships between racial identity invalidation and mental health and well-being outcomes. The findings highlight the different dimensions of racial identity invalidation and indicate their negative associations with connectedness and psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Bulk ordering and surface segregation in Ni50Pt50

    Pourovskii, L.P.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    in the bulk compare well with experimental data. The surface-alloy compositions for the (111) and (110) facets above the ordering transition temperature are also found to be in a good agreement with experiments. It is demonstrated that the segregation profile at the (110) surface of NiPt is mainly caused...... by the unusually strong segregation of Pt into the second layer and the interlayer ordering due to large chemical nearest-neighbor interactions....

  19. Dislocation and void segregation in copper during neutron irradiation

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Horsewell, Andy

    1986-01-01

    ); the irradiation experiments were carried out at 250 degree C. The irradiated specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy. At both doses, the irradiation-induced structure was found to be highly segregated; the dislocation loops and segments were present in the form of irregular walls and the voids...... density, the void swelling rate was very high (approximately 2. 5% per dpa). The implications of the segregated distribution of sinks for void formation and growth are briefly discussed....

  20. Study of solute segregation at interfaces using Auger electron spectroscopy

    White, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Interfacial segregation, often confined to within a few atomic distances of the interface, can strongly influence the processing and properties of metals and ceramics. The thinness of such solute-enriched regions can cause them to be particularly suitable for study using surface sensitive microanalytical techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The application of AES to studies of interfacial segregation in metals and ceramics is briefly reviewed, and several examples are presented. 43 references, 14 figures

  1. Segregation analysis of microsatellite (SSR) markers in sugarcane polyploids.

    Lu, X; Zhou, H; Pan, Y-B; Chen, C Y; Zhu, J R; Chen, P H; Li, Y-R; Cai, Q; Chen, R K

    2015-12-28

    No information is available on segregation analysis of DNA markers involving both pollen and self-progeny. Therefore, we used capillary electrophoresis- and fluorescence-based DNA fingerprinting together with single pollen collection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker segregation among 964 single pollens and 288 self-progenies (S1) of sugarcane cultivar LCP 85-384. Twenty SSR DNA fragments (alleles) were amplified by five polymorphic SSR markers. Only one non-parental SSR allele was observed in 2392 PCRs. SSR allele inheritance was in accordance with Mendelian laws of segregation and independent assortment. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found between frequencies of observed and expected genotypes in pollen and S1 populations. Within the S1 population, the most frequent genotype of each SSR marker was the parental genotype of the same marker. The number of genotypes was higher in pollen than S1 population. PIC values of the five SSR markers were greater in pollen than S1 populations. Eleven of 20 SSR alleles (55%) were segregated in accordance with Mendelian segregation ratios expected from pollen and S1 populations of a 2n = 10x polyploid. Six of 20 SSR alleles were segregated in a 3:1 (presence:absence) ratio and were simplex markers. Four and one alleles were segregated in 77:4 and 143:1 ratios and considered duplex and triplex markers, respectively. Segregation ratios of remaining alleles were unexplainable. The results provide information about selection of crossing parents, estimation of seedling population optimal size, and promotion of efficient selection, which may be valuable for sugarcane breeders.

  2. Elasmobranch spatial segregation in the western Mediterranean

    Adam Gouraguine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. This study focuses on the depth related trends and the geographic patterns that shape the community of the elasmobranch species in the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea using data collected from 2001 to 2009. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS ordination was used to detect zonation patterns in the community. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs were applied to analyse spatial and temporal variation in elasmobranch community descriptors (abundance, biomass, mean fish weight, number of species and diversity, as well as the abundance and mean length of the four individual species (S. canicula, G. melastomus, R. clavata, R. miraletus. Depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, and the MDS analysis identified four main groups with 60% of the similarity found to correspond to the continental shelf, shelf break, upper slope and middle slope of the surveyed area. GAM analysis identified spatial patterns that were independent of the bathymetric distribution preference. Although depth was a strong predictor for all the analyses performed, the geographic variation in the elasmobranch abundance was also important. The results also show a reduction in the mean length of the elasmobranch species in the areas with high fishing intensity. Our study evidences a clear spatial segregation of the main species throughout the ontogeny because the geographic and bathymetric effects were highly size dependent, with clear differences between the bathymetric distributions of juveniles and adults but no clear spatial overlapping. This study sheds new light on the spatial distribution of the elasmobranch species off the Balearic Islands, which is essential information for protecting marine organisms along with their habitats and promoting ecosystem based management.

  3. Radiation-induced segregation in Cu-Au alloys

    Hashimoto, T.; Rehn, L.E.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced segregation in a Cu-lat.% Au alloy was investigated using in-situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Irradiation with 1.8-MeV helium produced nonequilibrium gold atom depletion in the near surface region. The amount of segregation was measured as a function of dose, dose rate, and temperature. Segregation was observed in the temperature range between about 300 and 500 0 C. For a calculated dose rate of 3.9 x 10/sup -5/ dpa/s, the radiation-induced segregation rate peaked near 400 0 C. Theoretical analysis based on the Johnson-Lam model predicted that the amount of segregation would be directly proportional to dose at the early stage of irradiation, would deviate from linearity with a continuously decreasing slope of intermediate doses, and finally approach a constant value after high doses. The analysis also predicted that the segregation rate would vary as the - 1/4th power of the dose rate at constant dose in the low temperature region. These predictions were all verified experimentally. A procedure for extracting relative defect production efficiencies from similar measurements is discussed

  4. Dynamics of Escherichia coli Chromosome Segregation during Multifork Replication

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2007-01-01

    Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division, the chro......Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division......, the chromosomes contain multiple replication forks and must be segregated while this complex pattern of replication is still ongoing. Here, we show that replication and segregation continue in step, starting at the origin and progressing to the replication terminus. Thus, early-replicated markers on the multiple......-branched chromosomes continue to separate soon after replication to form separate protonucleoids, even though they are not segregated into different daughter cells until later generations. The segregation pattern follows the pattern of chromosome replication and does not follow the cell division cycle. No extensive...

  5. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  6. The Racial Hauntings of One Black Male Professor and the Disturbance of the Self(ves): Self-Actualization and Racial Storytelling as Pedagogical Practices

    Johnson, Lamar L.

    2017-01-01

    Through a series of racialized stories, I illustrate the familial knowledge, racial hauntings, and educational experiences that forge(d) the beginning and the continuing of my racial identity as a Black male. To examine these stories, I employ racial storytelling as a theoretical, methodological, curricular, and pedagogical tool to assist me in a…

  7. Cotas para negros no Ensino Superior e formas de classificação racial Quotas for blacks in higher education and forms of racial classification

    André Augusto Brandão

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute dados referentes à aplicação de um questionário voltado para variáveis de classificação racial e opinião sobre a política de cotas para negros em uma amostra de 476 alunos do último ano do Ensino Médio da rede pública de um município periférico da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Buscamos compreender os elementos que informam as classificações de cor ou raça, bem como o posicionamento que esses alunos tomavam frente à política de cotas que poderia beneficiá-los no acesso a uma universidade pública. Deve-se ressaltar que os alunos entrevistados estariam em breve frente à possibilidade de disputar uma vaga no Ensino Superior em um vestibular com cotas raciais numa universidade pública que mantém um campus no próprio município onde estudam e residem. Essa problemática e esse tipo de investigação nos parecem fundamentais na atualidade, pois as cotas para negros que vêm sendo implantadas desde 2003 em várias instituições de Ensino Superior têm sofrido críticas e atravessado controvérsias jurídicas também por conta das formas de classificação propostas. Na pesquisa realizada, foi possível avançar na discussão de como as opções de classificação racial até o momento utilizadas nessas políticas se relacionam com os formatos de auto-identificação e de identificação do outro, comumente presentes no cotidiano das escolas pesquisadas, bem como verificar como a idéia de cota racial é avaliada pelos seus possíveis beneficiários.This article presents and discusses data obtained with the application of a questionnaire focused on variables for racial classification and opinion about the policy of quotas for blacks; the questionnaire was applied to a sample of 476 pupils from the last year of secondary education of the public school system of a peripheral town in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro. We have tried to understand the elements that shape the

  8. Racial and gender representations in primary education: researching ‘with’ children

    Bianca Salazar Guizzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article was to discuss and problematize how certain gender, ethnic and racial representations are constructed and reiterated daily in the school environment and circulate almost as absolute truths. This analysis relies on theories of Cultural Studies in Education and presents data collected on everyday situations at schools and interviews excerpts applied over a year of field work with children from kindergarten in a public school and children elementary school at a private institution, both located in Rio Grande do Sul. Our results indicate that, since childhood, children already incorporate and disseminate ‘stereotypical’ representations regarding gender, ethnic and racial affiliations. In particular, it was observed that the individuals who did not fit in the phenotypic characteristics considered ideal were negatively represented and discriminated. However, this study also showed the importance of pedagogies that question and dislocate the dominant representationsof race and gender, from the perspective of an anti-racist education.

  9. Racial and Ethnic Minority Graduate Student Experiences with Racial Microaggressions in CACREP-Accredited Programs

    Michael-Makri, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have suggested that racism has not disappeared but has undergone a transformation into new subtle or symbolic forms. Since university life is a microcosm of United States society. racial prejudice can be found in most colleges and universities. The literature reveals three subtle forms of racism: modern racism, symbolic racism, and…

  10. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  11. Racial IQ Differences among Transracial Adoptees: Fact or Artifact?

    Drew Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Some academic publications infer from studies of transracial adoptees’ IQs that East Asian adoptees raised in the West by Whites have higher IQs than Western Whites, and that White adoptees raised by Whites have higher IQs than Black adoptees raised by Whites. Those publications suggest that this is because genetic differences give East Asians a higher mean IQ than Whites, and Whites a higher mean IQ than Blacks. This paper proposes a parsimonious alternative explanation: the apparent IQ advantage of East Asian adoptees is an artifact caused by ignoring the Flynn effect and adoption’s beneficial effect on IQ, and most of the IQ disadvantage of Black adoptees disappears when one allows for attrition in the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study, and acknowledges the results of other studies. Diagnosing these artifacts suggests a nil hypothesis: East Asian, White, and Black adoptees raised in the same environment would have similar IQs, hinting at a minimal role for genes in racial IQ differences.

  12. Study on segregation of aluminium-uranium alloys

    Lima, Rui Marques de

    1979-01-01

    The relations between alloy solidification and solute segregation were considered. The solidification structure and the solute redistribution during the solidification of alloys with dendritic micro morphology were studied. The macro and micro segregation theories were reviewed. The mechanisms that could change the solidification structure were taken into account in the context of more homogeneous alloy production. Aluminum alloys solidification structures and segregation were studied experimentally in the 13 to 45% uranium range, usually considering solidification in static molds. The uranium alloys with up to 20% uranium were studied both for solidification in ingot molds and for controlled directional solidification. It was verified that these alloy compositions had structures similar to those of hipoeutectic alloys, showing an a phase with dendritic morphology and inter dendritic eutectic. For the alloys with more than 25% uranium, it was observed the formation of UAl 3 and UAl 4 phases with dendritic morphology. The dendritic UAl 3 , phase morphology was affected both by the solute concentration in the alloy and by the growth rate. The dendritic UAl 3 phase non-singular aspect could be destroyed with decrease of the alloy solute concentration. In the alloys obtained with higher cooling rates it was found a tendency for the formation of substantial quantities of equi axial crystals of the solute enriched phases in the central regions of the ingot upper half. In the more external regions it was observed dendritic growth of these phases, for alloy compositions with over 25% uranium. An adequate reduction in the cooling rate changed the solidification structure form and distribution, as well as the segregation type and intensity. The uranium content in the solidified macro structures is presented as a function of: cooling rate, superheating, mold size, mold form and its temperature, number of remelting and time for the melt homogenization and agitation. It was

  13. Teaching Black History as a Racial Literacy Project

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long promoted black history as an appropriate space to promote the development of racial literacy. Few research studies, however, have examined how teacher education uses black history as a heuristic to teach about race. Using racial literacy as a framework, this article examined the varied ways four social studies pre-service…

  14. Miles to Go before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health

    Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify…

  15. Racialization, Schooling, and Becoming American: Asian American Experiences

    Lee, Stacey J.; Park, Eujin; Wong, Jia-Hui Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Racial categories, inequalities, and hierarchies have shaped life in the United States since the formation of the country. For children and youth in the immigrant and second generations, schools are central sites of racialization. In this article, we focus on what the educational research suggests about the role of schooling in the racialization…

  16. Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint.

    Davis, Jessica L.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the nature of racial group identity in an effort to determine its role in the formation of African-American media evaluations. Views racial identity as one of many forms of individual identity that help to shape our relations with others. Focuses on areas of domestic violence and the image of Black men. (MMU)

  17. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…

  18. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  19. Democratic Education Online: Combating Racialized Aggressions on Social Media

    Gin, Kevin J.; Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.; Knight, Sarah; Radimer, Scott; Lewis, Jonathan; Rowan-Kenyon, Heather T.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, mobile, low-friction, and easy to use social media have changed the landscape of college campuses. Social media have opened the doors for racial hostility to be displayed on campus in new ways and have been widely used to express racial aggressions toward students of color. Anonymity allows these behaviors to be freely enacted…

  20. Implications of Racial Identity Theory for Vocational Psychology.

    Helms, Janet E.; Piper, Ralph E.

    1994-01-01

    Although racial identity theory has the potential to explain some aspects of career development, its value would be increased by conceptualizing race as a dependent variable in research and theory. Examples involving career salience, satisfaction, and satisfactoriness demonstrate the limitations of racial comparison studies. (SK)

  1. Neural Basis of Disgust Perception in Racial Prejudice

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception.

  2. Multiracial Women Students and Racial Stereotypes on the College Campus

    Harris, Jessica C.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have explored how multiracial women students encounter different racialized experiences when compared to their monoracial peers and multiracial men on campus, suggesting that their experiences with racial stereotypes may also diverge from both of these populations. Guided by critical race theory, in this study I explored 10 multiracial…

  3. Racial Microaggressions and Daily Well-Being among Asian Americans

    Ong, Anthony D.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Ja, Nicole M.; Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies and community surveys of Asian Americans have found that lifetime occurrences of racial discrimination are associated with increased risk for psychological morbidity, little is known about how exposure to racial discrimination is patterned in everyday life. Extrapolating from previous qualitative research (Sue,…

  4. Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharges: Part I. Experimental

    Gielen, John W A M; Groot, Simon de; Mullen, Joost J A M van der

    2004-01-01

    Due to cataphoresis, axial segregation of mercury will occur when the gas discharge of a fluorescent lamp is operated by means of a direct current. A consequence of this is a non-uniform axial luminance distribution along the lamp. To determine the degree of axial mercury segregation experimentally, axial luminance distributions have been measured which are converted into axial mercury vapour pressure distributions by an appropriate calibration method. The mercury segregation has been investigated for variations in lamp tube radius (3.6-4.8 mm), argon buffer gas pressure (200-600 Pa) and lamp current (100-250 mA) at mercury vapour pressures set at the anode in the range from 0.2 to 9.0 Pa. From the experiments it has been concluded that the mercury vapour pressure gradient at any axial position for a certain lamp tube diameter, argon pressure and lamp current depends on the local mercury vapour pressure. This observation is in contrast to assumptions made in earlier modelling publications in which one mercury vapour pressure gradient is used for all axial positions. By applying a full factorial design, an empirical relation of the mercury segregation is found for any set of parameters inside the investigated parameter ranges

  5. The challenge of racial difference: skills for clinical practice.

    Proctor, E K; Davis, L E

    1994-05-01

    Just as racial injustice negatively affects the plight of minorities in society, racial tensions impede professional helping. Often, the racially dissimilar social worker and client approach each other with little understanding of each other's social realities and with unfounded assumptions. Unfortunately, professionals find it difficult to acknowledge such differences or their effect on their relationships. Yet the fruitfulness of the helping encounter often depends on the ability to develop and invest in a trusting relationship. This article identifies the societal roots of the stresses associated with cross-racial relationships. Three concerns commonly experienced by clients whose workers are racially different are identified: (1) Is the helper a person of goodwill? (2) Is the helper trained and skilled? (3) Is the help offered valid and meaningful for me and my social reality? Case vignettes are used to illustrate how each concern is typically mishandled. The importance of successfully managing each concern is stressed, and skills for successful management are illustrated.

  6. Media Exposure and Racialized Perceptions of Inequities in Criminal Justice

    Valerie Wright

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S. criminal justice system. Our analysis addresses several key aspects of the case: Whether Zimmerman would have been arrested sooner if Martin had been white, whether respondents felt Zimmerman’s acquittal was justified, and whether there is racial bias against African Americans in the criminal justice system. Relying on national opinion surveys before and after Zimmerman’s trial verdict, our findings support the racial gradient thesis by demonstrating that sustained exposure to racialized framing of the incident in the media affects Hispanics the most and hardens entrenched attitudes among African Americans relative to whites. The analysis supports the continuing relevance of the mass media in attitude formation.

  7. Segregation in quasi-two-dimensional granular systems

    Rivas, Nicolas; Cordero, Patricio; Soto, Rodrigo; Risso, Dino

    2011-01-01

    Segregation for two granular species is studied numerically in a vertically vibrated quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) box. The height of the box is smaller than two particle diameters so that particles are limited to a submonolayer. Two cases are considered: grains that differ in their density but have equal size, and grains that have equal density but different diameters, while keeping the quasi-2D condition. It is observed that in both cases, for vibration frequencies beyond a certain threshold-which depends on the density or diameter ratios-segregation takes place in the lateral directions. In the quasi-2D geometry, gravity does not play a direct role in the in-plane dynamics and gravity does not point to the segregation directions; hence, several known segregation mechanisms that rely on gravity are discarded. The segregation we observe is dominated by a lack of equipartition between the two species; the light particles exert a larger pressure than the heavier ones, inducing the latter to form clusters. This energy difference in the horizontal direction is due to the existence of a fixed point characterized by vertical motion and hence vanishing horizontal energy. Heavier and bigger grains are more rapidly attracted to the fixed point and the perturbations are less efficient in taking them off the fixed point when compared to the lighter grains. As a consequence, heavier and bigger grains have less horizontal agitation than lighter ones. Although limited by finite size effects, the simulations suggest that the two cases we consider differ in the transition character: one is continuous and the other is discontinuous. In the cases where grains differ in mass on varying the control parameter, partial segregation is first observed, presenting many clusters of heavier particles. Eventually, a global cluster is formed with impurities; namely lighter particles are present inside. The transition looks continuous when characterized by several segregation order

  8. Narrating the Racialization of Space in Austin, Texas and Nashville, Tennessee

    Martha Norkunas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Narrating the Racialization of Space in Austin, Texas and Nashville, Tennessee People of color in the United States have been obligated to move through public space in particular ways, dictated by law and social custom. Narrators create cognitive maps of movement in the city shaped by racial codes of behavior. The maps change over time as law and social custom changes. The fluidity of the maps is also influenced by status, gender, class, and skin tone. This paper examines a rich body of oral narratives co-created with African Americans from 2004 to 2014 focusing on how men and women narrate their concepts of racialized space. It moves from narratives about the larger landscape — the city — to smaller, more personal public places — the sidewalk and the store — to intimate sites of contact in the public sphere. Many of the narratives describe complex flows of controlled movement dictated by racial boundaries in the context of capitalism. The narratives form an urban ethnography of the power relations inscribed on the landscape by racializing movement in space.   Narracje o urasowieniu przestrzeni w Austin (Teksas i Nashville (Tennessee Nie-Biali w Stanach Zjednoczonych byli zmuszeni do poruszania się w przestrzeni publicznej w szczególny sposób, określony przez prawo i zwyczaj społeczny. W swoich narracjach badani tworzą mapy kognitywne ruchu w mieście, kształtowane przez rasowe kody zachowania. Mapy te zmieniały się w czasie pod wpływem zmian prawnych i zwyczajowych. Na płynność tych map wpływały także status, płeć, klasa i odcień koloru skóry. W artykule przeanalizowano bogaty zbiór relacji ustnych tak zwanych Afroamerykanów, zbieranych w latach 2004-2014; uwaga skupia się na tym, jak mężczyźni i kobiety opowiadają o swoim widzeniu przestrzeni urasowionej. Omówiono narracje o szerszej przestrzeni miasta, jak i węższej, skoncentrowanej na bardziej osobistych miejscach publicznych, takich jak sklep. Wiele

  9. Comparisons between different techniques for measuring mass segregation

    Parker, Richard J.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the performance of four different methods which are used to measure mass segregation in star-forming regions: the radial variation of the mass function {M}_MF; the minimum spanning tree-based ΛMSR method; the local surface density ΣLDR method; and the ΩGSR technique, which isolates groups of stars and determines whether the most massive star in each group is more centrally concentrated than the average star. All four methods have been proposed in the literature as techniques for quantifying mass segregation, yet they routinely produce contradictory results as they do not all measure the same thing. We apply each method to synthetic star-forming regions to determine when and why they have shortcomings. When a star-forming region is smooth and centrally concentrated, all four methods correctly identify mass segregation when it is present. However, if the region is spatially substructured, the ΩGSR method fails because it arbitrarily defines groups in the hierarchical distribution, and usually discards positional information for many of the most massive stars in the region. We also show that the ΛMSR and ΣLDR methods can sometimes produce apparently contradictory results, because they use different definitions of mass segregation. We conclude that only ΛMSR measures mass segregation in the classical sense (without the need for defining the centre of the region), although ΣLDR does place limits on the amount of previous dynamical evolution in a star-forming region.

  10. The Consequences of Chromosome Segregation Errors in Mitosis and Meiosis

    Tamara Potapova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mistakes during cell division frequently generate changes in chromosome content, producing aneuploid or polyploid progeny cells. Polyploid cells may then undergo abnormal division to generate aneuploid cells. Chromosome segregation errors may also involve fragments of whole chromosomes. A major consequence of segregation defects is change in the relative dosage of products from genes located on the missegregated chromosomes. Abnormal expression of transcriptional regulators can also impact genes on the properly segregated chromosomes. The consequences of these perturbations in gene expression depend on the specific chromosomes affected and on the interplay of the aneuploid phenotype with the environment. Most often, these novel chromosome distributions are detrimental to the health and survival of the organism. However, in a changed environment, alterations in gene copy number may generate a more highly adapted phenotype. Chromosome segregation errors also have important implications in human health. They may promote drug resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. In cancer cells, they are a source for genetic and phenotypic variability that may select for populations with increased malignance and resistance to therapy. Lastly, chromosome segregation errors during gamete formation in meiosis are a primary cause of human birth defects and infertility. This review describes the consequences of mitotic and meiotic errors focusing on novel concepts and human health.

  11. Current status of low-level-waste-segregation technology

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.; Sailor, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    The adoption of improved waste segregation practices by waste generators and burial sites will result in the improved disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) in the future. Many of the problems connected with this disposal mode are directly attributable to or aggravated by the indiscriminate mixing of various waste types in burial trenches. Thus, subsidence effects, contact with ground fluids, movement of radioactivity in the vapor phase, migration of radionuclides due to the presence of chelating agents or products of biological degradation, deleterious chemical reactions, and other problems have occurred. Regulations are currently being promulgated which will require waste segregation to a high degree at LLW burial sites. The state-of-the-art of LLW segregation technology and current practices in the USA have been surveyed at representative facilities. Favorable experience has been reported at various sites following the application of segregation controls. This paper reports on the state-of-the-art survey and addresses current and projected LLW segregation practices and their relationship to other waste management activities

  12. Radiation-induced segregation in binary and ternary alloys

    Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of our current knowledge of radiation-induced segregation of major and minor elements in simple binary and ternary alloys as derived from experimental techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, ion-backscattering, infrared emissivity measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of the temperature, dose and dose-rate dependences as well as of the effects of such materials variables as solute solubility, solute misfit and initial solute concentration has proved particularly valuable in understanding the mechanisms of segregation. The interpretation of these data in terms of current theoretical models which link solute segregation behavior to defect-solute binding interactions and/or to the relative diffusion rates of solute and solvent atoms the interstitial and vacancy migration mechanisms has, in general, been fairly successful and has provided considerable insight into the highly interrelated phenomena of solute-defect trapping, solute segregation, phase stability and void swelling. Specific examples in selected fcc, bcc and hcp alloy systems are discussed with particular emphasis given to the effects of radiation-induced segregation on the phase stability of single-phase and two-phase binary alloys and simple Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. (Auth.)

  13. Mismatched racial identities, colourism, and health in Toronto and Vancouver.

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2011-10-01

    Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial

  14. Racial Battle Fatigue and the "Mis"Education of Black Men: Racial Microaggressions, Societal Problems, and Environmental Stress

    Smith, William A.; Hung, Man; Franklin, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Black men's lives are racialized contradictions, They are told that contemporary educational and professional institutions--particularly historically White institutions (HWls)--are places where, through hard work, they can achieve the so-called American dream. However, for far too many Black men, HWIs represent racial climates that are replete…

  15. Making Cross-Racial Therapy Work: A Phenomenological Study of Clients' Experiences of Cross-Racial Therapy

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…

  16. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  17. An agent-based simulation of persistent inequalities in health behavior: Understanding the interdependent roles of segregation, clustering, and social influence.

    Langellier, Brent A

    2016-12-01

    Health inequalities are conspicuously persistent through time and often durable even in spite of interventions. In this study, I use agent-based simulation models (ABMs) to understand how the complex interrelationships between residential segregation, social network formation, group-level preferences, and social influence may contribute to this persistence. I use a more-stylized ABM, Bubblegum Village (BV), to understand how initial inequalities in bubblegum-chewing behaviors either endure, increase, or decrease over time given group-level differences in preferences, neighborhood-level barriers or facilitators of bubblegum chewing (e.g., access to bubblegum shops), and agents' preferences for segregation, homophily, and clustering (i.e., the 'tightness' of social networks). I further use BV to understand whether segregation and social network characteristics impact whether the effects of a bubblegum-reduction intervention that is very effective in the short term are durable over time, as well as to identify intervention strategies to reduce attenuation of the intervention effects. In addition to BV, I also present results from an ABM based on the distribution and social characteristics of the population in Philadelphia, PA. This model explores similar questions to BV, but examines racial/ethnic inequalities in soda consumption based on agents' social characteristics and baseline soda consumption probabilities informed by the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Collectively, the models suggest that residential segregation is a fundamental process for the production and persistence of health inequalities. The other major conclusion of the study is that, for behaviors that are subject to social influence and that cluster within social groups, interventions that are randomly-targeted to individuals with 'bad' behaviors will likely experience a large degree of recidivism to pre-intervention behaviors. In contrast, interventions that target

  18. Racial disparities in bipolar disorder treatment and research: a call to action.

    Akinhanmi, Margaret O; Biernacka, Joanna M; Strakowski, Stephen M; McElroy, Susan L; Balls Berry, Joyce E; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Assari, Shervin; McInnis, Melvin G; Schulze, Thomas G; LeBoyer, Marion; Tamminga, Carol; Patten, Christi; Frye, Mark A

    2018-03-12

    Health disparities between individuals of African and European ancestry are well documented. The disparities in bipolar disorder may be driven by racial bias superimposed on established factors contributing to misdiagnosis, including: evolving empirically based diagnostic criteria (International Classification of Diseases [ICD], Research Diagnostic Criteria [RDC] and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]), multiple symptom domains (i.e. mania, depression and psychosis), and multimodal medical and additional psychiatric comorbidity. For this paper, we reviewed the phenomenological differences between bipolar individuals of African and European ancestry in the context of diagnostic criteria and clinical factors that may contribute to a potential racial bias. Published data show that bipolar persons of African ancestry, compared with bipolar persons of non-African ancestry, are more often misdiagnosed with a disease other than bipolar disorder (i.e. schizophrenia). Additionally, studies show that there are disparities in recruiting patients of African ancestry to participate in important genomic studies. This gap in biological research in this underrepresented minority may represent a missed opportunity to address potential racial differences in the risk and course of bipolar illness. A concerted effort by the research community to increase inclusion of diverse persons in studies of bipolar disorder through community engagement may facilitate fully addressing these diagnostic and treatment disparities in bipolar individuals of African ancestry. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Racial Metabolism: Eugenic Studies in Jamaica and Yucatán, between 1920 and 1940

    Joel Vargas Domínguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this paper shows the configuration of research conducted by the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW, in Jamaica and Yucatan, about basal metabolism on the onset of the twen­tieth century. I argue that this physiological research, conducted outside the usual laboratory spaces, used and articulated eugenics and racialized notions about the bodies under examination.Content: from the standpoint of the history of science I have analyzed the publications, reports and correspondence of the members of the Carnegie Institution expeditions. Conclusions: I show that basal metabolism was a measure constructed and used in the first half of the twentieth cen­tury with a strong eugenic and racial bias. Francis G. Benedict, Charles B. Davenport and Morris Steggerda from the CIW conducted these expeditions not only from the medical but also from the anthropological standpoint, in order to answer the question whether there was a climatic or racial effect on the body of the subjects analyzed. The results of the research were incorporated to the formulas used to evaluate the nutritional status of populations, fact that might have con­sequences nowadays on the way we understand metabolic “normality”.

  20. Women's Reasons for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use: Racial/Ethnic Differences

    CHAO, MARIA T.; WADE, CHRISTINE; KRONENBERG, FREDI; KALMUSS, DEBRA; CUSHMAN, LINDA F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Although racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization have been documented, differences in the reasons for using CAM have not been empirically assessed. In an increasingly diverse society, understanding differences in rates of and reasons for CAM use could elucidate cultural and social factors of health behaviors and inform health care improvements. The current study examines reasons for CAM use among women in four racial/ethnic groups. Design A national telephone survey of 3172 women aged 18 years and older was conducted in four languages. Respondents were asked about their use of remedies or treatments not typically prescribed by a medical doctor. This study focuses on those women who used CAM in the previous year and their reasons for using CAM. Results Non-Hispanic white women were most likely to cite personal beliefs for CAM use. Cost of conventional medicine was most prevalent among Mexican-American women CAM users. Physician referral, family and friends, and media sources were all equally likely to lead to CAM use in non-Hispanic white women. In contrast, informal networks of family and friends were the most important social influences of CAM use among African-, Mexican-, and Chinese-American women. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in reasons for CAM use highlight cultural and social factors that are important to consider in public evaluation of the risks and benefits of CAM remedies and treatments. PMID:17034277