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Sample records for rabbit gastric mucosa

  1. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  2. Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO 4- ) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO 4 - localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO 4 - scanning for these disorders

  3. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

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    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  4. Premalignant alterations of the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.; Mitsudo, S.; Kozecky, O.; Frager, J.; Wolf, E.; Beneventano, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrophic gastritus or intestinal metaplasia is the precursor to many gastric carcinomas that arise in a dysplatic epithelium. The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographic features of the gastric mucosa in 30 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (27) or atrophic gastritus (3). In 12 patients (40%) the area gastricae were enlarged to 5 mm or greater. In these 12 patients and in an additional 11 (total of 23, or 76%), a polypoid-nodular gastric mucosal pattern was seen. These findings and patterns are illustrated, and the differential diagnosis and clinical implications are discussed

  5. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.; Oehler, G.; Schulz, A.; Rau, W.S.; Giessen Univ.; Giessen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The radiological and clinical findings of 12 patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb are presented. This is a defined disease with characteristic radiological features: multiple small nodular defects of the contrast medium of 1-3 mm diameter. Histology shows complete heterotopia. Pathogenesis and clinical significance are discussed with reference to the literature on this subject. (orig.) [de

  6. Esophageal heterotopic gastric mucosa in esophageal atresia

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    Lachlan J.R. Harrison

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM is occasionally found at endoscopy in the proximal esophagus of adults and children, when it manifests as an asymptomatic small island of reddish pink mucosa just below the upper esophageal sphincter. There are few reports of esophageal HGM detected by endoscopy after repair of esophageal atresia (EA with tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF. We report a child with multiple patches of HGM in the proximal and distal esophagus seen at endoscopy after EA/TEF repair. No obvious symptoms were related to the HGM and she remains under endoscopic surveillance. The incidence of esophageal HGM may be increased in patients with EA and its distribution can be more extensive than a simple “inlet patch”. There is evidence to suggest that esophageal HGM increases the risk of developing Barrett's esophagus and has a malignant potential. Heterotopic gastric mucosa extends the spectrum of potential pathologies affecting the esophagus in patients with EA/TEF and supports current international guidelines for endoscopic surveillance of these patients. Keywords: Tracheo-esophageal fistula, Ectopic mucosa, Esophageal malignancy

  7. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

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    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

  8. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

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    Liu, Y C; Yang, H Q; Zhuo, S M [Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Chen, G; Chen, J X [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China); Yan, J, E-mail: chenjianxin@fjnu.edu.cn, E-mail: ynjun@yahoo.com [Department of Surgery, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength {lambda}{sub ex} = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  9. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  10. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

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    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  11. X-radiation effect on soluble proteins of gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, B.F.; Chajka, Ya.P.; Fedorovich, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    Using the method of electrophoresis in agar gel soluble proteins of gastric mucosa of rats were separated into 11 fractions. Proteins posessing a proteolytic (pH 1.8) and lipase (pH 7.4) activity were localized within the second and third prealbumin fractions. Soluble proteins of gastric mucosa contain glyco- and lipoproteid complexes. Exposure of rats to 1000 R of X-rays induces quantitative redistribution within the electrophoretic spectrum of soluble proteins and a considerable disturbance of the proteolytic activity of total soluble proteins throughout the entire period of observation (from 10 min to 72h)

  12. Absence of pepsinogen A3 gene expression in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, E J; Peña, A S; Crusius, J B; Defize, J; van der Stoop, P; Meuwissen, S G; Pals, G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the expression of pepsinogen A3 (Pg3) encoding genes in the gastric mucosa of normal controls and subjects with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. METHODS--One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with sampling of gastric biopsy specimens and serum. Pg3 isoproteins were determined by electrophoresis in serum and gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. Pg3 encoding genes were assessed by PCR in DNA obtained from peripheral blood. RESULTS...

  13. Helicobacter pylori and histopathological changes of gastric mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori and histopathological changes of gastric mucosa in Uganda population with varying prevalence of stomach cancer. ... Results: The severity of gastritis correlated with the presence of H. pylori in Ganda and Nyarwanda but not in Nkole. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) was observed in Nyarwanda and Nkole and ...

  14. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

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    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  15. Acute effect of gamma irradiation on the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; Rogers, J.E.; O'Connell, L.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the gastric mucosa has been studied in a primate model by evaluating endoscopically the rate of healing of gastric biopsies. Six male rhesus monkeys were subjected to fiberoptic gastroscopies performed under general anesthesia before and after total body exposure to Cobalt-60 (800 rads). Gastric biopsies were taken 3 hours and 2, 7, and 9 days after irradiation and examined using light microscopy. Gastric biopsies were found to heal in 3 days before irradiation; in contrast, they were still present 7 and 9 days after the biopsies in irradiated animals. Microscopic examination of the biopsies taken outside of the ulcer craters did not demonstrate any significant changes of the gastric surface epithelial cells. These data demonstrate that a gastric ulcer develops at the site of each endoscopic biopsy in irradiated monkeys whereas complete healing is observed in non-irradiated animals. The cause of this observation is unclear but it could be due to radiation induced suppression of the mitotic activity and of the cell renewal of gastric surface epithelial cells

  16. Heterotopic gastric mucosa involving the gallbladder and biliary tree

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    Madrid, Carmen; Berrocal, Teresa; Gorospe, Luis; Prieto, Consuelo [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Hospital Infantil ' ' La Paz' ' , Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Gamez, Manuel [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital Infantil ' ' La Paz' ' , Madrid (Spain)

    2003-02-01

    A case of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the common bile duct, cystic duct and gallbladder is reported in a 3-year-old girl with abdominal pain and jaundice. Abdominal US and CT showed dilatation of the biliary tree and a well-defined mass in the common bile duct that narrowed its lumen. The gallbladder was contracted in both examinations. The common bile duct and the gallbladder were resected and a choledochojejunostomy was performed. Although gastric heterotopy has been described throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract, it is a very uncommon finding in the gallbladder and extremely rare in the biliary tree. A firm diagnosis of gastric heterotopia is based on the presence of fundal mucosa replete with parietal and chief cells. To our knowledge, this is the fifth reported case of heterotopic gastric tissue within the common bile duct, and the first to describe the US and CT findings. A relevant literature review and brief outline of the histological and radiological features are included in the discussion. (orig.)

  17. Heterotopic gastric mucosa involving the gallbladder and biliary tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Carmen; Berrocal, Teresa; Gorospe, Luis; Prieto, Consuelo; Gamez, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    A case of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the common bile duct, cystic duct and gallbladder is reported in a 3-year-old girl with abdominal pain and jaundice. Abdominal US and CT showed dilatation of the biliary tree and a well-defined mass in the common bile duct that narrowed its lumen. The gallbladder was contracted in both examinations. The common bile duct and the gallbladder were resected and a choledochojejunostomy was performed. Although gastric heterotopy has been described throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract, it is a very uncommon finding in the gallbladder and extremely rare in the biliary tree. A firm diagnosis of gastric heterotopia is based on the presence of fundal mucosa replete with parietal and chief cells. To our knowledge, this is the fifth reported case of heterotopic gastric tissue within the common bile duct, and the first to describe the US and CT findings. A relevant literature review and brief outline of the histological and radiological features are included in the discussion. (orig.)

  18. The overmethylated genes in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa are demethylated in gastric cancers

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    Choi Sang-Wook

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transitional-CpG sites between weakly methylated genes and densely methylated retroelements are overmethylated in the gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and they are undermethylated in the gastric cancers depending on the level of loss of heterozygosity (LOH events. This study delineated the transitional-CpG methylation patterns of CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes in view of the retroelements. Methods The transitional-CpG sites of eight CpG-island-containing genes and six CpG-island-lacking genes were semi-quantitatively examined by performing radioisotope-labelling methylation-specific PCR under stringent conditions. The level of LOH in the gastric cancers was estimated using the 40 microsatellite markers on eight cancer-associated chromosomes. Each gene was scored as overmethylated or undermethylated based on an intermediate level of transitional-CpG methylation common in the H. pylori-negative gastric mucosa. Results The eight CpG-island genes examined were overmethylated depending on the proximity to the nearest retroelement in the H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. The six CpG-island-lacking genes were similarly methylated in the H. pylori-positive and -negative gastric mucosa. In the gastric cancers, long transitional-CpG segments of the CpG-island genes distant from the retroelements remained overmethylated, whereas the overmethylation of short transitional-CpG segments close to the retroelements was not significant. Both the CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes tended to be decreasingly methylated in a LOH-level-dependent manner. Conclusions The overmethylated genes under the influence of retroelement methylation in the H. pylori-infected stomach are demethylated in the gastric cancers influenced by LOH.

  19. Bovine alpha-lactalbumin stimulates mucus metabolism in gastric mucosa.

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    Ushida, Y; Shimokawa, Y; Toida, T; Matsui, H; Takase, M

    2007-02-01

    Bovine alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), a major milk protein, exerts strong gastroprotective activity against rat experimental gastric ulcers induced by ethanol or stress. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this activity, the influence of alpha-LA on gastric mucus metabolism was investigated in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro study, RGM1 cells (a rat gastric epithelial cell line) were selected for observation of the direct activity of alpha-LA on gastric mucosal cells and cultured in the presence of either alpha-LA or ovalbumin (OVA), a reference protein showing no gastroprotective activity. Amounts of synthesized and secreted mucin, a major component of mucus, were determined using [3H]glucosamine as a tracer, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the culture medium were determined by RIA. For the in vivo study, the thickness of the mucus gel layer, a protective barrier for gastric mucosa, was evaluated histochemically in rat gastric mucosa. alpha-Lactalbumin (3 mg/mL) significantly stimulated mucin synthesis and secretion in RGM1 cells and also increased PGE2 levels in the culture medium. In contrast, OVA showed no enhancing effects under identical conditions. Neither indomethacin, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, nor AH23848, a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist, affected alpha-LA-induced enhancement of mucin synthesis and secretion. In vivo, oral administration of alpha-LA (300 mg/kg x 3 times/d x 7 d) increased the thickness of the mucus gel layer in rats. These results indicate that alpha-LA fortifies the mucus gel layer by stimulating mucin production and secretion in gastric mucus-producing cells, and that this enhancing effect is independent of endogenous PGE2. Comparison of the efficacy of alpha-LA with OVA suggests that the activities observed in RGM1 cells are closely related to the gastroprotective effects in rat gastric ulcer models. In conclusion, alpha-LA stimulates mucus metabolism, and this action may be responsible for its gastroprotective

  20. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P gastritis changed from antrum-predominant gastritis to corpus-predominant gastritis with age in both populations. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer was located in the upper part of the stomach in half of the Mongolian patients; Mongolian patients were infected with non-East-Asian-type H. pylori. PMID:26217093

  1. Demand for Zn2+ in acid-secreting gastric mucosa and its requirement for intracellular Ca2+.

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    JingJing Liu

    Full Text Available Recent work has suggested that Zn(2+ plays a critical role in regulating acidity within the secretory compartments of isolated gastric glands. Here, we investigate the content, distribution and demand for Zn(2+ in gastric mucosa under baseline conditions and its regulation during secretory stimulation.Content and distribution of zinc were evaluated in sections of whole gastric mucosa using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Significant stores of Zn(2+ were identified in neural elements of the muscularis, glandular areas enriched in parietal cells, and apical regions of the surface epithelium. In in vivo studies, extraction of the low abundance isotope, (70Zn(2+, from the circulation was demonstrated in samples of mucosal tissue 24 hours or 72 hours after infusion (250 µg/kg. In in vitro studies, uptake of (70Zn(2+ from media was demonstrated in isolated rabbit gastric glands following exposure to concentrations as low as 10 nM. In additional studies, demand of individual gastric parietal cells for Zn(2+ was monitored using the fluorescent zinc reporter, fluozin-3, by measuring increases in free intracellular concentrations of Zn(2+ {[Zn(2+](i} during exposure to standard extracellular concentrations of Zn(2+ (10 µM for standard intervals of time. Under resting conditions, demand for extracellular Zn(2+ increased with exposure to secretagogues (forskolin, carbachol/histamine and under conditions associated with increased intracellular Ca(2+ {[Ca(2+](i}. Uptake of Zn(2+ was abolished following removal of extracellular Ca(2+ or depletion of intracellular Ca(2+ stores, suggesting that demand for extracellular Zn(2+ increases and depends on influx of extracellular Ca(2+.This study is the first to characterize the content and distribution of Zn(2+ in an organ of the gastrointestinal tract. Our findings offer the novel interpretation, that Ca(2+ integrates basolateral demand for Zn(2+ with stimulation of secretion of HCl into the lumen of the gastric

  2. Impairment of aminopyrine clearance in aspirin-damaged canine gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.A.; Henagan, J.M.; Loy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Using an in vivo canine chambered stomach preparation, the clearance of [ 14 C]aminopyrine across mucosa when intravenously infused and the back-diffusion of this substance from gastric lumen to mucosa when topically applied to gastric epithelium were evaluated in aspirin-damaged gastric epithelium. In mucosa damaged by either 20 mM or 40 mM aspirin, the recovery of [ 14 C]aminopyrine, when topically mixed with acid (pH . 1.1) perfusate solution, was not significantly different from nondamaged control mucosa. In addition, the degree of ''trapping'' of this substance from back-diffusion was not different in damaged mucosa from that observed in nondamaged epithelium. In contrast, when [ 14 C]aminopyrine was intravenously infused, its clearance was significantly impaired in aspirin-damaged mucosa when compared with control studies, as evidenced by the increased ''trapping'' of this substance in injured epithelium. These findings indicate that movement of aminopyrine from plasma to gastric lumen is impaired in damaged epithelium, making the aminopyrine clearance technique an unreliable method to accurately measure absolute gastric blood flow in this experimental setting

  3. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Distal Part of Esophagus in a Teenager: Case Report.

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    Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria

    2015-10-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus.

  4. [Assesing the effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites Goñi, Harold Eduardo; Cok García, Jaime; Bussalleu Cavero, Alejandra; Bustamente Robles, Katherine Yelenia; Zegarra Chang, Arturo; Bravo, Eduar; Bussalleu Rivera, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the histological effect of Lepidium meyenii "Maca" on the gastric mucosa in patients with functional dyspepsia. This study consists of a clinical case series, in which the effect of Maca on the gastric histopathology of 29 Peruvian patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia was examined. The presence of H. pylori, as well as the degree and depth of the gastric mucosa inflammation was evaluated from biopsies obtained before and after the treatment based solely of Maca 3 grams per day for four weeks. Average values of the degree and depth of mucosal inflammation before and after the treatment were compared showing no statistical difference among the samples. Sixteen patients were infected with H. pylori, and they remained infected after the treatment with Maca. A four week long treatment with Maca does not produce significant changes on gastric mucosa of patients with functional dyspepsia, neither on H. pylori eradication.

  5. Effects of two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes on the gastric mucosa in weanlings: alfalfa chaff versus alfalfa pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Vondran, Sarah; Venner, Monica; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Feeding alfalfa hay is often recommended for its buffering components, like protein and calcium, to prevent lesions of the gastric mucosa in horses. Until now, there has been no information regarding the influence of alfalfa particle size on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding two alfalfa preparations with different particle sizes (alfalfa chaff vs alfalfa pellets) in comparison with grass hay on the gastric mucosa in weanling horses....

  6. [The influence of corvitin on secretory processes and blood flow in the rat gastric mucosa].

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    Vovkun, T V; Ianchuk, P I; Shtanova, L Ia; Vesel'skyĭ, S P; Baranovs'kyĭ, V A

    2013-01-01

    We studied parameters of gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rat and blood flow in the rat gastric mucosa under the influence of drug corvitin used intragastrically in doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg. Biochemical analysis of gastric juice was based on the determination of pH, total hydrochloric acid production and total protein, hexosamine and cysteine concentration. Gastric juice analysis in control rats found the presence of hexosamines-- a gastric mucus indicators and cysteine--free amino acid whith properties of a strong antioxidant. Concentration of these compounds in the gastric juice increased as a consequence of corvitin action. However, corvitin did not affect at these parameters of gastric secretion as the volume of gastric juice, pH, hydrochloric acid output rate, protein concentration. Additionally it was shown that corvitin in dose-dependent manner increased blood flow in the gastric mucosa. This results give reason to believe that corvitin can be considered as a tool that amplifies gastric mucosal defense mechanisms without affecting the secretion of gastric hydrochloric acid and total protein.

  7. A comparison of Helicobacter pylori and non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter spp. Binding to canine gastric mucosa with defined gastric glycophenotype.

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    Amorim, Irina; Freitas, Daniela P; Magalhães, Ana; Faria, Fátima; Lopes, Célia; Faustino, Augusto M; Smet, Annemieke; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2014-08-01

    The gastric mucosa of dogs is often colonized by non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters (NHPH), while H. pylori is the predominant gastric Helicobacter species in humans. The colonization of the human gastric mucosa by H. pylori is highly dependent on the recognition of host glycan receptors. Our goal was to define the canine gastric mucosa glycophenotype and to evaluate the capacity of different gastric Helicobacter species to adhere to the canine gastric mucosa. The glycosylation profile in body and antral compartments of the canine gastric mucosa, with focus on the expression of histo-blood group antigens was evaluated. The in vitro binding capacity of FITC-labeled H. pylori and NHPH to the canine gastric mucosa was assessed in cases representative of the canine glycosylation pattern. The canine gastric mucosa lacks expression of type 1 Lewis antigens and presents a broad expression of type 2 structures and A antigen, both in the surface and glandular epithelium. Regarding the canine antral mucosa, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion score whereas in the body region the SabA-positive H. pylori strain was the strain that adhered more. The canine gastric mucosa showed a glycosylation profile different from the human gastric mucosa suggesting that alternative glycan receptors may be involved in Helicobacter spp. binding. Helicobacter pylori and NHPH strains differ in their ability to adhere to canine gastric mucosa. Among the NHPH, H. heilmannii s.s. presented the highest adhesion capacity in agreement with its reported colonization of the canine stomach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Duodenal Bulb Mucosa with Hypertrophic Gastric Oxyntic Heterotopia in Patients with Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Emil; Oh, David; Wang, Hank; Hazany, Salar; Ohning, Gordon; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) results in hypersecretion of gastric acid (via gastrinoma) leading to peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We describe the novel discovery of hypertrophic, heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal duodenal bulb in patients with ZES, which we hypothesize results in an increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in patients with ZES (a mechanism previously unreported). We determined the incidence of the novel finding of duodenal gastric oxyntic hypertrophic heterotopia (GOH) in patients with ZES. Methods. Seven patients with ZES were enrolled. The diagnosis of ZES was established by hypergastrinemia, gastric acid hypersecretion, and a positive secretin test or based on biopsy specimens (evaluated via tissue staining). Basal acid output (BAO) and baseline gastrin secretion were determined by established methods. Endoscopic examinations with methylene blue staining and biopsy of the gastric and duodenal mucosa were conducted in all patients every 3–6 months for an average of 5 years. Results. The duodenal mucosa demonstrated hypertrophic GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. Biopsies from the bowel mucosa demonstrated patchy replacement of surface epithelium by gastric-type epithelium with hypertrophic oxyntic glands in the lamina propria in 5 patients. Two of the patients had no evidence of GOH in the duodenal bulb. Patients with GOH had an average serum gastrin level of 1245 pg/mL and BAO of 2.92 mEq/hr versus 724 pg/mL and 0.8 mEq/hr in patients without GOH. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the presence of duodenal mucosa with GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. The presence of hypertrophic and heterotopic gastric mucosa is proposed to result from increased gastrin levels and may contribute to the increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in these patients. PMID:19587828

  9. Duodenal Bulb Mucosa with Hypertrophic Gastric Oxyntic Heterotopia in Patients with Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Kohan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES results in hypersecretion of gastric acid (via gastrinoma leading to peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We describe the novel discovery of hypertrophic, heterotopic gastric mucosa in the proximal duodenal bulb in patients with ZES, which we hypothesize results in an increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in patients with ZES (a mechanism previously unreported. We determined the incidence of the novel finding of duodenal gastric oxyntic hypertrophic heterotopia (GOH in patients with ZES. Methods. Seven patients with ZES were enrolled. The diagnosis of ZES was established by hypergastrinemia, gastric acid hypersecretion, and a positive secretin test or based on biopsy specimens (evaluated via tissue staining. Basal acid output (BAO and baseline gastrin secretion were determined by established methods. Endoscopic examinations with methylene blue staining and biopsy of the gastric and duodenal mucosa were conducted in all patients every 3–6 months for an average of 5 years. Results. The duodenal mucosa demonstrated hypertrophic GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. Biopsies from the bowel mucosa demonstrated patchy replacement of surface epithelium by gastric-type epithelium with hypertrophic oxyntic glands in the lamina propria in 5 patients. Two of the patients had no evidence of GOH in the duodenal bulb. Patients with GOH had an average serum gastrin level of 1245 pg/mL and BAO of 2.92 mEq/hr versus 724 pg/mL and 0.8 mEq/hr in patients without GOH. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the presence of duodenal mucosa with GOH in 5 out of 7 patients with ZES and an intact stomach and duodenum. The presence of hypertrophic and heterotopic gastric mucosa is proposed to result from increased gastrin levels and may contribute to the increased incidence of postbulbar ulcers in these patients.

  10. INFLAMMATORY INFILTRATION IN THE GASTRIC MUCOSA OF PATIENTS WITH EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS-ASSOCIATED GASTRIC DYSPLASIA AND CANCER

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    М. V. Vusik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of inflammatory infiltrate in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric dysplasia (n=56 and gastric cancer (n=50 with different levels of humoral immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and EBV viral load were studied. In patients with dysplasia of the gastric mucosa, the increase in antibody titers to VCA IgG leaded to a significant decrease in the level of lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages and an increase in the number of eosinophils and plasma cells. When the levels of IgA to viral capsid antigen (VCA and IgG to EBV early antigens (EA were increased, the number of neutrophils in the composition of the cellular infiltrate was significantly decreased. In gastric cancer patients with different levels of humoral immune response to EBV, the number of plasma cells and eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the tumor was decreased when increasing the titers of IgG to VCA and IgA to VCA. When VCA/IgA titer was high, the number of neutrophils in a tumor was decreased and the proportion of macrophages was slightly increased. The data obtained can serve as additional criteria for indentifying markers for viral infection of the gastric mucosa.

  11. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves impairs defence but not rapid repair of rat gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, M A; Schöninkle, E; Holzer, P

    1993-07-01

    Capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones have previously been reported to play a part in gastric mucosal protection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these nociceptive neurones strengthen mucosal defence against injury or promote rapid repair of the damaged mucosa, or both. This hypothesis was examined in anaesthetised rats whose stomachs were perfused with ethanol (25 or 50% in saline, wt/wt) for 30 minutes. The gastric mucosa was inspected 0 and 180 minutes after ethanol had been given at the macroscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopic level. Rapid repair of the ethanol injured gastric mucosa (reduction of deep injury, partial re-epithelialisation of the denuded surface) took place in rats anaesthetised with phenobarbital, but not in those anaesthetised with urethane. Afferent nerve ablation as a result of treating rats with a neurotoxic dose of capsaicin before the experiment significantly aggravated ethanol induced damage as shown by an increase in the area and depth of mucosal erosions. Rapid repair of the injured mucosa, however, as seen in rats anesthetised with phenobarbital 180 minutes after ethanol was given, was similar in capsaicin and vehicle pretreated animals. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones was verified by a depletion of calcitonin gene related peptide from the gastric corpus wall. These findings indicate that nociceptive neurones control mechanisms of defence against acute injury but are not required for rapid repair of injured mucosa.

  12. Gene expression profiling of gastric mucosa in mice lacking CCK and gastrin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chun-Mei; Kodama, Yosuke; Flatberg, Arnar

    2014-01-01

    normalized, which was associated with an up-regulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1). The basal part of the gastric mucosa expressed parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) in a subpopulation of likely ECL cells (and possibly other cells) and vitamin D3 1α...... suggest a possible link between gastric PTHLH and vitamin D and bone metabolism.......The stomach produces acid, which may play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to reveal signaling pathways in the gastric mucosa that involve the acid secretion and possibly the bone metabolism in CCK1 and/or CCK2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Gastric...

  13. Isolation and identification of Helicobacter spp, from canine and feline gastric mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalava, K.; On, Stephen L.W.; VanDamme, P.A.R.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that virtually all healthy adult dogs and cats harbor spiral helicobacters in their gastric mucosa, Three species, Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii, and Helicobacter salomonis have been isolated in vitro from the gastric mucosa of these animals. The aims of this study were...... conventional phenotypic tests, whole-cell protein profiling, and ultrastructural analysis in identifying the different species isolated from canine and feline gastric mucose. We cultured 95 and 22 gastric mucosal biopsies from dogs and cats, respectively. Twenty-one H. bizzozeronii strains, 8 H. felis strains......, 8 H. salomonis strains, 3 mixed cultures, 2 "Flexispira rappini"-like organisms, and 3 as get uncharacterized strains were isolated from the dogs, and 3 H. felis strains were isolated from the cats. The methods used here yielded Helicobacter isolation rates of 51% from dogs and 13.6% from cats...

  14. The Role of Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Taek-Keun; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Kim, Yong-Hyeob; Yoon, Mee Sun; Song, Ju-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Chung, Woong-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess radiotherapy for patients with early stage gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with respect to survival, treatment response, and complications. Materials and Methods Enrolled into this study were 48 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma from January 2000 to September 2012. Forty-one patients had low grade and seven had mixed component with high grade. Helicobacter pylori eradication was performed in 33 patients. Thirty-four patients received rad...

  15. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in the Gastric Mucosa by Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Silvia; Leite, Marina; Figueiredo, Céu

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a fluorescence in vivo hybridization (FIVH) protocol, using nucleic acid probes, for the detection of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of an infected C57BL/6 mouse model. This protocol should be easily extended to other microorganisms not only...

  16. Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyar'ova, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

  17. Heterotopic gastric mucosa associated with abdominal abscess formation, hypotension, and acute abdominal pain in a puppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobleman, Bridget N; Sinnott, Virginia B

    2014-01-01

    To describe the presence of heterotopic gastric mucosa forming an abscess associated with acute abdominal pain and shock in a puppy. A 7-month-old male intact Shih-Tzu was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of a 12-hour history of vomiting and lethargy progressing to weakness. On presentation, the puppy was obtunded and hypotensive. Radiographs revealed an ill-defined mid-ventral abdominal mass. Ultrasound revealed an echogenic, fluid-filled mass associated with the jejunum. The puppy had an exploratory celiotomy and a 2 × 4 cm oval fluid-filled soft tissue mass was found to be intimately associated, but not communicating with, a section of the mid-jejunum. The mass and associated jejunum were removed via enterectomy. Histopathology of the resected mass revealed heterotopic gastric mucosa; bacterial culture of the fluid contained in the mass revealed heavy growth of Escherichia coli. The puppy recovered from surgery, was discharged from the hospital, and has had no further complications from this episode. Heterotopic gastric mucosa is commonly found incidentally on necropsy. When it has been associated with acute gastrointestinal signs, mechanical intestinal obstruction with or without perforation was noted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to abscess formation and acute abdominal pain in the dog. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  18. Segmental dilatation of the ileum covered almost entirely by gastric mucosa: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Shiojima, Masayuki; Sasamoto, Hajime; Shimura, Tatsuo; Takahasi, Atsusi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy was referred to our hospital for investigation of intermittent abdominal colic pain and vomiting. He underwent an emergency laparotomy, which revealed a volvulus and segmental dilatation of the ileum. The dilated intestine was not associated with poor intestinal circulation. Because the dilated ileum did not seem to be the cause of the volvulus, we simply released the volvulus. However, after surgery, the patient still suffered from persistent abdominal pain, further episodes of volvulus, and invagination of the dilated ileum. Thus, we performed a second operation to resect the segmental dilatation of the ileum. Pathological examination revealed that most of the mucosa of the dilated ileum was composed of ectopic gastric mucosa. We postulate that the ectopic gastric mucosa led to the formation of segmental dilatation of the ileum.

  19. Simultaneous Occurrence of Early Gastric Carcinoma and Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Omentum

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    Tomohiro Murakami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous association of gastric carcinoma with omental mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is a rare event that has not been reported previously. We focused on the hypothetic pathogenetic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of this rare condition. A 55-year-old woman with Helicobacter pylori infection underwent distal gastrectomy in our hospital. Three independent early gastric cancers and a mass near the cecum were diagnosed preoperatively. Pathological review of the resected stomach showed three independent early signet ring cell gastric carcinomas, and the mass in the omentum near the cecum was shown to be omental MALT lymphoma. Due to the nature of the patient's disease, she was started on medical eradication of H. pylori. Synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and omental MALT lymphoma is a rare event. Special attention given to H. pylori-associated gastric cancer patients can avoid misdiagnosis and lead to adequate treatment.

  20. Campylobacter pylori Detection in Gastric Mucosa: Association with Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Paradis, Alain; Gourdeau, Marie; Lambert, Suzanne; Lavoie, Sylvain; Lemire, Suzanne; Parent, Claude; Cantin, Réjean

    1988-01-01

    ln order to evaluate the association between Camphlobacter pylori and gastritis, two biopsies were taken from the duodenal bulb, antrum, body and fundus (and from lesions if there were any) in 100 consecutive patients referred to this gastroscopic clinic For each site, one biopsy was for histology and C pylon detection by Warthin-Starry staining, and the second biopsy was for culture. In addition, for each patient a gastric brushing was Gram stained. Twenty-one patients were ex...

  1. Helicobacter pylori as a crucial factor in intestinal metaplasia development of gastric mucosa

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    Sergii Vernygorodskyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is detected on the surface of gastric epithelium and in goblet cells, predominantly in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis and incomplete intestinal metaplasia (IM. H. pylori infection persistence leads to the formation of gastrointestinal phenotype of IM. H. pylori can be considered as an etiological factor of IM. It inhibits the expression of SOX2 in gastric epithelial cells, hence activating transcription factor CDX2 as a counterpart to MUC5AC gene inhibition and MUC2 gene induction. Thus, in metaplastic cells, programming differentiation after intestinal phenotype will develop. The role of H. pylori in the origin of intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was defined in this study to elucidate the probable mechanism of cell reprogramming. The activation of CDX2, with simultaneous inactivation and decreased number of genes (e.g., SHH, SOX2, and RUNX3 responsible for gastric differentiation, was identified to cause the appearance of IM.

  2. The effect of radon 222 on the oral mucosa of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, A.; Minta, P.; Kochanski, W.

    1975-01-01

    In experiments on 52 rabbits the authors investigated the effects of radon 222 administered by inhalation on the oral mucosa. The experimental animals were divided into 3 groups: 1 - controls, 2 - receiving radon inhalations in concentration 1 nCi/1, 3- receiving similar inhalations in a concentration of 5 nCi/l of air. Sections involving the lower lip with the mucosa were obtained for investigations after 10, 20, 30 and 60 days of inhalation. In the group of animals receiving radon in lower concentration its stimulating effect manifested itself as stimulation of mesenchymal cells and vascular endothelium. In group 3 sebaceous glands, atrophy and excessive keratinization of epidermis. Taking into account the analogy of these processes the authors concluded that in balneotherapy of oral diseases radon water application with low content of radon 222 may be satisfactory and safe. (author)

  3. Histopathological evaluation of urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa: an experimental study in rabbits

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    Geovanne F. Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Buccal mucosa is a widely accepted tissue for urethroplasty. The exact healing and tissue integration process, mainly the histological characteristics of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty when used dorsally to reconstruct the urethral plate has not previously been assessed, and thus we developed an experimental model to address this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 New Zealand rabbits (weight 2.5 kg we surgically created a dorsal penile urethral defect. A buccal mucosa graft was sutured to the corpora and tunica albuginea, and the ventral urethra anastomosed to this new urethral plate. The animals were divided in three groups and sacrificed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery (groups 1, 2 and 3. A retrograde urethrogram was obtained at autopsy in the last group and the penis analyzed histologically with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining. RESULTS: The urethrograms showed no evidence of fistula or stricture. In group 1 the histopathological analysis showed submucosal lymph-mononuclear inflammatory edema, numerous eosinophils and squamous epithelium integrated into the adjacent urothelium. In group 2 there was no evidence of an inflammatory response but rather complete subepithelial hyaline healing, which was more marked in group 3. CONCLUSION: Healing of buccal mucosa grafts to reconstruct the urethral plate can be achieved by total integration of the squamous epithelium with the urothelium, maintaining the original histological properties of the graft with no fibrosis or retraction.

  4. Mucosal injury and γ-irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and γ-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. γ-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment

  5. Studies on Cinical , Haematological Aspects and Pathological Changes of Gastric Mucosa in Geophagia

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    S.N. SAYAR

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophagia characterized by, severe, anaemia, dwarfism, hypogonadism • and hepatosplenomegaly is sometimes seen in young patients (and children in Iran. 2 Haematological aspects of the syndrome are those of, severe, iron defi-crency anaemia3 Gastric biopsies and histological findings revealed superfi cial or atrophic gastritis showing some resemblance to those seen in pernicious anaemia. 4 Haematological features, anaemia ana many of the clinical signs of the syndrome were improved after appropriate iron therapy. 5 Histological changes of gastric mucosa improved, in 5 patients, 6 months after correction of the anaemia.

  6. Evidence of helicobacter pylori infection in dental plaque and gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, M.; Haseeb-ur-Rehman; Mahmood, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in dental plaque of individuals suffering from H. pylori associated gastric disease. Patients and Methods: Patients presenting with symptoms/signs of chronic gastritis were included in the study. Specimens of dental plaque and gastric biopsy were collected from all the patients. The dental plaque specimen was processed for helicourease test and the gastric biopsy specimens were processed both for the helicourease test and histopathology. Results: Out of all patients studied (n=52), 32 (61.53%) were positive for helicourease test with gastric biopsy while 48 (92.30%) were positive with dental plaque. The histopathology of gastric biopsy showed H. pylori associated chronic active gastritis in 42 (80.76%) patients. Eight (15.38%) patients showed chronic active gastritis which was not associated with H. pylori while in 2 (3.84%) patients the gastric biopsy specimen was unremarkable. Conclusion: Majority of the patients have possible H. pylori colonization in dental plaque while about two-thirds have H. pylori associated chronic active gastritis. Oral cavity may be the first place for colonization and then the infection involves the gastric mucosa. (author)

  7. DETECTION OF Helicobacter pylori IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF SHEEP: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

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    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is an organism widespread in humans and sometimes responsible for serious illnesses. It has been hypothesized the existence of animal reservoirs, and that the infection route by H. pylori involves multiple pathways including food-borne transmission as the microorganism has been detected from sheep, goat and cow milk. This work reports the preliminary results of a survey conducted in order to investigate the presence of H. pylori in gastric mucosa of sheep slaughtered in Apulia region (Italy employing a Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR assay for the detection of the phosphoglucosamine mutase gene (glmM, as screening method followed by conventional bacteriological isolation. Out of the 50 gastric mucosa samples examined, 3 (6% resulted positive for the presence of glmMgene, but at this time no strains were isolated. The results deserve further investigations to asses the role of ruminants as possible reservoirs of H. pylori.

  8. Phantom gastric mucosa for evaluating computed radiography in double-contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Watanabe, H.; Nakata, H.

    1996-01-01

    To test the clinical usefulness of computed radiography (CR) with a storage phosphor plate in upper gastrointestinal radiographic examinations, a newly devised phantom gastric mucosa was used. Simulated small elevated and depressed lesions were created on a phantom gastric mucosa made from a styrofoam 'plate'. Twenty-four sets of each CR and screen-film radiographs (SR) were obtained using phototimed exposures. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study and visual ranking using these images were performed. There was no significant difference between the ROC curves of CR and SR. By visual ranking, CR was equal to or better than SR in most cases. In no case was SR definitely superior to CR. CR can be safely applied in upper gastrointestinal roentgenologic examinations. (orig.)

  9. Bleeding peptic ulcer caused by ectopic gastric mucosa in a duplicated segment of jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, H.; Ching, G.; Halls, J.; Levy, I.J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors present a case in which a patient suffered a bleeding jejunal ulcer caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in a congenital duplication of a segment of jejunum. This is the first case diagnosed preoperatively by two different radiographic means. These lesions were shown by both pertechnetate flow and barium small bowel studies. The rarity of these entities and the modalities used for diagnosis are described

  10. Histamine stimulates chloride secretion in omeprazole-inhibited frog gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGreevy, J.; Barton, R.; Housinger, T.

    1986-01-01

    Omeprazole (OME) stops hydrogen ion (H) secretion in the histamine (HIST)-stimulated gastric mucosa while the chloride (Cl) which had accompanied the H continues to be pumped into the lumen. This finding suggests that the Cl pump is independent of the H/K ATP-ase driven H pump. To test this hypothesis, 16 Ussing-chambered frog mucosas were exposed to OME prior to HIST stimulation. If the Cl pump is independent, HIST should stimulate Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited mucosa. A 1 hr control (CON) interval preceded exposure to OME (10 -4 M) in the nutrient solution. Potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), resistance (R), H flux (J/sup H/) and Cl flux (J/sup Cl/ with 36 Cl) were measured every 15 min. After 1 hr of OME exposure, HIST (10 -5 M) was added to the nutrient solution. The findings demonstrate that HIST stimulates Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited bullfrog gastric mucosa

  11. Immunohistochemical and radioimmunological demonstration of alpha1-fetoprotein in nonmalignant changes of human gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falser, N.; Lederer, B.; Reissigl, H.; Innsbruck Univ.

    1977-01-01

    The occurence of α 1 fetoprotein in nonmalignant changes of the gastric mucosa was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry and radioimmunonoassay. The investigations were performed in tissue sections, cytological imprint preparations as well as in homogenized tissue samples (obtained by gastroscopy). α 1 fetoprotein could be demonstrated by immuno-histochemistry in about 90% of the samples originating from the surroundings of gastric ulcer and the region of gastrojejunostomy after B II-resection. The RIA was positive in about 75% of the tissue samples, whereas from gastric juice only 40% of positive results could be obtained. No α 1 fetoprotein-activity could be demonstrated in serum samples. These investigations indicate that α 1 fetoprotein is not exclusively synthesized by embryonic or neoplastic tissues and also can be synthesized also by regenerating cell-systems. It may be supposed that this synthesis represents an unspecific answer to growth-stimulation. (orig.) [de

  12. Adenocarcinoma of the cervical esophagus arising in heterotopic gastric mucosa: exclusive chemoradiotherapy following a mucosal resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jestin-Letallec, V.; Muller, M.; Metges, J.P.; Bouchekoua, M.; Albarghach, N.; Pradier, O.

    2007-01-01

    Esophagus adenocarcinomas developing within heterotopic gastric mucosa are very rare and described to be found endoscopically in a prevalence of .29%. We report a case of cervical adenocarcinoma arising in ectopic gastric mucosa in a fifty-four year old man. The patient underwent a mucosal resection followed with exclusive chemoradiotherapy because of infiltration of the sub mucosa layer. A radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy ( 2 Gy/Fr, 30 Fr) was realized with a reduction of the fields at 50 Gy associated with a continuous 5FU-cisplatin combination after eliminating known mutation in the dihydro-pyrimidine of the dehydrogenase gene. for this tumor, surgery is the main treatment, (oesophagectomy associated with laryngo-pharyngectomy) and has an important repercussion on the quality of life. Because of the refusal of our patient, after a mucosal resection attempt, we proposed our patient a chemoradiotherapy. For the first time in the literature, we report the results of radio chemotherapy for this rare tumor. Eighteen months after the treatment, the patient is alive without sign of recurrence. The radio chemotherapy could be a safety treatment for this rare tumor associated with a good quality of life. A review of the literature since 1950 will be shown. (authors)

  13. Adenocarcinoma of the cervical esophagus arising in heterotopic gastric mucosa: exclusive chemoradiotherapy following a mucosal resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin-Letallec, V.; Muller, M.; Metges, J.P.; Bouchekoua, M.; Albarghach, N.; Pradier, O. [Departement de Cancerologie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2007-11-15

    Esophagus adenocarcinomas developing within heterotopic gastric mucosa are very rare and described to be found endoscopically in a prevalence of .29%. We report a case of cervical adenocarcinoma arising in ectopic gastric mucosa in a fifty-four year old man. The patient underwent a mucosal resection followed with exclusive chemoradiotherapy because of infiltration of the sub mucosa layer. A radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy ( 2 Gy/Fr, 30 Fr) was realized with a reduction of the fields at 50 Gy associated with a continuous 5FU-cisplatin combination after eliminating known mutation in the dihydro-pyrimidine of the dehydrogenase gene. for this tumor, surgery is the main treatment, (oesophagectomy associated with laryngo-pharyngectomy) and has an important repercussion on the quality of life. Because of the refusal of our patient, after a mucosal resection attempt, we proposed our patient a chemoradiotherapy. For the first time in the literature, we report the results of radio chemotherapy for this rare tumor. Eighteen months after the treatment, the patient is alive without sign of recurrence. The radio chemotherapy could be a safety treatment for this rare tumor associated with a good quality of life. A review of the literature since 1950 will be shown. (authors)

  14. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Badran Shoeib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the morphology and histomorphometry of stomach and gastric mucosa in western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus. The stomach was composed of three indistinctive separate parts namely sacciform forestomach, tubiform forestomach, and hindstomach. The tubiform forestomach was the main tubular section of the organ. The stomach had a compound lining. The non-glandular mucosa occupied the medial blind sac (MBS of the sacciform forestomach; the layer covered about one-third of the tubiform forestomach (non-glandular region and the entire length of the gastric sulcus. The glandular part lined the parietal blind sac (PBS of sacciform forestomach and the cardiac gland region of tubiform forestomach as well as fundic and pyloric gland regions of the hindstomach. The cardiac mucosa had smooth and folded areas; these were filled with mixed glands. In the fundic glands, the parietal cells outnumbered the chief cells. The pyloric glands were of serous-like in characteristics. In conclusion, gross and histological structures of the stomach of western grey kangaroo are adaptive with its food habitat, which allows thorough mixing of highly fibrous grasses.

  15. Application of the thiocarbohydrazide method for vicinal glycol group detection to the study of gastric mucosa endocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, G; Chung, Y T; Barrière, P; Pradal, G

    1980-01-01

    The thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate (TCH SP) method was applied to the study of cat, rabbit and mouse gastric mucosa endocrine cells. After 24-h treatment with thiocarbohydrazide (TCH), glycogen was seen in the hyaloplasm of X, D, P, A and O cells but not in EC, EC-like or D1 cells. With flotation times as short as 30 to 40 min glycogen was readily detected in X cells. Secretory granules of EC cells were constantly stained, while those of D1 cells failed to react. In most experiments granules of X, A and O cells showed peripheral "staining", while in others staining of variable intensity affected the entire granular cross-section in X, D and P cells. With 72-h exposure to TCH, EC and EC-like cells showed particles resembling glycogen, even staining or only peripheral staining of certain EC cell granules. From the results of this and previous studies, EC cell staining is believed to be due wholly or partly, according to exposure times, to the action of silver proteinate, while that of certain non-EC cells is probably a specific indicator of complexed carbohydrates.

  16. Remodeling of the residual gastric mucosa after roux-en-y gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrectomy in diet-induced obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Arapis

    Full Text Available Whereas the remodeling of intestinal mucosa after bariatric surgeries has been the matter of numerous studies to our knowledge, very few reported on the remodeling of the residual gastric mucosa. In this study, we analyzed remodeling of gastric mucosa after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG in rats. Diet-induced obese rats were subjected to RYGB, VSG or sham surgical procedures. All animals were assessed for food intake, body-weight, fasting blood, metabolites and hormones profiling, as well as insulin and glucose tolerance tests before and up to 5 weeks post-surgery. Remodeling of gastric tissues was analyzed by routine histology and immunohistochemistry studies, and qRT-PCR analyses of ghrelin and gastrin mRNA levels. In obese rats with impaired glucose tolerance, VSG and RYGB caused substantial weight loss and rats greatly improved their oral glucose tolerance. The remaining gastric mucosa after VSG and gastric pouch (GP after RYGB revealed a hyperplasia of the mucous neck cells that displayed a strong immunoreactivity for parietal cell H+/K+-ATPase. Ghrelin mRNA levels were reduced by 2-fold in remaining fundic mucosa after VSG and 10-fold in GP after RYGB. In the antrum, gastrin mRNA levels were reduced after VSG in line with the reduced number of gastrin positive cells. This study reports novel and important observations dealing with the remaining gastric mucosa after RYGB and VSG. The data demonstrate, for the first time, a hyperplasia of the mucous neck cells, a transit cell population of the stomach bearing differentiating capacities into zymogenic and peptic cells.

  17. EGFR and Bcl-2 in gastric mucosa of children infected with Helicobacter pylori

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    Ewa Ryszczuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins as inhibitory markers of apoptosis in surface epithelial cells and gland cells of antral gastric mucosa in children infected with Helicobacter pylori according to the severity and activity of antral gastritis and to assess the correlation between the number of cells expressing EGFR and the number of cells expressing Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Materials and methods: The study included 44 children: 68.2% with chronic gastritis and positive IgG against H. pylori, and 31.8% with functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and with normal IgG against H. pylori. The evaluation of EGFR expression in gastric mucosa was performed immunohistochemically using monoclonal mouse anti-EGFR antibody. The polyclonal antibody was used to determine the expression of anti-Bcl-2.Results: A significant increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was found in the epithelial cells in severe as well as mild and moderate gastritis in the group of children infected with H. pylori. An increase in the number of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 protein was also found in the epithelial cells in group I according to the activity of gastritis. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children.Conclusion: Increased expression of EGFR and Bcl-2 proteins in the epithelial cells and a statistically significant positive correlation between the numbers of cells expressing EGFR and Bcl-2 in H. pylori infected children could suggest increased regeneration abilities of gastric mucosa.

  18. Synergistic effect of the combination of gallic acid and famotidine in protection of rat gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokkumar, K; Sen, Saikat; Umamaheswari, M; Sivashanmugam, A T; Subhadradevi, V

    2014-08-01

    Antioxidant supplements with existing drugs may confer better therapeutic efficacy in oxidative stress related diseases. The purpose of the present work was to characterize the interaction and investigate the protective effect of H2 blocker famotidine and gallic acid in combination against experimentally induced peptic ulcer. Preventive effect of gallic acid and famotidine in different combinations was investigated against aspirin plus pyloric ligation induced ulcer in rat. Ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, other biochemical parameters of gastric juice and antioxidant activity using stomach tissue were estimated. Pretreatment with gallic acid and famotidine in combinations for 7 days, protected the gastric mucosa significantly (pacidity, total protein, pepsin and DNA content, and increase in pH, carbohydrates concentration in gastric juice. Combination treatment increases levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and decreases lipid peroxidation, myloperoxidase in stomach tissue. Along with higher dose combination, lower dose combinations like gallic acid (50mg/kg) plus famotidine (10mg/kg) also offered better antiulcer activity than their individual effect. Histopathological studies confirmed their antiulcer activity. Combination treatments confer synergistic protective effect against peptic ulcer in rats, which was related to the gastroprotective, antisecratory and antioxidant activity of combination treatment. Results proved that use of gallic acid with existing antiulcer drug will be more useful in the prevention/management of peptic ulcer. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL/Lcn2) is upregulated in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; Laerum, Ole Didrik; Illemann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    characterized here the pattern of expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in gastric mucosa (45 non-neoplastic and 38 neoplastic tissue samples) and explored the connection between NGAL/Lcn2 expression and H. pylori infection. Immunohistochemical analysis showed high NGAL/Lcn2 expression in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa...... compared to low expression in intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. In normal and gastritis-affected mucosa (n=36 tissue samples), NGAL/Lcn2 was more frequently seen in epithelial cells located at the neck and base of the glands in H. pylori-positive cases than in similar epithelial cells...... of noninfected cases (Fisher's exact test, p=0.04). In conclusion, the high expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa infected with H. pylori suggests that NGAL/Lcn2 is upregulated locally in response to this bacterial infection. It is discussed whether this may have a causal relation...

  20. The rare presentations of a large polyp and an esophageal carcinoma in heterotropic gastric mucosa: a case series

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    Alagozlu Hakan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM is commonly seen in the upper esophagus during endoscopyand is generally considered a benign disease. A hyperplastic polyp and an adenocarcinoma arising in heterotopic gastric mucosa are quite rare occurences. Case presentations We present two cases: The first is a patient who suffered from dysphagia because of a large hyperplastic polyp that arose from HGM; the polyp was excised endoscopically. Secondly, we report a rare case of adenocarcinoma arising in HGM of the cervical esophagus. Conclusion Morphologic changes or malignant transformation can develop in the inlet patch. Therefore, gastroenterologists should be aware of the possibility of HGM just distal to the upper esophageal sphincter.

  1. The effect of O-acetylsalicylic acid on lipid synthesis by guinea pig gastric mucosa in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spohn, M.; McColl, I.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the involvement of lipids as possible components of the gastric mucosal barrier by studying the synthesis and secretion of lipids by the epithelial cell lining of gastric mucosa and the effect of salicylate on these processes. O-Acetylsalicylic acid reversibly reduced in vitro incorporation of (U- 14 C) and of DL-(2- 14 C) mevalonic acid into lipids by isolated epithelial cells and by intact mucosa of guinea pig stomach, indicating reversible inhibition of lipid synthesis by the tissue in the presence of the drug. Inhibition of incorporation of both precursors into total lipids, into their fatty acid components, and into cholesterol is demonstrated

  2. The effect of experimental gastric dilatation-volvulus on adenosine triphosphate content and conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Peycke, Laura E.; Hosgood, Giselle; Davidson, Jacqueline R.; Tetens, Joanne; Taylor, H. Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if experimental gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) would decrease adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and increase membrane conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa. Male dogs (n = 15) weighing between 20 and 30 kg were used. Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equal groups: Group 1 was control, group 2 was GDV, and group 3 was ischemia. All dogs were anesthetized for 210 min. Group 1 had no manipulation. Group 2 had GDV experim...

  3. Histopathology of the gastric oxyntic mucosa in two different patient groups during long-term treatment with omeprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hage, Esther; Hendel, Lene; Gustafsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypochlorhydria, hypergastrinaemia, inflammation and Helicobacter pylori infection, dose and duration of omeprazole treatment may separately, or in combination, influence the proliferation of enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and parietal cell changes in gastric mucosa. To assess the ...... of gastric mucosal inflammation, omeprazole dose, duration of treatment and acid inhibition. The level of gastrin secretion and high plasma gastrin appear to accelerate ECL cell proliferation and parietal cell changes possibly influenced by chronic gastritis and H. pylori infection....

  4. Probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa: effects on cell proliferation and polyamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Orlando, Antonella

    2014-10-07

    Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The internationally accepted definition of probiotics is live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract following probiotic administration have been investigated in vitro and in animal models, as well as in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from different human gastrointestinal diseases. Although several evidences are available on the use of probiotics against the carcinogen Helicobacter pylori, little is still known about the potential cross-interactions among probiotics, the composition and quality of intestinal flora and the neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa. In this connection, a significant role in cell proliferation is played by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). These small amines are required in both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue to sustain the cell growth and the evidences here provided suggest that probiotics may act as antineoplastic agents in the stomach by affecting also the polyamine content and functions. This review will summarize data on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa and in particular on their ability in modulating cell proliferation, paying attention to the polyamine metabolism.

  5. Low concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa are associated with increased severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempértegui, Fernando; Díaz, Myriam; Mejía, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Mora, Oswaldo G; Rentería, Edgar; Guarderas, Carlos; Estrella, Bertha; Recalde, Ramiro; Hamer, Davidson H; Reeves, Philip G

    2007-02-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori induces oxidative stress while zinc deficiency results in increased sensitivity to it. In Ecuador, the prevalence of gastric cancer and zinc deficiency are high. We hypothesized that zinc deficiency in Ecuadorian people would cause increased H. pylori-induced inflammation in the gastric mucosa associated with lower tissue zinc concentrations. Three hundred and fifty-two patients with dyspepsia underwent endoscopy to obtain gastric mucosa biopsies. Diagnosis of H. pylori infection and its severity, histopathology, mucosal zinc concentration, and inflammation intensity were determined. H. pylori-infected patients with non-atrophic chronic gastritis had lower concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa than uninfected patients with the same type of gastritis (251.3 +/- 225.3 vs. 426.2 +/- 279.9 ng/mg of protein; p = .016). Considering all patients, the more severe the H. pylori infection, the higher the percentage of subjects with infiltration by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells (p = .0001). Patients with high PMN infiltration had lower mucosal zinc concentrations than patients with low PMN infiltration (35.2 +/- 20.7 vs. 242.9 +/- 191.8 ng/mg of protein; p = .021). The degree of inflammation in H. pylori-induced gastritis appears to be modulated by gastric tissue zinc concentrations.

  6. Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of dead children Helicobacter pylori en la mucosa gástrica de cadáveres de niños

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    John Jairo Duque Alzate

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available 23 children under the age of 12 years who died violently without receiving any treatment, had their gastric mucosa studied by means of he Warthin-Starry stain and immunohistochemistry in search for Helicobacter pylori. It was found that 60.9% (14 cases were positive; of them 64,3% belonged to a low social class and 35,7% to the middle one. Of the positive cases, 9 had acute gastritis, 1 had chronic gastritis and only 4 had normal gastric mucosa. A clear association between Helicobacter pylory and changes in gastritis was observed. En 23 niños menores de 12 años que murieron en forma violenta sin haber recibido tratamiento, se estudiaron para Helicobacter pylori las mucosas gástricas con las coloraciones de hematoxilina eosina, Warthin Starry e inmunohistoquímica. Se encontró que 14 casos (60,9% fueron positivos para esta bacteria, de los cuales 9 (64,3% pertenecían a un estrato social bajo y 5 (35,7% a uno medio. De los casos positivos para H. pylori, 9 tenían gastritis aguda, 1 gastritis crónica y sólo en 4 la mucosa gástrica era normal. Se observó una clara asociación entre H. pylori y cambios de gastritis.

  7. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and Helicobacter pylori infection: A Colombian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sally Yepes; Maria Mercedes Torres; Carlos Saavedra; Rafael Andrade

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the significance of chromosome translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21),B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL-10)protein and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in Colombia.METHODS:Fifty cases of gastric MALT lymphoma and their respective post-treatment follow-up biopsies were examined to assess the presence of the translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) as identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization; to detect protein expression patterns of BCL10 using immunohistochemistry; and for evaluation of tumor histology to determine the correlation of these factors and resistance to H.pylori eradication.RESULTS:Infection with H.pylori was confirmed in all cases of gastric MALT lymphoma in association with chronic gastritis.Bacterial eradication led to tumor regression in 66% of cases.The translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) was not present in any of these cases,nor was there evidence of tumor transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Thirty-four percent of the patients showed resistance to tumor regression,and within this group,7 cases,representing 14% of all those analyzed,were considered to be t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive gastric MALT lymphomas.Protein expression of BCL10 in the nucleus was associated with the presence of translocation and treatment resistance.Cases that were considered unresponsive to therapy were histologically characterized by the presence of homogeneous tumor cells and a lack of plasmacytic differentiation.Responder cases exhibited higher cellular heterogeneity and a greater frequency of plasma cells.CONCLUSION:Both t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphoma cases and those with nuclear BCL10 expression are considered resistant to H,pylori eradication.It is suggested that chronic antigenic stimulation is not a dominant event in resistant cases.

  8. Expression of vasoactive proteins in gastric antral mucosa reflects vascular dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebicka, Jonel; Wix, Cyrus; von Heydebrand, Matthias; Hittatiya, Kanishka; Reiberger, Thomas; Klein, Sabine; Schierwagen, Robert; Kristiansen, Glen; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Krag, Aleksander; Sauerbruch, Tilman

    2015-04-01

    Patients with cirrhosis display hypocontractility of splanchnic vessels because of dysregulation of vasoactive proteins, such as decreased effect of RhoA/ROCK and increased activity of β-Arrestin-2 and eNOS. However, it is unknown whether the dysregulation of vasoactive proteins is displayed in other vessels. We investigated whether expression of vasoactive proteins can be evaluated in gastric mucosa vessels. Biopsies from the gastric mucosa of 111 patients with cirrhosis were collected at three different centres and from 13 controls. Forty-nine patients had received TIPS. Portal pressure gradient was measured in 49 patients with TIPS and in 16 patients without TIPS. Biopsies from the antrum were conserved in formaldehyde for immunohistochemistry or shock-frozen for PCR and Western blot. The mucosal transcription of vascular markers (αSMA, CD31) was higher in cirrhotic patients than controls, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. On average, relative mucosal levels of RhoA and ROCK were lower, while β-Arrestin-2 levels were higher in cirrhotic patients compared to controls. Transcriptional levels of eNOS increased with presence of ascites and grade of oesophageal varices. Patients with TIPS showed less pronounced markers of vascular dysfunction in gastric mucosa. This is the first evidence that the expression of vasoactive proteins in mucosa from the gastric antrum of patients with cirrhosis reflects their vascular dysfunction and possibly changes after therapeutic interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Local Immune Homeostasis of Gastric Mucosa in Chronic CagA-positive Hр-associated Gastritis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ye. Abaturov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deal with study of lymphocyte-macrophage link of the gastric mucosa local immunity in Hр-associated chronic gastritis, taking into account the presence of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA Hр through a standard morphological examination according to the Modified Sydney System and immunohistochemical studies of biopsy specimens.

  10. Qualitative analysis of barium particles coated in small intestinal mucosa of rabbit by using scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Yang Seob; Kim, Jae Kyun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Kim, Jung Hoon; Chung, Dong Jin; Auh, Yong Ho

    1998-01-01

    To qualitatively analysed barium coating status in the intestinal mucosa, we used scanning electron microscopy to observe barium particles coated in the small intestinal mucosa of rabbit, and we attempted to assess the relationship between electron microscopic findings and radiographic densities. Six different combination of barium and methylcellulose suspensions were infused into the resected small intestines of 15 rabbits. Barium powders were mixed with water to make 40% and 70% w/v barium solutions, and also mixed with 0.5% methylcellulose solutions were used as a double contrast agent. After the infusion of barium suspensions, a mammography unit was used to obtain radiographs of the small intestine, and their optical densities were measured by a densitometer. Thereafter, photographs of barium-coated small intestinal mucosa were obtained using a scanning electron microscope (x 8,000), and the number of barium particles in the unit area were measured. To compare the relationship between the electron microscopic findings and optical densities, statistical analysis using Spearman correlation was performed. This study shows that by using scanning electron microscopy, barium particles coated on the small intestinal mucosa can be qualitatively analysed. It also shows that the number of small barium particles measured by scanning electron microscopy is related to optical densities. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  11. Atrophic and Metaplastic Progression in the Background Mucosa of Patients with Gastric Adenoma.

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    Hee Kyong Na

    Full Text Available In patients with adenoma, assessing premalignant changes in the surrounding mucosa is important for surveillance. This study evaluated atrophic and metaplastic progression in the background mucosa of adenoma or early gastric cancer (EGC cases.Among 146 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic resection for intestinal-type gastric neoplasia, the adenoma group included 56 patients with low-grade dysplasia and the ECG group included 90 patients with high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. For histology, 3 paired biopsies were obtained from the antrum, corpus lesser curvature (CLC, and corpus greater curvature (CGC. Serological atrophy was determined based on pepsinogen A (PGA, progastricsin (PGC, gastrin-17, and total ghrelin levels. Topographic progression of atrophy and/or metaplasia was staged using the operative link on gastritis assessment (OLGA and operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM systems.Rates of moderate-to-marked histological atrophy/metaplasia in patients with adenoma were 52.7%/78.2% at the antrum (vs. 58.8%/76.4% in EGC group, 63.5%/75.0% at the CLC (vs. 60.2%/69.7% in EGC group, and 10.9%/17.9% at the CGC (vs. 5.6%/7.8% in EGC group. Serological atrophy indicated by PGA and PGC occurred in 23.2% and 15.6% of cases in the adenoma and ECG groups, respectively (p = 0.25. Mean serum gastrin-17 concentrations of the adenoma group and EGC group were 10.4 and 9.0 pmol/L, respectively (p = 0.54. Mean serum total ghrelin levels were 216.6 and 209.5 pg/mL, respectively (p = 0.71. Additionally, between group rates of stage III-IV OLGA and OLGIM were similar (25.9% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.90; 41.8% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.71, respectively.Atrophic and metaplastic progression is extensive and severe in gastric adenoma patients. A surveillance strategy for metachronous tumors should be applied similarly for patients with adenoma or EGC.

  12. Location of the carbohydrates present in the HK-ATPase vesicles isolated from hog gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, K.; Perez, G.; Anderson, D.; Gutierrez, C.; Munson, K.; Hersey, S.J.; Kaplan, J.H.; Sachs, G.

    1990-01-01

    The glycosylation of H+K(+)-ATPase vesicles isolated from hog gastric mucosa was investigated by various methods. Following protein separation on sodium dodecyl sulfate reducing gels and transfer to poly(vinyl difluoride) membranes, binding of concanavalin A was confined to the 94-kDa band which corresponds to the catalytic subunit. In contrast, wheat germ agglutinin binding occurred in a region below the 94-kDa subunit, corresponding to the 60-85-kDa region, and also to protein just above the catalytic subunit. Treatment with glycopeptidase F removed most of the concanavalin A staining and also the wheat germ agglutinin staining found below the 94-kDa region, but spared the higher molecular weight wheat germ agglutinin reactive material. During the deglycosylation experiments a protein of 35-kDa was produced. Sequencing analysis of V8 protease generated peptide fragments of the 35-kDa protein show at least 30% homology with the Na+K(+)-ATPase beta-subunits. Labeling of the carbohydrates by galactosyltransferase and [3H]uridine diphosphate-galactose showed that the sites of labeling were extracellular and were confined to the wheat germ agglutinin staining regions. Two molecular weight regions, below the 94-kDa region, of 60 and 85 kDa were identified. Electron microscopy using postembedding staining techniques showed that both concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin staining occurred on the extracellular face of the gastric vesicles

  13. Pepsinogens I and II: purification from gastric mucosa and radioimmunoassay in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samloff, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II were purified from gastric mucosa and used to develop a radioimmunoassay for pepsinogen II and an improved radioimmunoassay for pepsinogen I. Each immunochemically homogeneous preparation contained only its characteristic components by radioelectophoretic analysis, and migrated as a singly band in polyacrylamide gel. The mean (+/- SD) level of serum pepsinogen II in 42 healthy control subjects was 10,8 +/- 3.8 ng/ml, significantly less (p less than 0.001) than the level of pepsinogen I, which was 62.9 +/- 22.2 ng/ml. The correlation between serum pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II was highly significant (r . 0.700, p less than 0.001) in these subjects. In 20 patients with pernicious anemia the mean serum pepsinogen II level was 10.6 +/- 2.5 ng/ml, not different from normal, but significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the level of pepsinogen I which was 5.9 +/- 4.7 ng/ml. IN 10 patients with total gastrectomy, serum pepsinogen I was 3.9 +/- 3.1 ng/ml and serum pepsinogen II was 3.2 +/- 3.1 ng/ml; both values were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the corresponding levels in pernicious anemia. The predominance of pepsinogen I in the serum of healthy control subjects suggests that either the gastric chief cell normally releases more pepsinogen I than pepsinogen II into the circulation or that pepsinogen I has longer metabolic clearance rate than pepsinogen II. The marked decrease in serum pepsinogen I in patients with pernicious anemia is best explained by a loss of gastric chief cells due to severe atropic gastritis of the fundic glands. The normal distribution of serum pepsinogen II levels in these patients may reflect an increased number of pyloric glands due to pyloric gland metaplasia of the proximal stomach

  14. The study of cell homeostasis state of the gastric mucosa of rats on model of rheumatoid arthritis , treatment with ibuprofen and its combination with vinboron

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    F. V. Hladkykh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of NSAIDs in clinical practice is known for a significant reduction of side effects risks, among which the largest share of toxic effects on the digestive system. At the same time, the attention of researchers is increasingly payed to a specific syndrome associated with application of this group of drugs – NSAIDs gastropathy, with necrosis of epithelial cells as a possible morphological substrate. However, as the recent studies have shown, necrosis is not the only, but also is not the main cause of cell death. Apoptosis, the programmed cell death, is observed more often than necrosis. Besides, ulcerogenesis problem is closely linked to the ability of the gastric mucosa epithelium to adequate regeneration. This necessitates a search for the ways to correct the effect of non-steroidal antiphlogistics on the processes of apoptosis and proliferous activity of epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa. Materials and methods. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin sections using streptavidin-biotin method (“DAKO”, Denmark; LSAB2 Systems, HRP. Antigen unmasking was performed in citrate buffer pH 6.0. Mice`s and rabbit`s monoclonal antibodies were used as the primary antibodies. The cell nuclei were colored with Mayer’s hematoxylin for 15-60 seconds. Condition gastric epithelial proliferative activity was studied using a mouse monoclonal antibody to nuclear antigen Ki-67 (“DAKO”, MIB-1 clone, Denmark as a sensitive marker of proliferation by T. Scholzen. To characterize the activity of apoptosis the expression of CPP32 (caspase-3 in the gastric mucosa was examined, using semiquantitative rating scale color intensity of 0 (none – no positive reactions in cells, 1 (weak – up to 30% of the cells reacted positively 2 (moderate – 31-60%, and 3 (strong – 60% more stained cells.Results and Discussion. Analysis of the results of immunohistochemical expression

  15. Effects of long-term acid suppressants with ranitidine and omeprazole on gastric mucosa

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    P C Alexander

    2013-01-01

    suppressants irrespective of the H. pylori status are not associated with significant histological changes in gastric mucosa. Despite a significant drop out of cases, among the cases followed up no significant progression in histological staging was seen during a one year follow-up.

  16. Efecto secuestrador del D-002 sobre radicales hidroxilo en mucosa gástrica Scavenger effect of D-002 on hydroxyl radicals in the gastric mucosa

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    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el agente causal de la ulceración gástrica está asociado al desequilibrio entre factores agresivos y defensivos que actúan sobre la mucosa gástrica. El D-002, mezcla de seis alcoholes alifáticos primarios superiores purificada de la cera de abejas, produce efectos gastroprotectores mediados por múltiples mecanismos y reducción de la peroxidación lipídica en la mucosa gástrica. Objetivo: determinar si el D-002 es capaz de capturar el radical hidroxilo añadido in vitro o generado in vivo en ratas con úlcera gástrica inducida por indometacina. Métodos: En la experiencia in vitro el D-002 se añadió a concentraciones entre 0,9 y 1 000 mg/mL. En la experiencia in vivo las ratas se distribuyeron en seis grupos: un control negativo y cinco que recibieron indometacina: un control positivo tratado con el vehículo, tres con D-002 (5, 25, y 100 mg/kg, respectivamente, p.o. y otro con omeprazol (20 mg/kg i.p.. Los tratamientos se administraron una hora (vehículo y D-002 o 30 min (omeprazol, respectivamente, antes de inducir las úlceras. En ambas experiencias se tomaron alícuotas de mucosa gástrica, y se determinó el daño a la 2-desoxirribosa por el radical hidroxilo. Resultados: la administración oral del D-002, no in vitro, protegió a la 2-desoxirribosa del daño oxidativo de modo marcado, significativo y dependiente de la dosis con respecto al control positivo. Conclusiones: los resultados indican que la capacidad del D-002 (25 y 100 mg/kg administrado por vía oral para secuestrar el radical hidroxilo, generado en la mucosa gástrica por la indometacina, pudiera contribuir a sus efectos antioxidantes y gastroprotectores sobre el daño que los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos producen sobre la mucosa gástrica.Introduction: the etiology of the gastric ulceration is associated to the imbalance between aggressive and defensive factors acting upon the gastric mucosa. D-002, a mixture of 6 higher primary alcohols

  17. Immunoexpression of CD95 in chronic gastritis and gastric mucosa-associated lymphomas

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    Vassallo J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CD95 (Fas/APO-1-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in immunological regulation and is related to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Immunoexpression of CD95 has been reported to frequently occur in low grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas, especially of post-germinal center histogenesis, among which those originating in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas. However, there is no report comparing in situ immunoexpression of this marker in lymphomas and the hyperplastic lymphoid reaction (chronic gastritis related to Helicobacter pylori infection. The purpose of the present research was to compare the intensity of lymphoid CD95 immunoexpression in 15 cases of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis and 15 gastric MALT lymphomas. CD95 (anti-CD95 was detected by an immunoperoxidase technique in paraffin sections using the catalyzed amplification system. Graduation of reaction intensity (percentage of CD95-positive cells was semiquantitative, from 1+ to 4+. Nine cases of chronic gastritis were 4+, five 2+ and one 1+. Three lymphomas were 4+, three 3+, four 2+, four 1+, and one was negative. Although 14 of 15 lymphomas were positive for CD95, the intensity of the reaction was significantly weaker compared to that obtained with gastric tissue for patients with gastritis (P = 0.03. The difference in CD95 immunoexpression does not seem to be useful as an isolated criterion in the differential diagnosis between chronic gastritis and MALT lymphomas since there was overlapping of immunostaining patterns. However, it suggests the possibility of a pathogenetic role of this apoptosis-regulating protein in MALT lymphomas.

  18. [The staphylococcal enterotoxin burden determines the ultrastructure of ciliated epithelia and inflammatory changes in maxillary sinus mucosa of rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongqi; Zhu, Zhengwen; Cao, Zhongsheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Xiaofan; Yuan, Hui

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the ultrastructure of ciliated epithelia and inflammatory changes upon repeated exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) of different concentrations in the maxillary sinus mucosa of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (24 rabbits per group): low-dose SEA group and high-dose SEA group. The low-dose SEA group and high-dose SEA group received daily injections of 0.6 ng of SEA (2 ml) and 60 ng of SEA (2 ml) into the left maxillary sinus of rabbits for 28 days, respectively. Concurrent treatment of the right maxillary sinus with normal saline was used as control. Six rabbits chosen randomly in two groups were examined by computed tomography (CT) scans and then sacrificed to obtain the sinus mucosa from the two-side of maxillary sinuses for histological assessment on days 3, 7, 14 and 28. To characterize the inflammatory changes of the sinus mucosa examined using light microscope, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and toluidine blue staining was performed. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed to observe ultrastructure of ciliated epithelia in the maxillary sinus mucosa. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. On days 14 and 28, CT images showed opacification of the left maxillary sinus in the high-dose SEA group. The percentage of epithelial disruption was (22.73 ± 5.72) % and (30.79 ± 4.30)% in the high-dose SEA group respectively, and were significantly greater than those in the low-dose SEA group (5.12% ± 1.98% and 5.38% ± 1.64%, q value was 10.079 and 19.132) and control group (4.08% ± 1.29% and 4.81% ± 1.62%, q value was 11.016 and 19.592, respectively, all P microscope, loss of cilia was observed, a few compound cilia and cytoplasmic protrusion were found, an obvious stretching of the endoplasmic reticulum and an obvious turgescence of the mitochondria was also observed. However, in the low-dose SEA group on days 14 and 28, CT scan of the left maxillary sinus showed transparency; light

  19. Effects on gastric mucosa induced by dental bleaching – an experimental study with 6% hydrogen peroxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Baptista PAULA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The value of aesthetic dentistry has precipitated several developments in the investigation of dental materials related to this field. The free marketing of these products is a problem and it is subject to various interpretations regarding its legality. There are several techniques for tooth whitening, the most used one being the external bleaching. It is the later version of such technique that poses the greatest danger of ingesting the product. The present study analysed the systemic effect of these products when they are swallowed.Objective This experimental study aimed to observe the effects of a tooth whitening product, whose active agent is 6% hydrogen peroxide, on the gastric mucosa of healthy and non-tumour gastric pathology animals.Material and Methods Fifty Wistar-Han rats were used and then distributed into 5 groups, one for control and four test groups in which the bleaching product was administered in animals with and without non-tumour gastric pathology (induced by the administration of 1 sample of 50% ethanol and 5% of drinking water during 6 days at different times of study by gavage. There was a decrease in body weight in animals of groups handled during the study period, which was most pronounced in IV and VA groups. Changes in spleen weight relative to body weight revealed no statistically significant changes. An analysis of the frequency was performed on the results of macroscopic observation of the gastric mucosa.Results The gastric mucosa revealed lesions in all manipulated groups, being more frequent in groups III and IV. It appears that there is a synergism when using hydrogen peroxide and 50% ethanol in the same group.Conclusion Therefore, it seems that there are some signs of toxicity 3 to 4 days after administration of 6% hydrogen peroxide. The prescription of these therapies must be controlled by the clinician and the risks must be minimized.

  20. Effects on gastric mucosa induced by dental bleaching--an experimental study with 6% hydrogen peroxide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Anabela Baptista; Dias, Maria Isabel; Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Carrilho, Teresa; Marto, Carlos Miguel; Casalta, João; Cabrita, António Silvério; Carrilho, Eunice

    2015-10-01

    The value of aesthetic dentistry has precipitated several developments in the investigation of dental materials related to this field. The free marketing of these products is a problem and it is subject to various interpretations regarding its legality. There are several techniques for tooth whitening, the most used one being the external bleaching. It is the later version of such technique that poses the greatest danger of ingesting the product. The present study analysed the systemic effect of these products when they are swallowed. This experimental study aimed to observe the effects of a tooth whitening product, whose active agent is 6% hydrogen peroxide, on the gastric mucosa of healthy and non-tumour gastric pathology animals. Fifty Wistar-Han rats were used and then distributed into 5 groups, one for control and four test groups in which the bleaching product was administered in animals with and without non-tumour gastric pathology (induced by the administration of 1 sample of 50% ethanol and 5% of drinking water during 6 days) at different times of study by gavage. There was a decrease in body weight in animals of groups handled during the study period, which was most pronounced in IV and VA groups. Changes in spleen weight relative to body weight revealed no statistically significant changes. An analysis of the frequency was performed on the results of macroscopic observation of the gastric mucosa. The gastric mucosa revealed lesions in all manipulated groups, being more frequent in groups III and IV. It appears that there is a synergism when using hydrogen peroxide and 50% ethanol in the same group. Therefore, it seems that there are some signs of toxicity 3 to 4 days after administration of 6% hydrogen peroxide. The prescription of these therapies must be controlled by the clinician and the risks must be minimized.

  1. Effects on gastric mucosa induced by dental bleaching – an experimental study with 6% hydrogen peroxide in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAULA, Anabela Baptista; DIAS, Maria Isabel; FERREIRA, Manuel Marques; CARRILHO, Teresa; MARTO, Carlos Miguel; CASALTA, João; CABRITA, António Silvério; CARRILHO, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    The value of aesthetic dentistry has precipitated several developments in the investigation of dental materials related to this field. The free marketing of these products is a problem and it is subject to various interpretations regarding its legality. There are several techniques for tooth whitening, the most used one being the external bleaching. It is the later version of such technique that poses the greatest danger of ingesting the product. The present study analysed the systemic effect of these products when they are swallowed. Objective This experimental study aimed to observe the effects of a tooth whitening product, whose active agent is 6% hydrogen peroxide, on the gastric mucosa of healthy and non-tumour gastric pathology animals. Material and Methods Fifty Wistar-Han rats were used and then distributed into 5 groups, one for control and four test groups in which the bleaching product was administered in animals with and without non-tumour gastric pathology (induced by the administration of 1 sample of 50% ethanol and 5% of drinking water during 6 days) at different times of study by gavage. There was a decrease in body weight in animals of groups handled during the study period, which was most pronounced in IV and VA groups. Changes in spleen weight relative to body weight revealed no statistically significant changes. An analysis of the frequency was performed on the results of macroscopic observation of the gastric mucosa. Results The gastric mucosa revealed lesions in all manipulated groups, being more frequent in groups III and IV. It appears that there is a synergism when using hydrogen peroxide and 50% ethanol in the same group. Conclusion Therefore, it seems that there are some signs of toxicity 3 to 4 days after administration of 6% hydrogen peroxide. The prescription of these therapies must be controlled by the clinician and the risks must be minimized. PMID:26537721

  2. Autoradiographic investigation of proliferative processes of the gastric mucosa of patients suffering from chronic atrophic gastritis, hyperplastic mucous polypi or ulcus ventriculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbeck, L.; Guetz, H.J.; Wildner, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    A series of pathological changes of the gastric mucosa such as ulcers hyperplastic polypi and intestinal metaplasias are accompanied with an increased 3 H-thymidine incorporation into the mucosa. This disorder of the regulation of DNA synthesis is important as to the diagnosis of stomach cancer, but it is unsuitable as screening test in early recognition

  3. Development of Organogel-Derived Capsaicin Nanoemulsion with Improved Bioaccessibility and Reduced Gastric Mucosa Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Muwen; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-06-15

    Capsaicin (CAP) is the major active component in chili peppers with health-promoting benefits. However, the low bioavailability and irritating quality of CAP greatly limit its applications in functional foods. The objective of this study was to develop a food-grade nanoemulsion to increase the dissolution and bioaccessibility of CAP and to alleviate its irritating effects. To achieve this goal, CAP was first dissolved in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), followed by the addition of sucrose stearate S-370 as organogelator to develop CAP-loaded organogel. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was formed using organogel as the oil phase and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. After ultrasonication treatment, droplet sizes of emulsion were decreased to 168 nm with enhanced dissolution rate and bioaccessibility. In vivo study further confirmed the reduced rat gastric mucosa irritation caused by CAP. The organogel-derived nanoemulsion was proved to be an effective delivery system for CAP-based functional food products.

  4. Establishment and identification of a rabbit model of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Lie-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Li; Hassan, Alaa Hammed al-shammaa; Yonemura, Yutaka; Li, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis is a common clinical problem, but there are no suitable large animal models to study this problem. This study was to establish a stable rabbit peritoneal carcinomatosis model of gastric cancer using VX2 tumor, and analyze the clinico-pathological features. VX2 tumor was implanted into 36 New Zealand rabbits by 3 methods: laparotomic orthotopic injection of cancer cells into the submucosal layer of the stomach (Group A), laparotomic implantation of tumor tissue into the greater omentum immediately beneath the gastric antrum (Group B), and percutaneous injection of tumor cells directly into the peritoneal cavity (Group C), 12 rabbits in each group. The animals were closely observed and detailed clinico-pathological studies were conducted. The success rates of peritoneal carcinomatosis formation were 100% (12/12), 91.7% (11/12) and 58.3% (7/12), respectively, for Groups A, B and C (P = 0.019, A versus C; P = 0.077, B versus C; P = 0.500, A versus B, Fisher's exact test). Two weeks after submucosal cancer cells injection in Group A, ulcerative gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis showed typical VX2 tumor pathology, with widespread intraperitoneal metastatic nodules, bloody ascites and perspicuous pulmonary metastases. The clinico-pathological progression pattern was very similar to patients of advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Groups B and C showed similar pattern of cancer progression, but less aggressive. First large animal model of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer has been established by laparotomic orthotopic injection of VX2 cancer cells into the submucosal layer of the stomach, providing a more suitable model for surgical interventional studies. The clinico-pathological features of this model resemble human peritoneal carcinomatosis

  5. Immunohistochemical and radioimmunological demonstration of alpha/sub 1/-fetoprotein in nonmalignant changes of human gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falser, N; Lederer, B; Reissigl, H [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Pathologisch-Anatomisches Lab.; Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Gastroenterologisches Lab.)

    1977-07-01

    The occurence of ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fetoprotein in nonmalignant changes of the gastric mucosa was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry and radioimmunonoassay. The investigations were performed in tissue sections, cytological imprint preparations as well as in homogenized tissue samples (obtained by gastroscopy). ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fetoprotein could be demonstrated by immuno-histochemistry in about 90% of the samples originating from the surroundings of gastric ulcer and the region of gastrojejunostomy after B II-resection. The RIA was positive in about 75% of the tissue samples, whereas from gastric juice only 40% of positive results could be obtained. No ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fetoprotein-activity could be demonstrated in serum samples. These investigations indicate that ..cap alpha../sub 1/ fetoprotein is not exclusively synthesized by embryonic or neoplastic tissues and also can be synthesized also by regenerating cell-systems. It may be supposed that this synthesis represents an unspecific answer to growth-stimulation.

  6. The effect of experimental gastric dilatation-volvulus on adenosine triphosphate content and conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peycke, Laura E; Hosgood, Giselle; Davidson, Jacqueline R; Tetens, Joanne; Taylor, H Wayne

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if experimental gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) would decrease adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and increase membrane conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa. Male dogs (n = 15) weighing between 20 and 30 kg were used. Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equal groups: Group 1 was control, group 2 was GDV, and group 3 was ischemia. All dogs were anesthetized for 210 min. Group 1 had no manipulation. Group 2 had GDV experimentally induced for 120 min followed by decompression, derotation, and reperfusion for 90 min. Group 3 had GDV experimentally induced for 210 min. Gastric (fundus and pylorus) and jejunal tissue was taken at 0, 120, and 210 min from all of the dogs. Tissue was analyzed for ATP concentration, mucosal conductance, and microscopic changes. The ATP concentration in the fundus did not change significantly from baseline in group 2, but decreased significantly below baseline at 210 min in group 3. The ATP concentration in the jejunum decreased significantly below baseline in groups 2 and 3 at 120 min, remaining significantly decreased in group 3 but returning to baseline at 210 min in group 2. Mucosal conductance of the fundus did not change significantly in any dog. Mucosal conductance of the jejunum increased at 120 min in groups 2 and 3, and became significantly increased above baseline at 210 min. The jejunal mucosa showed more profound cellular changes than the gastric mucosa. The jejunum showed substantial decreases in ATP concentration with an increase in mucosal conductance, suggesting cell membrane dysfunction. Dogs sustaining a GDV are likely to have a change in the activity of mucosal cells in the jejunum, which may be important in the pathophysiology of GDV.

  7. Influence of duodenogastric reflux in the gastric mucosa histological changes of rats infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, José Carlos Ribeiro DE; Carvalho, Jorge José DE; Serra, Humberto Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the influence of Duodenal reflux in histological changes of the gastric mucosa of rats infected with Helicobacter pylori submitted to pyloroplasty. after two weeks of acclimation, we infected 30 male Wistar rats with Helicobacter pylori. We randomly divided them into three groups: one submitted to pyloroplasty, another to partial gastrectomy and the third, only infected, was not operated. After six months of surgery, euthanasia was carried out. Gastric fragments were studied by light microscopy to count the number of H. pylori, and to observe the histological changes (gastritis, metaplasia, dysplasia and neoplasia). We confirmed these changes by immunohistochemistry using the molecular markers PCNA and TGF-beta. the animals submitted to pyloroplasty had higher percentage of colonization by H. pylori (median=58.5; gastrectomy=16.5; control=14.5). There was a positive correlation between the amount of H. pylori and the occurrence of chronic gastritis present in the antral fragments. Neoplasia occurred in 40% of rats from the group submitted to pyloroplasty. The staining with PCNA and TGF-ß confirmed the histopathological changes visualized by optical microscopy. the antral region was the one with the highest concentration of H. pylori, regardless of the group. There was a positive correlation between the appearance of benign disorders (chronic gastritis, metaplasia, dysplasia) and cancer in mice infected with H. pylori submitted to pyloroplasty. avaliar a influência do refluxo duodenogástrico nas alterações histológicas da mucosa gástrica de ratos, infectados por Helicobacter pylori, submetidos à piloroplastia. após duas semanas de aclimatação, 30 ratos machos da raça Wistar, foram infectados com o microorganismo patogênico H. pylori. De forma aleatória, foram divididos em três grupos: um submetido à piloroplastia, outro à gastrectomia parcial e o terceiro, apenas infectados, não foi operado. Após seis meses de operados, procedeu-se a

  8. Esophageal motility and 24-h pH profiles of patients with heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Esin; Bektaş, Mehmet; Alkan, Murat; Ustün, Yusuf; Meco, Cem; Ozden, Ali; Soykan, Irfan

    2010-02-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa occurs as a flat island of red mucosa in the proximal third of the esophagus where it gives rise to the cervical inlet patch. The aims of this study were to investigate the esophageal motility pattern and 24-h pH profiles of patients with cervical inlet patch. Thirty patients (16 women, mean age: 44.9 years, range: 23-72) diagnosed as having heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus with upper gastrointestinal symptoms had undergone esophageal motility testing and 24-h pH monitorisation with a double-channel pH probe. Manometric investigation was abnormal in 7 patients (non-specific esophageal motor disorder in 4 patients, esophageal hypomotility in 1 patient, and hypotensive LES in 2 patients). Pathological acid reflux (pHesophagus (percentage of total time of pHmotor dysfunction and "acid independent episodes" from the patches. These abnormalities may be responsible for some of the symptoms of HGM patients. Copyright 2009 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gastric lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type: longterm treatment results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Claire Y; Kachnic, Lisa A; Daly, William; Younger, Jerry; Harris, Nancy L; Graeme-Cook, Fiona

    1995-07-01

    Objective: In recent years, a large proportion of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the stomach are recognized as low grade tumors of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. Since the MALT morphological subtype has only gained acceptance as a malignant lymphoma after the establishment of the Working Formulation, there is limited information about its natural history, disease pattern, and longterm treatment outcome. This study is an analysis of these parameters in patients with primary MALT lymphoma of the stomach. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma who received definitive treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between (4(78)) and (2(95)) were included in the study. The diagnosis was pathologically verified in all cases. Clinical staging studies included chest X-ray +/- chest CT, abdomino-pelvic CT or bipedal lymphangiogram, barium swallow, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment strategies included combinations of partial or total gastrectomy, radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (chemo). RT was given via multifield technique, with 10-25MV photons, to doses of 36-50.4 Gy (1.1-1.8 Gy per fraction, 5 days a week). Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier actuarial method. Results: There were twenty-two patients between the ages of 45 - 93 years, with a mean follow-up of 67 months. Ten were male and 12 female. The most frequent presenting symptoms were epigastric pain (77%), dyspepsia (65%), and melena (41%). The mean duration of symptoms was 27 months. Eighteen cases were clinical stage (cs)I, two csII, one csIII, and one csIV. The treatment approaches were: 1) csI:6 gastrectomy alone, 7 gastrectomy and RT, 1 gastrectomy and chemo, 2 RT alone, 1 chemo and RT, 1 no therapy; 2) csII: 2 gastrectomy and RT; 3) csIII: 1 gastrectomy and chemo; 4) csIV: 1 chemo and RT. Among 16 gastrectomy specimens, multifocal gastric involvement was evident in 50%. The most frequently involved sites were the body (63%) and antrum

  10. [X-ray endoscopic semiotics and diagnostic algorithm of radiation studies of preneoplastic gastric mucosa changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akberov, R F; Gorshkov, A N

    1997-01-01

    The X-ray endoscopic semiotics of precancerous gastric mucosal changes (epithelial dysplasia, intestinal epithelial rearrangement) was examined by the results of 1574 gastric examination. A diagnostic algorithm was developed for radiation studies in the diagnosis of the above pathology.

  11. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load and cytoki...

  12. Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E 2 to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa

  13. Binding of 3H-iloprost to rat gastric mucosa: a pitfall in performing radioligand binding assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beinborn, M.; Kromer, W.; Staar, U.; Sewing, K.F.

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 3 H-iloprost was studied in a 20,000 x g sediment of the rat gastric mucosa. When pH in both test tubes for total and non-specific binding was kept identical, no displaceable binding of iloprost could be detected. When no care was taken to keep the pH identical in corresponding test tubes of the binding assay, changes in pH simulated specific and displaceable binding of iloprost. Therefore it is concluded that - in contrast to earlier reports - it is not possible to demonstrate specific iloprost binding using the given method

  14. Effects of size of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections on histopathology of the mucosa along the whole small intestine in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, H; Mallet, S

    1990-11-01

    The influence of population size of Trichostrongylus colubriformis on the structures of the small intestine, especially with regard to the development and origin of an intestinal adaptive response, was examined in experimentally infected rabbits. The effects of low (500 L3) and high (50,000 L3) infection on histological (villous length, mucosa to serosa ratio, crypt surface) and biochemical (protein content, alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase activities) aspects of the mucosa were assessed along the whole small intestine. The presence of a small number of worms induced only minor mucosal changes, indicating a regenerative response of the intestinal epithelium. The role of a local small population of T. colubriformis in the development of a previously described adaptive response appeared thus to be limited. On the other hand, the 50,000 L3 inoculum was associated with severe lesions of villi, marked crypt hyperplasia and with a major reduction of enzyme activities. The changes were found along the whole length of the small intestine. These results suggest that the generally recognized dose-dependent pathogenicity of the intestinal nematode infections could be ascribed to two different processes: firstly, a greater severity of the lesions; secondly, more extensive damage leading to the disappearance of any adaptive intestinal region.

  15. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma: Updated Review of Clinical Outcomes and the Molecular Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Saito, Yoshimasa; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2009-06-01

    In most H. pylori-positive patients, gastric low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas regress both endoscopically and histopathologically after H. pylori eradication, but no factors that can be predictive of the response to the eradication have been definitively identified, and there is little information on how to determine the optimal observation period before additional treatment can be started. Here, clinical studies dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of gastric MALT lymphomas and H. pylori published during the last 5 years were systematically reviewed, and studies identifying the molecular approaches involved in the pathogenesis were summarized. Most of the clinical studies indicate a favorable effect of H. pylori eradication on the clinical outcome of gastric MALT lymphomas. Some studies suggest the necessity of additional treatment in nonresponders to H. pylori eradication, while others suggest the adoption of a watch-and-wait strategy. The molecular characteristics of MALT lymphomas could play an important role in prognostic prediction and the selection of further therapeutic intervention after the eradication. This updated review of gastric MALT lymphomas illustrates the potential efficacy of H. pylori eradication in tumor remission, but further molecular characterization is necessary to establish the most suitable therapeutic strategy for patients who do not respond to eradication.

  16. Extensive heterotopic gastric mucosa of the small intestine: imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-sodium pertechnetate SPECT/CT enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapiro, Andrew H.; Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lin, Tom K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Frischer, Jason S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Silverman, Ayaka [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Extensive heterotopic gastric mucosa of the small intestine is a rare, but potentially life-threatening condition characterized by multifocal or long-segment heterotopic gastric mucosa within the bowel lumen that is often associated with other anomalies including malrotation and annular pancreas. Although the imaging findings are characteristic, this entity may be unrecognized due to its unusual imaging appearance and rarity. CT or MR enterography and {sup 99m}Tc-sodium pertechnetate scintigraphy can provide complementary information that enables specific diagnosis and accurate assessment of disease extent. We present a case of extensive heterotopic gastric mucosa of the small intestine imaged by simultaneous, combined {sup 99m}Tc-sodium pertechnetate single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT enterography to both familiarize the reader with the condition and describe an imaging strategy that enables specific diagnosis and assists with treatment planning. (orig.)

  17. Hydrogen sulfide upregulated mRNA expressions of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter1, trefoil factor1 and trefoil factor2 in gastric mucosa in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Parisa; Mard, Seyyed Ali; Nagi, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been shown to protect the gastric mucosa through several protective mechanisms but till now its effect on mRNA expression of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBC1), trefoil factor1 (TFF1) and trefoil factor2 (TFF2) was not investigated. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of H 2 S on mRNA expression of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2 in rat gastric mucosa in response to gastric distention. Thirty two rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups. They were control (C), distention (D), propargylglycine (PAG)-, and NaHS-treated groups. To evaluate the effect of exogenous and endogenous H 2 S on gene expression of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2, two groups of rats were received H 2 S donor, intra-peritoneal NaHS (80 µg Kg -1 ), and PAG (50 mg kg -1 ), accompanied to stimulate the gastric acid secretion, respectively. Under general anesthesia and laparotomy, a catheter was inserted into the stomach through duodenum for instillation of isotonic saline for gastric distention. Ninety min after beginning the experiment, animals were sacrificed and the gastric mucosa was collected to determine total acid content of gastric effluents and to quantify the mRNA expression of studied genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results showed that A) gastric distention increased the level of mRNA expressions of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2; B) these levels in NaHS-treated rats were significantly higher than those in Distention group; and C) PAG decreased the expression levels of NBC1 and TFF1. The Findings showed H 2 S upregulated gene expression of NBC1, TFF1 and TFF2 in gastric mucosa.

  18. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Apis mellifera honey on the Helicobacter pylori infection of Wistar rats gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Yamamoto AMARAL

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering that Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium able to colonize the upper gastrointestinal tract and cause mucosal injury, not always can be effectively eradicated by the traditional approaches, there is an interest in alternative therapies until a vaccine be available. Honey is a food supplement with high carbohydrate content and antioxidant activity, as well as broad antimicrobial spectrum. After analyzing the physicochemical and in vitro antimicrobial properties of an Apis mellifera honey from the Atlantic forest of Alagoas / Brazil, the purpose of the present work was evaluate its in vivo effects against Helicobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats. First, it was verified the success of inoculation/infection of the pathogen in the gastric mucosa of the rats, through the subsequent removal of their stomachs for histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin stain and Giemsa stain. Then, four groups of animals were treated with sterilized distilled deionized water, the Apis mellifera honey, a combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and an association of such medicines and honey (1:1. Except the control, all treatments were effective in combating infection, however, honey reduced the inflammatory process, whilst the antibiotics increase the number of eosinophils.

  19. Expression of the Na+/l- symporter (NIS is markedly decreased or absent in gastric cancer and intestinal metaplastic mucosa of Barrett esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wapnir Irene L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates iodide (I- transport in the thyroid, lactating breast, salivary glands, and stomach. Whereas NIS expression and regulation have been extensively investigated in healthy and neoplastic thyroid and breast tissues, little is known about NIS expression and function along the healthy and diseased gastrointestinal tract. Methods Thus, we investigated NIS expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 155 gastrointestinal tissue samples and by immunoblot analysis in 17 gastric tumors from 83 patients. Results Regarding the healthy Gl tract, we observed NIS expression exclusively in the basolateral region of the gastric mucin-producing epithelial cells. In gastritis, positive NIS staining was observed in these cells both in the presence and absence of Helicobacter pylori. Significantly, NIS expression was absent in gastric cancer, independently of its histological type. Only focal faint NIS expression was detected in the direct vicinity of gastric tumors, i.e., in the histologically intact mucosa, the expression becoming gradually stronger and linear farther away from the tumor. Barrett mucosa with junctional and fundic-type columnar metaplasia displayed positive NIS staining, whereas Barrett mucosa with intestinal metaplasia was negative. NIS staining was also absent in intestinalized gastric polyps. Conclusion That NIS expression is markedly decreased or absent in case of intestinalization or malignant transformation of the gastric mucosa suggests that NIS may prove to be a significant tumor marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric malignancies and also precancerous lesions such as Barrett mucosa, thus extending the medical significance of NIS beyond thyroid disease.

  20. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norn, Svend

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load and cytoki......Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load...... and the proliferative marker Ki-67. H. pylori infection, bacteria load and inflammatory activity were associated with increased cell turnover as judged by enhanced activities of TUNEL, p53 and Ki-67. Only p53 was significantly correlated to IFN-γ, IL-8 and IL-10. The H. pylori-positive state was furthermore accompanied...... of the gastrointestinal tract, such studies in cell turnover may provide insights valuable in the investigations of potential precursors of gastric malignancies....

  1. Topical application of benzalkonium chloride to the stomach serosa increases gastric emptying time, acid secretion, serum gastrin and size of the mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucoloto, S; Romanello, L M F; Garcia, S B; Sobreira, L F R; Barbosa, A J A; Troncon, L E A

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of gastric myenteric denervation using benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on the time for gastric emptying, as well as gastric secretion, and mucosal epithelial cell size and population in rats. Wistar rats were treated with topical serosal application of BAC to the stomach. Control animals received saline. Ninety days after surgery, gastric emptying time, gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels were studied. Next, the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were removed, fixed in formalin and histologically processed for histomorphometry of the height, area and volume of the glandular portion, and volume and population of mucous, chief, parietal, G- and labelled cells. BAC animals showed a significant delay in gastric emptying and an increase in gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels. These animals also presented a significant reduction of myenteric neuron number, hypertrophy of parietal and chief cells, hyperplasia of G cells and an increase in the gastric mucosa area. The absence of the myenteric plexus seems to protect the stomach from the hyperplastic effects of hypergastrinemia. Gastric food stasis may act as a factor triggering morphological and functional alterations of the gastric epithelium. Although gastric food stasis is a common finding in medical practice, its physiopathological consequences are poorly understood and have not been frequently discussed in the literature.

  2. A retrospective study of 5-year outcomes of radiotherapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Seiichiro; Oda, Ichiro; Inaba, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The favorable response rate of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication has been demonstrated. However, there are limited data available on the long-term outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication. Thirty-four consecutive patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma that were refractory to eradication were treated with radiotherapy (a total dose of 30 Gy). The response and adverse events of radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed as short-term outcomes, and recurrence-free, overall and disease-specific survival rates were calculated as long-term outcomes. Thirty-three (97.1%) patients achieved complete remission and radiotherapy was well tolerated. One patient underwent emergency gastrectomy due to severe hematemesis. Of the 34 patients during the median follow-up period of 7.5 (1.2-13.0) years, one patient had local recurrence after 8.8 years, one patient underwent surgery for bowel obstruction secondary to small bowel metastasis after 5.1 years and one patient had pulmonary metastasis after 10.9 years. Pathologically, all three recurrences revealed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without any transformation to high-grade lymphoma. None died of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 97.0%. The 5-year overall survival rates and disease-specific survival rates were 97.0 and 100%, respectively. Radiotherapy in patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication can achieve excellent overall survival. However, long-term surveillance is necessary to identify late recurrences. (author)

  3. A retrospective study of 5-year outcomes of radiotherapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Seiichiro; Oda, Ichiro; Inaba, Koji; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Nonaka, Satoru; Morota, Madoka; Murakami, Naoya; Itami, Jun; Kobayashi, Yukio; Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Saito, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    The favorable response rate of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication has been demonstrated. However, there are limited data available on the long-term outcomes. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication. Thirty-four consecutive patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma that were refractory to eradication were treated with radiotherapy (a total dose of 30 Gy). The response and adverse events of radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed as short-term outcomes, and recurrence-free, overall and disease-specific survival rates were calculated as long-term outcomes. Thirty-three (97.1%) patients achieved complete remission and radiotherapy was well tolerated. One patient underwent emergency gastrectomy due to severe hematemesis. Of the 34 patients during the median follow-up period of 7.5 (1.2-13.0) years, one patient had local recurrence after 8.8 years, one patient underwent surgery for bowel obstruction secondary to small bowel metastasis after 5.1 years and one patient had pulmonary metastasis after 10.9 years. Pathologically, all three recurrences revealed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without any transformation to high-grade lymphoma. None died of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 97.0%. The 5-year overall survival rates and disease-specific survival rates were 97.0 and 100%, respectively. Radiotherapy in patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma refractory to Helicobacter pylori eradication can achieve excellent overall survival. However, long-term surveillance is necessary to identify late recurrences.

  4. The Diagnosis of Gastric Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma by Flow Cytometry and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization of Biopsy Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Katsunori; Omote, Sizuma; Sakata, Masahiro; Fujita, Isao; Horii, Jouichiro; Toyokawa, Tatsuya

    2018-04-15

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and reactive inflammatory lymphoid changes are frequently difficult to distinguish based on a routine histological differential diagnosis. We were unable to diagnose gastric MALT lymphoma histologically using specimens obtained by endoscopy, although a flow cytometry (FCM) analysis demonstrated clonality of neoplastic cells by separating cells by CD45 gating. Furthermore, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed trisomy 18. We therefore diagnosed gastric MALT lymphoma with trisomy 18. We recommend that FCM and FISH analyses of biopsy specimens be considered for diagnosing gastric MALT lymphoma if this diagnosis is suspected based on endoscopic findings.

  5. Exposure to cigarette smoke increases apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa through a reactive oxygen species-mediated and p53-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Ma, L; Li, Y; Cho, C H

    2000-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa and the mechanism involved. Rats were exposed to different concentrations of cigarette smoke (0, 2, and 4%) once daily for a different number of 1 h periods (1, 3, 6, and 9 d). Apoptosis was identified by the terminal deoxy-transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and caspase-3 activity. The mucosal xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and p53 level were also measured. The results showed that exposure to cigarette smoke produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa that was accompanied by an increase in XO activity. The increased apoptosis and XO activity could be detected after even a single exposure. In contrast, the level of p53 was elevated only in the later stage of cigarette smoke exposure. The apoptotic effect could be blocked by pretreatment with an XO inhibitor (allopurinol, 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or a hydroxyl free radical scavenger (DMSO, 0.2%, 1 ml/kg intravenously). However, neither of these treatments had any effect on the p53 level of the mucosa. In summary, we conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke can increase apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa through a reactive oxygen species- (ROS) mediated and a p53-independent pathway.

  6. Activation of protective cell-mediated immune response in gastric mucosa during Cryptosporidium muris infection and re-infection in immunocompetent mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jalovecká, M.; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Kučerová, Z.; Salát, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2010), s. 1159-1166 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500960701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium muris * T-lymphocyte migration * gastric mucosa Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2010

  7. Enzymatic conversion of all-trans-β-carotene to retinal by a cytosolic enzyme from rabbit and rat intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman, M.R.; Mychkovsky, I.; Attlesey, M.

    1989-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion of all-trans-β-carotene to retinal by a partially purified enzyme from rabbit and rat intestinal mucosa was demonstrated. The enzymatic product was characterized based on the following evidence: (i) the product gave rise to its O-ethyloxime by treatment with O-ethylhydroxylamine with an absorption maximum at 363 nm in ethanol characteristics of authentic retinal O-ethyloxime. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of this derivative yielded a sharp peak with a retention time of 7.99 min corresponding to the authentic compound; (ii) the mass spectrum of the O-ethyloxime of the enzymatic product was identical to that of authentic retinal O-ethyloxime; (iii) the specific activity of the enzymatically formed [ 14 C]retinal O-ethyloxime remained constant even after repeated crystallization; (iv) the enzymatic product exhibited an absorption maximum at 370 nm in light petroleum characteristic of authentic retinal. This retinol was enzymatically esterified to retinyl palmitate by rat pancreatic esterase with a retention time of 10 min on HPLC corresponding to authentic retinyl palmitate. Thus, the enzymatic product of β-carotene cleavage by the partially purified intestinal enzyme was unequivocally confirmed to be retinal

  8. An endoscopic evaluation of the effects of etodolac and diclofenac on the gastric and duodenal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeden, A.; Schotborgh, R. H.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the gastroduodenal mucosa were evaluated by endoscopy and direct photography in 36 healthy men who were randomly assigned to receive 150 mg of diclofenac, 1,200 mg of etodolac, or 600 mg of etodolac daily for seven days. Endoscopy was

  9. Prevalência de helicobactérias e alterações na mucosa gástrica de cães saudáveis Prevalence of helicobacters and alterations in gastric mucosa of healthy dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Q. Moutinho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence, distribution and density of gastric helicobacter colonization were determined in 50 healthy dogs, characterizing the macroscopic and microcospic aspects of their mucosa. Helicobacter prevalence was 96%, with greater distribution in the gastric fundus and body. Although the presence of macroscopic alterations was high (58%, it was characterized as mild due to the predominance of less severe ones (65.5%. High prevalence of mostly monoclear cell infriltate (64.7% was noted. Association between the presence of helicobacter and macro and microscopic alterations was not observed.

  10. Interactions of soybean lectin, soyasaponins, and glycinin with rabbit jejunal mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, J.R.; Torres-Pinedo, R.

    1982-09-01

    Mucosal samples from rabbit jejunum were incubated (30 min, 25 degrees C) with (/sup 125/I)glycinin in the presence of buffer, soybean lectin (50 micrograms/ml) soyasaponins (1 mg/ml), or both lectin and saponins. The mucosal uptake of (/sup 125/I)glycinin was negligible with buffer, and increased progressively with additions of soybean lectin (P less than 0.05), soyasaponins (P less than 0.005), and both (P less than 0.0001). The stimulation of uptake by lectin and saponins together was greater than the sum of their individual effects (P less than 0.0005). The effect of soybean lectin on glycinin uptake was concentration dependent, reaching a maximum at approximately 50 micrograms/ml for the stimulation of uptake in the presence of saponins, and was inhibited by D-GaINAc. Although the mechanisms involved in mucosal uptake of glycinin cannot be described from these data, we have assumed the presence of two independent pathways for lectin-stimulated and saponin-induced uptakes. In addition, we have proposed that soybean lectin, by binding to terminal galactoside sites at the enterocyte apical membrane, enhances a crenator effect of saponins that leads to increasing leakage of glycinin into the cell.

  11. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL APPROACH REVEALS LOCALIZATION OF CYSTATHIONINE-?-LYASE AND CYSTATHIONINE-ß-SYNTHETASE IN ETHANOL-INDUCED GASTRIC MUCOSA DAMAGE IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jand-Venes Rolim MEDEIROS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Hydrogen sulphide (H2S has been proved to be a neuromodulator and contributes to the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity in damage caused by anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal drugs. Previously, we demonstrated that H2S synthesis is essential to gastric protection against ethanol. Objective To better understanding the role of H2S and the detailed localization of its production in both normal and injured stomach due to ethanol injection, we studied the expression of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE and cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS isoforms in gastric mucosa of mice treated with saline or 50% ethanol. Methods Mice were treated by gavage with saline or 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g. After 1 hour, mice were sacrificed, and gastric tissue was evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis specific for CSE and CBS. Results We have demonstrated a non-specific expression of CBS in the normal gastric mucosa and expression of CSE occurring mainly in the parietal cells of the animals treated with ethanol. Conclusion Thus, we demonstrated that the expression of CBS appears to be constitutive and diffuse across the gastric epithelium, while the expression of CSE appears to be induced in parietal cells by damage agents such as ethanol.

  12. Isolation, culture and adenoviral transduction of parietal cells from mouse gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliddon, Briony L; Nguyen, Nhung V; Gunn, Priscilla A; Gleeson, Paul A; Driel, Ian R van

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe a method for the isolation of intact gastric glands from mice and primary culture and transfection of mouse gastric epithelial cells. Collagenase digestion of PBS-perfused mouse stomachs released large intact gastric glands that were plated on a basement membrane matrix. The heterogeneous gland cell cultures typically contain ∼60% parietal cells. Isolated mouse parietal cells remain viable in culture for up to 5 days and react strongly with an antibody specific to the gastric H + /K + ATPase. Isolated intact mouse gastric glands and primary cultures of mouse parietal cells respond to the secretagogue, histamine. Typical morphological changes from a resting to an acid-secreting active parietal cell were observed. In resting cultures of mouse parietal cells, the H + /K + ATPase displayed a cytoplasmic punctate staining pattern consistent with tubulovesicle element structures. Following histamine stimulation, an expansion of internal apical vacuole structures was observed together with a pronounced redistribution of the H + /K + ATPase from the cytoplasm to the apical vacuoles. A reproducible procedure to express genes of interest exogenously in these cultures of mouse parietal cells was also established. This method combines recombinant adenoviral transduction with magnetic field-assisted transfection resulting in ∼30% transduced parietal cells. Adenoviral-transduced parietal cells maintain their ability to undergo agonist-induced activation. This protocol will be useful for the isolation, culture and expression of genes in parietal cells from genetically modified mice and as such will be an invaluable tool for studying the complex exocytic and endocytic trafficking events of the H + /K + ATPase which underpin the regulation of acid secretion

  13. Radiation therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Dose-volumetric analysis and its clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyeon Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Cho, Soo Jeong; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Dae Yong

    2016-01-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) for patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma to evaluate the effectiveness of involved field RT with moderate-dose and to evaluate the benefit of 3D-CRT comparing with 2D-RT. Between July 2003 and March 2015, 33 patients with stage IE and IIE gastric MALT lymphoma received RT were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 patients (51.5%) were Helicobacter pylori (HP) negative and 16 patients (48.5%) were HP positive but refractory to HP eradication (HPE). The 2D-RT (n = 14) and 3D-CRT (n = 19) were performed and total dose was 30.6 Gy/17 fractions. Of 11 patients who RT planning data were available, dose-volumetric parameters between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT plans was compared. All patients reached complete remission (CR) eventually and median time to CR was 3 months (range, 1 to 15 months). No local relapse occurred and one patient died with second primary malignancy. Tumor response, survival, and toxicity were not significantly different between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT (p > 0.05, each). In analysis for dose-volumetric parameters, Dmax and CI for PTV were significantly lower in 3D-CRT plans than 2D-RT plans (p < 0.05, each) and Dmean and V15 for right kidney and Dmean for left kidney were significantly lower in 3D-CRT than 2D-RT (p < 0.05, each). Our data suggested that involved field RT with moderate-dose for gastric MALT lymphoma could be promising and 3D-CRT could be considered to improve the target coverage and reduce radiation dose to the both kidneys

  14. Radiation therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Dose-volumetric analysis and its clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyeon Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Cho, Soo Jeong; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Dae Yong [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To assess the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) for patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma to evaluate the effectiveness of involved field RT with moderate-dose and to evaluate the benefit of 3D-CRT comparing with 2D-RT. Between July 2003 and March 2015, 33 patients with stage IE and IIE gastric MALT lymphoma received RT were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 patients (51.5%) were Helicobacter pylori (HP) negative and 16 patients (48.5%) were HP positive but refractory to HP eradication (HPE). The 2D-RT (n = 14) and 3D-CRT (n = 19) were performed and total dose was 30.6 Gy/17 fractions. Of 11 patients who RT planning data were available, dose-volumetric parameters between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT plans was compared. All patients reached complete remission (CR) eventually and median time to CR was 3 months (range, 1 to 15 months). No local relapse occurred and one patient died with second primary malignancy. Tumor response, survival, and toxicity were not significantly different between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT (p > 0.05, each). In analysis for dose-volumetric parameters, Dmax and CI for PTV were significantly lower in 3D-CRT plans than 2D-RT plans (p < 0.05, each) and Dmean and V15 for right kidney and Dmean for left kidney were significantly lower in 3D-CRT than 2D-RT (p < 0.05, each). Our data suggested that involved field RT with moderate-dose for gastric MALT lymphoma could be promising and 3D-CRT could be considered to improve the target coverage and reduce radiation dose to the both kidneys.

  15. In vitro effect of carprofen and meloxicam on the conductance and permeability to mannitol and the histologic appearance of the gastric mucosa of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Merrin A; Hosgood, Giselle L; Morgan, Timothy W; Briere, Catherine A; McConnico, Rebecca S

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of carprofen and meloxicam on conductance and permeability to mannitol and on the histologic appearance of sections of canine gastric mucosa. Gastric mucosa from 6 mature mixed-breed dogs. Sections of gastric mucosa were mounted in Ussing chambers, and carprofen (40 or 400μg/mL [CAR40 and CAR400, respectively]), meloxicam (8 or 80μg/mL [MEL8 and MEL80, respectively]), or no drug (controls) was added to the bathing solution. For all sections, conductance was calculated every 15 minutes for 240 minutes and flux of mannitol was calculated for 3 consecutive 1-hour periods; histologic examination was performed after the experiment. The area under the conductance-time curve for each chamber was calculated. Values of conductance × time, flux of mannitol, and the frequency distribution of histologic findings were analyzed for treatment effects. For CAR400- and MEL80-treated sections, conductance X time was significantly higher than that for control and MEL8-treated sections. The effect of CAR40 treatment was not different from that of any other treatment. Over the three 1-hour periods, mannitol flux increased significantly in MEL80-, CAR40-, and CAR400-treated sections but not in MEL8- treated or control sections. Major histologic changes including epithelial cell sloughing were limited to the CAR400-treated sections. In the gastric mucosa of dogs, carprofen and meloxicam increased in vitro conductance and permeability to mannitol. At a concentration of 400 μg/mL, carprofen caused sloughing of epithelial cells. Carprofen and meloxicam appear to compromise gastric mucosal integrity and barrier function in dogs.

  16. Changes in microvascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa following the occulsion of the eustachian tube of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yasutaka

    1988-01-01

    Serial changes in submucosal microvascular permeability of the middle ear and the response to histamine after occlusion of the eustachian tube were functionally investigated using radioisotope in rabbits with experimentally induced otitis media with effusion. Tritium water was administered through intravenous injection and transference of tritium water into the middle ear cavity was measured by radioactivity of the middle ear perfusate. Morphological changes were concurrently examined for comparison. Vascular permeability, as measured one, 7, and 14 days after occlusion of the eustachian tube, increased with time. A histological study showed an edematous hypertrophy of the submucosal tissue of the middle ear, suggesting a noticeable increase in microvascular permeability. The response of the middle ear mucosa to histamine, which was added to the fluid for perfusion, gradually decreased after occlusion of the eustachian tube, although the effect of histamine tended to persist for a long time, irrespective of the amount of administration. The results indicated that the mucosal membrane of the middle ear has a noticeable permeability at least up to 14 days after occlusion, and that histamine may be responsible for the increase of submucosal microvascular permeability not only in the normal middle ear cavity but also in otitis media with effusion which results in the persistance of the disease. The presence of factors permeable to the blood, other than histamine, caused microvascular peameability to increase, probably resulting in chronic or irreversible inflammation. This may be explained by markedly proliferative or parenchymatous connective tissues observed 7 and l0 weeks after occlusion. It should be noted that surgical treatment be performed as early as possible in the case of otitis media with effusion. (Namekawa, K) 80 refs

  17. Clinical outcome and prognostic factors of primary gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of 77 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shulian; Song Yongwen; Jin Jing; Wang Weihu; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao; Li Yexiong; Xue Liyan; Lv Ning

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical results and prognostic factors of patients with early-stage primary gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma treated from 1985 to 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were pathologically confirmed as MALT lymphoma in stage I, II and II E (by modified Blackedge staging system). Thirty-seven patients had stage I disease, 23 stage II and 17 stage II E . Sixty patients underwent surgical resection and 17 received non-surgical treatment. Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis with the Logrank test. Results: With a median follow up of 57 months for the surviving patients (ranging from 1 to 198 months for all patients), the 5-year overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate, loco-regional control rate and distant metastasis free survival rate were 74%, 70%, 76% and 87%, respectively. In univariate analysis, clinical stage was significantly associated with overall survival. Patients with stage I or II disease had a better overall survival than those with stage II E (P=0.01). Tumor size and surgical resection were significantly associated with disease-free survival. Patients with primary tumor 8 cm or less in diameter had better disease-free survival than those with primary tumor more than 8 cm in diameter (P =0.03). Patients who underwent complete resection had better disease-free survival than those who underwent incomplete resection or no surgery (P=0.02). Clinical stage, tumor size and surgical resection were significantly associated with loco-regional control. Patients with stage I or II disease had better loco-regional control than those with stage II E (P=0.03). Patients with primary tumor 8 cm or less in diameter had better loco-regional control than those with primary tumor more than 8 cm in diameter (P=0.01). Patients who underwent complete resection had better loco-regional control than those who underwent

  18. Immunopathological and Modulatory Effects of Cag A+ Genotype on Gastric Mucosa, Inflammatory Response, Pepsinogens, and Gastrin-17 Secretion in Iraqi Patients infected with H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ezzy, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    2018-05-20

    To determine the immunopathological correlation between Cag A+ H. pylori -specific IgG; pepsinogen I&II (PI&PII); gastrin-17 (G-17); status of gastric and duodenal mucosa and inflammatory activities on different gastroduodenal disorders. Eighty gastroduodenal biopsies were taken from patients with gastroduodenal disorders for histopathological evaluation and H. pylori diagnosis. Serum samples were used for evaluation of gastric hormones and detection of H. pylori -specific IgG antibodies. The tissue expression of H. pylori Cag A gene was detected by in situ hybridisation. H. pylori IgG antibodies were detected in (88.8%) of enrolled patients. According to Cag A gene expression, Significant difference (P value ˂ 0.05) was detected in levels of PG I; PGII, PG I/PG II among patients with gastric disorders. Serum G-17 level was negatively correlated with Cag A gene expression (P-value = 0.04). There was a significant correlation between H. pylori IgG and PG I; PG II; G-17. The current study revealed that corpus atrophic gastritis was diagnosed histologically with (5%) gastric ulcer cases; (3.75%) of duodenal ulcer cases; (3.75%) of duodenitis cases; (1.25%) of gastropathy cases and (8.75%) of gastritis cases. At the same time H. pylori gastritis diagnosed concurrently with (8.75%) of gastric ulcer cases; (11.25%) of duodenal ulcer cases; (17.5%) of gastropathy cases; (3.75%) of duodenitis cases and (2.5%) of prepyloric ulcer cases. A significant correlation was reported between the Immunopathological status of gastric mucosa and endoscopic mucosal finding among duodenal ulcer cases and gastritis cases only. A positive correlation was reported between serum levels of PGI; PGII; PGI/PGII; G-17; PMNs grade and Immunopathological status of the gastroduodenal mucosa of H. pylori Infected patients. A significant difference was reported in lymphocyte grades among gastric disorders without correlation with immunohistopathological changes in the mucosa (P-value = 0.002). A

  19. Gene expression profiling in gastric mucosa from Helicobacter pylori-infected and uninfected patients undergoing chronic superficial gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Min Yang

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection reprograms host gene expression and influences various cellular processes, which have been investigated by cDNA microarray using in vitro culture cells and in vivo gastric biopsies from patients of the Chronic Abdominal Complaint. To further explore the effects of H. pylori infection on host gene expression, we have collected the gastric antral mucosa samples from 6 untreated patients with gastroscopic and pathologic confirmation of chronic superficial gastritis. Among them three patients were infected by H. pylori and the other three patients were not. These samples were analyzed by a microarray chip which contains 14,112 cloned cDNAs, and microarray data were analyzed via BRB ArrayTools software and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA website. The results showed 34 genes of 38 differentially expressed genes regulated by H. pylori infection had been annotated. The annotated genes were involved in protein metabolism, inflammatory and immunological reaction, signal transduction, gene transcription, trace element metabolism, and so on. The 82% of these genes (28/34 were categorized in three molecular interaction networks involved in gene expression, cancer progress, antigen presentation and inflammatory response. The expression data of the array hybridization was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR assays. Taken together, these data indicated that H. pylori infection could alter cellular gene expression processes, escape host defense mechanism, increase inflammatory and immune responses, activate NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, disturb metal ion homeostasis, and induce carcinogenesis. All of these might help to explain H. pylori pathogenic mechanism and the gastroduodenal pathogenesis induced by H. pylori infection.

  20. [Signal transudation pathways in parietal cells of the gastric mucosa in experimental stomach ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapchenko, L I; Drobins'ka, O V; Chaĭka, V O; Bohun, L I; Bohdanova, O V; Kot, L I; Haĭda, L M

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the presented work was the research of signal transduction mechanism in the rat gastric parietal cells under stomach ulcer conditions. In these cells activation of adenylate cyclase (increase of cAMP level and proteinkinase A activity) and phosphoinositide (increases [Ca2+]i; cGMP and phoshatidylinocitole levels; proteinkinase C, proteinkinase G, and calmodulin-dependent-proteinkinase activity) of signals pathway was shown. An increase of plasma membrane phospholipids (PC, PS, PE, PI, LPC) level was shown. Under conditions of influence of the stress factor the membran enzymes activity (H+, K+ -ATPase, 5'-AMPase, Na+, K+ -ATPase, Ca2+, Mg2+ -ATPase and H+, K+ -ATPase) was considerably increased. The intensification of lipid peroxidation processes in rats was demonstrated.

  1. Protein and non-protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in gastric mucosa and liver after gastrotoxic chemicals and sucralfate: possible new targets of pharmacologic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Lajos; Nagata, Miki; Szabo, Sandor

    2007-04-14

    To investigate the role of major non-protein and protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in chemically induced gastric hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) and the mechanism of gastroprotective effect of sucralfate. Rats were given 1 mL of 75% ethanol, 25% NaCl, 0.6 mol/L HCl, 0.2 mol/L NaOH or 1% ammonia solutions intragastrically (i.g.) and sacrificed 1, 3, 6 or 12 min later. Total (reduced and oxidized) glutathione (GSH + GSSG), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), protein free sulfhydryls (PSH), protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG) and protein cystine disulfides (PSSP) were measured in gastric mucosa and liver. Reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted in the gastric mucosa after ethanol, HCl or NaCl exposure, while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations increased, except by HCl and NaOH exposure. Decreased levels of PSH after exposure to ethanol were observed, NaCl or NaOH while the total protein disulfides were increased. Ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione or sulfhydrils to disulfides were decreased by all chemicals. No changes in thiol homeostasis were detected in the liver after i.g. abbreviation should be spelled out the first time here administration of ethanol. Sucralfate increased the concentrations of GSH and PSH and prevented the ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucosal thiol concentrations. Our modified methods are now suitable for direct measurements of major protein and non-protein thiols/disulfides in the gastric mucosa or liver. A common element in the pathogenesis of chemically induced HML and in the mechanism of gastroprotective drugs seems to be the decreased ratios of reduced and oxidized glutathione as well as protein sulfhydryls and disulfides.

  2. Protein and non-protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in gastric mucosa and liver after gastrotoxic chemicals and sucralfate: Possible new targets of pharmacologic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lajos Nagy; Miki Nagata; Sandor Szabo

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of major non-protein and protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in chemically induced gastric hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) and the mechanism of gastroprotective effect of sucralfate.METHODS: Rats were given 1 mL of 75% ethanol, 25%NaCl, 0.6 mol/L HCI, 0.2 mol/L NaOH or 1% ammonia solutions intragastrically (i.g.) and sacrificed 1, 3, 6 or 12 min later. Total (reduced and oxidized) glutathione (GSH + GSSG), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), protein free sulfhydryls (PSH), protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG) and protein cystine disulfides (PSSP) were measured in gastric mucosa and liver.RESULTS: Reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted in the gastric mucosa after ethanol, HCI or NaCl exposure,while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations increased, except by HCI and NaOH exposure. Decreased levels of PSH after exposure to ethanol were observed,NaCl or NaOH while the total protein disulfides were increased. Ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione or sulfhydrils to disulfides were decreased by all chemicals.No changes in thiol homeostasis were detected in the liver after i.g. abbreviation should be spelled out the first time here administration of ethanol. Sucralfate increased the concentrations of GSH and PSH and prevented the ethanol-induced changes in gastric mucosal thiol concentrations.CONCLUSION: Our modified methods are now suitable for direct measurements of major protein and nonprotein thiols/disulfides in the gastric mucosa or liver.A common element in the pathogenesis of chemically induced HML and in the mechanism of gastroprotective drugs seems to be the decreased ratios of reduced and oxidized glutathione as well as protein sulfhydryls and disulfides.

  3. A case of cardiac cancer diagnosed after 30 Gy radiation therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma without helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Akamatsu, Taiji; Shinji, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    An 80-year-old man was referred to Shinshu University Hospital in April 2001 for treatment of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. He had received anti-biotic therapy in spite of no evidence of H. pylori infection in the former hospital 3 years ago, but no remarkable improvement was recognized and endoscopic findings were progressive. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed mucosal redness on the greater curvature and the anterior wall of the body. Biopsy specimens taken from the lesions showed remarkable infiltration of atypical small lymphocytes, and this lesions were diagnosed MALT lymphoma by an immunophenotypic studies. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed that MALT lymphoma was limited within the mucosa and submucosa. Staging work up revealed stage I. After written informed consent, he was treated by 30 Gy radiation therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma. Response assessment was performed by EGD, EUS, and biopsy specimens, and a complete remission was confirmed. After that, he was followed up with regular intervals, and EGD was performed every 6 months. He was diagnosed to have O I type cardiac cancer at 21 months after radiation therapy. He underwent proximal partial gastrectomy, and histopathological findings showed as follows: O I type, 17 x 12 mm, tub 2, SM, ly 1, v 1, n 0, PM (-), DM (-), INFγ, stage I A. No residual lesion of gastric MALT lymphoma and no dysplasia of gastric mucosa was recognized. Causal relationship between radiation therapy and carcinogenesis in this case is unclear. However, it might be suggested by the facts that cancer occurred in the radiation field where MALT lymphoma had been presented and gastric cancer was rare in the stomach without H. pylori infection. (author)

  4. Non-surgical treatment for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Interium analysis of a multicenter prospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mera Kiyomi

    2004-01-01

    Although eradication of Helicobacter pylori and radiation therapy (RT) have curative potential for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, no prospective study has yet been reported. This prospective study evaluated the efficacy and safety of this non-surgical treatment for localized gastric MALT lymphoma. Among the 115 eligible patients, 89 (77.3%) achieved remission with eradication therapy. Twenty five (21.7%) patients received RT as additional treatment for residual tumor and 22 (88%) achieved complete remission. No serious adverse events, such as hemorrhage or perforation of the stomach, were observed. This organ-preserving treatment for localized gastric MALT lymphoma is safe and effective and has the potential to become the standard treatment for this disease, although long-term follow up is necessary. (author)

  5. High-frequency percussive ventilation attenuates lung injury in a rabbit model of gastric juice aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allardet-Servent, Jérôme; Bregeon, Fabienne; Delpierre, Stéphane; Steinberg, Jean-Guillaume; Payan, Marie-José; Ravailhe, Sylvie; Papazian, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    To test the effects of high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) compared with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and low-volume conventional mechanical ventilation (LVCMV), on lung injury course in a gastric juice aspiration model. Prospective, randomized, controlled, in-vivo animal study. University animal research laboratory. Forty-three New Zealand rabbits. Lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of human gastric juice in order to achieve profound hypoxaemia (PaO2/FIO2ventilated for 4h after randomization in one of the following four groups: HFPV (median pressure 15cmH2O); LVCMV (VT 6mlkg(-1) and PEEP set to reach 15cmH2O plateau pressure); HFOV (mean pressure 15cmH2O); and a high-volume control group HVCMV (VT 12ml kg(-1) and ZEEP). Static respiratory compliance increased after the ventilation period in the HFPV, LVMCV and HFOV groups, in contrast with the HVCMV group. PaO2/FIO2 improved similarly in the HFPV, LVCMV and HFOV groups, and remained lower in the HVCMV group than in the three others. Lung oedema, myeloperoxidase and histological lung injury score were higher in the HVCMV group, but not different among all others. Arterial lactate markedly increased after 4h of ventilation in the HVCMV group, while lower but similar levels were observed in the three other groups. HFPV, like HFOV and protective CMV, improves respiratory mechanics and oxygenation, and attenuates lung damage. The HFPV provides attractive lung protection, but further studies should confirm these results before introducing HFPV into the clinical arena.

  6. Assessment of p21, p53 expression, and Ki-67 proliferative activities in the gastric mucosa of children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saf, Coskun; Gulcan, Enver Mahir; Ozkan, Ferda; Cobanoglu Saf, Seyhan Perihan; Vitrinel, Ayca

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori that is generally acquired in childhood and infects the gastric mucosa is considered to be responsible for many pathobiological changes that are linked to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. Although the majority of studies on the subject have been carried out in adults, there are a limited number of studies on children that reflect the early period of infection and may be of greater significance. We aimed to determine the role of H. pylori infection and/or gastritis in several histopathological changes, p53, p21, and cell proliferation-associated Ki-67 antigen expression in the gastric mucosa. We studied 60 patients with a mean age of 7.5 ± 4.5 years at referral. On the basis of endoscopic appearance and the evaluation of the gastric antral specimens, the patients were divided into three groups: patients without gastritis, patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis, and patients with H. pylori-negative gastritis. To determine the expression of p53, Ki-67, and p21 in gastric biopsy specimens, immunohistochemical stains were performed. The incidence of neutrophil activity, which was one of our histopathologic parameters, was significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. The presence of lymphoid aggregate was more frequent in H. pylori ± gastritis groups than the nongastritis group. p53 expression was found to be significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the nongastritis group. Ki-67 and p21 expressions were significantly more frequent in the H. pylori-positive gastritis group than the other two groups. When we evaluated the density of H. pylori, as the density of bacteria increases, we found that the expressions of p53, p21, and Ki-67 increased significantly. Expression of the studied precancerous markers in significant amounts indicates the importance of childhood H. pylori infection in the constitution of gastric cancer in adulthood.

  7. Endoscopy and biopsy findings in the esophageal, gastric and duodenal mucosa before and after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slanina, J.; Neidl, K.; Wannenmacher, M.; Froehlich, J.; Hoppe-Seyler, P.; Oehlert, W.

    1985-04-01

    Esophago-gastro-duodenoscopies with multiple mucosa biopsies were performed before and after irradiation of the mantle field or the spleen pedicle in 13 patients with Hodgkin's disease in stage I and II. For the irradiation the photons of a 4 MeV linear accelerator were applied with focal doses of 40 to 44 Gy. Contrast simulator radiographs were made in order to verify the position within the irradiation field of the organs from which biopsies were taken. In 0/10 patients examined before the irradiation, 0/5 patients examined less than 15 weeks after the irradiation, and 0/12 patients examined 15 weeks or later after the irradiation, histomorphologic investigation of the mucosa of the esophagus showed no pathologic findings. With the same intervals of examination related to irradiation, the gastric mucosa showed a pathologic histomorphology in 1/13, 7/9, and 5/9 patients, respectively, and the duodenal mucosa in 0/13, 5/9, and 2/9 patients, respectively. With the exception of one ulcer in the duodenal bulb, the histopathologic findings as well as the macroscopic findings were neither significant nor characteristic, i.e. not radiospecific. Most of these findings were inflammatory alterations of the mucosa, erosions, and capillarectasies.

  8. [Efficiency of famotidin in prophylaxis of NSAIDs-induced gastropathy: result of multicenter research ZASLON-1 (protection of gastric mucosa from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, L B; Drozdov, V N; Kim, V A

    2009-01-01

    This article presents results of the first Russian randomized study of NSAID-gastropaty prevention at patients receiving NSAIDS. Results of clinical and endoscopic monitoring of two groups of patients: 1st - 108 patients with AA or RA treated with diclofenac and famotidin and 2nd--116 patients with AA or RA receiving diclofenac treatment only. It was shown that combined use of diclofenac and famotidin reduces to 2.6 times frequency and significantly reduces severity of painful dyspepsia symptoms and antipain manifestations reduces more than twice frequency of erosive-ulcerous lesions of gastric mucosa and duodenum.

  9. Abdominal scanning with technetium-99m pertechnetate localizes ectopic gastric mucosa in the jejunum: case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakatsanis, K.G.; Chatzipavlidou, V. (Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Zafiriadou, E. (Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). 2. Dept. of Paediatric Surgery); Mavroudis, N. (Hippocrateion Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Patsiaoura, K.; Gotzamani-Psarrakos, A. (Hippocrateion Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Pathology)

    1993-06-01

    A 16-year old male patient was admitted to hospital because of a fainting episode which was accompanied by diarrhoea that was dark red. All investigations were normal except a low haematocrit, a technetium-99m pertechnetate abdominal scan, which showed a large area of moderate activity in the upper left abdomen, and digital subtraction angiography, which showed bleeding in the same area where the abnormal finding on the pertechnetate scan was found. Ectopic gastric mucosa and a deep ulcer in an otherwise normal jejunum were found during the urgent exploratory laparotomy. (orig.).

  10. Lymph node metastasis after endoscopic submucosal dissection of a differentiated gastric cancer confined to the mucosa with an ulcer smaller than 30 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Tochitani, Shinako; Nakaji, So; Hirata, Nobuto; Kusanagi, Hiroshi; Narita, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In the expanded indications for endoscopic resection, Japanese guidelines for gastric cancer include differentiated cancers confined to the mucosa with an ulcer ulcer. The horizontal and vertical margins were negative for the tumor. We diagnosed thiscase as curative resection of expanded indication and followed this patient with endoscopy, abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) or enhanced computed tomography (CT) approximately every 6 months. After 17 months, lymph node metastasis was detected with AUS and CT and diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in August 2011. Distal gastrectomy with D2 dissection was carried out in December 2011. Although it is low, the possibility of recurrence should be borne in mind after endoscopic treatment of early gastric cancer, despite its inclusion in the expanded indications for endoscopic resection. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  11. Association between Virulence Factors and TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL Expression in Gastric Mucosa Infected with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. CagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ Helicobacter pylori upregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 1 (TRAF1, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (4-1BB, and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL in human gastric epithelial cells. We investigated the correlation between cagA/vacAs1/vacAm1 and TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL expression in gastric mucosal tissue of patients with gastric disorders. Methods. We collected gastric mucosa samples from 35 chronic, nonatrophic gastritis (CG patients, 41 atrophic gastritis patients, 44 intestinal metaplasia with atypical hyperplasia (IM patients, and 28 gastric carcinoma (Ca patients. The expression of  TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL was determined using western blotting. The expression of cagA, vacAs1, and vacAm1 in H. pylori was examined with polymerase chain reaction. Results. The expression of TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL was significantly upregulated in IM and Ca patients (P<0.05 compared with CG. There were more cases of cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori infection in samples with elevated TRAF1, 4-1BB, or Bcl-xL expression (P<0.05. Additionally, there were a remarkably large number of samples with upregulated TRAF1/4-1BB/Bcl-xL expression in cases of cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori infection (44 cases, 67.7%; P<0.05. Conclusions. The pathogenesis of IM and Ca may be promoted by cagA+/vacAs1+/vacAm1+ H. pylori, possibly via upregulated TRAF1, 4-1BB, and Bcl-xL in gastric mucosal tissue.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms and tissue expression of interleukin-22 associated with risk and therapeutic response of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, F; Hsu, Y-C; Kuo, S-H; Yang, Y-C; Chen, J-P; Hsu, P-N; Lin, C-W; Chen, L-T; Cheng, A-L; Fann, C S J; Lin, J-T; Wu, M-S

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori-stimulated immune reactions determine the pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We aimed to explore the genetic predisposition to this lymphoma and its clinical implication. A total of 68 patients and 140 unrelated controls were genotyped for 84 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and related receptors that play important roles in T cell-mediated gastrointestinal immunity. Five genotypes in IL-22, namely CC at rs1179246, CC at rs2227485, AA at rs4913428, AA at rs1026788 and TT at rs7314777, were associated with disease susceptibility. The former four genotypes resided in the same linkage disequilibrium block (r 2 =0.99) that conferred an approximately threefold higher risk. In vitro experiments demonstrated that co-culturing peripheral mononuclear cells or CD4 + T cells with H. pylori stimulated the secretion of interleukin-22 (IL-22), and that IL-22 induced the expression of antimicrobial proteins, RegIIIα and lipocalin-2, in gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, patients with gastric tissue expressing IL-22 were more likely to respond to H. pylori eradication (14/22 vs 4/19, P<0.006). We conclude that susceptibility of gastric MALT lymphoma is influenced by genetic polymorphisms in IL-22, the product of which is involved in mucosal immunity against H. pylori and associated with tumor response to H. pylori eradication

  13. Protective effect of Calamintha officinalis Moench leaves against alcohol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Macroscopic, histologic and phytochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, M T; Lanuzza, F; Pergolizzi, S; Mondello, F; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

    2012-06-01

    Calamintha officinalis Moench (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant used since ancient times for its preservative and medicinal properties. The plant, known as 'Mentuccia' in Central Italy, is used in cooking as an aromatizant and to impart aroma and flavour to food. The methanol extract of the leaves was subjected to phytochemical and biological investigations. The extract contains polyphenols, catechic tannins and terpenes and shows radical scavenger activity. By means of HPLC analysis, eriocitrin, eriodyctiol, acacetin, linarin, benzoic acid and some phenolic acids, such as caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, were determined. The gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using ethanol-induced ulcer in rats, with sucralfate as a reference drug. Samples of gastric mucosa, stained by PAS and haematoxylin/eosin, were observed by light microscopy. The efficacy of the extract was comparable to that of the reference drug. Probably the gastroprotective effect depends on a synergistic action of all the compounds occurring in C. officinalis leaves, even if the antioxidant potential of the leaves plays an important role by removing damaging agents from the gastric mucosa. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-positive and Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and their influence on clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Jung Mogg; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Young Soo; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2013-06-01

    To compare clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma depending on Helicobacter pylori positivity and to find out a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Korea. A total of 53 Helicobacter pylori-positive and 13 negative mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma patients were enrolled, and tissues from 21 patients were investigated to examine the presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) with fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clinicopathologic features such as the endoscopic appearance, dominant site of lesion, depth of invasion, clinical stage, and the existence of MALT1 gene rearrangement were compared between these two groups. Fifty-six patients who underwent H. pylori eradication therapy were divided into responder and nonresponder groups. The two groups were analyzed to calculate odds ratios for resistance to the eradication. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma patients averaged a more advanced clinical stage than H. pylori-positive (p = .023) patients. The frequency of t(11;18)/API2-MALT1 did not differ between H. pylori-positive (45.5%) and H. pylori-negative cases (55.6%). Thirty-eight of 51 (74.5%) H. pylori-positive patients achieved complete regression after the eradication, while 2 of 5 (40%) H. pylori-negative patients obtained regression. Presence of lesions in both distal and proximal parts of stomach (p = .041) and bearing of t(11;18)(q21;q21) (p = .007) were predictors for nonresponsiveness for H. pylori eradication. Helicobacter pylori eradication could be performed as a primary therapy regardless of H. pylori status, and assessing t(11;18)/API2-MALT1 would be considered after failure to remission by H. pylori eradication. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Clinical manifestations and epigenetic mechanisms of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and long-term follow-up following Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Jiang, Kui; Su, Shuai; Wang, Bangmao; Chen, Guangxia

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to summarize the clinical manifestations and identify the epigenetic mechanisms of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, as well as evaluate the long-term effects of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) eradication. A total of 122 patients with marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of primary gastric MALT lymphoma were enrolled in the present study. The clinical manifestations of gastric MALT lymphoma, including symptoms, H. pylori state and endoscopic type, were summarized. The response to therapy was evaluated in patients that underwent H. pylori eradication. Survival analysis was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The expression of microRNA-383 (miR-383) in tumor tissues and cell lines was determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses, luciferase reporter assays. and western blot analysis identified zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) as a direct target gene of miR-383. An MTT assay was used to examine the function of miR-383 and ZEB2 in MALT lymphoma. The clinical symptoms of patients with gastric MALT lymphoma were non-specific and included epigastric pain, abdominal discomfort and bleeding. The majority of endoscopic types were classified as ulcer, erosion and mucosa edema. The H. pylori infection rate was 79.5% (97/122) and a total of 47 patients underwent eradication therapy. Lymphoma remission was achieved in 93.6% (44/47) of patients and complete remission (CR) was achieved in 74.4% (35/47). The median follow-up time was 38 months (range, 10-132 months) and the median time taken to achieve CR was 4 months (range, 3-7 months). The estimated 3-year survival rate was 90.3% and the 5-year survival rate was 76.2%. Therefore, it was determined that patients with stage I or II gastric MALT lymphoma are able to undergo H. pylori eradication as a first-line treatment and that the survival rate of patients undergoing this treatment is high

  16. Successful treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with gastric and rectal lesions with metachronous and ectopic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Umezu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old female, who had an abnormal stomach x-ray finding, was admitted to the hospital for further examination and therapy. Upper GI endoscopy showed reddish and swollen folds on the greater curvature of the gastric body and a biopsy was of this lesion revealed malignant lymphoma (small cell type or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma suspected. The patient was infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, however, in response to the patient’s wishes, a total gastrectomy, omentectomy and splenectomy were performed and the histological diagnosis was gastric MALT lymphoma. Two courses of CHOP therapy (cyclophosphamide (CPM 750 mg/m2/day, day 1, adriamycin (ADM 50 mg/m2/day, day 1, vincristine sulfate (VCR 1.4 mg/m2/day, day 1, prednisolone 100 mg/body, day 1-5 were administered as adjuvant chemotherapy. A colonoscopic examination performed about 4.5 yr after the operation revealed rectal submucosal tumors and the biopsied specimens were diagnosed as malignant lymphoma. A transanal focal resection was performed and the histological diagnosis was metachronous and ectopic development of MALT lymphoma. The histological finding was similar to the gastric lesion. About 4 and 7 yr after the first development of rectal MALT lymphoma, MALT lymphomas developed repeatedly in the rectal lesion, however, these were resected repeatedly and no developmenthas occurred during the past two years. This report presents a very rare case of metachronous and ectopic MALT lymphoma de

  17. Gastric lipase: localization of the enzyme in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNigris, S.J.; Hamosh, M.; Hamosh, P.; Kasbekar, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated gastric glands prepared from human and rabbit stomach secrete lipase in response to secretagogues. They have investigated the localization of this enzyme in three species (rabbit, baboon, guinea pig). Gastric mucosa was sampled from the cardia (C), fundus-smooth (FS), fundus-ruggae (FR) and the antral area (A). Lipase activity was measured in mucosal homogenates using 3 H-triolein as substrate and is expressed in units (U) = nmols free fatty acid released/min/mg wet weight. The localization of lipase is compared with that of pepsin (measured by hydrolysis of 2% hemoglobin at pH 1.8 and expressed in I.U.). Lipase is localized in a well defined area in the rabbit and is diffusely distributed in both guinea pig and baboon. The distribution of lipase and pepsin containing cells differs in all three species. The cellular origin of gastric lipase remains to be determined

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 7-36 amide and peptide YY from the L-cell of the ileal mucosa are potent inhibitors of vagally induced gastric acid secretion in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettergren, A; Petersen, H; Orskov, C

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) 7-36 amide and peptide YY (PYY) from the L-cell of the ileal mucosa are potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion in man. It is not clear, however, by which mechanism(s) they inhibit acid secretion. In dogs the inhibitory effect of PYY on acid secretion...

  19. Prolonged use of the food dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow n° 5 and its effects on the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILD. Moutinho

    Full Text Available Tartrazine is one of the most widely used artificial foods, drugs and cosmetic dyes. It is a nitrous derivative and is known to cause allergic reactions such as asthma and urticaria, as well as having been the focus of studies on mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to its transformation into aromatic amine sulfanilic acid after being metabolized by the gastrointestinal microflora. 45 male Wistar rats were assigned to a control group (A or a treatment one (B. The treatment group received 7.5 mg.kg-1.day-1 of tartrazine daily in drinking water offered ad libitum for ten months from weaning to the age of twelve months. There was a significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils of the gastric antrum mucosa. No carcinogenetic changes in any gastric area were observed during the study. As tartrazine belongs to the azo class, it is still a possible food carcinogen. Other studies with different doses and schedules, observing their effects associated to other carcinogens should be carried out if their safe use is to be recommended.

  20. Telomere length in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and its relationship to H. pylori infection, degree of gastritis, and NSAID use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Okubo, Masaaki; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Arisawa, Tomiyasu; Ohmiya, Naoki; Hirata, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Telomere shortening occurs with human aging in many organs and tissues and is accelerated by rapid cell turnover and oxidative injury. We measured average telomere length using quantitative real-time PCR in non-neoplastic gastric mucosa and assessed its relationship to H. pylori-related gastritis, DNA methylation, ulcer disease, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) usage. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 151 cancer-free subjects including 49 chronic NSAID users and 102 nonusers. Relative telomere length in genomic DNA was measured by real-time PCR. H. pylori infection status, histological severity of gastritis, and serum pepsinogens (PGs) were also investigated. E-cadherin (CDH1) methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Average relative telomere length of H. pylori-infected subjects was significantly shortened when compared to H. pylori-negative subjects (p = 0.002) and was closely associated with all histological parameter of gastritis (all p values gastritis and CDH1 methylation status. Also, telomere shortening is accelerated by NSAID usage especially in H. pylori-negative subjects.

  1. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings in a patient with bilateral orbital and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Hiyama, Atsuto; Takeda, Koumei; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2009-09-01

    Orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an uncommon disease, while the incidence is recently increasing. We describe the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT) findings in a case of bilateral orbital MALT lymphomas with a coexisting gastric lesion. Although only the lesion in the left orbit was initially identified on MR imaging, FDG PET/CT scan unexpectedly and additionally could identify the tiny lesion of the contralateral orbit and the gastric lesion. This patient received radiotherapy to all these lesions, with a combination of rituximab monoclonal antibody therapy. The follow-up PET/CT studies at 3, 6, and 9 months and 1.5 years after treatment showed regression or disappearance of all these FDG-avid lesions. Accurate localization and staging are crucial to select an adequate treatment in MALT lymphoma at any location. This case indicates the feasibility of FDG PET/CT scan for accurate localization and staging and also for monitoring treatment in patients with orbital MALT lymphoma.

  2. Prolonged use of the food dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow no 5) and its effects on the gastric mucosa of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, I L D; Bertges, L C; Assis, R V C

    2007-02-01

    Tartrazine is one of the most widely used artificial foods, drugs and cosmetic dyes. It is a nitrous derivative and is known to cause allergic reactions such as asthma and urticaria, as well as having been the focus of studies on mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to its transformation into aromatic amine sulfanilic acid after being metabolized by the gastrointestinal microflora. 45 male Wistar rats were assigned to a control group (A) or a treatment one (B). The treatment group received 7.5 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) of tartrazine daily in drinking water offered ad libitum for ten months from weaning to the age of twelve months. There was a significant increase in the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils of the gastric antrum mucosa. No carcinogenetic changes in any gastric area were observed during the study. As tartrazine belongs to the azo class, it is still a possible food carcinogen. Other studies with different doses and schedules, observing their effects associated to other carcinogens should be carried out if their safe use is to be recommended.

  3. Normalization of pH level and gastric mucosa after eradication of H. pylori in the remnant stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shunji; Matsukura, Norio; Matsuda, Noriko; Tsuchiya, Shinichi; Naito, Zenya; Tajiri, Takashi

    2008-12-01

    The Updated Sydney System (USS) is used to evaluate chronic gastritis and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) due to H. pylori infection. Here, we investigated USS scores and gastric juice pH levels in H. pylori infection-positive or -eradicated patients with remnant stomach after surgery. Gastric juice pH levels were measured using pH test-tape in 197 patients (112 H. pylori-positive and 85 H. pylori-negative after eradication) who had undergone distal gastrectomy and conventional H. pylori eradication therapy. In H. pylori infection-positive remnant stomach cases, gastric juice pH showed a reverse correlation with pepsinogen I/II ratio, and H. pylori infection-negative patients following eradication showed associations with the degree of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia at both the anastomosis and in the corpus. Further, pH levels in these patients were normalized time depending after the eradication in the remnant stomach. Eradication therapy for the remnant stomach contributes to the possible improvement of stomach conditions by controlling the pH level of gastric juice. This effect will be protective against the risk of secondary stomach carcinogenesis in the remnant stomach.

  4. Incidence of Helicobacter felis and the effect of coinfection with Helicobacter pylori on the gastric mucosa in the African population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, E. Lekunze; Slavik, Tomas; Delport, Wayne; Olivier, Brenda; van der Merwe, Schalk W.

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis are two of the Helicobacter spp. that infect humans. H. pylori has been linked to significant gastric pathology. Coinfection with Helicobacter spp. may influence infectious burden, pathogenesis, and antibiotic resistance; however, this has not been studied.

  5. RELATED CHANGES OF SERUM CYTOKINES AND MARKERS OF THE SECRETORY ACTIVITY OF THE GASTRIC MUCOSA AT ULCEROUS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of cytokines and pepsinogen in identifying the presence and strength of them relationship with acute gastric ulcer. ELISA method in the serum of the subjects were evaluated levels pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and pepsinоgenes. Found a number of statistically significant, pathogenetic correla-tions that can be recommended for the combined determination of the immunodiagnostics and individual correction therapy.

  6. Morphometric study of gastric mucosa in dogs submitted to proximal gastric vagotomy, splenectomy or proximal gastric vagotomy associated with splenectomy Estudo morfométrico da mucosa gástrica de cães submetidos à vagotomia gástrica proximal, esplenectomia ou vagotomia gástrica proximal associada com esplenectomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Real Martinez

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of total splenectomy and proximal gastric vagotomy (PGV isolated or associated to the vascularization of the stomach. METHODS: Twenty-eight dogs were distributed in: group A - animals undergoing laparotomy and gastric manipulation; group B - animals undergoing PGV; group C - animals undergoing PGV and splenectomy; and group D - animals undergoing splenectomy alone. All animals were sacrificed on the 7th postoperative day, and immediately followed by infusion of xanthene dye into the thoracic aorta. On the gastric mucous surface, the formation of stained areas and other areas lacking staining was measured by millimeter squares, planimetry and the computerized morphometry method. RESULTS: The formation of an area lacking in staining along the lesser gastric curvature was seen in all animals of groups B and C, which was significantly increased in group C, although in groups A and D such areas were not observed. CONCLUSION: These results showed that, in animals with splenectomy, the vascularization of the stomach was capable of perfusing the whole organ surface, but in animals with PGV alone or associated with splenectomy there was a notable decrease in blood supply throughout the area of the lesser gastric curvature, which suggests the ischemic impairment of this region.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da esplenectomia total e da vagotomia gástrica proximal (VGP isoladas e associadas sobre a vascularização gástrica. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 28 cães, distribuídos em quatro grupos: grupo A, laparotomia e manipulação gástrica; grupo B, VGP; grupo C, VGP associada à esplenectomia; grupo D, esplenectomia isolada. Todos os animais foram mortos no 7º pós-operatório e imediatamente infundiu-se o corante na aorta torácica. O estômago aberto pela grande curvatura foi fotografado. Na superfície mucosa gástrica, a formação de áreas coradas e desprovidas de coloração foi

  7. X-ray examination of the microstructure of the gastric mucosa under induced hypotension in chromic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruchanskij, V.S.; Novikov, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using artificial stomach hypotension to decrease the dynamic obscurity and a better examination of stomach mucosa microrelief in cases when X-ray exposures exceed 0.1 s, is shown. 75 patients with various forms of chronic gastritis both under normal conditions and in the case of stomach hypotension are investigated. The ''Diagnomax-M-125'' X-ray diagnostic device with the DR tube 125/30/50 kWt (and a small focus of 1.2x1.2 mm) is used. Optimum exposures during the roentgenography of stomach fields are increased up to 0.16 s. Under conditions of artificial stomach hypotension a clear image of microrelief is obtained 2 times more often, while the absence of the image of stomach field takes place 4 times more seldom than when using the conventional technique. In the case of stomach hypotension the picture of areola is less seldom unclear [ru

  8. Morin protects gastric mucosa from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin induced inflammatory damage and apoptosis by modulating NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Krishnendu; Sadhukhan, Pritam; Saha, Sukanya; Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sil, Parames C

    2015-04-01

    Deregulation in prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, severe oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy. Unfortunately, most of the prescribed anti-ulcer drugs generate various side effects. In this scenario, we could consider morin as a safe herbal potential agent against IND-gastropathy and rationalize its action systematically. Rats were pretreated with morin for 30 min followed by IND (48 mgkg(-1)) administration for 4 h. The anti-ulcerogenic nature of morin was assessed by morphological and histological analysis. Its effects on the inflammatory (MPO, cytokines, adhesion molecules), ulcer-healing (COXs, PGE(2)), and signaling parameters (NF-κB and apoptotic signaling) were assessed by biochemical, RP-HPLC, immunoblots, IHC, RT-PCR, and ELISA at the time points of their maximal changes due to IND administration. IND induced NF-κB and apoptotic signaling in rat's gastric mucosa. These increased proinflammatory responses, but reduced the antioxidant enzymes and other protective factors. Morin reversed all the adverse effects to prevent IND-induced gastric ulceration in a PGE2 independent manner. Also, it did not affect the absorption and/or primary pharmacological activity of IND. The gastroprotective action of morin is primarily attributed to its potent antioxidant nature that also helps in controlling several IND-induced inflammatory responses. For the first time, the study reveals a mechanistic basis of morin mediated protective action against IND-induced gastropathy. As morin is a naturally abundant safe antioxidant, future detailed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are expected to establish it as a gastroprotective agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Slow-release L-cysteine capsule prevents gastric mucosa exposure to carcinogenic acetaldehyde: results of a randomised single-blinded, cross-over study of Helicobacter-associated atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Per M; Hendolin, Panu; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Kronberg, Leif; Meierjohann, Axel; Millerhovf, Anders; Paloheimo, Lea; Sundelin, Heidi; Syrjänen, Kari; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter-induced atrophic gastritis with a hypochlorhydric milieu is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Microbes colonising acid-free stomach oxidise ethanol to acetaldehyde, a recognised group 1 carcinogen. To assess gastric production of acetaldehyde and its inert condensation product, non-toxic 2-methyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA), after alcohol intake under treatment with slow-release L-cysteine or placebo. Seven patients with biopsy-confirmed atrophic gastritis, low serum pepsinogen and high gastrin-17 were studied in a cross-over single-blinded design. On separate days, patients randomly received 200 mg slow-release L-cysteine or placebo with intragastric instillation of 15% (0.3 g/kg) ethanol. After intake, gastric concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, L-cysteine and MTCA were analysed. Administration of L-cysteine increased MTCA (p L-cysteine level was 7552 ± 2687 μmol/L at 40 min and peak MTCA level 196 ± 98 μmol/L at 80 min after intake. Gastric L-cysteine and MTCA concentrations were maintained for 3 h. The AUC for MTCA was 11-fold higher than acetaldehyde, indicating gastric first-pass metabolism of ethanol. With placebo, acetaldehyde remained elevated also at low ethanol concentrations representing 'non-alcoholic' beverages and food items. After gastric ethanol instillation, slow-release L-cysteine eliminates acetaldehyde to form inactive MTCA, which remains in gastric juice for up to 3 h. High acetaldehyde levels indicate a marked gastric first-pass metabolism of ethanol resulting in gastric accumulation of carcinogenic acetaldehyde. Local exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde can be mitigated by slow-release L-cysteine capsules.

  10. Combined intraoperative and external irradiation of the celiac artery in the rabbit: Effects on gastric mucosal blood flow; Kombinierte intraoperative und externe Bestrahlung der Arteria coeliaca beim Kaninchen: Auswirkungen auf die Durchblutung der Magenschleimhaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie]|[GSF-Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Kallfass, E. [GSF-Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Berg, D. [GSF-Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Kummermehr, J. [GSF-Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Aim: To demonstrate changes in gastric mucosal blood flow caused by intraoperative radiotherapy of the celiac artery combined with external radiotherapy of the upper abdomen in a rabbit model. The study was designed to identify a possible correlation between a radiation-induced reduction in mucosal blood flow and the induction of gastric ulcer. Material and Method: Intraoperative radiation doses of 0 or 30 Gy were given to the celiac artery in rabbits. After a delay of 14 days external radiotherapy of the upper abdomen with 3x4 Gy/week to a maximum total dose of 40 Gy was initiated. Gastric mucosal blood flow was assessed by intraventricular injection of radioactively-labelled microspheres (15 {mu}m) followed by measurement of radioactivity in the mucosa. The injections were performed at various time intervals between 2 and 63 days after intraoperative radiation. Results: Intraoperative radiotherapy, including sham-intraoperative radiation, resulted in a transitory reduction of mucosal blood flow by about 50% of the control value on day 7. After a temporary recovery by day 14, a marked and permanent reduction in blood flow was assessed after week 6. This time corresponds to the time of development of gastric ulcer. Conclusions: A relationship between the time of ulcer development and of reduced gastric mucosal blood flow was observed after combined intraoperative and external radiotherapy. The mechanical component of intraoperative treatment has to be emphasized. Reduced blood flow was also seen after intraoperative radiotherapy alone, without an induction of ulcer by this treatment. Hence additional mucosal damage by external radiation must be present for the induction of gastric ulcer. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Untersuchung der Veraenderungen der Magenschleimhautdurchblutung am Kaninchen als Folge einer kombinierten intraoperativen Bestrahlung der Arteria coeliaca und externen Bestrahlung des Oberbauchs. Durch diesen Ansatz sollte ein moeglicher Zusammenhang

  11. Towards Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization (FIVH) Detection of H. pylori in Gastric Mucosa Using Advanced LNA Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Leite, Marina; Guimarães, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    acid (LNA)/ 2' O-methyl RNA (2'OMe) probe using standard phosphoramidite chemistry and FISH hybridization was then successfully performed both on adhered and suspended bacteria at 37°C. In this work we simplified, shortened and adapted FISH to work at gastric pH values, meaning that the hybridization...... step now takes only 30 minutes and, in addition to the buffer, uses only urea and probe at non-toxic concentrations. Importantly, the sensitivity and specificity of the FISH method was maintained in the range of conditions tested, even at low stringency conditions (e.g., low pH). In conclusion......In recent years, there have been several attempts to improve the diagnosis of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a commonly used technique to detect H. pylori infection but it requires biopsies from the stomach. Thus, the development of an in vivo...

  12. Structural damage and changes in eicosanoid metabolites in the gastric mucosa of rats and pigs induced by anti-inflammatory drugs of varying ulcerogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, K D

    1986-01-01

    The object of the studies reviewed here has been to correlate the time-course of ultrastructural changes induced by oral administration of a range of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs with effects on eicosanoid metabolism and drug absorption, so as to discriminate what biochemical/cellular and pharmacological factors account for their varying ulcerogenicity. Oral administration of highly ulcerogenic drugs (e.g. aspirin, diclofenac, indomethacin, piroxicam) to rats causes rapid damage to surface and gastric mucous cells, selective parietal cell damage, and extensive disruption of endothelial cells of submucosal microcapillaries (especially with aspirin) with accompanying extravasation of blood cell components. These changes are coincident with depressed levels of PGE2/6-keto-PGF1 alpha (measured by GC/MS or RIA) and uptake of the drugs (measured by scintillation counting or HPLC). Low ulcerogenic NSAI drugs (e.g. azapropazone, benoxaprofen and fenclofenac) causes very little damage to the surface mucosal cells. Azapropazone has been found to be well absorbed, and benoxaprofen and fenclofenac somewhat more slowly, so for the latter two drugs their low rate of absorption might also be a factor in their reduced ulcerogenicity. Aspirin, azapropazone and benoxaprofen have been shown to reduce 5-HETE levels (RIA), although the latter two drugs were more effective than aspirin. Thus, they result in the inhibition of PG production, by cyclo-oxygenase inhibition (with potential adverse effects from excess oxyradical and/or production of HETE's) with inhibition of the lipoxygenase pathway. The time-sequence of changes induced by single oral doses of indomethacin or other NSAI drugs on the ultrastructure and the prostanoid metabolism of the pig gastric mucosa parallelled those seen in the rat. Attempts to determine whether co-administration of NSAI drugs might reduce the inhibition of PG cyclo-oxygenase by more potent inhibitors (e.g. indomethacin) have been

  13. Towards Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization (FIVH Detection of H. pylori in Gastric Mucosa Using Advanced LNA Probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Fontenete

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been several attempts to improve the diagnosis of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH is a commonly used technique to detect H. pylori infection but it requires biopsies from the stomach. Thus, the development of an in vivo FISH-based method (FIVH that directly detects and allows the visualization of the bacterium within the human body would significantly reduce the time of analysis, allowing the diagnosis to be performed during endoscopy. In a previous study we designed and synthesized a phosphorothioate locked nucleic acid (LNA/ 2' O-methyl RNA (2'OMe probe using standard phosphoramidite chemistry and FISH hybridization was then successfully performed both on adhered and suspended bacteria at 37°C. In this work we simplified, shortened and adapted FISH to work at gastric pH values, meaning that the hybridization step now takes only 30 minutes and, in addition to the buffer, uses only urea and probe at non-toxic concentrations. Importantly, the sensitivity and specificity of the FISH method was maintained in the range of conditions tested, even at low stringency conditions (e.g., low pH. In conclusion, this methodology is a promising approach that might be used in vivo in the future in combination with a confocal laser endomicroscope for H. pylori visualization.

  14. Towards Fluorescence In Vivo Hybridization (FIVH) Detection of H. pylori in Gastric Mucosa Using Advanced LNA Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenete, Sílvia; Leite, Marina; Guimarães, Nuno; Madureira, Pedro; Ferreira, Rui Manuel; Figueiredo, Céu; Wengel, Jesper; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several attempts to improve the diagnosis of infection caused by Helicobacter pylori. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a commonly used technique to detect H. pylori infection but it requires biopsies from the stomach. Thus, the development of an in vivo FISH-based method (FIVH) that directly detects and allows the visualization of the bacterium within the human body would significantly reduce the time of analysis, allowing the diagnosis to be performed during endoscopy. In a previous study we designed and synthesized a phosphorothioate locked nucleic acid (LNA)/ 2’ O-methyl RNA (2’OMe) probe using standard phosphoramidite chemistry and FISH hybridization was then successfully performed both on adhered and suspended bacteria at 37°C. In this work we simplified, shortened and adapted FISH to work at gastric pH values, meaning that the hybridization step now takes only 30 minutes and, in addition to the buffer, uses only urea and probe at non-toxic concentrations. Importantly, the sensitivity and specificity of the FISH method was maintained in the range of conditions tested, even at low stringency conditions (e.g., low pH). In conclusion, this methodology is a promising approach that might be used in vivo in the future in combination with a confocal laser endomicroscope for H. pylori visualization. PMID:25915865

  15. A comparative study on the modes of action of TAK-438, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, and lansoprazole in primary cultured rabbit gastric glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Jun; Hori, Yasunobu; Nishida, Haruyuki; Kajino, Masahiro; Inatomi, Nobuhiro

    2011-05-01

    TAK-438 is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) type antisecretory agent that reversibly inhibits gastric H+, K+-ATPase. Previously, we showed that TAK-438 has superior efficacy compared to lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in the inhibition of acid secretion in vivo. In this study, we investigated the differences in the mode of actions of the two drugs using primary cultured rabbit gastric glands. TAK-438 and lansoprazole inhibited gastric acid formation in acutely isolated gastric glands (IC₅₀) values, 0.30 and 0.76 μM, respectively). In cultured gastric glands that were preincubated with TAK-438, the inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated acid formation was augmented over the incubation period, whereas the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole was not affected by time of incubation. Next, we evaluated the durations of the actions of TAK-438 and lansoprazole after gastric glands were incubated with either drug for 2h followed by washout. Even 8h after the drug washout, TAK-438 at higher concentrations inhibited acid formation, but the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole disappeared immediately after washout. Additionally, only a small amount of [¹⁴C] lansoprazole accumulated in resting glands, and this accumulation was enhanced by treatment with 1 μM of forskolin. In contrast, high levels of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 accumulated in both resting and forskolin-treated glands. Furthermore, a 2-h preincubation followed by washout demonstrated a slow clearance of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 from the glands. These findings suggest that TAK-438 exerts a longer and more potent antisecretory effect than lansoprazole as a result of its high accumulation and slow clearance from the gastric glands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiotherapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Dosimetric comparison and risk assessment of solid secondary cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sun Hyun; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Sook [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung Hee [Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We compared the dosimetric parameters and the risk of solid secondary cancer from scattered doses among anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior parallel-opposed fields (AP/PA), anterior, posterior, right, and left lateral fields (4{sub f}ield), 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) using noncoplanar beams, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy composed of 7 coplanar beams (IMRT{sub c}o) and 7 coplanar and noncoplanar beams (IMRT{sub n}on). We retrospectively generated 5 planning techniques for 5 patients with gastric MALToma. Homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), and mean doses of the kidney and liver were calculated from the dose-volume histograms. Applied the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII report to scattered doses, the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) was calculated to estimate the risk of solid secondary cancer. The best value of CI was obtained with IMRT, although the HI varied among patients. The mean kidney dose was the highest with AP/PA, followed by 4{sub f}ield, 3D-CRT, IMRT{sub c}o, and IMRT{sub n}on. On the other hand, the mean liver dose was the highest with 4{sub f}ield and the lowest with AP/PA. Compared with 4{sub f}ield, the LAR for 3D-CRT decreased except the lungs, and the LAR for IMRT{sub c}o and IMRT{sub n}on increased except the lungs. However, the absolute differences were much lower than <1%. Tailored RT techniques seem to be beneficial because it could achieve adjacent organ sparing with very small and clinically irrelevant increase of secondary solid cancer risk compared to the conventional techniques.

  17. Long-time follow-up study of localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and the clinical features of antibiotic-resistant cases of gastric MALT lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Taiji; Sano, Kenji; Suzawa, Ken-ichi; Kaneko, Yasunori; Shikama, Naoto; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Miyabayashi, Hideharu

    2007-01-01

    To clarify the clinical features of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (GML) with persistent lymphoma after eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and the outcome of long-time follow-up study after treatment against GML, seventy-six patients with localized GML were studied. The median follow-up period was 44.4 months. Thirty-eight of 49 patients (77.6%) with H. pylori-positive GML had been cured of GML by antibiotic therapy alone. On the other hand, none of 13 patients with H. pylori-negative GML had been cured by antibiotic therapy (77.6% vs 0%, p<0.001). ''H. pylori-negative'' is one of the clinical features of antibiotic-resistant cases with GML. There was no significant difference in sex, age, stage, endoscopic finding, depth, and affected region between the two groups of cured and persistent GML with H. pylori infection. Twenty-two of 29 patients (75.6%) with antibiotic-resistant or H. pylori-negative cases of GML had been cured by 30 Gy radiation therapy. Low-dose radiation was thought to be a useful therapeutic procedure as a second line treatment'' of localized GML. (author)

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer.

  19. Rituximab, alkylating agents or combination therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a monocentric non-randomised observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, A; Lévy, M; Copie-Bergman, C; Dupuis, J; Szablewski, V; Le Baleur, Y; Baia, M; Belhadj, K; Sobhani, I; Leroy, K; Haioun, C; Delchier, J-C

    2014-03-01

    There is no consensus on the standard treatment of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma for Helicobacter pylori-negative patients and for patients with persistent disease despite H. pylori eradication. To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of alkylating agents and rituximab alone or in combination. In this monocentric retrospective study, which included 106 patients who had not been previously treated with anti-cancer agents, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral alkylating agents monotherapy (n = 48), rituximab monotherapy (n = 28) and the therapy combining both drugs (n = 30). Evaluations were performed at weeks 6 (W6), 25 (W25), and 52 (W52) and after 2 years (W104). After a median follow-up period of 4.9 years (range 0.4-17.2 years), complete remission and overall response were significantly higher in patients in the combination therapy group at W104 (92% and 100% respectively) compared with patients treated with alkylating agents alone (66% and 68%) and rituximab alone (64% and 73%). The 5-year progression-free survival probabilities were 68%, 70% and 89% in patients treated with alkylating agents alone, rituximab alone and combination therapy respectively. Haematological adverse events were reported in 32 (30%) patients (mostly grade 1) and were more frequent in the two groups receiving alkylating agents (P = 0.05 and P alkylating agents alone. Rituximab has a better safety profile than regimens containing alkylating agents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1 is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Hussein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8 secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU and duodenal ulcer (DU was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01. The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7% and GU (70% than in those with NUD (13.3% (p 0.01. The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8% than those with GU (10% and NUD (8.9% (p 0.01. Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1. We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6. While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01. Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure.

  1. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene 1 (dupA1) is associated with A2147G clarithromycin-resistance mutation but not interleukin-8 secretion from gastric mucosa in Iraqi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, N R; Tunjel, I; Majed, H S; Yousif, S T; Aswad, S I; Assafi, M S

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aims were to study the influence of dupA1 positivity upon interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from gastric mucosa and determine the prevalence of mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. DNA was extracted from 74 biopsies and the virulence factors were studied. Levels of IL-8 in gastric mucosa were measured using ELISA and the mutations responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance were determined using a GenoType-HelicoDR assay. The prevalence of cagA in strains isolated from gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) was significantly higher than those isolated from non-ulcer disease (NUD) (90% and 57.9% versus 33.3%; p 0.01). The vacA s1m1 genotype was more prevalent in patients with DU (73.7%) and GU (70%) than in those with NUD (13.3%) (p 0.01). The prevalence of dupA1 was higher in DU patients (36.8%) than those with GU (10%) and NUD (8.9%) (p 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that a cagA+/vacA s1i1m2 virulence gene combination was independently associated with the developing peptic ulcer disease (PUD) with increased odds of developing PUD (p 0.03; OR = 2.1). We found no significant difference in the levels of IL-8 secretion in gastric mucosa infected with H. pylori dupA-negative and H. pylori dupA1-positive strains (dupA-negative: mean ± median: 28 ± 26 versus 30 ± 27.1 for dupA1; p 0.6). While 12 strains were clarithromycin resistant, only three isolates were levofloxacin resistant. A significant association was found between dupA1 genotype and A2147G clarithromycin resistance mutation (p <0.01). Further study is needed to explore the relationship between virulence factors and disease process and treatment failure.

  2. BH3-only protein Bim is associated with the degree of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and is localized to the mitochondria of inflammatory cells in the gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Yuko; Matsuda, Katsuya; Isomoto, Hajime; Matsushima, Kayoko; Kido, Yoko; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Yamaghchi, Naoyuki; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Moss, Joel; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    BH3-only protein, Bim, is a pro-apoptotic protein that mediates mitochondria-dependent cell death. However, the role of Bim in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the cellular localization of Bim and its possible role in H. pylori-induced gastritis. The study was conducted on biopsy specimens obtained from 80 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (H. pylori-negative: n=30, positive: n=50). Association between Bim mRNA expression and severity of gastritis was evaluated and the localization of Bim was examined by immunofluorescence. Bim mRNA expression was positively correlated with the degree of gastritis, as defined by the Sydney system. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed increased Bim expression in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa compared with uninfected mucosa in both humans and mice. Bim localized in myeloperoxidase- and CD138-positive cells of H. pylori-infected lamina propria and submucosa of the gastric tract, indicating that this protein is predominantly expressed in neutrophils and plasma cells. In contrast, Bim did not localize in CD20-, CD3-, or CD68-positive cells. Bim was expressed in the mitochondria, where it was partially co-localized with activated Bax and cleaved-PARP. In conclusion, Bim is expressed in neutrophils and plasma cells in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it may participate in the termination of inflammatory response by causing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in specific leucocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Efeito de um hidrolisado de proteínas de soro de leite e de seus peptídeos na proteção de lesões ulcerativas da mucosa gástrica de ratos Effects of a whey protein concentrate and it's peptides in the protection of ulcerative lesions at rat gastric mucosa

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    Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade do hidrolisado das proteínas de soro de leite bovino e uma fração de peptídeos de baixo peso molecular (peso molecular OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of bovine whey protein hydrolysate and its low molecular weight fraction (molecular weight <1kDa to protect the gastric mucosa of rats against ulcerative process induced by three different agents. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were subjected to the indomethacin-induced ulcer (30mg/kg body weigh, absolute ethanol (1ml/animal and immobilization and cold stress (4(0C/2h, models. RESULTS: Whey protein hydrolysate was obtained by treatment with pancreatin to a degree of hydrolysis of 20% and fractionated using a tangential flow membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1kDa to obtain the fraction containing low molecular weight peptides (<1kDa. In the ethanol-induced acute ulcer model (single dose, whey protein hydrolysate inhibited the gastric lesion index by 65.5% and the double dose resulted in a 77.4% inhibition. CONCLUSION: For the anti-inflammatory model, the cytoprotective effect of low molecular weight peptides was stronger than that of total hydrolysate (53.1 and 71.6%, ulcerative lesion index for single and double dose, respectively. No mucosa cytoprotective activity was found for whey protein concentrate, whey protein hydrolysate or WPHP in the immobilization and cold stress model.

  4. Expression of the Fatty Acid Receptors GPR84 and GPR120 and Cytodifferentiation of Epithelial Cells in the Gastric Mucosa of Mouse Pups in the Course of Dietary Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Patricia; Kusumakshi, Soumya; Hägele, Franziska A; Boehm, Ulrich; Breer, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    During weaning, the ingested food of mouse pups changes from exclusively milk to solid food. In contrast to the protein- and carbohydrate-rich solid food, high fat milk is characterized primarily by fatty acids of medium chain length particularly important for the suckling pups. Therefore, it seems conceivable that the stomach mucosa may be specialized for detecting these important nutrients during the suckling phase. Here, we analyzed the expression of the G protein coupled receptors GPR84 and GPR120 (FFAR4), which are considered to be receptors for medium and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), respectively. We found that the mRNA levels for GPR84 and GPR120 were high during the suckling period and progressively decreased in the course of weaning. Visualization of the receptor-expressing cells in 2-week-old mice revealed a high number of labeled cells, which reside in the apical as well as in the basal region of the gastric glands. At the base of the gastric glands, all GPR84-immunoreactive cells and some of the GPR120-positive cells also expressed chromogranin A (CgA), suggesting that they are enteroendocrine cells. We demonstrate that the majority of the CgA/GPR84 cells are X/A-like ghrelin cells. The high degree of overlap between ghrelin and GPR84 decreased post-weaning, whereas the overlap between ghrelin and GPR120 increased. At the apical region of the glands the fatty acid receptors were mainly expressed in unique cell types. These contain lipid-filled vacuole- and vesicle-like structures and may have absorptive functions. We detected decreased immunoreactivity for GPR84 and no lipid droplets in surface cells post-weaning. In conclusion, expression of GPR84 in ghrelin cells as well as in surface cells suggests an important role of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) in the developing gastric mucosa of suckling mice.

  5. Expression of the Fatty Acid Receptors GPR84 and GPR120 and Cytodifferentiation of Epithelial Cells in the Gastric Mucosa of Mouse Pups in the Course of Dietary Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Widmayer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During weaning, the ingested food of mouse pups changes from exclusively milk to solid food. In contrast to the protein- and carbohydrate-rich solid food, high fat milk is characterized primarily by fatty acids of medium chain length particularly important for the suckling pups. Therefore, it seems conceivable that the stomach mucosa may be specialized for detecting these important nutrients during the suckling phase. Here, we analyzed the expression of the G protein coupled receptors GPR84 and GPR120 (FFAR4, which are considered to be receptors for medium and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs, respectively. We found that the mRNA levels for GPR84 and GPR120 were high during the suckling period and progressively decreased in the course of weaning. Visualization of the receptor-expressing cells in 2-week-old mice revealed a high number of labeled cells, which reside in the apical as well as in the basal region of the gastric glands. At the base of the gastric glands, all GPR84-immunoreactive cells and some of the GPR120-positive cells also expressed chromogranin A (CgA, suggesting that they are enteroendocrine cells. We demonstrate that the majority of the CgA/GPR84 cells are X/A-like ghrelin cells. The high degree of overlap between ghrelin and GPR84 decreased post-weaning, whereas the overlap between ghrelin and GPR120 increased. At the apical region of the glands the fatty acid receptors were mainly expressed in unique cell types. These contain lipid-filled vacuole- and vesicle-like structures and may have absorptive functions. We detected decreased immunoreactivity for GPR84 and no lipid droplets in surface cells post-weaning. In conclusion, expression of GPR84 in ghrelin cells as well as in surface cells suggests an important role of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs in the developing gastric mucosa of suckling mice.

  6. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  7. Persistent monoclonality after histological remission in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or surgery: influence of t(11;18)(q21;q21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santón, Almudena; García-Cosio, Mónica; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Patricia; Cristóbal, Eva; Serrano, Sergio; Besses, Carlos; Abraira, Victor; Salar, Antonio; Montalbán, Carlos

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to study retrospectively the molecular response and outcome of 19 gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma patients achieving histological remission after chemotherapy or surgery. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IgV(H)) gene rearrangements were studied by PCR in biopsies obtained at diagnosis and follow-up. Presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) was studied by FISH or RT-PCR. Sequencing analysis of three t(11;18)(q21;q21) positive and two negative lymphomas with persistent monoclonal IgV(H) rearrangements was also performed. Long-term IgV(H) monoclonality was demonstrated in 11/19 patients (58%); in five of them monoclonal rearrangements were present in all samples throughout the follow-up. Persistent IgV(H) monoclonality was detected a median of 49 months after the achievement of histological response and did not condition histological relapse in most cases. All three t(11;18)(q21;q21) positive patients had maintained IgV(H) monoclonality and sequencing analyses revealed the same mutated IgV(H) alleles in the diagnostic and the follow-up samples. Over half of the patients with gastric MALT lymphoma with histological response after chemotherapy and/or surgery have long-term persistent monoclonality. The presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) seems to condition long-term persistence of the initial lymphoma clone.trade mark.

  8. Lansoprazole protects and heals gastric mucosa from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy by inhibiting mitochondrial as well as Fas-mediated death pathways with concurrent induction of mucosal cell renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Pallab; Bindu, Samik; Choubey, Vinay; Alam, Athar; Mitra, Kalyan; Goyal, Manish; Dey, Sumanta; Guha, Mithu; Pal, Chinmay; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2008-05-23

    We have investigated the mechanism of antiapoptotic and cell renewal effects of lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, to protect and heal gastric mucosal injury in vivo induced by indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Lansoprazole prevents indomethacin-induced gastric damage by blocking activation of mitochondrial and Fas pathways of apoptosis. Lansoprazole prevents indomethacin-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic Bax and Bak and down-regulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl(xL) to maintain the normal proapoptotic/antiapoptotic ratio and thereby arrests indomethacin-induced mitochondrial translocation of Bax and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential followed by cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Lansoprazole also inhibits indomethacin-induced Fas-mediated mucosal cell death by down-regulating Fas or FasL expression and inhibiting caspase-8 activation. Lansoprazole favors mucosal cell renewal simultaneously by stimulating gene expression of prosurvival proliferating cell nuclear antigen, survivin, epidermal growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. The up-regulation of Flt-1 further indicates that lansoprazole activates vascular epidermal growth factor-mediated controlled angiogenesis to repair gastric mucosa. Lansoprazole also stimulates the healing of already formed ulcers induced by indomethacin. Time course study of healing indicates that it switches off the mitochondrial death pathway completely but not the Fas pathway. However, lansoprazole heals mucosal lesions almost completely after overcoming the persisting Fas pathway, probably by favoring the prosurvival genes expression. This study thus provides the detailed mechanism of antiapoptotic and prosurvival effects of lansoprazole for offering gastroprotection against indomethacin-induced gastropathy.

  9. A unique polysaccharide purified from Hericium erinaceus mycelium prevents oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in human gastric mucosa epithelium cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxing; Kanako, Nakajima; Zhang, Yanqiu; Xiao, Xulang; Gao, Qipin; Tetsuya, Konishi

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) has been used both as a traditional Chinese medicine and home remedy for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastritis. EP-1, a purified polysaccharide isolated from HE mycelium, has recently been identified as the active component responsible for HE anti-gastritis activity. Because oxidative stress has been implicated as a pathogenic cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers, EP-1 antioxidant properties were systematically examined in vitro using the human gastric mucosal epithelial cell line, GES-1. Results showed that EP-1 possessed higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2-3 times higher ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals than a hot water extract of commercially available HE fruiting body. A crude mycelial polysaccharide (CMPS) extract of HE, from which EP-1 was purified, showed slightly stronger radical scavenging activity and ORAC than EP-1, with the exception of DPPH-scavenging activity. Antioxidant activities of these extracts were further studied using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-abused GES-1 cells; EP-1 dose-dependently preserved cell viability of abused cells as assessed via MTT assay. Moreover, FACS analysis revealed that EP-1 prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting activation of apoptotic cellular signals within mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. CMPS also prevented H2O2-induced oxidative stress, but to a lesser degree than did EP-1, even though CMPS exhibited comparable or stronger in vitro antioxidant activity than did EP-1.

  10. A unique polysaccharide purified from Hericium erinaceus mycelium prevents oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in human gastric mucosa epithelium cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Wang

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (HE has been used both as a traditional Chinese medicine and home remedy for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastritis. EP-1, a purified polysaccharide isolated from HE mycelium, has recently been identified as the active component responsible for HE anti-gastritis activity. Because oxidative stress has been implicated as a pathogenic cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers, EP-1 antioxidant properties were systematically examined in vitro using the human gastric mucosal epithelial cell line, GES-1. Results showed that EP-1 possessed higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and 2-3 times higher ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals than a hot water extract of commercially available HE fruiting body. A crude mycelial polysaccharide (CMPS extract of HE, from which EP-1 was purified, showed slightly stronger radical scavenging activity and ORAC than EP-1, with the exception of DPPH-scavenging activity. Antioxidant activities of these extracts were further studied using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-abused GES-1 cells; EP-1 dose-dependently preserved cell viability of abused cells as assessed via MTT assay. Moreover, FACS analysis revealed that EP-1 prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting activation of apoptotic cellular signals within mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. CMPS also prevented H2O2-induced oxidative stress, but to a lesser degree than did EP-1, even though CMPS exhibited comparable or stronger in vitro antioxidant activity than did EP-1.

  11. Acetylsalicylic Acid Daily vs Acetylsalicylic Acid Every 3 Days in Healthy Volunteers: Effect on Platelet Aggregation, Gastric Mucosa, and Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Plinio Minghin Freitas; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; Zaminelli, Tiago; Sampaio, Marinalva Ferreira; Blackler, Rory Willian; Trevisan, Miriam da Silva; Novaes Magalhães, Antônio Frederico; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-07-01

    Substantial platelet inhibition was observed 3 days after a single administration of acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg to healthy volunteers. Here we investigate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) antrum concentrations and gastrointestinal symptoms in two treatment groups: one receiving losartan and acetylsalicylic acid every day and the other receiving losartan every day and acetylsalicylic acid every 3 days. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers from both sexes received either 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 mg daily or 50 mg losartan and acetylsalicylic acid 81 every 3 days with placebo on the other days. Therapy was delivered for 30 days for both groups. Gastric endoscopy was performed before and after treatment period. Biopsies were collected for PGE2 quantification. Platelet function tests were carried out before and during treatment and TXB2 release on platelet rich plasma was measured. The every 3 day low-dose acetylsalicylic acid regimen produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to the daily treatment. Thromboxane B2 release was substantially abolished for both groups during treatment. There was no significant difference on the endoscopic score of both treatment groups after the 30-day treatment (P = .215). There was over 50% suppression of antrum PGE2 content on volunteers receiving acetylsalicylic acid daily (P = .0016), while for the every 3 day dose regimen there was no significant difference between pre and post-treatment antrum PGE2 dosages (P = .4193). Since PGE2 is involved in gastric healing, we understand that this new approach could be safer and as efficient as the standard daily therapy on a long-term basis. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Immunodetection of Helicobacter sp. and the associated expression of ABO blood group antigens in the gastric mucosa of captive and free-living New World primates in the Amazon region

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    Délia Cristina Figueira Aguiar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The histo-blood group ABH antigens were first described in humans. These antigens are only present on erythrocytes from great apes and humans, while in more primitive animals they are found in tissues and body fluids. The ABH antigens are mainly distributed in tissues exposed to the external environment and potentially serve as ligands for pathogens or inhibitors of tissue connections. The objective of this paper was two-fold: (i to determine the presence of Helicobacter sp. in the gastric mucosa of 16 captive and 24 free-living New World monkeys and (ii to evaluate the presence of histopathological alterations related to bacterial infection and the associated expression of ABH antigens in the tissue. Stomach tissues from 13 species of monkey were assessed using haematoxylin-eosin and modified Gram staining (Hucker methods. An immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue revealed the presence of infectious bacteria that were characteristic of the genus Helicobacter sp. The results demonstrate that various species of monkey might be naturally infected with the Helicobacter sp. and that there is an increased susceptibility to infection. This study serves as a comparative analysis of infection between human and non-human primates and indicates the presence of a new species of Helicobacter.

  13. Omeprazole and misoprostol for preventing gastric mucosa effects caused by indomethacin and celecoxib in rats Omeprazol e misoprostol na prevenção de lesões de mucosa gástrica causadas por indometacina e celecoxib em ratos

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    Míriam Elias Cavallini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate and to compare macro and microscopically the intense injuries of the gastric mucosa of rats which were caused by NSAIDS celecoxib and indomethacin and the gastric cytoprotection with omeprazole and misoprostol. METHODS: The sample is formed by one hundred and fifty Wistar rats with average weight 200 g, distributed in four groups, such as: Group A, subdivided in groups A1 and A2 - pre-treatment with omeprazole (20 mg/rat during seven days and on the 8th day - use of NSAIDS, concerning A1 (20 rats were given celecoxib (1mg/rat and A2 (20 rats were given indomethacin. The Group B, subdivided in group B1 and B2 - pre-treatment with misoprostol (20mg/rat during seven days and on the 8th day use of NSAIDS, concerning B1 (20 rats were given celecoxib (1 mg/ rat and B2 (20 rats were given indomethacin (12.5 mg/rat. The Group C: were not given cytoprotection during seven days, from the 7th to the 8th day - fast of food and water ad libitum, on the 8th day of NSAIDS use, concerning C1 (20 rats were given celecoxib, C2 (20 rats were given indomethacin (12.5 mg/ rat, C3 (20 rats were given celecoxib (200mg/rato, and Group D - control group, concerning 10 rats were observed during seven days ingesting food and water ad libitum. On the 9th day, the stomachs were taken out and were macro and microscopically evaluated for the identification of the gastric injuries. RESULTS: On the macroscopic studies, the groups A2, B2 and C2 presented a remarkable high number of injuries for cm² /animal, respectively 18.55 injuries for cm² /animal, 16.25 injuries for cm² /animal and 13.55 injuries for cm²/animal. On the microscopic studies, the percentage of the injured mucosa, presented expressive difference among the groups A1, B1, C1 when compared to the groups A2, B2, C2 (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar macro e microscopicamente as lesões agudas da mucosa gástrica de ratos provocadas pelos AINEs celecoxib e indometacina e a citoproteção g

  14. FOCAL ENHANCED GASTRITIS AND MACROPHAGE MICROAGGREGATES IN THE GASTRIC MUCOSA: potential role in the differential diagnosis between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

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    Marcia Henriques de MAGALHÃES-COSTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objectives Focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates are found in the upper gastrointestinal involvement of Crohn’s disease, and may reflect an underlying defective innate immunity. These features, however, are also described in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. The role of these gastric abnormalities in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease was assessed in a population with high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods Thirty-seven Crohn’s disease, 26 ulcerative colitis, and 30 control patients were included. The H. pylori status was evaluated by the rapid urease test and histology. The presence of focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates was recorded. Results Focally enhanced gastritis was present in 24% of Crohn’s disease patients, 4% of ulcerative colitis patients and 11.5% of controls, presenting an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn’s disease of 24% and 88%, respectively. Macrophage microaggregates were found in all groups, but were only detected in ulcerative colitis and controls in association with H. pylori infection, with an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn’s disease of 61% and 69%, respectively. In the absence of H. pylori infection, focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates were significantly associated with Crohn’s disease (P<0.02 and P = 0.001 respectively. Conclusions Focally gastritis and macrophage microaggregates are suggestive of Crohn’s disease only in H. pylori-negative specimens. HEADINGS - Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis. Gastritis. Macrophages. Helicobacter pylori.

  15. Focal enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates in the gastric mucosa: potential role in the differential diagnosis between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Costa, Marcia Henriques de; Reis, Beatriz Ribeiro dos; Chagas, Vera Lúcia Antunes; Nunes, Tiago; Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira de; Zaltman, Cyrla

    2014-01-01

    Focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates are found in the upper gastrointestinal involvement of Crohn's disease, and may reflect an underlying defective innate immunity. These features, however, are also described in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. The role of these gastric abnormalities in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease was assessed in a population with high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Thirty-seven Crohn's disease, 26 ulcerative colitis, and 30 control patients were included. The H. pylori status was evaluated by the rapid urease test and histology. The presence of focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates was recorded. Focally enhanced gastritis was present in 24% of Crohn's disease patients, 4% of ulcerative colitis patients and 11.5% of controls, presenting an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn's disease of 24% and 88%, respectively. Macrophage microaggregates were found in all groups, but were only detected in ulcerative colitis and controls in association with H. pylori infection, with an overall sensitivity and specificity for Crohn's disease of 61% and 69%, respectively. In the absence of H. pylori infection, focally enhanced gastritis and macrophage microaggregates were significantly associated with Crohn's disease (Pgastritis and macrophage microaggregates are suggestive of Crohn's disease only in H. pylori-negative specimens.

  16. Allium Cepa Ameliorates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats Via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACER

    (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities) were carried out in plasma and gastric tissue. ... glandular destruction in the gastric mucosa and infiltration of inflammatory ... Gastric injury is one of major diseases affecting ..... inflammatory bowel disease.

  17. [Effect of nasogastric tube on esophageal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barinagarrementeria, R; Blancas Valencia, J M; Teramoto Matsubara, O; de la Garza González, S

    1991-01-01

    We studied 30 patients. 20 were males and 10 females. Mean age was 48 year old. Esophageal disease was not present neither gastro-esophageal reflux. Biopsy was taken between 24 hours and 25 days after nasogastric tube (NG) was put into place. Endoscopic findings were: hyperemic mucosa, submucosal hemorrhage, clots, erosions and ulcers near Esophago-gastric junction. Intraepithelial edema, vessel congestion, polymorphonuclear infiltration, fibrin thrombosis of submucosal vessels, ischemia, epithelial regeneration and ulcer were common histologic findings. All endoscopic and histologic alterations were related to the length of time of NG tube contact with the esophageal mucosa. We concluded that NG tube damages the esophageal mucosa by two mechanisms: a) Local irritation that favors b) gastric reflux by decreasing lower esophageal sphincter pressure.

  18. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

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    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  19. Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs is not associated with changes in epithelial proliferation or E-cadherin expression in gastric mucosaInfecção por Helicobacter spp. em cães não está associada com alterações na proliferação epitelial ou na expressão de E-caderina na mucosa gástrica

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    Ana Paula Bracarense

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastritis and can induce gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma in humans. The aim of this study was to determine in dogs whether there is an association between Helicobacter spp. infection in gastric mucosa, histological lesions, including epithelial cell proliferation and cell adhesion. Gastric biopsies of 12 dogs with gastric disturbances and 25 healthy dogs were evaluated. Warthin-Starry staining (WS and PCR assay were performed to confirm the presence of helicobacteria. The Helicobacter species were determined by PCR assay with speciesspecific primers for H. heilmannii, H. bizzozeronii or H. salomonis, H. felis and H. pylori. Mucosal lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin (HE and epithelial proliferation was determined by AgNOR and PCNA methods. Cell adhesion was evaluated by the expression of E-cadherin by epithelial cells. Helicobacter spp. was confirmed in 75.7% (28/37 and 73.0% (27/37 of the samples by WS and PCR, respectively. H. bizzozeronii was the species most frequently detected (37%; co-infection was observed in six (22% dogs. Histological changes in the lamina propria included mild chronic gastritis, fibrosis, glandular degeneration, and presence of lymphoid aggregates. There was a significant association between H. heilmannii infection and the presence of lymphoid follicles (p Infecção por Helicobacter pylori provoca gastrite e pode induzir adenocarcinoma gástrico e linfoma tipo MALT em seres humanos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se existe associação entre infecção por Helicobacter spp. na mucosa gástrica de cães e lesões histológicas, incluindo proliferação epitelial e adesão celular. Foram avaliadas biópsias de 12 cães com distúrbios gástricos e de 25 cães saudáveis. A coloração de Warthin-Starry (WS e o método de PCR foram utilizados para confirmar a presença de helicobactérias. As espécies de Helicobacter foram determinadas por PCR com

  20. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  1. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using 3 H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of 3 H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures

  2. Gastric emptying in chronic dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielaff, F.; Jahnel, P.; Sest, C.; Sydow, K.; Sapia, C.; Hass, A.; Buchali, K.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying of a semiliquid test meal with 5 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid as a marker was measured in 97 chronic dyspeptic patients and 16 healthy subjects. A comparison of half emptying time between both showed that chronic dyspeptic patients empty semiliquid meal at a significantly (p < 0.005) slower rate (at 70 +- 33 min) than healthy controls (at 52 x 20 min). The studies indicate that gastric stasis in chronic dyspepsia is not caused by inflammatory changes in gastric or duodenal mucosa nor by different gastric acid secretion. The presence of stasis cannot be predicted sufficiently by anamnestic complaints or endoscopic findings. (author)

  3. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  4. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  5. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in Gastric Fluid in the Surgical Patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mc

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that infects the human gastric mucosa. It is well established as a primary factor in peptic ulcer disease and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma...

  6. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in supragingival dental plaque of individuals with periodontal disease and upper gastric diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, D.G.; Stevens, R.H.; Macedo, J.M.B.; Albano, R.M.; Falabella, M.E.V.; Fisher, R.G.; Veerman, E.C.; Tinoco, E.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative microorganism which is able to colonize the gastric mucosa and is associated with peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Several studies have detected this bacterium in the oral cavity, suggesting it

  7. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  8. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  9. Expression of the Fatty Acid Receptors GPR84 and GPR120 and Cytodifferentiation of Epithelial Cells in the Gastric Mucosa of Mouse Pups in the Course of Dietary Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Widmayer, Patricia; Kusumakshi, Soumya; Hägele, Franziska A.; Boehm, Ulrich; Breer, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    During weaning, the ingested food of mouse pups changes from exclusively milk to solid food. In contrast to the protein- and carbohydrate-rich solid food, high fat milk is characterized primarily by fatty acids of medium chain length particularly important for the suckling pups. Therefore, it seems conceivable that the stomach mucosa may be specialized for detecting these important nutrients during the suckling phase. Here, we analyzed the expression of the G protein coupled receptors GPR84 a...

  10. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    Full Text Available The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features.A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored.The majority of EGCs (63/64 were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, P<0.0001; metaplasia, 1.68+/-0.13 vs. 0.48+/-0.1, P<0.0001. The degree of endoscopic atrophy improved in the patients with longer post-H. pylori eradication periods; however, this trend was not observed for the histological parameters, and high degrees of atrophy and metaplasia were observed in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs compared with the corpus during all periods (all P<0.05. The histological degrees of atrophy and metaplasia in the adjacent mucosa were particularly higher in the patients who underwent eradication due to gastric ulcers.Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis.

  11. Effects of experimental infections with larvae of Eustrongylides ignotus Jäegerskiold, 1909 and Contracaecum multipapillatum (Drasche, 1882 Baylis, 1920 in rabbits Efeitos de infecções experimentais em coelhos com larvas de Eustrongylides ignotus Jäegerskiold, 1909 e Contracaecum multipapillatum (Drasche, 1882 Baylis, 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits were infected per os with 10 Eustrongylides ignotus L4 and with 50 Contracaecum multipapillatum L3 per rabbit, recovered from naturally infected freshwater fishes (Hoplias malabaricus in order to evaluate the patogenicity of these two nematode species in mammalian host. Two rabbits (20% infected with E. ignotus died before the fourth day post-inoculation (one after 51 and the other after 78 hours. Six rabbits (60% were inappetent until the fifth day following experimental inoculation. No clinical signs in rabbits inoculated with C. multipapillatum were observed; nevertheless, eight (80% animals were positive for this nematode species. Rabbits inoculated with E. ignotus, had gastric congestion with hematoma of the gastric wall in 60% of the cases. Peritoneum was congested in 20% of the animals with the presence of peritoneal abscess in 10% of the cases. All inoculated animals showed hyperemia of the gastric mucosa with hemorrhagic gastritis due to infections with E. ignotus. In C. multipapillatum inoculated animals, the hyperemia was followed by disruption of the epithelial mucosa in the sites of parasite attachment. In the gastric mucosa, miscellaneous leukocitary infiltrates, with multifocal necrosis reaching the submucosa in the infections with C. multipapillatum were observed under bright field microscopy. Perforating lesions in several organs, mainly in the gastric wall, pancreas and liver, always in the presence of a mixed inflammatory process, intensely fibrous, with hemorrhage and necrosis were observed in animals infected with E. ignotus.Coelhos foram infectados experimentalmente per os com 10 larvas L4 de Eustrogylides ignotus (n= 10 e 50 L3 de Contracaecum multipapillatum (n= 50 coletados em traíras (Hoplias malabaricus naturalmente parasitadas a fim de se avaliar a patogenicidade induzida por essas espécies de nematóides em mamíferos. Dois coelhos (20% infectados com E. ignotus morreram antes do quarto dia p

  12. Leptin promotes wound healing in the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa.

  13. Investigation of phosphatidylcholine enhancing FITC-insulin across buccal mucosa by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weiqun; Su, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Gao, Qiuhua; Xu, Huibi

    2002-04-01

    The aim was to characterize the transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran and insulin with different resoluble compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration rate of insulin molecules through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the rabbit buccal mucosa epithelium, using confocal laser scanning microscopy for visualizing permeation pathways. The confocal images of the distribution pattern of FITC-dextran and FITC-insulin showed that the paracellular route is the major pathway of FITC-dextran through buccal mucosa epithelium, the intra-cellular route is the major pathway of FITC-insulin through buccal mucosa epithelium. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC).

  14. Low hematocrit impairs gastric mucosal CO2 removal during experimental severe normovolemic hemodilution Hematócrito baixo compromete a remoção de CO2 da mucosa gástrica na hemodiluição normovolêmica intensa experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The net effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution with different hemoglobin levels on splanchnic perfusion have not been elucidated. The hypothesis that during moderate and severe normovolemic hemodilution, systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic parameters, oxygen-derived variables, and biochemical markers of anaerobic metabolism do not reflect the adequacy of gastric mucosa, was tested in this study. METHODS: Twenty one anesthetized mongrel dogs (16 ± 1 kg were randomized to controls (CT, n = 7, no hemodilution, moderate hemodilution (hematocrit 2 5% ± 3%, n = 7 or severe hemodilution (severe hemodilution, hematocrit 15% ± 3%, n = 7, through an isovolemic exchange of whole blood and 6% hydroxyethyl starch, at a 20 mL/min rate, to the target hematocrit. The animals were followed for 120 min after hemodilution. Cardiac output (CO, L/min, portal vein blood flow (PVF, mL/min, portal vein-arterial and gastric mucosa-arterial CO2 gradients (PV-artCO2 and PCO2 gap, mm Hg, respectively were measured throughout the experiment. RESULTS: Exchange blood volumes were 33.9 ± 3.3 and 61.5 ± 5.8 mL/kg for moderate hemodilution and severe hemodilution, respectively. Arterial pressure and systemic and regional lactate levels remained stable in all groups. There were initial increases in cardiac output and portal vein blood flow in both moderate hemodilution and severe hemodilution; systemic and regional oxygen consumption remained stable largely due to increases in oxygen extraction rate. There was a significant increase in the PCO2-gap value only in severe hemodilution animals. CONCLUSION: Global and regional hemodynamic stability were maintained after moderate and severe hemodilution. However, a very low hematocrit induced gastric mucosal acidosis, suggesting that gastric mucosal CO2 monitoring may be useful during major surgery or following trauma.OBJETIVO: Os efeitos da hemodiluição normovolêmica com diferentes níveis de hemoglobina na

  15. Biliary tract duplication cyst with gastric heterotopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumbach, K.; Baker, D.H.; Weigert, J.; Altman, R.P.

    1988-05-01

    Cystic duplications of the biliary tract are rare anomalies, easily mistaken for choledochal cysts. Surgical drainage is the preferred therapy for choledochal cyst, but cystic duplication necessitates surgical excision as duplications may contain heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to peptic ulceration of the biliary tract. We report a case of biliary tract duplication cyst containing heterotopic alimentary mucosa which had initially been diagnosed and surgically treated as a choledochal cyst.

  16. Biliary tract duplication cyst with gastric heterotopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumbach, K.; Baker, D.H.; Weigert, J.; Altman, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Cystic duplications of the biliary tract are rare anomalies, easily mistaken for choledochal cysts. Surgical drainage is the preferred therapy for choledochal cyst, but cystic duplication necessitates surgical excision as duplications may contain heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to peptic ulceration of the biliary tract. We report a case of biliary tract duplication cyst containing heterotopic alimentary mucosa which had initially been diagnosed and surgically treated as a choledochal cyst. (orig.)

  17. Treatment results of localized gastric lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tatsuyuki; Gomi, Hiromichi; Sakaino, Shinjiro; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2007, 17 patients with localized gastric lymphoma (10 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and 7 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas) were treated with radiotherapy alone or doxorubicin-based chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Radiation dose of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma was 30 Gy with a daily fraction size of 1.5 Gy. Sixteen patients achieved complete remission and the 5-year overall survival of MALT lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were 100% and 87%, respectively. No gastric perforation and hemorrhage were noticed. Using AP/LR 2-port radiotherapy markedly decreased the liver dose. (author)

  18. Rabbit analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Endoscopic mucosal resection with a multiband ligator for the treatment of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia and early gastric cancer Resección endoscópica de la mucosa con un ligador multibanda para el tratamiento de la displasia de Barret de alto grado y el cáncer gástrico precoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Espinel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: due to surgery's high mortality and morbidity, local therapeutic techniques are required for Barrett's high-grade dysplasia (BHGD and early gastric cancer (EGC. Various techniques are available for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR in the GI tract. The "suck and cut" technique, which uses a transparent cap or modified multiband variceal ligator, is usually the most practiced method. A multiband ligator (ML allows sequential resection without the need for submucosal injection and endoscope withdrawal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EMR with a ML device in the treatment of Barrett's high-grade dysplasia and early gastric cancer. Patients and methods: prospective study. Eight consecutive patients (4 men; median age, 62 years; range 38-89 years with BHGD (4 or EGC (4 were treated. EMR was performed with a multiband ligator in order to create a pseudopolyp and then permit snare polypectomy of flat mucosal lesions. The pseudopolyp was resected by using pure coagulating current. No submucosal saline injection was administered before resection. Results: a total of 8 consecutive patients were treated with the multiband ligator (ML technique. Barrett's esophagus (BE: one patient with long BE received 3 EMR sessions. Three patients presented with short BE and received 1 EMR session each. The histology of the EMR specimens confirmed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration (1 patient and BHGD (3 patients. Early gastric cancer (EGC: 3 patients had EGC (type IIa and 1 patient had high-grade dysplasia. EMR was accomplished in 1 session for each patient. The histology of EMR specimens confirmed a mucinous adenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration (1 patient, EGC (2 patients, and HGD (1 patient. Complications (mild esophageal stenosis, minor bleeding occurred in 2 patients. Conclusions: EMR has diagnostic and therapeutic implications, and represents a superior diagnostic modality as

  20. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying and hunger in normal-weight humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, F; Edholm, T; Schmidt, P T

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin is produced primarily by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and increases gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis. MAIN OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on gastric emptying, appetite, and postprandial hormone secretion i...

  1. Effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy and reserpine on gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... the secretion of gastric mucus in a system where glycoprotein erosion is measured together with adherent mucus secretion in the gastric mucosa in the unstimu- lated state. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of acute bilateral adrenalectomy and dopamine depletory agent ...

  2. Studies of distribution and recurrence of Helicobacter spp. gastric mucosa of dogs after triple therapy Estudos da distribuição e recorrência do Helicobacter spp. na mucosa gástrica de cães após terapia tríplice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pires Anacleto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the triple antimicrobial therapy in positive Helicobacter spp. dogs and to investigate recurrence. METHODS: A total of 20 dogs underwent endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy using the rapid urease test and histopathology stained with Giemsa. Ten animals were treated with triple therapy recommended for humans and divided into control and experimental group. The control group was kept in isolation while the experimental group was placed in contact with positive animals during 60 days. RESULTS: The prevalence of infection in animals in this experiment was 100%, and more frequent in the fundus and the gastric body. Therapy for 7 days using clarithromycin, amoxicillin and lansoprazole was effective in 100% of the animals. Recurrence of the infection in 80% of dogs in the experimental group, while the control group remained eradicated after 60 days. CONCLUSION: Crowded environments associated with close contact with dogs infected with helicobacter are a determinant for transmission of Helicobacter spp. between canines.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da terapia tríplice em cães naturalmente infectados pelo Helicobacter spp. e investigar a recorrência da infecção pelo contato com animais infectados. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 cães, submetidos à endoscopia digestiva alta seguida de biopsia gástrica usando teste rápido da urease e histopatologia corada pelo Giemsa. Dez animais foram tratados com terapia tríplice preconizada para humanos e divididos em grupo controle e experimental. O grupo controle foi mantido em isolamento enquanto que o grupo experimento foi colocado em contato com os animais positivos durante 60 dias. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da infecção nos animais deste experimento foi de 100%, e mais frequente no fundo e corpo gástrico. A terapia durante 7 dias empregando claritromicina, amoxicilina e lansoprazol foi eficaz em 100% dos animais. Houve recorrência da infecção em 80% dos cães do grupo

  3. Antibiotic concentrations in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, A S

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations in the intestinal mucosa after the initial dose of cefoxitin, piperacillin and clindamycin have been studied. The antibiotics were given at the induction of anesthesia as prophylaxis to patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and intestinal mucosa taken during the operation were determined by the microbiological agar diffusion method. Therapeutic concentrations in intestinal mucosa were maintained during the major part of the operation period. The mean mucosa/serum concentration ratios were for cefoxitin 0.4, for piperacillin 0.5 and for clindamycin 1.2.

  4. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  5. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, H.O.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer

  6. Effect of Interlukin-1β on proliferation of gastric epithelial cells in culture

    OpenAIRE

    Beales, Ian LP

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is the main risk factor for the development of non-cardia gastric cancer. Increased proliferation of the gastric mucosa is a feature of H. pylori infection. Mucosal interkeukin-1β production is increased in H. pylori infection and IL-1β genotypes associated with increased pro-inflammatory activity are risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. The effect of IL-1β on gastric epithelial cell proliferation has been examined in this study. Methods ...

  7. Molecular genotyping of anisakis larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and endoscopic evidence for preferential penetration of normal over atrophic mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Arai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. METHODS: In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s. (99%, and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005. Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-31.8. CONCLUSIONS: In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae.

  8. Molecular Genotyping of Anisakis Larvae in Middle Eastern Japan and Endoscopic Evidence for Preferential Penetration of Normal over Atrophic Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Toshio; Akao, Nobuaki; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Ishikawa, Hirofumi; Ohta, Nobuo; Hirata, Nobuto; Nakaji, So; Yamauchi, Kenji; Hirai, Mitsuru; Shiratori, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fujii, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Eiji; Naito, Mikio; Saitoh, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shibata, Nobumitsu; Shimo, Masamune; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused primarily by Anisakis spp. larvae in Asia and in Western countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype of Anisakis larvae endoscopically removed from Middle Eastern Japanese patients and to determine whether mucosal atrophy affects the risk of penetration in gastric anisakiasis. Methods In this study, 57 larvae collected from 44 patients with anisakiasis (42 gastric and 2 colonic anisakiasis) were analyzed retrospectively. Genotyping was confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ITS regions and by sequencing the mitochondrial small subunit (SSU) region. In the cases of gastric anisakiasis, correlation analyses were conducted between the frequency of larval penetration in normal/atrophic area and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Results Nearly all larvae were A. simplex seusu stricto (s.s.) (99%), and one larva displayed a hybrid genotype. The A. simplex larvae penetrated normal mucosa more frequently than atrophic area (p = 0.005). Finally, patients with normal mucosa infection were more likely to exhibit clinical symptoms than those with atrophic mucosa infection (odds ratio, 6.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.52–31.8). Conclusions In Japan, A. simplex s.s. is the main etiological agent of human anisakiasis and tends to penetrate normal gastric mucosa. Careful endoscopic examination of normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the greater curvature of the stomach will improve the detection of Anisakis larvae. PMID:24586583

  9. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca ÖZGÜN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  10. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgün, Gonca; Adim, Şaduman Balaban; Uğraş, Nesrin; Kiliçturgay, Sadık

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  11. Effect of soybean-lecithin as an enhancer of buccal mucosa absorption of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weiqun; Hu, Qiaolin; Xu, Ying; Xu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Transmucosal delivery is a suitable route for insulin non-injection administration. In order to understand how insulin passes through mucosa with soybean-lecithin as an enhancing absorption. The penetration rate of insulin molecular through porcine buccal mucosa was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes in the Ussing Chambers. The imaging morphology of rabbits buccal mucosa was analyzed by using non-contact mode atomic force microscopy. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean-lecithin. Untreated buccal mucosa showed relatively smooth surface characteristics, with many small crater-like pits and indentations spread over mucosa surfaces. Buccal mucosa that had been treated with 1.0% (w/v) sodium deoxycholic acid (pH 7.4) appeared to much more indentations characteristic, which treated with 2.5% (w/v) soybean-lecithin (pH 7.4) and 2.5% (w/v) Azone or laurocapram (pH 7.4) appeared rather different, the surface mucosa treated with soybean-lecithin emulsion showed a fine, rippling effect whereas those exposed to Azone display a more coarse, undulating surface feature. As a result of that Azone could damage the surface of the buccal mucosa, but soybean-lecithin could not. This study demonstrated that soybean-lecithin is a better and safer enhancer for insulin transmucosal delivery.

  12. Mucosa protectives: sucralfate and colloidal bismuth subcitrate in peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Nio, C. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Mucosa protective drugs are thought to have an important role in the treatment of both duodenal (DU) and gastric ulcer (GU) disease by means of correcting the disturbed defensive factors. Sucralfate as well as colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) form a layer on the ulcer base and in this way protect

  13. Lithium absorption by the rabbit gall-bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    Lithium (Li+) absorption across the low-resistance epithelium of the rabbit gall-bladder was studied in order to elucidate possible routes and mechanisms of Li+ transfer. Li+ at a concentration of 0.4 mM in both mucosal and serosal media did not affect isosmotic mucosa-to-serosa fluid absorption...

  14. Effects of sucralfate on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis in cultured guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tatsuya; Takano, Tatsunori; Tomisato, Wataru; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Koura, Yuko; Nishimoto, Kiyo; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Mizushima, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that several gastric irritants, including ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrochloric acid, induced both necrosis and apoptosis in cultured gastric mucosal cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralfate, a unique gastroprotective drug, on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis produced in vitro. Sucralfate strongly inhibited ethanol-induced necrosis in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells. The preincubation of cells with sucralfate was not necessary for its cytoprotective effect to be observed, thus making its mechanism of action different from that of other gastroprotective drugs. Necrosis of gastric mucosal cells induced by hydrogen peroxide or indomethacin was also suppressed by sucralfate. On the other hand, sucralfate only weakly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosa in vivo can be explained, at least in part, by its inhibitory effect on gastric irritant-induced necrosis.

  15. Gastric pseudolymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Hellerich, U.; Bodendoerfer, G.; Wimmer, B.; Ruf, G.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Gastric pseudolymphoma is an uncommon benign lesion which poses a difficult problem in diagnosis and management. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach, however, may occasionally precede true gastric lymphoma. Endoscopic, radiologic and pathological findings are not generally helpful in establishing the diagnosis preoperatively. Benign gastric lymphoid hyperplasia could be mistaken radiologically for ulcerated gastric carcinoma and pathologically for malignant lymphoma. Recognition of this condition is important to prevent unnecessary treatment by surgery or radiotherapy. About 140 case reports have been published to date. This paper describes the cases of two further patients. (orig.) [de

  16. Regulation of apoptosis is impaired in atrophic gastritis associated with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosania, R; Varbanova, M; Wex, T; Langner, C; Bornschein, J; Giorgio, F; Ierardi, E; Malfertheiner, P

    2017-06-29

    Gastric premalignant conditions, atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are characterized by an increase of proliferation and a reduction of apoptosis in epithelial cells. The epithelial cell kinetics in AG and IM in gastric mucosa adjacent to gastric cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epithelial cell turnover and expression of proliferation and apoptosis-related genes in gastric cancer (GC) and adjacent mucosa with atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia (AG/IM GC+), as well as in atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia mucosa of patients without GC (AG/IM GC-) and in control biopsy samples of non-transformed gastric mucosa (Control). We selected 58 patients (M: F = 34:24; age range 20-84 years, median 61.06 years) with 4 well defined histological conditions: 20 controls with histological finding of non-transformed gastric mucosa, 20 patients with AG or IM (AG/IM GC-), and 18 patients with intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) and AG or IM in the adjacent mucosa (3 cm from the macroscopic tumour margin, AG/IM GC+). We performed an immunohistochemical staining of Ki67 and TUNEL and quantitative RT-PCR to determine the expression of PCNA and Bax/Bcl-2. The immunohistochemical expression of Ki67 and TUNEL in AG/IM GC- was significantly increased compared to not transformed gastric mucosa (p gastritis and IM in presence of cancer, as well as intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma.

  17. Gastric heterotopia in rectum: A literature review and its diagnostic pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarvand, Peyman; Vareedayah, Ashley A; Phillips, Nancy J; Hachem, Christine; Lai, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    The term heterotopia, in pathology, refers to the presence of normal tissues at foreign sites. Gastric heterotopia has been reported anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the presence of gastric heterotopia in the rectum is very rare. We, here, report a rare case of a localized 2-cm area of cratered mucosa with heaped-up borders in the rectum of a 51-year-old, asymptomatic woman who underwent screening colonoscopy. Histologic examination of the biopsy from the lesional tissue in rectum demonstrated fragments of rectal mucosa co-mingling with oxyntic- and antral-type gastric mucosa. No intestinal metaplasia or Helicobacter pylori is identified. Patients with gastric heterotopia in rectum usually present with bleeding and/or abdominal pain. Definite treatment of choice is surgical or endoscopic resection, although the lesions also respond to histamine-2 receptor blockers. In this article, most recent literature about gastric heterotopia in rectum is reviewed, following a case presentation about it.

  18. Upregulation of Leukotriene Receptors in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venerito, Marino [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Kuester, Doerthe [Institute of Pathology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Harms, Caroline [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Schubert, Daniel [Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Wex, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wex@med.ovgu.de; Malfertheiner, Peter [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany)

    2011-08-08

    Leukotrienes (LT) mediate allergic and inflammatory processes. Previously, we identified significant changes in the expression pattern of LT receptors in the gastric mucosa after eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and LT receptors in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of 5-LOX and receptors for LTB4 (BLT-1, BLT-2) and cysteinyl-LT (CysLT-1, CysLT-2) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GC samples of 35 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy and in 29 tumor-free tissue specimens from gastric mucosa. Male-to-female ratio was 24:11. The median age was 70 years (range 34–91). Twenty-two patients had GC of intestinal, six of diffuse, six of mixed and one of undifferentiated type. The IHC analysis showed a nearly ubiquitous expression of studied proteins in GC (88–97%) and in tumor-free specimens as well (89–100%). An increase in the immunoreactive score of both BLT receptors and CysLT-1 was observed in GC compared to tumor-free gastric mucosa (p < 0.001 for BLT-1; p < 0.01 for BLT-2 and CysLT-1, Mann-Whitney U-test). No differences in the IHC expression of 5-LOX and CsyLT-2 were observed between GC and tumor-free mucosa. The expression of BLT-2, CysLT-1 and CysLT-2 was increased in GC of intestinal type when compared to the diffuse type (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). LTB4 receptors and CysLT-1 are up-regulated in GC tissue implying a role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  19. Non-detection of Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus in a region of high gastric cancer risk indicates a lack of a role for these viruses in gastric carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric mucosa tissue was collected from patients with gastroduodenal diseases in a region of norrteastern China showing a high risk of gastric cancer incidence. The presence of EBV and HPV were assayed to investigate the relationship between gastric carcinomas and virus infection. Neither EBV nor HPV DNA was detected in tissue from the patients. The role of EBV and HPV in gastric cancer is not well understood and still needs to be clarified.

  20. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Primarily due to early detection of the disease, the results of treatment for gastric cancer have improved in Japan, Korea and several specialized Western centres. Surgery offers excellent long-term survival results for early gastric cancer (EGC). In the Western world, however more than 80 % of patients at diagnosis have an advanced gastric cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of surgery is the complete removal of the tumour (UICC R0-resection), which is known to be the only proven, effective treatment modality and the most important treatmentrelated prognostic factor. The prognosis after surgical treatment of gastric cancer remains poor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a rising option in locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiation has been shown to be beneficial in gastric cancer patients who have undergone suboptimal surgical resection. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy alone seem to be very small, Untreated metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a median survival of only 3 - 4 months, but this can be increased to 8 - 10 months, associated with improved quality of life, with combination chemotherapy. Currently, no standard combination chemotherapy regimen exists, although regimens utilizing both cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, such as epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) or docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (DCF) are amongst the most active. Newer chemotherapeutic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and taxanes, show promising activity, and are currently being tested with biologics in clinical trials. (author)

  1. Serum and gastric fluid levels of cytokines and nitrates in gastric diseases infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmet, N; Refik, M; Harputluoglu, M; Ersoy, Y; Aydin, N Engin; Yildirim, B

    2004-04-01

    This case control study presents data on the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2R (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha in gastric fluid and serum. Patients with gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer are studied and grouped according to infection by Helicobacter pylori. The 208 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination were classified as follows; H. pylori-positive gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-negative gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-positive ulcers (n = 34), H. pylori-negative ulcers (n = 34), 43 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancer in addition to 33 H. pylori-negative healthy control individuals. Gastric fluids and blood samples were taken concomitantly. Cytokines and nitrite and nitrate determinations were attempted as soon as possible after collection of the samples. Nitrite and nitrate levels of serum and gastric fluids of H. pylori-positive gastritis and ulcers were higher than H. pylori-negative gastritis and ulcers. The concentrations of total nitrite and nitrate and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8) in gastric fluids and sera of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients were higher than H. pylori-negative control groups. IL-1 beta level was significantly elevated in gastric fluid of infected cancer patients but not in serum. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in cytokine-NO combination in gastric mucosa previously reported by many studies is not restricted to local infected gastric tissue but also detected in gastric fluid and sera of H. pylori-positive subjects and may have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of common gastric diseases.

  2. CT appearances of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessar, P.; Norton, A.; Rohatiner, A.Z.S.; Lister, T.A.; Reznek, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma that differs from high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma both clinically and histologically. The CT appearances of MALT lymphoma are described. Of 40 patients referred with biopsy-proven MALT lymphoma, only seven had not had gastrectomy or chemotherapy prior to CT examination. The CT scans of these seven cases were analysed for the degree and extent of gastric wall thickening, enlargement of abdominal and extra-abdominal lymph nodes, and presence of extranodal disease. In all patients the stomach was distended with oral contrast medium and scans performed at narrow collimation, after intravenous administration of 20 mg hyoscine butylbromide. In six patients focal thickening of the gastric wall was 1 cm or less. One patient had thickening of over 4 cm. There was no enlargement of abdominal or extra-abdominal lymph nodes or extension to adjacent organs. Thus on CT, at presentation, MALT lymphoma results in minimal gastric wall thickening, unlike high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which typically causes bulky gastric disease, nodal enlargement and extension into adjacent organs. CT is therefore of limited value in monitoring response to treatment. With disease greater than minimal thickening, transformation to a higher grade should be considered. (orig.)

  3. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiation therapy for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobelbower, R.R.; Bagne, F.; Ajlouni, M.I.; Milligan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a moderately radioresponsive neoplasm. Attempts to treat patients with unresectable disease with external beam radiation therapy alone have generally failed because of problems with tumor localization and adequate dose delivery as well as the inherent radioresponsiveness of the gastric mucosa and the organs intimately related to the stomach. Combining external beam therapy and chemotherapy (acting as a systemic agent and as a radiosensitizer) seems to be of some (albeit limited) benefit in the management of unresectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Optimum combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation sensitizers in this situation remain to be determined. The authors discuss strides which have been made in the treatment of gastric cancer. They also address the unanswered clinical questions which remain regarding the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of this highly lethal disease

  5. Gastric Osteoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Kye, J. S. Park, S. K. Ku1, S. H. Yun, T. H. Oh, K.W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight year old female dog was referred with anorexia, nervousness and emaciation. At the point of time, severe lifelessness was the only symptom. Then euthanasia was done according to the owner’s decision. As a result of postmortem examination, thin white matters were found on the gastric mucosa of the greater curvature and there were no other significant gross findings. Tissue specimens were collected from the gastric wall, esophagus, gall bladder, aorta, heart, kidneys, liver, mesenteric lymph node, lungs, urinary bladder and spleen and processed for histopathology. Microscopically, the masses of stomach were consisted of well-differentiated osteoid tissues, the compact bone-osteocytes and the matured lamellated bone with Haversian system. It was diagnosed as osteoma of the stomach. Other organs were free on such histological findings.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Gastric Epithelial Cells Using Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Bockerstett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to analyze individual epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa would provide important insight into gastric disease, including chronic gastritis and progression to gastric cancer. However, the successful isolation of viable gastric epithelial cells (parietal cells, neck cells, chief cells, and foveolar cells from gastric glands has been limited due to difficulties in tissue processing. Furthermore, analysis and interpretation of gastric epithelial cell flow cytometry data has been difficult due to the varying sizes and light scatter properties of the different epithelial cells, high levels of autofluorescence, and poor cell viability. These studies were designed to develop a reliable method for isolating viable single cells from the corpus of stomachs and to optimize analyses examining epithelial cells from healthy and diseased stomach tissue by flow cytometry. We performed a two stage enzymatic digestion in which collagenase released individual gastric glands from the stromal tissue of the corpus, followed by a Dispase II digestion that dispersed these glands into greater than 1 × 106 viable single cells per gastric corpus. Single cell suspensions were comprised of all major cell lineages found in the normal gastric glands. A method describing light scatter, size exclusion, doublet discrimination, viability staining, and fluorescently-conjugated antibodies and lectins was used to analyze individual epithelial cells and immune cells. This technique was capable of identifying parietal cells and revealed that gastric epithelial cells in the chronically inflamed mucosa significantly upregulated major histocompatibility complexes (MHC I and II but not CD80 or CD86, which are costimulatory molecules involved in T cell activation. These studies describe a method for isolating viable single cells and a detailed description of flow cytometric analysis of cells from healthy and diseased stomachs. These studies begin to identify effects of

  7. Gastric Ulcers in Middle-Aged Rats: The Healing Effect of Essential Oil from Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Polo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly population has experienced increased life expectancy as well as the increased incidence of gastric ulcers. The peels of fruits from Citrus aurantium L., popularly known in Brazil as orange bitter, are commonly used asatea form for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, such as ulcer and gastritis. We evaluated the healing effects of essential oil from the peels of Citrus aurantium fruits (OEC on gastric ulcers in middle-aged rats. We examined the effects of a 14-day chronic OEC treatment on gastric mucosa in middle-aged male Wistar rats that were given acetic-acid-induced gastric lesions by morphometric and immunohistological analyses. Oral OEC treatment significantly reduced the lesion area (76% within the gastric mucosa and significantly increased (P<.05 the height of regenerated mucosa (59% when compared to the negative control group. Immunohistochemical analysis of the molecular markers such as COX-2, HSP-70, VEGF, and PCNA in the gastric mucosa confirmed that OEC treatment induced healing effects by increasing the number of new blood vessels and by augmenting gastric mucus in the mucosa glands. These results suggest that the oil from Citrus aurantium effectively heals gastric ulcers in middle-aged animals; however, safe use of OEC demands special care and precautions.

  8. Correlation between pepsinogens and gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Mengjun; Xiao Zhijian; Yang Xizhen; Huang Xuquan; Yu Huixin; Zhang Rongjun; Tao Yonghui; Zhang Lianfen; Cai Gangming; Tan Cheng; Xiao Ye; Jin Jian; Wang Bocheng

    2001-01-01

    Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen II (PG I and PG II) were purified from human gastric mucosa using DE-52 anion exchange chromatography, Gel filtration HPLC and Q-2 anion exchange fast pressure chromatography. The antiserums against at both PG I and PG II were established respectively by preparing 125 I-PG I and 125 I-PG II using the chloramine-T method. Serum Pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by RIA in 190 healthy controls and other gastric diseases. The results were analyzed by statistics method. Compared with healthy controls, the serum PG I levels of duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer were significantly higher. The serum PG I levels of gastritis patients were significantly lower and the serum PG I levels and PG I/PG II ratio of gastric cancer patients were much more lower. After total gastrectomy, the serum PG I and PG II levels of patients with recurrence of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those without recurrence. The changes of serum PG I and PG II levels are valuable for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and detecting the recurrence of gastric cancer after total gastrectomy

  9. Correlation between pepsinogens and gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengjun, Jiang; Zhijian, Xiao; Xizhen, Yang; Xuquan, Huang; Huixin, Yu; Rongjun, Zhang; Yonghui, Tao; Lianfen, Zhang; Gangming, Cai; Cheng, Tan; Ye, Xiao; Jian, Jin; Bocheng, Wang [Jiangsu Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi (China). State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen II (PG I and PG II) were purified from human gastric mucosa using DE-52 anion exchange chromatography, Gel filtration HPLC and Q-2 anion exchange fast pressure chromatography. The antiserums against at both PG I and PG II were established respectively by preparing {sup 125}I-PG I and {sup 125}I-PG II using the chloramine-T method. Serum Pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by RIA in 190 healthy controls and other gastric diseases. The results were analyzed by statistics method. Compared with healthy controls, the serum PG I levels of duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer were significantly higher. The serum PG I levels of gastritis patients were significantly lower and the serum PG I levels and PG I/PG II ratio of gastric cancer patients were much more lower. After total gastrectomy, the serum PG I and PG II levels of patients with recurrence of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those without recurrence. The changes of serum PG I and PG II levels are valuable for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and detecting the recurrence of gastric cancer after total gastrectomy.

  10. Differences in gastric mucosal microbiota profiling in patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using pyrosequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Byung Kwon; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Kyung Mo; Choi, Bo Youl; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium. Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. The composition, diversity, and richness of microbial communities were compared between three groups. The composition of H. pylori-containing Epsilonproteobacteria class appeared to be the most prevalent, but the relative increase in the Bacilli class in the gastric cancer group was noticed, resulting in a significant difference compared with the chronic gastritis group. By analyzing the Helicobacter-dominant group at a family level, the relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae family was significantly lower in the gastric cancer group compared with chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia groups, while the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae family significantly increased. In a UPGMA clustering of Helicobacter-dominant group based on UniFrac distance, the chronic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were clearly separated, while the intestinal metaplasia group was distributed in between the two groups. The evenness and diversity of gastric microbiota in the gastric cancer group was increased compared with other groups. In Helicobacter predominant patients, the microbial compositions of gastric mucosa from gastric cancer patients are significantly different to chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia patients. These alterations of gastric microbial composition may play an important, as-yet-undetermined role in

  11. Binding of Helocobacter pyori to Human Gastric Mucose: Identification and Characterization of a Lewis b Bingind Protein

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biegel, Susan

    1995-01-01

    .... With the isolation of a Gram-negative, spiral shaped bacterium from human gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori, came the answers to many questions concerning peptic ulcer disease, including this one. Recently...

  12. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  13. The Importance of Urease in Acid Protection for the Gastric-colonising Bacteria Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, R. L.; Lee, A.

    2011-01-01

    The urease of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori shares numerous characteristics with the urease of a bacterium isolated from cat gastric mucosa, Helicobacter felis sp. nov. The native enzymes have similar apparent molecular weights and, when subjected to SDS-PAGE, disassociate into active subunits of comparable relative mobilities. In contrast, a bacterium (St1) that colonises rodent ileal mucosa, and is related to Helicobacter spp., expresses a distinct urease from those of the gastri...

  14. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW 30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  15. Clinicopathological correlation and prognostic significance of sonic hedgehog protein overexpression in human gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanyang; Li, Fang; Tang, Bo; Shi, Yan; Hao, Yingxue; Yu, Peiwu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein in gastric cancer, and correlated it with clinicopathological parameters. The prognostic significance of Shh protein was analyzed. Shh protein expression was evaluated in 113 cases of gastric cancer and 60 cases of normal gastric mucosa. The immunoreactivity was scored semi quantitatively as: 0 = absent; 1 = weak; 2 = moderate; and 3 = strong. All cases were further classified into two groups, namely non-overexpression group with score 0 or 1, and overexpression group with score 2 or 3. The overexpression of Shh protein was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Survival analysis was then performed to determine the Shh protein prognostic significance in gastric cancer. In immunohistochemistry study, nineteen (31.7%) normal gastric mucosa revealed Shh protein overexpression, while eighty-one (71.7%) gastric cancer revealed overexpression. The expression of Shh protein were significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric mucosa (P overexpression and non-expression groups P = 0.168 and 0.071). However, Shh overexpression emerged as a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 1.187, P = 0.041). Shh protein expression is upregulated and is statistically correlated with age, tumor differentiation, depth of invasion, pathologic staging, and nodal metastasis. The Shh protein overexpression is a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis in gastric cancer.

  16. Radiodiagnosis of gastric diseases on the basis of thin contour findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, A.V.; Zavodnov, V.Ya.; Sklyanskaya, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the role of the thin contour in radiodiagnisis of various diseases of the gastric mucosa. Altogether 140 patients with various gastric diseases were investigated. Using X-ray examination of the stomach based on the common 2-phase method, thin contour images were obtained in 80 % of the cases. The results of the investigation have revealed direct correlation between the type of the thin contour and a morphological picture of the gastric mucosa in chronic gastritis. Early stomach cancer was characterized by the local absence or rearrangement of a usual pattern of the thin contour on stomach radiograms. It was difficult to defect single erosions or polyps with a diameter under 5 mm against a background of the gastric mucosa thin contour. Good visualization of stomach areolae, particularly those of a rough nodular type in the proximal part of the stomach was suggestive of an ulcerative lesion

  17. Cl- channels of the gastric parietal cell that are active at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppoletti, J; Baker, A M; Malinowska, D H

    1993-06-01

    HCl secretion across mammalian gastric parietal cell apical membrane may involve Cl- channels. H(+)-K(+)-ATPase-containing membranes isolated from gastric mucosa of histamine-stimulated rabbits were fused to planar lipid bilayers. Channels were recorded with symmetric 800 mM CsCl solutions, pH 7.4. A linear current-voltage (I-V) relationship was obtained, and conductance was 28 +/- 1 pS at 800 mM CsCl. Conductance was 6.9 +/- 2 pS at 150 mM CsCl. Reversal potential was +22 mV with a fivefold cis-trans CsCl concentration gradient, indicating that the channel was anion selective with a discrimination ratio of 6:1 for Cl- over Cs+. Anion selectivity of the channel was I- > Cl- > or = Br- > NO3-, and gluconate was impermeant. Channels obtained at pH 7.4 persisted when pH of medium bathing the trans side of the bilayer (pHtrans) was reduced to pH 3, without a change in conductance, linearity of I-V relationship, or ion selectivity. In contrast, asymmetric reduction of pH of medium bathing the cis side of the bilayer from 7.4 to 3 always resulted in loss of channel activity. At pH 7.4, open probability (Po) of the channel was voltage dependent, i.e., predominantly open at +80 mV but mainly closed at -80 mV. In contrast, with low pHtrans, channel Po at -80 mV was increased 3.5-fold. The Cl- channel was Ca2+ indifferent. In absence of ionophores, ion selectivity for support of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and H+ transport was consistent with that exhibited by the channel and could be limited by substitution with NO3-, whereas maximal H(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity was indifferent to anion present, demonstrating that anion transport can be rate limiting. Cl- channels with similar characteristics (conductance, linear I-V relationship, and ion selectivity) were also present in H(+)-K(+)-ATPase-containing vesicles isolated from resting (cimetidine-treated) gastric mucosa, exhibiting at -80 mV a pH-independent approximately 3.5-fold lower Po than stimulated vesicle channels. At -80 m

  18. Lithium absorption by the rabbit gall-bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    Lithium (Li+) absorption across the low-resistance epithelium of the rabbit gall-bladder was studied in order to elucidate possible routes and mechanisms of Li+ transfer. Li+ at a concentration of 0.4 mM in both mucosal and serosal media did not affect isosmotic mucosa-to-serosa fluid absorption...... was elicited from the mucosal side and was not accounted for by compensatory Li+ absorption; water and Na+ absorption rates decreased nearly in parallel. The effects of 0.4 mM amiloride and of substitution with 20 mM Li+ were only partly additive. It is concluded that Li+ absorption in the rabbit gall...

  19. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  20. Bimodal distribution of fasting gastric acidity in a rural African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting. The people of Transkei eat a diet high in linoleic acid, the principal fatty acid in maize. The theory has been put forward that a diet high in linoleic acid and low in fat and riboflavin, such as the traditional diet in Transkei, results in overproduction of prostaglandin E2 in the gastric mucosa, and that this overproduction ...

  1. Clinical Fact of Rectal Duplication with gastric heterotopy | Atmani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enteric duplication could occur through the entire alimentary tract. A case of rectal duplication cyst with heterotopic gastric mucosa in a chid is described. MRI scan is shown useful in the diagnosis of the duplication. The treatment is the complete local resection of the rectal duplication. Keywords: duplication, rectal, MRI, ...

  2. MORPHOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE WALL OF THE GLANDULAR STOMACH OF YOUNG RABBITS (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Larissa Renata; Molinari, Sonia Lucy; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; Michelan, Andrea Cristiane; Scapinello, Claúdio

    2001-01-01

    The morphology of the stomach may vary between species as a function of feeding habits, differences on the cellular composition of the mucosa of the stomach wall and the different functions it carries out. Morphofunctional variations of the stomach of several animals along phylogeny led us to investigate the morphology of the wall of the glandular stomach of rabbits. We used the stomachs of 32 young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from the White New Zealand strain, coming from the Experimenta...

  3. Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture for the Treatment of Acute Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Heung Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the stomach and duodenum. The basic physiopathology of a gastric ulcer results from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive and cytoprotective factors. This study examined whether Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP would provide protection against acute gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 8 rats each: normal, control, normal saline (NP and GLP groups. The experimental acute gastric ulcer was induced by using an EtOH/HCl solution and the normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated once with injections of saline and GLP, respectively. Two local acupoints were used: CV12 (中脘 which is the alarm point of the Stomach Meridian, and ST36 (足三里, which is the sea point of the Stomach Meridian. The stomachs from the rats in each group were collected and analyzed for gross appearance and histology. Also, immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1 was performed. Results: Histological observations of the gastric lesions in the control group showed comparatively extensive damage of the gastric mucosa and necrotic lesions had penetrated deeply into the mucosa. The lesions were long, hemorrhagic, and confined to the glandular portions. The lesions were measured microscopically by using the clear depth of penetration into the gastric mucosal surface. The length and the width of the ulcer were measured and the inhibition percentage was calculated. Wound healing of the acute gastric ulcer was promoted by using GLP, and significant alterations of indices in gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was shown by gross appearance, histology and immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP administered at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol

  4. Transcriptional Analyses of Barrett's Metaplasia and Normal Upper GI Mucosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA has increased dramatically in the US and Western Europe. It has been shown that EAs evolve from premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE tissue by a process of clonal expansion and evolution. However, the molecular phenotype of the premalignant metaplasia, and its relationship to those of the normal upper gastrointestinal (GI mucosae, including gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium of the esophagus, has not been systematically characterized. Therefore, we used oligonucleotide-based microarrays to characterize gene expression profiles in each of these tissues. The similarity of BE to each of the normal tissues was compared using a series of computational approaches. Our analyses included esophageal squamous epithelium, which is present at the same anatomic site and exposed to similar conditions as Barrett's epithelium, duodenum that shares morphologic similarity to Barrett's epithelium, and adjacent gastric epithelium. There was a clear distinction among the expression profiles of gastric, duodenal, and squamous epithelium whereas the BE profiles showed considerable overlap with normal tissues. Furthermore, we identified clusters of genes that are specific to each of the tissues, to the Barrett's metaplastic epithelia, and a cluster of genes that was distinct between squamous and nonsquamous epithelia.

  5. Development of stress ulcers assessed by gastric electrical potential difference, pH of gastric juice, and endoscopy in patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinstein, E; Gjørup, I; Schulze, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess measurement of gastric electrical potential difference, pH of gastric mucosa, and endoscopic findings in patients in intensive care units who are at risk of developing stress ulcers. DESIGN: Open comparison with age- and sex-matched control subjects. SETTING: Herlev Hospital......, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Sixteen consecutive patients with no history of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, coagulopathy, or ulcer disease who had been admitted to the intensive care unit, and 16 age- and sex-matched outpatients with normal endoscopic findings. INTERVENTIONS: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, during...... which any lesions that were found were scored according to severity, the gastric potential difference, and the pH of gastric juice were measured. OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation between the incidence of stress ulceration found at endoscopy, gastric potential difference, and gastric pH. RESULTS: Gastric...

  6. Image processing of early gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Umeda, Tokuo; Inamura, Kiyonari

    1992-01-01

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Grey scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions. (author)

  7. ATP-ase activity in the human oral mucous membrane, the guinea pig and the rabbit epidermis. A light- and electronmicroscopical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1984-01-01

    The activity for ATP-ase was investigated in cells of rabbit and guinea pig epidermis and human oral mucosa. Observations both in the light- and electron microscope indicate that the ATP-ase positive cells of guinea pig and human epithelia are Langerhans cells while in the rabbit epidermis...

  8. VacA and CagA Status as Biomarker of Two Opposite End Outcomes of Helicobacter pylori Infection (Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer) in a Moroccan Population

    OpenAIRE

    El Khadir, Mounia; Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; El Rhazi, Karima; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; El Abkari, Mohamed; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection induces inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which may progress to precancerous lesions leading to gastric cancer. Pathological determinism is associated to some virulence genes of the bacterium, notably the vacA and cagA genes. The present study aimed to determine the H. pylori genotypes distribution and their association with sex, age and gastric diseases in a Moroccan population. Gastric biopsy was taken from 1079 consenting patients. The specimens ...

  9. CT differentiation of poorly-differentiated gastric neuroendocrine tumours from well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours and gastric adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-A [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the differential CT features of gastric poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (PD-NETs) from well-differentiated NETs (WD-NETs) and gastric adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and to suggest differential features of hepatic metastases from gastric NETs and ADCs. Our study population was comprised of 36 patients with gastric NETs (18 WD-NETs, 18 PD-NETs) and 38 patients with gastric ADCs who served as our control group. Multiple CT features were assessed to identify significant differential CT findings of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs. In addition, CT features of hepatic metastases including the metastasis-to-liver ratio were analyzed to differentiate metastatic NETs from ADCs. The presence of metastatic lymph nodes was the sole differentiator of PD-NETs from WD-NETs (P =.001, odds ratio = 56.67), while the presence of intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting was the sole significant CT feature differentiating PD-NETs from ADCs (P =.047, odds ratio = 15.3) For hepatic metastases, metastases from NETs were more hyper-attenuated than those from ADCs. The presence of metastatic LNs and intact overlying mucosa with mucosal tenting are useful CT discriminators of PD-NETs from WD-NETs and ADCs, respectively. In addition, a higher metastasis-to-liver ratio may help differentiate hepatic metastases of gastric NETs from those of gastric ADCs with high accuracy. (orig.)

  10. Glycoproteomic analysis of serum from patients with gastric precancerous lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Catarina; Almeida, Andreia; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is preceded by a carcinogenesis pathway that includes gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic atrophic gastritis that may progress to intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and ultimately gastric carcinoma of the more common intestinal subtype. The identification...... of glycosylation changes in circulating serum proteins in patients with precursor lesions of gastric cancer is of high interest and represents a source of putative new biomarkers for early diagnosis and intervention. This study applies a glycoproteomic approach to identify altered glycoproteins expressing...... the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens T and STn in the serum of patients with gastritis, IM (complete and incomplete subtypes), and control healthy individuals. The immunohistochemistry analysis of the gastric mucosa of these patients showed expression of T and STn antigens in gastric lesions, with STn...

  11. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaz, B.; Hostein, J.; Caravel, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) of nutriments is a major function of the stomach. GE disorders are observed after gastric surgery and with various diseases, either of a strictly gastroenterologic kind or interesting other specialities (especially diabetes mellitus). Scintigraphy, which has allowed a better knowledge of GE physiological and pathological mechanisms, has now become the reference method for studying the emptying of solids and liquids. In a near future, it could well have two major applications: a diagnostic approach of functional digestive disorders and an assessment of the various effects of pharmacological drugs with digestive affinity [fr

  12. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  13. Argyrophil cell density in the oxyntic mucosa is higher in female than in male morbidly obese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksud, F.A.N.; Kakehasi, A.M.; Barbosa, A.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder often associated with many important diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and other metabolic syndrome conditions. Argyrophil cells represent almost the total population of endocrine cells of the human gastric mucosa and some reports have described changes of specific types of these cells in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study was designed to evaluate the global population of argyrophil cells of the gastric mucosa of morbidly obese and dyspeptic non-obese patients. Gastric biopsies of antropyloric and oxyntic mucosa were obtained from 50 morbidly obese patients (BMI >40) and 50 non-obese patients (17 dyspeptic overweight and 33 lean individuals) and processed for histology and Grimelius staining for argyrophil cell demonstration. Argyrophil cell density in the oxyntic mucosa of morbidly obese patients was higher in female (238.68 ± 83.71 cells/mm 2 ) than in male patients (179.31 ± 85.96 cells/mm 2 ) and also higher in female (214.20 ± 50.38 cells/mm 2 ) than in male (141.90 ± 61.22 cells/mm 2 ) morbidly obese patients with metabolic syndrome (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). In antropyloric mucosa, the main difference in argyrophil cell density was observed between female morbidly obese patients with (167.00 ± 69.30 cells/mm 2 ) and without (234.00 ± 69.54 cells/mm 2 ) metabolic syndrome (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the present results show that the number of gastric argyrophil cells could be under gender influence in patients with morbid obesity. In addition, gastric argyrophil cells seem to behave differently among female morbidly obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome

  14. Argyrophil cell density in the oxyntic mucosa is higher in female than in male morbidly obese patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksud, F.A.N. [Laboratório de Patologia Digestiva e Neuroendócrina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Kakehasi, A.M. [Laboratório de Patologia Digestiva e Neuroendócrina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa, A.J.A. [Laboratório de Patologia Digestiva e Neuroendócrina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Alfa de Gastroenterologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-04-05

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder often associated with many important diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and other metabolic syndrome conditions. Argyrophil cells represent almost the total population of endocrine cells of the human gastric mucosa and some reports have described changes of specific types of these cells in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study was designed to evaluate the global population of argyrophil cells of the gastric mucosa of morbidly obese and dyspeptic non-obese patients. Gastric biopsies of antropyloric and oxyntic mucosa were obtained from 50 morbidly obese patients (BMI >40) and 50 non-obese patients (17 dyspeptic overweight and 33 lean individuals) and processed for histology and Grimelius staining for argyrophil cell demonstration. Argyrophil cell density in the oxyntic mucosa of morbidly obese patients was higher in female (238.68 ± 83.71 cells/mm{sup 2}) than in male patients (179.31 ± 85.96 cells/mm{sup 2}) and also higher in female (214.20 ± 50.38 cells/mm{sup 2}) than in male (141.90 ± 61.22 cells/mm{sup 2}) morbidly obese patients with metabolic syndrome (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). In antropyloric mucosa, the main difference in argyrophil cell density was observed between female morbidly obese patients with (167.00 ± 69.30 cells/mm{sup 2}) and without (234.00 ± 69.54 cells/mm{sup 2}) metabolic syndrome (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the present results show that the number of gastric argyrophil cells could be under gender influence in patients with morbid obesity. In addition, gastric argyrophil cells seem to behave differently among female morbidly obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome.

  15. Drug Reactions in Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Derviş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both immunologic and nonimmunologic drug reactions can be seen in oral mucosa. Since considerable number of these reactions heals spontaneously without being noticed by the patients, exact frequency of the lesions is unknown. Most common lesions are xerostomia, taste disorders, mucosal ulcerations and edema. In this article, oral lesions resulting from drug intake similar to those from oral lesions of local and systemic diseases, and diagnostic problems caused by these similarities, have been reviewed.

  16. [Treatment of disbacteriosis of gastroduodenal mucous microflora in mucosa inflammation, ulcer and erosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, V V; Chernivets, V M; Bondarenko, V M; Bazlov, S N

    2011-01-01

    To propose pharmacotherapy of disbacteriosis of gastroduodenal mucous microflora in gastroduodenal inflammation, erosion and ulcer. The study enrolled 30 healthy volunteers, 130 ulcer patients and 36 patients with chronic gastritis (27% of the latter had chronic duodenitis). In addition to general clinical examination, fibrogastroduodenoscopy, we made histological and microbiological examinations of biopsy specimens of the mucosa from different parts of the stomach and duodenum, determined sensitivity of the microflora to antibacterial drugs. We found that recurrent ulcer, chronic gastritis and duodenitis are accompanied with overgrowth of pathogenic microflora in gastric and duodenal mucosa. We developed an effective method of the treatment of gastroduodenal mucosa microflora disbacteriosis in gastroduodenal inflammation, erosion and ulcer including antibacterial, antifungal drugs and probiotics.

  17. [Redo urethroplasty with buccal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, C M; Ernst, L; Engel, O; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M; Kluth, L A

    2017-10-01

    Urethral strictures can occur on the basis of trauma, infections, iatrogenic-induced or idiopathic and have a great influence on the patient's quality of life. The current prevalence rate of male urethral strictures is 0.6% in industrialized western countries. The favored form of treatment has experienced a transition from less invasive interventions, such as urethrotomy or urethral dilatation, to more complex open surgical reconstruction. Excision and primary end-to-end anastomosis and buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty are the most frequently applied interventions with success rates of more than 80%. Risk factors for stricture recurrence after urethroplasty are penile stricture location, the length of the stricture (>4 cm) and prior repeated endoscopic therapy attempts. Radiation-induced urethral strictures also have a worse outcome. There are various therapy options in the case of stricture recurrence after a failed urethroplasty. In the case of short stricture recurrences, direct vision urethrotomy shows success rates of approximately 60%. In cases of longer or more complex stricture recurrences, redo urethroplasty should be the therapy of choice. Success rates are higher than after urethrotomy and almost comparable to those of primary urethroplasty. Patient satisfaction after redo urethroplasty is high. Primary buccal mucosa grafting involves a certain rate of oral morbidity. In cases of a redo urethroplasty with repeated buccal mucosa grafting, oral complications are only slightly higher.

  18. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  19. Localized gastric amyloidosis differentiated histologically from scirrhous gastric cancer using endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamata Tsugumasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyloidosis most often manifests as a systemic involvement of multiple tissues and organs, and an amyloidal deposit confined to the stomach is extremely rare. It is sometimes difficult to provide a definitive diagnosis of localized gastric amyloidosis by biopsy specimen and diagnosis of amyloidosis in some cases has been finalized only after surgical resection of the stomach. Case presentation A 76-year-old Japanese woman with epigastric discomfort underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedure. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening, suggesting scirrhous gastric carcinoma, at the greater curvature from the upper to the lower part of the gastric corpus. A biopsy specimen revealed amyloid deposits in the submucosal layer with no malignant findings. We resected a representative portion of the lesion by endoscopic mucosal resection using the strip biopsy method to obtain sufficient tissue specimens, and then conducted a detailed histological evaluation of the samples. The resected specimens revealed deposition of amyloidal materials in the gastric mucosa and submucosa without any malignant findings. Congo red staining results were positive for amyloidal protein and exhibited green birefringence under polarized light. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL amyloid protein type. Based on these results, gastric malignancy, systemic amyloidosis and amyloid deposits induced by inflammatory disease were excluded and this lesion was consequently diagnosed as localized gastric amyloidosis. Our patient was an older woman and there were no findings relative to an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms or anemia, so no further treatment was performed. She continued to be in good condition without any finding of disease progression six years after verification of our diagnosis. Conclusions We report an unusual case of primary amyloidosis of the stomach

  20. Jejunal Gastric Heterotopia causing Multiple Strictures and Perforation Peritonitis- A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, M; Nambiar, Ajit; Geetha, K; Kundil, Byju

    2017-03-01

    Gastric heterotopias beyond the ligament of Treitz though rare, should be thought of in the differential diagnosis of polypoid lesions presenting with gastrointestinal bleed or obstructive symptoms especially in children and in the young. Here is a 24-year-old male with multifocal jejunal gastric heterotopias causing multiple strictures and perforation peritonitis. Patient presented with acute abdomen pain and an emergency laparotomy was performed revealing jejunum with multiple strictures and perforation, followed by jejunal resection. On gross examination polypoid mucosa was noted at the stricture sites which showed heterotopic gastric mucosa on microscopy. Jejunal gastric heterotopias are extremely rare with less than ten reported cases and those presenting with multiple strictures are even rarer. To our knowledge this is the second case of jejunal gastric heterotopia presenting with multiple strictures.

  1. Effect of Cimetidine and Gastric Acidity on the Gastric Mucosal Retention of 99mTc-Pertechnetate in Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Jong Woo; Baik, Yong Whee

    1989-01-01

    99m Tc-Pertechnetate (TcO 4 - ) is concentrated by the stomach after intravenous injection, allowing the detection of ectopic gastric mucosa. It has been used to develop a noninvasive test of gastric secretion. However the cellular site of concentration is still controversial, that is whether mucin-secreting epithelial cell or acid-secreting parietal cell. This study is planned to investigate the effects of cimetidine and gastric acidity on the retention of TcO 4 - in the gastric wall of the rat. Also we further attempted to clarify the uptake and secreting cell of TcO 4 - in the gastric mucosa. One hundred rats were divided into two groups, preliminary (40 rats) and main examination group (60 rats). Preliminary examination group was composed of fasting group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching stable TcO 4 - retention ratio in gastric wall and post-prandial group (20 rats) for the detection of the time for reaching the maximal gastric acidity. Main examination group was composed of fasting group (30 rats), which was subdivided into control group (10 rats), cimetidine group (10 rats), Mylanta group (10 rats) and post-prandial group (30 rats), which was subdivided into 90 min group (10 rats), 90 min cimetidine group (10 rats), and 120 min group (10 rats). Retention ratio (%) of TcO 4 - in the gastric wall and the pH of the gastric contents were measured in the extracted stomach of the six groups. Gastric wail retention ratio of TcO 4 - was calculated by the gastric wall radioactivity (cpm) divided by total gastric radioactivity (cpm) at 30 mins after intravenous injection of 0.4 mCi of TcO 4 - . The results were as follows: 1) The time required for reaching stable TcO 4 - retention ratio and the lowest gastric pH were 30 min and 90 min, respectively. 2) In the fasting group, the gastric wall retention ratio of TcO 4 - was significantly increased in the cimetidine group, compared with the control group (P 4 - retention ratio and gastric pH were well

  2. Activity of Brucea javanica oil emulsion against gastric ulcers in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Brucea javanica oil emulsion (BJOE in animals. Gastroprotective potential of BJOE was studied on absolute ethanol, aspirin, reserpine and restraint plus water immersion-induced gastric ulcers in mice as well as glacial acetic acid (GAA and pyloric ligation (PL-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Except for ulcer scores, total acidity as well as pepsin activity as for the PL-induced gastric ulcer model and ulcer incidence as for the GAA-induced gastric ulcer model were also determined. Histopathological evaluation as for aspirin, reserpine, PL-induced models was conducted. Results showed that BJOE significantly (P < 0.05 reduced ulcer index in the mouse and rat models in a dose-dependent manner. It had significant (P < 0.05 suppressive effect on total activity of gastric juice as well in PL-induced model. Histopathological examination for the stomach samples confirmed the findings in the aspirin, reserpine or PL-induced gastric lesion models, which showed relatively complete mucosa structure and less inflammation. It is concluded that BJOE could be effective on gastric ulcer in rodents and its gastroprotective activity might be related to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory ability and promote gastric mucus secreted. The results may provide beneficial basis for increasing BJOE's clinical indication in future. Keywords: Gastric ulcer, Brucea javanica oil emulsion, Gastric mucosa, Ulcer scores, Glacial acetic acid, Pepsin activity

  3. Alterations of telomerase activity and terminal restriction fragment in gastric cancer and its premalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S M; Fang, D C; Luo, Y H; Lu, R; Battle, P D; Liu, W W

    2001-08-01

    In order to explore the role of alterations of telomerase activity and terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length in the development and progression of gastric cancer. Telomerase activity was detected in 176 specimens of gastric mucosa obtained through an operation or endoscopical biopsy by using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Meanwhile, the mean length of TRF was measured with the use of a Southern blot in part of those samples. Telomerase activity was detected in 14 of 57 (24.6%) chronic atrophy gastritis patients, six of 18 (33.3%) intestinal metaplasia patients, three of eight (37.5%) dysplasia patients and 60 of 65 (92.3%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. Normal gastric mucosa revealed no telomerase activity. No association was found between telomerase activity and any clinicopathological parameters. The mean TRF length was decreased gradually with age in normal mucosa and in gastric cancer tissue. Regression analysis demonstrated that the reduction rate in these tissues was 41 +/- 12 base pairs/year. Among 35 gastric cancers, TRF length was shown to be shorter in 20 cases (57.1%), similar in 12 cases (34.3%) and elongated in three cases (7.6%), compared to the corresponding adjacent tissues. The mean TRF length tended to decrease as the mucosa underwent chronic atrophy gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and into gastric cancer. The mean TRF length in gastric cancer was not statistically correlated with clinicopathological parameters and telomerase activity. Our results suggest that telomerase is expressed during the early stage of gastric carcinogenesis, and that the clinical significance of TRF length appears to be limited in gastric cancer.

  4. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  5. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-07-21

    To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5'-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5'-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage.

  6. Clinical evaluation of gastric scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Teruo; Tsuchigame, Tadatoshi; Katayama, Kenshi; Matsumoto, Masanori.

    1979-01-01

    Gastric scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate has been clinically evaluated. After an overnight fast, 3 mCi sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate was injected intravenously and serial gastric images were obtained by the use of a gamma camera and a data processing system. The appropriate term available for observation of the gastric image widely ranged from within 3 min to more than 15 min after injection. A total of 84 cases were investigated. In 19 out of 20 cases of gastric cancer, the size of cold spots was influenced by the presence of intestinal metaplasia accompanying the cancer. Similar results were observed in cases of gastric ulcer (16 cases) and gastritis (12 cases). It is useful, though of less clinical significance for the detection of gastric cancer and ulcer, to study the condition of gastric mucosa clinically. (author)

  7. Clinical evaluation of gastric scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T; Tsuchigame, T; Katayama, K [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Matsumoto, M

    1979-12-01

    Gastric scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate has been clinically evaluated. After an overnight fast, 3 mCi sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate was injected intravenously and serial gastric images were obtained by the use of a gamma camera and a data processing system. The appropriate term available for observation of the gastric image widely ranged from within 3 min to more than 15 min after injection. A total of 84 cases were investigated. In 19 out of 20 cases of gastric cancer, the size of cold spots was influenced by the presence of intestinal metaplasia accompanying the cancer. Similar results were observed in cases of gastric ulcer (16 cases) and gastritis (12 cases). It is useful, though of less clinical significance for the detection of gastric cancer and ulcer, to study the condition of gastric mucosa clinically.

  8. Radiological diagnostics of the early gastric carcinoma by means of the double-contrast technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, H

    1981-05-01

    Radiological efforts to detect early gastric cancer have been intensified by three facts: 1) the prognostic importance, 2) the world-wide accepted classification of early cancer, 3) by comparison with the findings of gastrocamera and endoscopy. Main factors in double-contrast barium meal are: distention of the stomach by at least 200 cc gas, gastric atony (Glucagon or anticholinergica), visualization of the total gastric mucosa by high density, low viscosity barium after washing out the mucus from the mucosal relief. Radiological symptoms of early cancer are demonstrated, the urgency of en-face documentation of gastric ulcers is stressed.

  9. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.) [de

  10. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-08-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal.

  11. An effective and safe gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection in the right lateral position using an inverted overtube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Yachida, Tatsuo; Ayagi, Maki; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-02-14

    Previously, we reported the efficacy of a newly developed inverted overtube in shortening the hemostatic time and obtaining a clear endoscopic view in emergency endoscopic hemostasis. This device also helped us to perform gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) more safely by changing the direction of gravity in the right lateral position. To perform a safe ESD, it is important to make an appropriate angle and distance between the electric knife and the gastric mucosa. In this position, the distance to gastric mucosa is reduced, and the angle of the electric knife changes from vertical to somewhat oblique, facilitating safer cutting.

  12. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Gastric Sleeve Surgery What's in ... or buying healthy food ) Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  13. Pharmacological Correction of Stress-Induced Gastric Ulceration by Novel Small-Molecule Agents with Antioxidant Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Kudryavtsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine novel small-molecule agents influencing the pathogenesis of gastric lesions induced by stress. To achieve this goal, four novel organic compounds containing structural fragments with known antioxidant activity were synthesized, characterized by physicochemical methods, and evaluated in vivo at water immersion restraint conditions. The levels of lipid peroxidation products and activities of antioxidative system enzymes were measured in gastric mucosa and correlated with the observed gastroprotective activity of the active compounds. Prophylactic single-dose 1 mg/kg treatment with (2-hydroxyphenylthioacetyl derivatives of L-lysine and L-proline efficiently decreases up to 86% stress-induced stomach ulceration in rats. Discovered small-molecule antiulcer agents modulate activities of gastric mucosa tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, and xanthine oxidase in concerted directions. Gastroprotective effect of (2-hydroxyphenylthioacetyl derivatives of L-lysine and L-proline at least partially depends on the correction of gastric mucosa oxidative balance.

  14. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  15. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  16. [Gastric perforation by MALT lymphoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Zamudio, José; Ramírez-González, Luis Ricardo; Núñez-Márquez, Julia; Fuentes Orozco, Clotilde; González Ojeda, Alejandro; Leonher-Ruezga, Karla Lisseth

    2015-01-01

    Gastric non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare tumour that represents approximately 7% of all stomach cancers and 2% of all lymphomas. The most frequent location of gastric MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas is in the antrum in 41% of the cases, and 33% can be multifocal. The risk of spontaneous perforation of a gastric MALT lymphoma is 4-10%. 24 year old male patient carrying the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, who began with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen and fever 72 hours before arriving in the emergency room. A computed tomography was performed that showed free fluid in the cavity, and gastric wall thickening. The patient underwent a laparotomy, finding absence of the anterior wall of the stomach, sealed with the left lobe of the liver, colon and omentum. Total gastrectomy, with oesophagosty and jejunostomy tube, was performed. Gastric perforation secondary to a MALT lymphoma is rare, with high mortality. There is limited information reported of this complication and should be highly suspected in order to provide appropriate treatment for a complication of this type. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinicopathological study of primary gastric lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehabi, Zubeir A.; Saleh, Rana S.; Zezafon, Hassan B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to present a histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of primary gastric lymphomas that was reclassified according to the new World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. We reviewed the morphological and immunohistochemical features of 28 patients with gastric lymphomas, diagnosed in the Department of pathology at the University Hospital of Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria, during the period 1994-2003. Specimens were obtained from endoscopic and surgical biopsies. The immunohistochemical study was performed to analyze the immunophenotype of these lymphomas. Patients were aged 17-71 years. There was a slight predominance of females (male to female ratio, 13:15). Seventeen of the patients had tumors mainly located in the gastric antrum. Histologically, the most common lymphoma was of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type (20 patients), also with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (7 patients) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (one patient). Our study demonstrates the different patterns of gastric lymphomas in Lattakia, Syria during a 10-year period in 28 Syrian patients, and reveals that the most primary gastric lymphomas are B-cell MALT lymphomas. (author)

  18. Gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland treated by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Taisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Miyamae, Mahito; Hirajima, Shoji; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Takeshi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Yanagisawa, Akio; Ando, Takashi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is derived from epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa. We reported an extremely rare case of submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland (HSG) that was safely diagnosed by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery (LECS). A 66-year-old man underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, which detected a submucosal tumor (SMT) of 1.5 cm in diameter on the lesser-anterior wall of the upper gastric body. The tumor could not be diagnosed histologically, even by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Local resection by LECS was performed to confirm a diagnosis. Pathologically, the tumor was an intra-submucosal well differentiated adenocarcinoma invading 5000 μm into the submucosal layer. The resected tumor had negative lateral and vertical margins. Based on the Japanese treatment guidelines, additional laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy was curatively performed. LECS is a less invasive and safer approach for the diagnosis of SMT, even in submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the HSG. PMID:26306144

  19. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of SEREX-defined antigen NUCB2 in gastric epithelium, gastritis and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Line

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available NUCB2 is an EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein that has been implicated in various physiological processes like calcium homeostasis, hypothalamic regulation of feeding and TNF receptor shedding. In our previous study we identified NUCB2 as a potential tumour antigen eliciting autoantibody responses in 5.4% of gastric cancer patients but not in the healthy individuals. The current study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying NUCB2 immunogenicity and to gain an insight into the physiological functions of NUCB2 in the stomach. mRNA expression analysis demonstrated that NUCB2 is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, including lymphoid tissues, and downregulated in gastric tumours when compared with the adjacent relatively normal stomach tissues. The search for molecular alterations resulted in the identification of novel mRNA variants transcribed from an alternative promoter and expressed predominantly in gastric cancers. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein levels correspond to mRNA levels and revealed that NUCB2 is phosphorylated in gastric mucosa. Furthermore, a 55 kDa isoform, generated presumably by yet an unidentified post-translational modification was detected in gastric tumours and AGS gastric cancer cells but was absent in the relatively normal gastric mucosa and thereby might have served as a trigger for the immune response against NUCB2. Staining of stomach tissue microarray with anti-NUCB2 antibody revealed that it is expressed in the secretory granules of chief cells and in the cytoplasm of parietal cells in the functioning gastric glands which are lost in atrophic glands and tumour cells. Hence we propose that NUCB2 may be implicated in gastric secretion by establishing an agonist-releasable Ca2+ store in ER or Golgi apparatus, signalling via heterotrimeric Ga proteins and/or mediating the exocytosis of the secretory granules.

  20. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of SEREX-defined antigen NUCB2 in gastric epithelium, gastritis and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Kalnina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available NUCB2 is an EF-hand Ca2+ binding protein that has been implicated in various physiological processes like calcium homeostasis, hypothalamic regulation of feeding and TNF receptor shedding. In our previous study we identified NUCB2 as a potential tumour antigen eliciting autoantibody responses in 5.4% of gastric cancer patients but not in the healthy individuals. The current study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying NUCB2 immunogenicity and to gain an insight into the physiological functions of NUCB2 in the stomach. mRNA expression analysis demonstrated that NUCB2 is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues, including lymphoid tissues, and downregulated in gastric tumours when compared with the adjacent relatively normal stomach tissues. The search for molecular alterations resulted in the identification of novel mRNA variants transcribed from an alternative promoter and expressed predominantly in gastric cancers. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the protein levels correspond to mRNA levels and revealed that NUCB2 is phosphorylated in gastric mucosa. Furthermore, a 55 kDa isoform, generated presumably by yet an unidentified post-translational modification was detected in gastric tumours and AGS gastric cancer cells but was absent in the relatively normal gastric mucosa and thereby might have served as a trigger for the immune response against NUCB2. Staining of stomach tissue microarray with anti-NUCB2 antibody revealed that it is expressed in the secretory granules of chief cells and in the cytoplasm of parietal cells in the functioning gastric glands which are lost in atrophic glands and tumour cells. Hence we propose that NUCB2 may be implicated in gastric secretion by establishing an agonist-releasable Ca2+ store in ER or Golgi apparatus, signalling via heterotrimeric Ga proteins and/or mediating the exocytosis of the secretory granules.

  1. Transcriptome Reveals 1400-Fold Upregulation of APOA4-APOC3 and 1100-Fold Downregulation of GIF in the Patients with Polycythemia-Induced Gastric Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Gesang, Luobu; Dan, Zeng; Gusang, Lamu; Dawa, Ciren; Nie, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude polycythemia (HAPC) inducing gastric mucosal lesion (GML) is still out of control and molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. To address the issues, endoscopy and histopathological analyses were performed. Meanwhile, microarray-based transcriptome profiling was conducted in the gastric mucosa from 3 pairs of healthy subjects and HAPC-induced GML patients. HAPC caused morphological changes and pathological damages of the gastric mucosa of GML patients. A total of 10304 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 4941 up-regulated and 5363 down-regulated DEGs in gastric mucosa of GML patients compared with healthy controls (fold change ≥2, Ppolycythemia while polycythemia raises the risk of GML. Therefore, the present findings reveal that HAPC-induced GML inspires the protection responses by up-regulating APOA4 and APOC3, and down-regulating GIF. These results may offer the basic information for the treatment of HAPC-induced gastric lesion in the future.

  2. Gastric mucosal defence mechanism during stress of pyloric obstruction in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, K; Ganguly, A K

    1987-04-01

    1. The integrity of the gastric mucosa and its ability to secrete mucus are believed to be essential for protection of gastric mucosa against ulceration induced by aggressive factors active in any stress situation. This study involves a three-compartmental analysis of gastric mucosal barrier in pylorus-ligated albino rats. 2. Quantitative analyses of histologically identifiable gastric mucosal epithelial neutral glycoproteins and gastric adherent mucus from oxyntic and pyloric gland areas, and components of non-dialysable mucosubstances in gastric secretion were made under stress of pyloric obstruction for 4, 8, and 16 h durations. Epithelial mucin was identified by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining technique and assessed from the ratio of gastric mucosal thickness to the depth of PAS positive materials in it. The remaining visible mucus adhered to the gastric mucosa was estimated by Alcian blue binding technique. The results were compared with that of identical control groups. 3. A significant reduction in mucosal epithelial PAS positive materials after 8 or 16 h of pylorus ligation was observed. 4. The Alcian blue binding capacity of the pyloric gland area was increased significantly after 4 h of pylorus ligation, while after 8 or 16 h it was reduced in both oxyntic and pyloric gland areas. 5. Significant reductions in the rate of gastric secretion and volume, as well as concentration of the components of non-dialysable mucosubstances, were observed, indicating decreased synthesis of mucus glycoproteins. 6. Disruption of the mucosal barrier may have occurred due to decreased mucus synthesis and acid-pepsin accumulation; both could be due to stress associated with gastric distension. 7. The present findings confirm the role of mucus in protecting the underlying gastric epithelium during stress. The adherent mucus offers a first line of defence and epithelial mucus a second line of defence.

  3. Gastric Bezoar

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    Samer Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 12-year-old female with no past medical history presented with abdominal pain for 3 months. The pain was intermittent, located at the epigastric region, non-radiating, fluctuating intensity up to 8/10, and had worsened over the past month. She did not have fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or blood in her stool. The patient also endorsed hair loss over the same time period and noted that her previously long hair was now short and thin. On exam, patient was noted to have shoulder-length hair, a soft, non-distended abdomen with mild tenderness to the epigastric region, and a 5cm hard mass palpated at the epigastrium. Significant findings: In the abdominal radiograph, a nonspecific and non-obstructive bowel gas pattern with no air-fluid level was noted, however the stomach was distended with soft tissue. The CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a distended stomach with undigested heterogeneous contents (presumed bezoar. Discussion: A bezoar is a mass of incompletely digested material typically originating in the stomach and consisting of vegetable fibers, hair, or drugs.1 Bezoars develop after ingested foreign material accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract due to indigestibility, gastric outlet obstruction, or intestinal stasis. Trichobezoars are comprised of hair and classically form in young females with an underlying psychiatric disorder resulting in the urge to pull one’s hair out (trichotillomania and swallow it (trichophagia.2,3 Gastric bezoars are rare with an approximate incidence of 0.3 percent of patients undergoing upper endoscopy.4 Patients tend to remain asymptomatic for long periods, but may develop abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, and weight loss.5 Complications may include gastrointestinal ulcerations, perforations, intussusception, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and death.6-8 The diagnosis of a gastric bezoar can be made using plain films, ultrasound, or CT, and

  4. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data indicate that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness demonstrates the sophisticated relationship among H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori’s activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. PMID:26385073

  5. An experimental study on tissue reaction of various contrast agents on endometrium, tuber mucosa, and peritoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, In Ae; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Dae Young; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1994-01-01

    To compare the tissue reactions of various water-soluble and oil-based contrast agents on the endometrium, salpingeal mumosa, and peritoneum. Thirty-three rabbits were used for evaluating the histologic reactions of uterine endometrium, salpinx, and peritoneum. Hysterosalpingography(HSG) was underwent in these rabbits by used Lipiodol, Hexabrix, Rayvist. Ultravist-300, Ultravist-370, and normal saline. Pathologic results were obtained in each of the six groups from the uterine endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum without knowledge of the contrast agent used and time interval from HSG. Mild inflammations were observed in the endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum during the first week of HSG in all rabbits in which water-soluble contrast agents were used. Although there was no significant difference in the degree of inflammation among the groups using various contrast agents, the group with oil-based contrast agent(Lipiodol) showed delayed absorption of contrast agent in the peritoneum, frequent intravasation, fat granuloma, peritoneal adhesion, or uterine infarction. Our results suggest that water-soluble contrast agents can be used safely for HSG, but the use of oil-based contrast agent is questional in safety and should be avoid in patients with tubal obstruction, salpingitis, or endometritis

  6. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chao, Jane CJ; Tsai, Li-Hsueh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chia-Chi; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gave GbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers, gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1) GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH contents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanol produced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosa which also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE; and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation; (2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3) blockade of cell apoptosis. PMID:15968732

  7. A comparative study of clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from 10%-20% of human chronic cholecystitis specimens but the characteristics of "Helicobacter pylori positive cholecystitis" remains unclear. This study aims to compare the clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa. METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-six chronic cholecystitis patients were divided into two groups according to whether Helicobacter pylori could be detected by culture, staining or PCR for Helicobacter 16s rRNA gene in gallbladder mucosa. Positive samples were sequenced for Helicobacter pylori-specific identification. Clinical parameters as well as pathological characteristics including some premalignant lesions and the expression levels of iNOS and ROS in gallbladder were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55% of cholecystitis patients. These patients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p = 0.001, more histories of chronic gastritis (p = 0.005, gastric ulcer (p = 0.042, duodenal ulcer (p = 0.026 and higher presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder mucosa. Helicobacter pylori 16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric-duodenal mucosa from the same individual patient had identical sequences. Also, higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p = 0.012, metaplasia (p = 0.022 and higher enhanced expressions of iNOS and ROS were detected in Helicobacter pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori existed in stomach. Helicobacter pylori is also correlated with gallbladder premalignant lesions including metaplasia and adenomyomatosis. The potential mechanism might be related with higher ROS

  8. Helicobacter pylori Therapy for the Prevention of Metachronous Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Il Ju; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Kim, Young-Il; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Park, Boram; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2018-03-22

    Patients with early gastric cancers that are limited to gastric mucosa or submucosa usually have an advanced loss of mucosal glandular tissue (glandular atrophy) and are at high risk for subsequent (metachronous) development of new gastric cancer. The long-term effects of treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori on histologic improvement and the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer remain unclear. In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we assigned 470 patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer or high-grade adenoma to receive either H. pylori eradication therapy with antibiotics or placebo. Two primary outcomes were the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer detected on endoscopy performed at the 1-year follow-up or later and improvement from baseline in the grade of glandular atrophy in the gastric corpus lesser curvature at the 3-year follow-up. A total of 396 patients were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis population (194 in the treatment group and 202 in placebo group). During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, metachronous gastric cancer developed in 14 patients (7.2%) in the treatment group and in 27 patients (13.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the treatment group, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.94; P=0.03). Among the 327 patients in the subgroup that underwent histologic analysis, improvement from baseline in the atrophy grade at the gastric corpus lesser curvature was observed in 48.4% of the patients in the treatment group and in 15.0% of those in the placebo group (Pgastric cancer who received H. pylori treatment had lower rates of metachronous gastric cancer and more improvement from baseline in the grade of gastric corpus atrophy than patients who received placebo. (Funded by the National Cancer Center, South Korea; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02407119 .).

  9. Epstein–Barr Virus Infection and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Zu; Chen, Hongda; Castro, Felipe A.; Hu, Jian-Kun; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is found in a subset of gastric cancers. Previous reviews have exclusively focused on EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) positivity in gastric cancer tissues, but a comprehensive evaluation of other type of studies is lacking. We searched the PubMed database up to September, 2014, and performed a systematic review. We considered studies comparing EBV nucleic acids positivity in gastric cancer tissue with positivity in either adjacent non-tumor tissue of cancer patients or non-tumor mucosa from healthy individuals, patients with benign gastric diseases, or deceased individuals. We also considered studies comparing EBV antibodies in serum from cancer patients and healthy controls. Selection of potentially eligible studies and data extraction were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, we did not perform formal meta-analysis. Forty-seven studies (8069 cases and 1840 controls) were identified. EBER positivity determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) was significantly higher in cancer tissues (range 5.0%–17.9%) than in adjacent mucosa from the same patients or biopsies from all control groups (almost 0%). High EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) positivity by PCR was found in gastric cancer tissues, but most were not validated by ISH or adjusted for inflammatory severity and lymphocyte infiltration. Only 4 studies tested for EBV antibodies, with large variation in the seropositivities of different antibodies in both cases and controls, and did not find an association between EBV seropositivity and gastric cancer. In summary, tissue-based ISH methods strongly suggest an association between EBV infection and gastric cancer, but PCR method alone is invalid to confirm such association. Very limited evidence from serological studies and the lack of novel antibodies warrant further investigations to identify potential risk factors of EBV for gastric cancer. PMID:25997049

  10. TFF1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro

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    Yanli Ge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Trefoil Factor Family (TFF plays an essential role in the intestinal epithelial restitution, but the relationship between TFF1 and gastric cancer (GC is still unclear. The present study aimed to determine the role of TFF1 in repairing gastric mucosa and in the pathogenesis of GC.The TFF1 expression in different gastric mucosas was measured with immunohistochemistry. Then, siRNA targeting TFF1 or plasmids expressing TFF1 gene were transfected into BGC823 cells, SGC7901 cells and GES-1 cells. The cell proliferation was detected with MTT assay and apoptosis and cell cycle measured by flow cytometry.From normal gastric mucosa to mucosa with dysplasia and to gastric cancer, the TFF1 expression had a decreasing trend. Down-regulation of TFF1 expression significantly reduced the apoptosis of three cell lines and markedly facilitated their proliferation but had no significant effect on cell cycle. Over-expression of TFF1 could promote apoptosis of three cell lines and inhibit proliferation but had no pronounced effect on cell cycle. TFF1 can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of GC cells in vitro.

  11. Gastric heterotopia of the anus: Report of two rare cases and review of the literature

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    Rifat Mannan Abul Ala

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric mucosa is an extremely rare occurrence in the anorectal region, with 41 reported cases till date. Of these, in only nine cases the heterotopic tissue has been found to be located within 2 cm of the dentate line. We report two cases of gastric heterotopia in the anus - one, in a 55-year-old man; and the other, in a 35-year-old woman. Sigmoidoscopy showed presence of a single sessile anal polyp in the first patient and hemorrhoid in the other. Pathologic examination of the biopsy specimens revealed fundic-type gastric mucosa in both the cases. Both the patients had complete resolution of symptoms after the excision. We present these cases to highlight the significance of recognizing this unusual histologic entity. To the best of our knowledge, the second case represents the first reported description of gastric heterotopia in association with hemorrhoid.

  12. Association of mast cells with helicobacter pylori infection in the antral mucosa

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    SR KC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Helicobacter pylori lead to mast cell degranulation and release of active chemical compounds in in-vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association of mast cell density and Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa of the stomach. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 endoscopic biopsies were included in the study. In addition to routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides, Giemsa stain was done in each case for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori and mast cell density in the gastric mucosa. Results: Out of 150 gastric biopsies with histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis, 36 cases (24% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. In the antral mucosa, mast cell density was significantly higher in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group than in the Helicobacter pylori-negative group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Mast cells may play a role in the development of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Keywords: Gastritis; Mast Cell; Helicobacter pylori DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v1i1.4448 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2011 Vol.1, 34-36

  13. Flagella-induced immunity against experimental cholera in adult rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Willis, D L; Berry, L J

    1979-07-01

    The adult rabbit ligated ileal loop model was used to evaluate the prophylactic potential of a crude flagellar (CF) vaccine produced from the classical. Inaba strain CA401. A greater than 1,000-fold increase in the challenge inoculum was required to induce an intestinal fluid response in actively immunized adult rabbits equivalent to that produced in unimmunized animals. Similar protection was afforded against challenge with classical and El Tor biotypes of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Highly virulent 35S-labeled vibrios were inhibited in their ability to associated with the intestinal mucosa of CF-immunized rabbits. The protection conferred by CF immunization was found to be superior to that of a commercial bivalent vaccine and also to that of glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid. The critical immunogenic component of CF appears to be a flagella-derived protein. The immunogenicity of CF was destroyed by heat treatment, and absorption of CF-immune serum with aflagellated mutant vibrios did not diminish its ability to confer a high level of passive protection. The intestinal protection of CF-immunized rabbits was completely reversed by the introduction of both goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins A and G, but by neither alone.

  14. Ganoderma Lucidum Pharmacopuncture for Teating Ethanol-induced Chronic Gastric Ulcers in Rats

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    Jae-Heung Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The stomach is a sensitive digestive organ that is susceptible to exogenous pathogens from the diet. In response to such pathogens, the stomach induces oxidative stress, which might be related to the development of both gastric organic disorders such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer, and functional disorders such as functional dyspepsia. This study was accomplished to investigate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP on chronic gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: the normal, the control, the normal saline (NP and the GLP groups. In this study, the modified ethanol gastritis model was used. The rats were administrated 56% ethanol orally every other day. The dose of ethanol was 8 g/kg body weight. The normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated with injection of saline and GLP respectively. The control group received no treatment. Two local acupoints CV12 (中脘 and ST36 (足三里 were used. All laboratory rats underwent treatment for 15 days. On last day, the rats were sacrificed and their stomachs were immediately excised. Results: Ulcers of the gastric mucosa appeared as elongated bands of hemorrhagic lesions parallel to the long axis of the stomach. In the NP and GLP groups, the injuries to the gastric mucosal injuries were not as severe as they were in the control group. Wound healings of the chronic gastric ulcers was promoted by using GLP and significant alterations of the indices in the gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was demonstrated by gross appearance, histology and immunehistochemistry staining for Bcl-2-associated X (BAX, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol induced chronic gastric ulcer.

  15. A study of the effect of propolis against gastric ulcers induced in gamma -irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aziz, R.R

    2009-01-01

    The anti-ulcerogenic activity of propolis or bee glue, a natural product from honey bees, was investigated against indomethacin -induced gastric ulcers in non- irradiated and irradiated rats, and the effects were compared with those of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole, as a reference anti-ulcerogenic drug. Indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer was used in this study as a model of experimentally induced gastric ulceration. The anti-ulcerogenic, antisecretory and cytoprotective activities of 13% aqueous propolis extract (APE) were assessed. Gastric contents of animals were sampled for the measurement of free acidity, acid output, mucin and pepsin concentrations in the gastric juice. The stomach was examined macroscopically for the determination of the ulcer index. PGE 2 was assayed in the gastric mucosa, while the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β as well as the oxidative stress marker MDA were determined in the plasma.

  16. Addition of all-trans-retinoic acid to omeprazole and sucralfate therapy improves the prognosis of gastric dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianjun; Li, Xiaozhen; Xing, Luqi; Chang, Yongchao; Wu, Lijuan; Jin, Zhe; Su, Xiuli; Bai, Yanli; Zheng, Yufeng; Jiang, Yalin; Zhao, Xiao; Lu, Lan; Gao, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in human gastric dysplasia. In this double-blind study, patients with precancerous gastric dysplasia with or without intestinal metaplasia (IM) received either conventional treatment consisting of omeprazole and sucralfate (control group) or conventional treatment plus ATRA. Gastric mucosal biopsies were performed before and after drug treatment and were analysed histologically; expression of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and HER2 protein in gastric mucosa were measured using immunohistochemistry. A total of 122 patients were included in the study, 63 in the ATRA group and 59 in the control group. In the ATRA group, dysplasia was attenuated in 43 out of 63 patients (68%) compared with 22 out of 59 patients (37%) in the control group; however, IM was not affected by treatment in either group. ATRA treatment was associated with significantly increased Rb expression and decreased HER2 expression in gastric mucosa. The use of conventional therapy plus ATRA for gastric dysplasia was associated with improved efficacy compared with conventional therapy alone. It was also accompanied by increased Rb expression and decreased HER2 expression in gastric mucosa. The addition of ATRA to conventional therapy for gastritis may improve the prognosis of gastric dysplasia. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Analysis of Gastric Body Microbiota by Pyrosequencing: Possible Role of Bacteria Other Than Helicobacter pylori in the Gastric Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Kim, Nayoung; Jo, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jaeyeon; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-06-01

    Gastric microbiota along with Helicobacter pylori (HP) plays a key role in gastric disease. The aim of our study is to investigate the difference of human gastric microbiota between antrum and body according to disease (control vs. gastric cancer) and HP status. Each antrum and body biopsy was collected from 12 subjects at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Gastric microbiota was analyzed by bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twelve subjects consisted of HP-negative control (n = 2), HP-negative cancer (n = 2), HP-positive control (n = 3), and HP-positive cancer (n = 5). The analysis was focused on non-HP urease-producing bacteria (UB) and non-HP nitrosating or nitroreducing bacteria (NB) between antrum and body. Gastric body samples showed higher diversity compared to gastric antrum mucosa samples but there was no significant difference. The mean of operational taxonomic units was higher in HP(-) cancer than HP(+) cancer (antrum, 273.5 vs. 228.2, P = 0.439; body, 585.5 vs. 183.2, P = 0.053). The number of non-HP UB and non-HP NB was higher in HP(-) cancer groups than the others. These differences were more pronounced in the body ( P = 0.051 and P = 0.081, respectively). Analysis of overlap of non-HP UB and non-HP NB revealed the higher composition of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, S. parasanguinis , and S. oralis in HP(-) cancer groups than the others, only in the body ( P = 0.030) but not in the antrum ( P = 0.123). Higher diversity and higher composition of S. pseudopneumoniae, S. parasanguinis , and S. oralis in HP(-) cancer group than the other groups in the body suggest that analysis of microbiota from body mucosa could be beneficial to identify a role of non-HP bacteria in the gastric carcinogenesis.

  18. Aspirin-Induced Gastric Lesions Alters EGFR and PECAM-1 Immunoreactivity in Wistar Rats: Modulatory Action of Flavonoid Fraction of Musa Paradisiaca

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    Margaret Olutayo Alese

    2017-07-01

    CONCLUSION: The efficacy of Musa paradisiaca in attenuating the damaging effects of aspirin on the gastric mucosa was observed as there was a significantly increased reactivity for EGFR and PECAM-1 in the gastric corpus in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Up-regulation of CLDN1 in gastric cancer is correlated with reduced survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftang, Lars L; Esbensen, Ying; Tannæs, Tone M; Blom, Gustav P; Bukholm, Ida RK; Bukholm, Geir

    2013-01-01

    The genetic changes in gastric adenocarcinoma are extremely complex and reliable tumor markers have not yet been identified. There are also remarkable geographical differences in the distribution of this disease. Our aim was to identify the most differentially regulated genes in 20 gastric adenocarcinomas from a Norwegian selection, compared to matched normal mucosa, and we have related our findings to prognosis, survival and chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Biopsies from gastric adenocarcinomas and adjacent normal gastric mucosa were obtained from 20 patients immediately following surgical resection of the tumor. Whole genome, cDNA microarray analysis was performed on the RNA isolated from the sample pairs to compare the gene expression profiles between the tumor against matched mucosa. The samples were microscopically examined to classify gastritis. The presence of H. pylori was examined using microscopy and immunohistochemistry. 130 genes showed differential regulation above a predefined cut-off level. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Claudin-1 (CLDN1) were the most consistently up-regulated genes in the tumors. Very high CLDN1 expression in the tumor was identified as an independent and significant predictor gene of reduced post-operative survival. There were distinctly different expression profiles between the tumor group and the control mucosa group, and the histological subsets of mixed type, diffuse type and intestinal type cancer demonstrated further sub-clustering. Up-regulated genes were mapped to cell-adhesion, collagen-related processes and angiogenesis, whereas normal intestinal functions such as digestion and excretion were associated with down-regulated genes. We relate the current findings to our previous study on the gene response of gastric epithelial cells to H. pylori infection. CLDN1 was highly up-regulated in gastric cancer, and CLDN1 expression was independently associated with a poor post-operative prognosis, and may have important prognostic

  20. Asymptomatic gastric heterotopia in the rectum with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatek, Jarosław; Wronecki, Lech; Ciechanek, Roman; Szumiło, Justyna

    2015-12-01

    Gastric heterotopia is very rare in the rectum - less than 50 cases have been reported so far. Only in six of them Helicobacter pylori has been observed in heterotopic mucosa. We report a case of a 58-year-old woman with asymptomatic gastric heterotopia in the rectum, incidentally revealed during colonoscopy as a small, sessile polyp. The presence of H. pylori was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. This finding supports the opinion that H. pylori may pass along the gastrointestinal tract in a viable form and that the fecal-oral route of transmission is possible.

  1. The relationship between apoptosis and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the clinical stages in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, K; Chen, D; Tian, Y; Lu, X; Yang, X

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the apoptosis and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the clinical stages in gastric cancers was studied. By using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique and PCNA immunohistochemical staining, the apoptosis and the expression of PCNA in tissue of gastric carcinoma were assayed in situ, the index of apoptosis (AI), index of PCNA (PI) and the rate of AI/PI were calculated. AI and PI in gastric cancer tissues were (6.5 +/- 3.7)% and (49.8 +/- 15.9)% respectively, and the rate of AI/PI was 0.13 +/- 0.05, which were obviously different from those of normal gastric mucosa in paragastric cancer (P stages of gastric carcinoma, the AI was decreased, PI was increased and the rate of AI/PI decreased in gastric carcinoma. There was significant difference in them between the gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric mucosa in pericarcinoma in TNM stage II to IV (P gastric carcinoma. The AI, PI and the rate of AI/PI would become the prognostic factors in advanced gastric carcinoma.

  2. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  3. Epithelial cell proliferation in human fundic and antral mucosae. Influence of superselective vagotomy and relationship with gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, O.; Lehy, T.; Rene, E.; Gres, L.; Bonfils, S.

    1985-01-01

    Epithelial cell proliferation in the fundic and antral mucosae was studied in 19 duodenal ulcer patients, 11 patients having undergone fundic superselective vagotomy for duodenal ulcer, and 10 controls. This was achieved through in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine in mucosal biopsies and radioautography. Except for increased fundic mucosal height, duodenal ulcer patients did not differ from controls for all parameters studied. In vagotomized patients, as compared to the other two groups, the labeling index was significantly enhanced in the innervated antral mucosa where atrophic gastritis developed, but there was no change in the labeling index and no worsening of mucosal inflammation in the denervated fundic mucosa. The only abnormality in the latter was a striking expansion, towards the surface, of the proliferative area within the fundic pit. The labeling indices and the degree of gastritis in gastric mucosae are significantly correlated in control and duodenal ulcer patients. If findings in antral mucosa, after superselective vagotomy, seemed related to gastritis lesions, those in fundic mucosa were not and may indicate an alteration due to the vagotomy per se

  4. Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae Lee Won

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of gastric adenocarcinoma can be simply diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsy specimen. Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium. Case presentation A 67-year-old male presented with a gastric mass incidentally found on the abdominal computed tomography (CT for routine medical examination. Gastric endoscopic examination revealed a huge fungating mass at the cardia and mucosal biopsy was performed. Microscopically the biopsy specimen showed proliferation of bland looking foveolar epithelia in the inflammatory background and diagnosed as foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Because the clinical and endoscopic features of this patient were strongly suggestive of malignancy, the patient underwent radical total gastrectomy. The resected stomach revealed a huge fungating tumor at the cardia. The cut surface of the tumor was whitish gelatinous. Microscopically the tumor was sharply demarcated from surrounding mucosa and composed of very well formed glandular structures without significant cellular atypia, which invaded into the whole layer of the gastric wall. Tumor glands were occasionally complicated or dilated, and glandular lumina were filled with abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells revealed no overexpression of p53 protein but high Ki-67 labeling index. The tumor cells and intraluminal mucin were diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC and only focally expressed MUC2. On abdominal CT taken after 12 months demonstrated peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple metastatic foci in the lung. Conclusion The clinicopathologic profiles of gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype include cardiac location, fungating gross type, very similar histology to foveolar epithelial hyperplasia, foveolar mucin phenotype, lack of p53 overexpressoin and high proliferative index.

  5. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jason D.; Borum, Marie L.; Koh, Joyce M.; Stephen, Sindu

    2018-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation. PMID:29606921

  6. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencks, David S; Adam, Jason D; Borum, Marie L; Koh, Joyce M; Stephen, Sindu; Doman, David B

    2018-02-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation.

  7. Gastric polyps diagnosed by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography mostly arise from the Helicobacter pylori-negative stomach with low risk of gastric cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Takahashi, Yu; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is a method broadly used for gastric cancer screening in Japan. Gastric polyp is one of the most frequent findings detected by UGI-XR, but how to handle it remains controversial. Gastric polyps of the 17,264 generally healthy subjects in Japan who underwent UGI-XR or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGI-ES) in 2010 were analyzed. Of the 6,433 UGI-XR examinees (3,405 men and 3,028 women, 47.4 ± 9.0 years old), gastric polyps were detected in 464 men (13.6 %) and 733 women (24.2 %) and were predominantly developed on the non-atrophic gastric mucosa (p gastric polyps has significant association with lower value of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer, female gender, lighter smoking habit, older age, and normal range of body mass index (≥18.5 and gastric cancer occurred in 7 subjects (0.11 %), but none of them had gastric polyps at the beginning of the follow-up period. Of the 2,722 subjects with gastric polyps among the 10,831 UGI-ES examinees in the same period, 2,446 (89.9 %) had fundic, 267 (9.8 %) had hyperplastic, and 9 (0.3 %) had adenomatous/cancerous polyps. Gastric polyps diagnosed by UGI-XR predominantly arise on the Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa with a low risk of gastric cancer in Japan. In the prospective observation, none of the UGI-XR examinees with gastric polyps developed gastric cancer for at least 3 years subsequently.

  8. Protective effect of Korean Red Ginseng extract against Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils

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    Minkyung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation includes induction of inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, which are mediated by oxidant-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. High levels of lipid peroxide (LPO and increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO, a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration, are observed in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Panax ginseng Meyer, a Korean herb medicine, is widely used in Asian countries for its biological activities including anti-inflammatory efficacy. The present study aims to investigate whether Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils. One wk after intragastric inoculation with H. pylori, Mongolian gerbils were fed with either the control diet or the diet containing RGE (200 mg RGE/gerbil for 6 wk. The following were determined in gastric mucosa: the number of viable H. pylori in stomach; MPO activity; LPO level; mRNA and protein levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant factor (KC, a rodent IL-8 homolog, IL-1β, and iNOS; protein level of phospho-IκBα (which reflects the activation of NF-κB; and histology. As a result, RGE suppressed H. pylori-induced mRNA and protein levels of KC, IL-1β, and iNOS in gastric mucosa. RGE also inhibited H. pylori-induced phosphorylation of IκBα and increases in LPO level and MPO activity of gastric mucosa. RGE did not affect viable H. pylori colonization in the stomach, but improved the histological grade of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, intestinal metaplasia, and hyperplasia. In conclusion, RGE inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by suppressing induction of inflammatory mediators (KC, IL-1β, iNOS, MPO activity, and LPO level in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa.

  9. Necrose da mucosa esofágica como complicação da cardiomiotomia à heller para tratamento de megaesôfago chagásico

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    Nádia Barbosa Aires

    Full Text Available This article presents a complication of the laparoscopic technique for Heller cardiomyotomy and anterior fundoplication. This procedure is safe and provides excellent relief of disphagia in esophageal achalasia. Nevertheless, there are rare but dangerous complications, such as late active digestive bleeding, presented in this paper which was resistant to conservative treatment and led to hypovolemic shock. Urgent laparotomy performed to identify and control bleeding, revealed necrosis of esophageal mucosa with a bleeding gastric vessel. Inadequate exposure of the gastroesophageal junction and an incision very close to the lesser curvature might have damaged the esophageal branches of the left gastric artery, leading to ischemic necrosis of the mucosa and exposure of the gastric wall and its vessels.

  10. Iside effects of salicylates (ACK, corticosteroids and imunomodulators on the gastroduodenal mucosa - medication used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine pathological -ulcero-erosive changes in the gastroduodenal mucosa (erosions, ulcers, ulcers, ulcer complications, subepithelial hemorrhage, etc. resulting from the adverse effects of salicylates /ACK/ corticosteroid, imunoodulatora which was prescribed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The test was performed on 50 patients diagnosed with RA who were on the two-year continuous therapy. When respondents were done gastroscopy and pathological macroscopic changes resulting from the gastroduodenal mucosa as a result of adverse effects of administered drugs verified. After two years of preparations ACK controlled therapy, corticosteroids, imunomodula- sector on mucosa gastroduodenal erosions were found in 81.5% of patients, gastric ulcer in 33%, duodenal ulcer with 18.5% of patients and bleeding in 44.4%.

  11. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect

  12. Oral mucosa grafts for urethral reconstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reports reveal that split and full thickness skin grafts from the scrotum, penis, extragenital sites (ureter, saphenous .... Table 1: Summary of the history of oral mucosa grafts for urethroplasty .... advised that care should be taken when suturing the.

  13. Safe and successful birth following pelvic radiotherapy for rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Yoshiomi; Aoki, Masahiko; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hirose, Katsumi; Sato, Mariko; Akimoto, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Mitsuki; Fujioka, Ichitaro; Ono, Shuichi; Takai, Yoshihiro

    2017-02-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas can occur in various parts of the body, and half of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas occur in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is the most common lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract and primary rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is very rare. Because of the high radiosensitivity of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, this condition can be controlled with radiotherapy of approximately 30 Gy alone. However, ovarian dysfunction as an adverse event of radiotherapy for pelvic lesions can become a problem in girls and women. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman with rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma who safely gave birth to a baby following 30.6 Gy radiotherapy to her whole rectum. A 28-year-old Japanese woman became aware of bloody stools and was diagnosed as having Lugano I rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. She was referred to our institute and initiated on radiotherapy. However, she expressed a desire to bear children. We used horizontally opposed pair fields for radiotherapy to minimize the irradiation to her endometrium and ovary. A total dose of 30.6 Gy was given in 17 fractions of 1.8 Gy by 10-Megavolt X-ray linear accelerator. As a result, one-third of her uterus and half of her ovary were outside the irradiation field. After approximately 1 year of treatment, positive pregnancy was confirmed and finally she safely gave birth to a baby girl without congenital abnormalities. This report provides hope for girls and women who have undergone irradiation for pelvic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and who desire to bear children.

  14. Localization and function of histamine H3 receptor in the nasal mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shinya; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Majima, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histamine is an important chemical mediator of allergic rhinitis (AR). Histamine H3 receptors H3R are located on cholinergic and NANC neurons of the myenteric plexus, and activation of H3R regulates gastric acid secretion. However, little is known about the localization and function of H3R in the upper airway. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the localization and possible function of H3R in the nasal mucosa. METHODS: We extracted total RNA from the inferior tu...

  15. Increased mucosal thickness of the stomach in transabdominal ultrasonogram: Correlation with gastric hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Myoung Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of transabdominal ultrasonography in predicting the hemorrhage gastritis by the evaluation of gastric wall. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of gastric wall was performed 42 patients. Layers of gastric wall were preserved in all patients. Twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had diffuse thickening more than 5 mm were classified as hypertrophic group. The other twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had thickness less than 5 mm were classified as control group. In all 42 patients, endoscopic examination was performed and the prevalence of gastric hemorrhage was recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy for predicting the hemorrhage gastritis were calculated based on mucosal thickness. Sixteen patients who had been diagnosed as a hemorrhagic gastritis in the hypertrophic group on endoscopic examination were classified as a hemorrhage group. The thickness of each layers in hemorrhagic and the control group were compared using t-test and Fisher's exact test. Using 5 mm of mucosal thickness as a predictor, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 80.8%, the positive predictive value was 76.2%, and the accuracy was 88.1%. Mean thickness of mucosa in hemorrhagic group and the control group were 9.6 {+-} 1.6 mm, and 1.4 {+-} 0.4 mm, respectively (p<0.01). Mean thickness of submucosa was 1.1 {+-} 0.3 mm in hemorrhagic group and 0.6 {+-} 0.3 mm in control group (p,0.01). The submucosal layer was hyperechoic and well- defined in most control groups (18/21) while it was ill-defined and less echogenic in hemorrhagic group (p<0.01). The diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastritis can be suggested when there is diffuse thickening in the gastric mucosa shile submucosal layer shows decreased echogenicits and indistinct border. This may improve the value of sonographic evaluation.

  16. Increased mucosal thickness of the stomach in transabdominal ultrasonogram: Correlation with gastric hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ko, Myoung Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of transabdominal ultrasonography in predicting the hemorrhage gastritis by the evaluation of gastric wall. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of gastric wall was performed 42 patients. Layers of gastric wall were preserved in all patients. Twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had diffuse thickening more than 5 mm were classified as hypertrophic group. The other twenty-one patients whose gastric mucosa had thickness less than 5 mm were classified as control group. In all 42 patients, endoscopic examination was performed and the prevalence of gastric hemorrhage was recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy for predicting the hemorrhage gastritis were calculated based on mucosal thickness. Sixteen patients who had been diagnosed as a hemorrhagic gastritis in the hypertrophic group on endoscopic examination were classified as a hemorrhage group. The thickness of each layers in hemorrhagic and the control group were compared using t-test and Fisher's exact test. Using 5 mm of mucosal thickness as a predictor, the sensitivity was 100%, the specificity was 80.8%, the positive predictive value was 76.2%, and the accuracy was 88.1%. Mean thickness of mucosa in hemorrhagic group and the control group were 9.6 ± 1.6 mm, and 1.4 ± 0.4 mm, respectively (p<0.01). Mean thickness of submucosa was 1.1 ± 0.3 mm in hemorrhagic group and 0.6 ± 0.3 mm in control group (p,0.01). The submucosal layer was hyperechoic and well- defined in most control groups (18/21) while it was ill-defined and less echogenic in hemorrhagic group (p<0.01). The diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastritis can be suggested when there is diffuse thickening in the gastric mucosa shile submucosal layer shows decreased echogenicits and indistinct border. This may improve the value of sonographic evaluation.

  17. An Incidental Finding of AL-associated Amyloidosis Presenting as Gastric Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Huq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract amyloidosis has been reported in rare instances and related symptoms are usually nonspecific to the disease process. We present a patient who initially had melena on anticoagulation and endoscopy revealed a bleeding gastric ulcer. Hemostasis was achieved. The patient had a recurrence of symptoms despite being off anticoagulation months later and at that time repeat endoscopy showed multiple gastric ulcers with surrounding friable mucosa. Biopsy results were significant for light chain associated-amyloidosis. This case represents a rare cause of gastric ulcer.

  18. Molecular characterization of the stomach microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, J.; Lindberg, M.; Rosenquist, M.; Enroth, H.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2009-01-15

    Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, can initiate an inflammatory cascade that progresses into atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with reduced capacity for secretion of gastric acid and an increased risk in developing gastric cancer. The role of H. pylori as an initiator of inflammation is evident but the mechanism for development into gastric cancer has not yet been proven. A reduced capacity for gastric acid secretion allows survival and proliferation of other microbes that normally are killed by the acidic environment. It has been postulated that some of these species may be involved in the development of gastric cancer, however their identities are poorly defined. In this study, the gastric microbiota from ten patients with gastric cancer was characterized and compared with five dyspeptic controls using the molecular profiling approach, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in combination with 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. T-RFLP analysis revealed a complex bacterial community in the cancer patients that was not significantly different from the controls. Sequencing of 140 clones revealed 102 phylotypes, with representatives from five bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria). The data revealed a relatively low abundance of H. pylori and showed that the gastric cancer microbiota was instead dominated by different species of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Prevotella. The respective role of these species in development of gastric cancer remains to be determined.

  19. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  1. A novel approach for the detection of early gastric cancer: fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Zhou, Li Ya; Lin, San Ren; Li, Yuan; Chen, Mo; Geng, Qiu Ming; Li, Yu Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice for early gastric cancer (EGC) screening. Gastric juice was collected from 101 participants who underwent endoscopy in the Outpatient Endoscopy Center of Peking University Third Hospital. The participants were divided into three groups: the normal mucosa or chronic non-atrophic gastritis (NM-CNAG) group (n = 35), advanced gastric cancer (AGC) group (n = 33) and EGC group (n = 33). Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis was performed in all the gastric juice samples and the maximum fluorescence intensity of the first peak (P1 FI) was measured. The mean fluorescence intensity of P1 FI of gastric juice in AGC (92.1 ± 10.7) and EGC (90.8 ± 12.0) groups was significantly higher than that in the NM-CNAG group (55.7 ± 7.5) (AGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.006 and EGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.015, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the detection of AGC and EGC were 0.681 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.553-0.810, P = 0.010) and 0.655 (95% CI 0.522-0.787, P = 0.028). With the P1 FI of ≥47.7, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting EGC were 69.7%, 57.1% and 63.2%, respectively. The enhancement of P1 FI of gastric juice occurs at the early stage of gastric cancer. Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice may be used as a novel screening tool for the early detection of gastric cancer. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  2. Gastroprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus infusion on acute ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagradas, Joana; Costa, Gustavo; Figueirinha, Artur; Castel-Branco, Maria Margarida; Silvério Cabrita, António Manuel; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-09-15

    Treatment of gastric ulcers with medicinal plants is quite common in traditional medicine worldwide. Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. leaves infusion has been used in folk medicine of many tropical and subtropical regions to treat gastric disturbances. The aim of this study was to assess the potential gastroprotective activity of an essential oil-free infusion from C. citratus leaves in acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rat. The study was performed on adult male Wistar rats (234.0±22.7g) fasted for 24h but with free access to water. The extract was given orally before (prevention) or after (treatment) intragastric administration of absolute ethanol. Effects of dose (28 or 56mg/kg of body weight) and time of contact of the extract with gastric mucosa (1 or 2h) were also assessed. Animals were sacrificed, being the stomachs removed and the lesions were assessed by macroscopic observation and histopathology. C. citratus extract, given orally before or after ethanol, significantly (P<0.01) reduced gastric mucosal injury compared with control group (vehicle+ethanol). The effect does not appear to be dose-dependent. Results also suggested that the extract is more effective when the time of contact with gastric mucosa increases. The results of this assay confirm the gastroprotective activity of C. citratus extract on experimental gastric lesions induced by ethanol, contributing for the pharmacological validation of its traditional use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ORAL MUCOSA LEUKOPLAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. KOLENKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the structure of oral mucosa diseases, in particular an increased ratio of precancerous diseases, so that an effective non-invasive detection of any sign of malignancy appears as an urgent and most actual task of dentistry. Aim: To study the proliferative activity of epithelial cells in Ki-67 antigenin patients with leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. Materials and method: A complex clinical and laboratory examination was performed on 155 patients with oral leukoplakia, who addressed the Operative Dentistry Department of the “A.A.Bogomolets” National Medical University of Kiev between 2010 and 2014. All patients have been subjected to a careful clinical examination, which included: dental anamnesis, visual inspection, oral examination and digital palpation of oral mucosa and tongue mucosa, biopsy of leukoplakia lesions for cytological and histological examination. Results: Histological evaluation of the material has been performed according to the WHO (2005 classification of leukoplakia. 10 (14% sites of unaltered mucosa, 10 (14% samples of hyperkeratosis without atypia, 14 (19% biopsy specimens of hyperkeratosis SIN1, 15 (21% – hyperkeratosis SIN2, 10 (14% - SIN3 and 13 (18% cases of squamous cell carcinoma were evidenced. Immunohistochemical investigation evidenced the presence of protein Ki-67 in the nuclei of epithelial cells. In the unmodified epithelium of the oral mucosa, all epithelial cells with stained nuclei are virtually located in the basal layer. Conclusion: Against the general increase of the proliferative activity of epithelial cells with increasing SIN, a characteristic distribution of proliferating cells in the thickness of the epithelium was revealed for each studied group, as follows: in the control group and in leukoplakia without atypia, immunopositive cells are located in the basal layer, in leukoplakia (SIN1, SIN2 and SIN3 – in parabasal position while, in squamous

  4. The evaluation of the local tolerance of vaginal formulations containing dapivirine using the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Marijke M M; Adriaens, Els; Roey, Jens Van; Remon, Jean Paul

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the local tolerance of vaginal gels (three gels containing dapivirine, the placebo gel, and Conceptrol) with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and to compare the results with those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test. The irritation potential on the slug mucosa was assessed by the mucus production caused by a repeated treatment for 5 successive days. Additionally, membrane damage was estimated by the protein and enzyme release. By means of a classification prediction model the formulations were classified into four irritation classes. The effect of a 10-day intravaginal application of the gels on the rabbit vaginal and cervical mucosa was evaluated by means of macroscopic and microscopic examination. The placebo and dapivirine gels induced no irritation of the slug mucosa (low mucus production and protein release, no enzyme release) and no vaginal or cervical irritation in rabbits. Conceptrol caused severe irritation of the slug mucosa (increased mucus production, protein release, and enzyme release) and irritation of the rabbit vagina and cervix. The results obtained with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test were comparable to those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

  5. Helicobacter pylori colonization critically depends on postprandial gastric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Roland; Azevedo-Vethacke, Marina; Groll, Claudia; Garten, Désirée; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Schreiber, Sören

    2012-01-01

    The risk of Helicobacter pylori infection is highest in childhood, but the colonization process of the stomach mucosa is poorly understood. We used anesthetized Mongolian gerbils to study the initial stages of H. pylori colonization. Prandial and postprandial gastric conditions characteristic of humans of different ages were simulated. The fraction of bacteria that reached the deep mucus layer varied strongly with the modelled postprandial conditions. Colonization success was weak with fast gastric reacidification typical of adults. The efficiency of deep mucus entry was also low with a slow pH decrease as seen in pH profiles simulating the situation in babies. Initial colonization was most efficient under conditions simulating the postprandial reacidification and pepsin activation profiles in young children. In conclusion, initial H. pylori colonization depends on age-related gastric physiology, providing evidence from an in vivo infection model that suggests an explanation why the bacterium is predominantly acquired in early childhood. PMID:23251780

  6. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T/sub 4/) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T/sub 4/ 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function.

  7. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T 4 ) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T 4 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of 3 H-dihydroalprenolol to β-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function

  8. Role of submandibular saliva and epidermal growth factor in gastric cytoprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    without submandibular glands. Exogenous EGF and saliva with a high but still physiological concentration of EGF significantly reduced the median area in the stomach displaying ulcers and ulcerations, whereas saliva without EGF had no effect. Although EGF is a known inhibitor of gastric acid secretion......The role of submandibular epidermal growth factor in protection of the gastric mucosa was investigated in rats. Removal of the submandibular glands and thereby submandibular epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused rats to develop gastric lesions (ulcerations and ulcers) after administration......, the dose used in the present study had no effect on gastric acid secretion in chronic gastric fistula rats; removal of the submandibular glands also did not have any such effect. We conclude that exocrine secretion of submandibular EGF has a cytoprotective function in the stomach, an effect that may...

  9. Low grade gastric MALT lymphoma: Radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.A.; Carson, B.W.; Gascoyne, R.D.; Cooperberg, P.L.; Connors, J.M.; Mason, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: Gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma is now recognized as a distinct entity within extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to describe the radiographic findings in low grade gastric MALT lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the radiographic findings in 22 cases of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. The study group consisted of 15 men and seven women (median age 68 years, range 41-91 years). Lesions were designated as infiltrative or polypoid by consensus of two radiologists. Polypoid lesions were categorized by number and size. Anatomical site within the stomach and presence of transpyloric or oesophagogastric extension was determined for each case. The presence of abdominal lymphadenopathy was categorized as regional or distant. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was determined from endoscopic and surgical biopsies. RESULTS: Computed tomography (CT) revealed abnormalities of the stomach in 19 cases of the 21 in which it was performed. There were 14 infiltrative lesions and five polypoid lesions. Of the 14 infiltrative lesions, the mean gastric wall thickness was 2.2 cm (range 0.8-6.0 cm). There were three single and two multiple polypoid lesions (mean size 2.2 cm, range 1.5-2.7 cm). Transpyloric extension was observed in two cases and oesophagogastric extension in one. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was observed in 10 of 21 patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 19 of 22 cases (86%). CONCLUSION: Low grade B cell gastric MALT lymphomas present with an infiltrative form on CT in about three-quarters of cases and a polypoid pattern in the remainder. Abdominal lymphadenopathy is seen in approximately one-half of cases. There is a high association with Helicobacter pylori. Brown, J.A. 2000. Clinical Radiology 55, 384-389

  10. [Changes in gastric function in rats after intragastric introduction of corvitin at high doses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovkun, T V; Ianchuk, P I; Shtanova, L Ia; Vesel'skyĭ, S P; Baranovs'kyĭ, V A

    2014-01-01

    Intragastric administration of corvitin at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg dose-dependently increased the volume of gastric juice and the total production of hydrochloric acid (HA). Amplification of hexosamines and cysteine production was observed only when the study drug was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg. When corvitin was used at 20 and 40 mg/kg, these parameters were at the level of control values. Protein production increased in response to 10 and 20 mg/kg corvitin, but fell below the control values after administration of 40 mg/kg of the drug. The level of blood flow in the gastric mucosa increased following administration of 10 mg/kg corvitin, was not different from the baseline after 20 mg/kg of the drug and significantly decreased in response to 40 mg/kg of flavonoid. Our results indicate that a single intragastric application of corvitin at dose of 10 mg/kg activates gastric defense mechanisms. At 20 and 40 mg/kg, corvitin does not affect them but gradually reduces blood flow in gastric mucosa, causes a disturbance of protein synthesis and hypersecretion of HA into the cavity of the stomach, which can lead to disruption of the digestive process and the integrity of gastric mucosa.

  11. Gastric heterotopia in rectum: A literature review and its diagnostic pitfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Dinarvand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The term heterotopia, in pathology, refers to the presence of normal tissues at foreign sites. Gastric heterotopia has been reported anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the presence of gastric heterotopia in the rectum is very rare. Methods: We, here, report a rare case of a localized 2-cm area of cratered mucosa with heaped-up borders in the rectum of a 51-year-old, asymptomatic woman who underwent screening colonoscopy. Results: Histologic examination of the biopsy from the lesional tissue in rectum demonstrated fragments of rectal mucosa co-mingling with oxyntic- and antral-type gastric mucosa. No intestinal metaplasia or Helicobacter pylori is identified. Conclusion: Patients with gastric heterotopia in rectum usually present with bleeding and/or abdominal pain. Definite treatment of choice is surgical or endoscopic resection, although the lesions also respond to histamine-2 receptor blockers. In this article, most recent literature about gastric heterotopia in rectum is reviewed, following a case presentation about it.

  12. Psuedotumoral gastric varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Choon Won

    1974-01-01

    The roentgenographic recognition of gastric varices often is difficult, even when there is a history of liver disease or splenomegaly without demonstrable esophageal varices. An apparant polypoid filling defect with exaggerated mucosal folds in proximal portion of the gastric body and funds on upper GI series, accompanied by hematemesis and splenomegly should suggest the presence of pseudotumoral gastric varices. We have an experience a case of polypoid filling defects in gastric fundus of psudotumoral gastric varices of 49 years old Korean woman, which was diagnosed by surgical and histopathological findings

  13. Consecutive regression of MALT lymphomas coexisting in the pharyngeal and gastric tissue after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ivan Potente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The stomach is one of the most common organs in which mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma develops. It is well established that Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection plays a major role in the development of gastric MALT lymphoma and that the presence of Hp in the gastric mucosa is connected with mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT.The same tissue is located in the oral cavity and pharynx in Waldayer’s circuit. Recently, the oral cavity was proposed as an extragastric reservoir of Hp infection. We report the case of a 79-year-old female patient with concomitant pharyngeal (MALT lymphoma and Hp-related gastric MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma was detected both through endoscopic examination as well as in biopsies. Pharyngeal MALT lymphoma was also detected in biopsies. Hp has been recognized in the gastric mucosa by positive serum H. pylori antibody and urease tests. Treatment of the Hp infection in our patient using antibiotics led to the regression of both lesions. This is the first case report on the regression of a pharyngeal MALT lymphoma after Hp eradication.

  14. Giant polypoid gastric heterotopia in the small intestine in a boy: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Yu, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa has been described at various locations of the body; however, the polyp composed of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the small intestine is rare. A 15-year-old boy visited us for investigation of recurrent episodes of melena. Capsule endoscopy (CE) revealed a polypoid tumor in the ileum, with an active nearby hemorrhage. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) showed a tumor in the right quadrant of the abdomen, with a diameter of about 18 × 14 mm. The patient was diagnosed with polypoid gastric heterotopia. We performed an operation to resect the lesion. The patient recovered smoothly after surgery and was discharged on postoperative day 7 and followed up for 3 months. He has not experienced gastrointestinal intestinal (GI) symptoms up to now. Giant polypoid gastric heterotopia in the small intestine is extremely rare, which can express as an occasional finding with or without symptoms. Surgical resection is the preferred therapy when symptoms appear.

  15. Gastric metastasis of cervix uteri carcinoma, rare cause of lower gastric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, B; Banu, E; Pocreaţă, D; Buiga, R; Rogoz, S; Pripisi, L; Cimpeanu, L; Moldovan, A; Jeder, O; Badea, A; Biris, P

    2012-01-01

    the paper presents a rare case of metachronous gastric metastasis of uterine cervix cancer, clinically manifested through severe pyloric stenosis. 49-year-old patient, operated on in January 2009, with uterine cervix cancer (Squamous cell carcinoma T2bN1M0), is hospitalized in August 2011 with pyloric stenosis: epigastric pains, abundant, stasis, late postprandial emesis, significant weight loss, stomach form visible upon abdomen inspection. Endoscopy: antral stenosis with intact gastric mucosa, and CT-scan: circumferential intramural gastric tumor, stomach dilated in the upper part, lack of cleavage between the tumor and the liver bed of the gall bladder. CEA increased to 13,78 (below 5), CA 19-9 slightly increased 29.9 (below 27). The case is considered as a second neoplasia and a D2 subtotal gastrectomy was performed, with 1 positive ganglion out of 27 on block with atypical hepatectomy of segments 4-5 for liver invasion, the final mounting being Y Roux. The histopathological examination shows a gastric metastasis of squamous carcinoma, of uterine cervix origin, the invaded perigastric ganglion having the same aspect of uterine cervix carcinoma. The post-surgery evolution was favorable, under chemo radiotherapy the patient being alive without relapse at 9 months post-surgery. In the literature there are 2 more cases of gastric metastasis of uterine cervix carcinoma, and 4 of uterine carcinoma without topographic indication, but without the histological documentation of the tumor filiation, without data related to resecability or follow-up, the case at hand being, from this perspective, the first documented resectable metachronous gastric metastasis from a cervix uteri carcinoma. Celsius.

  16. Endoscopic Mucosectomy in a Child Presenting with Gastric Heterotopia of the Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Soares

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric mucosal heterotopia has been described in all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. Its occurrence in the rectum is uncommon. We report the case of a 4-year-old boy referred to Pediatric Gastroenterology for intermittent rectal bleeding for the past 2 years. Total ileocolonoscopy revealed a flat, well-circumscribed lesion of 4 cm, with elevated margins, localized at 10 cm from the anal verge. Histologic examination showed typical gastric mucosa of the oxyntic type. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors was started without resolution of the symptoms and, therefore, an endoscopic mucosal resection was performed. Heterotopic gastric mucosa represents a rare cause of rectal bleeding in children and endoscopic evaluation is fundamental for diagnosis. Although not usually performed in pediatric ages, endoscopic mucosectomy allows complete resolution of the problem avoiding surgery.

  17. Endoscopic Mucosectomy in a Child Presenting with Gastric Heterotopia of the Rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joana; Ferreira, Carla; Marques, Margarida; Corujeira, Susana; Tavares, Marta; Lopes, Joanne; Carneiro, Fátima; Amil Dias, Jorge; Trindade, Eunice

    2017-11-01

    Gastric mucosal heterotopia has been described in all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. Its occurrence in the rectum is uncommon. We report the case of a 4-year-old boy referred to Pediatric Gastroenterology for intermittent rectal bleeding for the past 2 years. Total ileocolonoscopy revealed a flat, well-circumscribed lesion of 4 cm, with elevated margins, localized at 10 cm from the anal verge. Histologic examination showed typical gastric mucosa of the oxyntic type. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors was started without resolution of the symptoms and, therefore, an endoscopic mucosal resection was performed. Heterotopic gastric mucosa represents a rare cause of rectal bleeding in children and endoscopic evaluation is fundamental for diagnosis. Although not usually performed in pediatric ages, endoscopic mucosectomy allows complete resolution of the problem avoiding surgery.

  18. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  19. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  20. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  1. Radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, b.L.; Kagan, A.R.; Chan, P.; Gilbert, H.A.; Nussbaum, H.; Rao, A.R.; Wollin, M.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen patients with cancer of the vagina that were controlled locally for a minimum of eighteen months after teletherpay (T) or brachytherapy (B) or both (T and B), were analyzed for radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa. The site of vaginal necrosis did not always coincide with the site of the tumor. The posterior wall appeared more vulnerable than the anterior or lateral walls. For the distal vaginal mucosa, necrosis requiring surgical intervention occurred following combined T and B, if summated rad exceeded9800. The upper vagina tolerated higher dosages. No patient surgery for upper vaginal necrosis even though summated (T and B) dosage up to 14,000 rad was applied. Placing radioactive needles on the surface of the vaginal cylinder with or without interstitial perincal needles should be avoided. Further accumulation of data is needed to define these vaginal mucosa tolerance limits more closely

  2. An effective and safe gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection in the right lateral position using an inverted overtube

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Yachida, Tatsuo; Ayagi, Maki; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported the efficacy of a newly developed inverted overtube in shortening the hemostatic time and obtaining a clear endoscopic view in emergency endoscopic hemostasis. This device also helped us to perform gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) more safely by changing the direction of gravity in the right lateral position. To perform a safe ESD, it is important to make an appropriate angle and distance between the electric knife and the gastric mucosa. In this position...

  3. Independent occurence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia by x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Ito, Akihiro

    1986-01-01

    The selective occurence of gastric tumors and intestinal metaplasias in the stomach by X-irradiation were described both in mice and rats. The appearance of both lesions was greatly influenced by animal's strains in both species and also by the sex in rats. A few gastric tumors were observed in the animals given a high does with spilt into low doses of X-irradiation. The adequate dose for gastric tumorigenesis may be around 20 Gy in mice and 15 Gy in rats. A good relationship between X-ray dose and incidence of gastric tumor was observed in ICR mice. Frequency of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation was much higher in rats compared to that in mice. X-ray dose requested for moderate and induction of intestinal metaplasia was decreased with a dose which was induced erosion and gastric tumor. It has been empirically clarified that an elevation of pH value in the gastric juice is one of the principal factors responsible for the development of intestinal metaplasia in the gastric mucosa among the conditions thus for introduced. In this article, we have introduced the relevant examples about intestinal metaplasia without carcinogenic insult, and the relationship between gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia were described. The intestinal metaplasia was not always observed within or adjacent to neoplastic gastric glands. A combined treatment of X-ray and MNNG was not effective for gastric tumor and frequency of intestinal metaplasia was inversely related to the incidence of gastric tumors. In conclusion, occurrence of gastric tumor and intestinal metaplasia may be independent, and intestinal metaplasia might not be a prerequite for the occurrence of gastric tumor. (author)

  4. Novel approach to gastric mucosal defect repair using fresh amniotic membrane allograft in dogs (experimental study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghali, Haithem A; AbdElKader, Naglaa A; Khattab, Marwa S; AbuBakr, Huda O

    2017-10-18

    Gastric mucosal defect could result from several causative factors including the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Helicobacter pylori infection, gastrointestinal and spinal cord diseases, and neoplasia. This study was performed to achieve a novel simple, inexpensive, and effective surgical technique for the repair of gastric mucosal defect. Six adult male mongrel dogs were divided into two groups (three dogs each). In the control positive group (C + ve), dogs were subjected to surgical induction of gastric mucosal defect and then treated using traditional medicinal treatment for such a condition. In the amniotic membrane (AM) group, dogs were subjected to the same operation and then fresh AM allograft was applied. Clinical, endoscopic, biochemical (serum protein and lipid and pepsin activity in gastric juice), histopathological, and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed. Regarding endoscopic examination, there was no sign of inflammatory reaction around the grafted area in the AM group compared to the C + ve group. The leukocytic infiltration in the gastric ulcer was well detected in the control group and was less observed in the AM group. In the AM group, the concentrations of both protein and lipid profiles were nearly the same as those in serum samples taken preoperatively at zero time, which indicated that the AM grafting acted the same as gastric mucosa. The re-epithelization of the gastric ulcer in the C + ve group was not yet detected at 21 days, while in the AM group it was well observed covering most of the gastric ulcer. AM accelerated the re-epithelization of the gastric ulcer. The fibrous connective tissue and the precursor of collagen (COL IA1) were poorly detected in the gastric ulcer with AM application. Using fresh AM allograft for repairing gastric mucosal defect in dogs showed great impact as a novel method to achieve optimum reconstruction of the gastric mucosal architecture and restoration of pre

  5. Anatomical distribution of peptic ulcer in high incidence gastric cancer area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer makes reference to the solution of continuity of gastric or duodenal wall beyond muscularis mucosae. Previously, duodenal location was more common than gastric, in a ratio ranging from 2:1 to 4:1. Despite this, after the discovery of the association between peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori, relationship between gastric and duodenal ulcer has spread to the equality. However, in areas with high incidence of gastric cancer, peptic ulcer seems to have a different behavior, existing predominance of gastric ulcer. Department of Cauca is have the highest incidence of gastric cancer in Colombia, with an annual rate of 42.5 /100,000 for males and 28.6 / 100,000 for women; however, it is unknown how peptic ulcer anatomically are distributed. Objective: To determine the anatomical distribution of peptic ulcer at endoscopy service of San José University Hospital of Popayán-Cauca, Colombia 2006-2012. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was realized. Database of endoscopy service of San José University Hospital of Popayán was reviewed and reports with diagnosis of peptic ulcer were studied. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15. Results: Gastric ulcer was more common than duodenal ulcer. Gastric ulcer was more common in men (gastric and duodenal ulcer 1:1. In women duodenal ulcer is 1:1. Conclusion: At endoscopy service of San José University Hospital, gastric ulcer is more common than duodenal ulcer, with differences in gender, as in other areas with high incidence of gastric cancer. That fact are suggests in current literature could be related with the presence of stumps of Helicobacter pylori with combined virulence for cancer and ulcer at gastric level seems to be related to the presence in the medium of common virulence strains of Helicobacter pylori for stomach cancer and ulcer gastric, although the current literature is unclear about it, and still needs more validations.

  6. Gastric syphilis: a case-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Del Duca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CLINICAL CASE A 43-year-old Romanian woman was referred with the clinical suspicion of gastric lymphoma; she had complained from two months nausea, vomiting and weight loss (7 kg; 3 esophagogastroduodenoscopic examinations had evidenced reduced distensibility of stomach body and antrum, ulcered and congestive mucosa, the histopathological examinations revealed a non specific inflammation. There was no response to therapy with omeprazolo. A computer-assisted tomoghraphy scan of the thorax and abdomen, obtained after the oral and intravenous administration of contrast material, showed diffuse thickening of the gastric wall, lymphadenopathies were seen in the retrocrural space, lesser curvature, and paraaortic region. It was performed another upper endoscopy with “deep” biopsy specimen, comprehensive of spirochetal immunohistochemistry, that was diagnostic for gastric syphilis. DISCUSSION Even though gastritis is a rare clinical manifestations of the secondary stage of syphilis, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of erosive gastritis unresponsive to medical therapy, especially in young patients; screening tests like VDRL (routinely used until few years ago in internal medicine divisions may be useful to identify those patients needing a further diagnostic evaluation.

  7. Comparison of lipases for in vitro models of gastric digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassene, P J; Fanø, M; Mu, H

    2016-01-01

    Lipase (ROL), Rabbit Gastric Lipase (RGL) and recombinant HGL (rHGL), were used to catalyze the in vitro digestion of two infant formulas (a medium-chain triacylglyceride enriched formula (MC-IF) and a predominantly long-chain triacylglyceride formula (LC-IF)). Digesta were withdrawn after 0, 5, 15, 30......, 60 min of gastric digestion and after 90 or 180 min of intestinal digestion with or without the presence of pancreatic enzymes, respectively. The digesta were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and gas chromatography to quantify the release of fatty acids (FAs). Digestions of both formulas......, catalyzed by ROL, showed that the extent of gastric digestion was higher than expected from previously published in vivo data. ROL was furthermore insensitive to FA chain length and all FAs were released at the same pace. RGL and rHGL favoured the release of MC-FAs in both formulas, but rHGL did also...

  8. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  9. The CareRabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  10. Cannabinoids enhance gastric X/A-like cells activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that cannabinoids may cause overeating in humans and in laboratory animals. Although, endogenous cannabinoids and their receptors (CB1 have been found in the hypothalamus, and recently also in gastrointestinal tract, the precise mechanism of appetite control by cannabinoids remains unknown. Recently, ghrelin--a hormone secreted mainly from the stomach X/A-like cells was proposed to be an appetite stimulating agent. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of a single ip injection of a stable analogue of endogenous cannabinoid--anandamide, R-(+-methanandamide (2.5 mg/kg and CP 55,940 (0.25 mg/kg, an exogenous agonist of CB1 receptors, on ghrelin plasma concentration and on ghrelin immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa of male Wistar rats. Four hours after a single injection of both cannabinoids or vehicle, the animals were anaesthetized and blood was taken from the abdominal aorta to determinate plasma ghrelin concentration by RIA. Subsequently, the animals underwent resection of distal part of stomach. Immunohistochemical study of gastric mucosa, using the EnVision method and specific monoclonal antibodies against ghrelin was performed. The intensity of ghrelin immunoreactivity in X/A-like cells was analyzed using Olympus Cell D image analysis system. The attenuation of ghrelin-immunoreactivity of gastric mucosa, after a single injection of R-(+-methanandamide and CP 55,940 was accompanied by a significant increase of ghrelin plasma concentration. These results indicate that stimulation of appetite exerted by cannabinoids may be connected with an increase of ghrelin secretion from gastric X/A-like cells.

  11. Pathological studies on lachrymal dilated drainage tube implantation in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Peng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the pathological changes of the lower segment of nasolacrimal duct mucosa in rabbits at different stages after retrograde lachrymal dilated drainage tube implantation. METHODS: Totally 14 New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study. One side of nasolacrimal duct was obstructed to produce an experimental model and operated the reverse implantation of nasolacrimal duct intubation. Histological changes of the lower segment of nasolacrimal duct mucosa were observed by routine light microscope at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14wk after the operation. RESULTS: Compared with the control side, the group of 2 and 4wk after surgery presented the inflammatory cytokine. The group of 12wk after the operation presented isolated granuloma. Group 12 and 14wk presented scattered granuloma. The size of the granulomas was smaller and the density of epithelioid cell and fibroblast were lower in group 12wk than those in group 14wk by HE and Masson trichrome stain.CONCLUSION: Recurrent Silicone Tube is used to treat nasolacrymal duct obstruction. Nasolacrimal duct can be narrowed and blocked again by granuloma, progressive fibrosis and adhesion of surrounding tissues when tube is in the duct more than 12wk.

  12. Development of gastric cancer associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2004-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with histological gastritis, gastric atrophy, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in the stomach. However, gastric cancer only develops in a minority of infected individuals. Such clinical diversity is caused by variations in the interactions between H. pylori pathogenicity, host susceptibility, and environmental factors. Based on evidence from three prospective epidemiological studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization (IARC/WHO) concluded in 1994 that H. pylori has a causal linkage to gastric carcinogenesis and is a definite carcinogen in humans. Two large-scale, prospective, epidemiological studies have recently been reported in Japan and have confirmed that H. pylori infection constitutes a high risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, at least in males. In order to obtain evidence that eradication of H. pylori leads to a reduction in the occurrence of gastric cancer, reversibility of precancerous lesions, gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia should be proven after eradication treatment. A biopsy specimen from the lesser curvature of the corpus is the most sensitive for evaluating the regression of gastric atrophy on histology, and the evaluation needs be conducted at least 13 months after treatment. In a Mongolian gerbil model with or without low-dose chemical carcinogens, it has been demonstrated that H. pylori can lead to the development of gastric cancer. Experimental studies have elucidated that virulence factors of H. pylori interact with gastric epithelial cell signaling related to carcinogenesis. The cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is a major virulence gene cluster; it encodes the type IV secretion machinery system forming a cylinder-like structure. The CagA protein is translocated into target cells via this secretion system and induces a hummingbird phenotype, a growth factor-like effect. The other gene products are

  13. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc.

  14. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J. (Dudley Road Hospital, Birmingham (UK); Birmingham General Hospital (UK))

    1982-06-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera.

  15. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  16. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in advanced gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irami Araújo-Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUD: There is substantial evidence that infection with Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the development of gastric cancer and that it is rarely found in gastric biopsy of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. On advanced gastric tumors, the bacteria can be lost from the stomach. AIMS: To analyze the hypothesis that the prevalence of H.pylori in operated advanced gastric carcinomas and adjacent non-tumor tissues is high, comparing intestinal and diffuse tumors according to Lauren's classification METHODS: A prospective controlled study enrolled 56 patients from "Hospital Universitário", Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil, with advanced gastric cancer, treated from February 2000 to March 2003. Immediately after partial gastrectomy, the resected stomach was opened and several mucosal biopsy samples were taken from the gastric tumor and from the adjacent mucosa within 4 cm distance from the tumor margin. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Lauren's classification for gastric cancer was used, to analyse the prevalence of H. pylori in intestinal or diffuse carcinomas assessed by the urease rapid test, IgG by ELISA and Giemsa staining. H. pylori infected patients were treated with omeprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin for 7 days. Follow-up endoscopy and serology were performed 6 months after treatment to determine successful eradication of H. pylori in non-tumor tissue. Thereafter, follow-up endoscopies were scheduled annually. Chi-square and MacNemar tests with 0.05 significance were used. RESULTS: Thirty-four tumors (60.7% were intestinal-type and 22 (39.3% diffuse type carcinomas. In adjacent non-tumor gastric mucosa, chronic gastritis were found in 53 cases (94.6% and atrophic mucosa in 36 patients (64.3%. All the patients with atrophic mucosa were H. pylori positive. When examined by Giemsa and urease test, H. pylori positive rate in tumor tissue of intestinal type carcinomas was

  17. Proteome Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Gut Mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Ellingsen, Torkell; Glerup, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease leading to cartilage damage and ultimately impaired joint function. To gain new insight into the systemic immune manifestations of RA, we characterized the colon mucosa proteome from 11 RA-patients and 10 healthy controls. The biopsies were...

  18. Is there a role for leukotrienes as mediators of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, J.L.; Beck, P.L.; Morris, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    The role of leukotriene (LT) C 4 as a mediator of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage was investigated. Rats were pretreated with a number of compounds, including inhibitors of leukotriene biosynthesis and agents that have previously been shown to reduce ethanol-induced damage prior to oral administration of absolute ethanol. Ethanol administration resulted in a fourfold increase in LTC 4 synthesis. LTC 4 synthesis could be reduced significantly by pretreatment with L651,392 or dexamethosone without altering the susceptibility of the gastric mucosa to ethanol-induced damage. Furthermore, changes in LBT 4 synthesis paralleled the changes in LTC 4 synthesis observed after ethanol administration. The effects of ethanol on gastric eicosanoid synthesis were further examined using an ex vivo gastric chamber preparation that allowed for application of ethanol to only one side of the stomach. These studies confirm that ethanol can stimulate gastric leukotriene synthesis independent of the production of hemorrhagic damage. Inhibition of LTC 4 synthesis does not confer protection to the mucosa, suggesting that LTC 4 does not play an important role in the etiology of ethanol-induced gastric damage

  19. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Selective scavenging of intra-mitochondrial superoxide corrects diclofenac-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and gastric injury: A novel gastroprotective mechanism independent of gastric acid suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Somnath; De, Rudranil; Sarkar, Souvik; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Saha, Shubhra Jyoti; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Iqbal, Mohd Shameel; Nag, Shiladitya; Debsharma, Subhashis; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat multiple inflammatory diseases and pain but severe gastric mucosal damage is the worst outcome of NSAID-therapy. Here we report that mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrially targeted superoxide (O 2 - ) scavenger protected as well as healed gastric injury induced by diclofenac (DCF), the most commonly used NSAID. Common existing therapy against gastric injury involves suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors and histamine H 2 receptor antagonists; however, dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency and gastric microfloral dysbalance are the major drawbacks of acid suppression. Interestingly, mitoTEMPO did not inhibit gastric acid secretion but offered gastroprotection by preventing DCF-induced generation of O 2 - due to mitochondrial respiratory chain failure and by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS)-mediated mitopathology. MitoTEMPO even restored DCF-stimulated reduced fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and bioenergetic crisis in gastric mucosa. MitoTEMPO also prevented the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and MOS-mediated proinflammatory signaling through NF-κB by DCF. Furthermore, mitoTEMPO when administered in rats with preformed gastric lesions expedited the healing of gastric injury and the healed stomach exhibited its normal physiology as evident from gastric acid and pepsin secretions under basal or stimulated conditions. Thus, in contrast to the existing antiulcer drugs, mitochondrially targeted O 2 - scavengers like mitoTEMPO may represent a novel class of gastroprotective molecules that does not affect gastric acid secretion and may be used in combination with DCF, keeping its anti-inflammatory action intact, while reducing its gastrodamaging effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can a graft be placed over a flap in complex hypospadias surgery? An experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marcondes de Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop a rabbit experimental study to test the hypothesis that surgical repair of hypospadias with severe ventral curvatures might be completed in one stage, if a graft, such as buccal mucosa, could be placed over the tunica vaginalis flap used in corporoplasty for ventral lengthening, with the addition of an onlay preputial island flap to complete the urethroplasty. Materials and methods: The experimental procedure with rabbits included a tunica vaginalis flap for reconstruction of the corpora after corporotomy, simulating a ventral lengthening operation. A buccal mucosa graft was placed directly on top of the flap, and the urethroplasty was completed with an onlay preputial island flap. Eight rabbits were divided into 4 groups, sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively, and submitted to histological evaluation. Results: We observed a large number of complications, such as fistula (75%, urinary retention (50% and stenosis (50%. There were two deaths related to the procedure. Histological evaluation demonstrated a severe and persistent inflammatory reaction. No viable tunica vaginalis or buccal mucosa was identified. Conclusions: In this animal model, the association of a buccal mucosa graft over the tunica vaginalis flap was not successful, and resulted in complete loss of both tissues.

  2. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma studied with FDG-PET. A comparison with CT and endoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Keisuke; Hamada, Kenichiro; Inohara, Hidenori; Higuchi, Ichiro; Kubo, Takeshi; Hatazawa, Jun; Tomita, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the accumulation of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F] fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma patients as compared with computerized tomography (CT) and endoscopic imaging. FDG-PET was performed on 13 untreated patients with MALT lymphoma. CT scanning of the affected areas was performed in all the patients to compare with the FDG-PET images. In five patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, comparison was also made with the endoscopic findings. Of the 13 untreated MALT lymphoma patients, all 8 non-gastric MALT lymphoma patients exhibited abnormal accumulation of FDG. However, in the five gastric MALT lymphoma patients, no abnormal FDG accumulation was observed. Although lesions could be confirmed on CT images from the patients other than those with gastric MALT lymphoma, the mucosal lesions of gastric MALT lymphoma could be observed only by endoscopy. FDG-PET can be used to detect MALT lymphoma when it forms mass lesions, whereas it is difficult to detect non-massive MALT lymphoma of gastrointestinal origin. (author)

  3. Familial Gastric Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W; Duda, Dan G; Hong, Theodore S; Kwak, Eunice L; Mullen, John T; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-12-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%-3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. ©AlphaMed Press.

  4. [A comparison of proteomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer between areas of high and low incidence of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin-na; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Shi-gang; Zhong, Li Jun; Li, Guang-chuan; Shi, Yan-yan; Wang, Ye

    2011-12-18

    To identify the differentially expressed proteins of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer from areas of high and low incidence of gastric cancer by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and to discuss the role of bacterial factor in pathogenesis. Hp in the endoscopic biopsy specimens of gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and gastric cancer from areas of high (Xining) and low (Beijing) incidence of gastric cancer, were separated, cultured and saved at -80°C. The bacteria were recovered. Then the whole-cell protein of the Hp were extracted and characterized by 2-DE. The different protein spots were analyzed by PDQuest analysis software and identified by electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS), and searched by the Mascot database. Nine differentially expressed proteins were identified, and four protein spots were over expressed in the protein maps from gastric cancer in both areas, which were: Urease subunit alpha, chaperone protein dnaK, superoxide dismutase, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha; two protein spots were over expressed in the protein maps from gastritis in both areas, which were: Probablethiol peroxidase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase; 60×10(3) chaperonin, and inorganic pyrophosphatase were over expressed only in the protein map from gastric cancer in Xining; S-ribosyl homocysteinelyase was over expressed only in the protein map from gastric cancer in Beijing. There are differences between proteomic analyses of Hp in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer in areas of high and low incidents of gastric cancer, but 2/3 of the protein spots over expressed in the areas are consistent. The protein spots over expressed from gastric cancer in the area with high incidence of gastric cancer are more than in the area with low incidence of gastric cancer. For the Hp extracted from patients with gastric cancer, the mechanism of gastric cancer may be similar, but the role

  5. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  6. Gastric adenocarcinoma in a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, H R; Allavena, R; Melville, L M; Doneley, R J T

    2014-10-01

    A 5-year-old captive male diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota) was presented with a 1-month history of regurgitation and anorexia and discrete coelomic distention. Physical examination revealed a firm, immobile mass at approximately two-thirds of the snout-vent length from the front of the head. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate biopsy of the mass in the region of the stomach showed necrosis with bacterial infiltration and possibly neoplastic changes. A gastroscopy was conducted, but showed grossly normal gastric mucosa, confirmed by biopsy. On exploratory coeliotomy, it was confirmed the mass involved most of the stomach wall and occluded the gastric lumen. The mass was completely excised and based on histopathology, a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma was made. The snake was found dead 12 h postoperatively, but no specific cause of death was found on postmortem examination. Most cases of adenocarcinoma in snakes go undiagnosed. This case report illustrates that the architecture of gastric masses may lead to false-negative gastric biopsy results in snakes with neoplasia. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Concurrent colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and adenoma diagnosed after a positive fecal occult blood test: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chiang; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Deng, Po; Wang, Chih-Wei; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Tang, Reiping; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Yeh, Chien-Yuh; Hsieh, Pao-Shiu; Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chiang, Sum-Fu

    2016-01-27

    Colonic lymphoma is an uncommon presentation of extranodal lymphoma. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is a different entity from gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and very rare. The presentation and management of colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue are highly variable in the literature. We report the case of a 59-year-old Taiwanese man who underwent a colonoscopy after a positive test for fecal occult blood. His past history included hypertension and hyperthyroidism. The colonoscopy revealed an adenomatous polyp and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. We successfully performed a polypectomy and endoscopic mucosal resection. The lymphoma was staged according to the Ann Arbor system modified by Musshoff as E-I. Our patient showed no lymphoma recurrence over a 3-year follow-up. Endoscopic mucosal resection for colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma without disseminated disease may be feasible. We successfully used colonoscopic treatment without adjuvant therapy to treat early-stage pathogen-free colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

  8. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  9. DESCRIPTION OF GASTRIC ULCERS AND OF THEIR SUSPECTED, ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN DECEASED WILD EQUIDS AT THE RÉSERVE AFRICAINE DE SIGEAN, FRANCE (2010-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Vandenbunder-Beltrame, Marielle; Trunet, Elodie; Lemberger, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Gastric ulcers are common in domestic horses and foals, affecting at least 90% of unmedicated racehorses in active training. Despite these high prevalences in domestic horses, literature about this condition in wild equids is almost nonexistent. The presence of gastric ulcers was evaluated at necropsy in six species of wild equids that died at the Réserve Africane de Sigean, a safari park in the south of France from 2010 to 2016. Among the 55 individuals that died during that period, a description of the gastric mucosa was available in 82% (45/55) of cases. Considering the cases for which a description of the gastric mucosa was available, the prevalence of gastric ulcers was 64% (29/45). The highest prevalences were noted in Grant's zebra (Equus quagga boehmi) and Hartmann's mountain zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae) at 83% and 100%, respectively. In contrast to what is reported in domestic foals, gastric ulcerations were only diagnosed in one foal (out of 11 foals necropsied). The higher prevalence was noted in young individuals (3-36 mo old) at 93% (14/15); the lesions observed consisted mainly of single to multiple, superficial lesions, of which, only the mucosa was missing; these superficial lesions are often considered not clinically significant. The prevalence was lower for adults (74%; 14/19), but lesions were deeper or with a hyperemic or inflammatory appearance. All the lesions observed were located in the gastric, nonglandular, stratified squamous mucosa, along the margo plicatus. No statistical correlation could be found between the development of gastric ulcers and an ongoing, chronic pathologic process or a digestive tract pathology. The detection of gastric ulcers was, therefore, significantly greater in wild equids isolated in smaller enclosures. Nevertheless, additional larger-scale research is needed to point out predisposing factors in equids under human care.

  10. Functional Properties of Lactobacillus mucosae Strains Isolated from Brazilian Goat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Georgia Maciel Dias; de Abreu, Louricélia Rodrigues; do Egito, Antônio Silvio; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; da Silva, Liana Maria Ferreira; Nero, Luís Augusto; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich

    2017-09-01

    The search for probiotic candidates among lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from food may uncover new strains with promising health and technological properties. Lactobacillus mucosae strains attracted recent research attention due to their ability to adhere to intestinal mucus and to inhibit pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract, both related to a probiotic potential. Properties of interest and safety aspects of three Lb. mucosae strains (CNPC006, CNPC007, and CNPC009) isolated from goat milk were investigated employing in vitro tests. The presence of genetic factors related to bile salt hydrolase production (bsh), intestinal adhesion properties (msa, map, mub, and ef-tu), virulence, and biogenic amine production were also verified. All strains exhibited the target map, mub, and ef-tu sequences; the msa gene was detected in CNPC006 and CNPC007 strains. Some of the searched sequences for virulence factors were detected, especially in the CNPC009 strain; all strains carried the hyl gene, related to the production of hyaluronidase. Lb. mucosae CNPC007 exhibited a high survival rate in simulated gastric and enteric conditions. Besides, all strains exhibited the bsh sequence, and CNPC006 and CNPC007 were able to deconjugate salts of glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC). Regarding technological properties for dairy product applications, a relatively higher milk acidification and clotting capacity, diacetyl production, and proteolytic activity were registered for CNPC007 in comparison to the other strains. Collectively, the results aim at Lb. mucosae CNPC007 as a promising probiotic candidate for application in dairy products, deserving further studies to confirm and explore its potential.

  11. Gastric Cancer Screening by Combined Determination of Serum Helicobacter pylori Antibody and Pepsinogen Concentrations: ABC Method for Gastric Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Zhe; Huang, Cheng-Zhi; Hu, Wei-Xian; Liu, Ying; Yao, Xue-Qing

    2018-05-20

    Gastroscopy combined with gastric mucosa biopsies is currently regarded as a gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. However, its application is restricted in clinical practice due to its invasive property. A new noninvasive population screening process combining the assay of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody and serum pepsinogen (PG) (ABC method) is adopted to recognize the high-risk patients for further endoscopy examination, avoiding the unnecessary gastroscopy for most population and saving the cost consumption for mass screening annually. Nevertheless, controversies exist for the grouping of ABC method and the intervals of gastroscopy surveillance for each group. In this review, we summarized these popular concerned topics for providing useful references to the healthcare practitioner in clinical practice. The PubMed databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to November 22, 2017, using the keywords "Helicobacter pylori," "Pepsinogens," and "Stomach Neoplasms." Original articles and reviews on the topics were selected. Anti-H. pylori antibody and serum PG concentration showed significant changes under the different status of H. pylori infection and the progression of atrophic gastritis, which can be used for risk stratification of gastric cancer in clinic. In addition, anti-H. pylori antibody titer can be used for further risk stratification of gastric cancer contributing to determine better endoscopy surveillance interval. The early detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer benefit from the risk stratification, but the cutoff values for H. pylori antibody and serum PG concentration require further modification.

  12. Endoluminal MR imaging of porcine gastric structure in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaka, Hayato; Morita, Yoshinori; Matsuoka, Yuichiro

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several new endoscopic instruments have been developed. However, even with the full use of current modalities, the safety of endoscopic surgery is not guaranteed. Information regarding factors such as fibrosis and the blood vessels under the mucosa is very important for avoiding procedure-related complications. The aim of this study was to define the detailed anatomy of the gastric wall structure in vivo using original endoluminal radiofrequency coils for safer endoscopic therapy. Swine were used as the subjects and controlled with general anesthesia. Anatomical images were obtained with T1-weighted fast spin echo (T1FSE) and T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2FSE). Dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) angiography was also obtained with three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (3D-DMRA) following the injection of hyaluronic acid sodium into the submucosal layer. Porcine gastric wall structure was visualized, and four layers were discriminated in the T1FSE and T2FSE images. The vascular structure was clearly recognized in the submucosa on 3D-DMRA. Endoluminal MR imaging was able to visualize the porcine stomach with similar quality to endoscopic ultrasonography imaging. Additionally, it was possible to visualize the vascular structures in the submucosal layer. This is the first report to show that blood vessels under the gastric mucosa can be depicted in vivo. (author)

  13. Curcumin Inhibits Gastric Inflammation Induced by Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection triggers a sequence of gastric alterations starting with an inflammation of the gastric mucosa that, in some cases, evolves to gastric cancer. Efficient vaccination has not been achieved, thus it is essential to find alternative therapies, particularly in the nutritional field. The current study evaluated whether curcumin could attenuate inflammation of the gastric mucosa due to H. pylori infection. Twenty-eight C57BL/6 mice, were inoculated with the H. pylori SS1 strain; ten non-infected mice were used as controls. H. pylori infection in live mice was followed-up using a modified 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Histologically confirmed, gastritis was observed in 42% of infected non-treated mice at both 6 and 18 weeks post-infection. These mice showed an up-regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as of toll-like receptors (TLRs and MyD88, at both time points. Treatment with curcumin decreased the expression of all these mediators. No inflammation was observed by histology in this group. Curcumin treatment exerted a significant anti-inflammatory effect in H. pylori-infected mucosa, pointing to the promising role of a nutritional approach in the prevention of H. pylori induced deleterious inflammation while the eradication or prevention of colonization by effective vaccine is not available.

  14. Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksud, F A N; Kakehasi, A M; Guimarães, M F B R; Machado, C J; Barbosa, A J A

    2017-05-18

    Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD) in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52.70±11.40 years). Patients with RA presented higher ghrelin-immunoreactive cells density in gastric mucosa (P=0.008) compared with healthy females. There was a positive relationship between femoral neck BMD and gastric ghrelin cell density (P=0.007). However, these same patients presented a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and total femoral BMD (P=0.03). The present results indicate that ghrelin may be involved in bone metabolism of patients with RA. However, the higher density of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa of these patients does not seem to induce a corresponding elevation in the plasma levels of this peptide.

  15. Ghrelin plasma levels, gastric ghrelin cell density and bone mineral density in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.N. Maksud

    Full Text Available Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52.70±11.40 years. Patients with RA presented higher ghrelin-immunoreactive cells density in gastric mucosa (P=0.008 compared with healthy females. There was a positive relationship between femoral neck BMD and gastric ghrelin cell density (P=0.007. However, these same patients presented a negative correlation between plasma ghrelin levels and total femoral BMD (P=0.03. The present results indicate that ghrelin may be involved in bone metabolism of patients with RA. However, the higher density of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastric mucosa of these patients does not seem to induce a corresponding elevation in the plasma levels of this peptide.

  16. Use of hyperspectral imaging technology to develop a diagnostic support system for gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Jun; Kiyotoki, Shu; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Okamoto, Takeshi; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Sakaida, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a new technology that obtains spectroscopic information and renders it in image form. This study examined the difference in the spectral reflectance (SR) of gastric tumors and normal mucosa recorded with a hyperspectral camera equipped with HSI technology and attempted to determine the specific wavelength that is useful for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. A total of 104 gastric tumors removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection from 96 patients at Yamaguchi University Hospital were recorded using a hyperspectral camera. We determined the optimal wavelength and the cut-off value for differentiating tumors from normal mucosa to establish a diagnostic algorithm. We also attempted to highlight tumors by image processing using the hyperspectral camera's analysis software. A wavelength of 770 nm and a cut-off value of 1/4 the corrected SR were selected as the respective optimal wavelength and cut-off values. The rates of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the algorithm's diagnostic capability were 71%, 98%, and 85%, respectively. It was possible to enhance tumors by image processing at the 770-nm wavelength. HSI can be used to measure the SR in gastric tumors and to differentiate between tumorous and normal mucosa.

  17. A case report of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis, a rare mimic for malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Chan

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lymphocytic phlebitis is a benign condition characterised by inflammation of the veins and rarely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Reported cases present as acute abdomen and involve the colon or small intestine. We report the fourth case of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis in the literature. Presentation of case: A 74-year-old female presented with eight weeks of abdominal pain. Findings at endoscopy were suggestive of a malignant ulcer on the greater curvature of antrum, while biopsies showed chronic gastritis without malignancy. Appearance at diagnostic laparoscopy was consistent with a malignant gastric ulcer with serosal changes. Due to persistent pain and the macroscopic appearance, she proceeded to have an open subtotal gastrectomy and D2 lymph node clearance. Despite macroscopic appearance, the microscopic examination demonstrated no malignancy, and was consistent with lymphocytic phlebitis with overlying ulceration. Discussion: This case was a mimic for gastric malignancy, with the benign diagnosis only being made after surgical resection. Gastric lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare differential diagnosis for gastric ulcers when biopsies are negative, although preoperative diagnosis is difficult given the lesions do not involve the mucosa. Conclusion: If clinical history and endoscopic findings are suspicious for malignancy, despite normal biopsies, an aggressive surgical resection remains reasonable given the rarity gastric lymphocytic phlebitis. Keywords: Lymphocytic phlebitis, Gastrectomy, Gastric vasculitis, Gastric ulcer, Case report

  18. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric pathology: insights from in vivo and ex vivo models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Burkitt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric colonization with Helicobacter pylori induces diverse human pathological conditions, including superficial gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma and its precursors. The treatment of these conditions often relies on the eradication of H. pylori, an intervention that is increasingly difficult to achieve and that does not prevent disease progression in some contexts. There is, therefore, a pressing need to develop new experimental models of H. pylori-associated gastric pathology to support novel drug development in this field. Here, we review the current status of in vivo and ex vivo models of gastric H. pylori colonization, and of Helicobacter-induced gastric pathology, focusing on models of gastric pathology induced by H. pylori, Helicobacter felis and Helicobacter suis in rodents and large animals. We also discuss the more recent development of gastric organoid cultures from murine and human gastric tissue, as well as from human pluripotent stem cells, and the outcomes of H. pylori infection in these systems.

  19. Human gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori and bracken carcinogens: A connecting hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto; Calcagno-Pissarelli, María Pía; Naya, Marlene; Ávila-Núñez, Jorge Luis; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E

    2016-03-01

    Long term infection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) virulent strains is a key factor in the genesis of human gastric cancer, and so are certain dietary proinflammatory and genotoxic compounds. Carcinogenic bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) is one of these. Toxins from this plant are consumed as bracken culinary preparations, through milk and meat of bracken-exposed livestock, and drain waters from bracken swards. Bracken toxin ptaquiloside (PtQ), a suspected human carcinogen, elicits complex responses in animals leading to death. PtQ and Hp might cooperate in gastric pathologies. This paper presents an hypothesis on PtQ-Hp association leading to the enhancement of carcinogenesis in the human gastric environment that might explain the high gastric cancer incidence and death rates among Hp-infected people living in bracken zones at two levels: (1) The macroscopic scale comprising the flow of PtQ in the human diet. (2) the microscopic scale encompassing (A) gastric luminal medium; (B) gastric mucus structure and mucin degradation elicited by Hp; (C) bacterial pH gradient modification of the gastric mucosa that favors PtQ survival and its penetration into epithelial tissue; (D) combined PtQ/Hp effects on gastric immune and inflammatory responses; (E) PtQ-Hp complementary activity at selected cell signaling cascades and genome disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging of human stomach and gastric cancer: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei; Li, Gang; Sun, Ying-Shi; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Peng

    2012-05-01

    The electron density resolution of synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI) is 1000 times higher than that of conventional X-ray absorption imaging in light elements, through which high-resolution X-ray imaging of biological soft tissue can be achieved. For biological soft tissue, SR-PCI can give better imaging contrast than conventional X-ray absorption imaging. In this study, human resected stomach and gastric cancer were investigated using in-line holography and diffraction enhanced imaging at beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It was possible to depict gastric pits, measuring 50-70 µm, gastric grooves and tiny blood vessels in the submucosa layer by SR-PCI. The fine structure of a cancerous ulcer was displayed clearly on imaging the mucosa. The delamination of the gastric wall and infiltration of cancer in the submucosa layer were also demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging. In conclusion, SR-PCI can demonstrate the subtle structures of stomach and gastric cancer that cannot be detected by conventional X-ray absorption imaging, which prompt the X-ray diagnosis of gastric disease to the level of the gastric pit, and has the potential to provide new methods for the imageology of gastric cancer.

  1. Ascorbic acid deficiency aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Chiba, S; Imai, Y; Kamiya, Y; Arisawa, T; Kitagawa, A

    2006-12-01

    We examined whether ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency aggravates water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats. ODS rats received scorbutic diet with either distilled water containing AA (1 g/l) or distilled water for 2 weeks. AA-deficient rats had 12% of gastric mucosal AA content in AA-sufficient rats. AA-deficient rats showed more severe gastric mucosal lesions than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h after the onset of WIRS, although AA-deficient rats had a slight decrease in gastric mucosal AA content, while AA-sufficient rats had a large decrease in that content. AA-deficient rats had more decreased gastric mucosal nonprotein SH and vitamin E contents and increased gastric mucosal lipid peroxide content than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h of WIRS. These results indicate that AA deficiency aggravates WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions in ODS rats by enhancing oxidative damage in the gastric mucosa.

  2. Protective effects of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Zhao, Shanshan; Wang, Yucun; Yang, Yujiao; Yao, Le; Chu, Liuxiang; Du, Hanhan; Fu, Fenghua

    2014-12-01

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is reported to have a potent antiulcer activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. This study investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of escin against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Gastric ulceration was induced by a single intragastric administration of indomethacin (18 mg/kg). The mice underwent intragastric treatment with escin at doses of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.8 mg/kg. Gastric lesion was estimated morphometrically and histopathologically 6 h after the indomethacin administration. The antioxidative parameters in gastric mucosa were measured. Moreover, the activity of myeloperoxidase and the contents of TNF-α, P-selectin and VCAM-1 in gastric tissues were determined. The results showed that escin protected gastric tissues against indomethacin-induced gastropathy as demonstrated from a reduction in the ulcer index and an attenuation of histopathologic changes. Escin caused significant reductions of the contents of malondialdehyde, TNF-α, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and myeloperoxidase activity. The altered activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the stomach tissues were also ameliorated by escin treatment. The present study demonstrated that escin had a protective effect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice, not only by virtue of its antioxidant potential, but also due to its anti-inflammatory effect.

  3. Three-dimensional Myoarchitecture of Porcine Esophago-Gastric Junction with Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Selected for poster presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo

    Introduction: The anatomy and function of the esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) is complex with mucosa-submucosa layers and smooth muscle layers organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. These layers continue from the esophagus into the EGJ and the stomach. Furthermore, the crura of t...

  4. Effect of paddock vs. stall housing on 24 hour gastric pH within the proximal and ventral equine stomach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Louise; Sanchez, Linda Chris; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2008-01-01

    Equine gastric ulceration occours in both squampos and glandular mucsa, with the former being studied more. Prevalence studies of high risk horse populations, such as racehorses in training, revealed the 80-90% of this group had lesions within mucosa....

  5. Replacing starch with digestible fibre in growing rabbit feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of replacing dietary starch with digestible fibre (DF=pectin and hemicelluloses on health status, digestive physiology, growth performance, and carcass traits, 250 hybrid rabbits weaned at 27 d were fed until slaughter (76 d five diets with increasing DF to starch ratio (1.0 to 1.9; DF 18.9 to 22.2%; starch 19.6 to 11.5%. The digestibility of dry matter (64.7, 65.2, 66.8, 67.5 and 67.6% and NDF (27.9, 32.2, 35.0, 40.2 and 41.5% increased (probability of linear component of variance, L<0.001 with increasing DF to starch ratio. Final live weight and daily growth tended to decrease (L=0.06, feed intake significantly lowered (130 to 122 g/d, L=0.01 and feed conversion ratio improved (2.72 to 2.68; L<0.01. Health status, caecal fermentation and ileal mucosa traits of rabbits did not change. The feeding strategy failed in controlling the diffusion of epizootic rabbit enteropathy.

  6. Host pathogen interactions in Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Karwowska, Zuzanna; Gonciarz, Weronika; Allushi, Bujana; Stączek, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system. Despite the host immune response, H. pylori infection can be difficult to eradicate. H. pylori is categorized as a group I carcinogen since this bacterium is responsible for the highest rate of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection of cancer can be lifesaving. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer patients diagnosed in the early stages is nearly 90%. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages but always progresses over time and begins to cause symptoms when untreated. In 97% of stomach cancer cases, cancer cells metastasize to other organs. H. pylori infection is responsible for nearly 60% of the intestinal-type gastric cancer cases but also influences the development of diffuse gastric cancer. The host genetic susceptibility depends on polymorphisms of genes involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and the cytokine response of gastric epithelial and immune cells. H. pylori strains differ in their ability to induce a deleterious inflammatory response. H. pylori-driven cytokines accelerate the inflammatory response and promote malignancy. Chronic H. pylori infection induces genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells and affects the DNA damage repair systems. Therefore, H. pylori infection should always be considered a pro-cancerous factor. PMID:28321154

  7. Prophylactic effect of rebamipide on aspirin-induced gastric lesions and disruption of tight junctional protein zonula occludens-1 distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Yoshida, Norimasa; Nakabe, Nami; Isozaki, Yutaka; Kajikawa, Hirokazu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Naito, Yuji; Matsui, Hirofumi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2008-03-01

    Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are known to induce gastroduodenal complications such as ulcer, bleeding, and dyspepsia. In this study, we examined the prophylactic effect of rebamipide, an anti-ulcer agent with free-radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effect, on acidified aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. In addition, we investigated the mucosal barrier functions disrupted by aspirin. Oral administration of acidified aspirin resulted in linear hemorrhagic erosions with increasing myeloperoxidase activity and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance concentrations in the gastric mucosa. Rebamipide suppressed these acidified aspirin-induced gastric lesions and inflammatory changes significantly, and its protective effect was more potent in the case of repeated (twice daily for 3 days) treatment than single treatment before aspirin administration. Immunostaining of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, one of the tight junctional proteins, was strengthened in rat gastric mucosa after repeated administration of rebamipide. In addition, aspirin induced the increasing transport of fluorescine isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans with localized disruption and decreased expression of ZO-1 protein on rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM-1. Rebamipide effectively prevented aspirin-induced permeability changes and disruption of ZO-1 distribution. These results suggest that rebamipide protects against aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions by preserving gastric epithelial cell-to cell integrity in addition to the anti-inflammatory effects.

  8. Efficacy of radiotherapy of oral mucosa cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, Yu.I.; Garbuzov, M.I.; Sarantseva, I.P.; Popov, N.V.; Pereslegin, O.I.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of 10-year experience of a radiological department (962 patients) indicated late admission of oral mucosa cancer patients for specialized treatment: 75-85% of the patients were admitted with Stage 2-4 disease. The assessment of the efficacy of radiotherapy according to the 3 ad 5-year survival rates showed that better results were obtained for buccal mucosa cancer and the worst for mouth fundus cancer. Regional metastates are a poor prognostic sign, particularly fixed metastases in patients with tongue and mouth fundus cancer. Combined therapy turned out be the most effective in tongue cancer. In different variants of dose delivery in time the most favorable results were obtained with small fractionation (a conventional course). However it should be noted that a split course was usually applied to weak elderly patients with advanced stages of disease

  9. Characterization of a bovine isolate Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 which produces an exopolysaccharide composed predominantly of mannose residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, L E E; Price, N P J; Ryan, P; Wang, L; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Stanton, C; Ross, R P

    2014-08-01

    To characterize Lactobacillus strains with EPS-producing ability compared with non-EPS-producing lactobacilli of the same species for technological performance including simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions. Characterization of EPS-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in detail based on 16S rRNA sequencing, and EPS production using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The EPS was found to consist of mannosyl residues, with mannose, glucose and galactose found to be the major sugar residues present in an approximate ratio of 3: 2: 2. The strain was compared to non-EPS-producing Lact. mucosae DPC 6420 following exposure to salt, bile, acid and heat stresses. Lact. mucosae DPC 6426 exhibited twofold increased (P survival during 120-min exposure to 5 mol NaCl, threefold increased survival during 90-min exposure to 0·7% (w/v) bile (P survival when exposed to simulated gastric juice (P survival during 60-min exposure to HCl (P strain. The data implicate the potential suitability of EPS-producing Lact. mucosae DPC 6426 in food applications and/or as a probiotic culture. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  11. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  12. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  13. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  14. Leishmaniasis mucosa y otras lesiones destructivas centrofaciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rodríguez

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias enfermedades producen lesiones del área centrofacial. Una de las más frecuentes en nuestro medio es la leishmaniasis destructivas mucosa. Como el INS es un centro de estudio de leishmaniasis, se atendieron pacientes o sus biopsias con afecciones del macizo centrofacial, primariamente remitidas con el diagnóstico clínico de leihsmaniasis mucosa. En un período de 7 años (1987-1993, se estudiaron 134 biopsias de estos pacientes. El diagnóstico de leishmaniasis mucosa fue definitivo en 26 casos, por demostración del amastigote con la coloración de hematoxilina eosina y el mismo diagnóstico se estableció por patrón histopatológico solamente, en 27 casos. Una técnica inmunoenzimática para demostrar los amastigotes no fue satisfactoria. La perforación banal del tabique nasal (52 biopsias es la entidad que el clínico y el patólogo confunden con mayor frecuencia con la leishmaniasis mucosa. Otras entidades demostradas fueron la paracoccidioidomicosis (3, histoplasmosis (2, rinosporidiosis (2. esporotricosis (l, tuberculosis bucal (3, lepra leprornatosa (l, escleroma nasal (2, granulomatosis de Wegener (2, linfomas angiocéntricos (4, aspiración crónica de cocaína (l, y carcinoma escamocelular palatino (1. La biopsia, luego de la historia clínica, es el pilar esencial para identificar y manejar adecuadamente estas lesiones, que pueden originar destrucción facial grave, a veces letal, si no se dispone del diagnóstico preciso y del tratamiento oportuno.

  15. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Tham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic, mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision.

  16. Increased numbers of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wang, Hung-Jung; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of gastric antrum biopsy specimens from healthy controls (n = 22) and patients with gastritis (n = 30), peptic ulcer (n = 83), or gastric cancer (n = 32). Expression of CD4, CD25 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry in three consecutive sections per sample. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, there was an increased number of CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells in patients with gastritis (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008), peptic ulcer (P gastritis (P gastritis and peptic ulcer groups. PMID:22228968

  17. Gastric microbial community profiling reveals a dysbiotic cancer-associated microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Marques, Joana; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Costa, Jose L; Carneiro, Fatima; Machado, Jose C

    2018-01-01

    Objective Gastric carcinoma development is triggered by Helicobacter pylori. Chronic H. pylori infection leads to reduced acid secretion, which may allow the growth of a different gastric bacterial community. This change in the microbiome may increase aggression to the gastric mucosa and contribute to malignancy. Our aim was to evaluate the composition of the gastric microbiota in chronic gastritis and in gastric carcinoma. Design The gastric microbiota was retrospectively investigated in 54 patients with gastric carcinoma and 81 patients with chronic gastritis by 16S rRNA gene profiling, using next-generation sequencing. Differences in microbial composition of the two patient groups were assessed using linear discriminant analysis effect size. Associations between the most relevant taxa and clinical diagnosis were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. Predictive functional profiling of microbial communities was obtained with PICRUSt. Results The gastric carcinoma microbiota was characterised by reduced microbial diversity, by decreased abundance of Helicobacter and by the enrichment of other bacterial genera, mostly represented by intestinal commensals. The combination of these taxa into a microbial dysbiosis index revealed that dysbiosis has excellent capacity to discriminate between gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Analysis of the functional features of the microbiota was compatible with the presence of a nitrosating microbial community in carcinoma. The major observations were confirmed in validation cohorts from different geographic origins. Conclusions Detailed analysis of the gastric microbiota revealed for the first time that patients with gastric carcinoma exhibit a dysbiotic microbial community with genotoxic potential, which is distinct from that of patients with chronic gastritis. PMID:29102920

  18. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  19. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  20. Confocal laser endomicroscopy and ultrasound endoscopy during the same endoscopic session for diagnosis and staging of gastric neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, C; Iacob, R; Dumbrava, Mona; Becheanu, G; Ionescu, M

    2009-01-01

    Confocal LASER endomicroscopy (CLE) is a newly developed endoscopic technique which allows subsurface in vivo histological assessment during ongoing endoscopy and targeted biopsies. Ultrasound endoscopy (EUS) is a useful tool in staging upper GI malignant lesions. We describe for the first time the use of both techniques during the same endoscopic session, in a pilot study, in order to increase the diagnostic yield of histological assessment and provide the staging of the gastric neoplastic lesions thus decreasing the time to therapeutic decision. CLE has been performed with the Pentax EG-3870CIK confocal endomicroscope after a 5 ml intravenous 10% fluorescein injection; EUS has been performed subsequently, during the same endoscopic Propofol sedation session, using a standard radial EUS-scope. Eleven patients have been investigated, 4 females, 7 males, mean age 59.7 +/- 12.3 years. The indication of CLE/EUS exploration was the presence of a gastric polypoid lesion in 37% of cases, atypical gastric ulcer in 27% of patients, gastric lymphoma 18%, suspicion of gastric cancer recurrence after resection 9% and infiltrating type gastric cancer 9%. Histological assessment after targeted biopsy has established the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma in 55% of cases, gastric lymphoma in 18% of cases, gastric adenoma, gastric GIST and gastric foveolar hyperplasia in 9% of cases respectively. CLE has allowed targeted biopsies in 81.8% of cases. In 2 patients - one case with suspected recurrent gastric cancer after surgery and one case of gastric lymphoma, CLE has indicated normal gastric mucosa. The EUS evaluation has shown TO lesion in two cases, T1 in 3 cases, T2 in 3 cases, T3 in one case. The EUS evaluation showed in one gastric lymphoma patient a lesion interesting the mucosa and submucosa with regional adenopathy and a submucosal lesion with regional adenopathy in the other gastric lymphoma case. The therapeutic decision was surgery in 73% of cases, chemotherapy and

  1. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  2. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  3. Use of volumetric laser endomicroscopy for dysplasia detection at the gastroesophageal junction and gastric cardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nina; Siddiqui, Uzma; Waxman, Irving; Chapman, Christopher; Koons, Ann; Valuckaite, Vesta; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Setia, Namrata; Hart, John; Konda, Vani

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine specific volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) imaging features associated with neoplasia at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and gastric cardia. METHODS During esophagogastroduodenoscopy for patients with known or suspected Barrett’s esophagus, VLE was performed before biopsies were taken at endoscopists’ discretion. The gastric cardia was examined on VLE scan from the GEJ (marked by top of gastric folds) to 1 cm distal from the GEJ. The NinePoints VLE console was used to analyze scan segments for characteristics previously found to correlate with normal or abnormal mucosa. Glands were counted individually. Imaging features identified on VLE scan were correlated with biopsy results from the GEJ and cardia region. RESULTS This study included 34 cases. Features characteristic of the gastric cardia (gastric rugae, gastric pit architecture, poor penetration) were observed in all (100%) scans. Loss of classic gastric pit architecture was common and there was no difference between those with neoplasia and without (100% vs 74%, P = NS). The abnormal VLE feature of irregular surface was more often seen in patients with neoplasia than those without (100% vs 18%, P < 0.0001), as was heterogeneous scattering (86% vs 41%, P < 0.005) and presence of anomalous glands (100% vs 59%, P < 0.05). The number of anomalous glands did not differ between individual histologic subgroups (ANOVA, P = NS). CONCLUSION The transition from esophagus to gastric cardia is reliably identified on VLE. Histologically abnormal cardia mucosa produces abnormal VLE features. Optical coherence tomography algorithms can be expanded for use at the GEJ/cardia. PMID:28744344

  4. A new method for measurement of the electrical potential difference across the stomach wall. Clinical evaluation of the gastric mucosal integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Andersen, J R; Krag, E

    1987-01-01

    measuring probe. A new PD measuring system has been developed with high stability, easy handling, and correction for the liquid junction potentials. PD was measured between a stomach microelectrode and an intravenous reference electrode connected to a millivoltmeter. pH was measured by an intragastric......PD, the electrical potential difference across the gastric mucosa, is a variable used frequently in experimental studies. Existing methods for PD measurements are, however, unstable, and variations in the pH of the gastric juice causes liquid junction potentials between gastric juice and the PD...... microelectrode. The liquid junction potential was calculated by using the pH measured in the gastric juice and the Henderson equation and was then subtracted from the measured PD to provide a better approximation of the PD across the mucosa. The liquid junction potential calculated as stated above correlated...

  5. Gastric emptying in morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venzina, W.; Chamberlain, M.; Carruthers, S.G.; Grace, D.M.; King, M.; Mowbray, R.D.; Bondy, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Weight loss following gastroplasty had no correlation with gastric emptying rate. Patients who showed transient prolongation of gastric emptying returned to normal one year later and showed no significant difference in weight loss from those who did not have temporary delayed gastric emptying. Perhaps gatroplasty (at least temporarily) reduces the gastric volume producing early satiation without affecting the gastric emptying rate as tested by a small volume radiolabelled test meal. Longer follow-up is indicated to see if delayed weight gain occurs because of gastric pouch stretching and if this has any correlation with gastric emptying rate. (Author)

  6. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  7. Detection of Helicobacter pylori urease antigen in saliva in patients with different gastric H. pylori status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khadir, Mounia; Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; El Rhazi, Karima; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; El Abkari, Mohamed; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2016-07-01

    Finding a simple, accurate, and noninvasive diagnosis method is a substantial challenge for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of H. pylori urease antigen in saliva with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa. Saliva samples and gastric biopsies were taken from 153 consenting Moroccan patients. Saliva samples were analyzed using an immunochromatographic test for urease antigen H. pylori detection. Thereafter, the gastric biopsies were analyzed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect this bacterium. From a total of 153 recruited Moroccan patients, H. pylori was detected in 28 (18.30%), 87 (57.24%), and 69 (45.10%) cases by saliva test, histology, and PCR, respectively. A significant association was observed between the presence of H. pylori antigen in saliva and age. However, no association was found with sex, H. pylori virulence factors, gastric disease outcome, and density of the bacterium on the gastric mucosa. Considering that only 90 patients presented concordant results on H. pylori diagnosis (positive or negative) by both histology and PCR, the immunochromatographic test showed very low sensitivity (29.79%) and high specificity (90.70%). Of these two tests, the positive and negative predictive values were 77.78% and 54.17%, respectively. The accuracy of the test for salivary detection of urease antigen H. pylori was 58.89%. This study demonstrated a low detection rate of H. pylori antigens in saliva compared with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa, suggesting that saliva cannot be used as a suitable sample for the diagnosis of H. pylori in our study population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  8. [A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with penicillin allergy successfully treated with levofloxacin, minomycin and rabeprazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Tomoko; Motoori, Shigeatsu; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Tomoe; Saito, Shigeyo; Kitagawa, Naoko; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Furuse, Junji; Itabashi, Masayuki

    2010-10-01

    A 52-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our Institute because of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori)-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT)lymphoma. Since she had a penicillin allergy, we could not eradicate H. pylori using the standard triple therapy including amoxicillin. Additionally, H. pylori was resistant to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. So she was treated with minomycin (MINO), levofloxacin (LVFX), and rabeprazole (RPZ) based on a drug sensitivity test. MINO+LVFX+RPZ appear to be a promising, appropriate, and well-tolerated eradication regimen for H. pylori demonstrating resistance to both clarithromycin and metronidazole, and for patients who are allergic to penicillin.

  9. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  10. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  11. [STUDYING GASTRIC ULCERATION EFFECT OF A NEW DRUG INTENDED FOR TREATMENT OF CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF KIDNEYS AND URINARY TRACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashko, T O; Smirnov, I V; Ivanov, A A; Postnikov, P S; Nemtsev, A O; Bondarev, A A; Udut, V V; Prisukhin, A N; Kornaukhov, A N; Sergeev, T S

    2016-08-01

    Gastric ulceration properties (gastrointestinal toxicity) of the sodium salt of 4-(0-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy) benzoic acid, a new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intended for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of the kidney and urinary tract, have been tested on laboratory animals. Acute NSAID-induced gastropathy was induced in rats by oral administration of indomethacin, nimesulide, diclofenac, acetylsalicylic acid and the new drug. Test animals were killed by instantaneous decapitation 4 h after treatment and their gastrointestinal tracts were studied by pathomorphological methods on micropreparations and histological sections of gastric mucosa. It was established that the new drug, in contrast to reference NSAIDS, did not exhibit gastropathic action on the gastric mucosa.

  12. A gamma scintigraphic study of gastric coating by Expidet, tablet and liquid formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, N.; Wilson, C.G.; Greaves, J.L.; Norman, S.

    1989-01-01

    The gastric residence time and gastric coating properties of 10 mg of radiolabelled micronised resin incorporated into Expidet formulations, chewable tablets and 10 ml of a liquid formulation were measued by gamma scintigraphy in twelve fasted, healthy subjects. All preparations emptied from the stomach in a similar manner for the first 1.5 h; however, the final 10% of the activity from the Expidet formulation emptied considerably more slowly than the initial phase. The total mean gastric emptying times for the three formulations were 2.3, 2.5 and 5.5 h for the tablet, liquid and Expidet formulation, respectively. The amount of activity following administration of the table or Expidet formulation was the same in the three regions of the stomach, but the coating of the mucosa by the Expidet formulation within each area was observed to be more uniform due to the greater dispersion of the dose form. The table broke up into a number of small discrete pieces. The gastric residence time of 99m Tc-labelled resin delivered in an Expidet formulation is significantly longer than the same marker administered in a table or in 10 ml of a liquid formulation. Moreover, coating of the gastric mucosa was more uniform with the Expidet formulation than the other two formulations studied. (author) 10 refs.; 6 figs

  13. Role of leukotrienes in NSAID induced gastric ulceration and inflammation in wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulik N Gandhi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Montelukast and Curcumin against indomethacin induced gastric damage in rats in order to assess the role of leukotriene (LTs if any, in non steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID induced gastroinflammation. Methods: The effects of Montelukast (10 mg/kg and Curcumin (100 mg/kg were observed on gastric lesion induced by Indomethacin. The blood samples were analyzed for neutrophil adhesion and lipid peroxide levels in gastric tissue measured spectrophotometrically. The skin vascular permeability study was performed by using compound 48/80 induced vascular permeability model. Results: Montelukast and Curcumin significantly reduced Indomethacin induced gastric lesion score. Pretreatment with Montelukast and Curcumin significantly counteracted Indomethacin induced gastropathy by a combination of its effect on inhibition of neutrophil adherence, through decrease in related production of free radicals that disrupts integrity of stomach mucosa and decrease in vascular permeability as compared to Indomethacin group. The results of the present study further indicates the role of 5-LOX metabolites in NSAIDs induced gastro inflammation and suggests that Montelukast and Curcumin counteracted the Indomethacin induced gastropathy by a combination of its effect on inhibition of neutrophil adherence and through decrease in related production of free radicals that disrupts integrity of stomach mucosa. Conclusions: Experimental data clearly demonstrated the role of LTs was indomethacin induced gastric ulcers. However, inhibition of ulcerogenic events by Montelukast and Curcumin is suggestive of an important balance between COX and 5-LOX products.

  14. Gastric-emptying tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gastric emptying have been characterized through many decades of experimental work. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are important. Central mechanisms are related to the center of vomiting and are probably influenced by psychologic and emotional factors. Peripheral mechanisms are located at both sides of the pylorus. Gastric mechanisms are stimulatory and are triggered mainly by distention of the stomach, although hormonal mechanisms may also participate (gastrin). However, with complex, nutrient-containing meals, the intragastric volume is not the primary determinant of gastric emptying. Inhibitory mechanisms of the gut are more important. The key factors are the pH, osmolality, and nutrient content of the chyme being emptied into the duodenum. Osmotic and pH-sensitive receptors are thought to reside in the duodenum. On the other hand, receptors triggered by nutrients extend much more distally into the duodenum and are sensitive to nutrient composition and load. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids all inhibit gastric emptying, although the lipids are probably the most potent inhibitors. If the duodenal load or the characteristics of the emptying material are not adequate, inhibitory mechanisms will reduce gastric emptying at the expense of expanding the intragastric volume. It is therefore not possible to dissociate postprandial gastric emptying from postprandial gastric secretion

  15. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gastric Subepithelial Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jeong Gong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions.

  16. Metaplasia in the Stomach Arises From Gastric Chief Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Mills

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by loss of parietal cells (oxyntic atrophy and the induction of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. For example, mouse models have shown that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia can develop following oxyntic atrophy through transdifferentiation of zymogen-secreting chief cells. Evolution of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia from chief cells occurs via a coordinated dismantling of their secretory apparatus and reprogramming of their transcriptome. Increasing evidence suggests that the process of chief cell reprogramming requires the influence of inflammatory cytokines and requires both zymogen granule autophagy and alterations in gene transcription. It is likely that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia is a physiological repair mechanism that is similar to those that occur in other tissues (eg, pancreas for recruiting reparative progenitor cells in response to mucosal wounds. Chronic inflammation can induce a recurring pattern of persistent reprogramming/metaplasia that increases the risk for neoplasia.

  17. Absorption and transport of cholesterol autoxidation derivatives in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, S.K.; Morin, R.J.; Phillips, G.A.; Xia, G.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Spontaneously autoxidized products of cholesterol have been demonstrated to be angiotoxic and possibly atherogenic. This study investigates the absorption and transport of these cholesterol oxidation derivatives (COD's) as compared to cholesterol. 14 C-labeled cholesterol autoxidized by incubation in a 60 0 C water bath for 5 weeks, then suspended in gelatin and given to New Zealand white rabbits by gastric gavage. Rabbits were sacrificed 24 hours after treatment. COD's were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and radioactivities of each COD and cholesterol were measured. Percentages of each COD and cholesterol in the original mixture before administration and in the rabbits' serum after administration are almost identical, suggesting that the rates of absorption of COD's are not significantly different from that of cholesterol. Lipoproteins were fractionated by ultracentrifugation into VLDL, LDL and HDL. Radioactivities of each COD separated by TLC in each lipoprotein fraction showed that cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were predominantly present in VLDL (3 x serum concentration) and 25-hydroxycholesterol was predominantly in LDL (2.5 x serum concentration). HDL contained only minute amounts of COD's. The increased levels of COD's in VLDL and LDL may contribute to the atherogenicity of these lipoprotein

  18. Transport of cholesterol autoxidation products in rabbit lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shi-Kaung; Phillips, G.A.; Xia, Guang-Zhi; Morin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled pure [4- 14 C] cholesterol was kept at 60 0 C under air to autoxidize for 5 weeks, after which approximately 12% cholesterol oxidation products were formed. The mixture, suspended in gelatin, was given to rabbits by gastric gavage. Rabbits were killed 4, 24 and 48 h after treatment. Cholesterol and its autoxidation products were separated by thin-layer chromatography into 5 fractions and radioactivities of each fraction were measured. Percentages of each fraction of cholesterol oxidation products and cholesterol in the original mixture before administration and in the rabbit sera after administration were similar, suggesting that the rates of absorption of cholesterol oxidation products are not significantly different from that of cholesterol. Lipoproteins were fractioned by ultracentrifugation into VLDL, LDL and HDL. Radioactivities of each fraction in lipoproteins separated by thin layer chromatography showed that fractions containing cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol, 7α- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol were more selectively transported in VLDL, whereas most of the 25-hydroxycholesterol was present in LDL. HDL contained only minute amounts of cholesterol oxidation products. 22 refs

  19. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric carcinogenesis: Current knowledge and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokic-Milutinovic, Aleksandra; Alempijevic, Tamara; Milosavljevic, Tomica

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The outcome of the infection depends on environmental factors and bacterial and host characteristics. Gastric carcinogenesis is a multistep process that is reversible in the early phase of mucosal damage, but the exact point of no return has not been identified. Therefore, two main therapeutic strategies could reduce gastric cancer incidence: (1) eradication of the already present infection; and (2) immunization (prior to or during the course of the infection). The success of a gastric cancer prevention strategy depends on timing because the prevention strategy must be introduced before the point of no return in gastric carcinogenesis. Although the exact point of no return has not been identified, infection should be eradicated before severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa develops. Eradication therapy rates remain suboptimal due to increasing H. pylori resistance to antibiotics and patient noncompliance. Vaccination against H. pylori would reduce the cost of eradication therapies and lower gastric cancer incidence. A vaccine against H. pylori is still a research challenge. An effective vaccine should have an adequate route of delivery, appropriate bacterial antigens and effective and safe adjuvants. Future research should focus on the development of rescue eradication therapy protocols until an efficacious vaccine against the bacterium becomes available. PMID:26556993

  20. Helicobacter pylori and primary gastric lymphoma. A histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 237 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Yao, T; Aoyagi, K; Iida, M; Fujishima, M; Tsuneyoshi, M

    1997-01-01

    Few previous articles have analyzed the relation between infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and primary gastric lymphoma in a large number of patients. Resected and biopsied specimens from 237 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were investigated for H. pylori using hematoxylin and eosin stain, modified Giemsa stain, and immunohistochemistry. These specimens were compared with specimens from 29 patients with chronic active gastritis, 33 with peptic ulcers, and 41 with gastric carcinoma. H. pylori was detected in 145 of 237 patients (61%) with gastric lymphoma. The frequency of H. pylori positivity was higher in patients with lymphoma restricted to the mucosa and submucosa (76%) than in those with lymphoma invading beyond the submucosa (48%) (P gastritis (100%) (P gastritis and peptic ulcer. The H. pylori grading score for patients with lymphoma (0.9 +/- 1.0) was lower than for those with chronic active gastritis (1.9 +/- 0.8) (P < 0.001), peptic ulcers (2.2 +/- 1.0) (P < 0.001), or gastric carcinoma (1.2 +/- 1.1) (P < 0.05). These results suggest that H. pylori is more likely to be associated with early states of primary gastric lymphoma than with advanced states. Thus, H. pylori may disappear during the progression of primary gastric lymphoma.

  1. p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Suppresses the Proliferation of Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Jin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying an effective therapeutic target is pivotal in the treatment of gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR in gastric cancer and the impact of its alteration on tumor growth. p75NTR expression was absent or significantly decreased in 212 cases of gastric cancers compared with the normal gastric mucosa (P < .05. Moreover, p75NTR expression was also lost or significantly decreased in various human gastric cancer cell lines. p75NTR inhibited in vitro growth activities and caused dramatic attenuation of tumor growth in animal models by induction of cell cycle arrest. Upregulation of p75NTR led to downregulation of cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, p-Rb, and PCNA, but to upregulation of Rb and p27 expressions. Conversely, downregulating p75NTR with specific siRNA yielded inverse results. The rescue of tumor cells from cell cycle progression by a death domain-deleted dominant-negative antagonist of p75NTR (Δp75NTR showed that the death domain transduced antiproliferative activity in a ligandindependent manner and further demonstrated the inhibitive effect of p75NTR on growth in gastric cancer. Therefore, we provided evidence that p75NTR was a potential tumor suppressor and may be used as a therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  2. Influence of plant-originated gastroproteciive and antiulcer substances on gastric mucosal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayachkivska, O S; Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Brzozowski, T; Gzhegotsky, M R

    2004-01-01

    Fundamental basis of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in mucosal injury and repair in gastrointestinal tract helps to develop new therapeutic approaches to various gut mucosal injury- related diseases. The study was aimed to assess the relations between plant-originated substances and their bioactivity measured in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiulceric activities and to deteminate if these effects are capable of affecting the gastric mucosal lesions induced by absolute ethanol applied intragastrically. The following plant-originated substances were considered: Solon, capsaicin, grapefruit-seed extract and amaranth. The area of gastric mucosa lesions and gastric blood flow were measured in rats with ethanol-induced lesions without (control) and with one of the tested substances without and with capsaicin denervation of afferent nerves or administration of L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g fasted for 24 h before the study, 100% ethanol was applied ig to induced gastric lesions, whose area was determined by planimetry. Gastric blood flow was assessed using electrolytic regional blood flowmeter. All tested plant-originated substances afforded gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and this was accompanied by an increase in gastric microcirculation, both changes being reversed by pretreatment with neurotoxic dose of capsaicin or by pretreatment-with L-NNA. Plant-originated substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of NOS I, NO release and an increase in gastric microcirculation.

  3. Sinus Microanatomy and Microbiota in a Rabbit Model of Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Mackey, Calvin; Van Der Pol, William J.; Skinner, Daniel; Morrow, Casey D.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Rowe, Steven M.; Swords, William E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Rabbits are useful for preclinical studies of sinusitis because of similar physiologic features to humans. The objective of this study is to develop a rabbit model of sinusitis that permits assessment of microanatomy and sampling for evaluating shifts in the sinus microbiota during the development of sinusitis and to test how the mucociliary clearance (MCC) defect might lead to dysbiosis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Methods: Generation of CRS was accomplished with an insertion of a sterile sponge into the left middle meatus of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 9) for 2 weeks. After sponge removal, 4 rabbits were observed for another 10 weeks and evaluated for CRS using endoscopy, microCT, visualization of the functional micro-anatomy by micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), and histopathological analysis of the sinus mucosa. Samples were taken from the left middle meatus and submitted for microbiome analysis. Results: CT demonstrated opacification of all left sinuses at 2 weeks in all rabbits (n = 9), which persisted in animals followed for another 12 weeks (n = 4). Histology at week 2 showed mostly neutrophils. On week 14, significant infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes was noted with increased submucosal glands compared to controls (p = 0.02). Functional microanatomy at 2 weeks showed diminished periciliary layer (PCL) depth (p < 0.0001) and mucus transport (p = 0.0044) compared to controls despite a thick mucus layer. By 12 weeks, the thickened mucus layer was resolved but PCL depletion persisted in addition to decreased ciliary beat frequency (CBF; p < 0.0001). The mucin fermenting microbes (Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales) dominated on week 2 and there was a significant shift to potential pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Burkholderia) by week 14 compared to both controls and the acute phase (p < 0.05). Conclusion: We anticipate this reproducible model will provide a means for identifying underlying mechanisms of airway-surface liquid

  4. Sinus Microanatomy and Microbiota in a Rabbit Model of Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Yeon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rabbits are useful for preclinical studies of sinusitis because of similar physiologic features to humans. The objective of this study is to develop a rabbit model of sinusitis that permits assessment of microanatomy and sampling for evaluating shifts in the sinus microbiota during the development of sinusitis and to test how the mucociliary clearance (MCC defect might lead to dysbiosis and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS.Methods: Generation of CRS was accomplished with an insertion of a sterile sponge into the left middle meatus of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 9 for 2 weeks. After sponge removal, 4 rabbits were observed for another 10 weeks and evaluated for CRS using endoscopy, microCT, visualization of the functional micro-anatomy by micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT, and histopathological analysis of the sinus mucosa. Samples were taken from the left middle meatus and submitted for microbiome analysis.Results: CT demonstrated opacification of all left sinuses at 2 weeks in all rabbits (n = 9, which persisted in animals followed for another 12 weeks (n = 4. Histology at week 2 showed mostly neutrophils. On week 14, significant infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes was noted with increased submucosal glands compared to controls (p = 0.02. Functional microanatomy at 2 weeks showed diminished periciliary layer (PCL depth (p < 0.0001 and mucus transport (p = 0.0044 compared to controls despite a thick mucus layer. By 12 weeks, the thickened mucus layer was resolved but PCL depletion persisted in addition to decreased ciliary beat frequency (CBF; p < 0.0001. The mucin fermenting microbes (Lactobacillales, Bacteroidales dominated on week 2 and there was a significant shift to potential pathogens (e.g., Pseudomonas, Burkholderia by week 14 compared to both controls and the acute phase (p < 0.05.Conclusion: We anticipate this reproducible model will provide a means for identifying underlying mechanisms of airway

  5. CYTOKINE REGULATION OF ULCEROGENESIS IN GASTRODUODENAL MUCOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerogenesis in gastroduodenal mucosa area is a complex multistep process. Its, phases arecontrolled by interaction and activation of pro­ and antiinflammatory cytokine cascade. Present review article summarizes scientific data on impact of cytokines upon ulcerative and reparatory processes, a variety of their diagnostic and therapeutic options is defined. Evaluation of cytokine status, or, in some cases, cytokine genotyping in patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, may predict clinical course of the disease, as well as efficiency of basic and eradication therapy, correction of the treatment.

  6. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body will not get all of the calories from the food you eat. ... to a small hole in your pouch. The food you eat will now travel ... absorb fewer calories. Gastric bypass can be done in two ways. ...

  7. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years.

  8. Current status in remnant gastric cancer after distal gastrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masaichi; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Yashiro, Masakazu; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    Remnant gastric cancer (RGC) and gastric stump cancer after distal gastrectomy (DG) are recognized as the same clinical entity. In this review, the current knowledges as well as the non-settled issues of RGC are presented. Duodenogastric reflux and denervation of the gastric mucosa are considered as the two main factors responsible for the development of RGC after benign disease. On the other hand, some precancerous circumstances which already have existed at the time of initial surgery, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, are the main factors associated with RGC after gastric cancer. Although eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in remnant stomach is promising, it is still uncertain whether it can reduce the risk of carcinogenesis. Periodic endoscopic surveillance after DG was reported useful in detecting RGC at an early stage, which offers a chance to undergo minimally invasive endoscopic treatment or laparoscopic surgery and leads to an improved prognosis in RGC patients. Future challenges may be expected to elucidate the benefit of eradication of H. pylori in the remnant stomach if it could reduce the risk for RGC, to build an optimal endoscopic surveillance strategy after DG by stratifying the risk for development of RGC, and to develop a specific staging system for RGC for the standardization of the treatment by prospecting the prognosis. PMID:26937131

  9. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Diffuse Gastric Cancer MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Gastric Cancer National Cancer ... Option Overview General Information from MedlinePlus ( ...

  10. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  11. Helicobacter and Gastric Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, António Carlos; Isomoto, Hajime; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Machado, José Carlos; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    Individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, a stomach colonizing bacteria, have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancies. The risk for developing cancer relates to the physiologic and histologic changes that H. pylori infection induces in the stomach. In the last year numerous studies have been conducted in order to characterize the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. These studies range from epidemiologic approaches aiming at the identification of envir...

  12. Increased Serum Pepsinogen II Level as a Marker of Pangastritis and Corpus-Predominant Gastritis in Gastric Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Haj-Sheykholeslami, Arghavan

    2016-02-01

    Serum pepsinogen I and II are considered as indicators of changes in gastric morphology. Important publications from the last decades are reviewed with regard to the serum level of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of normal gastric mucosa, diffuse gastritis and its change to atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Due to the low sensitivity of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer, especially at its early stage and the poor prognosis of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, its prevention by eradication of H. pylori remains the mandatory strategy. On the other hand, the severity of regression and non-reversibility of precancerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa through eradication of H. pylori make it necessary to diagnose diffuse gastritis at its early stage. Increased serum pepsinogen II compared to normal serum pepsinogen I seems to indicate the presence of diffuse gastritis without precancerous lesions suitable for eradication of H. pylori infection, when it is serologically positive. A diagram illustrates the strategy of this therapeutic measure depending on the age of people and the level of serum biomarkers in areas with high gastric cancer prevalence.

  13. Infecciones virales en piel y mucosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Martínez G., Dra.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversos virus pueden infectar la piel y las mucosas de los seres humanos, manifestándose en diferentes patologías, de acuerdo a la edad, género y estado inmunológico. Un grupo importante de éstos tiene capacidad de replicar en células epiteliales, originando cuadros clínicos en los cuales se evidencia la destrucción celular o bien la hiperplasia del tejido infectado. Gran parte de estos virus persisten en células infectadas por años y tienen la capacidad de reactivarse y de manifestar nuevamente enfermedades cutáneas o mucosas. En algunos casos, ésta sólo se expresa de manera subclínica en una excreción del virus por secreciones que son fuente de infección. En los últimos años, los avances en técnicas moleculares han permitido contar con metodologías diagnósticas cada vez más sensibles, específicas y rápidas. Así como también el progreso en el área de vacunas y antivirales nos entrega mayores herramientas profilácticas y terapéuticas.

  14. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14 C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  15. Evaluation of pemphigus cases involving oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Gizem; Bektaş-Kayhan, Kivanç; Ünür, Meral

    2014-09-01

    Pemphigus, defines a group of disorders in autoimmune etiology which could be life-threatening and clinical manifestations are mainly epithelial blistering affecting cutaneous and/or mucosal surfaces including oral mucosa. The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical appearance of pemphigus with oral involvement by reported 15 pemphigus cases. This retrospective study of 15 cases of pemphigus obtained over a period of 7 years from 2006 to 2013 in Istanbul University, Dentistry Faculty, Oral Medicine and Surgery Department was designed. Age distribution of pemphigus was from 15 to 59 years with an average age of 41.3 years. Of the 15 patients, the male:female ratio was 1:2.75 (4 male, 11 female). The most common clinical various of pemphigus was pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed in all patients. The buccal mucosa (34.3%) was the most commonly affected site followed by tongue (20%), gingiva (17.1%), palate (11.4%), lips (11.4%) and floor of mouth (5.7%). Our explanation of this conclusion, while speculative, is that socioeconomic situation related stress in males and hormonal changes like pregnancy and menostasis in females; systemic disease and using drugs; dental trauma and bruxism could be responsible for flare up in the disease.

  16. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaayit SFA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas Albaayit,1,2 Yusuf Abba,3 Rasedee Abdullah,4 Noorlidah Abdullah1 1Faculty of Science, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, 4Department of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Clausena excavata is a natural herb with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used for decades in folkloric practice for the amelioration of various ailments. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of C. excavata leaves (MECE was determined in the Sprague Dawley rat ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Rats were pretreated with a single dose of vehicle (5% Tween 20, 20 mg/mL omeprazole, 400 and 200 mg/mL of MECE dissolved in 5% Tween 20. Ulcer was induced with 5 mL/kg of ethanol and stomach tissue was obtained after 1 hour. Histological examination was done on hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunochemically stained gastric mucosal tissues. Prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation levels of the gastric tissue homogenates were also determined. Significantly (P<0.05 smaller ulcer areas, less intense edema, and fewer leukocytes’ infiltration were observed in MECE- and omeprazole-treated than in untreated gastric mucosa with ulcer. The gastric pH, mucus production, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase contents increased, while the lipid peroxidation content decreased as a result of MECE treatment. Bcl-2-associated X protein was underexpressed, while heat shock protein 70 and transforming growth factor-beta protein were overexpressed in the ulcerated gastric mucosa tissues treated with omeprazole and MECE. Similarly, there was a reduction in

  17. Interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms in chronic gastritis patients infected with Helicobacter pylori as risk factors of gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatyszyn, Andrzej; Wielgus, Karolina; Kaczmarek-Rys, Marta; Skrzypczak-Zielinska, Marzena; Szalata, Marlena; Mikolajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Stanczyk, Jerzy; Dziuba, Ireneusz; Mikstacki, Adam; Slomski, Ryszard

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological investigations indicated association of the Helicobacter pylori infections with the occurrence of inflammatory conditions of the gastric mucosa and development of chronic gastritis and intestinal type of gastric cancer. IL1A and IL1B genes have been proposed as key factors in determining risk of gastritis and malignant transformation. The aim of this paper was to evaluate association of interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and intestinal type of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected patients. Patients subjected to analysis represent group of 144 consecutive cases that suffered from dyspepsia with coexisting infection of H. pylori and chronic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia or gastric cancer. Molecular studies involved analysis of -889C>T polymorphism of IL1A gene and +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene. Statistical analysis of association of polymorphism -889C>T of gene IL1A with changes in gastric mucosa showed lack of significance, whereas +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene showed significant association. Frequency of allele T of +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene was higher in group of patients with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia or intestinal type of gastric cancer (32.1 %) as compared with population group (23 %), χ(2) = 4.61 and p = 0.03. This corresponds to odds ratio: 1.58, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.4. Our results indicate that +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene increase susceptibility to inflammatory response of gastric mucosa H. pylori-infected patients and plays a significant role in the development of chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and the initiation of carcinogenesis.

  18. Cocaine inhibits extraneuronal O-methylation of exogenous norepinephrine in nasal and oral tissues of the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Lande, I.S.; Parker, D.A.S.; Proctor, C.H.; Marino, V.; Mackay-Sim, A.

    1987-01-01

    Nasal mucosa (respirator and olfactory) and lingual gingiva of the rabbit were depleted of their sympathetic nerves by superior cervical ganglionectomy. In the innervated nasal mucosa, exogenous tritiated norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE) was metabolized mainly to tritiated 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol ( 3 HDOPEG) and 3,4-dihydroxy mandelic acid ( 3 HDOMA), whereas after denervation it was metabolized mainly to tritiated normetanephrine ( 3 HNMN). In the denervated mucosa, cocaine(30umol/l) inhibited 3 HNMN formation by 50-60%. Cocaine also inhibited 3 HNMN formation by 60% in the denervated lingual gingiva. It is concluded that the tissues metabolize 3 H-NE via a cocaine-sensitive extraneuronal uptake and O-methylating system similar to that which has been shown to be present in dental pulp. 17 references, 1 table

  19. Gastroprotective activity of ferruginol in mice and rats: effects on gastric secretion, endogenous prostaglandins and non-protein sulfhydryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areche, Carlos; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; Barbastefano, Víctor; de Paula, Débora; Ferreira, Anderson L; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A

    2008-02-01

    The gastroprotective mechanism of the natural diterpene ferruginol was assessed in mice and rats. The involvement of gastric prostaglandins (PGE(2)), reduced glutathione, nitric oxide or capsaicin receptors was evaluated in mice either treated or untreated with indometacin, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or ruthenium red, respectively, and then orally treated with ferruginol or vehicle. Gastric lesions were induced by oral administration of ethanol. The effects of ferruginol on the parameters of gastric secretion were assessed in pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric PGE(2) content was determined in rats treated with ferruginol and/or indometacin. The reduction of gastric glutathione (GSH) content was determined in rats treated with ethanol after oral administration of ferruginol, lansoprazole or vehicle. Finally, the acute oral toxicity was assessed in mice. Indometacin reversed the gastroprotective effect of ferruginol (25 mg kg(-1)) but not NEM, ruthenium red or L-NAME. The diterpene (25 mg kg(-1)) increased the gastric juice volume and its pH value, and reduced the titrable acidity but was devoid of effect on the gastric mucus content. Ferruginol (25, 50 mg kg(-1)) increased gastric PGE(2) content in a dose-dependent manner and prevented the reduction in GSH observed due to ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Single oral doses up to 3 g kg(-1) ferruginol did not elicit mortality or acute toxic effects in mice. Our results showed that ferruginol acted as a gastroprotective agent stimulating the gastric PGE(2) synthesis, reducing the gastric acid output and improving the antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa by maintaining the GSH levels.

  20. Primary Closure versus Gastric Resection for Perforated Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perforated gastric ulcer is one of the most life‑threatening complications of peptic ulcer disease with high .... tubes were removed and oral nutrition resumed. The .... surgical approach for perforated gastric cancer: One‑stage vs. two‑stage ...

  1. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  2. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

  3. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  4. Tissue levels of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are related to the overall survival of patients with gastric carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sier, C.F.M.; Kubben, F.J.G.M.; Ganesh, S.; Heerding, M.M.; Griffioen, G.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Lamers, C.B.H.W.; Verspaget, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    Proteinases are involved in tumour invasion and metastasis. Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to be increased in various human carcinomas. We assessed the levels of MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) in 50 gastric carcinomas and corresponding mucosa using

  5. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  7. Effects of the radiation factor upon the structure of the gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukova, N M [Voenno-Meditsinskaya Akademiya, Leningrad (USSR)

    1975-12-01

    The mucous membrane of the stomach is extremely sensitive to the effects of total irradiation. Its reaction is largely non-specific. As is the case with many extreme factors, irradiation causes an increase in the mucoid secretion of the epithelium. The granules of the mucoid secretion are discovered even in main cells. Some of the highly specialized components of the epithelium are destroyed. Cells that have retained their viability change their structure and flatten, and their secretory activity is reduced. A sharp drop in the mitotic activity of the cambial zones of the stomach epithelium, enlargement of the nuclei accompanied by changes in the composition of their chromatine, and an increase in the number of amitotic divisions in the epithelium should be considered specific reactions of the mucous membrane to the action of total irradiation. Depletion of the connecting tissue by wandering and alien cells and a coarsening of the intermediate substance should be considered specific reactions of the connecting tissue to total irradiation.

  8. Fine structural observation on repair processes in experimental ulcer of the rat gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takiko

    1982-01-01

    Experimental stomach ulcer of the rat was produced by clamping method. Repair processes of the epithelial and glandular cells were examined by LM, SEM, TEM and autoradiograph with 3 H-thymidine at various times after removal of the clamp. The epithelial cells in the vicinity of the defect consisted of the surface cells with a few mucous granuls, parietal cells, endocrine cells and fibrillovesicular cells of Hammond and LaDuer during repair processes. The chief cells appeared after 12 days. After 5 weeks, the defect was completely covered with the epithelium. All kind of the epithelial cells except fibrillovesicular cells can incorporate thymidine precursor during regeneration. (author)

  9. Lichenoid reaction to carbamazepine in the oral mucosa: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Gabriela; Bruno, Ingrid S; Seo, Juliana; Hirota, Silvio K; Acay, Renata; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Lichenoid drug reactions are more common in skin, but they may also occur in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose these lesions due to their clinical similarity to the idiopathic oral lichen planus lesions. The present article reports a case of lichenoid reaction in oral mucosa associated to the use of carbamazepine, emphasizing the diagnostic process.

  10. The peculiarities of macroscopic status of the upper gastrointestinal tract mucosa in patients with hepatic and extrahepatic portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov Yu.M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of endoscopic signs of concomitant pathology of the upper gastrointestinal tract allows to determine the tactics of managing patients with different forms of portal hypertension (PG. The analysis of macroscopic picture of esophagus, stomach and duodenum mucosa was carried out in 104 patients with portal hypertension (88 patients with hepatic portal hypertension, 46 – with extrahepatic portal hypertension, 16 – without portal hypertension. The frequency of changes in the esophagus, specific for gastroesophageal reflux disease did not differ significantly in the researched groups. The frequency and severity of varicose veins of the esophagus were diagnosed more often in patients with hepatic form of portal hypertension (OR=10.0, p<0.05. The predominance of different pathological changes of the gastric mucosa in patients with extrahepatic form of portal hypertension was revealed. Portal gastropathy in this group was 5.3 times higher than in patients with hepatic hypertension and 21 times higher than in the III group (without portal hypertension (p<0.01. There were no significant differences of endoscopic picture of the duodenum mucosa between the researched groups.

  11. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Ab. Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg.

  12. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection Angiogénesis gástrica e infección por Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  13. Endoscopic excavation for gastric heterotopic pancreas: an analysis of 42 cases from a tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Qin; Zhu, Lin-hong; Zhou, Xian-bin; Ye, Li-ping; Mao, Xin-li

    2014-09-01

    Because of the difficulty associated with making an accurate diagnosis of gastric heterotopic pancreas (HP) before surgery, surgical resection is usually performed in suspected cases. However, this is an invasive procedure and prone to certain surgical complications. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic excavation for gastric HP, as well as the value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in diagnosing gastric HP. Between January 2007 and January 2013, 42 consecutive patients with gastric HP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Key steps: (1) Injection of a solution (100 ml saline + 2 ml indigo carmine + 1 ml epinephrine) into the submucosal layer after making several dots around the lesion; (2) Incision of the mucosa outside the marker dots with a needle-knife, and then circumferential excavation until complete resection of the lesion; (3) Closure of the artificial ulcer with several clips after tumor removal. In this study, 18 cases (42.9%) were suspected as gastric HP (assessed by two experienced endoscopists before endoscopic excavation), 8 (19.0%) were suspected as gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 7 (16.7%) as gastric polyp, and the remaining 9 cases (21.4%) were still unknown. The mean procedure duration was 28.6 min. En bloc resection by endoscopic excavation was achieved in 40 cases (95.2%), and no massive bleeding, delayed bleeding, perforation, or other severe complication occurred in these patients. Among the 42 lesions, a tube echo could be detected in 11 cases by EUS. Those 11 cases were diagnosed as gastric HP by histopathology. Endoscopic excavation appears to be a safe and feasible procedure for accurate histopathologic evaluation and curative treatment in gastric HP. Use of EUS has some value in the diagnosis of gastric HP before the procedure

  14. Diagnostic role of 18F-FDG PET in gastric MALT lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, V.; Castellucci, P.; Nanni, C.; Farsad, M.; Fanti, S.; Rubello, D.; Zinzani, P.; Alavi, A.; Tehranipour, N.; Al-Nahhas, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of 18 F-FDG-PET in patients with gastric lymphoma, in particular those affected by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and aggressive gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The study group consists of 15 patients with a previous diagnosis of gastric NHL referred to our PET centres in Bologna Hospital and Rovigo Hospital, Italy, in the period 2003-2004. In 9/15 patients the subsequent histological evaluation was consistent with a gastric MALT lymphoma, while aggressive gastric NHL was diagnosed in the other 6/15. PET scan was carried out in patients with known active disease in order to stage or re-stage disease prior to treatment or in patients in complete clinical remission to monitor disease during follow up. Patients were considered in complete clinical remission if free from disease for at least 8 months after chemotherapy or surgery. 18 F-FDG PET was performed following standard procedures. 18 F-FDG-PET was true positive in all cases of gastric MALT and non-MALT aggressive NHL with known active disease, while no pathological 18 F-FDG uptake was evident in the subjects who were in complete clinical remission. The degree of 18 F-FDG uptake (mean SUVmax values) in MALT lymphoma was much less intense in comparison to aggressive gastric NHL, suggesting a prognostic role of SUV calculation in gastric lymphomas. Our data demonstrate the significant accuracy of 18 F-FDG-PET in detecting active disease in gastric lymphoma of both MALT and non-MALT NHL type. A higher SUV value appears to be related to a more aggressive disease. (author)

  15. Hybrid light transport model based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for early gastric cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Liang, Jimin; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Yang, Defu; Chen, Duofang; Zhu, Shouping; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related death in the world, and it remains difficult to cure because it has been in late-stage once that is found. Early gastric cancer detection becomes an effective approach to decrease the gastric cancer mortality. Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) has been applied to detect early liver cancer and prostate cancer metastasis. However, the gastric cancer commonly originates from the gastric mucosa and grows outwards. The bioluminescent light will pass through a non-scattering region constructed by gastric pouch when it transports in tissues. Thus, the current BLT reconstruction algorithms based on the approximation model of radiative transfer equation are not optimal to handle this problem. To address the gastric cancer specific problem, this paper presents a novel reconstruction algorithm that uses a hybrid light transport model to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues. The radiosity theory integrated with the diffusion equation to form the hybrid light transport model is utilized to describe light propagation in the non-scattering region. After the finite element discretization, the hybrid light transport model is converted into a minimization problem which fuses an l1 norm based regularization term to reveal the sparsity of bioluminescent source distribution. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm is first demonstrated with a digital mouse based simulation with the reconstruction error less than 1mm. An in situ gastric cancer-bearing nude mouse based experiment is then conducted. The primary result reveals the ability of the novel BLT reconstruction algorithm in early gastric cancer detection.

  16. Expandable esophageal metallic stents coating with silicone rubber: An experimental study in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Young; Han, Young Min; Son, Myung Hee; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul; Kuh, Ja Hong; Chae, Soo Wan [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Nam [Chungju Lee Rha Hospital, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    To determine the effect of the expandable esophageal metallic stents on the esophagus, we constructed an expandable metallic stent. It was stainless steel wire formed in a zig-zag pattern in fully expanded diameter. Twenty stents were introduced in the normal esophagus through a 8.5 French-teflon sheath in 10 rabbits for 1 week to 12 weeks. Three out of the 20 stents migrated slightly. At 1 week after the placement of the stent, the mucosa partly revealed pressure necrosis and some regeneration, the muscle layer below the stent wires found compressed and thinned. At 8 weeks, the mucosa showed complete regeneration, and the stent wires were found covered by fibrous tissue.

  17. Gastroprotective effect of Desmodium gangeticum roots on gastric ulcer mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyavu Mahesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the ethanolic root extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L. DC., Fabaceae, (EDG, have been studied in various acute and chronic ulcer mouse models. Oral administration of root extract, significantly decrease the ulcer index and lesion number in a dose dependent manner against ethanol induced acute gastric ulcer in mice. In gastric ulcerated animal that received high dose of 150 mg/kg EDG, the mucosa showed no ulceration with slight focal congestion and the glands appeared normal. Pylorus ligated mice, pretreated with EDG showed significant decrease in ulcerous activity under chronic condition. The highest dose (150 mg/kg of the extract provoked a marked increase in protein and glutathione levels, when compare to control. Furthermore, gastric juice, free acidity and total acid output were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner at p<0.05 level. Our results indicate that the EDG possess gastroprotective activity and increasing regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa and thus safe for human use.

  18. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra E. Beltran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients’ outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine. The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10% for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (. Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia.

  19. Regression of gastric malt-lymphoma under specific therapy may be predict by endoscopic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Băncilă, Ion; Stoia, Răzvan; Gheorghe, Liana; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dobre, Camelia; Brescan, Raluca

    2004-06-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas represent a relatively new described class of rare lymphomas, characterized by an indolent course and favourable outcome with specific therapy. Gastric MALT lymphomas are associated with chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. We report the case of a 67 year old man admitted for an 8-month history of epigastric pain, anorexia and progressive weight loss. He was diagnosed with low-grade primary gastric MALT lymphoma by endoscopy, histopathological examination of gastric mucosa (light microscopy and immunohistochemistry) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). The patient received a 2-week course of anti-HP therapy and chemotherapy with Chlorambucil 0.1 mg/kg/day was started. During the follow-up, continuous improvement of clinical status, endoscopic and EUS appearance was noted. We conclude that, facing the trend toward nonsurgical treatment modalities for primary gastric lymphoma, EUS appears an important tool for staging the disease and defining cases suitable for anti-HP, radio- and chemotherapy, as well as for the detection of local recurrence.

  20. Selective binding of sucralfate to endoscopic mucosal resection-induced gastric ulcer: evaluation of aluminium adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T; Kusaka, K; Kawaura, K; Kashimura, K; Yamakawa, J; Takahashi, T; Kanda, T

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of sucralfate in patients with early gastric cancer in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)-induced gastric ulcers, and in rats with acetic acid-induced ulcers, by measuring concentrations of aluminium adhering to mucosal lesions. Twenty-two patients who underwent EMR received sucralfate with or without ranitidine and were examined endoscopically after 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks. Gastric juice pH and concentration of aluminium in samples of ulcerated and normal mucosa were measured at various time-points. Good ulcer healing was observed in all patients. Significantly higher concentrations of aluminium were found in ulcerated tissue compared with normal mucosa. This selective binding of sucralfate was even found 12 h after drug administration and was confirmed in acetic acid-induced ulcers in 40 rats. Neutral rather than acid gastric juice was observed up to 12 h after the administration of sucralfate alone. These results suggest that sucralfate with or without ranitidine may contribute to the healing of EMR-induced ulcers by selectively binding to lesions.

  1. Antitumor activity of ginseng sapogenins, 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD, on gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Su, Guangyue; Wang, Xude; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Guo, Shuang; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    25-Hydroxyprotopanaxadiol (25-OH-PPD) and 25-methoxylprotopanaxadiol (25-OCH3-PPD), two ginseng sapogenins, have potent antitumor activity and their effects on gastric cancer (BGC-823, SGC-7901, MKN-28) cells and a gastric mucosa (GES-1) cell line are reported. Both compounds significantly inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells, while having lesser inhibitory effects on GES-1 cells by MTT assay. A mechanistic study revealed that the two ginseng sapogenins could induce apoptosis in BGC-823 cells by morphological observation, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Besides, the apoptosis was inhibited by Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase 3 inhibitor, which was confirmed by cell viability analysis. These results indicate that 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD have potential to be promising agents for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  2. Diagnosis of gastric carcinoma and precancerosis by leucocyte adherence inhibition RIA(/sup 51/Cr-LAI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stosiek, P; Varga, A; Kasper, A; Werner, H

    1982-11-01

    23 patients with gastric cancer, 16 patients with gastric mucosa adenoma, 12 patients one year after gastrectomy due to malignancy, and 20 healthy controls were analyzed by a leucocyte adherence inhibition RIA using /sup 51/Cr as well as corresponding and non-corresponding antigens. All adenomas were endoscopically and bioptically diagnosed small size tubular adenomas. Histologic grading of dysplasias was performed in accordance with Oehlert et al. (4) by multiple biopsy or by endoscopic polypectomia. Staging of the carcinomas in accordance with the UICC followed laparoscopical, intra-operative, and histological findings. Whereas precancerous and early stages demonstrated distinct sensibility against gastric carcinoma antigen late stages reacted as healthy controls. Because of severe scattering and serious failure in single results this test can only be a diagnostic aid in early stages of gastric carcinoma.

  3. Gastric emptying of liquids in rats dehydrated by water deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baracat E.C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric emptying of liquids was investigated in male Wistar rats (8 to 10 weeks old, 210-300 g dehydrated by water deprivation. In this model of dehydration, weight loss, hematocrit and plasma density were significantly higher in the dehydrated animals than in the control groups after 48 and 72 h of water deprivation (P<0.05. Three test meals (saline (N = 10, water (N = 10 and a WHO rehydrating solution containing in one liter 90 mEq sodium, 20 mEq potassium, 80 mEq chloride and 30 mEq citrate (N = 10 were used to study gastric emptying following water deprivation for 24, 48 and 72 h. After 72 h, gastric emptying of the water (39.4% retention and rehydrating solution (49.2% retention test meals was significantly retarded compared to the corresponding control groups (P<0.05, Mann-Whitney test. The 72-h period of deprivation was used to study the recovery from dehydration, and water was supplied for 60 or 120 min after 67 h of deprivation. Body weight loss, hematocrit and plasma density tended to return to normal when water was offered for 120 min. In the animals supplied with water for 60 min, there was a recovery in the gastric emptying of water while the gastric emptying of the rehydrating solution was still retarded (53.1% retention; P<0.02, Kruskal-Wallis test. In the group supplied with water for 120 min, the gastric emptying of the rehydrating (51.7% retention and gluco-saline (46.0% retention solutions tended to be retarded (P = 0.04, Kruskal-Wallis test. In this model of dehydration caused by water deprivation, with little alteration in the body electrolyte content, gastric emptying of the rehydrating solution was retarded after rehydration with water. We conclude that the mechanisms whereby receptors in the duodenal mucosa can modify gastric motility are altered during dehydration caused by water deprivation

  4. Evaluation of radiological findings of complete gastric erosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Sub; Choi, See Sung; Lim, Yeo Sub; Kim, Byung Chan; Chung, Young Sun; Kim, Chang Guhn; Won, Jong Jin

    1987-01-01

    The double-contrast upper gastrointestinal (UGI) examination is an effective means of clearly demonstrating complete gastric erosions. The main radiographic feature of the complete gastric erosion is a small barium fleck surrounded by a radiolucent halo in the gastric mucosa. From Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 a total of 48 cases of complete gastric erosions was diagnosed by double-contrast UGI examinations, and then 12 cases among them underwent endoscopy within 6 days of UGI examination. For evaluation of the relationship of the diameters of radiolucent halos to the central barium flecks, the radiographic findings were reviewed. 1. 1) The male to female ratio was 20:28. The age of patients ranged from 15 to 76 years, and the most common age group was 6th decade. 2) The clinical symptoms included epigastralgia (63%), indigestion, hunger pain, and vomiting. 2. Thirteen coexistent diseases were found in 11 patients (22.9%): gastric ulcer in 4 patients, duodenal ulcer in 3, gastric cancer in 3, liver cirrhosis in 2, and hepatoma in one. 3. The gastric antrum was involved in all cases. The gastric body was also involved in 8 case, and duodenal bulb in 2 cases. 4. In all cases there were multiple complete erosions. The number of the erosions were 2 to 10 in 83.4% of cases. The radiographic findings of 330 complete erosions in the 48 cases were analyzed. 1) The diameters of surrounding halos varied from 3 to 11mm, and the sized of the central barium flecks from 0(No central barium fleck) to 5mm. The shapes of central barium flecks were round in 70.6% of complete erosions. 2) In general, the small central barium flecks had small surrounding halos, and the large ones large halos (correlation coefficient r=0.97). But with the enlargement of central barium flecks, the ratios of the diameters of surrounding halos to the size of central barium flecks tended to decrease by degrees. It appears that in the formation of a surrounding mucosal elevation (radiolucent halo) of a complete

  5. Evaluation of radiological findings of complete gastric erosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyun Sub; Choi, See Sung; Lim, Yeo Sub; Kim, Byung Chan; Chung, Young Sun; Kim, Chang Guhn; Won, Jong Jin [College of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    The double-contrast upper gastrointestinal (UGI) examination is an effective means of clearly demonstrating complete gastric erosions. The main radiographic feature of the complete gastric erosion is a small barium fleck surrounded by a radiolucent halo in the gastric mucosa. From Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 a total of 48 cases of complete gastric erosions was diagnosed by double-contrast UGI examinations, and then 12 cases among them underwent endoscopy within 6 days of UGI examination. For evaluation of the relationship of the diameters of radiolucent halos to the central barium flecks, the radiographic findings were reviewed. 1. 1) The male to female ratio was 20:28. The age of patients ranged from 15 to 76 years, and the most common age group was 6th decade. 2) The clinical symptoms included epigastralgia (63%), indigestion, hunger pain, and vomiting. 2. Thirteen coexistent diseases were found in 11 patients (22.9%): gastric ulcer in 4 patients, duodenal ulcer in 3, gastric cancer in 3, liver cirrhosis in 2, and hepatoma in one. 3. The gastric antrum was involved in all cases. The gastric body was also involved in 8 case, and duodenal bulb in 2 cases. 4. In all cases there were multiple complete erosions. The number of the erosions were 2 to 10 in 83.4% of cases. The radiographic findings of 330 complete erosions in the 48 cases were analyzed. 1) The diameters of surrounding halos varied from 3 to 11mm, and the sized of the central barium flecks from 0(No central barium fleck) to 5mm. The shapes of central barium flecks were round in 70.6% of complete erosions. 2) In general, the small central barium flecks had small surrounding halos, and the large ones large halos (correlation coefficient r=0.97). But with the enlargement of central barium flecks, the ratios of the diameters of surrounding halos to the size of central barium flecks tended to decrease by degrees. It appears that in the formation of a surrounding mucosal elevation (radiolucent halo) of a complete

  6. Gastric epithelioid haemangioendothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, A B; Almeida, A G; Viveiros, F A; Cidade, C N; Barbosa, J M

    2011-05-10

    Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumour of vascular origin, characterised by celular proliferation, endotelial, epitelioid or hystiocitoid. It may develop in any organ, but it is more common in lung and liver. Surgery is the recommended treatment; however, in case of a potentially benign situation, an expectant attitude should be adopted. The case reports a 71-year-old female who underwent a laparotomy for a colonic adenocarcinoma. During surgery, a polypoid lesion in the dependency of the gastric wall was found incidentally, which was removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EHE. Gastric vascular neoplasms represent about 0.9-3.3% of all gastric tumours. Usually have a good prognosis, but due to the borderline biological behaviour of these tumours, it is important to have a detailed clinical evaluation at follow-up of these patients.

  7. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  8. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  9. Biology of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Nathan R

    2006-01-01

    In recognition of Dr. Nathan Brewer's many years of dedicated service to AALAS and the community of research animal care specialists, the premier issue of JAALAS includes the following compilation of Dr. Brewer's essays on rabbit anatomy and physiology. These essays were originally published in the ASLAP newsletter (formerly called Synapse), and are reprinted here with the permission and endorsement of that organization. I would like to thank Nina Hahn, Jane Lacher, and Nancy Austin for assistance in compiling these essays. Publishing this information in JAALAS allows Dr. Brewer's work to become part of the searchable literature for laboratory animal science and medicine and also assures that the literature references and information he compiled will not be lost to posterity. However, readers should note that this material has undergone only minor editing for style, has not been edited for content, and, most importantly, has not undergone peer review. With the agreement of the associate editors and the AALAS leadership, I elected to forego peer review of this work, in contradiction to standard JAALAS policy, based on the status of this material as pre-published information from an affiliate organization that holds the copyright and on the esteem in which we hold for Dr. Brewer as a founding father of our organization.

  10. The expression of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall of prehepatic portal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Liu, Yanzhang; Lin, Nan; Xu, Ruiyun

    2011-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding of portal hypertension cases may result from gastric mucosal lesions due to portal hypertensive gastropathy. The pathological changes in the vessels of the gastric wall are very important in the pathogenesis of portal hypertensive gastropathy. However, the mechanisms of these pathological changes are not completely understood. In this study, we examined the expression levels of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension. Eighteen healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups A and B. Group A was used to establish the prehepatic portal hypertensive model and group B to evaluate a sham surgery. The VEGF and PEDF expression in the rat gastric wall were detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. VEGF and PEDF were mainly expressed in the basal layer of the mucosal glands. The expression levels of VEGF and PEDF in group A were higher than that in group B at 7, 10 and 14 days after surgery. The expression levels of VEFG and PEDF in group B did not show significant changes. The results from the present study showed a significantly elevated expression of both VEGF and PEDF in the gastric walls during the development of portal hypertension. The expression of these proteins was mainly located in the basal layer of the gastric mucosa.

  11. A case report of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis, a rare mimic for malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel L; Ravindran, Praveen; Chua, Dorothy; Smith, Jason D; Wong, King S; Ghusn, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Lymphocytic phlebitis is a benign condition characterised by inflammation of the veins and rarely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Reported cases present as acute abdomen and involve the colon or small intestine. We report the fourth case of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis in the literature. A 74-year-old female presented with eight weeks of abdominal pain. Findings at endoscopy were suggestive of a malignant ulcer on the greater curvature of antrum, while biopsies showed chronic gastritis without malignancy. Appearance at diagnostic laparoscopy was consistent with a malignant gastric ulcer with serosal changes. Due to persistent pain and the macroscopic appearance, she proceeded to have an open subtotal gastrectomy and D2 lymph node clearance. Despite macroscopic appearance, the microscopic examination demonstrated no malignancy, and was consistent with lymphocytic phlebitis with overlying ulceration. This case was a mimic for gastric malignancy, with the benign diagnosis only being made after surgical resection. Gastric lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare differential diagnosis for gastric ulcers when biopsies are negative, although preoperative diagnosis is difficult given the lesions do not involve the mucosa. If clinical history and endoscopic findings are suspicious for malignancy, despite normal biopsies, an aggressive surgical resection remains reasonable given the rarity gastric lymphocytic phlebitis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The gastroprotective effect of Memora nodosa roots against experimental gastric ulcer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE M. SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Memora nodosa is popularly known as "caroba" and widely found in the Cerrado regions of Brazil. In traditional medicine, the leaves and stems are used for the healing of external ulcer and the roots for abdominal pain. This study investigated the effect of ethanolic roots extract of Memora nodosa (EMN on the gastric mucosa of mice. In the indomethacin induced gastric ulcer model, the treatments of the animals with EMN at doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., markedly reduced the index of lesions. In the gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol and cold restraint-stress the previous treatment with EMN at dose of 300 mg/kg showed 69% and 43% of protection, respectively. Seven days after food-restriction, the animals treated with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o. showed reduction in the index of lesion by 65% as compared to control group. The intraduodenal administration of EMN (300 mg/kg did not alter the gastric acid secretion parameters. The treatment with EMN (300 mg/kg p.o. did not alter glutathione levels (GSH, but showed an increase of adhered gastric mucus as compared to the control group with lesion. These results showed that EMN has gastroprotective activity probably due with an increase of adhered gastric mucus.

  13. Protective effect of bovine milk against HCl and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Lee, You-Suk; Ku, SaeKwang; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effects of bovine milk on an acidified ethanol (HCl-ethanol) mixture that induced gastric ulcers in a mouse model. Mice received different doses of commercial fresh bovine milk (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg of body weight) by oral gavage once a day for 14 d. One hour after the last oral administration of bovine milk, the HCl-ethanol mixture was orally intubated to provoke severe gastric damage. Our results showed that pretreatment with bovine milk significantly suppressed the formation of gastric mucosa lesions. Pretreatment lowered gastric myeloperoxidase and increased gastric mucus contents and antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. Administration of bovine milk increased nitrate/nitrite levels and decreased the malondialdehyde levels and the expression of proinflammatory genes, including transcription factor nuclear factor-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the stomach of mice. These results suggest that bovine milk can prevent the development of gastric ulcer caused by acid and alcohol in mice. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects Aerosol of Industrial Bleach and Detergent Mixture on Mucosa Layer and Lamina Mucosa Conjunctiva in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Vaezi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today bleach and detergents are being frequently used and some people use their mixture for more cleaning. Because of chemical interaction of bleach and detergent, chlorine gas was released and thereby it could be dangerous for human health. This study examined the effects of exposed toxic mixture of bleach and detergent on the Mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the use of chamber, the exposed 20 minutes were exposed to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after exposed and the Mucosa Layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue was studied pathology. In the study of microscopic sections prepared of mouse mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue experimental group comparison with the control group, significant decrease was observed in mucosa layer the have (p ≤ 0.001  and significant decrease was observed in the Lamina mucosa have(p ≤ 0. 01,  p ≤ 0.001. As a result, increasing the exposed time of mixing bleach and detergent, as time passed, increasing the tissue damage and changes.

  15. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the interleukin 2 gene are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The possible involvement of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiades, Jessica L; Zabaglia, Luanna M; Sallas, Mayara L; Orcini, Wilson A; Chen, Elizabeth; Smith, Marilia A C; Payão, Spencer L M; Rasmussen, Lucas T

    2017-08-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is mainly synthesized by immunoregulatory T helper cells and which plays an important role in antitumor immunity. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the gastric mucosa and induces the production of IL-2. This process increases the magnitude of inflammation and may influence the development of gastric pathologies. In light of the possible involvement of IL-2 and the presence of H. pylori in gastric diseases, this study investigated possible associations between the IL-2 polymorphisms +114 T>G (rs2069763) and -330 T>G (rs2069762) and the development of gastric cancer; these associations were then correlated with the presence of H. pylori. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 294 dyspeptic patients (173♀/123♂). Of these samples, 181 were chronic gastritis samples (102♀/79), 62 were samples of intact gastric mucosa (47♀/15♂), and 51 were samples of gastric cancer (22♀/29♂). PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the +114 T>G and -330 T>G polymorphisms. Considering the genetic characteristics of the study population and based on the codominant model, a high risk of gastric cancer among patients with normal gastric tissue and patients with gastric cancer was found in subjects with the IL-2-330 GG genotype (OR=6.43, 95% CI: 1.47-28.10, p=0.044). The data was adjusted for the presence of H. pylori. Among patients with gastritis and patients with gastric cancer, a high risk was found among subjects with the IL-2-330 GG genotype (OR=4.47, 95% CI: 1.84-10.84, p=0.0022). When the IL-2 +114 polymorphism was analyzed, similar results were found. Among the patients with normal gastric tissue and the patients with gastric cancer, subjects carrying the +114 TT genotype were found to be at a high risk of gastric cancer (OR=5.97, 95% CI: 1.60-22.27, p=0.013). This data was also adjusted for the presence of H. pylori. Among patients with gastritis and patients with gastric cancer

  16. Homeostatic Mass Control in Gastric Non-Neoplastic Epithelia under Infection of Helicobacter pylori: An Immunohistochemical Analysis of Cell Growth, Stem Cells and Programmed Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kenji; Hasui, Kazuhisa; Wang, Jia; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Aikou, Takashi; Murata, Fusayoshi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated homeostatic mass control in non-neoplastic gastric epithelia under Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in the macroscopically normal-appearing mucosa resected from the stomach with gastric cancer, immunohistochemically analyzing the proliferation, kinetics of stem cells and programmed cell death occurring in them. Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells were found dominantly in the elongated neck portion, sparsely in the fundic areas and sporadically in the stroma with chronic infiltrates. CD117 could monitor the kinetics of gastric stem cells and showed its expression in two stages of gastric epithelial differentiation, namely, in transient cells from the gastric epithelial stem cells to the foveolar and glandular cells in the neck portion and in what are apparently progenitor cells from the gastric stem cells in the stroma among the infiltrates. Most of the nuclei were positive for ssDNA in the almost normal mucosa, suggesting DNA damage. Cleaved caspase-3-positive foveolar cells were noted under the surface, suggesting the suppression of apoptosis in the surface foveolar cells. Besides such apoptosis of the foveolar cells, in the severely inflamed mucosa apoptotic cells were found in the neck portion where most of the cells were Ki67 antigen-positive proliferating cells. Beclin-1 was recognized in the cytoplasm and in a few nuclei of the fundic glandular cells, suggesting their autophagic cell death and mutated beclin-1 in the nuclei. Taken together, the direct and indirect effects of HP infection on the gastric epithelial proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death suggested the in-situ occurrence of gastric cancer under HP infection

  17. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Investigation of mucosal pattern of gastric antrum using magnifying narrow-band imaging in patients with chronic atrophic fundic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yasushi; Uedo, Noriya; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Kato, Minoru; Hamada, Kenta; Aoi, Kenji; Tonai, Yusuke; Matsuura, Noriko; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamashina, Takeshi; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Ishihara, Ryu; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Magnifying narrow-band imaging (M-NBI) can reportedly help predict the presence and distribution of atrophy and intestinal