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Sample records for r-curve instability calculations

  1. R-curve behaviour of ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, N.Ya.; Kramarov, S.O.

    2004-01-01

    The attempt's made to identify and evaluate the regularities of developing the fractures in the ferroelectric ceramics and also-study the effect of the polishing operation on the strength characteristics of the piezoceramics. The R-curve behaviour in the ferroelectric ceramics is studied on the samples of the barium titanate and lead zirconate-titanate by the four-point bending with controlled surface fractures. It is established that increasing curve of resistance to the fracture growth is observed in the piezoceramics under the conditions of the fracture stable growth. The results obtained on the polished samples prove that the mechanical processing introduces the compression surface stresses into the piezoceramic materials [ru

  2. Two R curves for partially stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, L.R.F.; Swain, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    The enhanced fracture toughness due to stress-induced transformation can be explained from two view points: (1) the increase can be attributed to the need to supply a work of transformation, or (2) the transformation can be considered to result in internal stresses which oppose crack opening. Experimental results for magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia are presented for the two experimental measures of toughness corresponding to these two viewpoints, namely (1) the specific work of fracture, R, and (2) the nominal stress intensity factor, K/sup R/. It is observed that these two measures are not equivalent during the initial stage of R-curve behavior, prior to reaching steady-state cracking. The theoretical reason for this difference is discussed. In particular, it is noted that the usual definition for the crack extension force does not correspond to the experimentally measured work of fracture in the presence of stress-induced (or pre-existing) sources of internal stress

  3. Some fundamental questions about R-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolednik, O.

    1992-01-01

    With the help of two simple thought experiments it is demonstrated that there exist two physically different types of fracture toughness. The crack-growth toughness, which is identical to the Griffith crack growth resistance, R, is a measure of the non-reversible energy which is needed to produce an increment of new crack area. The size of R is reflected by the slopes of the R-curves commonly used. So an increasing J-Δa-curve does not mean that the crack-growth resistance increases. The fracture initiation toughness, J i , is a normalized total energy (related to the ligament area) which must be put into the specimen up to fracture initiation. Only for ideally brittle materials R and J i have equal sizes. For small-scale yielding a relationship exists between R and J i , ao a one-parameter description of fracture processes is applicable. For large-scale yielding R and J i are not strictly related and both parameters are necessary to describe the fracture process. (orig.) [de

  4. Experimental R-curve behavior in partially stabilized zirconia using moiracute e interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.E.; Okada, H.; Atluri, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    Moiracute e interferometry is employed to study toughening in partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Energy to fracture as a function of crack growth curves (R-curves) is derived from mode I compliance calculations and from near tip fitting of the moiracute e fringes. The effect of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in the zirconia is found by comparing the bulk compliance R-curves to the locally derived moiracute e R-curve. Localized strain field plots are produced from the moiracute e data for the PSZ zirconia. The observed transformation zone height compares favorably with that predicted by Okada et al. in a companion paper, as does the qualitative nature of the R-curve with predictions by Stump and Budiansky

  5. Evaluation of R-curves in ceramic materials based on bridging interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.; Munz, D.

    1991-10-01

    In coarse-grained alumina the crack growth resistance increases with increasing crack extension due to crack-border interactions. The crack shielding stress intensity factor can be calculated from the relation between the bridging stresses and the crack opening displacement. The parameters of this relation can be obtained from experimental results on stable or subcritical crack extension. Finally the effected of the R-curve on the behaviour of components with small cracks is discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. ON THE R-CURVE BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN TOOTH ENAMEL

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is function of distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0...

  7. Contributions to the R-curve behaviour of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.

    1994-12-01

    Several ceramic materials show an increase in crack growth resistance with increasing crack extension. Especially, in case of coarse-grained alumina this ''R-curve effect'' is caused by crack-face interactions in the wake of the advancing crack. Similar effects occur for whisker reinforced ceramics. Due to the crack-face interactions so-called ''bridging stresses'' are generated which transfer forces between the two crack surfaces. A second reason for an increase of crack-growth resistance are stress-induced phase transformations in zirconia ceramics with the tetragonal phase changing to the monoclinic phase. These transformations will affect the stress field in the surroundings of crack tips. The transformation generates a crack-tip transformation zone and, due to the stress balance, also residual stresses in the whole crack region which result in a residual stress intensity factor. This additional stress intensity factor is also a reason for the R-curve behaviour. In this report both effects are outlined in detail. (orig.) [de

  8. A new methodology for the evaluation of the J-R curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, J. R.; Zahr, J.; Landes, J. D.

    2005-01-01

    A new methodology for the construction of J-R curves for ductile materials, based upon the analytical integration of the P-ν relation, is presented. This method is based on the Common and Concise Formats, and on a postulated crack growth law, that relates the amount of stable crack growth with plastic displacement. The model developed, denoted asnC and C, reproduces quite well the experimentally obtained P-ν, Δa-ν and J-Δa curves. The results suggest that the amount of stable crack growth in a ductile material follows a power-law behaviour in its dependence with plastic displacement. This methodology may be used to evaluate instability conditions, through the adequate analytical treatment of the P-ν and J-Δa relations. (Author) 35 refs

  9. On the R-curve behavior of human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D

    2009-08-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is a function of distance from the dentin enamel junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0.67+/-0.12 MPam(0.5)), and the inner enamel exhibited a rise in the growth toughness from 1.13 MPam(0.5)/mm to 3.93 MPam(0.5)/mm. The maximum crack growth resistance at fracture (i.e. fracture toughness (K(c))) ranged from 1.79 to 2.37 MPam(0.5). Crack growth in the inner enamel was accompanied by a host of mechanisms operating from the micro- to the nano-scale. Decussation in the inner enamel promoted crack deflection and twist, resulting in a reduction of the local stress intensity at the crack tip. In addition, extrinsic mechanisms such as bridging by unbroken ligaments of the tissue and the organic matrix promoted crack closure. Microcracking due to loosening of prisms was also identified as an active source of energy dissipation. In summary, the unique microstructure of enamel in the decussated region promotes crack growth toughness that is approximately three times that of dentin and over ten times that of bone.

  10. Broadband impedance calculations and single bunch instabilities estimations of of the HLS-II storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Kun; Wang, Lin; Li, Wei-Min; Gao, Wei-Wei

    2015-12-01

    The upgrade project of the Hefei Light Source storage ring is under way. In this paper, the broadband impedances of resistive wall and coated ceramic vacuum chamber are calculated using the analytic formula, and the wake fields and impedances of other designed vacuum chambers are simulated by CST code, and then a broadband impedance model is obtained. Using the theoretical formula, longitudinal and transverse single bunch instabilities are discussed. With the carefully-designed vacuum chamber, we find that the thresholds of the beam instabilities are higher than the beam current goal. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (11175182, 11175180)

  11. Robustness of the filamentation instability in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field: Full three dimensional calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing the most unstable filamentation modes.

  12. Delamination R-curve as a material property of unidirectional glass/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokrieh, M.M.; Heidari-Rarani, M.; Ayatollahi, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The R-curve behavior of a unidirectional laminate as a material property is investigated. → Effect of initial crack length and thickness on R-curve is experimentally shown. → A mathematical relation is proposed to model the R-curve behavior of any unidirectional laminated composite. -- Abstract: It is still questionable to think of delamination resistance of a double cantilever beam (DCB) as a material property independent of the specimen size and geometry. In this research, the effects of initial crack length and DCB specimen thickness on the mode I delamination resistance curve (R-curve) behavior of different unidirectional glass/epoxy DCB specimens are experimentally investigated. It is observed that the magnitudes of initiation and propagation delamination toughness (G Ic-init and G Ic-prop ) as well as the fiber bridging length are constant in a specific range of the initial crack length to the DCB specimen thickness ratios of 8.5 0 /h < 19. Finally, a mathematical relationship is proposed for prediction of mode I delamination behavior (from the initiation to propagation) of E-glass/epoxy DCB specimens.

  13. Linear and non-linear calculations of the hose instability in the ion-focused regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model is adopted to study the hose instability of an intense relativistic electron beam in a partially neutralized, low density ion channel (ion focused regime). Equations of motion for the beam and the channel are derived and linearized to obtain an approximate dispersion relation. The non-linear equations of motion are then solved numerically and the results compared to linearized data

  14. Analysis of datum-instability effect on calculated results of data from Longmen Mountain regional gravity network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shaoan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A statistical correlation method is used to study the effect of instability of the calculation datum (used in traditional method of indirect adjustment on calculated gravity results, using data recorded by Long-men Mountain regional gravity network during 1996 – 2007. The result shows that when this effect is corrected, anomalous gravity changes before the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake become obvious and characteristically distinctive. Thus the datum-stability problem must be considered when processing and analyzing data recorded by a regional gravity network.

  15. Determination of J-R curve from only one experimental test on one sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebey, J.; Roche, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Increasing attention has been given in fracture mechanics to the use of the J concept not only as a criterion of the onset of crack propagation, but also as an aid in the study of propagation stability. As a consequence, there is a need to determine the variation of J with crack extension, this being usually presented in curves known as J-R curves. Earlier methods for determining such curves used several specimens. The present paper describes a procedure avoiding any direct measurement of the crack length and giving a correct value of J when crack propagation occurs. (author)

  16. Elastic-plastic fracture assessment using a J-R curve by direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asta, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    In the elastic-plastic evaluation methods, based on J integral and tearing modulus procedures, an essential input is the material fracture resistance (J-R) curve. In order to simplify J-R determination direct, a method from load-load point displacement records of the single specimen tests may be employed. This procedure has advantages such as avoiding accuracy problems of the crack growth measuring devices and reducing testing time. This paper presents a structural integrity assessment approach, for ductile fracture, using the J-R obtained by a direct method from small single specimen fracture tests. The J-R direct method was carried out by means of a developed computational program based on theoretical elastic-plastic expressions. A comparative evaluation between the direct method J resistance curves and those obtained by the standard testing methodology on typical pressure vessel steels has been made. The J-R curves estimated from the direct method give an acceptable agreement with the approach proposed in this study which is reliable to use for engineering determinations. (orig.)

  17. Self-validated calculation of characteristics of a Francis turbine and the mechanism of the S-shape operational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z; Titzschkau, M

    2012-01-01

    A calculation method has been presented to accurately estimate the characteristics of a Francis turbine. Both the shock loss at the impeller inlet and the swirling flow loss at the Impeller exit have been confirmed to dominantly influence the turbine characteristics and particularly the hydraulic efficiency. Both together totally govern the through flow of water through the impeller being at the rest. Calculations have been performed for the flow rate, the shaft torque and the hydraulic efficiency and compared with the available measurements on a model turbine. Excellent agreements have been achieved. Some other interesting properties of the turbine characteristics could also be derived from the calculations and verified by experiments. For this reason and because of not using any unreliable assumptions the calculation method has been confirmed to be self-validated. The operational instability in the upper range of the rotational speed, known as the S-shape instability, is ascribed to the total flow separation and stagnation at the impeller inlet. In that range of the rotational speed, the operation of the Francis turbine oscillates between pump and turbine mode.

  18. Evaluation of J-R curve testing of nuclear piping materials using the direct current potential drop technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, E.M.; Kirk, M.T.; Hays, R.A.

    1986-08-01

    A method is described for developing J-R curves for nuclear piping materials using the DC Potential Drop (DCPD) technique. Experimental calibration curves were developed for both three point bend and compact specimen geometries using ASTM A106 steel, a type 304 stainless steel and a high strength aluminum alloy. These curves were fit with a power law expression over the range of crack extension encountered during J-R curve tests (0.6 a/W to 0.8 a/W). The calibration curves were insensitive to both material and sidegrooving and depended solely on specimen geometry and lead attachment points. Crack initiation in J-R curve tests using DCPD was determined by a deviation from a linear region on a plot of COD vs. DCPD. The validity of this criterion for ASTM A106 steel was determined by a series of multispecimen tests that bracketed the initiation region. A statistical differential slope procedure for determination of the crack initiation point is presented and discussed. J-R curve tests were performed on ASTM A106 steel and type 304 stainless steel using both the elastic compliance and DCPD techniques to assess R-curve comparability. J-R curves determined using the two approaches were found to be in good agreement for ASTM A106 steel. The applicability of the DCPD technique to type 304 stainless steel and high rate loading of ferromagnetic materials is discussed. 15 refs., 33 figs

  19. Dynamical instability, strong anharmonicity and electron-phonon coupling in KOs2O6: First-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Jiafa; Li, Bin; He, Junqi

    2017-09-01

    First-principles pseudopotential calculations on phonon and electronic properties of β -pyrochlore superconductor KOs2O6 are performed. The imaginary soft-phonon modes with a special double-well potential for the lowest Eu(1) mode and the second lowest T1u(1) mode are reported, which indicates the dynamical instability in KOs2O6. However, the double wells are too small to induce a structural phase transformation in KOs2O6. The strong anharmonicity especially for K T2g(1) phonon mode is got, which is approved to be from the strong electron-phonon coupling that supports the superconductivity in KOs2O6.

  20. Ab initio calculations of ideal strength and lattice instability in W-Ta and W-Re alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaoming; Qi, Liang

    2018-01-01

    An important theoretical criterion to evaluate the ductility of metals with a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice is the mechanical failure mode of their perfect crystals under tension along ; directions. When the tensile stress reaches the ideal tensile strength, the pure W crystal fails by a cleavage fracture along the {100 } plane so that it is intrinsically brittle. To discover the strategy to improve its ductility, we performed density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory calculations to study the ideal tensile strength and the lattice instability under tension for both W-Ta and W-Re alloys. Anisotropic linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) theory and Rice's criterion were also applied to analyze the mechanical instability at the crack tip under tension based on the competition between cleavage propagation and dislocation emission. The results show that the intrinsic ductility can be achieved in both W-Ta and W-Re, however, by different mechanisms. Even though W-Ta alloys with low Ta concentrations are still intrinsically brittle, the intrinsic ductility of W-Ta alloys with high Ta concentrations is promoted by elastic shear instability before the cleavage failure. The intrinsic ductility of W-Re alloys is produced by unstable transverse phonon waves before the cleavage failure, and the corresponding phonon mode is related to the generation of 1/2 {2 ¯11 } dislocation in bcc crystals. The ideal tensile calculations, phonon analyses, and anisotropic LEFM examinations are mutually consistent in the evaluation of intrinsic ductility. These results bring us physical insights on the ductility-brittle mechanisms of W alloys under extreme stress conditions.

  1. Flow velocity calculation to avoid instability in a typical research reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Flow velocity through a research reactor core composed by MTR-type fuel elements is investigated. Core cooling capacity must be available at the same time that fuel-plate collapse must be avoided. Fuel plates do not rupture during plate collapse, but their lateral deflections can close flow channels and lead to plate over-heating. The critical flow velocity is a speed at which the plates collapse by static instability type failure. In this paper, critical velocity and coolant velocity are evaluated for a typical MTR-type flat plate fuel element. Miller's method is used for prediction of critical velocity. The coolant velocity is limited to 2/3 of the critical velocity, that is a currently used criterion. Fuel plate characteristics are based on the open pool Australian light water reactor. (author)

  2. More basic approach to the analysis of multiple specimen R-curves for determination of J/sub c/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.W.; Williams, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    Multiple specimen J-R curves were developed for groups of 1T compact specimens with different a/W values and depth of side grooving. The purpose of this investigation was to determine J/sub c/ (J at onset of crack extension) for each group. Judicious selection of points on the load versus load-line deflection record at which to unload and heat tint specimens permitted direct observation of approximate onset of crack extension. It was found that the present recommended procedure for determining J/sub c/ from multiple specimen R-curves, which is being considered for standardization, consistently yielded nonconservative J/sub c/ values. A more basic approach to analyzing multiple specimen R-curves is presented, applied, and discussed. This analysis determined J/sub c/ values that closely corresponded to actual observed onset of crack extension

  3. Structural instability of atmospheric flows under perturbations of the mass balance and effect in transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez, M A; Mendoza, R

    2015-01-01

    Several methods to estimate the velocity field of atmospheric flows, have been proposed to the date for applications such as emergency response systems, transport calculations and for budget studies of all kinds. These applications require a wind field that satisfies the conservation of mass but, in general, estimated wind fields do not satisfy exactly the continuity equation. An approach to reduce the effect of using a divergent wind field as input in the transport-diffusion equations, was proposed in the literature. In this work, a linear local analysis of a wind field, is used to show analytically that the perturbation of a large-scale nondivergent flow can yield a divergent flow with a substantially different structure. The effects of these structural changes in transport calculations are illustrated by means of analytic solutions of the transport equation

  4. Improvement in decay ratio calculation in LAPUR5 methodology for BWR instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hsuannien; Yang Tzungshiue; Shih Chunkuan; Wang Jongrong; Lin Haotzu

    2009-01-01

    LAPUR5, based on frequency domain approach, is a computer code that analyzes the core stability and calculates decay ratios (DRs) of boiling water nuclear reactors. In current methodology, one set of parameters (three friction multipliers and one density reactivity coefficient multiplier) is chosen for LAPUR5 input files, LAPURX and LAPURW. The calculation stops and DR for this particular set of parameters is obtained when the convergence criteria (pressure, mass flow rate) are first met. However, there are other sets of parameters which could also meet the same convergence criteria without being identified. In order to cover these ranges of parameters, we developed an improved procedure to calculate DR in LAPUR5. First, we define the ranges and increments of those dominant input parameters in the input files for DR loop search. After LAPUR5 program execution, we can obtain all DRs for every set of parameters which satisfy the converge criteria in one single operation. The part for loop search procedure covers those steps in preparing LAPURX and LAPURW input files. As a demonstration, we looked into the reload design of Kuosheng Unit 2 Cycle 22. We found that the global DR has a maximum at exposure of 9070 MWd/t and the regional DR has a maximum at exposure of 5770 MWd/t. It should be noted that the regional DR turns out to be larger than the global ones for exposures less than 5770 MWd/t. Furthermore, we see that either global or regional DR by the loop search method is greater than the corresponding values from our previous approach. It is concluded that the loop search method can reduce human error and save human labor as compared with the previous version of LAPUR5 methodology. Now the maximum DR can be effectively obtained for a given plant operating conditions and a more precise stability boundary, with less uncertainty, can be plotted on plant power/flow map. (author)

  5. FIB/FESEM experimental and analytical assessment of R-curve behavior of WC–Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarragó, J.M., E-mail: jose.maria.tarrago@upc.edu [CIEFMA, Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jiménez-Piqué, E. [CIEFMA, Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Schneider, L. [Sandvik Hyperion, Coventry CV4 0XG (United Kingdom); Casellas, D. [Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Torres, Y. [Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencia de los Materiales y del Transporte, ETSI, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Llanes, L. [CIEFMA, Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-01

    Exceptional fracture toughness levels exhibited by WC–Co cemented carbides (hardmetals) are due mainly to toughening derived from plastic stretching of crack-bridging ductile enclaves. This takes place due to the development of a multiligament zone at the wake of cracks growing in a stable manner. As a result, hardmetals exhibit crack growth resistance (R-curve) behavior. In this work, the toughening mechanics and mechanisms of these materials are investigated by combining experimental and analytical approaches. Focused Ion Beam technique (FIB) and Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) are implemented to obtain serial sectioning and imaging of crack–microstructure interaction in cracks arrested after stable extension under monotonic loading. The micrographs obtained provide experimental proof of the developing multiligament zone, including failure micromechanisms within individual bridging ligaments. Analytical assessment of the multiligament zone is then conducted on the basis of experimental information attained from FIB/FESEM images, and a model for the description of R-curve behavior of hardmetals is proposed. It was found that, due to the large stresses supported by the highly constrained and strongly bonded bridging ligaments, WC–Co cemented carbides exhibit quite steep but short R-curve behavior. Relevant strength and reliability attributes exhibited by hardmetals may then be rationalized on the basis of such toughening scenario.

  6. Characterization of KS-material by means of J-R-curves especially using the partial unloading technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, B.; Blauel, J.G.; Schmitt, W.

    1983-01-01

    Essential components of nuclear reactor systems are fabricated from materials of high thoughness to exclude brittle failure. With increasing load, a crack tip will blunt, a plastic zone will be formed, voids may nucleate and coalesce thus initiating stable crack extension when the crack driving parameter, e.g. J, exceeds the initiation value Jsub(i). Further stable crack growth will occur with further increasing J prior to complete failure of the structure. The specific material resistance against crack extension is characterized by J resistance curves Jsub(R)=J(Δa). ASTM provides a standard to determine the initiation toughness Jsub(Ic) from a Jsub(R)-curve [1] and a tentative standard for determining the Jsub(R)-curve by a single specimen test [2]. To generate a Jsub(R)-curve values for the crack driving parameter J and the corresponding stable crack growth Δa have to be measured. Besides the multiple specimen technique [1], the potential drop and especially the partial unloading compliance method [2] are used to measure stable crack growth. Some special problems and some results for pressure vessel steels are discussed in this paper. (orig./RW)

  7. Required cavity HOM deQing calculated from probability estimates of coupled bunch instabilities in the APS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, L.

    1993-01-01

    A method of determining the deQing requirement of individual cavity higher-order modes (HOM) for a multi-cavity RF system is presented and applied to the APS ring. Since HOM resonator frequency values are to some degree uncertain, the HOM frequencies should be regarded as random variables in predicting the stability of the coupled bunch beam modes. A Monte Carlo simulation provides a histogram of the growth rates from which one obtains an estimate of the probability of instability. The damping of each HOM type is determined such that the damping effort is economized, i.e. no single HOM dominates the specified growth rate histogram

  8. Treatment of the subject of tearing instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, P.C.

    1977-07-01

    A simple approach is taken to the mechanics of potential instability associated with the steady tearing portion of J-Integral R-curves. The analysis is developed from simple examples of structural component (or test specimen) configurations with cracks, examining their instability possibilities individually, in order to draw more general conclusions about elastic-plastic cracking instability as contrasted to linear-elastic behavior. Finally, an attempt is made to model a more local cleavage-like instability for material in the fracture process zone just ahead of a crack tip. Results are then presented of a testing program which clearly demonstrates the appropriateness of the tearing instability analysis and which illustrates its broad potential for future application, as well as presenting guidelines for its further development. The material selected for analysis was Ni-Cr-Mo-V rotor steel

  9. Estimation of quasi-static J–R curves from Charpy energy and adaptation to ASTM E 1921 reference temperature estimation of ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers had suggested a sort of scaling procedure for predicting the quasi-static J–R curves from dynamic J–R curves obtained from instrumented Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests using key-curve, compliance or other procedures. Chaouadi, based on extensive tests and literature data, had quantitatively formalized the method and suggested general applicability of his method for a class of steels. In this paper, first, the Chauoadi-procedure is tried on some selected data from the literature (including the data used by Chaouadi and other workers) and an adaptation of the method is suggested using Wallin's as well as Landes's lower bound methods for upper-shelf J–R curve estimation from CVN energy. Using Chaouadi and other data as the benchmark, suitable scaling factors have been determined that enable estimation of quasi-static J–R curves from CVN energy alone, without the need for dynamic CVN J–R curves. The final formulae are given. This new method can be called modified Wallin–Landes procedure. Then this method is applied to fracture toughness and reference temperature (T 0 – ASTM E-1921) estimation from the full Charpy-transition data. The results are compared with those from the author's IGC-procedure, and modifications, if any, are suggested. Based on the new results, it is suggested that the IGC-procedure may be modified as: final T Q-est = T Q-IGC for T Q-Sch dy ≤ 20 °C (in the IGC-procedure the dividing temperature was 60 °C); and for T Q-Sch dy > 20 °C, T Q-IGC = T Q-WLm (different from the IGC-procedre and subscript WLm indicating modified Wallin–Landes procedure). For the 59 or more steels examined (including highly irradiated steels), the T Q-WL estimates at higher temperatures are consistent and conservative; a few non-conservative values are acceptably less than 20 °C, whereas other predictions show non-conservatism of up to 40–50 °C. At lower temperatures, T Q-IGC is consistently conservative and not over

  10. Experimental investigation of tearing-instability phenomena for structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilaros, M.G.; Gudas, J.P.; Joyce, J.A.

    1982-04-01

    Objective was to extend the range of tearing instability validation experiments utilizing the compact specimen to include high toughness alloys. J-Integral tests of ASTM A106; ASTM A516, Grade 70; ASTM A533B; HY-80; and HY-130 steels were performed in a variably compliant screw-driven test machine. Results were analyzed with respect to the materials J/sub I/-R curves and various models of T/sub applied/ for the compact specimen. Tearing instability theory was validated for these high toughness materials. For the cases of highly curved J/sub I/-R curves, it was shown that the actual value of T/sub material/ at the point of instability should be employed rather than the average of T/sub material/ value. The T/sub applied/ analysis of Paris and coworkers applied to the compact specimen appears to be nonconservative in predicting the point of instability; whereas, the T/sub applied/ analysis of Ernst and coworkers appears to be accurate, but requires precision beyond that displayed in this program. The generalized Paris analysis applied to the compact specimen and evaluated at maximum load was most consistent in predicting instability. 16 figures, 3 tables

  11. Experimental investigation of tearing-instability phenomena for structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilaros, M.G.; Gudas, J.P.; Joyce, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to extend the range of tearing-instability validation experiments utilizing the compact specimen to include high-toughness alloys. J-Integral tests of ASTM A106; ASTM A516, Grade 70; ASTM A533B; HY-80; and HY-130 steels were performed in a variably compliant screw-driven test machine. Results were analyzed with respect to the materials J/sub I/-R curves and various models of T/sub applied/ for the compact specimen. Tearing instability theory was validated for these high-toughess materials. For the cases of highly curved J/sub I/-R curves, it was shown that the actual value of T/sub material/ at the point of instability should be employed rather than the average T/sub material/ value. The T/sub applied/ analysis of Paris and coworkers applied to the compact specimen appears to be nonconservative in predicting the point of instability; whereas, the T/sub applied/ analysis of Ernst and coworkers appears to be accurate, but requires precision beyond that displayed in this program. The generalized Paris analysis applied to the compact specimen and evaluated at maximum load was most consistent in predicting instability. 16 figures, 3 tables

  12. Estimation of quasi-static J–R curves from Charpy energy and adaptation to ASTM E 1921 reference temperature estimation of ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasan, P.R., E-mail: sreeprs@yahoo.co.in

    2014-04-01

    Many researchers had suggested a sort of scaling procedure for predicting the quasi-static J–R curves from dynamic J–R curves obtained from instrumented Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests using key-curve, compliance or other procedures. Chaouadi, based on extensive tests and literature data, had quantitatively formalized the method and suggested general applicability of his method for a class of steels. In this paper, first, the Chauoadi-procedure is tried on some selected data from the literature (including the data used by Chaouadi and other workers) and an adaptation of the method is suggested using Wallin's as well as Landes's lower bound methods for upper-shelf J–R curve estimation from CVN energy. Using Chaouadi and other data as the benchmark, suitable scaling factors have been determined that enable estimation of quasi-static J–R curves from CVN energy alone, without the need for dynamic CVN J–R curves. The final formulae are given. This new method can be called modified Wallin–Landes procedure. Then this method is applied to fracture toughness and reference temperature (T{sub 0} – ASTM E-1921) estimation from the full Charpy-transition data. The results are compared with those from the author's IGC-procedure, and modifications, if any, are suggested. Based on the new results, it is suggested that the IGC-procedure may be modified as: final T{sub Q-est} = T{sub Q-IGC} for T{sub Q-Sch}{sup dy} ≤ 20 °C (in the IGC-procedure the dividing temperature was 60 °C); and for T{sub Q-Sch}{sup dy} > 20 °C, T{sub Q-IGC} = T{sub Q-WLm} (different from the IGC-procedre and subscript WLm indicating modified Wallin–Landes procedure). For the 59 or more steels examined (including highly irradiated steels), the T{sub Q-WL} estimates at higher temperatures are consistent and conservative; a few non-conservative values are acceptably less than 20 °C, whereas other predictions show non-conservatism of up to 40–50 °C. At lower temperatures

  13. Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: gorji@ipm.ir, E-mail: shosseini@shahroodut.ac.ir, E-mail: shossein@ipm.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161 Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.

  14. Carpal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G.

    2006-01-01

    This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Multifragmentation: Surface instabilities or statistical decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Tso, K.; Delis, D.; Colonna, N.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1992-11-01

    Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov calculations show multifragmentation that seems to originate from surface instabilities. These instabilities are traced to a sheet instability caused by the proximity interaction. Experimental data, on the other hand, suggest that multifragmentation may be dominated by phase space

  16. Multifragmentation: surface instabilities or statistical decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Tso, K.; Delis, D.; Colonna, N.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov calculations show multifragmentation that seems to originate from surface instabilities. These instabilities are traced to a sheet instability caused by the proximity interaction. Experimental data, on the other hand, suggest that multifragmentation may be dominated by phase space. (author)

  17. Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasman, R.

    1976-01-01

    A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at Brookhaven, August 9-13, 1976. About a dozen outside accelerator experts, both from Europe and the U.S.A., joined the local staff for discussions of longitudinal instabilities in ISABELLE. An agenda of talks was scheduled for the first day of the workshop. Later during the week, a presentation was given on the subject ''A more rigorous treatment of Landau damping in longitudinal beam instabilities''. A few progress meetings were held in which disagreements regarding calculations of coupling impedances were clarified. A summary session was held on the last day. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber.

  18. Analyses of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-01-01

    In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)

  19. Anisotropic gravitational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common

  20. Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges

  1. Surface instabilities in shock loaded granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandan, K.; Khaderi, S. N.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation and growth of instabilities in granular materials loaded by air shock waves are investigated via shock-tube experiments and numerical calculations. Three types of granular media, dry sand, water-saturated sand and a granular solid comprising PTFE spheres were experimentally investigated by air shock loading slugs of these materials in a transparent shock tube. Under all shock pressures considered here, the free-standing dry sand slugs remained stable while the shock loaded surface of the water-saturated sand slug became unstable resulting in mixing of the shocked air and the granular material. By contrast, the PTFE slugs were stable at low pressures but displayed instabilities similar to the water-saturated sand slugs at higher shock pressures. The distal surfaces of the slugs remained stable under all conditions considered here. Eulerian fluid/solid interaction calculations, with the granular material modelled as a Drucker-Prager solid, reproduced the onset of the instabilities as seen in the experiments to a high level of accuracy. These calculations showed that the shock pressures to initiate instabilities increased with increasing material friction and decreasing yield strain. Moreover, the high Atwood number for this problem implied that fluid/solid interaction effects were small, and the initiation of the instability is adequately captured by directly applying a pressure on the slug surface. Lagrangian calculations with the directly applied pressures demonstrated that the instability was caused by spatial pressure gradients created by initial surface perturbations. Surface instabilities are also shown to exist in shock loaded rear-supported granular slugs: these experiments and calculations are used to infer the velocity that free-standing slugs need to acquire to initiate instabilities on their front surfaces. The results presented here, while in an idealised one-dimensional setting, provide physical understanding of the conditions required to

  2. The large density electron beam-plasma Buneman instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantei, T.D.; Doveil, F.; Gresillon, D.

    1976-01-01

    The threshold conditions and growth rate of the Buneman (electron beam-stationary ion) instability are calculated with kinetic theory, including a stationary electronic population. A criteria on the wave energy sign is used to separate the Buneman hydrodynamic instability from the ion-acoustic kinetic instability. The stationary electron population raises the instability threshold and, for large beam velocities yields a maximum growth rate oblique to the beam. (author)

  3. Secondary instabilities of hypersonic stationary crossflow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Joshua B.

    A sharp, circular 7° half-angle cone was tested in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at 6° angle of attack. Using a variety of roughness configurations, measurements were made using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and fast pressure sensors. High-frequency secondary instabilities of the stationary crossflow waves were detected near the aft end of the cone, from 110° to 163° from the windward ray. At least two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities were measured. The secondary instabilities have high coherence between upstream and downstream sensor pairs. In addition, the amplitudes of the instabilities increase with the addition of roughness elements near the nose of the cone. Two of the measured instabilities were captured over a range of axial Reynolds numbers of about 1 - 2 million, with amplitudes ranging from low to turbulent breakdown. For these instabilities, the wave speed and amplitude growth can be calculated. The wave speeds were all near the edge velocity. Measured growth before breakdown for the two instabilities are between e3 and e4 from background noise levels. The initial linear growth rates for the instabilities are near 50 /m. Simultaneous measurement of two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities was made during a single run. It was found that each mode was spatially confined within a small azimuthal region, and that the regions of peak amplitude for one mode correspond to regions of minimal amplitude for the other.

  4. Resistive hose instability in the Bennet beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadezhdin, E.R.; Sorokin, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Development of resistive hose instability of a relativistic electron beam with the Bennet current density distribution in a homogeneous unlimited plasma in the range of a high, 4πσ 0 a/c >> 1, and a low, 4πσ 0 a/c 0 =conductivity, c=light velocity, a = equilibrium beam radius) has been cansidered. Spatial and temporal increments of the instability development are calculated. In both cases the instability is of a convective nature. At 4πσ 0 a/c >> 1 the instability is shifted to the region of low frequencies as compared with the previously considered case of the Bennet profile of the plasma conductivity, σ(r)=σ 0 /(1+r 2 /a 2 ) 2 . It is shown that in an unlimited plasma a considerable decrease in the spatial and especially temporal increment of the instability development takes place

  5. Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovsky, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)

  6. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  7. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Blalock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  8. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  9. Single bunch fast longitudinal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Pellegrini, C.

    1979-01-01

    Single bunch longitudinal instability producing an increase of the bunch area have been observed in proton synchrotron and storage rings. Signals at microwave frequencies are observed during the bunch blow-up and because of this the effect has been called the microwave instability. A similar increase in bunch area is observed also in electron storage rings, where it is usually referred to as the bunch lengthening effect. This paper is an attempt to obtain a more general theory of this effect. Here we describe the model used and the method of calculation, together with some general results. More detailed results will be given in another paper. The main result is the derivation of a condition for the existence of a fast longitudinal bunch blow-up. This condition is a generalized threshold formula, showing explicitly the dependence on the bunch energy spread and length. This condition is qualitatively in agreement with Boussard's suggestion

  10. Single bunch fast longitudinal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Pellegrini, C.

    1979-01-01

    Single bunch longitudinal instability producing an increase of the bunch areas has been observed in proton synchrotron and storage rings. Singals at microwave frequencies are observed during the bunch blow-up and because of this the effect has been called the microwave instability. A similar increase in bunch area is observed also in electron storage rings, where it is usually referred to as the bunch lengthening effect. This paper is an attempt to obtain a more general theory of this effect. Here we describe the model used and the method of calculation, together with some general results. The main result of this paper is the derivation of a condition for the existence of a fast longitudinal bunch blow-up. This condition is a generalized threshold formula, showing explicitly the dependence on the bunch energy spread and length

  11. Fatigue crack growth behavior and tearing instability characteristics under cyclic high stress, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogami, Kazunari; Yamakawa, Jun; Ando, Kotoji; Ogura, Nobukazu

    1990-01-01

    The J-R curve, fatigue crack growth rate and characteristics of ductile unstable fracture under monotonic and cyclic load were investigated using 1TCT test specimens which were cut out from A508 steel for reactor pressure vessels. All the tests were carried out at 100degc. The main results obtained were as follows. (1) The J-R curve under the cyclic load is not a material constant but is dependent on the test conditions. (2) da/dN from typical fatigue data cannot be extrapolated by ΔJ only if the value of da/dN is above 5x10 -4 mm/cycles. However, it can be extrapolated by using the following equation in which J max is used: da/dN=C{√(ΔJ)/(B-√J max )} m . (3) The J values at instability obtained from the ductile unstable fracture test carried out under the cyclic load of stress ratio R=0, 01 and -1.0 were compared with those from the monotonically increasing load. These J values at instability were almost the same as that for the monotonically increasing load. (author)

  12. Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability

  13. Genomic instability following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W.

    2001-01-01

    Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)

  14. On the instability increments of a stationary pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The stability of stationary pinch to helical modes is numerically studied. It is shown that in the case of a rather fast plasma pressure decrease to the pinch boundary, for example, for an isothermal diffusion pinch with Gauss density distribution instabilities with m=0 modes are the most quickly growing. Instability increments are calculated. A simple analytical expression of a maximum increment of growth of sausage instability for automodel Gauss profiles is obtained

  15. Tearing instabilities in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial

  16. Pressure bump instability in very large cold bore storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.

    1983-12-01

    Calculations have been done to estimate the circulating current necessary to induce the onset of a pressure bump instability in a cold bore storage ring. For a wide range of storage ring parameters, the instability threshold current is more than an order of magnitude higher than the operating current. 4 references, 2 tables

  17. Relativistic gravitational instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures

  18. Character of decay instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polovin, R.V.; Demutskii, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    If the initial wave is unstable in the upper half plane Im ω>0 and there are no branch points of the quasiwave number, or if waves traveling in the same direction coalesce at a branch point, the instability is convective. On the other hand, if a branch point k(ω) does exist in the upper half-plane Im ω>0, and not all the waves that merge at this point travel in the same direction, the instability is absolute. A Green's function that describes the evolution of the perturbations of the initial wave in space and in time is constructed. The growth rates of the decay instability of the harmonics are determined. The produced waves are richer in harmonics than the initial waves. It is shown that the decay instability of an Alfven wave is absolute

  19. Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D.; Simons, P.; Kuchta, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI

  20. Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))

    2009-04-15

    We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.

  1. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  2. Genomic instability and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, John B [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)

  3. Genomic instability and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, John B

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)

  4. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  5. Analysis of microscopic instability for rotating LIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Masaru; Niu, Keishiro

    1985-01-01

    The instability of a neutral hollow beam is investigated within the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. It is assumed that the hollow beam is thin with the radial thickness a which is much smaller than the major radius R 0 , and that the equilibrium beam charge is neutralized by the background electron charge. The stability analysis is carried out for perturbations about the beam equilibrium distribution function fsub(b) 0 . The detailed instability properties are calculated for a variety of system parameters. (author)

  6. Plasma physics and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.

    1981-01-01

    These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)

  7. Fluid Instabilities of Magnetar-Powered Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Magnetar-powered supernova explosions are competitive models for explaining very luminous optical transits. Until recently, these explosion models were mainly calculated in 1D. Radiation emitted from the magnetar snowplows into the previous supernovae ejecta and causes a nonphysical dense shell (spike) found in previous 1D studies. This suggests that strong fluid instabilities may have developed within the magnetar-powered supernovae. Such fluid instabilities emerge at the region where luminous transits later occur, so they can affect the consequent observational signatures. We examine the magnetar-powered supernovae with 2D hydrodynamics simulations and find that the 1D dense shell transforms into the development of Rayleigh-Taylor and thin shell instabilities in 2D. The resulting mixing is able to fragment the entire shell and break the spherical symmetry of supernovae ejecta.

  8. Prediction of flow instability during natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhadi, Kazem

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of flow excursion instability during passive heat removal for Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has been analyzed at low-pressure and low-mass rate of flow conditions without boiling taking place. Pressure drop-flow rate characteristics in the general case are determined upon a developed code for this purpose. The code takes into account variations of different pressure drop components caused by different powers as well as different core inlet temperatures. The analysis revealed the fact that the instability can actually occur in the natural convection mode for a range of powers per fuel plates at a predetermined inlet temperature with fixed geometry of the core. Low mass rate of flow and high sub-cooling are the two important conditions for the occurrence of static instability in the TRR. The calculated results are compared with the existing data in the literature. (author)

  9. Fingerprints of dynamical instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.

    1993-01-01

    It is explained why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. It is shown that the introduction of this stochastic dynamics leads to a predictive theory in a statistical sens whatever the individual trajectories are characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations, instabilities or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, the spinodal instability is discussed. In such a critical situation, the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment is studied. It is shown that the fingerprints of these instabilities are kept during the evolution because of the relatively long recombination time compared with the typical time scales imposed by the Coulomb repulsion and the possible collective expansion. (author) 5 refs., 12 figs

  10. Instability and star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru

  11. Instability of flat space at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature

  12. A numerical and analytical investigation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a solid tungsten plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.C.; Swegle, J.W.

    1987-07-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability response of an elastic-plastic tungsten plate is investigated by numerical experiments and an approximate modal analysis. The so-called ''minimum amplitude'' instability criteria derived from plasticity analyses is shown to be incomplete as a general indicator of instability or stability at very large driving pressures. Model equations are derived which are able to reproduce the basic qualitative features of the observed instability response given by the numerical calculations. 11 refs., 29 figs

  13. Causes of genome instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make......Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus...

  14. Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.

    1987-01-01

    Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)

  15. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  16. Buneman instability and Pierce instability in a collisionless bounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke

    1983-01-01

    A systematic experiment is performed on the Buneman instability and the Pierce instability in a bounded plasma consisting of beam electrons and stationary ions. Current fluctuations are confirmed to be induced by the Buneman instability. On the other hand, the Pierce instability gives rise to a current limitation. The phenomena are well explained by Mikhailovskii's theory taking account of ion motion in a bounded plasma. (author)

  17. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...

  18. Structural and Material Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cifuentes, Gustavo Cifuentes

    This work is a small contribution to the general problem of structural and material instability. In this work, the main subject is the analysis of cracking and failure of structural elements made from quasi-brittle materials like concrete. The analysis is made using the finite element method. Three...

  19. Agricultural Markets Instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, A.; Brümmer, B.; M'Barek, R.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Morales-Opazo, C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the financial and food price crises of 2007, market instability has been a topic of major concern to agricultural economists and policy professionals. This volume provides an overview of the key issues surrounding food prices volatility, focusing primarily on drivers, long-term implications of

  20. Comment on critical instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.; Suzuki, Mahiko

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the problem of the mass splitting between top and bottom quarks, within the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type models involving top and bottom quark condensates. We interpret the phenomenon of 'critical instability' recently proposed to account for such a mass splitting as the fine-tuning of two vacuum expectation values in a composite two-Higgs doublet model. (orig.)

  1. Instability and degeneracy in the BMN correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Daniel Z.; Guersoy, Umut

    2003-01-01

    Non-degenerate perturbation theory, which was used to calculate the scale dimension of operators on the gauge theory side of the correspondence, breaks down when effects of triple trace operators are included. We interpret this as an instability of excited single-string states in the dual string theory for decay into the continuum of degenerate 3-string states. We apply time-dependent perturbation theory to calculate the decay widths from gauge theory. These widths are new gauge theory data which can be compared with future calculations in light cone string field theory. (author)

  2. Tracking Code for Microwave Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability

  3. Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness

  4. Thresholds of a bunched beam longitudinal instability in proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbekov, V.I.; Ivanov, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    The formulas and graphs for calculating instability thresholds arising during the interaction of a bunched proton beam with narrow-band resonator are given. The instabilities of three types with oscillations of a definite multipolarity, oscillations of some bound multipoles and with microwave oscillations arising as a result of addition of a great number of multipoles. The analysis of the above data shows that the increase of oscillations nonlinearity is accompanied by the growth of instability threshold only in the zone of separated and weakly bound multipoles. The increase of spread of synchrotron frequencies reduces the zone separated multipoles owing to which the microwave bunch instability can be caused by more and more low-frequency resonators. In the microwave zone practically there is no stabilizing effect of synchrotron frequencies spread. The instability threshold of the bunched beam now - where exceeds the microwave level

  5. Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)

  6. Coherent betatron instability in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.; Harrison, M.; Ng, K.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The coherent betatron instability was first observed during the recent 1987-88 Tevatron fixed target run. In this operating mode 1000 consecutive bunches are loaded into the machine at 150 GeV with a bunch spacing of 18.8 /times/ 10 -9 sec (53 MHz). The normalized transverse emittance is typically 15 π /times/ 10 -6 m rad in each plane with a longitudinal emittance of about 1.5 eV-sec. The beam is accelerated to 800 GeV in 13 sec. and then it is resonantly extracted during a 23 sec flat top. As the run progressed the bunch intensities were increased until at about 1.4 /times/ 10 10 ppb (protons per bunch) we experienced the onset of a coherent horizontal oscillation taking place in the later stages of the acceleration cycle (>600 GeV). This rapidly developing coherent instability results in a significant emittance growth, which limits machine performance and in a catastrophic scenario it even prevents extraction of the beam. In this paper we will present a simple analytic description of the observed instability. We will show that a combination of a resistive wall coupled bunch effect and a single bunch slow head-tail instability is consistent with the above observations. Finally, a systematic numerical analysis of our model (growth-time vs chromaticity plots) points to the existence of the ≥1 slow head-tail modes as a plausible mechanism for the observed coherent instability. This last claim, as mentioned before, does not have conclusive experimental evidence, although it is based on a very good agreement between the measured values of the instability growth-time and the ones calculated on the basis of our model. 4 refs., 3 figs

  7. Multibunch resistive wall instability damping with feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhabitskij, V.M.; Korenev, I.L.; Yudin, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of multibunch transverse resistive wall instability damping with feedback is development. The system of coupling equations is obtained for description of bunched beam motion. The general solution and eigen frequencies are found. But for two bunches or multi bunches the tune splitting is found. The band of the tune splitting is calculated. The influence of the tune splitting on the damper system stability is discussed. 14 refs

  8. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  9. Orphans and political instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning, Marijke; Ishiyama, John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the security implications of growing orphan populations, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Little has been written about the security implications of this especially vulnerable group of children. Are growing orphan populations associated with increases in political instability as has been suggested? Using data from several sources, we employ regression analysis to test whether Sub-Saharan African countries with larger proportions of orphans and those with increasing orphan populations experience higher rates of political instability. We find that the increase in the orphan population is related to an increasing incidence of civil conflict, but do not find a similar relationship for the proportion of orphans. In addition, we find that the causes of orphanhood matter. We conclude that increases in orphan populations (rather than simple proportions) are destabilizing. We suggest possible avenues for mediating the security risks posed by growing orphan populations.

  10. A trickle instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Benjamin

    2005-11-01

    We address the problem of the free fall of a long, horizontal and narrow liquid layer squeezed in a vertical open Hele-Shaw cell. The layer destabilizes as it falls down, evolving into a series of liquid blobs linked together by thin bridges, which ultimately break, leaving the initially connex fluid layer as a set a disjointed drops. The mechanism of this instability is the onset of a vertical pressure gradient due to the curvature difference of the moving contact line between the advancing interface and the rear interface. This instability, whose growth rate scales with a non-trivial power of the capillary number, amplifies indifferently a broad band of wavenumbers because of the flat shape of its dispersion relation in the thin layer limit. We will finally comment on the nature of the final fragmentation process and drop size distributions.

  11. Instability and internet design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Braman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Instability - unpredictable but constant change in one’s environment and the means with which one deals with it - has replaced convergence as the focal problem for telecommunications policy in general and internet policy in particular. Those who designed what we now call the internet during the first decade of the effort (1969-1979, who in essence served simultaneously as its policy-makers, developed techniques for coping with instability of value for network designers today and for those involved with any kind of large-scale sociotechnical infrastructure. Analysis of the technical document series that was medium for and record of that design process reveals coping techniques that began with defining the problem and went on to include conceptual labour, social practices, and technical approaches.

  12. Imaging of patellofemoral instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldt, S.; Rummeny, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Patellofemoral instability remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to its multifactorial genesis. The purpose of imaging is to systematically analyze predisposing factors, such as trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance, rotational deformities of the lower limb and patellar tilt. In order to evaluate anatomical abnormalities with a sufficient diagnostic accuracy, standardized measurement methods and implementation of various imaging modalities are necessary. Diagnosis of acute and often overlooked lateral patellar dislocation can be established with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because of its characteristic patterns of injury. Damage to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has a significance just as high as the predisposing risk factors in relation to the cause of chronic instability. (orig.) [de

  13. Linear waves and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1975-01-01

    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  14. Cosmic ray driven instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfi, E.A.; Drury, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma, which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration, leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homoeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can in addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves

  15. Instability in dynamic fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, J.; Marder, M.

    1999-05-01

    The fracture of brittle amorphous materials is an especially challenging problem, because the way a large object shatters is intimately tied to details of cohesion at microscopic scales. This subject has been plagued by conceptual puzzles, and to make matters worse, experiments seemed to contradict the most firmly established theories. In this review, we will show that the theory and experiments fit within a coherent picture where dynamic instabilities of a crack tip play a crucial role. To accomplish this task, we first summarize the central results of linear elastic dynamic fracture mechanics, an elegant and powerful description of crack motion from the continuum perspective. We point out that this theory is unable to make predictions without additional input, information that must come either from experiment, or from other types of theories. We then proceed to discuss some of the most important experimental observations, and the methods that were used to obtain the them. Once the flux of energy to a crack tip passes a critical value, the crack becomes unstable, and it propagates in increasingly complicated ways. As a result, the crack cannot travel as quickly as theory had supposed, fracture surfaces become rough, it begins to branch and radiate sound, and the energy cost for crack motion increases considerably. All these phenomena are perfectly consistent with the continuum theory, but are not described by it. Therefore, we close the review with an account of theoretical and numerical work that attempts to explain the instabilities. Currently, the experimental understanding of crack tip instabilities in brittle amorphous materials is fairly detailed. We also have a detailed theoretical understanding of crack tip instabilities in crystals, reproducing qualitatively many features of the experiments, while numerical work is beginning to make the missing connections between experiment and theory.

  16. Relativistic centrifugal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2018-03-01

    Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.

  17. Ion temperature gradient instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Anomalous ion thermal conductivity remains an open physics issue for the present generation of high temperature Tokamaks. It is generally believed to be due to Ion Temperature Gradient Instability (η i mode). However, it has been difficult, if not impossible to identify this instability and study the anomalous transport due to it, directly. Therefore the production and identification of the mode is pursued in the simpler and experimentally convenient configuration of the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). CLM is a steady state machine which already has all the appropriate parameters, except η i . This parameter is being increased to the appropriate value of the order of 1 by 'feathering' a tungsten screen located between the plasma source and the experimental cell to flatten the density profile and appropriate redesign of heating antennas to steepen the ion temperature profile. Once the instability is produced and identified, a thorough study of the characteristics of the mode can be done via a wide range of variation of all the critical parameters: η i , parallel wavelength, etc

  18. Numerical studies of edge localized instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.R.; Snyder, P.B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Miller, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    A new computational tool, edge localized instabilities in tokamaks equilibria (ELITE), has been developed to help our understanding of short wavelength instabilities close to the edge of tokamak plasmas. Such instabilities may be responsible for the edge localized modes observed in high confinement H-mode regimes, which are a serious concern for next step tokamaks because of the high transient power loads which they can impose on divertor target plates. ELITE uses physical insight gained from analytic studies of peeling and ballooning modes to provide an efficient way of calculating the edge ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability properties of tokamaks. This paper describes the theoretical formalism which forms the basis for the code

  19. Feedback to suppress beam instabilities in future proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1985-05-01

    Criteria for the design of feedback systems to suppress coherent beam instabilities are presented. These address starting amplitudes, diffusion from noise during damping or long storage, and choice of kicker. As a model for future accelerators, specifications of the proposed 20 TeV SSC are used to calculate parameters of systems to control expected instabilities. A scenario and hardware to stabilize the transverse mode-coupling instability is examined. The scale of the systems is large but not out of scale with the large ring. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Dynamical instability of hot and compressed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.; Leray, S.; Spina, M.E.; Ngo, H.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamical evolution of a hot and compressed nucleus is described by means of an extended liquid-drop model. Using only the continuity equation and the energy conservation we show that the system expands after a while. The possible global instabilities of the drop are studied by applying the general conditions of stability of dynamical systems. We find that the nucleus is unstable if it can reach a low density configuration (≅0.07 nucleon/fm 3 ). Such a configuration is obtained if the initial compression of the nucleus is large enough. It is shown that the thermal excitation energy has much less influence than the compressional energy. These instability conditions are in good agreement with those obtained previously within the framework of lattice percolation and the same model for the dynamical expansion. Since local instabilities may also very likely be present, we propose to study them using a restructured aggregation model. They lead to a multifragmentation of the system, a mechanism which is known experimentally to exist. We find that local instabilities occur at smaller (but very close) density values than global ones. A moment analysis of the calculated multifragmentation events allows to extract a critical exponent in excellent agreement with the one deduced experimentally from Au-induced reactions. (orig.)

  1. Model of E-Cloud Instability in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-06-24

    Simple model of electron cloud is developed in the paper to explain e-cloud instability of bunched proton beam in the Fermilab Recycler. The cloud is presented as an immobile snake in strong vertical magnetic field. The instability is treated as an amplification of the bunch injection errors from the batch head to its tail. Nonlinearity of the e-cloud field is taken into account. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  2. Microtearing Instabilities and Electron Transport in the NSTX Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Kaye, S.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Krommes, J.A.; Hill, K.; Bell, R.; LeBlanc, B.

    2007-01-01

    We report a successful quantitative account of the experimentally determined electron thermal conductivity χ e in a beam-heated H mode plasma by the magnetic fluctuations from microtearing instabilities. The calculated χ e based on existing nonlinear theory agrees with the result from transport analysis of the experimental data. Without using any adjustable parameter, the good agreement spans the entire region where there is a steep electron temperature gradient to drive the instability

  3. Long-wavelength negative mass instabilities in high current betatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.; Hughes, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Growth rates of negative mass instabilities in conventional and modified betatrons are calculated by analytic methods and by performing three-dimensional particle simulations. In contrast to earlier work, toroidal corrections to the field equations are included in the analytic model. As a result, good agreement with numerical simulations is obtained. The simulations show that the nonlinear development of the instabilities can seriously disrupt the beam

  4. A review of hydrodynamic instabilities and their relevance to mixing in molten fuel coolant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.F.

    1984-03-01

    A review of the literature on Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and capillary instability is presented. The concept of Weber breakup is examined and found to involve a combination of the above instabilities. Sample calculations are given which show how these instabilities may contribute to the mixing of melt and coolant in a molten fuel coolant interaction. It is concluded that Rayleigh-Taylor instability is likely to be important as the melt falls into the coolant and that Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is likely to develop when significant vapour velocities occur. (author)

  5. Charge-density-wave instabilities expected in monophosphate tungsten bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, E.; Whangbo, M.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of tight-binding band calculations, we examined the electronic structures of the tungsten oxide layers found in the monophosphate tungsten bronze (MPTB) phases. The Fermi surfaces of these MPTB phases consist of five well-nested one- and two-dimensional pieces. We calculated the nesting vectors of these Fermi surfaces and discussed the expected charge-density-wave instabilities

  6. Instability of warped discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doǧan, S.; Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    Accretion discs are generally warped. If a warp in a disc is too large, the disc can `break' apart into two or more distinct planes, with only tenuous connections between them. Further, if an initially planar disc is subject to a strong differential precession, then it can be torn apart into discrete annuli that precess effectively independently. In previous investigations, torque-balance formulae have been used to predict where and when the disc breaks into distinct parts. In this work, focusing on discs with Keplerian rotation and where the shearing motions driving the radial communication of the warp are damped locally by turbulence (the `diffusive' regime), we investigate the stability of warped discs to determine the precise criterion for an isolated warped disc to break. We find and solve the dispersion relation, which, in general, yields three roots. We provide a comprehensive analysis of this viscous-warp instability and the emergent growth rates and their dependence on disc parameters. The physics of the instability can be understood as a combination of (1) a term that would generally encapsulate the classical Lightman-Eardley instability in planar discs (given by ∂(νΣ)/∂Σ < 0) but is here modified by the warp to include ∂(ν1|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0, and (2) a similar condition acting on the diffusion of the warp amplitude given in simplified form by ∂(ν2|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0. We discuss our findings in the context of discs with an imposed precession, and comment on the implications for different astrophysical systems.

  7. System Detects Vibrational Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Sustained vibrations at two critical frequencies trigger diagnostic response or shutdown. Vibration-analyzing electronic system detects instabilities of combustion in rocket engine. Controls pulse-mode firing of engine and identifies vibrations above threshold amplitude at 5.9 and/or 12kHz. Adapted to other detection and/or control schemes involving simultaneous real-time detection of signals above or below preset amplitudes at two or more specified frequencies. Potential applications include rotating machinery and encoders and decoders in security systems.

  8. Evaporation and Antievaporation Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Addazi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We review (antievaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (antievaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, f ( R -gravity, f ( T -gravity, string-inspired black holes, and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to conceptual and technical aspects of (antievaporation effects, while discussing problems that are still open.

  9. Resonant Drag Instabilities in protoplanetary disks: the streaming instability and new, faster-growing instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2018-04-01

    We identify and study a number of new, rapidly growing instabilities of dust grains in protoplanetary disks, which may be important for planetesimal formation. The study is based on the recognition that dust-gas mixtures are generically unstable to a Resonant Drag Instability (RDI), whenever the gas, absent dust, supports undamped linear modes. We show that the "streaming instability" is an RDI associated with epicyclic oscillations; this provides simple interpretations for its mechanisms and accurate analytic expressions for its growth rates and fastest-growing wavelengths. We extend this analysis to more general dust streaming motions and other waves, including buoyancy and magnetohydrodynamic oscillations, finding various new instabilities. Most importantly, we identify the disk "settling instability," which occurs as dust settles vertically into the midplane of a rotating disk. For small grains, this instability grows many orders of magnitude faster than the standard streaming instability, with a growth rate that is independent of grain size. Growth timescales for realistic dust-to-gas ratios are comparable to the disk orbital period, and the characteristic wavelengths are more than an order of magnitude larger than the streaming instability (allowing the instability to concentrate larger masses). This suggests that in the process of settling, dust will band into rings then filaments or clumps, potentially seeding dust traps, high-metallicity regions that in turn seed the streaming instability, or even overdensities that coagulate or directly collapse to planetesimals.

  10. Feedback stabilization of plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cap, F.F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental aspects of feedback stabilization. After giving an outline of a general theoretical model for electrostatic instabilities the author provides a theoretical analysis of the suppression of various types of instability. Experiments which have been carried out on the feedback stabilization of various types of plasma instability are reported. An extensive list of references is given. (B.R.H.)

  11. Thermal Shrinkage for Shoulder Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Alison P.; Warren, Russell F.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Doward, David A.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Altchek, David W.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent...

  12. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...

  13. Vacuum instability in scalar field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKane, A.J.

    1978-09-01

    Scalar field theories with an interaction of the form gphisup(N) have no stable vacuum state for some range of values of their coupling constant, g. This thesis reports calculations of vacuum instability in such theories. Using the idea that the tunnelling out of the vacuum state is described by the instanton solutions of the theory, the imaginary part of the vertex functions is calculated for the massless theory in the one-loop approximation, near the dimension dsub(c) = 2N/N-2, where the theory is just renormalisable. The calculation differs from previous treatments in that dimensional regularisation is used to control the ultra-violet divergences of the theory. In this way previous analytic calculations in conformally invariant field theories are extended to the case where the theory is almost conformally invariant, since it is now defined in dsub(c) - epsilon dimensions (epsilon > 0). (author)

  14. Plasmon instability under four external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.B.; Fonseca, A.L.A.; Nunes, O.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The plasmon instability in a laboratory produced plasma in the presence of four external fields, namely two laser fields, one strong magnetic field and one static electric field, is discussed. The method of unitary transformations is used to transform the problem of electron motion under the four external fields to that of an electron in the presence only of crossed electric and magnetic fields. A kinetic equation for the plasmon population is derived from which the damping (amplification) rate is calculated. We found that the joint action of the four fields results in a relatively larger amplification rate for some values of the static electric field in contrast to the case where no electric field is present. It was also found that the plasmon growth rate favors plasmon wave vectors in an extremely narrow band i.e., the plasmon instability in four external fields is a very selective mechanism for plasmon excitation. (author)

  15. Resistive instabilities of current sheets in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolny, M [CNR, Laboratorio per il Plasma nello Spazio, Frascati, Italy; Trussoni, E [CNR, Laboratorio di Cosmo-Geofisica, Turin, Italy

    1979-03-01

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are investigated numerically for non-antisymmetric magnetic field profiles similar to those indicated in spacecraft data on solar wind discontinuities. The eigenvalue problem derived for the growth rate of possible instabilities from dimensionless equations for velocity and magnetic field perturbations is solved starting from the outer regions where the plasma is frozen to the magnetic field. For an antisymmetric magnetic profile, calculations show only tearing modes to be present, with instabilities occurring only at long wavelengths, while for a non-antisymmetric magnetic profile resembling the observed solar wind, calculations indicate the presence of rippling modes driven by resistivity gradients, in addition to the tearing modes. Calculations of the scale lengths of variation of the reversing component based on a scaling law relating the maximum growth rate to the magnetic Reynolds number are found to agree with observed solar current sheet scale lengths.

  16. Parametric decay instabilities in ECR heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of parametric excitation of electron Bernstein waves and low frequency ion oscillations during ECR heating at omega/sub o/ approx. = l omega/sub ce/, l = 1,2 is examined. In particular, the thresholds for such instabilities are calculated. It is found that Bernstein waves and lower hybrid quasi-modes have relatively low homogeneous where T/sub e/ approx. = T/sub i/. Thus, these processes may lead to nonlinear absorption and/or scattering of the incident pump wave. The resulting Bernstein waves may lead to either more effective heating (especially during the start-up phase) or to loss of microwave energy if the decay waves propagate out of the system before their energy is absorbed by particles. While at omega/sub o/ = omega/sub UH/ the threshold is reduced due to the WKB enhancement of the pump wave, (and this instability may be important in tokamaks) in EBT's and tandem mirrors the instability at omega /sub o/ greater than or equal to 2 omega/sub ce/ may be important. The instability may persist even if omega > 2 omega/sub ce/ and this may be the case during finite beta depression of the magnetic field in which case the decay waves may be trapped in the local magnetic well so that convective losses are minimized. The excited fluctuations may lead to additional scattering of the ring electrons and the incident microwave fields. Application of these calculations to ECR heating of tokamaks, tandem mirrors, and EBT's will be examined

  17. Instability characteristics of fluidelastic instability of tube rows in crossflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow. 9 refs., 10 figs

  18. Kinetic instabilities in relativistic plasmas: the Harris instability revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautz, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma instabilities that generate aperiodic fluctuations are of outstanding importance in the astrophysical context. Two prominent examples are the electromagnetic Weibel instability and the electrostatic Harris instability, which operate in initially non-magnetized and magnetized plasmas, respectively. In this talk, the original formulation of the Harris instability will be reviewed and generalizations will be presented such as the inclusion of (1) relativistic effects, (2) ion effects, and (3) mode coupling. It will be shown that, with these modifications, a powerful method has been developed for the determination of both the existence and the growth rate of low-frequency instabilities. Applications can be found in astrophysical jets, where the rest frame can be used and so no parallel motion is present. At the end of the talk, how the particle composition of gamma-ray burst jets can be predicted using the Harris technique. (author)

  19. Instabilities in the aether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, Sean M.; Dulaney, Timothy R.; Gresham, Moira I.; Tam, Heywood

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the stability of theories in which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously broken by fixed-norm vector 'aether' fields. Models with generic kinetic terms are plagued either by ghosts or by tachyons, and are therefore physically unacceptable. There are precisely three kinetic terms that are not manifestly unstable: a sigma model (∂ μ A ν ) 2 , the Maxwell Lagrangian F μν F μν , and a scalar Lagrangian (∂ μ A μ ) 2 . The timelike sigma-model case is well defined and stable when the vector norm is fixed by a constraint; however, when it is determined by minimizing a potential there is necessarily a tachyonic ghost, and therefore an instability. In the Maxwell and scalar cases, the Hamiltonian is unbounded below, but at the level of perturbation theory there are fewer degrees of freedom and the models are stable. However, in these two theories there are obstacles to smooth evolution for certain choices of initial data.

  20. Posterolateral elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Nielsen, K K

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-five osteoligamentous elbows were included in a study on the kinematics of posterolateral elbow joint instability during the pivot shift test (PST) before and after separate ligament cuttings in the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC). Division of the annular ligament or the lateral...... ulnar collateral ligament caused no laxity during the PST. Division of the lateral collateral ligament caused maximal laxity of 4 degrees and 23 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. Cutting of the LCLC at the ulnar or the humeral insertion was necessary...... for any PST stressed elbow joint laxity to occur. Total division of the LCLC induced a maximal laxity of 7.9 degrees and 37 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be the primary soft tissue constraint...

  1. Instabilities in electromagnetic quasilevitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spragg, Kirk; Letout, Sebastien; Ernst, R; Sneyd, Alfred; Fautrelle, Yves

    2014-05-01

    We investigate free-surface instabilities occurring in various industrial processes involving liquid metal. Of particular interest is the behavior of the free surface of a pool of liquid metal when it is submitted to an alternating magnetic field. Experimentally, we study the effect of a vertical alternating medium-frequency magnetic field on an initially circular pool. We observe various types of behavior according to magnetic field amplitude, e.g., axisymmetric deformations, azimuthal mode structures, slow radial oscillation of the pool perimeter, and random rotation of the pool around its center. Drop rotation could be attributed to nonsymmetric shape deformations. The effect of oxidation leads to drastic changes in pool behavior. The experimental results are then compared to a linear stability analysis of the free surface of a circular liquid drop.

  2. From instabilities to multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, P.; Jacquot, B.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to show that, in many physical situations, the spinodal decomposition of unstable systems can be correctly described by stochastic mean-field approaches. Such theories predict that the occurrence of spinodal instability leading the multifragmentation of an expended nuclear system, can be signed through the observation of time scales for the fragment formation of the order of 100 fm/c and of typical fragment size around A=20. We will finally discuss the fact that these fragments are formed at finite temperature and so can subsequently decay in flight. Finally, we will give some hints about possible experimental signals of such first order phase transitions. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs

  3. From instabilities to multifragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, P.; Jacquot, B. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The main purpose of this article is to show that, in many physical situations, the spinodal decomposition of unstable systems can be correctly described by stochastic mean-field approaches. Such theories predict that the occurrence of spinodal instability leading the multifragmentation of an expended nuclear system, can be signed through the observation of time scales for the fragment formation of the order of 100 fm/c and of typical fragment size around A=20. We will finally discuss the fact that these fragments are formed at finite temperature and so can subsequently decay in flight. Finally, we will give some hints about possible experimental signals of such first order phase transitions. (authors). 12 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Saturation of equatorial inertial instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.; Carnevale, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vortices in a uniformly rotating system ( $f$f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other

  5. Internal rotor friction instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  6. Numerical methods on flow instabilities in steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Hideki

    2008-06-01

    The phenomenon of two-phase flow instability is important for the design and operation of many industrial systems and equipment, such as steam generators. The designer's job is to predict the threshold of flow instability in order to design around it or compensate for it. So it is essential to understand the physical phenomena governing such instability and to develop computational tools to model the dynamics of boiling systems. In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, investigations on heat transfer characteristics of steam generator are being performed for the development of Sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor. As one part of the research work, the evaluations of two-phase flow instability in the steam generator are being carried out experimentally and numerically. In this report, the numerical methods were studied for two-phase flow instability analysis in steam generator. For numerical simulation purpose, the special algorithm to calculate inlet flow rate iteratively with inlet pressure and outlet pressure as boundary conditions for the density-wave instability analysis was established. There was no need to solve property derivatives and large matrices, so the spurious numerical instabilities caused by discontinuous property derivatives at boiling boundaries were avoided. Large time-step was possible. The flow instability in single heat transfer tube was successfully simulated with homogeneous equilibrium model by using the present algorithm. Then the drift-flux model including the effects of subcooled boiling and two phase slip was adopted to improve the accuracy. The computer code was developed after selecting the correlations of drift velocity and distribution parameter. The capability of drift flux model together with the present algorithm for simulating density-wave instability in single tube was confirmed. (author)

  7. Dynamical Instability and Soliton Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartavenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is noted that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The spinodal instability and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may compensate each other and lead to stable quasi-soliton type objects. The simple analytical model is presented to illustrate this physical picture. The time evolution of an initially compressed cold nuclear system is analysed in the framework of the inverse mean-field method. It is demonstrated that the nonlinearity and dispersion terms of the evolution equations can lead to clusterization in the final channel. 8 p

  8. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions

  9. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.

  10. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  11. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular

  12. Thermal shrinkage for shoulder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Alison P; Warren, Russell F; Petrigliano, Frank A; Doward, David A; Cordasco, Frank A; Altchek, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2011-07-01

    Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent shoulder stabilization surgery with thermal capsular shrinkage using a monopolar radiofrequency device. Follow-up included a subjective outcome questionnaire, discussion of pain, instability, and activity level. Mean follow-up was 3.3 years (range 2.0-4.7 years). The thermal capsular shrinkage procedure failed due to instability and/or pain in 31% of shoulders at a mean time of 39 months. In patients with unidirectional anterior instability and those with concomitant labral repair, the procedure proved effective. Patients with multidirectional instability had moderate success. In contrast, four of five patients with isolated posterior instability failed. Thermal capsular shrinkage has been advocated for the treatment of shoulder instability, particularly mild to moderate capsular laxity. The ease of the procedure makes it attractive. However, our retrospective review revealed an overall failure rate of 31% in 80 patients with 2-year minimum follow-up. This mid- to long-term cohort study adds to the literature lacking support for thermal capsulorrhaphy in general, particularly posterior instability. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9187-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  13. Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.

  14. Water level measurement uncertainty during BWR instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, R.C.; Derbidge, T.C.; Healzer, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance of the water-level measurement system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) during severe instability oscillations which, under some circumstances, can occur during an anticipated transient without SCRAM (ATWS). Test data from a prototypical mock-up of the water-level measurement system was used to refine and calibrate a water-level measurement system model. The model was then used to predict level measurement system response, using as boundary conditions vessel pressures calculated by ppercase RETRAN for an ATWS/instability event.The results of the study indicate that rapid pressure changes in the reactor pressure vessel which cause oscillations in downcomer water level, coupled with differences in instrument line lengths, can produce errors in the sensed water level. Using nominal parameters for the measurement system components, a severe instability transient which produced a 0.2 m peak-to-minimum water-level oscillation in the vessel downcomer was predicted to produce pressure difference equivalent to a 0.7 m level oscillation at the input to the differential pressure transmitter, 0.5 m oscillation at the output of the transmitter, and an oscillation of 0.3 m on the water-level indicator in the control room. The level measurement system error, caused by downcomer water-level oscillations and instrument line length differential, is mitigated by damping both in the differential pressure transmitter used to infer level and in the control room display instrument. ((orig.))

  15. Neutrino signal from pair-instability supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Warren P.; Gilmer, Matthew S.; Fröhlich, Carla; Kneller, James P.

    2017-11-01

    A very massive star with a carbon-oxygen core in the range of 64M ⊙Earth from two, one-dimensional pair-instability supernova simulations which bracket the mass range of stars which explode by this mechanism taking into account the full time and energy dependence of the neutrino emission and the flavor evolution through the outer layers of the star. We calculate the neutrino signals in five different detectors chosen to represent present or near future designs. We find the more massive progenitors explode as pair-instability supernova which can easily be detected in multiple different neutrino detectors at the "standard" supernova distance of 10 kpc producing several events in DUNE, JUNO, and Super-Kamiokande, while the lightest progenitors produce only a handful of events (if any) in the same detectors. The proposed Hyper-Kamiokande detector would detect neutrinos from a large pair-instability supernova as far as ˜50 kpc allowing it to reach the Megallanic Clouds and the several very high mass stars known to exist there.

  16. Functional Instability of the Ankle Joint: Etiopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan ÖRSÇELİK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ankle sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. Chronic ankle instability is a common complication of ankle sprains. Two causes of chronic ankle instability are mechanical instability and functional instability. It is important to understand functional instability etiopathogenesis of the ankle joint in order to guide diagnosis and treatment. This article aims to understand the etiopathogenesis of functional ankle instability.

  17. Size effects on cavitation instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2006-01-01

    growth is here analyzed for such cases. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is applied for a power-law hardening material, and the numerical analyses are carried out for an axisymmetric unit cell containing a spherical void. In the range of high stress...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...... as the void grows to a size well above the characteristic material length....

  18. Resistive instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, P.H.

    1985-10-01

    Low-m tearing modes constitute the dominant instability problem in present-day tokamaks. In this lecture, the stability criteria for representative current profiles with q(0)-values slightly less than unit are reviewed; ''sawtooth'' reconnection to q(0)-values just at, or slightly exceeding, unity is generally destabilizing to the m = 2, n = 1 and m = 3, n = 2 modes, and severely limits the range of stable profile shapes. Feedback stabilization of m greater than or equal to 2 modes by rf heating or current drive, applied locally at the magnetic islands, appears feasible; feedback by island current drive is much more efficient, in terms of the radio-frequency power required, then feedback by island heating. Feedback stabilization of the m = 1 mode - although yielding particularly beneficial effects for resistive-tearing and high-beta stability by allowing q(0)-values substantially below unity - is more problematical, unless the m = 1 ideal-MHD mode can be made positively stable by strong triangular shaping of the central flux surfaces. Feedback techniques require a detectable, rotating MHD-like signal; the slowing of mode rotation - or the excitation of non-rotating modes - by an imperfectly conducting wall is also discussed

  19. Sheared Electroconvective Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.

  20. Surface wave instability in bounded magnetized plasma with inhomogeneous particle stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, D.; Vukovic, S. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Inst. za Fiziku)

    1981-02-01

    The instability of surface wave modes in a semi infinite magnetoactive plasma with a non-homogeneous particle stream is studied. The existence of two possible mechanisms for the development of the instability: induced anomalous Doppler effect and induced Cherenkov effect is demonstrated. Related growth-rates and stability criteria are calculated.

  1. Surface wave instability in bounded magnetized plasma with inhomogeneous particle stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, D.; Vukovic, S.

    1981-01-01

    The instability of surface wave modes in a semi infinite magnetoactive plasma with a non-homogeneous particle stream is studied. The existence of two possible mechanisms for the development of the instability: induced anomalous Doppler effect and induced Cherenkov effect is demonstrated. Related growth-rates and stability criteria are calculated. (author)

  2. Effect of dust on tilted electrostatic resistive instability in a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Jasvendra; Singh, Sukhmander; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of negatively charged dust on resistive instability corresponding to the electrostatic wave is investigated in a Hall thruster plasma when this purely azimuthal wave is tilted and strong axial component of wave vector is developed. Analytical calculations are done to obtain the relevant dispersion equation, which is solved numerically to investigate the growth rate of the instability. The magnitude of the growth rate in the plasma having dust particles is found to be much smaller than the case of pure plasma. However, the instability grows faster for the increasing dust density and the higher charge on the dust particles. The higher magnetic field is also found to support the instability.

  3. Tunnelling instability via perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graffi, S. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Grecchi, V. (Moderna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Jona-Lasinio, G. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies)

    1984-10-21

    The semiclassical limit of low lying states in a multiwell potential is studied by rigorous perturbative techniques. In particular tunnelling instability and localisation of wave functions is obtained in a simple way under small deformations of symmetric potentials.

  4. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John

    2011-01-01

    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations

  5. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  6. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...... exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie...

  7. Predicting Catastrophic BGP Routing Instabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Lien

    2004-01-01

    .... Currently, this critical function is performed by the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) version 4 RF01771. Like all routing protocols, BGP is vulnerable to instabilities that reduce its effectiveness...

  8. WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoje Pašić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.

  9. Shear instabilities in perfect bcc crystals during simulated tensile tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, M.; Šesták, P.; Pokluda, J.; Šob, Mojmír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), 014117/1-014117/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0311 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : instabilities * tensile test * bcc metals * ab initio calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013

  10. Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takanaka

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.

  11. Turing instability in reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E. P., E-mail: zemskov@ccas.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Dorodnicyn Computing Center (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    The Turing instability is studied in two-component reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion terms, and the regions in parametric space where Turing patterns can form are determined. The boundaries between super- and subcritical bifurcations are found. Calculations are performed for one-dimensional brusselator and oregonator models.

  12. Instability study during implosion in the Tupa Theta-Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayama, M.E.; Boeckelmann, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of instabilities which occur during plasma heating in a Theta Pinch, in the implosion phase, is analysed. The plasma diagnostic was done by ultrafast photography and diamagnetic probe. The implosion time and the current layer thickness were calculated using a hybrid code for plasma simulation. The theoretical data were compared with the experimental ones. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Radial mode structure of curvature-driven instabilities in EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Viewgraphs describe the theoretical treatment of the radial mode structure of plasma instabilities in the Elmo Bumpy Torus. The calculation retains nonlocal structure of the modes, connects inner and outer ring regions together, uses a self-consistent finite β, includes the relativistic effects for the hot electron ring, and examines a wide range of parameters

  14. Genomic instability and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian Streffer

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Cancer, genetic mutations and developmental abnormalities are apparently associated with an increased genomic instability. Such phenomena have been frequently shown in human cancer cells in vitro and in situ. It is also well-known that individuals with a genetic predisposition for cancer proneness, such as ataxia telangiectesia, Fanconi anaemia etc. demonstrate a general high genomic instability e.g. in peripheral lymphocytes before a cancer has developed. Analogous data have been found in mice which develop a specific congenital malformation which has a genetic background. Under these aspects it is of high interest that ionising radiation can increase the genomic instability of mammalian cells after exposures in vitro an in vivo. This phenomenon is expressed 20 to 40 cell cycles after the exposure e.g. by de novo chromosomal aberrations. Such effects have been observed with high and low LET radiation, high LET radiation is more efficient. With low LET radiation a good dose response is observed in the dose range 0.2 to 2.0 Gy, Recently it has been reported that senescence and genomic instability was induced in human fibroblasts after 1 mGy carbon ions (1 in 18 cells are hit), apparently bystander effects also occurred under these conditions. The instability has been shown with DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutation and cell death. It is also transferred to the next generation of mice with respect to gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations. Several mechanisms have been discussed. The involvement of telomeres has gained interest. Genomic instability seems to be induced by a general lesion to the whole genome. The transmission of one chromosome from an irradiated cell to an non-irradiated cell leads to genomic instability in the untreated cells. Genomic instability increases mutation rates in the affected cells in general. As radiation late effects (cancer, gene mutations and congenital

  15. Aerodynamic instability: A case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The identification, diagnosis, and final correction of complex machinery malfunctions typically require the correlation of many parameters such as mechanical construction, process influence, maintenance history, and vibration response characteristics. The progression is reviewed of field testing, diagnosis, and final correction of a specific machinery instability problem. The case history presented addresses a unique low frequency instability problem on a high pressure barrel compressor. The malfunction was eventually diagnosed as a fluidic mechanism that manifested as an aerodynamic disturbance to the rotor assembly.

  16. Surgical treatment of chest instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitka, M.; Masek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the ribs is the most common thoracic injury after blunt trauma. Chest wall instability (flail chest) is a common occurrence in the presence of multiple ribs fracture. Unilateral or bilateral fractures more ribs anteriorly or posteriorly will produce enough instability that paradoxical respiratory motion results in hypoventilation of an unacceptable degree. Open approach and surgical stabilisation of the chest preserved pulmonary function, improved pain control, minimized posttraumatic deformities and shorter back to work time. (author)

  17. Beam Instabilities in Hadron Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Buffat, X; Esteban Muller, J F; Herr, W; Iadarola, G; Lasheen, A; Li, K; Oeftiger, A; Pieloni, T; Quartullo, D; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Schenk, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Tambasco, C; Timko, H; Zannini, C; Burov, A; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Mounet, N; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Niedermayer, U; Kornilov, V; White, S

    2016-01-01

    Beam instabilities cover a wide range of effects in particle accelerators and they have been the subjects of intense research for several decades. As the machines performance was pushed new mechanisms were revealed and nowadays the challenge consists in studying the interplays between all these intricate phenomena, as it is very often not possible to treat the different effects separately. The aim of this paper is to review the main mechanisms, discussing in particular the recent developments of beam instability theories and simulations.

  18. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  19. Waves and instabilities in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations

  20. Instability following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and

  1. Instability of enclosed horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  2. History of shoulder instability surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Cucchi, Davide; Butt, Usman

    2016-02-01

    The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included. The various types of shoulder instability including anterior, posterior and multidirectional instability are discussed, focussing on the history of surgical management of these topics, the current concepts and the results of available surgical interventions. The last century has seen important advancements in the understanding and treatment of shoulder instability. The transition from open to arthroscopic surgery has allowed the discovery of previously unrecognised pathologic entities and facilitated techniques to treat these. Nevertheless, open surgery still produces comparable results in the treatment of many instability-related conditions and is often required in complex or revision cases, particularly in the presence of bone loss. More high-quality research is required to better understand and characterise this spectrum of conditions so that successful evidence-based management algorithms can be developed. IV.

  3. Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fejer, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level

  4. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  5. Analytic study of resistive instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Magnus

    2003-05-01

    In a fusion plasma there is always a small amount of resistivity that may cause instabilities. Although their rather slow growth rates they can be of major importance for fusion plasma confinement. In this work a MAPLE-code was rewritten and simplified to make it possible to analytically solve the linearized MHD-equations with resistivity in an RFP-configuration. By using the MHD-equations and expanding the unknown perturbed quantities u{sub 1r}(r) and B{sub 1r}(r) as Taylor series and solving each coefficient we could get eigenvalues, dispersion relations and a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity. The new code was first used to solve two cases with no resistivity and simple unstable equilibria which after running gave the correct expected results. The difference from running the original code with these two cases was the greater speed of the calculations and the less memory needed. Then by using an ideal MHD-stable equilibrium in a plasma with no resistivity the code gave us solutions which unfortunately were not of the expected kind but the time of the calculations was still very fast. The resistivity was finally added to the code with the ideal MHD-stable equilibrium. The program also this time gave incorrect results. We could, however, see from a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity that the solution may be approximately correct in this domain. Although we did not get all the correct results we have to consider the fact that we got results, that were not possible before. Before this work was carried out we could not get any results at all in the resistive cue because of the very long memory demanding expressions. In future work and studies it is not only possible to get the desired eigenvalues {gamma} as function of {eta} but also possible to get expressions for eigenfunctions, dispersion relations and other significant relations with a number of variable parameters. We could also use the method for any geometry and possibly for

  6. Analytic study of resistive instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Magnus

    2003-05-01

    In a fusion plasma there is always a small amount of resistivity that may cause instabilities. Although their rather slow growth rates they can be of major importance for fusion plasma confinement. In this work a MAPLE-code was rewritten and simplified to make it possible to analytically solve the linearized MHD-equations with resistivity in an RFP-configuration. By using the MHD-equations and expanding the unknown perturbed quantities u 1r (r) and B 1r (r) as Taylor series and solving each coefficient we could get eigenvalues, dispersion relations and a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity. The new code was first used to solve two cases with no resistivity and simple unstable equilibria which after running gave the correct expected results. The difference from running the original code with these two cases was the greater speed of the calculations and the less memory needed. Then by using an ideal MHD-stable equilibrium in a plasma with no resistivity the code gave us solutions which unfortunately were not of the expected kind but the time of the calculations was still very fast. The resistivity was finally added to the code with the ideal MHD-stable equilibrium. The program also this time gave incorrect results. We could, however, see from a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity that the solution may be approximately correct in this domain. Although we did not get all the correct results we have to consider the fact that we got results, that were not possible before. Before this work was carried out we could not get any results at all in the resistive cue because of the very long memory demanding expressions. In future work and studies it is not only possible to get the desired eigenvalues γ as function of η but also possible to get expressions for eigenfunctions, dispersion relations and other significant relations with a number of variable parameters. We could also use the method for any geometry and possibly for non

  7. Refinements to longitudinal, single bunch, coherent instability theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscielniak, S R

    1995-06-01

    For the case of a bunched beam confined to a quadratic potential well, we demonstrate the necessity for considering mode-coupling to correctly obtain the threshold current for the d.c. instability. Further we find the effect upon growth rate and coherent tune shift of evaluating the impedance at a complex frequency. For the case of a bunched beam confined to a cosine potential well, we give an exact analytic expression for the dispersion integral, and calculate (with no approximations), the stability diagram for the Robinson instability taking into account Landau damping. This paper comprises extracts from a lengthy internal report. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Nonlinear evolution of the lower-hybrid drift instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackbill, J.U.; Forslund, D.W.; Quest, K.B.; Winske, D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of simulations of the lower-hybrid drift instability in a neutral sheet configuration are described. The simulations use an implicit formulation to relax the usual time step limitations and thus extend previous explicit calculations to weaker gradients, larger mass ratios, and long times compared with the linear growth time. The numerical results give the scaling of the saturation level, heating rates, resistivity, and cross-field diffusion and a demonstration by comparison with a fluid electron model that dissipation in the lower-hybrid drift instability is caused by electron kinetic effects

  9. Uncertainty Instability Risk Analysis of High Concrete Arch Dam Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainties associated with concrete arch dams rise with the increased height of dams. Given the uncertainties associated with influencing factors, the stability of high arch dam abutments as a fuzzy random event was studied. In addition, given the randomness and fuzziness of calculation parameters as well as the failure criterion, hazard point and hazard surface uncertainty instability risk ratio models were proposed for high arch dam abutments on the basis of credibility theory. The uncertainty instability failure criterion was derived through the analysis of the progressive instability failure process on the basis of Shannon’s entropy theory. The uncertainties associated with influencing factors were quantized by probability or possibility distribution assignments. Gaussian random theory was used to generate random realizations for influence factors with spatial variability. The uncertainty stability analysis method was proposed by combining the finite element analysis and the limit equilibrium method. The instability risk ratio was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method and fuzzy random postprocessing. Results corroborate that the modeling approach is sound and that the calculation method is feasible.

  10. Neutron star pulsations and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, L.

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational radiation (GR) drives an instability in certain modes of rotating stars. This instability is strong enough in the case of the r-modes to cause their amplitudes to grow on a timescale of tens of seconds in rapidly rotating neutron stars. GR emitted by these modes removes angular momentum from the star at a rate which would spin it down to a relatively small angular velocity within about one year, if the dimensionless amplitude of the mode grows to order unity. A pedagogical level discussion is given here on the mechanism of GR instability in rotating stars, on the relevant properties of the r-modes, and on our present understanding of the dissipation mechanisms that tend to suppress this instability in neutron stars. The astrophysical implications of this GR driven instability are discussed for young neutron stars, and for older systems such as low mass x-ray binaries. Recent work on the non-linear evolution of the r-modes is also presented. (author)

  11. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/μm) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  12. Faraday instability on patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Rubinstein, Gregory; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard

    2013-11-01

    We show how micro-scale surface patterning can be used to control the onset of the Faraday instability in thin liquid films. It is well known that when a liquid film on a planar substrate is subject to sufficient vibrational accelerations, the free surface destabilizes, exhibiting a family of non-linear standing waves. This instability remains a canonical problem in the study of spontaneous pattern formation, but also has practical uses. For example, the surface waves induced by the Faraday instability have been studied as a means of enhanced damping for mechanical vibrations (Genevaux et al. 2009). Also the streaming within the unstable layer has been used as a method for distributing heterogeneous cell cultures on growth medium (Takagi et al. 2002). In each of these applications, the roughness of the substrate significantly affects the unstable flow field. We consider the effect of patterned substrates on the onset and behavior of the Faraday instability over a range of pattern geometries and feature heights where the liquid layer is thicker than the pattern height. Also, we describe a physical model for the influence of patterned roughness on the destabilization of a liquid layer in order to improve the design of practical systems which exploit the Faraday instability.

  13. Plasma instabilities and turbulence in non-Abelian gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, Sebastian Herwig Juergen

    2010-02-17

    Several aspects of the thermalisation process in non-Abelian gauge theories are investigated. Both numerical simulations in the classical statistical approximation and analytical computations in the framework of the two-particle-irreducible effective action are carried out and their results are compared to each other. The physical quantities of central importance are the correlation functions of the gauge field in Coulomb and temporal axial gauge as well as the gauge invariant energy-momentum tensor. Following a general introduction, the theoretical framework of the ensuing investigations is outlined. In doing so, the range of validity of the employed approximation schemes is discussed as well. The first main part of the thesis is concerned with the early stage of the thermalisation process where particular emphasis is on the role of plasma instabilities. These investigations are relevant to the phenomenological understanding of present heavy ion collision experiments. First, an ensemble of initial conditions motivated by the ''colour glass condensate'' is developed which captures characteristic properties of the plasma created in heavy ion collisions. Here, the strong anisotropy and the large occupation numbers of low-momentum degrees of freedom are to be highlighted. Numerical calculations demonstrate the occurrence of two kinds of instabilities. Primary instabilities result from the specific initial conditions. Secondary instabilities are caused by nonlinear fluctuation effects of the preceding primary instabilities. The time scale associated with the instabilities is of order 1 fm/c. It is shown that the plasma instabilities isotropize the initially strongly anisotropic ensemble in the domain of low momenta (instabilities in an idealised setup is investigated. In the second part, the

  14. Plasma instabilities and turbulence in non-Abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffler, Sebastian Herwig Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Several aspects of the thermalisation process in non-Abelian gauge theories are investigated. Both numerical simulations in the classical statistical approximation and analytical computations in the framework of the two-particle-irreducible effective action are carried out and their results are compared to each other. The physical quantities of central importance are the correlation functions of the gauge field in Coulomb and temporal axial gauge as well as the gauge invariant energy-momentum tensor. Following a general introduction, the theoretical framework of the ensuing investigations is outlined. In doing so, the range of validity of the employed approximation schemes is discussed as well. The first main part of the thesis is concerned with the early stage of the thermalisation process where particular emphasis is on the role of plasma instabilities. These investigations are relevant to the phenomenological understanding of present heavy ion collision experiments. First, an ensemble of initial conditions motivated by the ''colour glass condensate'' is developed which captures characteristic properties of the plasma created in heavy ion collisions. Here, the strong anisotropy and the large occupation numbers of low-momentum degrees of freedom are to be highlighted. Numerical calculations demonstrate the occurrence of two kinds of instabilities. Primary instabilities result from the specific initial conditions. Secondary instabilities are caused by nonlinear fluctuation effects of the preceding primary instabilities. The time scale associated with the instabilities is of order 1 fm/c. It is shown that the plasma instabilities isotropize the initially strongly anisotropic ensemble in the domain of low momenta (< or similar 1 GeV). Essential results can be translated from the gauge group SU(2) to SU(3) by a simple rescaling procedure. Finally, the role of Nielsen-Olesen instabilities in an idealised setup is investigated. In the second part, the quasi

  15. Nonlinear stage of a Z-pinch instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garanin, S.F.; Chernyshev, Y.D.

    1987-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the sausage instability is analyzed for a Z-pinch with a fully developed skin effect in the current. Two-dimensional numerical calculations carried out on the sausage instability show that its occurrence leads to a stage describable by a self-similar solution when the length of the neck is fixed and the plasma compression is isentropic. At a perturbation wavelength small in comparison with the pinch radius, this stage is preceded by a stage which reduces to a nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability. The dynamics of the motion of magnetic field ''bubbles'' and of plasma ''jets'' is analyzed in this case. The plasma jets emerging from the pinch do not block the pinch from the current source

  16. Longitudinal instability of an induction linac with acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.; Lee, E.P.

    1993-05-01

    The question arises as to what effect acceleration, which so far has been ignored, has on the longitudinal instability of an induction linac. The answer is not much for the anticipated acceleration rate (1--2 MeV/m) and minimum e-folding distance for the instability (50--500 meters). However, total unstable growth is significantly reduced over distances which are long enough for appreciable acceleration to occur. The purpose of this note is to record a calculation of the instability, including a constant acceleration rate. Some interesting features emerge -- for example, the velocity of the head is a more convenient independent variable than axial position and, for an initial sinusoidal perturbation of velocity in time, the number of oscillations along the pulse is constant; as the pulse shortens in nine the frequency increases

  17. New diagnostics and cures for coupled-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.

    2000-01-01

    growth rates. The method is applicable to the calculation of instability eigenvalues in machines with more than one unstable coupled-bunch mode. This technique is useful in studying machines like PEP-II and KEK-B, which do not lend themselves to tune spread analysis by conventional methods. A similar mathematical formalism is used to understand the dynamics of azimuthally asymmetric beams. Simple formulae are derived for asymmetry-induced growth rate reduction. Optimal fill shapes based on these ideas have been experimentally verified at the ALS and SPEAR, where the longitudinal instability threshold has been raised by factors of six and two, respectively. Thus the authors have a new, zero-cost, easily implementable cure for coupled-bunch instabilities

  18. Conditions for l =1 Pomeranchuk instability in a Fermi liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Ming; Klein, Avraham; Chubukov, Andrey V.

    2018-04-01

    We perform a microscopic analysis of how the constraints imposed by conservation laws affect q =0 Pomeranchuk instabilities in a Fermi liquid. The conventional view is that these instabilities are determined by the static interaction between low-energy quasiparticles near the Fermi surface, in the limit of vanishing momentum transfer q . The condition for a Pomeranchuk instability is set by Flc (s )=-1 , where Flc (s ) (a Landau parameter) is a properly normalized partial component of the antisymmetrized static interaction F (k ,k +q ;p ,p -q ) in a charge (c) or spin (s) subchannel with angular momentum l . However, it is known that conservation laws for total spin and charge prevent Pomeranchuk instabilities for l =1 spin- and charge-current order parameters. Our study aims to understand whether this holds only for these special forms of l =1 order parameters or is a more generic result. To this end we perform a diagrammatic analysis of spin and charge susceptibilities for charge and spin density order parameters, as well as perturbative calculations to second order in the Hubbard U . We argue that for l =1 spin-current and charge-current order parameters, certain vertex functions, which are determined by high-energy fermions, vanish at Fl=1 c (s )=-1 , preventing a Pomeranchuk instability from taking place. For an order parameter with a generic l =1 form factor, the vertex function is not expressed in terms of Fl=1 c (s ), and a Pomeranchuk instability may occur when F1c (s )=-1 . We argue that for other values of l , a Pomeranchuk instability may occur at Flc (s )=-1 for an order parameter with any form factor.

  19. Kinetic theory of tearing instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Dobrott, D.; Wang, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    The guiding-center kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term is used to study, in cylindrical geometry, a class of dissipative instabilities of which the classical tearing mode is an archetype. Variational solution of the kinetic equation obviates the use of an approximate Ohm's law or adiabatic assumption, as used in previous studies, and it provides a dispersive relation which is uniformly valid for any ratio of wave frequency to collision frequency. One result of using the rigorous collision operator is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is predicted to occur under the long mean-free path conditions of present tokamak experiments, and has significant features in common with the kink-like oscillations observed in such experiments

  20. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs

  1. [Patellar instability : diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Trieu Hoai Nam; Martin, Robin

    2017-12-13

    The aim of this paper is to present recent advances in surgical management of patellar instability. Several anatomical factors were reported to promote instability. We propose to classify them in two groups. Extra articular factors are valgus and torsion deformity. Articular factors include trochlea and patella dysplasia, tibial tubercle lateralization and medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) insufficiency. Acute patellar dislocations are treated conservatively, with exception for osteochondral and MPFL avulsion fractures that require acute reinsertion. Surgery is considered for recurrent instability. As we aim for a correction of all contributing elements, we prefer a two stages approach. Extra articular factors are treated first by osteotomy, followed by articular factors after 4-6 months. This allows separate rehabilitation protocols.

  2. Pierce instability and bifurcating equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    The report investigates the connection between equilibrium bifurcations and occurrence of the Pierce instability. Electrons flowing from one ground plane to a second through an ion background possess a countable infinity of static equilibria, of which only one is uniform and force-free. Degeneracy of the uniform and simplest non-uniform equilibria at a certain ground plan separation marks the onset of the Pierce instability, based on a newly derived dispersion relation appropriate to all the equilibria. For large ground plane separations the uniform equilibrium is unstable and the non-uniform equilibrium is stable, the reverse of their stability properties at small separations. Onset of the Pierce instability at the first bifurcation of equilibria persists in more complicated geometries, providing a general criterion for marginal stability. It seems probable that bifurcation analysis can be a useful tool in the overall study of stable beam generation in diodes and transport in finite cavities

  3. Performance through Deformation and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.

  4. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  5. Instabilities in the 'on' phase of the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1990-07-01

    In the operation of large plasma focus devices, e.g. POSEIDON, there appear saturation phenomena in the neutron production when the charging energy of the condensor bank approaches its nominal value. This saturation is attributed to the action of impurities. It is assumed that there appear instabilities which are in part caused by impurities. In order to be able to answer this question, the linear dispersion relation was derived from a three-fluid theory (electrons, ions and neutrals) with the aid of the computer algebra (CA) code MACSYMA. The inversion of the 17x17 matrix (it is assumed that v a =v i and T a =T i ) and solution of the determinant was carried out on a CONVEX C 120 computer using the CA code MAPLE. The calculation of the zeros was done with a modified CPZERO program from the SLATEC library. There appear four instabilities in the rundown phase of the plasma focus, two of them gradient driven. The first two are unstable electrostatic waves with very high phase velocities, thus they do not contribute to anomalous dissipation. The third is identified as a gradient driven space charge instability which may possibly lead to current chopping. The electron acoustic wave instability, here gradient driven, is the fourth. It was found in a previous study of MPD thruster instabilities. (orig.)

  6. A variational approach to parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afeyan, B.B.

    1993-12-31

    A variational principle is constructed for the pump strength of a three-wave parametric instability in a spatially nonuniform medium. Using this expression together with appropriate trial functions, analytic estimates of the growth rate of the most unstable mode of a given parametric instability may be calculated. The usefullness of the variational method is first demonstrated on the Rosenbluth model problem with a power-law phase-mismatch, followed by a treatment of the Liu, Rosenbluth, and White sidescattering model equation. Two particular instabilities which are of interest in laser fusion and laser-plasma interaction experiments are treated next. These are Stimulated Raman Scattering and Two-Plasmon Decay. Various incidence and scattering geometries, and different density profiles are considered. Previously known results are reproduced in a unified manner and extended to cases where the usual local-expansion techniques do not apply. In particular, using the variational approach, the growth rate of the Two-Plasmon Decay instability occurring at or anywhere below the apex of a parabolic density profile is obtained for the first time. Similarly, Stimulated Raman Scattering from a density extremum at or anywhere below quarter critical, and for all scattering angles from backscattering to sidescattering inclusively is considered for the first time. The limit where the Two-Plasmon Decay and Stimulated Raman Scattering instabilities merge and become indistinguishable is also treated.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Three-dimensional Instability of Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2002-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing waves under the influence of gravity using the transition matrix method. For accurate calculation of the transition matrices, we apply an efficient high-order spectral element method for nonlinear wave dynamics in complex domain. We consider two types of standing waves: (a) plane standing waves; and (b) standing waves in a circular tank. For the former, in addition to the confirmation of the side-band-like instability, we find a new three-dimensional instability for arbitrary base standing waves. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique standing wave, with an arbitrary angle relative to the base flow, whose frequency is approximately equal to that of the base standing wave. Based on direct simulations, we confirm such a three-dimensional instability and show the occurrence of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon during nonlinear evolution. For the latter, we find that beyond a threshold wave steepness, the standing wave with frequency Ω becomes unstable to a small three-dimensional disturbance, which contains two dominant standing-wave components with frequencies ω1 and ω_2, provided that 2Ω ω1 + ω_2. The threshold wave steepness is found to decrease/increase as the radial/azimuthal wavenumber of the base standing wave increases. We show that the instability of standing waves in rectangular and circular tanks is caused by third-order quartet resonances between base flow and disturbance.

  8. Instabilities of higher dimensional compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accetta, F.S.

    1987-02-01

    Various schemes for cosmological compactification of higher dimensional theories are considered. Possible instabilities which drive the ground state with static internal space to de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions are discussed. These instabilities are due to semiclassical barrier penetration and classical thermal fluctuations. For the case of the ten dimensional Chapline-Manton action, it is possible to avoid such difficulties by balancing one-loop Casimir corrections against monopole contributions from the field strength H/sub MNP/ and fermionic condensates. 10 refs

  9. Radiation-induced transgenerational instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrova, Yuri E

    2003-10-13

    To date, the analysis of mutation induction has provided an irrefutable evidence for an elevated germline mutation rate in the parents directly exposed to ionizing radiation and a number of chemical mutagens. However, the results of numerous publications suggest that radiation may also have an indirect effect on genome stability, which is transmitted through the germ line of irradiated parents to their offspring. This review describes the phenomenon of transgenerational instability and focuses on the data showing increased cancer incidence and elevated mutation rates in the germ line and somatic tissues of the offspring of irradiated parents. The possible mechanisms of transgenerational instability are also discussed.

  10. Taming Instabilities in Plasma Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, T.; Krahnstover, N. O.; Mausbach, T.; Piel, A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental work on taming instabilities in plasma discharges is discussed. Instead of suppressing instabilities, it is desired to achieve control over their dynamics, done by perturbing appropriately the current flow in the external circuit of the discharge. Different discrete and continuous feedback as well as open-loop control schemes are applied. Chaotic oscillations in plasma diodes are controlled using the OGY discrete feedback scheme. This is demonstrated both in experiment and computer simulation. Weakly developed ionization wave turbulence is tamed by continuous feedback control. Open-loop control of stochastic fluctuations - stochastic resonance - is demonstrated in a thermionic plasma diode. (author)

  11. Helical instability in film blowing process: Analogy to buckling instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Sung; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun

    2017-12-01

    The film blowing process is one of the most important polymer processing operations, widely used for producing bi-axially oriented film products in a single-step process. Among the instabilities observed in this film blowing process, i.e., draw resonance and helical motion occurring on the inflated film bubble, the helical instability is a unique phenomenon portraying the snake-like undulation motion of the bubble, having the period on the order of few seconds. This helical instability in the film blowing process is commonly found at the process conditions of a high blow-up ratio with too low a freezeline position and/or too high extrusion temperature. In this study, employing an analogy to the buckling instability for falling viscous threads, the compressive force caused by the pressure difference between inside and outside of the film bubble is introduced into the simulation model along with the scaling law derived from the force balance between viscous force and centripetal force of the film bubble. The simulation using this model reveals a close agreement with the experimental results of the film blowing process of polyethylene polymers such as low density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene.

  12. Flute instability in the plasma shell of the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the plasma shell of the earth's magnetosphere, the surfaces of constant pressure may not coincide with surfaces of constant specific volume. This circumstance forces a reexamination of the theory for the flute instability, in which the pressure has been assumed to remain constant on surfaces of constant specific volume. The MHD equations for flute waves in a curvilinear magnetic field are used to show that an instability of a new type, with a pressure which does not remain constant on surfaces of constant specific volume, can occur in the plasma shell of the magnetosphere. An expression is derived for the growth rate of this instability. Analysis of the equation also shows that perturbations with wavelengths shorter than the ion Larmor radius are stable by virtue of magnetodrift effects. The growth rates of the flute instabilities are calculated for both a dipole magnetic field and an arbitrary magnetic-field configuration. Growth rates calculated for typical values of the characteristics of the earth's plasma shell are reported

  13. CONTAIN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtyssek, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the first phase of a benchmark comparison, the CONTAIN code was used to calculate an assumed EPR accident 'medium-sized leak in the cold leg', especially for the first two days after initiation of the accident. The results for global characteristics compare well with those of FIPLOC, MELCOR and WAVCO calculations, if the same materials data are used as input. However, significant differences show up for local quantities such as flows through leakages. (orig.)

  14. Lending sociodynamics and economic instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2011-11-01

    We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.

  15. Kinetic theory of Jeans instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trigger, S.A.; Ershkovic, A.I.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Schram, P.P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic treatment of the Jeans gravitational instability, with collisions taken into account, is presented. The initial-value problem for the distribution function which obeys the kinetic equation, with the collision integral conserving the number of particles, is solved. Dispersion relation is

  16. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  17. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.

  18. Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Y

    2013-01-01

    Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines, hydro turbines and turbopump inducers, are reviewed focusing on the cause of instabilities. One-dimensional model of hydro turbine system shows that the overload surge is caused by the diffuser effect of the draft tube. Experiments show that this effect also causes the surge mode oscillations at part load. One dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that the mass flow gain factor, representing the cavity volume increase caused by the incidence angle increase is the cause of cavitation surge and rotating cavitation. Two dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that various modes of cavitation instabilities start to occur when the cavity length becomes about 65% of the blade spacing. This is caused by the interaction of the local flow near the cavity trailing edge with the leading edge of the next blade. It was shown by a 3D CFD that this is true also for real cases with tip cavitation. In all cases, it was shown that cavitation instabilities are caused by the fundamental characteristics of cavities that the cavity volume increases with the decrease of ambient pressure or the increase of the incidence angle

  19. Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Singleton, D B [Australian National Univ., ANU Supercomputing Facility, Canberra (Australia); Dewar, R L [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1995-08-01

    The recent revival of interest in the application of the `ballooning formalism` to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs.

  20. Spectrum of ballooning instabilities in a stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.A.; Singleton, D.B.; Dewar, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    The recent revival of interest in the application of the 'ballooning formalism' to low-frequency plasma instabilities has prompted a comparison of the Wentzel-Brillouin-Kramers (WKB) ballooning approximation with an (in principle) exact normal mode calculation for a three-dimensional plasma equilibrium. Semiclassical quantization, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning eigenvalue to provide a local dispersion relation, is applied to a ten-field period stellarator test case. Excellent qualitative agreement, and good quantitative agreement is found with predictions from the TERPSICHORE code for toroidal mode numbers from 1 to 14 and radial mode numbers from 0 to 2. The continuum bands predicted from three-dimensional WKB theory are too narrow to resolve. (author) 3 figs., 24 refs

  1. Financial instability from local market measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardoscia, Marco; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We study the emergence of instabilities in a stylized model of a financial market, when different market actors calculate prices according to different (local) market measures. We derive typical properties for ensembles of large random markets using techniques borrowed from statistical mechanics of disordered systems. We show that, depending on the number of financial instruments available and on the heterogeneity of local measures, the market moves from an arbitrage-free phase to an unstable one, where the complexity of the market—as measured by the diversity of financial instruments—increases, and arbitrage opportunities arise. A sharp transition separates the two phases. Focusing on two different classes of local measures inspired by real market strategies, we are able to analytically compute the critical lines, corroborating our findings with numerical simulations. (paper)

  2. Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Atsushi; Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2000-01-01

    Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)

  3. Rotational instabilities in field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.A.M.; Tsui, K.H.; Ponciano, B.M.B.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The rotational instability (n = 2 toroidal mode) in field reversed configurations (FRC) using the ideal MHD equations in cylindrical geometry is studied. These equations are solved using a realistic densite profile, and the influence of some plasma parameters on the growth rate is analysed. The model shows good qualitative results. The growth rate increases rapidly as rotational frequency goes up and the mode m = 2 dominates over the m = 1 mode. With the variation of the density profile, it is observed that the growth rate decreases as the density dip at the center fills up. Calculated value ranges from 1/2 to 1/7 of the rotational frequency Ω whereas the measured value is around Ω/50. The developed analysis is valid for larger machines. The influence of the plasma resistivity on the mode stabilization is also analysed. The resistivity, which is the fundamental factor in the formation of compact torus, tends to decrease the growth rate. (author) [pt

  4. Investigation of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonazza, Riccardo; Anderson, Mark; Oakley, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The present program is centered on the experimental study of shock-induced interfacial fluid instabilities. Both 2-D (near-sinusoids) and 3-D (spheres) initial conditions are studied in a large, vertical square shock tube facility. The evolution of the interface shape, its distortion, the modal growth rates and the mixing of the fluids at the interface are all objectives of the investigation. In parallel to the experiments, calculations are performed using the Raptor code, on platforms made available by LLNL. These flows are of great relevance to both ICF and stockpile stewardship. The involvement of three graduate students is in line with the national laboratories interest in the education of scientists and engineers in disciplines and technologies consistent with the labs missions and activities.

  5. Investigations of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonazza, Riccardo; Anderson, Mark; Oakley, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The present program is centered on the experimental study of shock-induced interfacial fluid instabilities. Both 2-D (near-sinusoids) and 3-D (spheres) initial conditions are studied in a large, vertical square shock tube facility. The evolution of the interface shape, its distortion, the modal growth rates and the mixing of the fluids at the interface are all objectives of the investigation. In parallel to the experiments, calculations are performed using the Raptor code, on platforms made available by LLNL. These flows are of great relevance to both ICF and stockpile stewardship. The involvement of four graduate students is in line with the national laboratories interest in the education of scientists and engineers in disciplines and technologies consistent with the labs missions and activities.

  6. Nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.; Drake, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability is presented in a simple one-dimensional magnetized plasma. It is shown that the radiative condensation is typically a nonlinear instability---the growth of the instability is stronger once the disturbance reaches finite amplitude. Moreover, classical parallel thermal conduction is insufficient by itself to saturate the instability. Radiative collapse continues until the temperature in the high density condensation falls sufficiently to reduce the radiation rate

  7. Dynamic ultrasound of peroneal tendon instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Guillo, Stéphane; Poussange, Nicolas; Pele, Eric; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudière, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Ankle snapping may be caused by peroneal tendon instability. Anterior instability occurs after traumatic superior peroneal retinaculum injury, whereas peroneal tendon intrasheath subluxation is atraumatic. Whereas subluxation is mainly dynamic, ultrasound allows for the diagnosis and classification of peroneal instability because it allows for real-time exploration. The purpose of this review is to describe the anatomic and physiologic bases for peroneal instability and to heighten the role of dynamic ultrasound in the diagnosis of snapping.

  8. A general approach to optomechanical parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.; Barsotti, L.; Fritschel, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple feedback description of parametric instabilities which can be applied to a variety of optical systems. Parametric instabilities are of particular interest to the field of gravitational-wave interferometry where high mechanical quality factors and a large amount of stored optical power have the potential for instability. In our use of Advanced LIGO as an example application, we find that parametric instabilities, if left unaddressed, present a potential threat to the stability of high-power operation.

  9. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew; Gras, Slawek; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana X; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Adams, Carl; Aston, Stuart; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; Pele, Arnaud; Romie, Janeen; Thomas, Michael; Thorne, Keith; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Sigg, Daniel; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Heinze, Matthew; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong

    2015-04-24

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this Letter, we describe the first observation of parametric instability in a gravitational wave detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.

  10. Casimir effect and thermodynamics of horizon instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dual thermodynamic description of a classical instability of generalized black hole spacetimes. From a thermodynamic perspective, the instability is due to negative compressibility in regions where the Casimir pressure is large. The argument indicates how the correspondence between thermodynamic and classical instability for horizons may be extended to cases without translational invariance

  11. Generalized laser filamentation instability coupled to cooling instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.; Wong, J.; Garrison, J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider the propagation of laser light in an initially slightly nonuniform plasma. The classical dispersion relation for the laser filamentation growth rate (see e.g., B. Langdon, in the 1980 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laser Program Annual Report, pp. 3-56, UCRL-50021-80, 1981) can be generalized to include other acoustical effects. For example, we find that the inclusion of potential imbalances in the heating and cooling rates of the ambient medium due to density and temperature perturbations can cause the laser filamentation mode to bifurcate into a cooling instability mode at long acoustic wavelengths. We also attempt to study semi-analytically the nonlinear evolution of this and related instabilities. These results have wide applications to a variety of chemical gas lasers and phenomena related to laser-target interactions (e.g., jet-like behavior)

  12. Nonlinear growth of the quasi-interchange instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1988-07-01

    In this paper nonlinear effects on the growth of a pressure-driven, interchange-like mode are investigated. This mode is thought to be responsible for the sawtooth crashes observed in JET and successfully accounts for most of their features. The analysis presented here differs from previous bifurcation calculations by the inclusion of toroidal coupling effects. Toroidal curvature, which is important for pressure-driven modes, destroys the helical symmetry which is typical of kink-like instabilities. 14 refs., 3 figs

  13. Longitudinal instability in heavy-ion-fusion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1993-05-01

    A induction linac accelerating a high-current pulse of heavy ions at subrelativistic velocities is predicted to exhibit unstable growth of current fluctuations. An overview is given of the mode character, estimates of growth rates, and their application to an IFE driver. The present and projected effort to understand and ameliorate the instability is described. This includes particle-in-cell simulations, calculation and measurements of impedance, and design of feedback controls

  14. Hydromagnetic Waves and Instabilities in Kappa Distribution Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    perpendicular effective particle temperatures, respec- tively. Two other parameters related to pM and pnl which naturally occur in the study of...role in determin- ing the excitation conditions of the field swelling and mirror instabilities [see Eqs. (60) and (65)]. Calculating pnl /pni from Eq...more convenient form of the perturbed distribution function /„ that may be used in- stead of Eq. (12) to obtain nn, pM, and pnl given by Eqs. (72

  15. Analog model for analysis of spatial instability of neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radanovic, Lj.

    1964-12-01

    The objective of this task was to develop a model for analysing spatial instability of the neutron flux and defining the optimum number and position of regulating rods. The developed model enables calculation of higher harmonics to be taken into account for each type of reactor, to define zones for regulation rods, position and number of points for detecting reactor state, and number and position of the regulating rods

  16. Nonlinear saturation of dissipative trapped ion instability and anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada.

    1977-04-01

    An expression for the turbulent collision frequency is derived by summing up the most dominant terms from each order in the perturbation expansion in order to obtain the nonlinear saturation level of the dissipative trapped ion instability. Numerical calculation shows that the anomalous diffusion coefficient at the saturated state is in good agreement with the result of Kadomtsev and Pogutse when the effect of the magnetic shear is taken into account. (auth.)

  17. Pion condensation and instabilities: current theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-05-01

    Current calculations of pion condensation phenomena in symmetric nuclear matter are reviewed. The RPA and MFA methods are compared. Latest results [LBL-10572] with a relativistic MFA theory constrained by bulk nuclear properties are presented. The differences between equilibrium (condensation) and nonequilibrium (dynamic) instabilities are discussed. Finally, two-proton correlation experiments aimed at looking for critical scattering phenomena and two-pion correlation experiments aimed at looking for pion field coherence are analyzed. 10 figures, 2 tables

  18. History and Physical Examination for Shoulder Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Col Chad A

    2017-09-01

    Glenohumeral instability frequently occurs in young active individuals especially those engaged in athletic and military activities. With advanced imaging and arthroscopic evaluation, our understanding of the injury patterns associated with instability has significantly improved. The majority of instability results from a traumatic anterior event which presents with common findings in the history, examination, and imaging studies. As such, a comprehensive evaluation of the patient is important to correctly diagnose the instability patterns and thus provide appropriate treatment intervention. With the correct diagnosis and improved surgical techniques, the majority of patients with instability can return to preinjury levels.

  19. Electromagnetic theory of the radiative Pierce instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klochkov, D.N.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    A study is made of the radiative Pierce instability of a relativistic electron beam propagating in a waveguide in the presence of an infinitely strong magnetic field. The perturbation theory is used to find the growth rates and conditions of instability over a broad range of the beam current. It is shown that, under the Pierce boundary conditions, the instability is Raman in nature, and there is no current threshold for the instability. This allows the instability saturation level to be accurately determined from the condition for the violation of the Cherenkov resonance and the radiation efficiency to be estimated

  20. Feedback control of resistive instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Furth, H.P.; Park, W.; Liu Chen

    1986-01-01

    Resistive instabilities are responsible for much of the global behavior and the determination of the possible domains of operation of Tokamaks. Their successful control could have definite advantages, even making available new regimes of operation. Elimination of sawtoothing might allow operation with higher currents and more peaked current profiles, with q on axis well below unity. In this work different feedback schemes are explored. Simple analytical derivations of the effects of local heating and current drive feedback are presented. Although control of modes with m ≥ 2 is fairly straighforward, the control of the m = 1 mode is more difficult because of its proximity to ideal instability. The most promising scheme utilizes high energy trapped particles

  1. Instability after total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Brown, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Instability following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an unfortunately frequent and serious problem that requires thorough evaluation and preoperative planning before surgical intervention. Prevention through optimal index surgery is of great importance, as the management of an unstable THA is challenging even for an experienced joints surgeon. However, even after well-planned surgery, a significant incidence of recurrent instability still exists. Non-operative management is often successful if the components are well-fixed and correctly positioned in the absence of neurocognitive disorders. If conservative management fails, surgical options include revision of malpositioned components; exchange of modular components such as the femoral head and acetabular liner; bipolar arthroplasty; tripolar arthroplasty; use of a larger femoral head; use of a constrained liner; soft tissue reinforcement and advancement of the greater trochanter. PMID:22919568

  2. Feedback control of resistive instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Furth, H.P.; Park, W.; Chen, L.

    1985-12-01

    Resistive instabilities are responsible for much of the global behavior and the determination of the possible domains of operation of tokamaks. Their successful control could have definite advantages, even making available new regimes of operation. Elimination of sawtoothing might allow operation with higher currents and more peaked current profiles, with q on axis well below unity. In this work different feedback schemes are explored. Simple analytical derivations of the effects of local heating and current drive feedback are presented. Although control of modes with m greater than or equal to 2 is fairly straightforward, the control of the m = 1 mode is more difficult because of its proximity to ideal instability. The most promising scheme utilizes high energy trapped particles. 20 refs., 3 figs

  3. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth

    2011-01-21

    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  4. A cosmic ray driven instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfi, E. A.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homogeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves.

  5. Modulational instability of coupled waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstrie, C.J.; Bingham, R.

    1989-01-01

    The collinear propagation of an arbitrary number of finite-amplitude waves is modeled by a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations; one equation for each complex wave amplitude. In general, the waves are modulationally unstable with a maximal growth rate larger than the modulational growth rate of any wave alone. Moreover, waves that are modulationally stable by themselves can be driven unstable by the nonlinear coupling. The general theory is then applied to the relativistic modulational instability of two laser beams in a beat-wave accelerator. For parameters typical of a proposed beat-wave accelerator, this instability can seriously distort the incident laser pulse shapes on the particle-acceleration time scale, with detrimental consequences for particle acceleration

  6. Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive series of experiments has been conducted on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime. Two-mode foils allow a first direct observation of mode coupling. Surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes

  7. Finite temperature instability for compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accetta, F.S.; Kolb, E.W.

    1986-03-01

    We consider finite temperature effects upon theories with extra dimensions compactified via vacuum stress energy (Casimir) effects. For sufficiently high temperature, a static configuration for the internal space is impossible. At somewhat lower temperatures, there is an instability due to thermal fluctuations of radius of the compact dimensions. For both cases, the Universe can evolve to a de Sitter-like expansion of all dimensions. Stability to late times constrains the initial entropy of the universe. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Instability of colliding metastable strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research

    2013-04-15

    We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.

  9. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sheppard, E.J. [Tuskeggee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  10. Instability of colliding metastable strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Kyoto Univ.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.

  11. Chromosomal instability induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents. For instance, some cells surviving exposure to ionizing radiations show delayed reproductive cell death, delayed mutation and / or delayed chromosomal instability. Such instability, especially chromosome destabilization has been implicated in mutation, gene amplification, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosomal instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells. The relationship between delayed chromosomal destabilization and other endpoints of genomic instability, namely; delayed mutation and gene amplification will be discussed, as will the potential cytogenetic and molecular mechanisms contributing to delayed chromosomal instability

  12. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended [ru

  13. Jeans instability of magnetized quantum plasma: Effect of viscosity, rotation and finite Larmor radius corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shweta; Sharma, Prerana; Chhajlani, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    The Jeans instability of self-gravitating quantum plasma is examined considering the effects of viscosity, finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and rotation. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the quantum magneto hydrodynamic model. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed to show the effects of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability

  14. Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability and shear-flow in equatorial Spread-F plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chakrabarti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (RT instability is considered in the bottom side of the equatorial F-region. By a novel nonmodal calculation it is shown that for an applied shear flow in equilibrium, the growth of the instability is considerably reduced. Finite but small amounts of diffusion enhances the stabilization process. The results may be relevant to the observations of long-lived irregularities at the bottom-side of the F-layer.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in multi-structured spherical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.; Lawande, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    An eigenvalue equation for the exponential growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is derived in spherical geometry. The free surface and jump boundary conditions are obtained from the eigenvalue equation. The eigenvalue equation is solved in the cases where the initial fluid density profile has a step function or exponential variation in space and analytical formulae for growth rate of the instability are obtained. The solutions for the step function are generalized for any number N of spherical zones forming an arbitrary fluid density profile. The results of the numerical calculations for N spherical zones are compared with the exact analytical results for exponential fluid density profile with N=10 and a good agreement is observed. The formalism is further used to study the effects of density gradients on Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry. Also analytical formulae are presented for a particular case of N=3 and shell targets. The formalism developed here can be used to study the growth of the instability in present day multi-structured shell targets. (author)

  16. Control of thermoacoustic instability with a drum-like silencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lei; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical investigation is carried out by a novel method of controlling thermoacoustic instability with a drum-like silencer. It is shown that by decreasing the frequency of thermoacoustic system, the instability can be suppressed with the help of drum-like silencer. The purely reactive silencer, which is composed of a flexible membrane and a backing cavity, is usually known as a noise control device that works effectively in low frequency bandwidth without any aerodynamic loss. In present research, the silencer is exploited in a Rijke tube, as a means of decreasing the natural frequency of the system, and consequently changing the resonance period of the system. The "transfer element method" (TEM) is used to consider the interactions between the acoustic waves and the flexible membranes of the silencer. The effects of all possible properties of the silencer on the growth rate and resonance frequency of the thermoacoustic system are explored. According to the calculation results, it is found that for some properties of the silencer, the resonance frequencies are greatly decreased and then the phase difference between the unsteady heat release and the pressure fluctuation is increased. Consequently, the instability is suppressed with some dissipation that can not be able to control its onset in the original system. Therefore, when the damping is low, but not zero, it is effective to control thermoacoustic instability with this technique.

  17. Competing processes of whistler and electrostatic instabilities in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Y.; Matsumoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    Competing processes of whistler mode and electrostatic mode instabilities induced by an electron beam are studied by a linear growth rate analysis and by an electromagnetic particle simulation. In addition to a background cold plasma we assumed an electron beam drifting along a static magnetic field. We studied excitation of whistler and electrostatic mode waves in the direction of the static magnetic field. We first calculated linear growth rates for the whistler mode and electrostatic mode instabilities, assuming various possible parameters in the equatorial magnetosphere. We found that the growth rate for the electrostatic instability is always larger than that of the whistler mode instability. A short simulation run with a monoenergetic electron beam demonstrates that a monoenergetic beam can hardly give energy to whistler mode waves as a result of competition with faster growing electrostatic waves, because the beam electrons are trapped and diffused by the electrostatic waves, and hence the growth rates for whistler mode waves become very small. A long simulation run starting with a warm electron beam demonstrates that whistler mode waves are excited in spite of the small growth rates and the coexisting quasi-linear electrostatic diffusion process

  18. Gravitational instability and star formation in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchuk, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The gas-stars instability criterion for infinitesimally thin disc was applied to the galaxy NGC 628. Instead of using the azimuthally averaged profiles of data, the maps of the gas surface densities (THINGS, HERACLES), of the velocity dispersions of stars (VENGA) and gas (THINGS), and of the surface brightness of the galaxy (S4G) were analysed. All these maps were collected for the same region with a noticeable star formation rate and were superimposed on each other. Using the data on the rotation, curve values of Qeff were calculated for each pixel in the image. The areas within the contours Qeff 0.007 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2) and showed a good coincidence between them. The Romeo-Falstad disc instability diagnostics taking into account the thickness of the stellar and gas layers does not change the result. If the one-fluid instability criterion is used, the coincidence is worse. The analysis was carried out for the area r galaxies, the distribution of hydrogen and the regions of star formation is often patchy, the relationship between gravitational instability and star formation should be sought using data maps rather than azimuthally averaged data.

  19. TAE Saturation of Alpha Particle Driven Instability in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Chen, Y.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; White, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    A nonlinear theory of kinetic instabilities near threshold [H.L. Berk, et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, (1997) 842] is applied to calculate the saturation level of Toroidicity-induced Alfvn Eigenmodes (TAE) and be compared with the predictions of (delta)f method calculations [Y. Chen, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. Good agreement is observed between the predictions of both methods and the predicted saturation levels are comparable with experimentally measured amplitudes of the TAE oscillations in TFTR [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, (1985) 1167

  20. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)

  1. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered

  2. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  3. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  4. Microbunch Instability Theory and Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G.

    2005-01-26

    Over the last years there have been several reports of quasiperiodic bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in electron rings in the microwave and far-infrared range. The observations were made on synchrotron radiation light sources which include the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility SURF II [1], the VUV ring at the National Synchrotron Light Source at BNL [2, 3], second generation light sources MAX-I [4], BESSY II [5], and ALS [6]. General features of those observations can be summarized as follows. Above a threshold current, there is a strongly increased radiation of the beam in the range of wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, {lambda} < {sigma}{sub 2}. At large currents, this radiation is observed as a sequence of random bursts. In the bursting regime, intensity of the radiation scales approximately as square of the number of particles in the bunch, indicating a coherent nature of the phenomenon. It is generally accepted that the source of this radiation is related to the microbunching of the beam arising from development of a microwave instability caused by the coherent synchrotron radiation of the beam. A relativistic electron beam moving in a circular orbit in free space can radiate coherently if the wavelength of the synchrotron radiation exceeds the length of the bunch. In accelerators coherent radiation of the bunch is usually suppressed by the shielding effect of the conducting walls of the vacuum chamber [7-9], which gives an exponential cutoff of wavelengths greater than a certain threshold. However, an initial density fluctuation with a characteristic length much shorter than the shielding threshold would radiate coherently. If the radiation reaction force is such that it results in the growth of the initial fluctuation one can expect an instability that leads to micro-bunching of the beam and an increased coherent radiation at short wavelengths. A possibility of CSR instability was pointed out in Refs. [10, 11].

  5. The longitudinal wall impedance instability in a heavy-ion fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Friedman, A.; Haber, I.

    1997-01-01

    For more than ten years [J. Bisognano, I. Haber, L. Smith, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 2501 (1983)], the longitudinal wall impedance instability was thought to be a serious threat to the success of heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion. This instability is a open-quotes resistive wallclose quotes instability, driven by the impedance of the induction modules used to accelerate the beam. Early estimates of the instability growth rate predicted tens of e-folds due to the instability which would modulate the current and increase the longitudinal momentum spread and prevent focusing the ion beam on the small spot needed at the target. We have simulated this instability using an r-z particle-in-cell code which includes a model for the module impedance. These simulations, using driver parameters, show that growth due to the instability is smaller than in previous calculations. We have seen that growth is mainly limited to one head to tail transit by a space-charge wave. In addition, the capacitive component of the module impedance, which was neglected in the early work of Lee [E. P. Lee, Proc. Linear Accelerator Conference, (UCRL-86452), Santa Fe, NM, 1981] significantly reduces the growth rate. We have also included in the simulation intermittently applied axial confining fields which are thought to be the major source of perturbations to seed the longitudinal instability. Simulations show the beam can adjust to a systematic error in the longitudinal confining fields while a random error excites the most unstable wavelength of the instability. These simulations show that the longitudinal instability must be taken into account in a driver design, but it is not the major factor it was once thought to be. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Elastocapillary Instability in Mitochondrial Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Sart, Sébastien; Babataheri, Avin; Tareste, David; Barakat, Abdul I.; Clanet, Christophe; Husson, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic cell organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events. These dynamical processes, which tightly regulate mitochondrial morphology, are essential for cell physiology. Here we propose an elastocapillary mechanical instability as a mechanism for mitochondrial fission. We experimentally induce mitochondrial fission by rupturing the cell's plasma membrane. We present a stability analysis that successfully explains the observed fission wavelength and the role of mitochondrial morphology in the occurrence of fission events. Our results show that the laws of fluid mechanics can describe mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  7. Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    We have conducted an extensive series of experiments on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime; multimode foils allow an assessment of the degree of mode coupling; and surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes. Experimental results and comparisons with theory and simulations are presented

  8. Longitudinal single-bunch instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, M.; Palumbo, L.; Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome

    2001-02-01

    After introducing the concepts of longitudinal wakefield and coupling impedance, it is reviewed the theory of longitudinal single-bunch collective effects in storage rings. From the Fokker-Planck equation it is first derived the stationary solution describing the natural single-bunch regime, and then treat the problem of microwave instability, showing the different approaches used for estimating the threshold current. The lecture is ended with the semi-empirical laws that allow everyone to obtain the single-bunch behaviour above threshold, and with a description of the simulation codes that are now reliable tools for investigating all these effects

  9. Chromosomal instability determines taxane response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanton, C.; Nicke, B.; Schuett, M.

    2009-01-01

    chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells. Overexpression of these "CIN-survival'' genes is associated with poor outcome in estrogen receptor......-positive breast cancer and occurs frequently in basal-like and Her2-positive cases. In diploid cells, but not in chromosomally unstable cells, paclitaxel causes repression of CIN-survival genes, followed by cell death. In the OV01 ovarian cancer clinical trial, a high level of CIN was associated with taxane...

  10. Spatiotemporal chaos involving wave instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, Igal; Carballido-Landeira, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate pattern formation in a model of a reaction confined in a microemulsion, in a regime where both Turing and wave instability occur. In one-dimensional systems, the pattern corresponds to spatiotemporal intermittency where the behavior of the systems alternates in both time and space between stationary Turing patterns and traveling waves. In two-dimensional systems, the behavior initially may correspond to Turing patterns, which then turn into wave patterns. The resulting pattern also corresponds to a chaotic state, where the system alternates in both space and time between standing wave patterns and traveling waves, and the local dynamics may show vanishing amplitude of the variables.

  11. Risk bubbles and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Matteo; Raffaelli, Giacomo

    2006-10-01

    We discuss a simple model of correlated assets capturing the feedback effects induced by portfolio investment in the covariance dynamics. This model predicts an instability when the volume of investment exceeds a critical value. Close to the critical point the model exhibits dynamical correlations very similar to those observed in real markets. Maximum likelihood estimates of the model's parameter for empirical data indeed confirms this conclusion. We show that this picture is confirmed by the empirical analysis for different choices of the time horizon.

  12. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  13. Delayed chromosomal instability induced by DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents rapidly results in a dose dependent increase in chromosomal breakage and gross structural chromosomal rearrangements. Over recent years, evidence has been accumulating indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to physical and chemical DNA damaging agents. Genomic instability manifests in the progeny of surviving cells, and has been implicated in mutation, gene application, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosome instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells surviving X-irradiation many generations after exposure. At higher radiation doses, chromosomal instability was observed in a relatively high frequency of surviving clones and, in general, those clones showed delayed chromosome instability also showed reduced survival as measured by colony forming ability

  14. Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-09

    Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.

  15. Electric field induced instabilities in free emulsion films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchoukov, P.; Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada); Mostowfi, F. [Schlumberger DBR Technology Center, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Czarnecki, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that investigated the mechanism of electric field-induced breakdown of free emulsion films. Instability patterns were observed on the plane of a water-oil-water film following electric polarization. The length-scales of the instabilities were measured by analyzing images immediately after applying the electric field. Linear stability analysis was used to calculate the theoretical dominant wavelengths. The calculated values were found to be in good agreement with measured values. The films were formed in a thin film apparatus modified so that the oil film separated 2 aqueous phase compartments, each in contact with a platinum electrode. This enabled the measurement of disjoining pressure while applying the electric field to the film. It was concluded that breakdown of thin films induced by electric field has many applications, including electrostatic de-emulsification/desalination of crude oil and emulsion stability measurements. It was concluded that electroporation and dielectric breakdown may be responsible for electric field-induced breakdown. This study also presented evidence of an increase in electric field-induced instabilities in emulsion films resulting in rupture. tabs., figs.

  16. The instability of internal gravity waves to localised disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanneste

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The instability of an internal gravity wave due to nonlinear wave-wave interaction is studied theoretically and numerically. Three different aspects of this phenomenon are examined. 1. The influence of dissipation on both the resonant and the nonresonant interactions is analysed using a normal mode expansion of the basic equations. In particular, the modifications induced in the interaction domain are calculated and as a result some modes are shown to be destabilised by dissipation. 2. The evolution of an initial unstable disturbance of finite vertical extent is described as the growth of two secondary wave packets travelling at the same group velocity. A quasi-linear correction to the basic primary wave is calculated, corresponding to a localised amplitude decrease due to the disturbance growth. 3. Numerical experiments are carried out to study the effect of a basic shear on wave instability. It appears that the growing secondary waves can have a frequency larger than that of the primary wave, provided that the shear is sufficient. The instability of waves with large amplitude and long period, such as tides or planetary waves, could therefore be invoked as a possible mechanism for the generation of gravity waves with shorter period in the middle atmosphere.

  17. Impedance and instability threshold estimates in the main injector I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, M.A.; Ng, K.Y.

    1994-03-01

    One of the important considerations in the design of the Main Injector is the beam coupling impedances in the vacuum chamber and the stability of the beam. Along with the higher intensities comes the possibility of instabilities which lead to growth in beam emittances and/or the loss of beam. This paper makes estimations of the various impedances and instability thresholds based on impedance estimations and measurements. Notably missing from this paper is any analysis of transition crossing and its potential limitations on beam intensity and beam emittance. Future work should consider this issue. The body of the work contains detailed analysis of the various impedance estimations and instability threshold calculations. The calculations are based on the Main Injector beam intensity of 6 x 10 10 protons per bunch, 95% normalized transverse emittances of 20π mm-mrad, and 95% normalized longitudinal emittance of 0.1 eV-s at 8.9 GeV injection energy and 0.25 eV-s at 150 GeV flattop energy. The conclusions section summarizes the results in the paper and is meant to be readable by itself without referring to the rest of the paper. Also in the conclusion section are recommendations for future investigations

  18. How does political instability affect economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Aisen, Ari; Veiga, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically determine the effects of political instability on economic growth. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models on a sample covering up to 169 countries, and 5-year periods from 1960 to 2004, we find that higher degrees of political instability are associated with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. Regarding the channels of transmission, we find that political instability adversely affects growth by lowering the rates of pr...

  19. Surface instabilities during straining of anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Richelsen, Ann Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The development of instabilities in traction-free surfaces is investigated numerically using a unit cell model. Full finite strain analyses are conducted using isotropic as well as anisotropic yield criteria and both plane strain tension and compression are considered. In the load range of tensio...... of principal overall strain. For other orientations surface instabilities are seen when non-associated plastic flow is taken into account. Compared to tension, smaller compressive deformations are needed in order to initiate a surface instability....

  20. Pearling Instabilities of a Viscoelastic Thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblais, A.; Velikov, K. P.; Bonn, D.

    2018-05-01

    Pearling instabilities of slender viscoelastic threads have received much attention, but remain incompletely understood. We study the instabilities in polymer solutions subject to uniaxial elongational flow. Two distinctly different instabilites are observed: beads on a string and blistering. The beads-on-a-string structure arises from a capillary instability whereas the blistering instability has a different origin: it is due to a coupling between stress and polymer concentration. By varying the temperature to change the solution properties we elucidate the interplay between flow and phase separation.

  1. Review of two-phase instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Seo, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jeong

    1997-06-01

    KAERI is carrying out a development of the design for a new type of integral reactors. The once-through helical steam generator is important design features. The study on designs and operating conditions which prevent flow instability should precede the introduction of one-through steam generator. Experiments are currently scheduled to understand two-phase instability, evaluate the effect of each design parameter on the critical point, and determine proper inlet throttling for the prevention of instability. This report covers general two-phase instability with review of existing studies on this topics. The general classification of two phase flow instability and the characteristics of each type of instability are first described. Special attention is paid to BWR core flow instability and once-through steam generator instability. The reactivity feedback and the effect of system parameters are treated mainly for BWR. With relation to once-through steam generators, the characteristics of convective heating and dryout point oscillation are first investigated and then the existing experimental studies are summarized. Finally chapter summarized the proposed correlations for instability boundary conditions. (author). 231 refs., 5 tabs., 47 figs

  2. Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha

    2018-04-01

    The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.

  3. Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-11-04

    Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.

  4. Electromagnetic theory of the radiative Pierce instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klochkov, D.N.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    The radiative Pierce instability of a relativistic electron beam in a waveguide stabilized by an infinite strong magnetic field is considered. the increment and conditions for instability development in a wide interval of the beam currents are determined on the basis of the perturbation theory. It is shown that the instability has always the Raman character and is threshold less in current for the Pierce boundary conditions. It permits sufficiently strictly to define the instability saturation level from breaking the resonance condition and to estimate the radiation efficiency

  5. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2016-07-21

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor is grounded (80), a pressure sensor (82) coupled to the combustor and configured to detect pressure in the combustor, and an instability controlling assembly coupled to the pressure sensor and to an alternating current power supply (86), where, the instability controlling assembly can control flame instability of a flame in the system based on pressure detected by the pressure sensor.

  6. Radiation-induced instability of human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.N.; Demina, Eh.A.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is dedicated to the phenomenon of radiation-induced genomic instability where the increased level of genomic changes in the offspring of irradiated cells is characteristic. Particular attention is paid to the problems of genomic instability induced by the low-dose radiation, role of the bystander effect in formation of radiation-induced instability, and its relationship with individual radiosensitivity. We believe that in accordance with the paradigm of modern radiobiology the increased human individual radiosensitivity can be formed due to the genome instability onset and is a significant risk factor for radiation-induced cancer

  7. Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the aeroelostic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modem commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical...... stiffness and chordwise position of the center of gravity along the blades are the main parameters for flutter. These instability characteristics are exemplified by aeroelastic stability analyses of different wind turbines. The review of each aeroelastic instability ends with a list of current research...... issues that represent unsolved aeroelostic instability problems for wind turbines. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  8. Analysis of fluid structural instability in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccirillo, N.

    1997-02-01

    Recent flow testing of stainless steel hardware in a high pressure/high temperature water environment produced an apparent fluid-structural instability. The source of instability was investigated by studying textbook theory and by performing NASTRAN finite element analyses. The modal analyses identified the mode that was being excited, but the flutter instability analysis showed that the design is stable if minimal structural damping is present. Therefore, it was suspected that the test hardware was the root cause of the instability. Further testing confirmed this suspicion

  9. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. Clearly, the key to successful gas turbine development is based on understanding the effects of geometry and operating conditions on combustion instability, emissions (including UHC, CO and NO{sub x}) and performance. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors.

  10. Damage-induced tensile instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents a unified description of ductile and brittle rupture phenomena in structural components under tensile loading with particular emphasis on creep rupture. Two structural elements are analyzed in detail: 1) the uniform tensile bar subject to a Heaviside history of tensile force and superimposed such loadings, i.e. staircase histories, and 2) the thinwalled spherical pressure vessel subject to a Heaviside history of internal pressure. For both these structures the conditions for instantaneous as well as delayed rupture are analysed. It is shown that a state of mechanical instability will be reached at a certain load or after a certain time. The cases of purely ductile rupture and purely brittle fracture are identified as two limiting cases of this general instability phenomenon. The Kachanov-Rabotnov damage law implies that a structural component will fail in tension only when it has reached a state of complete damage, i.e. zero load carrying capacity. The extended law predicts failure at an earlier stage of the deterioration process and is therefore more compatible with experimental observation. Further experimental support is offered by predictions for staircase loading histories, both step-up and step-down type. The presented damage theory here predicts strain histories which are in closer agreement with test data than predictions based on other phenomenological theories

  11. Adhesional instabilities and gecko locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Geckos possess a remarkable ability to run rapidly on both walls and ceilings and in recent years the mechanisms that underlie this facility have come under close scrutiny. It is now generally agreed that one of the principal mechanisms of adhesion relies on the action of van der Waal forces acting between the final extremely fine structure of the gecko toe and the underlying substrate. High speed video analysis shows that adhesive contact is both made and broken in intervals of less than 20 ms and this suggests that the mechanism of detachment is one of adhesive instability rather than steady-state peeling. By considering the gecko seta/spatula as a Euler-Bernoulli cantilever it is possible to model this instability in non-dimensional terms and thus to test the analysis at a much larger scale with more conventional engineering materials. When applied to the scale and material combination appropriate to a gecko spatula, the predicted critical load, of around 10 nN, is close to values that have been observed using and AFM cantilever and a single detached spatula.

  12. Adhesional instabilities and gecko locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, John A

    2015-01-01

    Geckos possess a remarkable ability to run rapidly on both walls and ceilings and in recent years the mechanisms that underlie this facility have come under close scrutiny. It is now generally agreed that one of the principal mechanisms of adhesion relies on the action of van der Waal forces acting between the final extremely fine structure of the gecko toe and the underlying substrate. High speed video analysis shows that adhesive contact is both made and broken in intervals of less than 20 ms and this suggests that the mechanism of detachment is one of adhesive instability rather than steady-state peeling. By considering the gecko seta/spatula as a Euler–Bernoulli cantilever it is possible to model this instability in non-dimensional terms and thus to test the analysis at a much larger scale with more conventional engineering materials. When applied to the scale and material combination appropriate to a gecko spatula, the predicted critical load, of around 10 nN, is close to values that have been observed using and AFM cantilever and a single detached spatula. (paper)

  13. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  14. Resistive Wall Instability in the NLC Main Damping Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    We study transverse coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the resistive-wall impedance in the NLC Main Damping Rings. We compare the growth rates of the different modes predicted by a simple theory using a simplified lattice model with the results of a detailed simulation that includes variation of the beta functions and the actual fill structure of the machine. We find that the results of the analytical calculations are in reasonable agreement with the simulations. We include a simple model of a bunch-by-bunch feedback system in the simulation to show that the instabilities can be damped by a feedback system having parameters that are realistic, and possibly conservative. The noise level on the feedback system pick-up must be low, to avoid driving random bunch-to-bunch jitter above the specified limit of 10 percent of the vertical beam size

  15. Fluidelastic instability in a flexible Weir: A theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aita, S.; Gibert, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A new type fluidelastic instability was discovered during the hot tests of Superphenix LMFBR. This instability is due to the fluid discharge, over a flexible weir shell which separates two of these fluid sheets (the feeding and restitution collectors). An analytical nonlinear model was realised. The flow and force sources at the top of the collectors are described and projected on the modal basis of the system formed by the collectors and the weir shell. Simplified formulas were extracted allowing a practical prediction of the stability. More generally, the complete model can be used to estimate the vibratory level when a steady state is reached by the effect of nonlinearities. Computer calculation for such a model are made with OSCAR code, part of CASTEM 2000 finite element computer system. (author)

  16. Nonlinear Effects at the Fermilab Recycler e-Cloud Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Theoretical analysis of e-cloud instability in the Fermilab Recycler is represented in the paper. The e-cloud in strong magnetic field is treated as a set of immovable snakes each being initiated by some proton bunch. It is shown that the instability arises because of injection errors of the bunches which increase in time and from bunch to bunch along the batch being amplified by the e-cloud electric field. The particular attention is given to nonlinear additions to the cloud field. It is shown that the nonlinearity is the main factor which restricts growth of the bunch amplitude. Possible role of the field free parts of the Recycler id discussed as well. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  17. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tomohiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku, E-mail: ono.t@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-20

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  18. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku

    2014-01-01

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  19. Peierls instability and optical properties of bilayer polyacene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Longlong, E-mail: zhanglonglong@tyut.edu.cn [The College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xie, Shijie [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2017-05-03

    Highlights: • The Peierls instability of bilayer polyacene is discussed. • The external electric field effect on bilayer polyacene is discussed. • The pressure effect on bilayer polyacene is discussed. • The optical properties of bilayer polyacene are discussed. - Abstract: We reveal that bilayer polyacene can be the gapped state due to the intralayer Peierls instability. There are six topologically inequivalent Peierls-distorted structures and they are degenerate in energy. The external electric field can tune the Peierls gap and induce the semiconductor-to-metallic phase transitions. The optical conductivity spectra are calculated in an attempt to categorize the Peierls-distorted structures. The strength of the interlayer coupling essentially affects the electronic properties and the optical selection rules.

  20. Analysis of Vaneless Diffuser Stall Instability in a Centrifugal Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Sundström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations based on the large eddy simulation approach were conducted with the aim to explore vaneless diffuser rotating stall instability in a centrifugal compressor. The effect of the impeller blade passage was included as an inlet boundary condition with sufficiently low flow angle relative to the tangent to provoke the instability and cause circulation in the diffuser core flow. Flow quantities, velocity and pressure, were extracted to accumulate statistics for calculating mean velocity and mean Reynolds stresses in the wall-to-wall direction. The paper focuses on the assessment of the complex response of the system to the velocity perturbations imposed, the resulting pressure gradient and flow curvature effects.

  1. 3D modeling of instabilities in multi-wire Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haill, T.A.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Marder, B.M.; Robinson, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Recent success in generating large x-ray energies and powers from large wire-number Z pinch arrays has revived a strong interest in MHD and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. Two-dimensional r-z simulations of Z pinches typically start calculations with a preformed plasma sheath and seed RT instabilities with a random density perturbation. The magnitude of the random density perturbation is tuned so that the calculated x-ray radiation pulse matches the amplitude and pulse-width of experimentally measured data. While these calculations have been extremely useful in understanding the effect of RT instabilities on experiments, they do not capture all of the three-dimension structure seen in experimental images and are not truly predictive in nature. To remedy this shortcoming Sandia is developing a 3D nature of Z pinch dynamics, namely the merger of arrays of wires into a plasma sheath

  2. Shoulder instability in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Lance E; Asnis, Peter D; Griffith, Matthew H; Granito, David; Berkson, Eric M; Gill, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    Shoulder instability is a common problem in American football players entering the National Football League (NFL). Treatment options include nonoperative and surgical stabilization. This study evaluated how the method of treatment of pre-NFL shoulder instability affects the rate of recurrence and the time elapsed until recurrence in players on 1 NFL team. Retrospective cohort. Medical records from 1980 to 2008 for 1 NFL team were reviewed. There were 328 players included in the study who started their career on the team and remained on the team for at least 2 years (mean, 3.9 years; range, 2-14 years). The history of instability prior to entering the NFL and the method of treatment were collected. Data on the occurrence of instability while in the NFL were recorded to determine the rate and timing of recurrence. Thirty-one players (9.5%) had a history of instability prior to entering the NFL. Of the 297 players with no history of instability, 39 (13.1%) had a primary event at a mean of 18.4 ± 22.2 months (range, 0-102 months) after joining the team. In the group of players with prior instability treated with surgical stabilization, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence (10.5%) or the timing to the instability episode (mean, 26 months) compared with players with no history of instability. Twelve players had shoulder instability treated nonoperatively prior to the NFL. Five of these players (41.7%) had recurrent instability at a mean of 4.4 ± 7.0 months (range, 0-16 months). The patients treated nonoperatively had a significantly higher rate of recurrence (P = 0.02) and an earlier time of recurrence (P = 0.04). The rate of contralateral instability was 25.8%, occurring at a mean of 8.6 months. Recurrent shoulder instability is more common in NFL players with a history of nonoperative treatment. Surgical stabilization appears to restore the rate and timing of instability to that of players with no prior history of instability.

  3. Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1994-01-01

    We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests

  4. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  5. Stabilization of the Rayleigh - Taylor instability with convection in an ablatively accelerated laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.; Liberman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    In the framework of WKB approximation the problem is studied of stabilizing the Rayleigh - Taylor instability with unhomogeneous convective flow, developing in the ablation zone during the ablative acceleration of the laser target plasma. The eigenvalue (instability growth rates) problem is reduced to solving an algebraic equation with the coefficients depending on the unperturbed profile structure of hydrodynamic variables. For the important case of the incompressible plasma subsonic flow, the instability growth rates is shown to vanish at k=k 0 =max(2(g|∇ ln p|) 1/2 /ν). The consistency condition of the model consists in the smallness of the local Froude number in the region of instability development. However, as seen from the comparison with the numerical calculations, the model is well appicable also for the case of the sufficiently abrupt density gradient provided the Froude number is of order of unity

  6. An Effective Way to Control Numerical Instability of a Nonordinary State-Based Peridynamic Elastic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitutive modeling and numerical implementation of a nonordinary state-based peridynamic (NOSB-PD model corresponding to the classical elastic model are presented. Besides, the numerical instability problem of the NOSB-PD model is analyzed, and a penalty method involving the hourglass force is proposed to control the instabilities. Further, two benchmark problems, the static elastic deformation of a simple supported beam and the elastic wave propagation in a two-dimensional rod, are discussed with the present method. It proves that the penalty instability control method is effective in suppressing the displacement oscillations and improving the accuracy of calculated stress fields with a proper hourglass force coefficient, and the NOSB-PD approach with instability control can analyze the problems of structure deformation and elastic wave propagation well.

  7. Temporal flow instability for Magnus-Robins effect at high rotation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, T. K.; Kasliwal, A.; de, S.; Nair, M.

    2003-06-01

    The lift and drag coefficients of a circular cylinder, translating and spinning at a supercritical rate is studied theoretically to explain the experimentally observed violation of maximum mean lift coefficient principle, that was proposed heuristically by Prandtl on the basis of inviscid flow model. It is also noted experimentally that flow past a rotating and translating cylinder experiences temporal instability-a fact not corroborated by any theoretical studies so far. In the present paper we report very accurate solution of Navier-Stokes equation that displays the above-mentioned instability and the violation of the maximum limit. The calculated lift coefficient exceeds the limit of /4π, instantaneously as well as in time-averaged sense. The main purpose of the present paper is to explain the observed temporal instability sequence in terms of a new theory of instability based on full Navier-Stokes equation that does not require making any assumption about the flow field, unlike other stability theories.

  8. Radiation Effects on the Thermodiffusive Instability of Premixed Flames on a Cylindrical Porous Flame Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Minglong; Yang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    A linear analysis method was used to investigate the mechanics of radiation heat loss and mass transfer in the porous wall of premixed annular flames and their effect on thermodiffusive instability. The dispersion relation between the disturbance wave growth rate and wavenumber was calculated numerically. Results showed that radiation heat loss elevated the annular flame slightly away from the porous wall. In the annular flame with small Lewis numbers, radiation heat loss changed the thermodiffusive instability from a pulsating to a cellular state, while for the large Lewis numbers, only the pulsating instability was represented. Increasing radiation heat loss and the radius of the porous wall enhanced the instability of the annular flames. Heat losses decreased with the continued increase in thickness of the porous wall and the decrease in porosity. Annular flames with long-wave mode along the angular direction were more unstable than the shortwave mode.

  9. Bus Participation Factor Analysis for Harmonic Instability in Power Electronics Based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    Compared with the conventional power systems, large-scale power electronics based power systems present a more complex situation, where harmonic instability may be induced by the mutual interactions between the inner control loops of the converters. This paper presents an approach to locate which...... power converters and buses are more sensitive and have significant contribution to the harmonic instability. In the approach, a power electronics based system is introduced as a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic system by means of a dynamic admittance matrix. Bus Participation Factors (PFs......) are calculated by the oscillatory mode sensitivity analysis versus the elements of the MIMO transfer function matrix. The PF analysis detects which power electronic converters or buses have a higher participation in harmonic instability excitation than others or at which buses such instability problems have...

  10. RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick a diabaticregime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.

  11. Perturbative instabilities in Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanos, Charalampos; Saridakis, Emmanuel N

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the scalar and tensor perturbations in Horava gravity, with and without detailed balance, around a flat background. Once both types of perturbations are taken into account, it is revealed that the theory is plagued by ghost-like scalar instabilities in the range of parameters which would render it power-counting renormalizable, that cannot be overcome by simple tricks such as analytic continuation. Implementing a consistent flow between the UV and IR limits seems thus more challenging than initially presumed, regardless of whether the theory approaches general relativity at low energies or not. Even in the phenomenologically viable parameter space, the tensor sector leads to additional potential problems, such as fine-tunings and super-luminal propagation.

  12. Instability of expanding bacterial droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Rubio, Leonardo Dominguez; Brady, John F; Aranson, Igor S

    2018-04-03

    Suspensions of motile bacteria or synthetic microswimmers, termed active matter, manifest a remarkable propensity for self-organization, and formation of large-scale coherent structures. Most active matter research deals with almost homogeneous in space systems and little is known about the dynamics of strongly heterogeneous active matter. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies on the expansion of highly concentrated bacterial droplets into an ambient bacteria-free fluid. The droplet is formed beneath a rapidly rotating solid macroscopic particle inserted in the suspension. We observe vigorous instability of the droplet reminiscent of a violent explosion. The phenomenon is explained in terms of continuum first-principle theory based on the swim pressure concept. Our findings provide insights into the dynamics of active matter with strong density gradients and significantly expand the scope of experimental and analytic tools for control and manipulation of active systems.

  13. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 vortex pair sizes at the time when one...... pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys.21, 269-273 (2000...... pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...

  14. Filament instability under constant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastra, A. G.; Carusela, M. F.; D’Angelo, M. V.; Bruno, L.

    2018-04-01

    Buckling of semi-flexible filaments appears in different systems and scales. Some examples are: fibers in geophysical applications, microtubules in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and deformation of polymers freely suspended in a flow. In these examples, instabilities arise when a system’s parameter exceeds a critical value, being the Euler force the most known. However, the complete time evolution and wavelength of buckling processes are not fully understood. In this work we solve analytically the time evolution of a filament under a constant compressive force in the small amplitude approximation. This gives an insight into the variable force scenario in terms of normal modes. The evolution is highly sensitive to the initial configuration and to the magnitude of the compressive load. This model can be a suitable approach to many different real situations.

  15. Hydromagnetic instability in a stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruskal, M D; Gottlieb, M B; Johnson, J L; Goldman, L M [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    It was noted that when there is a uniform externally imposed longitudinal field much larger than the field of the discharge current, one should expect instabilities in the form of a lateral displacement of the plasma column into a helix of large pitch. At the wavelength of fastest growth the e-folding time approximates the time it takes a sound wave in the plasma to traverse the radius of the plasma column. This problem has been re-examines under the conditions which might be expected to occur in the stellarator during ohmic heating, including the presence of external conductors. The theory is applied to the stellarator; and it is shown that the external conductors are in fact unimportant. The important effects due to the finite length of the Machine are discussed and the effects of more general current distributions are considered. The results from the experiments are given.

  16. Hose instability at arbitrary conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    A model is developed for studying the dynamics of a low-current, highly relativistic beam propagating in a conducting medium. Here the conductivity (sigma) is of arbitrary magnitude, the usual assumption being that the scale beam radius (a) is small compared with the magnetic skin length (4 π sigma a 2 /c). A dispersion formula for the hose instability is derived for the case of uniform sigma and Bennett current profile J/sub b/(r) varies as (a 2 + r 2 ) -2 . The peak growth rate at fixed laboratory position, maximized with respect to sigma as well as driver frequency, is approximately 0.465 c/a. This growth rate is realized when 4 π sigma a/c = √12/5. (U.S.)

  17. Parametric instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear coupling of three waves in a plasma is considered. One of the waves is assumed large and constant; its amplitude is the parameter of the parametric instability. The spatial-temporal evolution of the other two waves is treated theoretically, in one dimension, by analytic methods and by direct numerical integration of the basic equations. Various monotonic forms of inhomogeneity are considered; agreement with previous work is found and new results are established. Nonmonotonic inhomogeneities are considered, in the form of turbulence and, as a model problem, in the form of a simple sinusoidal modulation. Relatively small amounts of nonmonotonic inhomogeneity, in the presence of a linear density gradient, are found to destabilize the well-known convective saturation, absolute growth occurring instead. (U.S.)

  18. Transit-time instability in Hall thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, Serge; Makowski, Karol; Peradzynski, Zbigniew; Dudeck, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Longitudinal waves characterized by a phase velocity of the order of the velocity of ions have been recurrently observed in Hall thruster experiments and simulations. The origin of this so-called ion transit-time instability is investigated with a simple one-dimensional fluid model of a Hall thruster discharge in which cold ions are accelerated between two electrodes within a quasineutral plasma. A short-wave asymptotics applied to linearized equations shows that plasma perturbations in such a device consist of quasineutral ion acoustic waves superimposed on a background standing wave generated by discharge current oscillations. Under adequate circumstances and, in particular, at high ionization levels, acoustic waves are amplified as they propagate, inducing strong perturbation of the ion density and velocity. Responding to the subsequent perturbation of the column resistivity, the discharge current generates a standing wave, the reflection of which sustains the generation of acoustic waves at the inlet boundary. A calculation of the frequency and growth rate of this resonance mechanism for a supersonic ion flow is proposed, which illustrates the influence of the ionization degree on their onset and the approximate scaling of the frequency with the ion transit time. Consistent with experimental reports, the traveling wave can be observed on plasma density and velocity perturbations, while the plasma potential ostensibly oscillates in phase along the discharge

  19. Cladding failure by local plastic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, J.M.; Deitrich, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Cladding failure is one of the major considerations in analysis of fast-reactor fuel pin behavior during hypothetical accident transients since time, location and nature of failure govern the early post-failure material motion and reactivity feedback. Out-of-Pile transient burst tests of both irradiated and unirradiated fast-reactor cladding show that local plastic instability, or bulging, often precedes rupture. To investigate the details of cladding bulging, a perturbation analysis of the equations governing the large deformation of a cylindrical shell has been developed. The overall deformation history is assumed to consist of a small perturbation epsilon of the radial displacement superimposed on large axisymmetric displacements. Computations have been carried out using high temperature properties of stainless steel in conjunction with various constitutive theories, including a generalization of the Endochronic Theory of Plasticity in which both time-independent and time-dependent plastic strains are modeled. Although the results of the calculations are all qualitatively similar, it appears that modeling of both time-independent and time-dependent plastic strains is necessary to interpret the transient burst test results. Sources for bulge formation that have been considered include initial geometric imperfections and thermal perturbations due to either eccentric fuel pellets or non-symmetric cooling. (Auth.)

  20. The LHC Transverse Coupled-Bunch Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Mounet, Nicolas; Métral, Elias

    In this thesis, the problem of the transverse coupled-bunch instabilities created by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-coupling impedance, that can possibly limit the machine operation, is addressed thanks to several new theories and tools. A rather complete vision of the problem is proposed here, going from the calculation of the impedances and wake functions of individual machine elements, to the beam dynamics study. Firstly, new results are obtained in the theory of the beam-coupling impedance for an axisymmetric two-dimensional structure, generalizing Zotter's theories, and a new general theory is derived for the impedance of an infinite flat two-dimensional structure. Then, a new approach has been found to compute the wake functions from such analytically obtained beam-coupling impedances, over-coming limitations that could be met with standard discrete Fourier transform procedures. Those results are then used to obtain an impedance and wake function model of the LHC, based on the (resistive-) wall im...

  1. Feedback control of vertical instability in TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantz, E.R.

    1978-05-01

    Due to the unfavorable curvature of the vertical vacuum magnetic field, elongated plasmas are vertically unstable when the elongation, epsilon, becomes too large. The TNS (The Next Step) tokamak, as evolved in the Westinghouse-ORNL studies has an inside-D configuration (epsilon = 1.6, A = 5/1.25 = 4) characterized by an average decay index n approximately equal -0.75 at the plasma flux surface near the magnetic axis and is vertically unstable with a growth rate γ 0 approximately 10 5 sec -1 . Eddy currents produced in the vacuum vessel wall will slow this instability to growth rates γ 0 approximately 10 2 sec -1 provided there are no transverse insulating gaps in the vessel wall. A matrix equation has been developed for calculating the eddy currents induced in the EF coils and their stabilizing effect. Control theory for feedback systems with and without delay time is presented and possible plasma position detectors are discussed. For a plasma current of 6.1 MA, the controller peak power requirements using separate controller circuits are approximately 1 MW depending upon EF coil configurations and time delay. This feedback system is designed to stabilize a maximum plasma excursion of 10 cm from the midplane with delay times up to 2 sec

  2. MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Zaharia, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum

  3. Ion-cyclotron instability in magnetic mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the role of ion-cyclotron frequency instability in magnetic mirrors. The modes discussed here are loss-cone or anisotropy driven. The discussion includes quasilinear theory, explosive instabilities of 3-wave interaction and non-linear Landau damping, and saturation due to non-linear orbits

  4. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...

  5. The short circuit instability in protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbard, A.; McNally, C.P.; Mac Low, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a magneto-hydrodynamic instability which occurs, among other locations, in the inner, hot regions of protoplanetary disks, and which alters the way in which resistive dissipation of magnetic energy into heat proceeds. This instability can be likened to both an electrical short circui...

  6. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  7. Plasma instabilities in high electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1994-01-01

    expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....

  8. Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.

    1997-10-01

    Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  9. Direct observation of nonequilibrium electroosmotic instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinstein, S.M.; Manukyan, G.; Staicu, A.D.; Rubinstein, I.; Zaltzman, B.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Wessling, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We present a visualization of the predicted instability in ionic conduction from a binary electrolyte into a charge selective solid. This instability develops when a voltage greater than critical is applied to a thin layer of copper sulfate flanked by a copper anode and a cation selective membrane.

  10. Partnership Instability, School Readiness, and Gender Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carey E.; Osborne, Cynthia A.; Beck, Audrey N.; McLanahan, Sara S.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in family formation during the past several decades have increased children's exposure to mothers' partnership instability, defined as an entrance into or exit from a coresidential union or a dating partnership. Instability, in turn, is associated with negative outcomes for children and adolescents. This study uses data from the Fragile…

  11. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E

    2007-09-26

    Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  12. Neuromuscular control and ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Gregory M; Kaminski, Thomas W; Douex, Al T

    2009-04-01

    Lateral ankle sprains (LAS) are common injuries in athletics and daily activity. Although most are resolved with conservative treatment, others develop chronic ankle instability (AI)-a condition associated with persistent pain, weakness, and instability-both mechanical (such as ligamentous laxity) and functional (neuromuscular impairment with or without mechanical laxity). The predominant theory in AI is one of articular deafferentation from the injury, affecting closed-loop (feedback/reflexive) neuromuscular control, but recent research has called that theory into question. A considerable amount of attention has been directed toward understanding the underlying causes of this pathology; however, little is known concerning the neuromuscular mechanisms behind the development of AI. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available literature on neuromuscular control in uninjured individuals and individuals with AI. Based on available research and reasonable speculation, it seems that open-loop (feedforward/anticipatory) neuromuscular control may be more important for the maintenance of dynamic joint stability than closed-loop control systems that rely primarily on proprioception. Therefore, incorporating perturbation activities into patient rehabilitation schemes may be of some benefit in enhancing these open-loop control mechanisms. Despite the amount of research conducted in this area, analysis of individuals with AI during dynamic conditions is limited. Future work should aim to evaluate dynamic perturbations in individuals with AI, as well as subjects who have a history of at least one LAS and never experienced recurrent symptoms. These potential findings may help elucidate some compensatory mechanisms, or more appropriate neuromuscular control strategies after an LAS event, thus laying the groundwork for future intervention studies that can attempt to reduce the incidence and severity of acute and chronic lateral ankle injury.

  13. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  14. Taylor instability in rhyolite lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B. A.; Krantz, W. B.; Fink, J. H.; Dickinson, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A refined Taylor instability model is developed to describe the surface morphology of rhyolite lava flows. The effect of the downslope flow of the lava on the structures resulting from the Taylor instability mechanism is considered. Squire's (1933) transformation is developed for this flow in order to extend the results to three-dimensional modes. This permits assessing why ridges thought to arise from the Taylor instability mechanism are preferentially oriented transverse to the direction of lava flow. Measured diapir and ridge spacings for the Little and Big Glass Mountain rhyolite flows in northern California are used in conjunction with the model in order to explore the implications of the Taylor instability for flow emplacement. The model suggests additional lava flow features that can be measured in order to test whether the Taylor instability mechanism has influenced the flows surface morphology.

  15. 3-D nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.

    1977-03-01

    The nonlinear evolution of ideal MHD internal instabilities is investigated in straight cylindrical geometry by means of a 3-D initial-value computer code. These instabilities are characterized by pairs of velocity vortex cells rolling off each other and helically twisted down the plasma column. The cells persist until the poloidal velocity saturates at a few tenths of the Alfven velocity. The nonlinear phase is characterized by convection around these essentially fixed vortex cells. For example, the initially centrally peaked temperature profile is convected out and around to form an annulus of high temperature surrounding a small region of lower temperature. Weak, centrally localized instabilities do not alter the edge of the plasma. Strong, large-scale instabilities, resulting from a stronger longitudinal equilibrium current, drive the plasma against the wall. After three examples of instability are analyzed in detail, the numerical methods and their verification are discussed

  16. A statistical model for instable thermodynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2003-01-01

    A generic model is presented for statistical systems which display thermodynamic features in contrast to our everyday experience, such as infinite and negative heat capacities. Such system are instable in terms of classical equilibrium thermodynamics. Using our statistical model, we are able to investigate states of instable systems which are undefined in the framework of equilibrium thermodynamics. We show that a region of negative heat capacity in the adiabatic environment, leads to a first order like phase transition when the system is coupled to a heat reservoir. This phase transition takes place without a phase coexistence. Nevertheless, all intermediate states are stable due to fluctuations. When two instable system are brought in thermal contact, the temperature of the composed system is lower than the minimum temperature of the individual systems. Generally, the equilibrium states of instable system cannot be simply decomposed into equilibrium states of the individual systems. The properties of instable system depend on the environment, ensemble equivalence is broken

  17. Role of microsatellite instability in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coloncancer is among leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality both inRussiaand worldwide. Development of molecular biology lead to decoding of carcinogenesis and tumor progression mechanisms. These processes require accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a tumor cell.Coloncancer carcinogenesis is characterized by mutations cumulation in genes controlling growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, which leads to their genetic instability. Microsatellite instability is a type of genetic instability characterized by deterioration of mismatch DNA repair. This leads to faster accumulation of mutations in DNA. Loss of mismatch repair mechanism can easily be diagnosed by length of DNA microsatellites. These alterations are termed microsatellite instability. They can be found both in hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. This review covers the questions of microsatellite instability, its prognostic and predictive value in colon cancer.

  18. Gravitational waves from instabilities in relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Nils

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of stellar instabilities as sources of gravitational waves. The aim is to put recent work on secular and dynamical instabilities in compact stars in context, and to summarize the current thinking about the detectability of gravitational waves from various scenarios. As a new generation of kilometre length interferometric detectors is now coming online this is a highly topical theme. The review is motivated by two key questions for future gravitational-wave astronomy: are the gravitational waves from various instabilities detectable? If so, what can these gravitational-wave signals teach us about neutron star physics? Even though we may not have clear answers to these questions, recent studies of the dynamical bar-mode instability and the secular r-mode instability have provided new insights into many of the difficult issues involved in modelling unstable stars as gravitational-wave sources. (topical review)

  19. Nonlinear analysis of generalized cross-field current instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, P.H.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the generalized cross-field current instability is carried out in which cross-field drift of both the ions and electrons and their temperatures are permitted to vary in time. The unstable mode under consideration is the electromagnetic generalization of the classical modified-two-stream instability. The generalized instability is made of the modified-two-stream and ion-Weibel modes. The relative importance of the features associated with the ion-Weibel mode and those of the modified-two-stream mode is assessed. Specific applications are made to the Earth's neutral sheet prior to substorm onset and to the Earth's bow shock. The numerical solution indicates that the ion-Weibel mode dominates in the Earth's neutral sheet environment. In contrast, the situation for the bow shock is dominated by the modified-two-stream mode. Notable differences are found between the present calculation and previous results on ion-Weibel mode which restrict the analysis to only parallel propagating waves. However, in the case of Earth's bow shock for which the ion-Weibel mode plays no important role, the inclusion of the electromagnetic ion response is found to differ little from the previous results which treats ions responding only to the electrostatic component of the excited waves

  20. Graphical analysis of electron inertia induced acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, P.K.; Deka, U.; Dwivedi, C.B.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the practical significance of the asymptotic limit of m e /m i →0 for electron density distribution has been judged in a two-component plasma system with drifting ions. It is reported that in the presence of drifting ions with drift speed exceeding the ion acoustic wave speed, the electron inertial delay effect facilitates the resonance coupling of the usual fluid ion acoustic mode with the ion-beam mode. In this contribution the same instability is analyzed by graphical and numerical methods. This is to note that the obtained dispersion relation differs from those of the other known normal modes of low frequency ion plasma oscillations and waves. This is due to consideration of electron inertial delay in derivation of the dispersion relation of the ion acoustic wave fluctuations. Numerical calculations of the dispersion relation and wave energy are carried out to depict the graphical appearance of poles and positive-negative energy modes. It is found that the electron inertia induced ion acoustic wave instability arises out of linear resonance coupling between the negative and positive energy modes. Characterization of the resonance nature of the instability in Mach number space for different wave numbers of the ion acoustic mode is presented

  1. Management of the athlete with a failed shoulder instability procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwathmey, F Winston; Warner, Jon J P

    2013-10-01

    The athlete with a failed instability procedure requires a thoughtful and systematic approach to achieve a good outcome. Goals of treatment should be defined and realistic expectations should be set. Revision stabilization has a high rate of recurrent instability, low rates of return to play, and low clinical outcome scores. Fundamental to successful revision surgery is choosing the correct procedure. The decision is straightforward in athletes with clear factors that predict recurrence (significant glenoid bone loss, engaging Hill-Sachs lesions) because only a bony procedure can restore the articular arc of the glenoid. Arthroscopic revision Bankart repair may be appropriate in those athletes who have an obvious Bankart tear and no bone loss after a traumatic reinjury. The challenge for the shoulder surgeon is identifying the best surgery for the athlete who does not have such clear-cut indications. Each factor that has the potential to lead to a poor outcome needs to be collected and calculated. Patient factors (age, laxity, type and level of sport), injury factors (mechanism of injury, capsulolabral injury, glenoid bone loss, Hill-Sachs lesion), and technical factors (previous surgery performed, integrity of repair, scarring) must be integrated into the treatment algorithm. Based on this collection of factors, the shoulder surgeon should be prepared to provide the athlete with the surgery that provides the best chance to return to playing sports and the lowest risk of recurrent instability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On Nonlinear Combustion Instability in Liquid Propellant Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. D. (Technical Monitor); Flandro, Gary A.; Majdalani, Joseph; Sims, Joseph D.

    2004-01-01

    All liquid propellant rocket instability calculations in current use have limited value in the predictive sense and serve mainly as a correlating framework for the available data sets. The well-known n-t model first introduced by Crocco and Cheng in 1956 is still used as the primary analytical tool of this type. A multitude of attempts to establish practical analytical methods have achieved only limited success. These methods usually produce only stability boundary maps that are of little use in making critical design decisions in new motor development programs. Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of combustion instability in solid propellant rockets"' provides a firm foundation for a new approach to prediction, diagnosis, and correction of the closely related problems in liquid motor instability. For predictive tools to be useful in the motor design process, they must have the capability to accurately determine: 1) time evolution of the pressure oscillations and limit amplitude, 2) critical triggering pulse amplitude, and 3) unsteady heat transfer rates at injector surfaces and chamber walls. The method described in this paper relates these critical motor characteristics directly to system design parameters. Inclusion of mechanisms such as wave steepening, vorticity production and transport, and unsteady detonation wave phenomena greatly enhance the representation of key features of motor chamber oscillatory behavior. The basic theoretical model is described and preliminary computations are compared to experimental data. A plan to develop the new predictive method into a comprehensive analysis tool is also described.

  3. Thermodynamic origin of instability in hybrid halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, E.; Zheng, C.; Rubel, O.

    2016-11-01

    Degradation of hybrid halide perovskites under the influence of environmental factors impairs future prospects of using these materials as absorbers in solar cells. First principle calculations can be used as a guideline in search of new materials, provided we can rely on their predictive capabilities. We show that the instability of perovskites can be captured using ab initio total energy calculations for reactants and products augmented with additional thermodynamic data to account for finite temperature effects. Calculations suggest that the instability of CH3NH3PbI3 in moist environment is linked to the aqueous solubility of the CH3NH3I salt, thus making other perovskite materials with soluble decomposition products prone to degradation. Properties of NH3OHPbI3, NH3NH2PbI3, PH4PbI3, SbH4PbI3, CsPbBr3, and a new hypothetical SF3PbI3 perovskite are studied in the search for alternative solar cell absorber materials with enhanced chemical stability.

  4. Electron temperature gradient driven instability in the tokamak boundary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Diamond, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    A general method is developed for calculating boundary plasma fluctuations across a magnetic separatrix in a tokamak with a divertor or a limiter. The slab model, which assumes a periodic plasma in the edge reaching the divertor or limiter plate in the scrape-off layer(SOL), should provide a good estimate, if the radial extent of the fluctuation quantities across the separatrix to the edge is small compared to that given by finite particle banana orbit. The Laplace transform is used for solving the initial value problem. The electron temperature gradient(ETG) driven instability is found to grow like t -1/2 e γmt

  5. Effect of feedback and noise on fast ion instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Stupakov, G.V.

    1997-07-01

    One can use a feedback system to suppress the fast ion instability. However, the feedback noise (and also other sources of noise in the machine) continuously excites the transient oscillations in the electron beam that are amplified through the electron interaction with the ions. We calculate the equilibrium level of these oscillations under the influence of the feedback and show how they grow exponentially from the head to the tail of the bunch train in a linear theory. Nonlinear saturation effects are assume negligible

  6. The effect of plasma drift on the electromagnetic cyclotron instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.H.; Rycroft, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the drift of plasma across a homogeneous magnetic field causes the generation of a wave electric field which, for waves propagating along the magnetic field in the whistler mode, is in the direction of the magnetic field. This leads to Landau damping of the wave field by the background electron distribution, simultaneously with amplification via the electromagnetic cyclotron instability. The drift velocity of the plasma for zero net growth of a whistler mode signal is calculated. It is suggested that such a process occurs in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere during a geomagnetic storm and accounts for the missing band of emissions at half the equatorial gyrofrequency. (Auth.)

  7. Experimental study on low pressure flow instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Wu Shaorong; Bo Jinhai; Zhang Youjie

    1997-05-01

    The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The flow behavior for a wide range of inlet subcooling, in which the flow undergoes from single phase to two phase, is described in a natural circulation system at low pressure (p = 0.1, 0.24 MPa). Several kinds of flow instability, e.g. subcooled boiling instability, subcooled boiling induced flashing instability, pure flashing instability as well as flashing coupled density wave instability and high frequency flow oscillation, are investigated. The mechanism of flashing and flashing concerned flow instability, which has never been studied well in this field, is especially interpreted. The experimental results show that, firstly, for a low pressure natural circulation system the two phase flow is unstable in most of inlet subcooling conditions, the two phase stable flow can only be reached at very low inlet subcooling; secondly, at high inlet subcooling the flow instability is dominated by subcooled boiling in the heated section, and at middle inlet subcooling is dominated by void flashing in the adiabatic long riser; thirdly, in two phase stable flow region the condition for boiling out of the core, namely, single phase flow in the heated section, two phase flow in the riser due to vapor flashing, can be realized. The experimental results are very important for the design and accident analysis of the vessel and swimming pool type natural circulation nuclear heating reactor. (7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.)

  8. Numerical study of jets secondary instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancher, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation is a contribution to the study of the transition to turbulence in open shear flows. Results from direct numerical simulations are interpreted within the framework of hydrodynamic stability theory. The first chapter is an introduction to the primary and secondary instabilities observed in jets and mixing layers. The numerical method used in the present study is detailed in the second chapter. The dynamics of homogeneous circular jets subjected to stream wise and azimuthal perturbations are investigated in the third chapter. A complete scenario describing the evolution of the jet is proposed with emphasis on the dynamics of vorticity within the flow. In the fourth chapter a parametric study reveals a three-dimensional secondary instability mainly controlled in the linear regime by the Strouhal number of the primary instability. In the nonlinear regime the dynamics of the azimuthal harmonies are described by means of model equations and are linked to the formation of stream wise vortices in the braid. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the convective or absolute nature of the secondary instabilities in plane shear layers. It is shown that there are flow configurations for which the two-dimensional secondary instability (pairing) is absolute even though the primary instability (Kelvin-Helmholtz) is convective. Some preliminary results concerning the three-dimensional secondary instabilities arc presented at the end of this chapter. The last chapter summarizes the main results and examines possible extensions of this work. (author) [fr

  9. Study of current instabilities in high resistivity gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraud, A.

    1968-01-01

    We have shown the existence and made a study of the current oscillations produced in high-resistivity gallium arsenide by a strong electric field. The oscillations are associated with the slow travelling of a region of high electrical field across the whole sample. An experimental study of the properties of these instabilities has made it possible for us to distinguish this phenomenon from the Gunn effect, from acoustic-electric effects and from contact effects. In order to account for this type of instability, a differential trapping mechanism involving repulsive impurities is proposed; this mechanism can reduce the concentration of charge carriers in the conduction band at strong electrical fields and can lead to the production of a high-field domain. By developing this model qualitatively we have been able to account for all the properties of high-resistance gallium arsenide crystals subjected to a strong electrical field: increase of the Hall constant, existence of a voltage threshold for these oscillations, production of domains of high field, low rate of propagation of these domains, and finally the possibility of inverting the direction of the propagation of the domain without destroying the latter. A quantitative development of the model makes it possible to calculate the various characteristic parameters of these instabilities. Comparison with experiment shows that there is a good agreement, the small deviations coming especially from the lack of knowledge concerning transport properties in gallium arsenide subjected to high fields. From a study of this model, it appears that the instability phenomenon can occur over a wide range of repulsive centre concentrations, and also for a large range of resistivities. This is the reason why it appears systematically in gallium arsenide of medium and high resistivity. (authors) [fr

  10. Dynamics and instabilities in nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.; Di Toro, M.; Latora, V.; Smerzi, A.; Catania Univ.

    1993-01-01

    A general procedure to identify instability regions which lead to multifragmentation events is presented. The method covers all possible sources of dynamical instabilities. Informations on the instability point, like the time when the nuclear system enters the critical region, the most unstable modes and the time constant of the exponential growing of the relative variances, are deduced without any numerical bias. Important memory effects in the fragmentation pattern are revealed. Some hints towards a fully dynamical picture of fragmentation processes are finally suggested. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs

  11. Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Simpson, S.W.; Del Bosco, E.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity

  12. New instability strip for hot degenerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.G.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    A new kind of variable star, designated as PG1159-035 is distinguished not only by the complete lack of hydrogen in its spectrum but also by an effective temperature that exceeds 8 x 10 4 K. The star does not fall near any of the known regions of instability in the HR diagram which suggests that the instability mechanism will not be helium and hydrogen ionization as in the Cepheid variables. The more unusual compositions are examined in order to discover the cause of the instability in PG1159-035

  13. Tearing instability in cylindrical plasma configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the neutral-layer cylindrical geometry on the development of the tearing instability has been investigated in detail. The increments of the instability for all the regimes have been found. The influence of cylindrical effects becomes manifesting itself at small, as compared to the layer characteristic thickness, distances from the axis, and, finally, the electron regime of the instability development transforms into an ion one. The results obtained are of interest for studying the plasma stability in the devices of the ''Astron'' type and in magnetospheres of cosmic objects

  14. Reflex muscle contraction in anterior shoulder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D A; Beard, D J; Gill, R H; Eng, B; Carr, A J

    1997-01-01

    Reduced proprioception may contribute to recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Twelve patients with unilateral shoulder instability were investigated for evidence of deficient proprioception with an activated pneumatic cylinder and surface electromyography electrodes; the contralateral normal shoulder was used as a control. The latency between onset of movement and the detection of muscle contraction was used as an index of proprioception. No significant difference in muscle contraction latency was detected between the stable and unstable shoulders, suggesting that there was no significant defect in muscular reflex activity. This study does not support the use proprioception-enhancing physiotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic anterior shoulder instability.

  15. Janus faces of Jeans instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, Frank; Jacobs, Gerald; Cadez, Vladimir M.

    2000-01-01

    Self-gravitating clouds have been shown by Jeans to be unstable to harmonic perturbations whose wavelength exceeds some critical value involving the mass density and some thermal velocity or equivalent information. Based upon the assumption that the unperturbed cloud is initially uniform, the Jeans instability is non-oscillatory and purely growing. However, Newtonian gravitation precludes strictly homogeneous equilibria, but a way out is offered, in theory, by considering local perturbations, small compared to the inhomogeneity scale lengths. While in itself plausible, this procedure can in most cases not be tested for internal consistency, because real knowledge about the equilibrium is lacking, and is therefore called the Jeans swindle. The severe limitations of such an approach lead to an unavoidable dichotomy, and an example of a plasma will be discussed where the computations can be done explicitly, both for the stationary as well as for the perturbed state, showing that the system is stable at all wavelengths compatible with the equilibrium inhomogeneity. Nevertheless, the present state of affairs does not allow self-consistent equilibria to be worked out in more complicated configurations, like in dusty plasmas with external magnetic fields. This typically leads to the Jeans swindle being used a little longer than desirable

  16. Valence instabilities in cerium intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the magnetic behaviour of cerium in intermetallic compounds, that show an IV behaviour, e.g. CeSn 3 . In the progress of the investigations, it became of interest to study the effect of changes in the lattice of the IV compound by substituting La or Y for Ce, thus constituting the Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)Sn 3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)Sn 3 quasibinary systems. A second purpose was to examine the possibility of introducing instabilities in the valency of a trivalent intermetallic cerium compound: CeIn 3 , also by La and Y-substitutions in the lattice. Measurements on the resulting Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)In 3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)In 3 quasibinaries are described. A third purpose was to study the (gradual) transition from a trivalent cerium compound into an IV cerium compound. This was done by examining the magnetic properties of the CeInsub(x)Snsub(3-x) and CePbsub(x)Snsub(3-x) systems. Finally a new possibility was investigated: that of the occurrence of IV behaviour in CeSi 2 , CeSi, and in CeGa 2 . (Auth.)

  17. Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.; von Neumann, J.

    1955-11-01

    A discussion is presented in simplified form of the problem of the growth of an initial ripple on the surface of an incompressible liquid in the presence of an acceleration, g, directed from the outside into the liquid. The model is that of a heavy liquid occupying at t = 0 the half space above the plane z = 0, and a rectangular wave profile is assumed. The theory is found to represent correctly one feature of experimental results, namely the fact that the half wave of the heavy liquid into the vacuum becomes rapidly narrower while the half wave pushing into the heavy liquid becomes more and more blunt. The theory fails to account for the experimental results according to which the front of the wave pushing into the heavy liquid moves with constant velocity. The case of instability at the boundary of 2 fluids of different densities is also explored. Similar results are obtained except that the acceleration of the heavy liquid into the light liquid is reduced.

  18. Searching the beginning of BWR power instability events with the Hilbert Huang transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blázquez, Juan; Montalvo, Cristina; García-Berrocal, Agustín; Balbás, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The report of the instability is enriched by including its beginning and its end. ► The Hilbert Huang transform (HHT) is used for indentifying both. ► The first Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF) detects both. ► The methodology is applied to neutron detector signals from two plants. ► The Decay Ratio of IMF 1 is calculated. - Abstract: When a BWR instability takes place, the Regulator usually demands a report which must include many aspects such as the initial time of the instability and also the measurements adopted by the operator at that time. This initial time normally is difficult to know from the available data. In this work, a methodology is proposed to determine accurately when the instability began based on the Hilbert–Huang transform. The Empirical Mode Decomposition is applied to neutron detector signals coming from two plants which have recorded them during real instability events. The first intrinsic mode function shows sharply the beginning and the end of the incident. Besides, through the instantaneous amplitude and frequency of the first mode a kind of Decay Ratio can be assigned allowing us to obtain a sharper description of the instability

  19. Experiment and simulation on the thermal instability of a heavily deformed Cu-Fe composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Lei; Wang Engang; Zuo Xiaowei; Zhang Lin; He Jicheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Fe fibers undergo thermal instability at temperature above 600 deg. C. → Longitudinal boundary splitting is the dominant instability process. → Instability of cylindrical fibers is controlled by breakup, growth and coarsening. → Breakup times can be predicted by Rayleigh perturbation model accurately. → The increase of fiber diameters is due to the coarsening and growth. - Abstract: The thermal instability of the Fe fibers in the heavily deformed Cu-12.8 wt.%Fe composites is investigated experimentally and numerically. The fiber evolution is characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results show that the dominant instability of the Fe fibers is the longitudinal boundary splitting which is determined by the greater cross sectional aspect ratio (width/thickness, w/t) and the larger ratio of boundary to interfacial energy (γ B /γ S ). The longitudinal boundary splitting makes the ribbon-like Fe fibers evolve into a series of cylindrical fibers. Then the cylindrical Fe fibers undergo the instability process in terms of the breakup, growth and coarsening concurrently. The breakup times are accurately predicted by the Rayleigh perturbation model. The growth process primarily contributes to the higher increasing rate of the fiber radius during isothermal annealing at 700 deg. C than that calculated by the coarsening theory developed for cylindrical fibers, since the Cu-matrix of composites is highly supersaturated after casting/cold-working process.

  20. Strain hardening and plastic instability properties of austenitic stainless steels after proton and neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, T.S.; Farrell, K.; Lee, E.H.; Hunn, J.D.; Mansur, L.K.

    2001-01-01

    Strain hardening and plastic instability properties were analyzed for EC316LN, HTUPS316, and AL6XN austenitic stainless steels after combined 800 MeV proton and spallation neutron irradiation to doses up to 10.7 dpa. The steels retained good strain-hardening rates after irradiation, which resulted in significant uniform strains. It was found that the instability stress, the stress at the onset of necking, had little dependence on the irradiation dose. Tensile fracture stress and strain were calculated from the stress-strain curve data and were used to estimate fracture toughness using an existing model. The doses to plastic instability and fracture, the accumulated doses at which the yield stress reaches instability stress or fracture stress, were predicted by extrapolation of the yield stress, instability stress, and fracture stress to higher dose. The EC316LN alloy required the highest doses for plastic instability and fracture. Plastic deformation mechanisms are discussed in relation to the strain-hardening properties of the austenitic stainless steels

  1. Impact of employment instability on socio-economic position of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the relationships in labor utilization. The article analyzes the impact of employment instability on the socio-economic situation of employees in Russia. Questions revealing the concept content of employment instability, its real forms and socio-economic consequences for employees are considered. Methods of statistical and sociological data analysis are applied. Indicators to measure the scope and level of employment instability of employees are calculated. The dynamics in the time of the size of employment instability in Russia are analyzed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicate that employment instability is high, and it threatens socio-economic position of the great number of employees in Russia. It is argued that, in these conditions, the most appropriate in the fight against the spread of employment instability are the set of government initiatives, proactive position of the Russian society and the expansion of societal forms of control over the government.

  2. Micro-instability physics as illuminated by the ST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, C. M.; Applegate, D. J.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W. D.; Joiner, N.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) have attractive features for fusion, and there is considerable interest in understanding their transport properties, which are likely to be determined by the underlying micro-instabilities. Inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and . effects are large in STs, and are known to have important influences on the particle dynamics and the nature of the underlying micro-instabilities respectively. Gyrokinetic micro stability calculations, using the flux-tube geometry code GS2, are presented for a number of ST equilibria, some closely resembling those from the MAST experiment. These calculations are performed both with and without electromagnetic effects (which are fully included in GS2). In a modest . MAST equilibrium, ion temperature gradient driven drift waves (ITG) are close to being stabilised by sheared equilibrium ... flows, but electron temperature gradient driven drift waves (ETG) have stronger growth rates and cannot usually be stabilised in this way. Electromagnetic effects, even in this relatively low . equilibrium, appear to give rise to longer perpendicular wavelength tearing parity modes in the plasma core [1]. Micro stability analyses are also presented for higher . equilibria, including that proposed for a conceptual ST power plant, where tearing parity modes are found over wide ranges of perpendicular length scales. Mixing length estimates from linear calculations may suggest the level of the transport coefficients, but nonlinear calculations are required to derive the heat and particle fluxes self-consistently. The status of these computations, which are particularly challenging in today's STs. will be reviewed, and the issues that must be resolved in the future in order to improve these calculations will be outlined. (Author)

  3. Gravitational instability of thermally anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kalra, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The equations of Chew, Goldberger, and Low (1956) modified to include the heat flux vector and self-gravitation are used to study the gravitational instability of unbounded plasma placed in a uniform static magnetic field. The linear stability analysis shows that some of the additional terms which arise as a result of higher moments are of the same order of magnitude as the terms in the original Chew, Goldberger, and Low theory. The influence of these terms on the gravitational instability has been specially examined. It is found that the gravitational instability sets in at a comparatively shorter wavelength and the growth rate is enhanced owing to the inclusion of these terms in the case where the propagation vector is along the magnetic field. The condition for instability is, however, unaltered when the direction of propagation is transverse to the direction of magnetic field. 19 references

  4. Investigation of universal plasma instabilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashinsky, H.

    1977-01-01

    This project was undertaken in order to carry out a comprehensive experimental investigation of universal plasma instabilities under a variety of conditions and a wide range of experimental parameters to scale the results appropriately to make comparisons with plasmas of thermonuclear interest. Of particular importance are the roles played by collisions and resonance particles (Landau damping and excitation) and the various stages in the development of the instabilities i.e., the linear onset of the instability, the quasilinear stage, and the transition to turbulence. General nonlinear effects such as mode locking and mode competition, and the relation of these phenomena to plasma turbulence, are also of great interest and were studied experimentally. The ultimate aim was to measure certain plasma transport coefficients in the plasma under stable and turbulent conditions with the particular view of evaluating the effect of the universal plasma instabilities of plasma confinement in a magnetic field

  5. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor

  6. Toward a definition of affective instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Suzane M; Zacchia, Camillo

    2012-01-01

    Affective instability is a psychophysiological symptom observed in some psychopathologies. It is a complex construct that encompasses (1) primary emotions, or affects, and secondary emotions, with each category having its own characteristics, amplitude, and duration, (2) rapid shifting from neutral or valenced affect to intense affect, and (3) dysfunctional modulation of emotions. Affective instability is often confused with mood lability, as in bipolar disorders, as well as with other terms. To clarify the concept, we searched databases for the term affective instability and read related articles on the topic. In this article we situate the term within the current affective nomenclature and human emotional experience, explore its psychophysiological features, and place it within the context of psychopathology. We explain why the term can potentially be confused with mood pathology and then define affective instability as an inherited temperamental trait modulated by developmental experience.

  7. Suppression of instability in rotatory hydromagnetic convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    first time by Lord Rayleigh [9] for the idealized case of two free boundaries. Rayleigh's theory shows that the gravity-dominated thermal instability in liquid layer ... suppressed for oscillatory perturbations by the simultaneous application of a ...

  8. On nonlinear development of beam instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel', S.I.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation-resonance interactions are taken into account in the problem of dynamics of an electron beam inb plasma. The beam characteristics to be taken into account are determined. Stabilization conditions for beam instability are established

  9. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in solar spicules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ebadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Magneto hydrodynamic waves, propagating along spicules, may become unstable and the expected instability is of Kelvin-Helmholtz type. Such instability can trigger the onset of wave turbulence leading to an effective plasma heating and particle acceleration. In present study, two-dimensional magneto hydrodynamic simulations performed on a Cartesian grid is presented in spicules with different densities, moving at various speeds depending on their environment. Simulations being applied in this study show the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and transition to turbulent flow in spicules. Development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability leads to momentum and energy transport, dissipation, and mixing of fluids. When magnetic fields are involved, field amplification is also possible to take place

  10. Plasma equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I.L.; Vannucci, A.

    1985-01-01

    A phenomenological introduction of some of the main theoretical and experimental features on equilibrium and instabilities in tokamaks is presented. In general only macroscopic effects are considered, being the plasma described as a fluid. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heifets

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.

  12. The Growth Effects of Institutional Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggren, Niclas; Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

     Both institutional quality and institutional stability have been argued to stimulate economic growth. But to improve institutional quality, a country must endure a period of institutional change, which implies at least a little and possibly a lot of institutional instability. We investigate...... the growth effects of institutional quality and instability, using the political risk index from the ICRG in a cross-country study of 132 countries, measuring instability as the coefficient of variation. Using the aggregate index, we find evidence that institutional quality is positively linked to growth....... While institutional instability is negatively related to growth in the baseline case, there are indications that the effect can be positive in rich countries, suggesting that institutional reform is not necessarily costly even during a transition period. Sensitivity analysis, e.g., decomposing...

  13. Analysis of the Cofrentes instability with the Hilbert-Huang transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazquez, J.; Galindo, A.

    2010-01-01

    The most obvious application of the Hilbert-Huang transform is the denoising (signal isolation). In this article, the dynamic system is the power of a BWR reactor that undergoes instability. The signal and the dynamic systems are described, which in this case corresponds to a current incident in a commercial BWR reactor (Cofrentes). Finally, empirical modes are calculated and the results are analyzed.

  14. Modal instability of rod fiber amplifiers: a semi-analytic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The modal instability (MI) threshold is estimated for four rod fiber designs by combining a semi-analytic model with the finite element method. The thermal load due to the quantum defect is calculated and used to numerically determine the mode distributions on which the expression for the onset o...

  15. Modulational instability development and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popel, S.I.; Vladimirov, S.V.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Recently many investigations on current driven by lower-hybrid (LH) waves in a plasma of toroidal nuclear fusion installations are carried out. Usually a theoretical approach taking into account quasilinear and binary collisions effects is used to describe current drive. However a problem of comparison of the results obtained with the aid of the above theoretical approach and experimental data takes place. Namely the experimentally observed currents driven by LH waves is two-three orders of magnitude larger than those calculated. The above discrepancy between theory and experiment is related with the existence of the so-called ''spectral gap'', that is the gap between the parallel phase velocities of LH waves ω/k || (where ω, k || are LH wave frequency and a component of wavenumber k parallel to the external magnetic field) which are necessary for effective Landau damping of LH waves (i.e. velocities as high as several electron thermal velocities) and the lowest parallel phase velocity in the injected LH wave spectrum. Experimentally observed current drive may be explained if one accounts for filling of the ''spectral gap'' by LH waves. Some nonlinear effects have been drawn in current drive description to explain the ''spectral gap'' filling by LH waves. However the LH wave modulational instability (MI) effect has not been considered yet in application to current drive description. The aim of this paper is to investigate this MI influence. We shall show that for sufficiently intensive pump level of LH wave the MI can lead to ''spectral gap'' filling. (author) 4 refs

  16. Jeans instability in a quantum dusty magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Jamil, M.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.

    2009-01-01

    Jeans instability in a homogeneous cold quantum dusty plasma in the presence of the ambient magnetic field and the quantum effect arising through the Bohm potential has been examined using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. It is found that the Jeans instability is significantly reduced by the presence of the dust-lower-hybrid wave and the ion quantum effect. The minimum wavenumber for Jeans stability depends clearly on ion quantum effect and the dust-lower-hybrid frequency also.

  17. Bosonic instability of charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole

  18. Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.

    2013-12-01

    Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.

  19. Dorsoradial capsulodesis for trapeziometacarpal joint instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ghazi; Do, Viet

    2013-02-01

    We describe an alternative method for treating chronic trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint instability after acute injury or chronic repetitive use of the thumb by performing a dorsoradial capsulodesis procedure. The procedure is done by imbricating the redundant TM joint dorsoradial ligament and capsule after reducing the joint by pronating the thumb. The dorsoradial capsulodesis is a reasonable reconstructive option for chronic TM joint instability and subluxation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematics of shoulder instability; Systematik der Schulterinstabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Maehringer-Kunz, A. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to the causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options. Instabilities are classified into traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome and into microtraumatic instabilities. For diagnostics plain radiographs (''trauma series'') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful repositioning. Direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation of the different injury patterns of the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast computed tomography (CT) arthrography with the use of multidetector CT scanners represents an alternative imaging modality; however, MR imaging should be preferred in the work-up of shoulder instabilities due to the mostly younger age of patients. (orig.) [German] Unter einer Schulterinstabilitaet versteht man jede zu Beschwerden fuehrende Translation des Humeruskopfs in Relation zur Gelenkpfanne waehrend einer aktiven Bewegung der Schulter. Glenohumerale Instabilitaeten werden heute nach ihrer Aetiologie eingeteilt, da bei der Wahl der Therapie der Entstehungsmechanismus der Instabilitaet eine wichtige Rolle spielt. Danach unterscheidet man primaer traumatisch von atraumatisch entstandenen Instabilitaeten sowie Mikroinstabilitaeten. Bei der Diagnostik dienen konventionelle Roentgenuebersichtsaufnahmen nur noch zur Dokumentation einer Luxation und zur Beurteilung der Reposition. Die durch eine Instabilitaet hervorgerufenen Verletzungsfolgen am labroligamentaeren Komplex und den knoechernen Strukturen werden heute bevorzugt mit der direkten MR-Arthrographie dargestellt. Hierbei koennen unterschiedliche Verletzungsmuster dargestellt werden. Nach

  1. Beam Instabilities in Circular Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067185

    2017-01-01

    The theory of impedance-induced bunched-beam coherent instabilities is reviewed following Laclare's formalism, adding the effect of an electronic damper in the transverse plane. Both single-bunch and coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed, both low-intensity and high-intensity regimes are analysed, both longitudinal and transverse planes are studied, and both short-bunch and long-bunch regimes are considered. Observables and mitigation measures are also examined.

  2. MHD instability studies in ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pare, V.K.; Dunlap, J.L.; Navarro, A.P.; Burris, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    MHD instabilities in Ohmically and beam heated ISX-B plasmas have been studied using collimated x-ray and Mirnov loop diagnostics. The diagnostic systems will be described and the instability signals will be illustrated for a variety of discharges. The latter will include those observed in connection with low and high β operation, density clamping, pellet injection, and deliberate introduction of toroidal field ripple

  3. Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... of the injected electrons that maximizes the growth rate increases with increasing | q |. We compare the range and strength of the instability in graphene to that of two- and three-dimensional parabolic band systems....

  4. Arthroscopic Findings in Anterior Shoulder Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Hantes, Michael; Raoulis, Vasilios

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the last years, basic research and arthroscopic surgery, have improved our understanding of shoulder anatomy and pathology. It is a fact that arthroscopic treatment of shoulder instability has evolved considerably over the past decades. The aim of this paper is to present the variety of pathologies that should be identified and treated during shoulder arthroscopy when dealing with anterior shoulder instability cases. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding arthros...

  5. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  6. Sectoral Diversification as Insurance against Economic Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kluge

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which sectoral diversification can act as an insurance mechanism against fluctuations in regional gross value added growth rates. I apply portfolio theory to the growth-instability properties of German districts. Furthermore, I define a comprehensive diversification measure and use Stochastic Frontier Analysis in order to estimate whether diversification allows regions to achieve more efficient growth-instability combinations, i.e., greater stability at given...

  7. Modulation of the Fibularis Longus Hoffmann Reflex and Postural Instability Associated With Chronic Ankle Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Min; Hart, Joseph M.; Saliba, Susan A.; Hertel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Context: Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) present with decreased modulation of the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) from a simple to a more challenging task. The neural alteration is associated with impaired postural control, but the relationship has not been investigated in individuals with CAI. Objective: To determine differences in H-reflex modulation and postural control between individuals with or without CAI and to identify if they are correlated in individuals with CAI. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 15 volunteers with CAI (9 males, 6 females; age = 22.6 ± 5.8 years, height = 174.7 ± 8.1 cm, mass = 74.9 ± 12.8 kg) and 15 healthy sex-matched volunteers serving as controls (9 males, 6 females; age = 23.8 ± 5.8 years, height = 171.9 ± 9.9 cm, mass = 68.9 ± 15.5 kg) participated. Intervention(s): Maximum H-reflex (Hmax) and motor wave (Mmax) from the soleus and fibularis longus were recorded while participants lay prone and then stood in unipedal stance. We assessed postural tasks of unipedal stance with participants' eyes closed for 10 seconds using a forceplate. Main Outcome Measure(s): We normalized Hmax to Mmax to obtain Hmax : Mmax ratios for the 2 positions. For each muscle, H-reflex modulation was quantified using the percentage change scores in Hmax : Mmax ratios calculated from prone position to unipedal stance. Center-of-pressure data were used to compute 4 time-to-boundary variables. Separate independent-samples t tests were performed to determine group differences. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated between the modulation and balance measures in the CAI group. Results: The CAI group presented less H-reflex modulation in the soleus (t26 = −3.77, P = .001) and fibularis longus (t25 = −2.59, P = .02). The mean of the time-to-boundary minima in the anteroposterior direction was lower in the CAI group (t28 = −2.06, P = .048

  8. Damage instability and Earthquake nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, I. R.; Gomez, Q.; Campillo, M.; Jia, X.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake nucleation (initiation) is usually associated to the loss of the stability of the geological structure under a slip-weakening friction acting on the fault. The key parameters involved in the stability of the fault are the stress drop, the critical slip distance but also the elastic stiffness of the surrounding materials (rocks). We want to explore here how the nucleation phenomena are correlated to the material softening during damage accumulation by dynamic and/or quasi-static processes. Since damage models are describing micro-cracks growth, which is generally an unstable phenomenon, it is natural to expect some loss of stability on the associated micro-mechanics based models. If the model accurately captures the material behavior, then this can be due to the unstable nature of the brittle material itself. We obtained stability criteria at the microscopic scale, which are related to a large class of damage models. We show that for a given continuous strain history the quasi-static or dynamic problems are instable or ill-posed (multiplicity of material responses) and whatever the selection rule is adopted, shocks (time discontinuities) will occur. We show that the quasi-static equilibria chosen by the "perfect delay convention" is always stable. These stability criteria are used to analyze how NIC (Non Interacting Crack) effective elasticity associated to "self similar growth" model work in some special configurations (one family of micro-cracks in mode I, II and III and in plane strain or plain stress). In each case we determine a critical crack density parameter and critical micro-crack radius (length) which distinguish between stable and unstable behaviors. This critical crack density depends only on the chosen configuration and on the Poisson ratio.

  9. Centrifugally Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scase, Matthew; Hill, Richard

    2017-11-01

    The instability that develops at the interface between two fluids of differing density due to the rapid rotation of the system may be considered as a limit of high-rotation rate Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Previously the authors have considered the effect of rotation on a gravitationally dominated Rayleigh-Taylor instability and have shown that some growth modes of instability may be suppressed completely by the stabilizing effect of rotation (Phys. Rev. Fluids 2:024801, Sci. Rep. 5:11706). Here we consider the case of very high rotation rates and a negligible gravitational field. The initial condition is of a dense inner cylinder of fluid surrounded by a lighter layer of fluid. As the system is rotated about the generating axis of the cylinder, the dense inner fluid moves away from the axis and the familiar bubbles and spikes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability develop at the interface. The system may be thought of as a ``fluid-fluid centrifuge''. By developing a model based on an Orr-Sommerfeld equation, we consider the effects of viscosity, surface tension and interface diffusion on the growth rate and modes of instability. We show that under particular circumstances some modes may be stabilized. School of Mathematical Sciences.

  10. [Capsular retensioning in anterior unidirectional glenohumeral instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Pozos, Leonel; Martínez Molina, Oscar; Castañeda Landa, Ezequiel

    2007-01-01

    To present the experience of the Orthopedics Service PEMEX South Central Hospital in the management of anterior unidirectional shoulder instability with an arthroscopic technique consisting of capsular retensioning either combined with other anatomical repair procedures or alone. Thirty-one patients with anterior unidirectional shoulder instability operated-on between January 1999 and December 2005 were included. Fourteen patients underwent capsular retensioning and radiofrequency, and in 17 patients, capsular retensioning was combined with suture anchors. Patients with a history of relapsing glenohumeral dislocations and subluxations, with anterior instability with or without associated Bankart lesions were selected; all of them were young. The results were assessed considering basically the occurrence of instability during the postoperative follow-up. No cases of recurring instability occurred. Two cases had neuroma and one experienced irritation of the suture site. Six patients had residual limitation of combined lateral rotation and abduction movements, of a mean of 10 degrees compared with the healthy contralateral side. The most frequent incident was the leak of solutions to the soft tissues. Capsular retensioning, whether combined or not with other anatomical repair techniques, has proven to result in a highly satisfactory rate of glenohumeral stabilization in cases of anterior unidirectional instabilities. The arthroscopic approach offers the well-known advantages of causing less damage to the soft tissues, and a shorter time to starting rehabilitation therapy and exercises.

  11. Parametric instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, S; Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Ju, L

    2010-01-01

    As the LIGO interferometric gravitational wave detectors have finished gathering a large observational data set, an intense effort is underway to upgrade these observatories to improve their sensitivity by a factor of ∼10. High circulating power in the arm cavities is required, which leads to the possibility of parametric instability due to three-mode opto-acoustic resonant interactions between the carrier, transverse optical modes and acoustic modes. Here, we present detailed numerical analysis of parametric instability in a configuration that is similar to Advanced LIGO. After examining parametric instability for a single three-mode interaction in detail, we examine instability for the best and worst cases, as determined by the resonance condition of transverse modes in the power and signal recycling cavities. We find that, in the best case, the dual recycling detector is substantially less susceptible to instability than a single cavity, but its susceptibility is dependent on the signal recycling cavity design, and on tuning for narrow band operation. In all cases considered, the interferometer will experience parametric instability at full power operation, but the gain varies from 3 to 1000, and the number of unstable modes varies between 7 and 30 per test mass. The analysis focuses on understanding the detector complexity in relation to opto-acoustic interactions, on providing insights that can enable predictions of the detector response to transient disturbances, and of variations in thermal compensation conditions.

  12. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  13. Intimate partner violence and housing instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Joanne; Alvarez, Jennifer; Baumrind, Nikki; Induni, Marta; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-02-01

    The mental and physical health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well established, yet little is known about the impact of violence on a woman's ability to obtain and maintain housing. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between recent IPV and housing instability among a representative sample of California women. It is expected that women who have experienced IPV will be at increased risk for housing instability as evidenced by: (1) late rent or mortgage, (2) frequent moves because of difficulty obtaining affordable housing, and/or (3) without their own housing. Data were taken from the 2003 California Women's Health Survey, a population-based, random-digit-dial, annual probability survey of adult California women (N=3619). Logistic regressions were used to predict housing instability in the past 12 months, adjusting for the following covariates; age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, children in the household, and past year IPV. In the multivariate model, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty, and IPV were significant predictors of housing instability. After adjusting for all covariates, women who experienced IPV in the last year had almost four times the odds of reporting housing instability than women who did not experience IPV (adjusted odds ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval: 2.94-5.39). This study found that IPV was associated with housing instability among California women. Future prospective studies are needed to learn more about the nature and direction of the relationship between IPV and housing instability and the possible associated negative health consequences.

  14. The temporal interplay of self-esteem instability and affective instability in borderline personality disorder patients' everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Philip S; Reinhard, Iris; Koudela-Hamila, Susanne; Bohus, Martin; Holtmann, Jana; Eid, Michael; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2017-11-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined by a pervasive pattern of instability. Although there is ample empirical evidence that unstable self-esteem is associated with a myriad of BPD-like symptoms, self-esteem instability and its temporal dynamics have received little empirical attention in patients with BPD. Even worse, the temporal interplay of affective instability and self-esteem instability has been neglected completely, although it has been hypothesized recently that the lack of specificity of affective instability in association with BPD might be explained by the highly intertwined temporal relationship between affective and self-esteem instability. To investigate self-esteem instability, its temporal interplay with affective instability, and its association with psychopathology, 60 patients with BPD and 60 healthy controls (HCs) completed electronic diaries for 4 consecutive days during their everyday lives. Participants reported their current self-esteem, valence, and tense arousal levels 12 times a day in approximately one-hr intervals. We used multiple state-of-the-art statistical techniques and graphical approaches to reveal patterns of instability, clarify group differences, and examine the temporal interplay of self-esteem instability and affective instability. As hypothesized, instability in both self-esteem and affect was clearly elevated in the patients with BPD. In addition, self-esteem instability and affective instability were highly correlated. Both types of instability were related to general psychopathology. Because self-esteem instability could not fully explain affective instability and vice versa and neither affective instability nor self-esteem instability was able to explain psychopathology completely, our findings suggest that these types of instability represent unique facets of BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Kinetic simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance

    2014-01-01

    We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role in the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. As a first test we study the evolution of a single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface of a light and a heavy fluid in the presence of a gravitational acceleration. To suppress small-wavelength instabilities caused by the irregularity in the separation layer we use a large particle mean free path. The latter leads to the development of a diffusion layer as particles propagate from one fluid into the other. For small amplitudes, when the instability is in the linear regime, we compare its position and shape to the analytic prediction. Despite the broadening of the fluid interface we see a good agreement with the analytic solution. At later times we observe the development of a mushroom like shape caused by secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as seen in hydrodynamic simulations and consistent with experimental observations.

  16. Tidal instability in exoplanetary systems evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gal P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new element is proposed to play a role in the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems: the tidal (or elliptical instability. It comes from a parametric resonance and takes place in any rotating fluid whose streamlines are (even slightly elliptically deformed. Based on theoretical, experimental and numerical works, we estimate the growth rate of the instability for hot-jupiter systems, when the rotation period of the star is known. We present the physical process, its application to stars, and preliminary results obtained on a few dozen systems, summarized in the form of a stability diagram. Most of the systems are trapped in the so-called "forbidden zone", where the instability cannot grow. In some systems, the tidal instability is able to grow, at short timescales compared to the system evolution. Implications are discussed in the framework of misaligned transiting systems, as the rotational axis of the star would be unstable in systems where this elliptical instability grows.

  17. Coherent Instabilities of ILC Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, S.; Stupakov, G.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    The paper presents the first attempt to estimates the ILC damping ring impedance and compare thresholds of the classical instabilities for several designs initially proposed for the DR. The work was carried out in the spring of 2006. Since then the choice of the DR is narrowed. Nevertheless, the analysis described may be useful for the next iterations of the beam stability. Overall, the conventional instabilities will have little impact on the ring performance provided the careful design of the ring minimizes the impedance below acceptable level indicated above. The only exception is the transverse CB instability. The longitudinal CB is less demanding. However, even the transverse CB instability would have threshold current above nominal provided the aperture in the wigglers is increased from 8 mm to 16 mm. The microwave instability needs more studies. Nevertheless, we should remember that the ILC DR is different from existing high-current machines at least in two respects: absence of the beam-beam tune spread stabilizing beams in colliders, and unusual strict requirements for low emittance. That may cause new problems such as bunch emittance dilution due to high-frequency wakes (BPMs, grooves), etc. Even if such a possibility exists, it probably universal for all machines and ought be addressed in the design of vacuum components rather than have effect on the choice of the machine design.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic instability in annular linear induction pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Kirillov, Igor R.; Preslitsky, Gennady V.; Ogorodnikov, Anatoly P.

    2006-01-01

    In the previous work, the authors showed some detailed aspects of the magnetohydrodynamic instability arising in an annular linear induction pump: the instability is accompanied with a low frequency pressure pulsation in the range of 0-10 Hz when the magnetic Reynolds number is larger than unity; the low frequency pressure pulsation is produced by the sodium vortices that come from some azimuthal non-uniformity of the applied magnetic field or of the sodium inlet velocity. In the present work, an experiment and a numerical analysis are carried out to verify the pump winding phase shift that is expected as an effective way to suppress the instability. The experimental data shows that the phase shift suppresses the instability unless the slip value is so high, but brings about a decrease of the developed pressure. The numerical results indicate that the phase shift causes a local decrease of the electromagnetic force, which results in the suppression of the instability and the decrease of the developed pressure. In addition, it is exhibited that the intensity of the double-supply-frequency pressure pulsation is in nearly the same level in the case with and without the phase shift

  19. Inertioelastic Flow Instability at a Stagnation Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burshtein, Noa; Zografos, Konstantinos; Shen, Amy Q.; Poole, Robert J.; Haward, Simon J.

    2017-10-01

    A number of important industrial applications exploit the ability of small quantities of high molecular weight polymer to suppress instabilities that arise in the equivalent flow of Newtonian fluids, a particular example being turbulent drag reduction. However, it can be extremely difficult to probe exactly how the polymer acts to, e.g., modify the streamwise near-wall eddies in a fully turbulent flow. Using a novel cross-slot flow configuration, we exploit a flow instability in order to create and study a single steady-state streamwise vortex. By quantitative experiment, we show how the addition of small quantities (parts per million) of a flexible polymer to a Newtonian solvent dramatically affects both the onset conditions for this instability and the subsequent growth of the axial vorticity. Complementary numerical simulations with a finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbell model show that these modifications are due to the growth of polymeric stress within specific regions of the flow domain. Our data fill a significant gap in the literature between the previously reported purely inertial and purely elastic flow regimes and provide a link between the two by showing how the instability mode is transformed as the fluid elasticity is varied. Our results and novel methods are relevant to understanding the mechanisms underlying industrial uses of weakly elastic fluids and also to understanding inertioelastic instabilities in more confined flows through channels with intersections and stagnation points.

  20. Adolescent patellar instability: current concepts review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D; Metcalfe, A; Wogan, C; Mandalia, V; Eldridge, J

    2017-02-01

    Patellar instability most frequently presents during adolescence. Congenital and infantile dislocation of the patella is a distinct entity from adolescent instability and measurable abnormalities may be present at birth. In the normal patellofemoral joint an increase in quadriceps angle and patellar height are matched by an increase in trochlear depth as the joint matures. Adolescent instability may herald a lifelong condition leading to chronic disability and arthritis. Restoring normal anatomy by trochleoplasty, tibial tubercle transfer or medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction in the young adult prevents further instability. Although these techniques are proven in the young adult, they may cause growth arrest and deformity where the physis is open. A vigorous non-operative strategy may permit delay of surgery until growth is complete. Where non-operative treatment has failed a modified MPFL reconstruction may be performed to maintain stability until physeal closure permits anatomical reconstruction. If significant growth remains an extraosseous reconstruction of the MPFL may impart the lowest risk to the physis. If minor growth remains image intensifier guided placement of femoral intraosseous fixation may impart a small, but acceptable, risk to the physis. This paper presents and discusses the literature relating to adolescent instability and provides a framework for management of these patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:159-70. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Radiologic signs of detrusor instability in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo Teran, D.G.; Podesta, M.; Mendel, R.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To revalue radiologic signs of detrusor instability in children. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of videourodynamic studies performed in 85 children consulting for urinary incontinence and/or infection. Patients were free from neuropathic diseases, alterations of the urinary tract, previous surgery or anticholinergic treatment. Images of the bladder coinciding to the peaks of unstable detrusor contractions in patients with unstable bladders, and those at the end of filling in stable bladders were analyzed. Results: Bladder outlets were open in 38 patients and close in 47. Detrusor instability was found in 97 % of those with an open bladder outlet and in 36 % when close. Bladder outlets were open in all cases with contractions stronger than 60 cm.water. All 'spinning-top' urethras were associated to contractions stronger than 70 cm.water. Most false negatives (close bladder outlet in unstable bladders) corresponded to contractions lower than 30 cm.water. Different shapes of the bladder were found irrespective of detrusor instability. Conclusions: 1) An open bladder outlet observed during bladder filling is a reliable sign of significant detrusor instability in children without neuropathy; 2) It is highly specific of instability; 3) Most false negatives coincide with low amplitude contractions; 4) 'Spinning-top' images indicate strong contractions. (author)

  2. Hydrodynamic instabilities in astrophysics and ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Drake, R.

    2005-01-01

    Inertial fusion systems and astrophysical systems both involve hydrodynamic effects, including sources of pressure, shock waves, rarefactions, and plasma flows. In the evolution of such systems, hydrodynamic instabilities naturally evolve. As a result, a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities is necessary to understand their behavior. In addition, high-energy-density facilities designed for ICF purposes can be used to provide and experimental basis for understanding astrophysical processes. In this talk. I will discuss the instabilities that appear in astrophysics and ICF from the common perspective of the basic mechanisms at work. Examples will be taken from experiments aimed at ICF, from astrophysical systems, and from experiments using ICF systems to address issues in astrophysics. The high-energy-density research facilities of today can accelerate small but macroscopic amounts of material to velocities above 100 km/s, can heat such material to temperature above 100 eV, can produce pressures far above a million atmospheres (10''12 dybes/cm''2 or 0.1 TPascal), and can do experiments under these conditions that address basic physics issues. This enables on to devise experiments aimed directly at important process such as the Rayleigh Taylor instability at an ablating surface or at an embedded interface that is accelerating, the Richtmeyer Meshkov evolution of shocked interfaces, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of shear flows. The talk will include examples of such phenomena from the laboratory and from astrophysics, and will discuss experiments to study them. (Author)

  3. Jean’s instability in a complex plasma in presence of secondary electrons and nonthermal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Susmita; Maity Saumyen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the effect of secondary electron emission and nonthermality of ion velocity distribution simultaneously on Jean’s instability in a complex plasma in presence of negatively charged dust grains. Primary and secondary electron temperatures are assumed to be equal. Thus plasma under consideration consists of Boltzmann distributed electrons, nonthermal ions and negatively charged dust grains. The dust grain component is modeled by continuity and momentum equations. From the linear dispersion relation we have calculated the real frequency and growth rate of the Jean’s mode. Numerically it is found that for lower values of the nonthermal parameter Jean’s instability is higher for higher secondary electron emission whereas the effect of secondary electron emission on Jean’s instability becomes insignificant for higher values of the nonthermal parameter. (author)

  4. Analysis of intense beam instability in a general quadrupole focusing channel with image charge effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, A., E-mail: animesh@vecc.gov.in; Sing Babu, P., E-mail: psb@vecc.gov.in; Pandit, V.S., E-mail: pandit@vecc.gov.in

    2016-02-01

    The stability properties of transverse envelopes of mismatched intense continuous charge particle beam propagating in a general quadrupole focusing channel have been investigated in the presence of image charge effect due to a cylindrical conducting pipe. Phase shifts and growth factors of the envelope oscillations in the case of instability are calculated by numerical evaluation of the eigenvalues of linearly perturbed envelope equations for small deviations from the matched beam conditions. A detailed study on the region of instability and its dependence on the system parameters like occupancy of the quadrupole focusing field, syncopation factor, zero current phase advance, beam intensity etc. have been carried out. It has been found that the strength and regions of envelope instability due to the lattice and confluent resonances in the parametric space are affected by the presence of image charge.

  5. Analysis of plasma instabilities and verification of the BOUT code for the Large Plasma Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, P.; Carter, T. A.; Friedman, B.; Umansky, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    The properties of linear instabilities in the Large Plasma Device [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] are studied both through analytic calculations and solving numerically a system of linearized collisional plasma fluid equations using the three-dimensional fluid code BOUT[M. Umansky et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 180, 887 (2009)], which has been successfully modified to treat cylindrical geometry. Instability drive from plasma pressure gradients and flows is considered, focusing on resistive drift waves and the Kelvin-Helmholtz and rotational interchange instabilities. A general linear dispersion relation for partially ionized collisional plasmas including these modes is derived and analyzed. For Large Plasma Device relevant profiles including strongly driven flows, it is found that all three modes can have comparable growth rates and frequencies. Detailed comparison with solutions of the analytic dispersion relation demonstrates that BOUT accurately reproduces all characteristics of linear modes in this system.

  6. Fluidelastic instability analysis of steam generator U-tubes at antivibration bar-inactive modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.; Jo, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of thermal-hydraulic and fluidelastic U-tube instability analyses performed for the vertical type pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator model being employed at Kori units 2, 3 and 4, and Yonggwang units 1 and 2 in Korea. The thermal-hydraulic analysis for providing the detailed three-dimensional two-phase flow field in the secondary side of the steam generator was accomplished using the ATHOS3 steam generator thermal-hydraulic analysis code. The UTVA2 code designed for calculating both the free vibration responses and fluidelastic stability ratio of a specific U-tube under consideration was used to assess the potential for fluidelastic instability of the steam generator U-tubes at various conditions of antivibration bar (AVB)-inactive modes. The results of the fluidelastic instability analysis were discussed in comparison with those obtained for the steam generator U-tubes at AVB-active mode

  7. Differences in kinematic control of ankle joint motions in people with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Kristof; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2013-06-01

    People with chronic ankle instability display different ankle joint motions compared to healthy people. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strategies used to control ankle joint motions between a group of people with chronic ankle instability and a group of healthy, matched controls. Kinematic data were collected from 11 people with chronic ankle instability and 11 matched control subjects as they performed a single-leg land-and-cut maneuver. Three-dimensional ankle joint angles were calculated from 100 ms before, to 200 ms after landing. Kinematic control of the three rotational ankle joint degrees of freedom was investigated by simultaneously examining the three-dimensional co-variation of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion, toe-in/toe-out rotation, and inversion/eversion motions with principal component analysis. Group differences in the variance proportions of the first two principal components indicated that the angular co-variation between ankle joint motions was more linear in the control group, but more planar in the chronic ankle instability group. Frontal and transverse plane motions, in particular, contributed to the group differences in the linearity and planarity of angular co-variation. People with chronic ankle instability use a different kinematic control strategy to coordinate ankle joint motions during a single-leg landing task. Compared to the healthy group, the chronic ankle instability group's control strategy appeared to be more complex and involved joint-specific contributions that would tend to predispose this group to recurring episodes of instability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterizing the Prevalence of Chromosome Instability in Interval Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Cisyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of colorectal cancers (CRCs are interval CRCs (I-CRCs; i.e., CRCs diagnosed soon after a colonoscopy. Chromosomal instability (CIN is defined as an increase in the rate of which whole chromosomes/large chromosomal fragments are gained or lost and is observed in 85% of non-hereditary CRCs. The contribution of CIN to the etiology of I-CRCs remains unknown. We established a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH approach to characterize CIN by enumerating specific chromosomes and determined the prevalence of numerical CIN in a population-based cohort of I-CRCs and control (sporadic CRCs. Using the population-based Manitoba Health administrative databases and Manitoba Cancer Registry, we identified an age, sex, and colonic site of CRC matched cohort of I-CRCs and controls and retrieved their archived paraffin-embedded tumor samples. FISH chromosome enumeration probes specifically recognizing the pericentric regions of chromosomes 8, 11, and 17 were first used on cell lines and then CRC tissue microarrays to detect aneusomy, which was then used to calculate a CIN score (CS. The 15th percentile CS for control CRC was used to define CIN phenotype. Mean CSs were similar in the control CRCs and I-CRCs; 82% of I-CRCs exhibited a CIN phenotype, which was similar to that in the control CRCs. This study suggests that CIN is the most prevalent contributor to genomic instability in I-CRCs. Further studies should evaluate CIN and microsatellite instability (MSI in the same cohort of I-CRCs to corroborate our findings and to further assess concomitant contribution of CIN and MSI to I-CRCs.

  9. Preparing for an explosion: Hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulence in presupernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Nathan; Arnett, W. David, E-mail: nathans@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: darnett@as.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    Both observations and numerical simulations are discordant with predictions of conventional stellar evolution codes for the latest stages of a massive star's life before core collapse. The most dramatic example of this disconnect is in the eruptive mass loss occurring in the decade preceding Type IIn supernovae. We outline the key empirical evidence that indicates severe pre-supernova instability in massive stars, and we suggest that the chief reason that these outbursts are absent in stellar evolution models may lie in the treatment of turbulent convection in these codes. The mixing length theory that is used ignores (1) finite amplitude fluctuations in velocity and temperature and (2) their nonlinear interaction with nuclear burning. Including these fluctuations is likely to give rise to hydrodynamic instabilities in the latest burning sequences, which prompts us to discuss a number of far-reaching implications for the fates of massive stars. In particular, we explore connections to enhanced pre-supernova mass loss, unsteady nuclear burning and consequent eruptions, swelling of the stellar radius that may trigger violent interactions with a companion star, and potential modifications to the core structure that could dramatically alter calculations of the core-collapse explosion mechanism itself. These modifications may also impact detailed nucleosynthesis and measured isotopic anomalies in meteorites, as well as the interpretation of young core-collapse supernova remnants. Understanding these critical instabilities in the final stages of evolution may make possible the development of an early warning system for impending core collapse, if we can identify their asteroseismological or eruptive signatures.

  10. Star formation through thermal instability of radiative plasma with finite electron inertia and finite Larmor radius corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaothekar, Sachin, E-mail: sackaothekar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mahakal Institute of Technology, Ujjain-456664, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-08-15

    I have studied the effects of finite electron inertia, finite ion Larmor radius (FLR) corrections, and radiative heat-loss function on the thermal instability of an infinite homogeneous, viscous plasma incorporating the effect of thermal conductivity for star formation in interstellar medium (ISM). A general dispersion relation is derived using the normal mode analysis method with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The wave propagation is discussed for longitudinal and transverse directions to the external magnetic field and the conditions of modified thermal instabilities and stabilities are discussed in different cases. We find that the thermal instability criterion is get modified into radiative instability criterion by inclusion of radiative heat-loss functions with thermal conductivity. The viscosity of medium removes the effect of FLR corrections from the condition of radiative instability. Numerical calculation shows stabilizing effect of heat-loss function, viscosity and FLR corrections, and destabilizing effect of finite electron inertia on the thermal instability. Results carried out in this paper shows that stars are formed in interstellar medium mainly due to thermal instability.

  11. Star formation through thermal instability of radiative plasma with finite electron inertia and finite Larmor radius corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kaothekar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available I have studied the effects of finite electron inertia, finite ion Larmor radius (FLR corrections, and radiative heat-loss function on the thermal instability of an infinite homogeneous, viscous plasma incorporating the effect of thermal conductivity for star formation in interstellar medium (ISM. A general dispersion relation is derived using the normal mode analysis method with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The wave propagation is discussed for longitudinal and transverse directions to the external magnetic field and the conditions of modified thermal instabilities and stabilities are discussed in different cases. We find that the thermal instability criterion is get modified into radiative instability criterion by inclusion of radiative heat-loss functions with thermal conductivity. The viscosity of medium removes the effect of FLR corrections from the condition of radiative instability. Numerical calculation shows stabilizing effect of heat-loss function, viscosity and FLR corrections, and destabilizing effect of finite electron inertia on the thermal instability. Results carried out in this paper shows that stars are formed in interstellar medium mainly due to thermal instability.

  12. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the spherical pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.B.; Hilko, B.; Panarella, E.

    1994-01-01

    The spherical pinch (SP) concept is an outgrowth of the inertial confinement model (ICF). Unlike the ICF where instabilities, especially the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, have been studied extensively, the instability study of the spherical pinch has just begun. The Raleigh-Taylor instability is investigated for the first time in the SP in the present work. By using the simple condition for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability ∇p · ∇p < O (density and pressure gradients have opposite direction), we have qualitatively identified the regions for development of instabilities in the SP. It is found that the explosion phase (central discharge) is stable and instabilities take place in the imploding phase. However, the growth rate for the instability is not in exponential form, and the appearance of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability does not prevent the main shock wave from converging to the center of the sphere

  13. Electrothermal instability growth in magnetically driven pulsed power liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Kyle J.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Yu, Edmund P.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Smith, Ian C.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Nakhleh, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. Comparatively little is known about these types of instabilities compared to the well known Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. We present simulations that show electrothermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent MRT instability growth. We also present the results of several experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electrothermal instability growth on well characterized initially solid aluminum and copper rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These experiments show excellent agreement with electrothermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone.

  14. Strings, vortex rings, and modes of instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven S. Gubser

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We treat string propagation and interaction in the presence of a background Neveu–Schwarz three-form field strength, suitable for describing vortex rings in a superfluid or low-viscosity normal fluid. A circular vortex ring exhibits instabilities which have been recognized for many years, but whose precise boundaries we determine for the first time analytically in the small core limit. Two circular vortices colliding head-on exhibit stronger instabilities which cause splitting into many small vortices at late times. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of these instabilities and show that the most unstable wavelength is parametrically larger than a dynamically generated length scale which in many hydrodynamic systems is close to the cutoff. We also summarize how the string construction we discuss can be derived from the Gross–Pitaevskii Lagrangian, and also how it compares to the action for giant gravitons.

  15. Instability of a Vacuum Arc Centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Bosco, E. del; Simpson, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    Ever since conception of the Vacuum Arc Centrifuge (VAC) in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a VAC. Our theoretical and experimental research suggests that these fluctuations are in fact a pressure-gradient driven drift mode. In this work, we summarise the properties of a theoretical model describing the range of instabilities in the VAC plasma column, present theoretical predictions and compare with detailed experiments conducted on the PCEN centrifuge at the Brazilian National Space Research Institute (INPE). We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density-gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity

  16. The coalescence instability in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Brunel, F.; Sakai, J.-I.; Vlahos, L.; Kundu, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The nonlinear coalescence instability of current carrying solar loops can explain many of the characteristics of the solar flares such as their impulsive nature, heating and high energy particle acceleration, amplitude oscillations of electromagnetic and emission as well as the characteristics of two-dimensional microwave images obtained during a flare. The plasma compressibility leads to the explosive phase of loop coalescence and its overshoot results in amplitude oscillations in temperatures by adiabatic compression and decompression. It is noted that the presence of strong electric fields and super-Alfvenic flows during the course of the instability play an important role in the production of nonthermal particles. A qualitative explanation on the physical processes taking place during the nonlinear stages of the instability is given.

  17. Thermal instabilities in low-mass subgiants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Rudloff, I.R.; Vandenberg, D.A.; Hartwick, F.D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal stability of evolving stars in globular clusters has been examined in order to determine whether or not gaps and the observationally inferred deep mixing near the base of the red-giant branch can be explained in terms of an instability of the hydrogen-burning shell. The results of this investigation are that, in agreement with previous suggestions, the greatest potential for such an instability occurs just at the point where a star begins to ascend the giant branch - i.e., where gaps are seen in some systems - but, in contrast with earlier predictions, the standard models do not actually become unstable. However, from all indications, the stability is believed to be marginal, and it is suggested that rotation, which has now been observed in some globulars, may be the mechanism by which an instability is produced. 36 references

  18. Linear study of the precessional fishbone instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idouakass, M.; Faganello, M.; Berk, H. L.; Garbet, X.; Benkadda, S.

    2016-10-01

    The precessional fishbone instability is an m = n = 1 internal kink mode destabilized by a population of trapped energetic particles. The linear phase of this instability is studied here, analytically and numerically, with a simplified model. This model uses the reduced magneto-hydrodynamics equations for the bulk plasma and the Vlasov equation for a population of energetic particles with a radially decreasing density. A threshold condition for the instability is found, as well as a linear growth rate and frequency. It is shown that the mode frequency is given by the precession frequency of the deeply trapped energetic particles at the position of strongest radial gradient. The growth rate is shown to scale with the energetic particle density and particle energy while it is decreased by continuum damping.

  19. A new necessary condition for Turing instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elragig, Aiman; Townley, Stuart

    2012-09-01

    Reactivity (a.k.a initial growth) is necessary for diffusion driven instability (Turing instability). Using a notion of common Lyapunov function we show that this necessary condition is a special case of a more powerful (i.e. tighter) necessary condition. Specifically, we show that if the linearised reaction matrix and the diffusion matrix share a common Lyapunov function, then Turing instability is not possible. The existence of common Lyapunov functions is readily checked using semi-definite programming. We apply this result to the Gierer-Meinhardt system modelling regenerative properties of Hydra, the Oregonator, to a host-parasite-hyperparasite system with diffusion and to a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for a multi-species host-parasitoid community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-stream instability in pulsar magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    If the electron-positron plasma flow from the pulsar environment is stationary, the two-stream instability does not have enough time to develop in the pulsar magnetosphere. In that case the outflowing electron-positron plasma gathers into separate clouds. The clouds move along magnetic field lines and disperse as they go farther from the pulsar. At a distance of about 10 to the 8th cm from the pulsar surface, the high-energy particles of a given cloud catch up with the low-energy particles that belong to the cloud going ahead of it. In this region of a pulsar magnetosphere, the energy distribution of plasma particles is two-humped, and a two-stream instability may develop. The growth rate of the instability is quite sufficient for its development. 17 references

  1. Single bunch instabilities in an SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    In this note coherent instability thresholds are estimated for the SSC and discuss some of the subsequent design restrictions. The various instabilities are set out in a block diagram with the essential features of each. The assumption is made that long wavelength coupled bunch effects can be cured effectively by a feedback system (both longitudinal and transverse) and that the impedance of the feedback system is such as to cancel that of the environment (at low frequency). Alternatively, the long wake field is assumed to be exactly canceled, on the average, by a feedback wake field. This leaves only single bunch effects. Thresholds for fast-blowup are discussed both in the longitudinal and transverse and the transverse mode coupling instability more familiar in electron/positron storage rings is covered. The impedances considered are a broadband impedance and the resistive wall impedance

  2. Edge instability in incompressible planar active fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, David; Pruessner, Gunnar; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2017-12-01

    Interfacial instability is highly relevant to many important biological processes. A key example arises in wound healing experiments, which observe that an epithelial layer with an initially straight edge does not heal uniformly. We consider the phenomenon in the context of active fluids. Improving upon the approximation used by Zimmermann, Basan, and Levine [Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 1259 (2014), 10.1140/epjst/e2014-02189-7], we perform a linear stability analysis on a two-dimensional incompressible hydrodynamic model of an active fluid with an open interface. We categorize the stability of the model and find that for experimentally relevant parameters, fingering instability is always absent in this minimal model. Our results point to the crucial role of density variation in the fingering instability in tissue regeneration.

  3. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J. Jr.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; Reynolds, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability

  4. Genome instabilities arising from ribonucleotides in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hannah L

    2017-08-01

    Genomic DNA is transiently contaminated with ribonucleotide residues during the process of DNA replication through misincorporation by the replicative DNA polymerases α, δ and ε, and by the normal replication process on the lagging strand, which uses RNA primers. These ribonucleotides are efficiently removed during replication by RNase H enzymes and the lagging strand synthesis machinery. However, when ribonucleotides remain in DNA they can distort the DNA helix, affect machineries for DNA replication, transcription and repair, and can stimulate genomic instabilities which are manifest as increased mutation, recombination and chromosome alterations. The genomic instabilities associated with embedded ribonucleotides are considered here, along with a discussion of the origin of the lesions that stimulate particular classes of instabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.

  6. Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa

    2014-01-01

    The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function

  7. Early Prevention Method for Power Systems Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia

    containing no voltage sources). The main functionality of the early prevention method is to deliver control solution allowing escape from instability on the basis of data obtained by PMU measurements. The developed algorithm performs identification of the optimal node for countermeasure application...... instability was created. Utilizing synthetic PMU data, the early prevention method proposed a location and an amount of the countermeasure which will prevent instability; the prediction of the resulting stability margins corresponding to application of the suggested countermeasure was carried out....... The predicted effect of the suggested countermeasure application is in a good agreement with the results obtained by RMS dynamic simulation. Developed method enables adaptive preventive control for near real-time stability maintenance. The achieved results are opening promising perspective for power system...

  8. New arthroscopic assisted technique for ankle instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner Garces, Juan Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    An assisted arthroscopic technique for chronic ankle instability is presented by the author, together with his results for 27 patients treated between January 2000 and February 2004, with a minimum follow-up of six months. Indications for his technique, according to the rehabilitation protocol of the Medical Centre, included patients with chronic subjective and objective ankle instability, anteroposterior instability, associated anteromedical impingement syndromes, non competitive athletes, patients not displaying defects in the alignment of the axis of foot and ankle, or systemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, collagenisis or hyperelasticity. Patients were evaluated according to the AOFAS scale for the outcome of ankle procedures, and followed up for a minimum period of six months. Positive results confirm an efficient and effective technique, simple and easy to reproduce, that does not hinder future open anatomical or non-anatomical reconstruction, and in which complications are minimal

  9. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, CAS, Bocni II/1401,CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic); Landi, Simone; Verdini, Andrea; Franci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo, E-mail: petr.hellinger@asu.cas.cz [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between a decaying strong turbulence and the mirror instability in a slowly expanding plasma is investigated using two-dimensional hybrid expanding box simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field perpendicular to the simulation box, and we start with a spectrum of large-scale, linearly polarized, random-phase Alfvénic fluctuations that have energy equipartition between kinetic and magnetic fluctuations and a vanishing correlation between the two fields. A turbulent cascade rapidly develops, magnetic field fluctuations exhibit a Kolmogorov-like power-law spectrum at large scales and a steeper spectrum at sub-ion scales. The imposed expansion (taking a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field) leads to the generation of an important perpendicular proton temperature anisotropy that eventually drives the mirror instability. This instability generates large-amplitude, nonpropagating, compressible, pressure-balanced magnetic structures in a form of magnetic enhancements/humps that reduce the perpendicular temperature anisotropy.

  10. Dynamics and Instabilities of Vortex Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leweke, Thomas; Le Dizès, Stéphane; Williamson, Charles H. K.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the characteristics and behavior of counter-rotating and corotating vortex pairs, which are seemingly simple flow configurations yet immensely rich in phenomena. Since the reviews in this journal by Widnall (1975) and Spalart (1998) , who studied the fundamental structure and dynamics of vortices and airplane trailing vortices, respectively, there have been many analytical, computational, and experimental studies of vortex pair flows. We discuss two-dimensional dynamics, including the merging of same-sign vortices and the interaction with the mutually induced strain, as well as three-dimensional displacement and core instabilities resulting from this interaction. Flows subject to combined instabilities are also considered, in particular the impingement of opposite-sign vortices on a ground plane. We emphasize the physical mechanisms responsible for the flow phenomena and clearly present the key results that are useful to the reader for predicting the dynamics and instabilities of parallel vortices.

  11. Pathways towards instability in financial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoscia, Marco; Battiston, Stefano; Caccioli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Guido

    2017-02-01

    Following the financial crisis of 2007-2008, a deep analogy between the origins of instability in financial systems and complex ecosystems has been pointed out: in both cases, topological features of network structures influence how easily distress can spread within the system. However, in financial network models, the details of how financial institutions interact typically play a decisive role, and a general understanding of precisely how network topology creates instability remains lacking. Here we show how processes that are widely believed to stabilize the financial system, that is, market integration and diversification, can actually drive it towards instability, as they contribute to create cyclical structures which tend to amplify financial distress, thereby undermining systemic stability and making large crises more likely. This result holds irrespective of the details of how institutions interact, showing that policy-relevant analysis of the factors affecting financial stability can be carried out while abstracting away from such details.

  12. Microwave instability across the transition energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Wang, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that during the acceleration of hadrons in a storage ring, the beam always goes above the microwave instability threshold near the transition energy γ /SUB t/ . The reason is that the longitudinal revolution frequency spread of the beam which otherwise provides Landau damping vanishes at the transition energy. The amount of the beam dilution near the transition energy is determined by /tau/ /SUB th/ , the length of time when the beam stays unstable, and the growth rate of the instability. It is pointed out in this paper that /tau/ /SUB th/ is proportional to the fourth power of γ /SUB t/ , and thus the choice of a large γ /SUB t/ is not desirable from this point of view. An analysis is also given of the microwave instability induced beam dilution for the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL

  13. Microwave instability across the transition energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Wang, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that during the acceleration of hadrons in a storage ring, the beam always goes above the microwave instability threshold near the transition energy γ/sub t/. The reason is that the longitudinal revolution frequency spread of the beam which otherwise provides Landau damping vanishes at the transition energy. The amount of the beam dilution near the transition energy is determined by tau/sub th/, the length of time when the beam stays unstable, and the growth rate of the instability. It is pointed out in this paper that tau/sub th/ is proportional to the fourth power of γ/sub t/, and thus the choice of a large γ/sub t/ is not desirable from this point of view. An analysis is also given of the microwave instability induced beam dilution for the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL

  14. Thermal instability in a stratified plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanns, D.F.M.; Priest, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal instability mechansism has been studied in connection to observed coronal features, like, e.g. prominences or cool cores in loops. Although these features show a lot of structure, most studies concern the thermal instability in an uniform medium. In this paper, we investigate the thermal instability and the interaction between thermal modes and the slow magneto-acoustic subspectrum for a stratified plasma slab. We fomulate the relevant system of equations and give some straightforward properties of the linear spectrum of a non-uniform plasma slab, i.e. the existence of continuous parts in the spectrum. We present a numerical scheme with which we can investigate the linear spectrum for equilibrium states with stratification. The slow and thermal subspectra of a crude coronal model are given as a preliminary result. (author). 6 refs.; 1 fig

  15. Paradoxes in numerical calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandts, J.; Křížek, Michal; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), s. 317-330 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : round-off errors * numerical instability * recurrence formulae Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  16. Nucleation versus instability race in strained films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kailang; Berbezier, Isabelle; David, Thomas; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Abbarchi, Marco; Voorhees, Peter; Aqua, Jean-Noël

    2017-10-01

    Under the generic term "Stranski-Krastanov" are grouped two different growth mechanisms of SiGe quantum dots. They result from the self-organized Asaro-Tiller-Grinfel'd (ATG) instability at low strain, while at high strain, from a stochastic nucleation. While these regimes are well known, we elucidate here the origin of the transition between these two pathways thanks to a joint theoretical and experimental work. Nucleation is described within the master equation framework. By comparing the time scales for ATG instability development and three-dimensional (3D) nucleation onset, we demonstrate that the transition between these two regimes is simply explained by the crossover between their divergent evolutions. Nucleation exhibits a strong exponential deviation at low strain while ATG behaves only algebraically. The associated time scale varies with exp(1 /x4) for nucleation, while it only behaves as 1 /x8 for the ATG instability. Consequently, at high (low) strain, nucleation (instability) occurs faster and inhibits the alternate evolution. It is then this different kinetic evolution which explains the transition from one regime to the other. Such a kinetic view of the transition between these two 3D growth regimes was not provided before. The crossover between nucleation and ATG instability is found to occur both experimentally and theoretically at a Ge composition around 50% in the experimental conditions used here. Varying the experimental conditions and/or the system parameters does not allow us to suppress the transition. This means that the SiGe quantum dots always grow via ATG instability at low strain and nucleation at high strain. This result is important for the self-organization of quantum dots.

  17. On physical and numerical instabilities arising in simulations of non-stationary radiatively cooling shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjin, D. A.; Glazyrin, S. I.; Manukovskiy, K. V.; Blinnikov, S. I.

    2016-06-01

    We describe our modelling of the radiatively cooling shocks and their thin shells with various numerical tools in different physical and calculational setups. We inspect structure of the dense shell, its formation and evolution, pointing out physical and numerical factors that sustain its shape and also may lead to instabilities. We have found that under certain physical conditions, the circular shaped shells show a strong bending instability and successive fragmentation on Cartesian grids soon after their formation, while remain almost unperturbed when simulated on polar meshes. We explain this by physical Rayleigh-Taylor-like instabilities triggered by corrugation of the dense shell surfaces by numerical noise. Conditions for these instabilities follow from both the shell structure itself and from episodes of transient acceleration during re-establishing of dynamical pressure balance after sudden radiative cooling onset. They are also easily excited by physical perturbations of the ambient medium. The widely mentioned non-linear thin shell instability, in contrast, in tests with physical perturbations is shown to have only limited chances to develop in real radiative shocks, as it seems to require a special spatial arrangement of fluctuations to be excited efficiently. The described phenomena also set new requirements on further simulations of the radiatively cooling shocks in order to be physically correct and free of numerical artefacts.

  18. A study on the effect of macroeconomics instability index on private investment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Saki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an empirical study to investigate the impact of economical stability on the amount of investment coming from the private sector. We calculate macroeconomics instability index (MIX using the existing methods in the literature. We have also used Glezakos (1973 method [Glezakos,C.(1973. Export instability and economic growth: A statistical verification. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 21(3, 670-678.], which considers long-term deviation of real values as instability index. Therefore, we use four variables of inflation rate (TINF, the ratio of budget deficit on growth domestic product (GDP (TBD, foreign debt on GDP (TFD and the ratio of actual currency rate on nominate currency (TFD. The preliminary results show that the short-term changes on LNIP with one lag and LNIV have positive impact on LNIP. In addition, any short term changes on LNMII has negative and meaningful impact on LNIP and approximately 0.67 percent of difference between the actual and long term are discounted in each period. The results indicate that instability index has negative effect even in short term on Iran's industry. This shows the relevant importance of instability on economy.

  19. The adiabatic instability on cosmology's dark side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E; Trodden, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We consider theories with a nontrivial coupling between the matter and dark energy sectors. We describe a small scale instability that can occur in such models when the coupling is strong compared to gravity, generalizing and correcting earlier treatments. The instability is characterized by a negative sound speed squared of an effective coupled dark matter/dark energy fluid. Our results are general, and applicable to a wide class of coupled models and provide a powerful, redshift-dependent tool, complementary to other constraints, with which to rule many of them out. A detailed analysis and applications to a range of models are presented in a longer companion paper

  20. Dynamical instability of a charged gaseous cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss dynamical instability of a charged dissipative cylinder under radial oscillations. For this purpose, we follow the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches to evaluate linearized perturbed equation of motion. We formulate perturbed pressure in terms of adiabatic index by applying the conservation of baryon numbers. A variational principle is established to determine characteristic frequencies of oscillation which define stability criteria for a gaseous cylinder. We compute the ranges of radii as well as adiabatic index for both charged and uncharged cases in Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that dynamical instability occurs in the presence of charge if the gaseous cylinder contracts to the radius R*.

  1. Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of these (two) lectures is on buoyancy-driven instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor type, which are commonly regarded as the most important kind of hydrodynamic instability in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions. The paper is intended to be pedagogical rather than research-oriented, and so is by no means a comprehensive review of work in this field. Rather, it is hoped that the student will find here a foundation on which to build an understanding of current research, and the experienced researcher will find a compilation of useful results. (author)

  2. STRUCTURAL STRESS RELAXATION IN STAINLESS INSTABILITY STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lyabuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The approach to the description of conditions of martensitic transformation in austenitic steel is advanced. Transformation induced hardening is the result of Le Chatelier principle in instability alloys. The phase transformation in austenitic instability stainless steel is the cause of reduction of grain refining and increase of strength. It was experimentally shown that physical-mechanical characteristics of the prepared materials were defined by the structure and inhomogeneous distribution of the hardening phase within a grain. The reasons for high thermal stability of inverse austenitic were established. The factors determining the inverse austenitic relaxation resistibility and resources for its increasing were revealed.

  3. Composition driven structural instability in perovskite ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric solid solutions usually exhibit enhanced functional properties at the morphotropic phase boundary separating two ferroelectric phases with different orientations of polarization. The underlying mechanism is generally associated with polarization rotational instability and the flattened free energy profile. In this work we show that the polarization extensional instability can also be induced at the morphotropic phase boundary beyond the reported polar-nonpolar phase boundary. The piezoelectricity enhanced by this mechanism exhibits excellent thermal stability, which helps to develop high performance piezoelectric materials with good temperature stability.

  4. A fast beam-ion instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G V [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)

  5. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharapov, S.E.; Alper, B.; Challis, C.D.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Kiptily, V.G.; Voitsekhovich, I.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Borba, D.N.; Nabais, F.; Classen, I.G.J.; Edlund, E.M.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Fu, G.Y.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Podesta, M.; White, R.B.; Eriksson, J.; Hellesen, C.; Fasoli, A.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Lauber, P.; Thun, C. Perez von; Gassner, T.; Goloborodko, V.; Schoepf, K.; Yavorskij, V.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Lilley, M.K.; Lisak, M.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; Pinches, S.D.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, Koji; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2012-11-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge. (author)

  6. Methods for Simulating the Heavy Core Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Philip

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vortices have been proposed as the sites of planet formation, where dust collects and grows into planetesimals, the building blocks of planets. However, for very small dust particles that can be treated as a pressure-less fluid, we have recently discovered the “heavy core” instability, driven by the density gradient in the vortex. In order to understand the eventual outcome of this instability, we need to study its non-linear development. Here, we describe our ongoing work to develop highly accurate numerical models of a vortex with a density gradient embedded within a protoplanetary disk.

  7. Genome instability: Linking ageing and brain degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilai, Ari; Schumacher, Björn; Shiloh, Yosef

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is a multifactorial process affected by cumulative physiological changes resulting from stochastic processes combined with genetic factors, which together alter metabolic homeostasis. Genetic variation in maintenance of genome stability is emerging as an important determinant of ageing pace. Genome instability is also closely associated with a broad spectrum of conditions involving brain degeneration. Similarities and differences can be found between ageing-associated decline of brain functionality and the detrimental effect of genome instability on brain functionality and development. This review discusses these similarities and differences and highlights cell classes whose role in these processes might have been underestimated-glia and microglia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Efficiency Versus Instability in Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab

    2017-01-05

    Plasma wake-field acceleration in a strongly nonlinear (a.k.a. the blowout) regime is one of the main candidates for future high-energy colliders. For this case, we derive a universal efficiency-instability relation, between the power efficiency and the key instability parameter of the witness bunch. We also show that in order to stabilize the witness bunch in a regime with high power efficiency, the bunch needs to have high energy spread, which is not presently compatible with collider-quality beam properties. It is unclear how such limitations could be overcome for high-luminosity linear colliders.

  9. Observation of the ion resonance instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Notte, J.; Fajans, J.

    1993-01-01

    Observation of the ion resonance instability in a pure electron plasma trap contaminated with a small population of ions is reported. The ion population is maintained by ionization of the background gas. The instability causes the plasma to move steadily off-center while undergoing l=1 diocotron oscillations. The observed scaling of the maximum growth point is presented, and the growth rate and its dependence on ion density are discussed. Several aspects of the observed behavior are not in agreement with previous theory but derive from the transitory nature of the ion population

  10. THREE-BEAM INSTABILITY IN THE LHC*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    In the LHC, a transverse instability is regularly observed at 4TeV right after the beta-squeeze, when the beams are separated by about their ten transverse rms sizes [1-3], and only one of the two beams is seen as oscillating. So far only a single hypothesis is consistent with all the observations and basic concepts, one about a third beam - an electron cloud, generated by the two proton beams in the high-beta areas of the interaction regions. The instability results from a combined action of the cloud nonlinear focusing and impedance.

  11. Resistive instabilities in general toroidal plasma configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Greene, J.M.; Johnson, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    Previous work by Johnson and Greene on resistive instabilities is extended to finite-pressure configurations. The Mercier criterion for the stability of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchange mode is rederived, the generalization of the earlier stability criterion for the resistive interchange mode is obtained, and a relation between the two is noted. Conditions for tearing mode instability are recovered with the growth rate scaling with the resistivity in a more complicated manner than eta 3 / 5 . Nyquist techniques are used to show that favorable average curvature can convert the tearing mode into an overstable mode and can often stabilize it

  12. White-light parametric instabilities in plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E; Silva, L O; Bingham, R

    2007-06-08

    Parametric instabilities driven by partially coherent radiation in plasmas are described by a generalized statistical Wigner-Moyal set of equations, formally equivalent to the full wave equation, coupled to the plasma fluid equations. A generalized dispersion relation for stimulated Raman scattering driven by a partially coherent pump field is derived, revealing a growth rate dependence, with the coherence width sigma of the radiation field, scaling with 1/sigma for backscattering (three-wave process), and with 1/sigma1/2 for direct forward scattering (four-wave process). Our results demonstrate the possibility to control the growth rates of these instabilities by properly using broadband pump radiation fields.

  13. RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  14. Pulsating instabilities and chaos in lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, R G; Biswas, D J

    1985-01-01

    A detailed state of the art survey of deterministic chaos in laser systems is presented. The mechanism of single mode instability is discussed, including spontaneous and induced mode splitting and the threshold for laser instabilities. Single mode homogeneously broadened systems are addressed, including optically pumped far infrared lasers and near-resonantly pumped midinfrared systems. Single mode inhomogeneously broadened systems are considered, including the He-Xe laser and the He-Ne laser at 3.39 microns. Single mode lasers with external control parameter are discussed, as is the multimode laser. 297 references.

  15. Fluctuations and instabilities of a holographic metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Järvinen, Matti; Lippert, Matthew

    2013-02-01

    We analyze the quasinormal modes of the D2-D8' model of 2+1-dimensional, strongly-coupled, charged fermions in a background magnetic field and at non-zero density. The model is known to include a quantum Hall phase with integer filling fraction. As expected, we find a hydrodynamical diffusion mode at small momentum and the nonzero-temperature holographic zero sound, which becomes massive above a critical magnetic field. We confirm the previously-known thermodynamic instability. In addition, we discover an instability at low temperature, large mass, and in a charge density and magnetic field range near the quantum Hall phase to an inhomogeneous striped phase.

  16. Nonlinear saturation of the Rayleigh Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Mahajan, S.; Kaw, P.; Sen, A.; Benkadda, S.; Verga, A.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of the nonlinear saturation of the 2 dimensional Rayleigh Taylor instability is re-examined to put various earlier results in a proper perspective. The existence of a variety of final states can be attributed to the differences in the choice of boundary conditions and initial conditions in earlier numerical modeling studies. Our own numerical simulations indicate that the RT instability saturates by the self consistent generation of shear flow even in situations (with periodic boundaries) where, in principle, an infinite amount of gravitational energy can be tapped. Such final states can be achieved for suitable values of the Prandtl number. (author)

  17. Anisotropic instability in a laser heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangam, A.; Morreeuw, J.-P.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2007-01-01

    The theory of the Weibel instability induced by the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of a laser light in an underdense plasma is revisited. It is shown that previous analyses have strongly overestimated the effect by neglecting the stabilizing term related to the interaction of the generated quasistatic magnetic field with the laser-heated electrons. The revised model leads to a reduction of the growth rate by more than a factor of 10, to strong reduction of the domain of unstable modes and to inversion of the direction of the unstable wave vectors in the long wavelength limit. The consequences of this instability on the laser plasma interaction are also discussed

  18. Self-Induced Faraday Instability Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, A. M.; Smirnov, S. V.; Staliunas, K.; Churkin, D. V.; Wabnitz, S.

    2018-05-01

    We predict the onset of self-induced parametric or Faraday instabilities in a laser, spontaneously caused by the presence of pump depletion, which leads to a periodic gain landscape for light propagating in the cavity. As a result of the instability, continuous wave oscillation becomes unstable even in the normal dispersion regime of the cavity, and a periodic train of pulses with ultrahigh repetition rate is generated. Application to the case of Raman fiber lasers is described, in good quantitative agreement between our conceptual analysis and numerical modeling.

  19. The effect of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities on the thickness of undifferentiated crust on Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark E.; Desch, Steven J.; Neveu, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Previous calculations of the internal structure and thermal evolution of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) by Desch et al. (Desch, S.J., Cook, J.C., Doggett, T.C., Porter, S.B. [2009]. Icarus 202, 694-714) have predicted that KBOs should only partially differentiate, with rock and ice separating into a rocky core and icy mantle, below an undifferentiated crust of ice and rock. This crust is thermally insulating and enhances the ability of subsurface liquid to persist within KBOs. A dense rock/ice layer resting on an icy mantle is gravitationally unstable and prone to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities, and may potentially overturn. Here we calculate the ability of RT instabilities to act in KBOs, and determine the thickness of undifferentiated crusts. We have used previously calculated growth rates of the RT instability to determine the critical viscosity of ice needed for the RT instability to operate. We calculate the viscosity of ice at the cold temperatures and long timescales relevant to KBOs. We find that crustal overturn is only possible where the temperature exceeds about 150 K, and that RT instabilities cannot act on geological timescales within about 60 km of the surfaces of a KBO like Charon. Although this crustal thickness is less than the 85 km previously calculated by Desch et al. (Desch, S.J., Cook, J.C., Doggett, T.C., Porter, S.B. [2009]. Icarus 202, 694-714), it is still significant, representing ≈25% of the mass of the KBO. We conclude that while RT instabilities may act in KBOs, they do not completely overturn their crusts. We calculate that Saturn’s moon Rhea should only partially differentiate, resulting in a moment of inertia C/MR2≈0.38.

  20. The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) in the Dutch population with and without complaints of ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuurberg, Gwendolyn; Kluit, Lana; van Dijk, C Niek

    2018-03-01

    To develop a translated Dutch version of the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) and test its psychometric properties in a Dutch population with foot and ankle complaints. The CAIT was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation design. Of the 130 subsequent patients visiting the outpatient clinic for foot and ankle complaints who were asked to fill out a questionnaire containing the CAIT, the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), and the numeric rating scale (NRS) pain, 98 completed the questionnaire. After a 1-week period, patients were asked to fill out a second questionnaire online containing the CAIT and NRS pain. This second questionnaire was completed by 70 patients. With these data, the construct validity, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, measurement error, and ceiling and floor effects were assessed. Additionally, a cut-off value to discriminate between stable and unstable ankles, in patients with ankle complaints, was calculated. Construct validity showed moderate correlations between the CAIT and FAOS subscales (Spearman's correlation coefficient (SCC) = 0.36-0.43), and the NRS pain (SCC = -0.55). The cut-off value was found at 11.5 points of the total CAIT score (range 0-30). Test-retest reliability showed to be excellent with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α = 0.86). No ceiling or floor effects were detected. Based on the results, the Dutch version of the CAIT is a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess ankle instability in the Dutch population and is able to differentiate between a functionally unstable and stable ankle. The tool is the first suitable tool to objectify the severity of ankle instability specific complaints and assess change in the Dutch population. Level of evidence II.

  1. Simulations relevant to the beam instability in the foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, I. H.; Nishikawa, K.-I.

    1989-01-01

    The results presently obtained from two-dimensional simulations of the reactive instability for Maxwellian beams and cutoff distributions are noted to be consistent with recent suggestions that electrons backstreaming into earth's foreshock have steep-sided cutoff distributions, which are initially unstable to the reactive instability, and that the back-reaction to the wave growth causes the instability to pass into its kinetic phase. It is demonstrated that the reactive instability is a bunching instability, and that the reactive instability saturates and passes over into the kinetic phase by particle trapping.

  2. Effect of secondary electron emission on Jean's instability in a complex plasma in the presence of nonthermal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Susmita; Maity, Saumyen; Banerjee, Soumyajyoti

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the role of secondary electron emission on Jean's instability in a complex plasma in the presence of nonthermal ions. The equilibrium dust surface potential has been considered negative and hence primary and secondary electron temperatures are equal. Such plasma consists of three components: Boltzman distributed electrons, nonthermal ions and negatively charged inertial dust grains. From the linear dispersion relation, we have calculated the real frequency and growth rate of Jean's instability. Numerically, we have shown that for strong ion nonthermality Jean's mode is unstable. Growth of the instability reduces and the real part of the wave frequency increases with increasing secondary electron emission from dust grains. Hence, strong secondary electron emission suppresses Jean's instability in a complex plasma even when ion nonthermality is strong and equilibrium dust charge is negative.

  3. MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an ‘intuitive’ description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for most astrophysical plasmas. The ‘intuitive’ picture almost directly singles out the dominant stabilizing field line bending energy of the Alfvén waves and, consequently, concentrates on expansion schemes that minimize that contribution. This happens when the wave vector {{k}}0 of the perturbations, on average, is perpendicular to the magnetic field {B}. Hence, all macroscopic instabilities of tokamaks (kinks, interchanges, ballooning modes, ELMs, neoclassical tearing modes, etc) are characterized by satisfying the condition {{k}}0 \\perp {B}, or nearly so. In contrast, some of the major macroscopic instabilities of astrophysical plasmas (the Parker instability and the magneto-rotational instability) occur when precisely the opposite condition is satisfied: {{k}}0 \\parallel {B}. How do those instabilities escape from the dominance of the stabilizing Alfvén wave? The answer to that question involves, foremost, the recognition that MHD spectral theory of waves and instabilities of laboratory plasmas could be developed to such great depth since those plasmas are assumed to be in static equilibrium. This assumption is invalid for astrophysical plasmas where rotational and gravitational accelerations produce equilibria that are at best stationary, and the associated spectral theory is widely, and incorrectly, believed to be non-self adjoint. These complications are addressed, and cured, in the theory of the Spectral Web, recently developed by the author. Using this method, an extensive survey of instabilities of astrophysical plasmas demonstrates how the Alfvén wave is pushed into insignificance under these conditions to give rise to a host of instabilities that do not

  4. Electronic collective modes and instabilities on semiconductor surfaces. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, A.; Hanke, W.

    1984-01-01

    A Green's-function theory of electronic collective modes is presented which leads to a practical scheme for a microscopic determination of surface elementary excitations in conducting as well as nonconducting solids. Particular emphasis is placed on semiconductor surfaces where the jellium approximation is not valid, due to the importance of density fluctuations on a microscopic scale (reflected in the local-field effects). Starting from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the two-particle Green's function of the surface system, an equation of motion for the electron-hole pair is obtained. Its solutions determine the energy spectra, lifetimes, and amplitudes of the surface elementary excitations, i.e., surface plasmons, excitons, polaritons, and magnons. Exchange and correlation effects are taken into account through the random-phase and time-dependent Hartree-Fock (screened electron-hole attraction) approximations. The formalism is applied to the study of electronic (charge- and spin-density) instabilities at covalent semiconductor surfaces. Quantitative calculations for an eight-layer Si(111) slab display an instability of the ideal paramagnetic surface with respect to spin-density waves with wavelength nearly corresponding to (2 x 1) and (7 x 7) superstructures

  5. Shear bands as growing instabilities in viscoanelastic media with memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dolfin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the critical conditions under which a small perturbation in an homogeneous continuum can possibly grows into a shear band instability. In particular, we analyze from a thermodynamical viewpoint the phenomenon of shear bands in viscoanelastic media with memory. It is emphasized, in the scientific literature, that the specific adopted rheology strongly affects the results so that a special attention has to be paid, also for engineering purposes, to the accuracy of the rheological model. Several well-known rheological model (for instance the so called Maxwell or Jeffreys media are particular cases of the general model we adopt in the paper to analyze shear bands. Instability conditions, giving rise to shear bands formation, are obtained by introducing small perturbations around an homogeneous deformation into the system of differential equations governing the problem of homogeneous deformations in the considered continuous medium; as a result a non-homogeneous linear dynamical system is obtained whose stability is analyzed. A research perspective in view of a possible comparison with experimental results is proposed; in particular the simple methodology proposed in the paper should be applied in view of using the phenomenon of the initiation of shear bands to calculate the thermomechanical coefficients of real materials.

  6. PAIR INSTABILITY SUPERNOVAE: LIGHT CURVES, SPECTRA, AND SHOCK BREAKOUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.; Heger, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    For the initial mass range (140 M sun sun ) stars die in a thermonuclear runaway triggered by the pair-production instability. The supernovae they make can be remarkably energetic (up to ∼10 53 erg) and synthesize considerable amounts of radioactive isotopes. Here we model the evolution, explosion, and observational signatures of representative pair instability supernovae (PI SNe) spanning a range of initial masses and envelope structures. The predicted light curves last for hundreds of days and range in luminosity from very dim to extremely bright (L ∼ 10 44 erg s -1 ). The most massive events are bright enough to be seen at high redshift, but the extended light curve duration (∼1 yr)-prolonged by cosmological time-dilation-may make it difficult to detect them as transients. A more promising approach may be to search for the brief and luminous outbreak occurring when the explosion shock wave first reaches the stellar surface. Using a multi-wavelength radiation-hydrodynamics code we calculate that, in the rest frame, the shock breakout transients of PI SNe reach luminosities of 10 45 -10 46 erg s -1 , peak at wavelengths ∼30-170 A, and last for several hours. We discuss how observations of the light curves, spectra, and breakout emission can be used to constrain the mass, radius, and metallicity of the progenitor.

  7. Saturation of radiation-induced parametric instabilities by excitation of Langmuir turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, D.F.; Rose, H.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Russell, D. [Lodestar Research Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Progress made in the last few years in the calculation of the saturation spectra of parametric instabilities which involve Langmuir daughter waves will be reviewed. These instabilities include the ion acoustic decay instability, the two plasmon decay instability (TPDI), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In particular I will emphasize spectral signatures which can be directly compared with experiment. The calculations are based on reduced models of driven Laugmuir turbulence. Thomson scattering from hf-induced Langmuir turbulence in the unpreconditioned ionosphere has resulted in detailed agreement between theory and experiment at early times. Strong turbulence signatures dominate in this regime where the weak turbulence approximation fails completely. Recent experimental studies of the TPDI have measured the Fourier spectra of Langmuir waves as well as the angular and frequency, spectra of light emitted near 3/2 of the pump frequency again permitting some detailed comparisons with theory. The experiments on SRS are less detailed but by Thomson scattering the secondary decay of the daughter Langmuir wave has been observed. Scaling laws derived from a local model of SRS saturation are compared with full simulations and recent Nova experiments.

  8. Saturation of radiation-induced parametric instabilities by excitation of Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Progress made in the last few years in the calculation of the saturation spectra of parametric instabilities which involve Langmuir daughter waves will be reviewed. These instabilities include the ion acoustic decay instability, the two plasmon decay instability (TPDI), and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In particular we will emphasize spectral signatures which can be directly compared with experiment. The calculations are based on reduced models of driven Langmuir turbulence. Thomson scattering from hf-induced Langmuir turbulence in the unpreconditioned ionosphere has resulted in detailed agreement between theory and experiment at early times. Strong turbulence signatures dominate in this regime where the weak turbulence approximation fails completely. Recent experimental studies of the TPDI have measured the Fourier spectra of Langmuir waves as well as the angular and frequency spectra of light emitted near 3/2 of the pump frequency again permitting some detailed comparisons with theory. Thomson scattering measurements of the Langmuir wave spectra from SRS are consistent with the saturation by secondary and tertiary decay of the primary SRS Langmuir waves. Scaling laws derived from a local model of SRS saturation are compared with full simulations and recent Nova experiments. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of natural circulation instability and transients in passively safe novel modular reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shanbin

    -hydraulic and nuclear coupled startup transients are performed to investigate the flow instabilities at low pressure and low power conditions. Two different power ramps are chosen to study the effect of power density on the flow instability. The experimental startup transient tests show the existence of three different flow instability mechanisms during the low pressure startup transients, i.e., flashing instability, condensation induced instability, and density wave oscillations. Flashing instability in the chimney section of the test loop and density wave oscillation are the main flow instabilities observed when the system pressure is below 0.5 MPa. They show completely different type of oscillations, i.e., intermittent oscillation and sinusoidal oscillation, in void fraction profile during the startup transients. In order to perform nuclear-coupled startup transients with void reactivity feedback, the Point Kinetics model is utilized to calculate the transient power during the startup transients. In addition, the differences between the electric resistance heaters and typical fuel element are taken into account. The reactor power calculated shows some oscillations due to flashing instability during the transients. However, the void reactivity feedback does not have significant influence on the flow instability during the startup procedure for the NMR-50. Further investigation of very small power ramp on the startup transients is carried out for the thermal-hydraulic startup transients. It is found that very small power density can eliminate the flashing oscillation in the single phase natural circulation and stabilize the flow oscillations in the phase of net vapor generation. Furthermore, initially pressurized startup procedure is investigated to eliminate the main flow instabilities. The results show that the pressurized startup procedure can suppress the flashing instability at low pressure and low power conditions. In order to have a deep understanding of natural

  10. THE SATURATION OF SASI BY PARASITIC INSTABILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilet, Jerome; Sato, Jun'ichi; Foglizzo, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The standing accretion shock instability (SASI) is commonly believed to be responsible for large amplitude dipolar oscillations of the stalled shock during core collapse, potentially leading to an asymmetric supernovae explosion. The degree of asymmetry depends on the amplitude of SASI, but the nonlinear saturation mechanism has never been elucidated. We investigate the role of parasitic instabilities as a possible cause of nonlinear SASI saturation. As the shock oscillations create both vorticity and entropy gradients, we show that both Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor types of instabilities are able to grow on a SASI mode if its amplitude is large enough. We obtain simple estimates of their growth rates, taking into account the effects of advection and entropy stratification. In the context of the advective-acoustic cycle, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate how the acoustic feedback can be decreased if a parasitic instability distorts the advected structure. The amplitude of the shock deformation is estimated analytically in this scenario. When applied to the set up of Fernandez and Thompson, this saturation mechanism is able to explain the dramatic decrease of the SASI power when both the nuclear dissociation energy and the cooling rate are varied. Our results open new perspectives for anticipating the effect, on the SASI amplitude, of the physical ingredients involved in the modeling of the collapsing star.

  11. Orbital Instabilities in a Triaxial Cusp Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.; Butler, Suzanne C.; Druce, Jeffrey M.; Ketchum, Jacob A.

    2007-12-01

    This paper constructs an analytic form for a triaxial potential that describes the dynamics of a wide variety of astrophysical systems, including the inner portions of dark matter halos, the central regions of galactic bulges, and young embedded star clusters. Specifically, this potential results from a density profile of the form ρ(m)~m-1, where the radial coordinate is generalized to triaxial form so that m2=x2/a2+y2/b2+z2/c2. Using the resulting analytic form of the potential and the corresponding force laws, we construct orbit solutions and show that a robust orbit instability exists in these systems. For orbits initially confined to any of the three principal planes, the motion in the perpendicular direction can be unstable. We discuss the range of parameter space for which these orbits are unstable, find the growth rates and saturation levels of the instability, and develop a set of analytic model equations that elucidate the essential physics of the instability mechanism. This orbit instability has a large number of astrophysical implications and applications, including understanding the formation of dark matter halos, the structure of galactic bulges, the survival of tidal streams, and the early evolution of embedded star clusters.

  12. Chromosomal Instability in Gastric Cancer Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffiyeh Saboor Maleki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the fifth most common cancer in the world and accounts for 7% of the total cancer incidence. The prognosis of GC is dismal in Western countries due to late diagnosis: approximately 70% of the patients die within 5 years following initial diagnosis. Recently, integrative genomic analyses led to the proposal of a molecular classification of GC into four subtypes, i.e.,microsatellite-instable, Epstein-Barr virus–positive, chromosomal-instable (CIN, and genomically stable GCs. Molecular classification of GC advances our knowledge of the biology of GC and may have implications for diagnostics and patient treatment. Diagnosis of microsatellite-instable GC and Epstein-Barr virus–positive GC is more or less straightforward. Microsatellite instability can be tested by immunohistochemistry (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6 and/or molecular-biological analysis. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GC can be tested by in situ hybridization (Epstein-Barr virus encoded small RNA. However, with regard to CIN, testing may be more complicated and may require a more in-depth knowledge of the underlying mechanism leading to CIN. In addition, CIN GC may not constitute a distinct subgroup but may rather be a compilation of a more heterogeneous group of tumors. In this review, we aim to clarify the definition of CIN and to point out the molecular mechanisms leading to this molecular phenotype and the challenges faced in characterizing this type of cancer.

  13. Saturation of the ion transverse instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.

    1997-01-01

    Fast Ion Instability is studied in the nonlinear regime. It is shown that exponential growth of the linear regime is replaced in this case by the linear dependence on time. Numeric and analytical results are presented describing the beam profile and the beam spectrum in both regimes

  14. Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Döppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Martinez, D.; Milovich, J. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Pickworth, L.; Pino, J. E.; Raman, K.; Tipton, R.; Weber, C. R.; Baker, K. L.; Bachmann, B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Felker, S.; Field, J. E.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gharibyan, N.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hatarik, R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hsing, W. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacGowan, B. J.; Masse, L.; Moore, A. S.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Stadermann, M.; Tommasini, R.; Widmayer, C. C.; Yeamans, C. B.; Crippen, J.; Farrell, M.; Giraldez, E.; Rice, N.; Wilde, C. H.; Volegov, P. L.; Gatu Johnson, M.

    2017-06-01

    Several new platforms have been developed to experimentally measure hydrodynamic instabilities in all phases of indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion implosions on National Ignition Facility. At the ablation front, instability growth of pre-imposed modulations was measured with a face-on, x-ray radiography platform in the linear regime using the Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography (HGR) platform. Modulation growth of "native roughness" modulations and engineering features (fill tubes and capsule support membranes) were measured in conditions relevant to layered DT implosions. A new experimental platform was developed to measure instability growth at the ablator-ice interface. In the deceleration phase of implosions, several experimental platforms were developed to measure both low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations near peak compression with x-ray and nuclear techniques. In one innovative technique, the self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to "self-backlight" the shell in-flight. To stabilize instability growth, new "adiabat-shaping" techniques were developed using the HGR platform and applied in layered DT implosions.

  15. Circuit effects on Pierce instabilities revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, S.; Hoerhager, M.; Crystal, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of external circuit effects on Pierce diode instability studied by Raadu and Silevitch is reconsidered. The characteristic equation and the ensuing eigenfrequencies are found to disagree with those given by the authors above, which discrepancy is attributed to the fact that one of their boundary conditions is inconsistent with the model chosen. (author)

  16. Corruption, Governance and Political Instability in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and cyclical legitimacy crisis. In the absence of support from civil society, the effective power of government was eroded and patron-client relationships took a prime role over the formal aspects of politics, such as the rule of law, ...

  17. Control of Coherent Instabilities by Linear Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Cappi, R; Möhl, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges in the design of high-energy colliders is the very high luminosity necessary to provide significant event rates. This imposes strong constraints to achieve and preserve beams of high brightness, i.e. intensity to emittance ratio, all along the injector chain. Amongst the phenomena that can blow up and even destroy the beam are transverse coherent instabilities. Two methods are widely used to damp these instabilities. The first one is Landau damping by non-linearities. The second consists in using an electronic feedback system. However, non-linearities are harmful to single-particle motion due to resonance phenomena, and powerful wideband feedback systems are expensive. It is shown in this paper that linear coupling is a further method that can be used to damp transverse coherent instabilities. The theory of collective motion is outlined, including the coupling of instability rise and damping rates, chromaticity and Landau damping. Experimental results obtained at the CERN PS are rep...

  18. Hydrodynamic instability experiments on the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.

    1996-08-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities in compressible plasmas play a critical role in the fields of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), astrophysics, and high energy-density physics. We are, investigating hydrodynamic instabilities such as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, at high compression at the Nova laser in a series of experiments, both in planar and in spherical geometry. In the indirect drive approach, a thermal x-ray drive is generated by focusing the Nova laser beams into a Au cylindrical radiation cavity (hohlraum). Issues in the instability evolution that we are examining are shock propagation and foil compression, RT growth of 2D versus 3D single-mode perturbations, drive pulse shape, perturbation location at the ablation front versus at an embedded interface, and multimode perturbation growth and nonlinear saturation. The effects of convergence on RT growth are being investigated both with hemispherical implosions of packages mounted on the hohlraum wall and with spherical implosions of capsules at the center of the hohlraum. Single-mode perturbations are pre-imposed at the ablation front of these capsules as a seed for the RT growth. In our direct drive experiments, we are investigating the effect of laser imprinting and subsequent RT growth on planar foils, both at λ Laser = 1/3 μm and 1/2 μm. An overview is given describing recent progress in each of these areas

  19. On cavitation instabilities with interacting voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    voids so far apart that the radius of the plastic zone around each void is less than 1% of the current spacing between the voids, can still affect each others at the occurrence of a cavitation instability such that one void stops growing while the other grows in an unstable manner. On the other hand...

  20. Studies of elastic-plastic instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of plastic instabilities are reviewed, with focus on results in structural mechanics as well as continuum mechanics. First the basic theories for bifurcation and post-bifurcation behavior are briefly presented. Then, localization of plastic flow is discussed, including shear band formati...

  1. Instabilities and the null energy condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniy, Roman V.; Hsu, Stephen D.H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that violation of the null energy condition implies instability in a broad class of models, including gauge theories with scalar and fermionic matter as well as any perfect fluid. When applied to the dark energy, our results imply that w=p/ρ is unlikely to be less than -1. than -1

  2. Secular instabilities of Keplerian stellar discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Karamveer; Kazandjian, Mher V.; Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.

    2018-05-01

    We present idealized models of a razor-thin, axisymmetric, Keplerian stellar disc around a massive black hole, and study non-axisymmetric secular instabilities in the absence of either counter-rotation or loss cones. These discs are prograde mono-energetic waterbags, whose phase-space distribution functions are constant for orbits within a range of eccentricities (e) and zero outside this range. The linear normal modes of waterbags are composed of sinusoidal disturbances of the edges of distribution function in phase space. Waterbags that include circular orbits (polarcaps) have one stable linear normal mode for each azimuthal wavenumber m. The m = 1 mode always has positive pattern speed and, for polarcaps consisting of orbits with e normal modes for each m, which can be stable or unstable. We derive analytical expressions for the instability condition, pattern speeds, growth rates, and normal mode structure. Narrow bands are unstable to modes with a wide range in m. Numerical simulations confirm linear theory and follow the non-linear evolution of instabilities. Long-time integration suggests that instabilities of different m grow, interact non-linearly, and relax collisionlessly to a coarse-grained equilibrium with a wide range of eccentricities.

  3. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: metka.filipic@nib.si [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  4. Comment on the drift mirror instability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2008), 054502/1-054502/2 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : drift mirror instability * linear theory Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008

  5. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), 158/1-158/7 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  6. Cometary ion instabilities in the solar wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matteini, L.; Schwartz, S. J.; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, Special Is. (2015), s. 3-12 ISSN 0032-0633 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10057S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : cometary plasma * hybrid simulations * pick-up ion instabilities Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.942, year: 2015

  7. Impurity effects in the electrothermal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimura, A.; Azevedo, M.T. de

    1982-01-01

    A 'impure' plasma model is proposed based on the homogeneous hydrogen plasma used in the theory formulated by Tomimura and Haines to explain the electrothermal instable mode growth with the wave vector perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. The impurities are introduced implicitly in the transport coefficients of the two-fluid model through a effective charge number Z sub(eff). (Author) [pt

  8. Political instability and country risk : new evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeHaan, J; Siermann, CLJ; VanLubek, E

    1997-01-01

    This note presents new estimates of a probit model for the debt rescheduling, using a sample of 65 countries over the period 1984-93. Apart from economic variables, a whole range of indicators for political instability are included in the model as explanatory variables. It turns out, that none is

  9. BNS damping of beam breakup instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, G.V.

    1997-08-01

    The author studies BNS damping of the beam breakup instability in a simple model assuming a constant beam energy, flat bunch distribution, and a smooth transverse focusing. The model allows an analytic solution for a constant and linear wake functions. Scaling dimensionless parameters are derived and the beam dynamics is illustrated for the range of parameters relevant to the Stanford Linear Collider

  10. Modulational instability in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    We study modulational instability (MI) of plane waves in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media. For a focusing nonlinearity we show that, although the nonlocality tends to suppress MI, it can never remove it completely, irrespective of the particular profile of the nonlocal response function. For a defoc...

  11. Remittances, spending, and political instability in Ukraine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuntsevych, Iuliia

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-57 ISSN 0722-480X Institutional support : PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Ukraine * remittances * political instability Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/soeu.2016.64.issue-1/soeu-2016-0004/soeu-2016-0004. xml

  12. Plasma instabilities multifrequency study in equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuise, C.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis, multifrequential HF coherent radar results are presented, in the field plasma instabilities in equatorial electrojet. In a first part, characteristics of the irregularities observed either at the 3 meter wavelength by VHF radars, either at other wavelengths during pinpoint experiments, or in-situ by probe rockets are recalled. Theoretical studies progressed and are presented, at the same time with these experimental observations: instability linear theory, non linear theories, HF radar specificity, and problems associated to HF waves propagation and refraction in ionosphere. Original experimental results from Ethiopia are gathered in the second part. Plasma instability has been studied in different geophysical conditions and Doppler spectra characteristics are presented for each one of them. These characteristics are completely different according to the various cases; they are also different according to wether observations are made during the day in normal conditions (electric field pointed to the east at the equator) or in counter-electrojet conditions (electric field pointed to the west). The last part is concerned with theoretical interpretation of the previous results. A comprehensive view of the instability physical mechanisms, according to the geophysical conditions encountered, has been allowed by our results, VHF radar measurements at Jicamarca, or in situ probe measurements on the whole. Irregularities study has been limited to the E region [fr

  13. Galloping instability to chaos of cables

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book provides students and researchers with a systematic solution for fluid-induced structural vibrations, galloping instability and the chaos of cables. They will also gain a better understanding of stable and unstable periodic motions and chaos in fluid-induced structural vibrations. Further, the results presented here will help engineers effectively design and analyze fluid-induced vibrations.

  14. Snake venom instability | Willemse | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian cobra Naja haje haje) and puffadder (Bills arietans). Considerable differences in electrophoretic characteristics were found between fresh venom and commercial venom samples from the same species of snake. These differences could be attributed partly to the instability of snake venom under conditions of drying ...

  15. Curvature-Induced Instabilities of Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulla, Matteo; Stoop, Norbert; Steranka, Mark P.; Bade, Abdikhalaq J.; Holmes, Douglas P.

    2018-01-01

    Induced by proteins within the cell membrane or by differential growth, heating, or swelling, spontaneous curvatures can drastically affect the morphology of thin bodies and induce mechanical instabilities. Yet, the interaction of spontaneous curvature and geometric frustration in curved shells remains poorly understood. Via a combination of precision experiments on elastomeric spherical shells, simulations, and theory, we show how a spontaneous curvature induces a rotational symmetry-breaking buckling as well as a snapping instability reminiscent of the Venus fly trap closure mechanism. The instabilities, and their dependence on geometry, are rationalized by reducing the spontaneous curvature to an effective mechanical load. This formulation reveals a combined pressurelike term in the bulk and a torquelike term in the boundary, allowing scaling predictions for the instabilities that are in excellent agreement with experiments and simulations. Moreover, the effective pressure analogy suggests a curvature-induced subcritical buckling in closed shells. We determine the critical buckling curvature via a linear stability analysis that accounts for the combination of residual membrane and bending stresses. The prominent role of geometry in our findings suggests the applicability of the results over a wide range of scales.

  16. Induction of genetic instability by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that radiation may induce a heritable, genome-wide process of instability that leads to an enhanced frequency of genetic changes occurring among the progeny of the original irradiated cell. This instability is transmissible over many generations of cell replication. Mutational instability is induced in a relatively large fraction (approximately 10 %) of the cell population, and may be modulated by factors acting in vivo. Thus, it cannot be a targeted event involving a specific gene or set of genes. There is no dose-response relationship in the range 2-12 Gy, suggesting that the instability phenotype may be induced by quite low radiation doses. The molecular mechanisms associated with the genesis of mutations in unstable populations differ from those for direct X-ray-induced mutations. These results suggest that it may not be possible to predict the nature of the dose-response relationship for the ultimate genetic effects of radiation based on a qualitative or quantitative analysis of the original DNA lesions. (author)

  17. Genome organization, instabilities, stem cells, and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Pazhanisamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely recognized that advances in exploring genome organization provide remarkable insights on the induction and progression of chromosome abnormalities. Much of what we know about how mutations evolve and consequently transform into genome instabilities has been characterized in the spatial organization context of chromatin. Nevertheless, many underlying concepts of impact of the chromatin organization on perpetuation of multiple mutations and on propagation of chromosomal aberrations remain to be investigated in detail. Genesis of genome instabilities from accumulation of multiple mutations that drive tumorigenesis is increasingly becoming a focal theme in cancer studies. This review focuses on structural alterations evolve to raise a variety of genome instabilities that are manifested at the nucleotide, gene or sub-chromosomal, and whole chromosome level of genome. Here we explore an underlying connection between genome instability and cancer in the light of genome architecture. This review is limited to studies directed towards spatial organizational aspects of origin and propagation of aberrations into genetically unstable tumors.

  18. Instability and Change in Collective Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Bernd; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on collective bargaining structures and macroeconomic performance have largely ignored the role of stable and instable institutional structures and the effects of institutional change itself. In this article we posit that institutional stability of collective bargaining is of maj...... following the change. This effect also holds for changes in both decentralization and centralization of institutions....

  19. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipič, Metka

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  20. Nonlinear parametric instability of wind turbine wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2006-01-01

    -base eigenmodes. It turns out that the system becomes unstable at certain excitation amplitudes and frequencies. If the ratio between the support point motion and the rotational frequency of the rotor is rational, the response becomes periodic, and Floquet theory may be used to determine instability. In reality...

  1. Ultraspinning instability of rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Figueras, Pau; Monteiro, Ricardo; Santos, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    Rapidly rotating Myers-Perry black holes in d≥6 dimensions were conjectured to be unstable by Emparan and Myers. In a previous publication, we found numerically the onset of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability in the singly spinning Myers-Perry black hole in d=7, 8, 9. This threshold also signals a bifurcation to new branches of axisymmetric solutions with pinched horizons that are conjectured to connect to the black ring, black Saturn and other families in the phase diagram of stationary solutions. We firmly establish that this instability is also present in d=6 and in d=10, 11. The boundary conditions of the perturbations are discussed in detail for the first time, and we prove that they preserve the angular velocity and temperature of the original Myers-Perry black hole. This property is fundamental to establishing a thermodynamic necessary condition for the existence of this instability in general rotating backgrounds. We also prove a previous claim that the ultraspinning modes cannot be pure gauge modes. Finally we find new ultraspinning Gregory-Laflamme instabilities of rotating black strings and branes that appear exactly at the critical rotation predicted by the aforementioned thermodynamic criterium. The latter is a refinement of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.

  2. Electroacoustic control of Rijke tube instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Huang, Lixi

    2017-11-01

    Unsteady heat release coupled with pressure fluctuation triggers the thermoacoustic instability which may damage a combustion chamber severely. This study demonstrates an electroacoustic control approach of suppressing the thermoacoustic instability in a Rijke tube by altering the wall boundary condition. An electrically shunted loudspeaker driver device is connected as a side-branch to the main tube via a small aperture. Tests in an impedance tube show that this device has sound absorption coefficient up to 40% under normal incidence from 100 Hz to 400 Hz, namely over two octaves. Experimental result demonstrates that such a broadband acoustic performance can effectively eliminate the Rijke-tube instability from 94 Hz to 378 Hz (when the tube length varies from 1.8 m to 0.9 m, the first mode frequency for the former is 94 Hz and the second mode frequency for the latter is 378 Hz). Theoretical investigation reveals that the devices act as a damper draining out sound energy through a tiny hole to eliminate the instability. Finally, it is also estimated based on the experimental data that small amount of sound energy is actually absorbed when the system undergoes a transition from the unstable to stable state if the contrpaol is activated. When the system is actually stabilized, no sound is radiated so no sound energy needs to be absorbed by the control device.

  3. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  4. Lattice instability and martensitic transformation in LaAg predicted from first-principles theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitheeswaran, G.; Kanchana, V.; Zhang, X.

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure, elastic constants and lattice dynamics of the B2 type intermetallic compound LaAg are studied by means of density functional theory calculations with the generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation. The calculated equilibrium properties and elastic......, calculated using density functional perturbation theory, are in good agreement with available inelastic neutron scattering data. Under pressure, the phonon dispersions develop imaginary frequencies, starting at around 2.3 GPa, in good accordance with the martensitic instability observed above 3.4 GPa...

  5. Tearing instability in a tokamak with a noncircular cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenin, V. V., E-mail: arsenin-vv@nrcki.ru; Skovoroda, A. A., E-mail: skovoroda-aa@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Using a straight-column model to describe tokamak plasma with a noncircular cross section, it is shown how to (i) find the boundary of tearing instability from the condition of existence of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibrium different from that of a straight cylinder by solving a two-dimensional linear boundary-value problem with a second-order equation with respect to the flux coordinate and (ii) find the spatial structure of the tearing mode and the corresponding effective Δ' when there is only one resonance magnetic surface in the plasma for a given axial wavenumber by solving some kind of a boundary-value problem for the perturbation. The proposed approach is illustrated by numerical calculations for the case of an elliptical cross section as an example.

  6. Rayleigh instability of the inverted one-cell amphibian embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, Comron; Gordon, Richard; Luppes, Roel; Veldman, Arthur E P; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2008-01-01

    The one-cell amphibian embryo is modeled as a rigid spherical shell containing equal volumes of two immiscible fluids with different densities and viscosities and a surface tension between them. The fluids represent denser yolk in the bottom hemisphere and clearer cytoplasm and the germinal vesicle in the top hemisphere. The unstable equilibrium configuration of the inverted system (the heavier fluid on top) depends on the value of the contact angle. The theoretically calculated normal modes of perturbation and the instability of each mode are in agreement with the results from ComFlo computational fluid dynamic simulations of the same system. The two dominant types of modes of perturbation give rise to axisymmetric and asymmetric sloshing of the cytoplasm of the inverted embryos, respectively. This work quantifies our hypothesis that the axisymmetric mode corresponds to failure of development, and the asymmetric sloshing mode corresponds to development proceeding normally, but with reversed pigmentation, for inverted embryos

  7. Instability of the cored barotropic disc: the linear eigenvalue formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyachenko, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    Gaseous rotating razor-thin discs are a testing ground for theories of spiral structure that try to explain appearance and diversity of disc galaxy patterns. These patterns are believed to arise spontaneously under the action of gravitational instability, but calculations of its characteristics in the gas are mostly obscured. The paper suggests a new method for finding the spiral patterns based on an expansion of small amplitude perturbations over Lagrange polynomials in small radial elements. The final matrix equation is extracted from the original hydrodynamical equations without the use of an approximate theory and has a form of the linear algebraic eigenvalue problem. The method is applied to a galactic model with the cored exponential density profile.

  8. Kink and tearing mode instabilities in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogutse, O.P.

    The continuous transition from a free-boundary-kink mode to a tearing mode in a current carrying plasma column is investigated. It is shown that in the real experimental situation, even for high temperatures in the plasma periphery, the kink mode exists due to electron inertia, the growth rate of the instability being at least a few times smaller than the growth rate with a free boundary. We find the dispersion relation allowing us to calculate the growth rate for plasma parameters of physical interest. It is shown that as the size of the current channel increases the growth rate falls, but the range of values of the safety factor where the mode is unstable broadens

  9. Elastic instability model of rapid beak closure in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M L; Yanega, G M; Ruina, A

    2011-08-07

    The hummingbird beak, specialized for feeding on floral nectars, is also uniquely adapted to eating flying insects. During insect capture the beak often appears to close at a rate that cannot be explained by direct muscular action alone. Here we show that the lower jaw of hummingbirds has a shape and compliance that allows for a controlled elastic snap. Furthermore, hummingbirds have the musculature needed to independently bend and twist the sides of the lower jaw. According to both our simple physical model and our elastic instability calculation, the jaw can be smoothly opened and then snapped closed through an appropriate sequence of bending and twisting actions by the muscles of the lower jaw. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, M. I., E-mail: mikhaylov-mi@nrcki.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Shchepetov, S. V., E-mail: shch@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  11. Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2013-05-01

    The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n = 55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n = 55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n = 55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Delayed chromosomal instability caused by large deletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kodama, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: There is accumulating evidence that genomic instability, manifested by the expression of delayed phenotypes, is induced by X-irradiation but not by ultraviolet (UV) light. It is well known that ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, induces DNA double strand breaks, but UV-light mainly causes base damage like pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts. Although the mechanism of radiation-induced genomic instability has not been thoroughly explained, it is suggested that DNA double strand breaks contribute the induction of genomic instability. We examined here whether X-ray induced gene deletion at the hprt locus induces delayed instability in chromosome X. SV40-immortalized normal human fibroblasts, GM638, were irradiated with X-rays (3, 6 Gy), and the hprt mutants were isolated in the presence of 6-thioguanine (6-TG). A 2-fold and a 60-fold increase in mutation frequency were found by 3 Gy and 6 Gy irradiation, respectively. The molecular structure of the hprt mutations was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction of nine exons. Approximately 60% of 3 Gy mutants lost a part or the entire hprt gene, and the other mutants showed point mutations like spontaneous mutants. All 6 Gy mutants show total gene deletion. The chromosomes of the hprt mutants were analyzed by Whole Human Chromosome X Paint FISH or Xq telomere FISH. None of the point or partial gene deletion mutants showed aberrations of X-chromosome, however total gene deletion mutants induced translocations and dicentrics involving chromosome X. These results suggest that large deletion caused by DNA double strand breaks destabilizes chromosome structure, which may be involved in an induction of radiation-induced genomic instability

  13. Double Arc Instability in the Solar Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, N.; Kusano, K., E-mail: n-ishiguro@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 Japan (Japan)

    2017-07-10

    The stability of the magnetic field in the solar corona is important for understanding the causes of solar eruptions. Although various scenarios have been suggested to date, the tether-cutting reconnection scenario proposed by Moore et al. is one of the widely accepted models to explain the onset process of solar eruptions. Although the tether-cutting reconnection scenario proposes that the sigmoidal field formed by internal reconnection is the magnetic field in the pre-eruptive state, the stability of the sigmoidal field has not yet been investigated quantitatively. In this paper, in order to elucidate the stability problem of the pre-eruptive state, we developed a simple numerical analysis in which the sigmoidal field is modeled by a double arc electric current loop and its stability is analyzed. As a result, we found that the double arc loop is more easily destabilized than the axisymmetric torus, and it becomes unstable even if the external field does not decay with altitude, which is in contrast to the axisymmetric torus instability. This suggests that tether-cutting reconnection may well work as the onset mechanism of solar eruptions, and if so, the critical condition for eruption under a certain geometry may be determined by a new type of instability rather than by the torus instability. Based on them, we propose a new type of instability called double arc instability (DAI). We discuss the critical conditions for DAI and derive a new parameter κ , defined as the product of the magnetic twist and the normalized flux of the tether-cutting reconnection.

  14. Corona-induced electrohydrodynamic instabilities in low conducting liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, F.; Perez, A.T. [Depto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n. 41012, Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-06-01

    The rose-window electrohydrodynamic (EHD) instability has been observed when a perpendicular field with an additional unipolar ion injection is applied onto a low conducting liquid surface. This instability has a characteristic pattern with cells five to 10 times greater than those observed in volume instabilities caused by unipolar injection. We have used corona discharge from a metallic point to perform some measurements of the rose-window instability in low conducting liquids. The results are compared to the linear theoretical criterion for an ohmic liquid. They confirmed that the minimum voltage for this instability is much lower than that for the interfacial instability in high conducting liquids. This was predicted theoretically in the dependence of the critical voltage as a function of the non-dimensional conductivity. It is shown that in a non-ohmic liquid the rose window appears as a secondary instability after the volume instability. (orig.)

  15. Prevalence of knee instability in relation to sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten Ingemann

    2001-01-01

    to be positively associated with female gender and different features of occupational work. In conclusion, knee instability is a commonly reported phenomenon among active athletes. It was found to be independent of the type and the amount of sports activity but highly dependent on female gender, type and amount......The objective was to estimate the prevalence of knee instability among active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. Based on a questionnaire, 339 athletes provided information about different features of occupation, sports activity...... and knee instability. The 12-month period prevalence of knee instability and constant or recurrent knee instability, and absence from sport and absence from work due to knee instability, was 22%, 14%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Knee instability as such, and constant or recurrent knee instability were found...

  16. About the magneto-acoustic instabilities in mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonkov, A.V.; Timofeev, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the characteristic of a plasma in mirrors anisotropy of io on distribution function versus velocities may results in the drive of magneto-acoustic instabilities. This instability, in contast to the well known Alyven oscillation instability, is driven on ion cyclotron frequency harmonics The instability in question has been possibly observed during the experiments a at the tmx device, where the oscillations have been excited both at the ion cycl tron frequency and harmonics

  17. Coupled-bunch instabilities in the APS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, L.

    1991-01-01

    A study of coupled bunch instabilities for the APS storage ring is presented. The instabilities are driven by the higher-order modes of the fifteen 352-MHz single-cell RF cavities. These modes are modeled using the 2-D cavity program URMEL. The program ZAP is then used to estimate the growth time of the instabilities for an equally-spaced bunch pattern. The cavity modes most responsible for the instabilities will be singles out for damping. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  18. Two-phase flow instability and propagation of disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.

    1984-01-01

    Various mechanisms of static and dynamic macroinstabilities, appearing in two-phase flows, have been considered. Types of instabilities, conditioned by the form of hydraulic characteristics of the channel and density waves are analyzed in detail. Problems of instabilities in nuclear reactor circuits, in particular problems of instabilities, conditioned by water and steam mixing and vapour condensation, and problems of steam generator operation instability are discussed

  19. Hydro-osmotic Instabilities in Active Membrane Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Izzi, Sami C.; Rowlands, George; Sens, Pierre; Turner, Matthew S.

    2018-03-01

    We study a membrane tube with unidirectional ion pumps driving an osmotic pressure difference. A pressure-driven peristaltic instability is identified, qualitatively distinct from similar tension-driven Rayleigh-type instabilities on membrane tubes. We discuss how this instability could be related to the function and biogenesis of membrane bound organelles, in particular, the contractile vacuole complex. The unusually long natural wavelength of this instability is in agreement with that observed in cells.

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Figueiredo, Céu; Seruca, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...