Ganesh, Ayalvadi; Wischik, Damon
2004-01-01
Big Queues aims to give a simple and elegant account of how large deviations theory can be applied to queueing problems. Large deviations theory is a collection of powerful results and general techniques for studying rare events, and has been applied to queueing problems in a variety of ways. The strengths of large deviations theory are these: it is powerful enough that one can answer many questions which are hard to answer otherwise, and it is general enough that one can draw broad conclusions without relying on special case calculations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. R. Parthasarathy
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting
1995-01-01
We present priority queues that support the operations Find-Min, Insert, MakeQueue and Meld in worst case time O(1) and Delete and DeleteMin in worst case time O(log n). They can be implemented on the pointer machine and require linear space. The time bounds are optimal for all implementations wh...
Fundamentals of queueing theory
Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M
2013-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre
Mukherjee, Pritam; Ulukus, Sennur
2016-01-01
We consider covert communication using a queuing timing channel in the presence of a warden. The covert message is encoded using the inter-arrival times of the packets, and the legitimate receiver and the warden observe the inter-departure times of the packets from their respective queues. The transmitter and the legitimate receiver also share a secret key to facilitate covert communication. We propose achievable schemes that obtain non-zero covert rate for both exponential and general queues...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thorup, M. [Univ. of Coepnhagen (Denmark)
1996-12-31
Priority queues are some of the most fundamental data structures. They are used directly for, say, task scheduling in operating systems. Moreover, they are essential to greedy algorithms. We study the complexity of priority queue operations on a RAM with arbitrary word size. We present exponential improvements over previous bounds, and we show tight relations to sorting. Our first result is a RAM priority queue supporting insert and extract-min operations in worst case time O(log log n) where n is the current number of keys in the queue. This is an exponential improvement over the O({radical}log n) bound of Redman and Willard from STOC`90. Our algorithm is simple, and it only uses AC{sup 0} operations, meaning that there is no hidden time dependency on the word size. Plugging this priority queue into Dijkstra`s algorithm gives an 0(mloglogm) algorithm for the single source shortest path problem on a graph with m edges, as compared with the previous O(m {radical} log m) bound based on Redman and Willard`s priority queue.
Palvannan, R Kannapiran; Teow, Kiok Liang
2012-04-01
Patient queues are prevalent in healthcare and wait time is one measure of access to care. We illustrate Queueing Theory-an analytical tool that has provided many insights to service providers when designing new service systems and managing existing ones. This established theory helps us to quantify the appropriate service capacity to meet the patient demand, balancing system utilization and the patient's wait time. It considers four key factors that affect the patient's wait time: average patient demand, average service rate and the variation in both. We illustrate four basic insights that will be useful for managers and doctors who manage healthcare delivery systems, at hospital or department level. Two examples from local hospitals are shown where we have used queueing models to estimate the service capacity and analyze the impact of capacity configurations, while considering the inherent variation in healthcare.
Draief, Moez; O'Connell, Neil
2005-01-01
Consider the single server queue with an infinite buffer and a FIFO discipline, either of type M/M/1 or Geom/Geom/1. Denote by A the arrival process and by s the services. Assume the stability condition to be satisfied. Denote by D the departure process in equilibrium and by r the time spent by the customers at the very back of the queue. We prove that (D,r) has the same law as (A,s) which is an extension of the classical Burke Theorem. In fact, r can be viewed as the departures from a dual storage model. This duality between the two models also appears when studying the transient behavior of a tandem by means of the RSK algorithm: the first and last row of the resulting semi-standard Young tableau are respectively the last instant of departure in the queue and the total number of departures in the store.
K. Dębicki; M. Mandjes
2012-01-01
This survey addresses the class of queues with Lévy input, which covers the classical M/G/1 queue and the reflected Brownian motion as special cases. First the stationary behavior is treated, with special attention to the case of the input process having one-sided jumps (i.e., spectrally one-sided L
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting
2013-01-01
Back in 1964 Williams introduced the binary heap as a basic priority queue data structure supporting the operations Insert and ExtractMin in logarithmic time. Since then numerous papers have been published on priority queues. This paper tries to list some of the directions research on priority...
Cheung, S.-K.; Berg, H. van den; Boucherie, R.J.
2005-01-01
We obtain a decomposition result for the steady state queue length distribution in egalitarian processor-sharing (PS) models. In particular, for multi-class egalitarian PS queues, we show that the marginal queue length distribution for each class equals the queue length distribution of an equivalent
A new queueing strategy for the Adversarial Queueing Theory
Hilker, Michael
2008-01-01
In the today's Internet and TCP/IP-networks, the queueing of packets is commonly implemented using the protocol FIFO (First In First Out). Unfortunately, FIFO performs poorly in the Adversarial Queueing Theory. Other queueing strategies are researched in this model and better results are performed by alternative queueing strategies, e.g. LIS (Longest In System). This article introduces a new queueing protocol called interval-strategy that is concerned with the reduction from dynamic to static routing. We discuss the maximum system time for a packet and estimate with up-to-date results how this can be achieved. We figure out the maximum amount of time where a packet can spend in the network (i.e. worst case system time), and argue that the universal instability of the presented interval-strategy can be reached through these results. When a large group of queueing strategies is used for queueing, we prove that the interval-strategy will be universally unstable. Finally, we calculate the maximum time of the stat...
Queues and risk models with simultaneous arrivals
Badila, E.S.; Boxma, O.J.; Resing, J.A.C.; Winands, E.M.M.
2014-01-01
We focus on a particular connection between queueing and risk models in a multidimensional setting. We first consider the joint workload process in a queueing model with parallel queues and simultaneous arrivals at the queues. For the case that the service times are ordered (from largest in the firs
Alfa, Attahiru S
2016-01-01
This book introduces the theoretical fundamentals for modeling queues in discrete-time, and the basic procedures for developing queuing models in discrete-time. There is a focus on applications in modern telecommunication systems. It presents how most queueing models in discrete-time can be set up as discrete-time Markov chains. Techniques such as matrix-analytic methods (MAM) that can used to analyze the resulting Markov chains are included. This book covers single node systems, tandem system and queueing networks. It shows how queues with time-varying parameters can be analyzed, and illustrates numerical issues associated with computations for the discrete-time queueing systems. Optimal control of queues is also covered. Applied Discrete-Time Queues targets researchers, advanced-level students and analysts in the field of telecommunication networks. It is suitable as a reference book and can also be used as a secondary text book in computer engineering and computer science. Examples and exercises are includ...
Queueing theory and network applications
Takahashi, Yutaka; Yue, Wuyi; Nguyen, Viet-Ha
2016-01-01
The 16 papers of this proceedings have been selected from the submissions to the 10th International Conference on Queueing Theory and Network Applications (QTNA2015) held on 17-20 August, 2015 in Ha Noi and Ha Long, Vietnam. All contributions discuss theoretical and practical issues connected with queueing theory and its applications in networks and other related fields. The book brings together researchers, scientists and practitioners from the world and offers an open forum to share the latest important research accomplishments and challenging problems in the area of queueing theory and network applications.
Joining Longer Queues: Information Externalities in Queue Choice
Senthil Veeraraghavan; Laurens Debo
2009-01-01
A classic example that illustrates how observed customer behavior impacts other customers' decisions is the selection of a restaurant whose quality is uncertain. Customers often choose the busier restaurant, inferring that other customers in that restaurant know something that they do not. In an environment with random arrival and service times, customer behavior is reflected in the lengths of the queues that form at the individual servers. Therefore, queue lengths could signal two factors--p...
Bayesian Inference in Queueing Networks
Sutton, Charles
2010-01-01
Modern Web services, such as those at Google, Yahoo!, and Amazon, handle billions of requests per day on clusters of thousands of computers. Because these services operate under strict performance requirements, a statistical understanding of their performance is of great practical interest. Such services are modeled by networks of queues, where one queue models each of the individual computers in the system. A key challenge is that the data is incomplete, because recording detailed information about every request to a heavily used system can require unacceptable overhead. In this paper we develop a Bayesian perspective on queueing models in which the arrival and departure times that are not observed are treated as latent variables. Underlying this viewpoint is the observation that a queueing model defines a deterministic transformation between the data and a set of independent variables called the service times. With this viewpoint in hand, we sample from the posterior distribution over missing data and model...
Queueing networks a fundamental approach
Dijk, Nico
2011-01-01
This handbook aims to highlight fundamental, methodological and computational aspects of networks of queues to provide insights and to unify results that can be applied in a more general manner. The handbook is organized into five parts: Part 1 considers exact analytical results such as of product form type. Topics include characterization of product forms by physical balance concepts and simple traffic flow equations, classes of service and queue disciplines that allow a product form, a unified description of product forms for discrete time queueing networks, insights for insensitivity, and aggregation and decomposition results that allow subnetworks to be aggregated into single nodes to reduce computational burden. Part 2 looks at monotonicity and comparison results such as for computational simplification by either of two approaches: stochastic monotonicity and ordering results based on the ordering of the proces generators, and comparison results and explicit error bounds based on an underlying Markov r...
Boxma, O.J.
1984-01-01
We consider a series of queues with Poisson input. Each queueing system contains an infinite number of service channels. The service times in each channel have a general distribution. For this M/G∞ tandem model we obtain the joint time-dependent distribution of queue length and residual service tim
Boxma, O.J.
1984-01-01
We consider a series of queues with Poisson input. Each queueing system contains an infinite number of service channels. The service times in each channel have a general distribution. For this M/G∞ tandem model we obtain the joint time-dependent distribution of queue length and residual service tim
Optimal (batch) dispatching in a tandem queue
D. van Leeuwen (Daphne); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo (Sindo))
2016-01-01
textabstractMotivated by various applications in logistics, road traffic and production management, we investigate two versions of a tandem queueing model in which the service rate of the first queue can be controlled. The objective is to keep the mean number of jobs in the second queue as low as po
Mean sojourn time in a parallel queue
B. Kemper
2009-01-01
This account considers a parallel queue, which is two-queue network, where any arrival generates a job at both queues. It is noted that earlier work has revealed that this class of models is notoriously hard to analyze. We first evaluate a number of bounds developed in the literature, and observe th
Random queues and risk averse users
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Palma, André; Fosgerau, Mogens
2013-01-01
We analyze Nash equilibrium in time of use of a congested facility. Users are risk averse with general concave utility. Queues are subject to varying degrees of random sorting, ranging from strict queue priority to a completely random queue. We define the key “no residual queue” property, which...
Jain, Joti Lal; Böhm, Walter
2006-01-01
The application of engineering principles in divergent fields such as management science and communications as well as the advancement of several approaches in theory and computation have led to growing interest in queueing models, creating the need for a comprehensive text. Emphasizing Markovian structures and the techniques that occur in different models, A Course on Queueing Models discusses recent developments in the field, different methodological tools - some of which are not available elsewhere - and computational techniques.While most books essentially address the classical methods of
Eisenstat, David
2008-01-01
The question of whether all shared objects with consensus number 2 belong to Common2, the class of objects that can be implemented from two-process consensus and atomic registers, was first posed by Herlihy. In the absence of general results, several researchers have obtained implementations for restricted-concurrency versions of FIFO queue. We present the first Common2 algorithm for a queue with two enqueuers and any number of dequeuers. This algorithm is compatible with the unbounded concurrency model, and its enqueue and dequeue methods require only a constant number of steps.
Probability, statistics, and queueing theory
Allen, Arnold O
1990-01-01
This is a textbook on applied probability and statistics with computer science applications for students at the upper undergraduate level. It may also be used as a self study book for the practicing computer science professional. The successful first edition of this book proved extremely useful to students who need to use probability, statistics and queueing theory to solve problems in other fields, such as engineering, physics, operations research, and management science. The book has also been successfully used for courses in queueing theory for operations research students. This second edit
Gawron, Piotr; Kurzyk, Dariusz; Puchała, Zbigniew
2013-05-01
We consider an extension of discrete time Markov chain queueing model to the quantum domain by use of discrete time quantum Markov chain. We introduce methods for numerical analysis of such models. Using these tools we show that quantum model behaves fundamentally different from the classical one.
Vacation queueing models theory and applications
Tian, Naishuo
2006-01-01
A classical queueing model consists of three parts - arrival process, service process, and queue discipline. However, a vacation queueing model has an additional part - the vacation process which is governed by a vacation policy - that can be characterized by three aspects: 1) vacation start-up rule; 2) vacation termination rule, and 3) vacation duration distribution. Hence, vacation queueing models are an extension of classical queueing theory. Vacation Queueing Models: Theory and Applications discusses systematically and in detail the many variations of vacation policy. By allowing servers to take vacations makes the queueing models more realistic and flexible in studying real-world waiting line systems. Integrated in the book's discussion are a variety of typical vacation model applications that include call centers with multi-task employees, customized manufacturing, telecommunication networks, maintenance activities, etc. Finally, contents are presented in a "theorem and proof" format and it is invaluabl...
Dynamic server assignment in a two-queue model
Boxma, O.J.; Down, D.G.
1995-01-01
We consider a polling model of two $M/G/1$ queues, served by a single server. The service policy for this polling model is of threshold type. Service at queue 1 is exhaustive. Service at queue 2 is exhaustive unless the size of queue 1 reaches some level $T$ during a service at queue 2; in the latte
QUEUEING NETWORKS WITH INSTANTANEOUSSEQUENTIAL TRANSITIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chao Xiuli
2001-01-01
We study queueing networks with instantaneous transitions of sequential batch departures and sequential batch arrivals. Unlike most of the existing models, this network is shown not to have a product form solution. An "extra arrival condition” is introduced under which the network is shown to possess a product form stationary distribution. Furthermore, the product form solution serves as a stochastic upper bound for the original network without the extra arrival process. The results include many queueing network models reported in the literature, e.g. the assembly transfer networks recently introduced by Miyazawa and Taylor, as special cases. We show that the network with the extra arrival process is "structurally reversible” in the sense that its reversed process has the same network structure. Local balances for this network are presented and discussed.
Queue-Dispatch Asynchronous Systems
Geeraerts, Gilles; Raskin, Jean-François
2012-01-01
To make the development of efficient multi-core applications easier, libraries, such as Grand Central Dispatch, have been proposed. When using such a library, the programmer writes so-called blocks, which are chunks of codes, and dispatches them, using synchronous or asynchronous calls, to several types of waiting queues. A scheduler is then responsible for dispatching those blocks on the available cores. Blocks can synchronize via a global memory. In this paper, we propose Queue-Dispatch Asynchronous Systems as a mathematical model that faithfully formalizes the synchronization mechanisms and the behavior of the scheduler in those systems. We study in detail their relationships to classical formalisms such as pushdown systems, Petri nets, fifo systems, and counter systems. Our main technical contributions are precise worst-case complexity results for the Parikh coverability problem for several subclasses of our model.
Stabilization of Branching Queueing Networks
Brázdil, Tomáš
2011-01-01
Queueing networks are gaining attraction for the performance analysis of parallel computer systems. A Jackson network is a set of interconnected servers, where the completion of a job at server i may result in the creation of a new job for server j. We propose to extend Jackson networks by "branching" and by "control" features. Both extensions are new and substantially expand the modelling power of Jackson networks. On the other hand, the extensions raise computational questions, particularly concerning the stability of the networks, i.e, the ergodicity of the underlying Markov chain. We show for our extended model that it is decidable in polynomial time if there exists a controller that achieves stability. Moreover, if such a controller exists, one can efficiently compute a static randomized controller which stabilizes the network in a very strong sense; in particular, all moments of the queue sizes are finite.
A pathwise comparison result for parallel queues
Moyal, Pascal
2013-01-01
We introduce the appropriate framework for pathwise comparison of multiple server queues under general stationary ergodic assumptions. We show in what sense it is better to have more servers for a system under FCFS ('First Come, First Served') or equivalently, more queues in a system of parallel queues under the JSW ('Join the Shortest Workload') allocation policy. This comparison result is based on the recursive representation of Kiefer and Wolfowitz, and on a non-mass conservative generaliz...
MARKOVIAN QUEUES WITH CORRELATED ARRIVAL PROCESSES
Hunter, Jeffrey J.
2007-01-01
In an attempt to examine the effect of dependencies in the arrival process on the steady state queue length process in single server queueing models with exponential service time distribution, four different models for the arrival process, each with marginally distributed exponential inter-arrivals to the queueing system, are considered. Two of these models are based upon the upper and lower bounding joint distribution functions given by the Fréchet bounds for bivariate distributions with spe...
Analysis of queues methods and applications
Gautam, Natarajan
2012-01-01
Introduction Analysis of Queues: Where, What, and How?Systems Analysis: Key ResultsQueueing Fundamentals and Notations Psychology in Queueing Reference Notes Exercises Exponential Interarrival and Service Times: Closed-Form Expressions Solving Balance Equations via Arc CutsSolving Balance Equations Using Generating Functions Solving Balance Equations Using Reversibility Reference Notes ExercisesExponential Interarrival and Service Times: Numerical Techniques and Approximations Multidimensional Birth and Death ChainsMultidimensional Markov Chains Finite-State Markov ChainsReference Notes Exerci
FROM BALLOT THEOREMS TO THE THEORY OF QUEUES,
QUEUEING THEORY, DISTRIBUTION THEORY ), (*PROBABILITY, DISTRIBUTION THEORY ), (* DISTRIBUTION THEORY , QUEUEING THEORY), (*STOCHASTIC PROCESSES... DISTRIBUTION THEORY ), SEQUENCES(MATHEMATICS), DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS, INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS, TIME, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS
Two coupled queues with heterogeneous traffic
Borst, S.C.; Boxma, O.J.; Uitert, M.J.G. van
2001-01-01
We consider a system with two heterogeneous traffic classes, one having light-tailed characteristics, the other one exhibiting heavy-tailed properties. When both classes are backlogged, the two corresponding queues are each served at a certain nominal rate. However, when one queue empties, the servi
GPS queues with heterogeneous traffic classes
Borst, Sem; Mandjes, Michel; Uitert, van Miranda
2002-01-01
We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic classes are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for a
Priority-queue framework: Programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katajainen, Jyrki
2009-01-01
This is an electronic appendix to the article "Generic-programming framework for benchmarking weak queues and its relatives". The report contains the programs related to our priority-queue framework. Look at the CPH STL reports 2009-3 and 2009-4 to see examples of other component frameworks....
Tandem queue with server slow-down
D.I. Miretskiy; W.R.W. Scheinhardt; M.R.H. Mandjes
2007-01-01
We study how rare events happen in the standard two-node tandem Jackson queue and in a generalization, the socalled slow-down network, see [2]. In the latter model the service rate of the first server depends on the number of jobs in the second queue: the first server slows down if the amount of job
Queues and Lévy Fluctuation Theory
Dębicki, K.; Mandjes, M.
2015-01-01
The book provides an extensive introduction to queueing models driven by Lévy-processes as well as a systematic account of the literature on Lévy-driven queues. The objective is to make the reader familiar with the wide set of probabilistic techniques that have been developed over the past decades,
Unreliable Retrial Queues in a Random Environment
2007-09-01
state space decompositions. In 1992, Korotaev and Spivak [57] considered finite-capacity 6The output rate is usually deterministic. 23 queues with...and operating in a random environment. Automation and Remote Control, 37(12), 1828–1835. 158 57. Korotaev, I. A. and Spivak , L. R. (1992). Queueing
Norton's theorem for batch routing queueing networks
Bause, Falko; Boucherie, Richard J.; Buchholz, Peter
2001-01-01
This paper shows that the aggregation and decomposition result known as Norton’s theorem for queueing networks can be extended to a general class of batch routing queueing networks with product-form solution that allows for multiple components to simultaneously release and receive (batches of) custo
On retrial queueing model with fuzzy parameters
Ke, Jau-Chuan; Huang, Hsin-I.; Lin, Chuen-Horng
2007-01-01
This work constructs the membership functions of the system characteristics of a retrial queueing model with fuzzy customer arrival, retrial and service rates. The α-cut approach is used to transform a fuzzy retrial-queue into a family of conventional crisp retrial queues in this context. By means of the membership functions of the system characteristics, a set of parametric non-linear programs is developed to describe the family of crisp retrial queues. A numerical example is solved successfully to illustrate the validity of the proposed approach. Because the system characteristics are expressed and governed by the membership functions, more information is provided for use by management. By extending this model to the fuzzy environment, fuzzy retrial-queue is represented more accurately and analytic results are more useful for system designers and practitioners.
Stability of Join the Shortest Queue Networks
Bramson, Maury
2010-01-01
Join the shortest queue (JSQ) refers to networks whose incoming jobs are assigned to the shortest queue from among a randomly chosen subset of the queues in the system. After completion of service at the queue, a job leaves the network. We show that, for all non- idling service disciplines and for general interarrival and service time distributions, such networks are stable when they are subcritical. We then obtain uniform bounds on the tails of the marginal distributions of the equilibria for families of such networks; these bounds are employed to show relative compactness of the marginal distributions. We also present a family of subcritical JSQ networks whose workloads in equilibrium are much larger than for the corresponding networks where each incoming job is assigned randomly to a queue. Part of this work generalizes results in Foss and Chernova [12], which applied fluid limits to study networks with the FIFO discipline. Here, we apply an appropriate Lyapunov function.
Markov Skeleton Processes and Applications to Queueing Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhen-ting Hou
2002-01-01
In this paper, we apply the backward equations of Markov skeleton processes to queueing systems.The transient distribution of the waiting time of a GI/G/1 queueing system, the transient distribution of the length of a GI/G/N queueing system and the transient distribution of the length of queueing networks are obtained.
ANALYSIS OF MULTI-SERVER SINGLE QUEUE
2011-01-01
Queuing properties such as expected total service time and its variance and some performance measures like the expected number of phases in the system, expected number of phases in the queue, expected number of customers in the queue, expected waiting time in the queue and in the system as well as the number of customers in the system have been derived for an M/Ek/s: ( /FCFS) queuing model with k identified stages in series, each with average service time of . Also, numerical illustrati...
ANALYSIS OF MULTI-SERVER SINGLE QUEUE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emmanuel John Ekpenyong
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Queuing properties such as expected total service time and its variance and some performance measures like the expected number of phases in the system, expected number of phases in the queue, expected number of customers in the queue, expected waiting time in the queue and in the system as well as the number of customers in the system have been derived for an M/Ek/s: ( /FCFS queuing model with k identified stages in series, each with average service time of . Also, numerical illustrations have also been used to illustrate the results.
2013-01-01
The main contribution of this paper is to prove the subexponential tail equivalence of the stationary queue length distributions in the BMAP/GI/1 queues with and without retrials. We first present a stochastic-decomposition-like result of the stationary queue length in the BMAP/GI/1 retrial queue, which is an extension of the stochastic decomposition of the stationary queue length in the M${}^X$/GI/1 retrial queue. The stochastic-decomposition-like result shows that the stationary queue lengt...
The theory of networks of single server queues and the tandem queue model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pierre Le Gall
1997-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the stochastic behavior of networks of single server queues when successive service times of a given customer are highly correlated. The study is conducted in two particular cases: 1 networks in heavy traffic, and 2 networks in which all successive service times have the same value (for a given customer, in order to avoid the possibility of breaking up the busy periods. We then show how the local queueing delay (for an arbitrary customer can be derived through an equivalent tandem queue on the condition that one other local queueing delay is added: the jitter delay due to the independence of partial traffic streams.
Queues and Lévy fluctuation theory
Dębicki, Krzysztof
2015-01-01
The book provides an extensive introduction to queueing models driven by Lévy-processes as well as a systematic account of the literature on Lévy-driven queues. The objective is to make the reader familiar with the wide set of probabilistic techniques that have been developed over the past decades, including transform-based techniques, martingales, rate-conservation arguments, change-of-measure, importance sampling, and large deviations. On the application side, it demonstrates how Lévy traffic models arise when modelling current queueing-type systems (as communication networks) and includes applications to finance. Queues and Lévy Fluctuation Theory will appeal to graduate/postgraduate students and researchers in mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Basic prerequisites are probability theory and stochastic processes.
Discrete time queues with phase dependent arrivals
Daigle, J. N.; Lee, Y.; Magalhaes, M. N.
1994-02-01
The queueing behavior of many communication systems is well modeled by a queueing system in which time is slotted, and the number of entities that arrive during a slot is dependent upon the state of a discrete time, discrete state Markov chain. Techniques for analyzing such systems have appeared in the literature from time to time, but distributions have been presented in only rare instances. In this paper, we present the probability generating function (PGF) for joint and marginal buffer occupancy distributions of statistical time division multiplexing systems in this class. We discuss inversion of the PGF using discrete Fourier transforms, and also discuss a simple technique for obtaining moments of the queue length distribution. Numerical results, including queue length distributions for some special cases, are presented.
Investigating Dependences in Packet-queues
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cao Weihua(曹卫华); Girigi Deogratias; Wu Min
2004-01-01
Many packet communication networks carry several classes of traffic,each with its own service characteristics. The packet arrival processes from each source are also often bursty (highly variable),which can contribute to long packet delay. Ssociated dependence among successive service times and between service times and inter arrival times also can be for packet queues involving variable packet lengths. These dependence effects are demonstrated analytically by considering a multi class single server queue with batch Poisson arrival process.
Preventing messaging queue deadlocks in a DMA environment
Blocksome, Michael A; Chen, Dong; Gooding, Thomas; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeff
2014-01-14
Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate and interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.
The WorkQueue project - a task queue for the CMS workload management system
Ryu, S.; Wakefield, S.
2012-12-01
We present the development and first experience of a new component (termed WorkQueue) in the CMS workload management system. This component provides a link between a global request system (Request Manager) and agents (WMAgents) which process requests at compute and storage resources (known as sites). These requests typically consist of creation or processing of a data sample (possibly terabytes in size). Unlike the standard concept of a task queue, the WorkQueue does not contain fully resolved work units (known typically as jobs in HEP). This would require the WorkQueue to run computationally heavy algorithms that are better suited to run in the WMAgents. Instead the request specifies an algorithm that the WorkQueue uses to split the request into reasonable size chunks (known as elements). An advantage of performing lazy evaluation of an element is that expanding datasets can be accommodated by having job details resolved as late as possible. The WorkQueue architecture consists of a global WorkQueue which obtains requests from the request system, expands them and forms an element ordering based on the request priority. Each WMAgent contains a local WorkQueue which buffers work close to the agent, this overcomes temporary unavailability of the global WorkQueue and reduces latency for an agent to begin processing. Elements are pulled from the global WorkQueue to the local WorkQueue and into the WMAgent based on the estimate of the amount of work within the element and the resources available to the agent. WorkQueue is based on CouchDB, a document oriented NoSQL database. The WorkQueue uses the features of CouchDB (map/reduce views and bi-directional replication between distributed instances) to provide a scalable distributed system for managing large queues of work. The project described here represents an improvement over the old approach to workload management in CMS which involved individual operators feeding requests into agents. This new approach allows for a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khong Yeen Lai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Waiting in line is a common experience in daily life, whether for a table at a popular restaurant or for the service at a bank. This experience is not always pleasant for most of people because they always have to wait for a long time to be serviced. The ability to interact with waiting customers is highly desirable because it allows businesses the opportunity to optimize their existing services and offer new services to waiting customers. However, interacting with individuals waiting in a queue has been inefficient and costly because employees must either talk with each waiting customer on an ongoing basis or the business must provide high tech devices that interact with each waiting customer. Agile methodology which will be used to develop this application, it incorporates the SDLC phases starting from the Planning phase up to the Maintenance phase. End of the research, we found that majority of respondents are prefer to use the proposed system compared with current method.
Comparison of load-based and queue-based active queue management algorithms
Kwon, Minseok; Fahmy, Sonia
2002-07-01
A number of active queue management algorithms have been studied since Random Early Detection (RED) was first introduced in 1993. While analytical and experimental studies have debated whether dropping/marking should be based on average or instantaneous queue length or, alternatively, based on input and output rates (or queue length slope), the merits and drawbacks of the proposed algorithms, and the effect of load-based versus queue-based control have not been adequately examined. In particular, only RED has been tested in realistic configurations and in terms of user metrics, such as response times and average delays. In this paper, we examine active queue management (AQM) that uses both load and queuing delay to determine its packet drop/mark probabilities. This class of algorithms, which we call load/delay controllers (LDC), has the advantage of controlling the queuing delay as well as accurately anticipating incipient congestion. We compare LDC to a number of well-known active queue management algorithms including RED, BLUE, FRED, SRED, and REM in configurations with multiple bottlenecks, round trip times and bursty Web traffic. We evaluate each algorithm in terms of Web response time, delay, packet loss, and throughput, in addition to examining algorithm complexity and ease of configuration. Our results demonstrate that load information, along with queue length, can aid in making more accurate packet drop/mark decisions that reduce the Web response time.
Performance Comparison of Active Queue Management Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. B. Reddy
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Congestion is an important issue which researchers focus on in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP network environment. To keep the stability of the whole network, congestion control algorithms have been extensively studied. Queue management method employed by the routers is one of the important issues in the congestion control study. Active Queue Management (AQM has been proposed as a router-based mechanism for early detection of congestion inside the network. In this study, we are comparing AQM two popular queue management methods, Random Early Detection (RED and droptail, in different aspects, such as throughput and fairness Index. The comparison results indicate RED performed slightly better with higher throughput and higher fairness Index than droptail. Simulation is done by using Network Simulator (NS2 and the graphs are drawn using X- graph.
Difference and differential equations with applications in queueing theory
Haghighi, Aliakbar Montazer
2013-01-01
A Useful Guide to the Interrelated Areas of Differential Equations, Difference Equations, and Queueing Models Difference and Differential Equations with Applications in Queueing Theory presents the unique connections between the methods and applications of differential equations, difference equations, and Markovian queues. Featuring a comprehensive collection of
Near-optimal switching strategies for a tandem queue
Leeuwen, D. van; Núñez Queija, R.; Boucherie, R.J.; van Dijk, N.M.
2015-01-01
Motivated by various applications in logistics, road traffic and production management, we investigate two versions of a tandem queueing model in which the service rate of the first queue can be controlled. The objective is to keep the mean number of jobs in the second queue as low as possible, with
The power-series algorithm for Markovian queueing networks
van den Hout, W.B.; Blanc, J.P.C.
1994-01-01
A newversion of the Power-Series Algorithm is developed to compute the steady-state distribution of a rich class of Markovian queueing networks. The arrival process is a Multi-queue Markovian Arrival Process, which is a multi-queue generalization of the BMAP. It includes Poisson, fork and round-robi
A Robust Algorithm in Active Queue Management
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
A variable structure based control scheme was proposed for Active Queue Management (AQM) by using sliding model algorithm and reach law method. This approach aims toaddress the tradeoff between good performance and robustness with respect to the uncertainties of the round-trip time and the number of active connections. Ns simulations results show that the proposed design significantly outperforms the peer AQM schemes in terms of fluctuation in the queue length, packet throughput, and loss ratio. The conclusion is that proposed scheme is in favor of the achievement to AQM objectives due to its good transient and steady performance.
Fluid queues driven by an M / M / 1 / N queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lenin R. B.
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider fluid queue models with infinite buffer capacity which receives and releases fluid at variable rates in such a way that the net input rate of fluid into the buffer (which is negative when fluid is flowing out of the buffer is uniquely determined by the number of customers in an M / M / 1 / N queue model (that is, the fluid queue is driven by this Markovian queue with constant arrival and service rates. We use some interesting identities of tridiagonal determinants to find analytically the eigenvalues of the underlying tridiagonal matrix and hence the distribution function of the buffer occupancy. For specific cases, we verify the results available in the literature.
Fluid queues driven by an M/M/1/N queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. B. Lenin
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider fluid queue models with infinite buffer capacity which receives and releases fluid at variable rates in such a way that the net input rate of fluid into the buffer (which is negative when fluid is flowing out of the buffer is uniquely determined by the number of customers in an M/M/1/N queue model (that is, the fluid queue is driven by this Markovian queue with constant arrival and service rates. We use some interesting identities of tridiagonal determinants to find analytically the eigenvalues of the underlying tridiagonal matrix and hence the distribution function of the buffer occupancy. For specific cases, we verify the results available in the literature.
TRANSIENT SOLUTION FOR QUEUE-LENGTH DISTRIBUTION OF Geometry/G/1 QUEUEING MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Luo Chuanyi; Tang Yinghui; Liu Renbin
2007-01-01
In this paper, the Geometry/G/1 queueing model with inter-arrival times generated by a geometric(parameter p) distribution according to a late arrival system with delayed access and service times independently distributed with distribution {gj}, j ≥ 1 is studied. By a simple method (techniques of probability decomposition, renewal process theory) that is different from the techniques used by Hunter(1983), the transient property of the queue with initial state i(i ≥ 0) is discussed. The recursion expression for u -transform of transient queue-length distribution at any time point n+ is obtained, and the recursion expression of the limiting queue length distribution is also obtained.
Worst-case efficient priority queues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodal, G.S. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)
1996-12-31
An implementation of priority queues is presented that supports the operations MAKEQUEUE, FINDMIN, INSERT, MELD and DECREASEKEY in worst case time O(1) and DFLETEMIN and DELETE in worst case time O(log n). The space requirement is linear. The data structure presented is the first achieving this worst case performance.
Queueing networks : Rare events and fast simulations
Miretskiy, D.I.
2009-01-01
This monograph focuses on rare events. Even though they are extremely unlikely, they can still occur and then could have significant consequences. We mainly consider rare events in queueing networks. More precisely, we are interested in the probability of collecting some large number of jobs in the
Funnel Heap - A Cache Oblivious Priority Queue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf
2002-01-01
model. Arge et al. recently presented the first optimal cache oblivious priority queue, and demonstrated the importance of this result by providing the first cache oblivious algorithms for graph problems. Their structure uses cache oblivious sorting and selection as subroutines. In this paper, we devise...
Open problems in Gaussian fluid queueing theory
Dȩbicki, K.; Mandjes, M.
2011-01-01
We present three challenging open problems that originate from the analysis of the asymptotic behavior of Gaussian fluid queueing models. In particular, we address the problem of characterizing the correlation structure of the stationary buffer content process, the speed of convergence to
Adaptive Filtering Queueing for Improving Fairness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jui-Pin Yang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a scalable and efficient Active Queue Management (AQM scheme to provide fair bandwidth sharing when traffic is congested dubbed Adaptive Filtering Queueing (AFQ. First, AFQ identifies the filtering level of an arriving packet by comparing it with a flow label selected at random from the first level to an estimated level in the filtering level table. Based on the accepted traffic estimation and the previous fair filtering level, AFQ updates the fair filtering level. Next, AFQ uses a simple packet-dropping algorithm to determine whether arriving packets are accepted or discarded. To enhance AFQ’s feasibility in high-speed networks, we propose a two-layer mapping mechanism to effectively simplify the packet comparison operations. Simulation results demonstrate that AFQ achieves optimal fairness when compared with Rotating Preference Queues (RPQ, Core-Stateless Fair Queueing (CSFQ, CHOose and Keep for responsive flows, CHOose and Kill for unresponsive flows (CHOKe and First-In First-Out (FIFO schemes under a variety of traffic conditions.
Mathematical Analysis of Queue with Phase Service: An Overview
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richa Sharma
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss various aspects of phase service queueing models. A large number of models have been developed in the area of queueing theory incorporating the concept of phase service. These phase service queueing models have been investigated for resolving the congestion problems of many day-to-day as well as industrial scenarios. In this survey paper, an attempt has been made to review the work done by the prominent researchers on the phase service queues and their applications in several realistic queueing situations. The methodology used by several researchers for solving various phase service queueing models has also been described. We have classified the related literature based on modeling and methodological concepts. The main objective of present paper is to provide relevant information to the system analysts, managers, and industry people who are interested in using queueing theory to model congestion problems wherein the phase type services are prevalent.
Designing of vague logic based multilevel feedback queue scheduler
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supriya Raheja
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Multilevel feedback queue scheduler suffers from major issues of scheduling such as starvation for long tasks, fixed number of queues, and static length of time quantum in each queue. These factors directly affect the performance of the scheduler. At many times impreciseness exists in attributes of tasks which make the performance even worse. In this paper, our intent is to improve the performance by providing a solution to these issues. We design a multilevel feedback queue scheduler using a vague set which we call as VMLFQ scheduler. VMLFQ scheduler intelligently handles the impreciseness and defines the optimum number of queues as well as the optimal size of time quantum for each queue. It also resolves the problem of starvation. This paper simulates and analyzes the performance of VMLFQ scheduler with the other multilevel feedback queue techniques using MatLab.
An Effective Queue Management Scheme for Data Communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheela Thavasi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth in the needs of Internet applications that transmit massive amount of data has led to the emergence of Effective Queue Management. Approach: Queues were used to smooth spikes in incoming packet rates and to allow the router sufficient time for packet processing. When the waiting time is less a better queue management is ensured thereby resulting in increased flow in the queue. When the incoming packet rate was higher than the router's outgoing packet rate, the queue size was increased, eventually exceeding the available buffer space. With respect to TCPs RED queue management, the problem was that the buffer size was reduced to half and the packets were dropped abruptly. The congestion was detected early and the packets were dropped. The merit may be that congestion was detected early but the adverse effect was loss of packets. Results: The sender had to retransmit causing delay onto the network. This caused adverse effects on the network performance. In proposed system queue was extended whenever the number of packets present in the queue exceeds queue threshold. Packet drops were insignificantly even during network congestion. When the queue was continuously extended and if there was steady inflow of high volume of data, packet drop ratio was insignificant. Conclusions: Thus by the adoption of the proposed work, network throughput rose considerably thereby enabling effective data transfer. So it exhibits high bandwidth utilization, good throughput and processing time.
Packet Queueing Delay in Resilient Packet Ring Network Nodes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
史国炜; 方红波; 曲建岭; 曾烈光
2004-01-01
The packet queueing delay is one of the most important performance measures of a data network and is also a significant factor to be considered in the scheduling buffer design for a network node.This paper presents a traffic queueing model for resilient packet ring (RPR) networks and a method for quantitatively analyzing queueing delays in RPR nodes.The method was used to calculate the average queueing delays of different priority traffic for different transit queue modes.The simulations show that,in the transmit direction,lower priority traffic is delayed more than higher priority traffic,and that Class-A traffic is delayed more in a single-queue ring than in a dual-queue ring.In the transit direction,the secondary transit buffer in the dual-queue ring contributes more to the traffic delay than the primary transit buffer in the single-queue ring,which in turn causes more delay than the primary transit buffer in the dual-queue ring.
Priority Queue Based on Multilevel Prefix Tree
Planeta, David S
2007-01-01
Tree structures are very often used data structures. Among ordered types of trees there are many variants whose basic operations such as insert, delete, search, delete-min are characterized by logarithmic time complexity. In the article I am going to present the structure whose time complexity for each of the above operations is $O(\\frac{M}{K} + K)$, where M is the size of data type and K is constant properly matching the size of data type. Properly matched K will make the structure function as a very effective Priority Queue. The structure size linearly depends on the number and size of elements. PTrie is a clever combination of the idea of prefix tree -- Trie, structure of logarithmic time complexity for insert and remove operations, doubly linked list and queues.
Theoretical description of metabolism using queueing theory.
Evstigneev, Vladyslav P; Holyavka, Marina G; Khrapatiy, Sergii V; Evstigneev, Maxim P
2014-09-01
A theoretical description of the process of metabolism has been developed on the basis of the Pachinko model (see Nicholson and Wilson in Nat Rev Drug Discov 2:668-676, 2003) and the queueing theory. The suggested approach relies on the probabilistic nature of the metabolic events and the Poisson distribution of the incoming flow of substrate molecules. The main focus of the work is an output flow of metabolites or the effectiveness of metabolism process. Two simplest models have been analyzed: short- and long-living complexes of the source molecules with a metabolizing point (Hole) without queuing. It has been concluded that the approach based on queueing theory enables a very broad range of metabolic events to be described theoretically from a single probabilistic point of view.
Large deviations for tandem queueing systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roland L. Dobrushin
1994-01-01
Full Text Available The crude asymptotics of the large delay probability in a tandem queueing system is considered. The main result states that one of the two channels in the tandem system defines the crude asymptotics. The constant that determines the crude asymptotics is given. The results obtained are based on the large deviation principle for random processes with independent increments on an infinite interval recently established by the authors.
Schedulers with load-store queue awareness
Chen, Tong; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Jacob, Arpith C.; Sura, Zehra N.
2017-01-24
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes tracking a size of a load-store queue (LSQ) during compile time of a program. The size of the LSQ is time-varying and indicates how many memory access instructions of the program are on the LSQ. The method further includes scheduling, by a computer processor, a plurality of memory access instructions of the program based on the size of the LSQ.
Schedulers with load-store queue awareness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Tong; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Jacob, Arpith C.; Sura, Zehra N.
2017-01-24
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes tracking a size of a load-store queue (LSQ) during compile time of a program. The size of the LSQ is time-varying and indicates how many memory access instructions of the program are on the LSQ. The method further includes scheduling, by a computer processor, a plurality of memory access instructions of the program based on the size of the LSQ.
Schedulers with load-store queue awareness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Tong; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Jacob, Arpith C.; Sura, Zehra N.
2017-02-07
In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes tracking a size of a load-store queue (LSQ) during compile time of a program. The size of the LSQ is time-varying and indicates how many memory access instructions of the program are on the LSQ. The method further includes scheduling, by a computer processor, a plurality of memory access instructions of the program based on the size of the LSQ.
Control of Entry to a Queueing System
1979-11-01
University of New Mexico . Zacks, S. and Yadin, M. (1970). Analytic characterization of the optimal control of a queueing system. J. Appl. Prob. 7, pp. 617...WILL. BE RH OF SYST!!¶. 29q VI~iSIO!I &A (2501)) , BE (101 ,TDOLD 50) c DIMEISION 0’P AA XW 3 5B vT FS !XNC~rtY IT MY Nf AND N ?OR VINO c TIRESE AP
Cost performance satellite design using queueing theory
Hein, G. F.
1975-01-01
The Poisson arrival model was used to determine the effects of limiting the number of channels for a disaster warning satellite. State probabilities and delay probabilities were estimated for several values of the number of channels (C) for arrival and service rates obtained from disaster warnings issued by the National Weather Service. The results predicted by the queueing model were compared with the results of a digital computer simulation.
Influence of queue propagation and dissipation on route travel times
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raovic, Nevena
The representation of queue spillbacks in a congested network plays an important role in transportation network analysis. Dynamic network loading (DNL) models that are able to represent queue spillbacks suggest two approaches to represent traffic flow propagation. One is based on the kinemtic wave...... into account (Bliemer, 2008). Yperman (2007) indicates that there is a significant difference in queue-propagation and queue-dissipation between the LTM and DQM. This results in different route travel times, and can further affect route choice. In this paper, different approaches to represent queue propagation...... and dissipation through the CTM, LTM and DQM are studied. A simple network allows to show how these approaches influence route travel time. Furthermore, the possibility of changing the existing DQM is considered in order to more realistically represent queue propagation and dissipation, which would lead to more...
Control of a heterogeneous two-server exponential queueing system
Larsen, R. L.; Agrawala, A. K.
1983-01-01
A dynamic control policy known as 'threshold queueing' is defined for scheduling customers from a Poisson source on a set of two exponential servers with dissimilar service rates. The slower server is invoked in response to instantaneous system loading as measured by the length of the queue of waiting customers. In a threshold queueing policy, a specific queue length is identified as a 'threshold,' beyond which the slower server is invoked. The slower server remains busy until it completes service on a customer and the queue length is less than its invocation threshold. Markov chain analysis is employed to analyze the performance of the threshold queueing policy and to develop optimality criteria. It is shown that probabilistic control is suboptimal to minimize the mean number of customers in the system. An approximation to the optimum policy is analyzed which is computationally simple and suffices for most operational applications.
The ×-BMAP/G/1 Queueing Model: Queue Contents and Delay Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bart Steyaert
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a single-server discrete-time queueing system with N sources, where each source is modelled as a correlated Markovian customer arrival process, and the customer service times are generally distributed. We focus on the analysis of the number of customers in the queue, the amount of work in the queue, and the customer delay. For each of these quantities, we will derive an expression for their steady-state probability generating function, and from these results, we derive closed-form expressions for key performance measures such as their mean value, variance, and tail distribution. A lot of emphasis is put on finding closed-form expressions for these quantities that reduce all numerical calculations to an absolute minimum.
New Approach to Measuring Traffic Queue at Intersections
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SONG Lei; SHI Zhong-ke
2008-01-01
To measure the length of traffic queue, a vehicle motion model at intersections was built, and based on it the effective traffic queue was defined. Color images segmentation and frame differencing technique were used to detect the foreground and the moving vehicles by detecting regions of the images, and then measure the length of effective traffic queue. By processing the image sequence acquired at certain intersection, the results prove that it is able to work out the traffic queue effectively by using the two techniques.
TRANSIENT QUEUE SIZE DISTRIBUTION SOLUTION OF GEOM/G/1 QUEUE WITH FEEDBACK-A RECURSIVE METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chuanyi LUO; Yinghui TANG; Cailiang LI
2009-01-01
This paper considers the Geom/G/1 queueing model with feedback according to a late arrival system with delayed access (LASDA). Using recursive method, this paper studies the transient property of the queue size from the initial state N(0+) = I. Some new results about the recursive expression of the transient queue size distribution at any epoch n+ and the recursive formulae of the equilibrium distribution are obtained, Furthermore, the recursive formulae of the equilibrium queue size distribution at epoch n-, and n are obtained, too. The important relations between stationary queue size distributions at different epochs are discovered (being different from the relations given in M/G/1 queueing system). The model discussed in this paper can be widely applied in all kinds of communications and computer network.
Helmi Manggala Putri, Arum; Subekti, Retno; Binatari, Nikenasih
2017-06-01
Dr Yap Eye Hospital Yogyakarta is one of the most popular reference eye hospitals in Yogyakarta. There are so many patients coming from other cities and many of them are BPJS (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial, Social Security Administrative Bodies) patients. Therefore, it causes numerous BPJS patients were in long queue at counter C of the registration section so that it needs to be analysed using queue system. Queue system analysis aims to give queue model overview and determine its effectiveness measure. The data collecting technique used in this research are by interview and observation. After getting the arrival data and the service data of BPJS patients per 5 minutes, the next steps are investigating steady-state condition, examining the Poisson distribution, determining queue models, and counting the effectiveness measure. Based on the result of data observation on Tuesday, February 16th, 2016, it shows that the queue system at counter C has (M/M/1):(GD/∞/∞) queue model. The analysis result in counter C shows that the queue system is a non-steady-state condition. Three ways to cope a non-steady-state problem on queue system are proposed in this research such as bounding the capacity of queue system, adding the servers, and doing Monte Carlo simulation. The queue system in counter C will reach steady-state if the capacity of patients is not more than 52 BPJS patients or adding one more server. By using Monte Carlo simulation, it shows that the effectiveness measure of the average waiting time for BPJS patients in counter C is 36 minutes 65 seconds. In addition, the average queue length of BPJS patients is 11 patients.
FastQueue:A High Performance Disk Queue Storage Management Mechanism%FastQueue:一种高性能的磁盘队列存储管理机制
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏青松; 卢显良; 周旭
2003-01-01
High reliability is the primary requirement for messaging system. Messaging system always utilizes disk queue to temporarily store message to be delivered. Experiments show that Disk queue I/O is the primary performance bottleneck in the messaging system. In this paper we present a high performance disk queue storage management mechanism-FastQueue. The FastQueue utilizes a large file to serve as disk queue to reduce file manage overhead, in which adjacent messages are stored in adjacent disk block. Several messages are written to disk queue in a one large write by Lazy Gathering Write. Several adjacent messages are read into buffer in a one read by Sequential Grouping Prcfetch. The Lazy Gathering Write and Sequential Grouping Prefetch policies take full advantage of the disk bandwidth. Experiment shows that performance of the FastQueue is more than an order of magnitude higher than that of traditional disk queue.
Optimal Multi-Server Allocation to Parallel Queues With Independent Random Queue-Server Connectivity
Al-Zubaidy, Hussein; Viniotis, Yannis
2011-01-01
We investigate an optimal scheduling problem in a discrete-time system of L parallel queues that are served by K identical, randomly connected servers. Each queue may be connected to a subset of the K servers during any given time slot. This model has been widely used in studies of emerging 3G/4G wireless systems. We introduce the class of Most Balancing (MB) policies and provide their mathematical characterization. We prove that MB policies are optimal; we de?ne optimality as minimization, in stochastic ordering sense, of a range of cost functions of the queue lengths, including the process of total number of packets in the system. We use stochastic coupling arguments for our proof. We introduce the Least Connected Server First/Longest Connected Queue (LCSF/LCQ) policy as an easy-to-implement approximation of MB policies. We conduct a simulation study to compare the performance of several policies. The simulation results show that: (a) in all cases, LCSF/LCQ approximations to the MB policies outperform the o...
Optimal queue-size scaling in switched networks
Shah, D.; Walton, N.S.; Zhong, Y.J.
2014-01-01
We consider a switched (queuing) network in which there are constraints on which queues may be served simultaneously; such networks have been used to effectively model input-queued switches and wireless networks. The scheduling policy for such a network specifies which queues to serve at any point i
On Markovian multi-class, multi-server queueing
Harten, van A.; Sleptchenko, A.
2003-01-01
Multi-class multi-server queueing problems are a generalisation of the well-known M/M/k queue to arrival processes with clients of N types that require exponentially distributed service with different average service times. In this paper, we give a procedure to construct exact solutions of the stati
A fixed-size batch service queue with vacations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ho Woo Lee
1996-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with batch service queues with vacations in which customers arrive according to a Poisson process. Decomposition method is used to derive the queue length distributions both for single and multiple vacation cases. The authors look at other decomposition techniques and discuss some related open problems.
Monotonicity properties for multi-class queueing systems
Verloop, I.M. (Maaike); Ayesta, U.; Borst, S.C.
2008-01-01
We study multi-dimensional stochastic processes that arise in queueing models used in the performance evaluation of wired and wireless networks. The evolution of the stochastic process is determined by the scheduling policy used in the associated queueing network. For general arrival and service pro
2-Layered Architecture of Vague Logic Based Multilevel Queue Scheduler
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supriya Raheja
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In operating system the decisions which CPU scheduler makes regarding the sequence and length of time the task may run are not easy ones, as the scheduler has only a limited amount of information about the tasks. A good scheduler should be fair, maximizes throughput, and minimizes response time of system. A scheduler with multilevel queue scheduling partitions the ready queue into multiple queues. While assigning priorities, higher level queues always get more priorities over lower level queues. Unfortunately, sometimes lower priority tasks get starved, as the scheduler assures that the lower priority tasks may be scheduled only after the higher priority tasks. While making decisions scheduler is concerned only with one factor, that is, priority, but ignores other factors which may affect the performance of the system. With this concern, we propose a 2-layered architecture of multilevel queue scheduler based on vague set theory (VMLQ. The VMLQ scheduler handles the impreciseness of data as well as improving the starvation problem of lower priority tasks. This work also optimizes the performance metrics and improves the response time of system. The performance is evaluated through simulation using MatLab. Simulation results prove that the VMLQ scheduler performs better than the classical multilevel queue scheduler and fuzzy based multilevel queue scheduler.
Queueing analysis of a shared voice-data link
Friedman, D. U.
1981-11-01
We consider a link shared by some number of off-hook phone callers and a data queue. The allocation of capacity to voice and data depends on the level of speaker activity (number of talkspurt). A Markov chain model is adopted for this activity, and the resulting data queue performance is analyzed.
Closed Queueing Networks Under Congestion: Nonbottleneck Independence and Bottleneck Convergence
Anselmi, J.; D'Auria, B.; Walton, N.
2013-01-01
We analyze the behavior of closed multiclass product-form queueing networks when the number of customers grows to infinity and remains proportionate on each route (or class). First, we focus on the stationary behavior and prove the conjecture that the stationary distribution at nonbottleneck queues
Queues with waiting time dependent service
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bekker, R.; Koole, G. M.; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2011-01-01
Motivated by service levels in terms of the waiting-time distribution seen, for instance, in call centers, we consider two models for systems with a service discipline that depends on the waiting time. The first model deals with a single server that continuously adapts its service rate based...... on the waiting time of the first customer in line. In the second model, one queue is served by a primary server which is supplemented by a secondary server when the waiting of the first customer in line exceeds a threshold. Using level crossings for the waiting-time process of the first customer in line, we...
Decomposability queueing and computer system applications
Courtois, P J
1977-01-01
Decomposability: Queueing and Computer System Applications presents a set of powerful methods for systems analysis. This 10-chapter text covers the theory of nearly completely decomposable systems upon which specific analytic methods are based.The first chapters deal with some of the basic elements of a theory of nearly completely decomposable stochastic matrices, including the Simon-Ando theorems and the perturbation theory. The succeeding chapters are devoted to the analysis of stochastic queuing networks that appear as a type of key model. These chapters also discuss congestion problems in
Queueing phase transition: theory of translation.
Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Stansfield, Ian; Grebogi, Celso
2009-05-15
We study the current of particles on a lattice, where to each site a different hopping probability has been associated and the particles can move only in one direction. We show that the queueing of the particles behind a slow site can lead to a first-order phase transition, and derive analytical expressions for the configuration of slow sites for this to happen. We apply this stochastic model to describe the translation of mRNAs. We show that the first-order phase transition, uncovered in this work, is the process responsible for the classification of the proteins having different biological functions.
An Active Queue Management Algorithm: CRED
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Shi-ning; SUN En-chang; QIN Zheng
2006-01-01
By applying the method of average and variance, a new queue management algorithm named the Classified-Random Early Detection (CRED) algorithm is presented which can identify the media streaming, TCP traffic and other UDP traffic at the edge routers. The algorithm discriminates the slow start and the congestion control phase of the TCP traffic and combines the TCP congestion control with the IP congestion control to alleviate the congestion effectively. Simulation shows that CRED can not only make the media streaming obtain the resources needed but also protect the TCP traffic transmitted effectively and reliably.
Queues with Dropping Functions and General Arrival Processes.
Chydzinski, Andrzej; Mrozowski, Pawel
2016-01-01
In a queueing system with the dropping function the arriving customer can be denied service (dropped) with the probability that is a function of the queue length at the time of arrival of this customer. The potential applicability of such mechanism is very wide due to the fact that by choosing the shape of this function one can easily manipulate several performance characteristics of the queueing system. In this paper we carry out analysis of the queueing system with the dropping function and a very general model of arrival process--the model which includes batch arrivals and the interarrival time autocorrelation, and allows for fitting the actual shape of the interarrival time distribution and its moments. For such a system we obtain formulas for the distribution of the queue length and the overall customer loss ratio. The analytical results are accompanied with numerical examples computed for several dropping functions.
Performance optimization of queueing systems with perturbation realization
Xia, Li
2012-04-01
After the intensive studies of queueing theory in the past decades, many excellent results in performance analysis have been obtained, and successful examples abound. However, exploring special features of queueing systems directly in performance optimization still seems to be a territory not very well cultivated. Recent progresses of perturbation analysis (PA) and sensitivity-based optimization provide a new perspective of performance optimization of queueing systems. PA utilizes the structural information of queueing systems to efficiently extract the performance sensitivity information from a sample path of system. This paper gives a brief review of PA and performance optimization of queueing systems, focusing on a fundamental concept called perturbation realization factors, which captures the special dynamic feature of a queueing system. With the perturbation realization factors as building blocks, the performance derivative formula and performance difference formula can be obtained. With performance derivatives, gradient-based optimization can be derived, while with performance difference, policy iteration and optimality equations can be derived. These two fundamental formulas provide a foundation for performance optimization of queueing systems from a sensitivity-based point of view. We hope this survey may provide some inspirations on this promising research topic. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Probability, statistics and queueing theory, with computer science applications
Allen, Arnold O
1978-01-01
Probability, Statistics, and Queueing Theory: With Computer Science Applications focuses on the use of statistics and queueing theory for the design and analysis of data communication systems, emphasizing how the theorems and theory can be used to solve practical computer science problems. This book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses the basic concept of probability, probability distributions commonly used in applied probability, and important concept of a stochastic process. Part II covers the discipline of queueing theory, while Part III deals with statistical inference. T
A unifying property for distribution-sensitive priority queues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Farzan, Arash; Iacono, John
2011-01-01
, before) the last access of x and are still in the priority queue at the time when the corresponding operation is performed. Our priority queue then has both the working-set and the queueish properties; and, more strongly, it satisfies these properties in the worst-case sense. We also argue...... that these bounds are the best possible with respect to the considered measures. Moreover, we modify our priority queue to satisfy a new unifying property - the time-finger property - which encapsulates both the working-set and the queueish properties. In addition, we prove that the working-set bound...
Updatable Queue Protocol Based On TCP For Virtual Reality Environment
Al-Howaide, Ala'a Z; Salhieh, Ayad M
2011-01-01
The variance in number and types of tasks required to be implemented within Distributed Virtual Environments (DVE) highlights the needs for communication protocols can achieve consistency. In addition, these applications have to handle an increasing number of participants and deal with the difficult problem of scalability. Moreover, the real-time requirements of these applications make the scalability problem more difficult to solve. In this paper, we have implemented Updatable Queue Abstraction protocol (UQA) on TCP (TCP-UQA) and compared it with original TCP, UDP, and Updatable Queue Abstraction based on UDP (UDP-UQA) protocols. Results showed that TCP-UQA was the best in queue management.
Transient analysis of a queue with queue-length dependent MAP and its application to SS7 network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bong Dae Choi
1999-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze the transient behavior of a Markovian arrival queue with congestion control based on a double of thresholds, where the arrival process is a queue-length dependent Markovian arrival process. We consider Markov chain embedded at arrival epochs and derive the one-step transition probabilities. From these results, we obtain the mean delay and the loss probability of the nth arrival packet. Before we study this complex model, first we give a transient analysis of an MAP/M/1 queueing system without congestion control at arrival epochs. We apply our result to a signaling system No. 7 network with a congestion control based on thresholds.
A single-server queue with random accumulation level
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jewgeni H. Dshalalow
1991-01-01
The author establishes an ergodicity criterion for both the queueing process with continuous time parameter and the imbedded process. Under this criterion, the author obtains explicit formulas for the stationary distributions of both processes by using semi-regenerative techniques.
Opportunistic Channel Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks with Queue Stability
Dong, Lei; Wang, Yongchao
2015-03-01
In this paper, a distributed opportunistic channel access strategy in ad hoc network is proposed. We consider the multiple sources contend for the transmission opportunity, the winner source decides to transmit or restart contention based on the current channel condition. Owing to real data assumption at all links, the decision still needs to consider the stability of the queues. We formulate the channel opportunistic scheduling as a constrained optimization problem which maximizes the system average throughput with the constraints that the queues of all links are stable. The proposed optimization model is solved by Lyapunov stability in queueing theory. The successive channel access problem is decoupled into single optimal stopping problem at every frame and solved with Lyapunov algorithm. The threshold for every frame is different, and it is derived based on the instantaneous queue information. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed strategy.
Waiting for coronary angiography: is there a clinically ordered queue?
Hemingway, H; Crook, A M; Feder, G; Dawson, J R; Timmis, A
2000-03-18
Among over 3000 patients undergoing coronary angiography in the absence of a formal queue-management system, we found that a-priori urgency scores were strongly associated with waiting times, prevalence of coronary-artery disease, rate of revascularisation, and mortality. These data challenge the widely held assumption that such waiting lists are not clinically ordered; however, the wide variation in waiting times within urgency categories suggests the need for further improvements in clinical queueing.
Stack- and Queue-like Dynamics in Recurrent Neural Networks
Grüning, A
2006-01-01
What dynamics do simple recurrent networks (SRNs) develop to represent stack-like and queue-like memories? SRNs have been widely used as models in cognitive science. However, they are interesting in their own right as non-symbolic computing devices from the viewpoints of analogue computing and dynamical systems theory. In this paper, SRNs are trained oil two prototypical formal languages with recursive structures that need stack-like or queue-like memories for processing, respectively. The ev...
THE M/M/c QUEUE WITH PH SYNCHRONOUS VACATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
In this paper, we give a detailed analysis of the M/M/c queue with Phase Type synchronous vacations. Two models are considered. Firstly, the vacation strategy is a multiple synchronous vacation. Secondly, only a single vacation is taken each time. For model 1, we give the distributions of the stable queue length and the waiting time. Finally,it is shown that model 2 may be analyzed similarly to model 1.
The SM/M/N queueing system with broadcasting service
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moon Ho Lee
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a multiserver queueing model with the semi-Markovian arrival process and exponential service time distribution. Novel customers admission discipline is under study. The customer, which sees several free servers upon arrival, is served simultaneously by all these servers. Such situation occurs, for example, in modeling wireless communication network with broadcasting. Systems with infinite buffer and with losses are investigated. Stationary distributions of a queue, waiting and sojourn times, and the main performance measures are calculated.
MRED： A New Adaptive Active Queue Management Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANGMing; WUChunming; ZHUMiaoliang
2004-01-01
To address the problems of TCP (Transport control protocol) end-to-end congestion control mechanism, the IETF (Internet engineering task force) advocates deploying active queue management mechanisms in the network. RED is a popular AQM algorithm. It uses average queue size to detect the incipient network congestion. RED can effectively resolve the problems of traditional Drop-Tail. However, there are still some problems with RED. RED is too sensitive to its parameters and the changes of the number of active TCP connections. On the other hand, the congestion notification sending rate of RED algorithm is determined by maxp and the value of maxp is fixed. As a result, these will lead to queue size oscillation which causes queuing delay and jitter. This paper proposes a new adaptive AQM algorithm named “MRED”(Modified RED). Our goal is to stabilized the queue size in a wide variety of traffic scenarios. MRED can adjust the value of maxp to the changes of the traffic load so that the congestion notification can be sent to sufficient TCP sources to mitigate the congestion level. Simulation results indicate that MRED can effectively avoid the queue overfiow and stabilize the queue occupation independent of the number of active TCP connections thus resulting in a more predictable packet delay in the network.
AQM Algorithm with Adaptive Reference Queue Threshold for Communication Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liming Chen
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, congestion in communication networks has been more intractable than ever before due to the explosive growth of network scale and multimedia traffic. Active queue management (AQM algorithms had been proposed to alleviate congestion to improve quality of service (QoS, but existing algorithms often suffer from some flaws in one aspect or another. In this paper, a novel AQM algorithm with adaptive reference queue threshold (ARTAQM is proposed of which the main innovative contributions are recounted as follows. First, traffic is predicted to calculate the packet loss ratio (PLR and the traffic rate based on traffic prediction algorithm. Second, by means of periodical measurements, a weighted PLR is obtained to dynamically adjust packet dropping probability in ARTAQM algorithm. Third, ARTAQM algorithm runs in both coarse and fine granularities. In coarse granularity, the mismatch of the predicted traffic rate and link capacity can adjusts the reference queue length in every period, while in fine granularity, reference queue remains fixed and the instantaneous queue is adjusted packet by packet in one period. Simulation results indicate that ARTAQM algorithm not only maintains stable queue and fast response speed, but has lower PLR and higher link utilization as well.
Increasing available FIFO space to prevent messaging queue deadlocks in a DMA environment
Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Gooding, Thomas [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Parker, Jeff [Rochester, MN
2012-02-07
Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate an interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.
Ethics in radiology: wait lists queue jumping.
Cunningham, Natalie; Reid, Lynette; MacSwain, Sarah; Clarke, James R
2013-08-01
Education in ethics is a requirement for all Royal College residency training programs as laid out in the General Standards of Accreditation for residency programs in Canada. The ethical challenges that face radiologists in clinical practice are often different from those that face other physicians, because the nature of the physician-patient interaction is unlike that of many other specialties. Ethics education for radiologists and radiology residents will benefit from the development of teaching materials and resources that focus on the issues that are specific to the specialty. This article is intended to serve as an educational resource for radiology training programs to facilitate teaching ethics to residents and also as a continuing medical education resource for practicing radiologists. In an environment of limited health care resources, radiologists are frequently asked to expedite imaging studies for patients and, in some respects, act as gatekeepers for specialty care. The issues of wait lists, queue jumping, and balancing the needs of individuals and society are explored from the perspective of a radiologist.
Two Coupled Queues with Vastly Different Arrival Rates: Critical Loading Case
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Knessl
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We consider two coupled queues with a generalized processor sharing service discipline. The second queue has a much smaller Poisson arrival rate than the first queue, while the customer service times are of comparable magnitude. The processor sharing server devotes most of its resources to the first queue, except when it is empty. The fraction of resources devoted to the second queue is small, of the same order as the ratio of the arrival rates. We assume that the primary queue is heavily loaded and that the secondary queue is critically loaded. If we let the small arrival rate to the secondary queue be O(ε, where 0≤ε≪1, then in this asymptotic limit the number of customers in the first queue will be large, of order O(ε-1, while that in the second queue will be somewhat smaller, of order O(ε-1/2. We obtain a two-dimensional diffusion approximation for this model and explicitly solve for the joint steady state probability distribution of the numbers of customers in the two queues. This work complements that in (Morrison, 2010, which the second queue was assumed to be heavily or lightly loaded, leading to mean queue lengths that were O(ε-1 or O(1, respectively.
Upper Bounds on Performance Measures of Heterogeneous // Queues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. S. Q. Alves
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In many real-life queueing systems, the servers are often heterogeneous, namely they work at different rates. This paper provides a simple method to compute tight upper bounds on two important performance measures of single-class heterogeneous multi-server Markovian queueing systems, namely the average number in queue and the average waiting time in queue. This method is based on an expansion of the state space that is followed by an approximate reduction of the state space, only considering the most probable states. In most cases tested, we were able to approximate the actual behavior of the system with smaller errors than those obtained from traditional homogeneous multiserver Markovian queues, as shown by GPSS simulations. In addition, we have correlated the quality of the approximation with the degree of heterogeneity of the system, which was evaluated using its Gini index. Finally, we have shown that the bounds are robust and still useful, even considering quite different allocation strategies. A large number of simulation results show the accuracy of the proposed method that is better than that of classical homogeneous multiserver Markovian formulae in many situations.
Simple queueing model applied to the city of Portland
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simon, P.M.; Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)
1998-07-31
The authors present a simple traffic micro-simulation model that models the effects of capacity cut-off, i.e. the effect of queue built-up when demand is exceeding capacity, and queue spillback, i.e. the effect that queues can spill back across intersections when a congested link is filled up. They derive the model`s fundamental diagrams and explain it. The simulation is used to simulate traffic on the emme/2 network of the Portland (Oregon) metropolitan region (20,000 links). Demand is generated by a simplified home-to-work assignment which generates about half a million trips for the AM peak. Route assignment is done by iterative feedback between micro-simulation and router. Relaxation of the route assignment for the above problem can be achieved within about half a day of computing time on a desktop workstation.
An introduction to queueing theory modeling and analysis in applications
Bhat, U Narayan
2015-01-01
This introductory textbook is designed for a one-semester course on queueing theory that does not require a course on stochastic processes as a prerequisite. By integrating the necessary background on stochastic processes with the analysis of models, the work provides a sound foundational introduction to the modeling and analysis of queueing systems for a wide interdisciplinary audience of students in mathematics, statistics, and applied disciplines such as computer science, operations research, and engineering. This edition includes additional topics in methodology and applications. Key features: • An introductory chapter including a historical account of the growth of queueing theory in more than 100 years. • A modeling-based approach with emphasis on identification of models. • Rigorous treatment of the foundations of basic models commonly used in applications with appropriate references for advanced topics. • Applications in manufacturing and, computer and communication systems. • A chapter on ...
Queues, Stacks, and Transcendentality at the Transition to Chaos
Moore, Cristopher; Moore, Cristopher; Lakdawala, Porus
1998-01-01
We examine the one-humped map at the period-doubling transition to chaos, and ask whether its long-term memory is stack-like (last-in, first-out) or queue-like (first-in, first-out). We show that it can be recognized by a real-time automaton with one queue, or two stacks, and give several new grammatical characterizations of it. We argue that its memory has a queue-like character, since a single stack does not suffice. We also show that its dynamical zeta function, generating function and growth function are transcendental. The same results hold for any period-multiplying cascade. We suggest that transcendentality might be a sign of dynamical phase transitions in other systems as well.
Bulk input queues with quorum and multiple vacations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jewgeni H. Dshalalow
1996-01-01
Full Text Available The authors study a single-server queueing system with bulk arrivals and batch service in accordance to the general quorum discipline: a batch taken for service is not less than r and not greater than R(≥r. The server takes vacations each time the queue level falls below r(≥1 in accordance with the multiple vacation discipline. The input to the system is assumed to be a compound Poisson process. The analysis of the system is based on the theory of first excess processes developed by the first author. A preliminary analysis of such processes enabled the authors to obtain all major characteristics for the queueing process in an analytically tractable form. Some examples and applications are given.
Bulk input queues with quorum and multiple vacations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dshalalow Jewgeni H.
1996-01-01
Full Text Available The authors study a single-server queueing system with bulk arrivals and batch service in accordance to the general quorum discipline: a batch taken for service is not less than r and not greater than R ( ≥ r . The server takes vacations each time the queue level falls below r ( ≥ 1 in accordance with the multiple vacation discipline. The input to the system is assumed to be a compound Poisson process. The analysis of the system is based on the theory of first excess processes developed by the first author. A preliminary analysis of such processes enabled the authors to obtain all major characteristics for the queueing process in an analytically tractable form. Some examples and applications are given.
Algorithm for queueing networks with multi-rate traffic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iversen, Villy Bæk; Ko, King-Tim
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a new algorithm for evaluating queueing networks with multi-rate traffic. The detailed state space of a node is evaluated by explicit formulæ. We consider reversible nodes with multi-rate traffic and find the state probabilities by taking advantage of local balance. Theory...... of queueing networks in general, presumes that we have product form between the nodes. Otherwise, we have the state space explosion. Even so, the detailed state space of each node may become very large because there is no product form between chains inside a node. A prerequisite for product form...... the nodes behave as independent nodes. For closed queueing networks with multiple servers in every node and multi-rate services we may apply multidimensional convolution algorithm to aggregate the nodes so that we end up with two nodes, the aggregated node and a single node, for which we can calculate...
MRIO： A New Active Queue Management Algorithm for Differentiated Services
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WUChunming; JIANGMing; ZHUMiaoliang
2005-01-01
The DiffServ (Differentiate service) architecture has recently become the preferred service model for addressing QoS (Quality of service) issues in IP networks due to its simplicity and scalability. In DiffServ domain, the core routers use RIO (Red with in and out) algorithm, which performs different packets dropping schemes when congestion occurs. But RIO algorithm cannot stabilize the queue size and therefore, leads to unpredictable queuing delay and jitter. Furthermore, RIO has the “bandwidth skew” problem. The object of MRIO (MRED with in and out) algorithm is to stabilize the queue size and mitigate the ""bandwidth skew"" problem. MRIO is based on RED (Random early detection) for IN packets and MRED (Modified RED) algorithm for OUT packets. The simulation results indicate that compared with RIO, MRIO performs better in stabilizing queue size and mitigating “bandwidth skew” problem.
THE M/M/c QUEUE WITH (e,d) SETUP TIME
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiuli XU; Naishuo TIAN
2008-01-01
The authors present a new queueing model with (e, d) setup time. Using the quasi-birth-and-death process and matrix-geometric method, the authors obtain the stationary distribution of queue length and the LST of waiting time of a customer in the system. Furthermore, the conditional stochastic decomposition results of queue length and waiting time are given.
A Parallel Priority Queue with Constant Time Operations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Träff, Jesper Larsson; Zaroliagis, Christos D.
1998-01-01
We present a parallel priority queue that supports the following operations in constant time:parallel insertionof a sequence of elements ordered according to key,parallel decrease keyfor a sequence of elements ordered according to key,deletion of the minimum key element, anddeletion of an arbitrary...... element. Our data structure is the first to support multi-insertion and multi-decrease key in constant time. The priority queue can be implemented on the EREW PRAM and can perform any sequence ofnoperations inO(n) time andO(mlogn) work,mbeing the total number of keyes inserted and/or updated. A main...
Extreme Values of Queues, Point Processes and Stochastic Networks.
2014-09-26
AD-A158 619 EXTREMIE YALUES OF QUEUES POINT PROCESSES AND STOCHASTIC i/i NETUORKS(U) GEORGIA INST OF TECH ATLANTA R F SERFOZO 25 JUN 85 SFOSR-TR-85...O If "Extreme Values of Queues, Point Processes VW- and Stochastic Networks" 1 Grant No. AFOSR 84-0367 by Professor Richard F. Serfozo Industrial and...Claaraicajton) Extreme Values of Oueues. Point Processes & Stochastic Networks_ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) R_ F_ Serfozo 13. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14
Strategic behavior and social outcomes in a bottleneck queue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breinbjerg, Jesper Breinbjerg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Østerdal, Lars Peter
2016-01-01
the first-in-first-out (FIFO), last-in-first-out (LIFO), and service-in-random-order (SIRO) queue disciplines and compare these predictions to outcomes from a laboratory experiment. In line with our theoretical predictions, we find that people arrive with greater dispersion when participating under the LIFO...... discipline, whereas they tend to arrive immediately under FIFO and SIRO. As a consequence, shorter waiting times are obtained under LIFO as compared to FIFO and SIRO. However, while our theoretical predictions admit higher welfare under LIFO, this is not recovered experimentally as the queue disciplines...
Study on the Queue-Length Distribution in Geo/G(MWV/1/N Queue with Working Vacations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuanyi Luo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes a finite buffer size discrete-time Geo/G/1/N queue with multiple working vacations and different input rate. Using supplementary variable technique and embedded Markov chain method, the queue-length distribution solution in the form of formula at arbitrary epoch is obtained. Some performance measures associated with operating cost are also discussed based on the obtained queue-length distribution. Then, several numerical experiments follow to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained formulae. Finally, a state-dependent operating cost function is constructed to model an express logistics service center. Regarding the service rate during working vacation as a control variable, the optimization analysis on the cost function is carried out by using parabolic method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doo Il Choi
1999-01-01
Full Text Available A queueing system (M/G1,G2/1/K is considered in which the service time of a customer entering service depends on whether the queue length, N(t, is above or below a threshold L. The arrival process is Poisson, and the general service times S1 and S2 depend on whether the queue length at the time service is initiated is
An asymptotic analysis of closed queueing networks with branching populations
Bayer, N.; Coffman, E.G.; Kogan, Y.A.
1995-01-01
Closed queueing networks have proven to be valuable tools for system performance analysis. In this paper, we broaden the applications of such networks by incorporating populations of {em branching customers: whenever a customer completes service at some node of the network, it is replaced by N>=0 cu
Queueing and Service Patterns in a University Teaching Hospital FO ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
acer
algorithms at a service points such as the ones obtainable in the ... determines the measure of performance of waiting lines such as ... the queue based on some order of priority. (Taha, 2007). ..... time get faster later in the day. The reason for.
Arrival first queueing networks with applications in kanban production systems
Boucherie, Richard J.; Chao, Xiuli; Miyazawa, Masakiyo
2003-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new class of queueing networks called arrival first networks. We characterise its transition rates and derive the relationship between arrival rules, linear partial balance equations, and product form stationary distributions. This model is motivated by production syste
Moving toward queue operations at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory
Edwards, Michelle L.; Summers, Doug; Astier, Joseph; Suarez Sola, Igor; Veillet, Christian; Power, Jennifer; Cardwell, Andrew; Walsh, Shane
2016-07-01
The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory (LBTO), a joint scientific venture between the Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft (LBTB), University of Arizona, Ohio State University (OSU), and the Research Corporation, is one of the newest additions to the world's collection of large optical/infrared ground-based telescopes. With its unique, twin 8.4m mirror design providing a 22.8 meter interferometric baseline and the collecting area of an 11.8m telescope, LBT has a window of opportunity to exploit its singular status as the "first" of the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). Prompted by urgency to maximize scientific output during this favorable interval, LBTO recently re-evaluated its operations model and developed a new strategy that augments classical observing with queue. Aided by trained observatory staff, queue mode will allow for flexible, multi-instrument observing responsive to site conditions. Our plan is to implement a staged rollout that will provide many of the benefits of queue observing sooner rather than later - with more bells and whistles coming in future stages. In this paper, we outline LBTO's new scientific model, focusing specifically on our "lean" resourcing and development, reuse and adaptation of existing software, challenges presented from our one-of-a-kind binocular operations, and lessons learned. We also outline further stages of development and our ultimate goals for queue.
Waiting time distribution in M/D/1 queueing systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iversen, Villy Bæk; Staalhagen, Lars
1999-01-01
The well-known formula for the waiting time distribution of M/D/1 queueing systems is numerically unsuitable when the load is close to 1.0 and/or the results for a large waiting time are required. An algorithm for any load and waiting time is presented, based on the state probabilities of M/D/1...
Python for Scientific Computing Education: Modeling of Queueing Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimiras Dolgopolovas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present the methodology for the introduction to scientific computing based on model-centered learning. We propose multiphase queueing systems as a basis for learning objects. We use Python and parallel programming for implementing the models and present the computer code and results of stochastic simulations.
Job Queues, Certification Status, and the Education Labor Market
Evans, Lorraine
2011-01-01
This research explores the interaction between training programs and certification status in one education labor market to examine the micro-level interactions that shape the recruitment process. Using job queue theory, it is found that the information available to novice teachers operates to stratify and shape their worksite choices in addition…
The Exactly Solvable Simplest Model for Queue Dynamics
Y. Sugiyama; Yamada, H.
1996-01-01
We present an exactly solvable model for queue dynamics. Our model is very simple but provides the essential property for such dynamics. As an example, the model has the traveling cluster solution as well as the homogeneous flow solution. The model is the limiting case of Optimal Velocity (OV) model, which is proposed for the car following model to induce traffic jam spontaneously.
The asymptotic variance of departures in critically loaded queues
A. Al Hanbali; M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); Y. Nazarathy (Yoni); W. Whitt
2010-01-01
htmlabstractWe consider the asymptotic variance of the departure counting process D(t) of the GI/G/1 queue; D(t) denotes the number of departures up to time t. We focus on the case that the system load rho equals 1, and prove that the asymptotic variance rate satisfies lim_t Var D(t)/t = lambda
Processor-sharing queues and resource sharing in wireless LANs
Cheung, Sing Kwong
2007-01-01
In the past few decades, the processor-sharing (PS) model has received considerable attention in the queueing theory community and in the field of performance evaluation of computer and communication systems. The scarce resource is simultaneously shared among all users in these systems. PS models ar
Arrival first queueing networks with applications in kanban production systems
Boucherie, R.J.; Chao, X.; Miyazawa, M.
2001-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new class of queueing networks called {\\it arrival first networks}. We characterise its transition rates and derive the relationship between arrival rules, linear partial balance equations, and product form stationary distributions. This model is motivated by production
Scheme for evaluating a local queue warning system.
Botma, H. & Oei, H.L.
1977-01-01
A method of evaluating an automatic queue warning system is outlined. The main object of the evaluation is to measure the effect of such a system on traffic behaviour and road safety, although the overall journey time is also examined. The chosen method of research entails before and after studies,
Integrated service resource reservation using queueing networks theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Iversen, Villy Bæk; Kardaras, Georgios
2014-01-01
This study analyses multi-server multi-service queueing networks with service protection. To guarantee each service a certain quality-of-service and at the same time ensure high utilisation of servers, a minimum capacity is reserved each service. In addition, all services share the remaining non...
Job Queues, Certification Status, and the Education Labor Market
Evans, Lorraine
2011-01-01
This research explores the interaction between training programs and certification status in one education labor market to examine the micro-level interactions that shape the recruitment process. Using job queue theory, it is found that the information available to novice teachers operates to stratify and shape their worksite choices in addition…
Sojourn time approximations in queueing networks with feedback
Gijsen, B.M.M.; Mei, R.D. van der; Engelberts, P.; Berg, J.L. van den; Wingerden, K.M.C. van
2006-01-01
This paper is motivated by the response-time analysis of distributed information systems, where transactions are handled by a sequence of front-end server and back-end server actions. We study sojourn times in an open queueing network with a single Processor Sharing (PS) node and an arbitrary number
Large Deviations without Principle: Join the Shortest Queue
Ridder, Ad; Shwartz, Adam
2004-01-01
We develop a methodology for studying "large deviations type" questions. Our approach does not require that the large deviations principle holds, and is thus applicable to a larg class of systems. We study a system of queues with exponential servers, which share an arrival stream. Arrivals are route
Stability analysis of interacting queues in the ALOHA system
Rao, Ramesh
The author considers the finite-user, infinite-buffer slotted ALOHA system and analytically extends the known bounds for its stability region. The technique used consists of expressing the stability region in terms of certain status probabilities and then solving for the status probabilities by using results from the analysis of dependent queues and that of Markov chains.
Arrival first queueing networks with applications in kanban production systems
Boucherie, Richardus J.; Chao, X.; Miyazawa, M.
2003-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new class of queueing networks called arrival first networks. We characterise its transition rates and derive the relationship between arrival rules, linear partial balance equations, and product form stationary distributions. This model is motivated by production
Arrival first queueing networks with applications in kanban production systems
Boucherie, Richardus J.; Chao, X.; Miyazawa, M.
2001-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new class of queueing networks called {\\it arrival first networks}. We characterise its transition rates and derive the relationship between arrival rules, linear partial balance equations, and product form stationary distributions. This model is motivated by production
Worst-case efficient external-memory priority queues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Katajainen, Jyrki
1998-01-01
. In this paper a priority-queue implementation is given which is efficient with respect to the number of block transfers or I/Os performed between the internal and external memories of a computer. Let B and M denote the respective capacity of a block and the internal memory measured in elements. The developed...
Multi-Resource Fair Queueing for Packet Processing
2012-06-19
Huawei , Intel, MarkLogic, Microsoft, NetApp, Oracle, Quanta, Splunk, VMware and by DARPA (contract #FA8650-11-C-7136). Multi-Resource Fair Queueing for...Google PhD Fellowship, gifts from Amazon Web Services, Google, SAP, Blue Goji, Cisco, Cloud- era, Ericsson, General Electric, Hewlett Packard, Huawei
Some Improvements on Active Queue Management Mechanism Based on Adaptive Fuzzy Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Kim Quoc
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Active queue management operates at network nodes to control the number of packets in the queue of nodes, by actively receiving packets when the queue is not full, removing packets when the queue is full or notifying bottlenecks even in the embryonic period of the bottlenecks due to to-be-full queue. In recent years, scientists have used fuzzy logic to improve queue management mechanisms. Overall, these improvements have used Mamdani fuzzy system with a fixed structure with triangular functions for input and output variables, so they do not adapt to the changing state of the network. We propose a adaptive fuzzy control (AFC model to improve the effectiveness of active queue management mechanisms.
Fuzzy-Based Dynamic Distributed Queue Scheduling for Packet Switched Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chollette C.Chude-Olisah; Uche A.K.Chude-Okonkwo; Kamalrulnizam A.Balar; Ghazali Sulong
2013-01-01
Addressing the problem of queue scheduling for the packet-switched system is a vital aspect of congestion control.In this paper,the fuzzy logic based decision method is adopted for queue scheduling in order to enforce some level of control for traffic of different quality of service requirements using predetermined values.The fuzzy scheduler proposed in this paper takes into account the dynamic nature of the Internet traffic with respect to its time-varying packet arrival process that affects the network states and performance.Three queues are defined,viz low,medium and high priority queues.The choice of prioritizing packets influences how queues are served.The fuzzy scheduler not only utilizes queue priority in the queue scheduling scheme,but also considers packet drop susceptibility and queue limit.Through simulation it is shown that the fuzzy scheduler is more appropriate for the dynamic nature of Internet traffic in a packet-switched system as compared with some existing queue scheduling methods.Results show that the scheduling strategy of the proposed fuzzy scheduler reduces packet drop,provides good link utilization and minimizes queue delay as compared with the priority queuing (PQ),first-in-first-out (FIFO),and weighted fair queuing (WFQ).
Two-Queue Polling Model with a Timer and a Randomly-Timed Gated Mechanism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jin Zhi
2009-01-01
In this paper, we consider two-queue polling model with a Timer and a RandomlyTimed Gated (RTG) mechanism. At queue Q1, we employ a Timer T(1): whenever the server polls queue Q1 and finds it empty, it activates a Timer. If a customer arrives before the Timer expires, a busy period starts in accordance with exhaustive service discipline. However, if the Timer is shorter than the interarrival time to queue Q1, the server does not wait any more and switches back to queue Q2. At queue Q2, we operate a RTG mechanism T(2), that is, whenever the server reenters queue Q2, an exponential time T(2) is activated. If the server empties the queue before T(2), it immediately leaves for queue Q1. Otherwise, the server completes all the work accumulated up to time T(2) and leaves. Under the assumption of Poisson arrivals, general service and switchover time distributions, we obtain probability generating function (PGF) of the queue lengths at polling instant and mean cycle length and Laplace Stieltjes transform (LST) of the workload.
Adaptive Queue Management with Restraint on Non-Responsive Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lan Li
2003-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive queue management scheme (adaptive RED to improve Random Early Detection (RED on restraining non-responsive flows. Due to a lack of flow control mechanism, non-responsive flows can starve responsive flows for buffer and bandwidth at the gateway. In order to solve the disproportionate resource problem, RED framework is modified in this way: on detecting when the non-responsive flows starve the queue, packet-drop intensity (Max_p in RED can be adaptively adjusted to curb non-responsive flows for resource fair-sharing, such as buffer and bandwidth fair-sharing. Based on detection of traffic behaviors, intentionally restraining nonresponsive flows is to increase the throughput and decrease the drop rate of responsive flows. Our experimental results based on adaptive RED shows that the enhancement of responsive traffic and the better sharing of buffer and bandwidth can be achieved under a variety of traffic scenarios.
Entrainment of a Synthetic Oscillator through Queueing Coupling
Hochendoner, Philip; Mather, William; Butzin, Nicholas; Ogle, Curtis
2014-03-01
Many biological systems naturally exhibit (often noisy) oscillatory patterns that are capable of being entrained by external stimuli, though the mechanism of entrainment is typically obscured by the complexity of native networks. A synthetic biology approach, where genetic programs are wired ``by hand,'' has proven useful in this regard. In the present study, we use a synthetic oscillator in Escherichia coli to demonstrate a novel and potentially widespread mechanism for biological entrainment: competition of proteins for degradation by common pathway, i.e. a entrainment by a bottleneck. To faithfully represent the discrete and stochastic nature of this bottleneck, we leverage results from a recent biological queueing theory, where in particular, the queueing theoretic concept of workload is discovered to simplify the analysis. NSF Award 1330180.
Queue-length Variations In A Two-Restaurant Problem
Chakrabarti, Anindya S
2008-01-01
This paper attempts to find out numerically the distribution of the queue-length ratio in the context of a model of preferential attachment. Here we consider two restaurants only and a large number of customers (agents) who come to these restaurants. Each day the same number of agents sequentially arrives and decides which restaurant to enter. If all the agents literally follow the crowd then there is no difference between this model and the famous `P\\'olya's Urn' model. But as agents alter their strategies different kind of dynamics of the model is seen. It is seen from numerical results that the existence of a distribution of the fixed points is quite robust and it is also seen that in some cases the variations in the ratio of the queue-lengths follow a power-law.
Transient Analysis of Hysteresis Queueing Model Using Matrix Geometric Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wajiha Shah
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Various analytical methods have been proposed for the transient analysis of a queueing system in the scalar domain. In this paper, a vector domain based transient analysis is proposed for the hysteresis queueing system with internal thresholds for the efficient and numerically stable analysis. In this system arrival rate of customer is controlled through the internal thresholds and the system is analyzed as a quasi-birth and death process through matrix geometric method with the combination of vector form Runge-Kutta numerical procedure which utilizes the special matrices. An arrival and service process of the system follows a Markovian distribution. We analyze the mean number of customers in the system when the system is in transient state against varying time for a Markovian distribution. The results show that the effect of oscillation/hysteresis depends on the difference between the two internal threshold values.
COOPERATIVE DYNAMICS OF LOYAL CUSTOMERS IN QUEUEING NETWORKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Olivier GALLAY; Max-Olivier HONGLER
2008-01-01
We consider queueing networks (QN's) with feedback loops roamed by "intelligent" agents, able to select their routing on the basis of their measured waiting times at the QN nodes. This is an idealized model to discuss the dynamics of customers who stay loyal to a service supplier, provided their service time remains below a critical threshold. For these QN's, we show that the traffic flows may exhibit collective patterns typically encountered in multi-agent systems. In simple network topologies, the emergent cooperative behaviors manifest themselves via stable macroscopic temporal oscillations, synchronization of the queue contents and stabilization by noise phenomena. For a wide range of control parameters, the underlying presence of the law of large numbers enables us to use deterministic evolution laws to analytically characterize the cooperative evolution of our multi-agent systems. In particular, we study the case where the servers are sporadically subject to failures altering their ordinary behavior.
Queueing analysis of some buffered random multiple access schemes
Sykas, E. D.; Karvelas, D. E.; Protonotarios, E. N.
1986-08-01
A queueing model appropriate for the analysis of multiple-access schemes with finite user buffer capacity is proposed. This model can be applied to several slotted random multiple-access schemes, such as the URN, ALOHA, random TDMA channels, etc. The examined system, in general, can be modeled as a multidimensional Markov chain. The enormous state space for its complete description makes numerical analysis intractable. Nevertheless, symmetry properties of the system can be exploited so that the state will be reduced. In particular, the queue length at one station and the number of busy stations are used to characterize the behavior of the system. In this way, a two-dimensional Markov chain can be constructed and an approximate solution is obtained which is in excellent agreement with simulation results.
Elements of queueing theory palm martingale calculus and stochastic recurrences
Baccelli, François
2003-01-01
The Palm theory and the Loynes theory of stationary systems are the two pillars of the modern approach to queuing. This book, presenting the mathematical foundations of the theory of stationary queuing systems, contains a thorough treatment of both of these. This approach helps to clarify the picture, in that it separates the task of obtaining the key system formulas from that of proving convergence to a stationary state and computing its law. The theory is constantly illustrated by classical results and models: Pollaczek-Khintchin and Tacacs formulas, Jackson and Gordon-Newell networks, multiserver queues, blocking queues, loss systems etc., but it also contains recent and significant examples, where the tools developed turn out to be indispensable. Several other mathematical tools which are useful within this approach are also presented, such as the martingale calculus for point processes, or stochastic ordering for stationary recurrences. This thoroughly revised second edition contains substantial addition...
Diagonal queue medical image steganography with Rabin cryptosystem.
Jain, Mamta; Lenka, Saroj Kumar
2016-03-01
The main purpose of this work is to provide a novel and efficient method to the image steganography area of research in the field of biomedical, so that the security can be given to the very precious and confidential sensitive data of the patient and at the same time with the implication of the highly reliable algorithms will explode the high security to the precious brain information from the intruders. The patient information such as patient medical records with personal identification information of patients can be stored in both storage and transmission. This paper describes a novel methodology for hiding medical records like HIV reports, baby girl fetus, and patient's identity information inside their Brain disease medical image files viz. scan image or MRI image using the notion of obscurity with respect to a diagonal queue least significant bit substitution. Data structure queue plays a dynamic role in resource sharing between multiple communication parties and when secret medical data are transferred asynchronously (secret medical data not necessarily received at the same rate they were sent). Rabin cryptosystem is used for secret medical data writing, since it is computationally secure against a chosen-plaintext attack and shows the difficulty of integer factoring. The outcome of the cryptosystem is organized in various blocks and equally distributed sub-blocks. In steganography process, various Brain disease cover images are organized into various blocks of diagonal queues. The secret cipher blocks and sub-blocks are assigned dynamically to selected diagonal queues for embedding. The receiver gets four values of medical data plaintext corresponding to one ciphertext, so only authorized receiver can identify the correct medical data. Performance analysis was conducted using MSE, PSNR, maximum embedding capacity as well as by histogram analysis between various Brain disease stego and cover images.
The queue as a social statement / Maria-Kristiina Soomre
Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-
2010-01-01
Tallinna Lauluväljakul veebruaris 2010 olnud töötute järjekorrast, kus 5000-st said alternatiivse töö reisisaatjatena 400. Keskerakonna kampaaniatest, mida võib vaadata sotsiaalse kunsti kontekstis. Sügisel 2010 Tallinna Kunstihoone juures korraldatud kunstiprojektist "Art Queue 100x100 EEK", millega sooviti tõmmata tähelepanu kunstiinstitutsioonile. Seoses kunstiga tekkinud järjekordadest, masside valmidusest kampaania korras rünnata kunsti
The asymptotic variance of departures in critically loaded queues
Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Nazarathy, Y.; Whitt, W.
2011-01-01
We consider the asymptotic variance of the departure counting process D(t) of the GI/G/1 queue; D(t) denotes the number of departures up to time t. We focus on the case where the system load ϱ equals 1, and prove that the asymptotic variance rate satisfies limt→∞varD(t) / t = λ(1 - 2 / π)(ca2 +
The queueing model for quantum key distribution network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wen Hao; Han Zheng-Fu; Guo Guang-Can; Hong Pei-Lin
2009-01-01
This paper develops a QKD (quantum key distribution)-based queueing model to investigate the data delay on QKD link and network, especially that based on trusted relays. It shows the mean packet delay performance of the QKD system. Furthermore, it proposes a key buffering policy which could effectively improve the delay performance in practice. The results will be helpful for quality of service in practical QKD systems.
The queue as a social statement / Maria-Kristiina Soomre
Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-
2010-01-01
Tallinna Lauluväljakul veebruaris 2010 olnud töötute järjekorrast, kus 5000-st said alternatiivse töö reisisaatjatena 400. Keskerakonna kampaaniatest, mida võib vaadata sotsiaalse kunsti kontekstis. Sügisel 2010 Tallinna Kunstihoone juures korraldatud kunstiprojektist "Art Queue 100x100 EEK", millega sooviti tõmmata tähelepanu kunstiinstitutsioonile. Seoses kunstiga tekkinud järjekordadest, masside valmidusest kampaania korras rünnata kunsti
Offset Optimization Based on Queue Length Constraint for Saturated Arterial Intersections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xianmin Song
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Offset optimization is of critical importance to the traffic control system, especially when spillovers appear. In order to avoid vehicle queue spillovers, an arterial offset optimization model was presented in saturated arterial intersections based on minimizing the queue length over the whole duration of the saturated traffic environment. The paper uses the shockwave theory to analyze the queue evolution process of the intersection approach under the saturated traffic environment. Then through establishing and analyzing a function relationship between offset and the maximum queue length per cycle, a mapping model of offset and maximum queue length was established in the saturated condition. The validity and sensitivity of this model were tested by the VISSIM simulation environment. Finally, results showed that when volumes ratios are 0.525–0.6, adjusting offset reasonably under the saturated condition could decrease the queue length and effectively improve the vehicle operating efficiency.
Decay of Tails at Equilibrium for FIFO Join the Shortest Queue Networks
Bramson, Maury; Prabhakar, Balaji
2011-01-01
In join the shortest queue networks, incoming jobs are assigned to the shortest queue from among a randomly chosen subset of D queues, in a system of N queues; after completion of service at its queue, a job leaves the network. We also assume that jobs arrive into the system according to a rate-\\alpha N Poisson process, \\alpha 1. We show under the above ansatz that, as N goes to infinity, the tail of the equilibrium queue size exhibits a wide range of behavior depending on the relationship between \\beta and D. In particular, if \\beta > D/(D-1), the tail is doubly exponential and, if \\beta < D/(D-1), the tail has a power law. When \\beta = D/(D-1), the tail is exponentially distributed.
Virtual queueing techniques for UBR+ service in ATM with fair access and minimum bandwidth guarantee
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siu, K.Y.; Wu, Y.; Ren, W.
1998-11-01
The ATM Forum is currently discussing the need for a new best-effort service called UBR+, which is an enhancement to the existing UBR service, to support data traffic. The objective of the UBR+ service is to provide each user with a minimum service rate guarantee and a fair access to any excess available bandwidth. In this paper, the authors present a new efficient scheme for supporting this service. The key advantage of the scheme is that it employs only FIFO queueing (instead of per-VC queueing) and admits simple implementation in ATM switches. The ideas involve a simple scheduling mechanism that is based on per-VC queueing and incorporate the virtual queueing technique that can efficiently emulate per-VC queueing on a shared FIFO queue. Simulation results are presented to show that the schemes can deliver almost ideal performance for supporting the new service requirements of UBR+.
Simulation of queue with cyclic service in signalized intersection system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Dermawan Mulyodiputro
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The simulation was implemented by modeling the queue with cyclic service in the signalized intersection system. The service policies used in this study were exhaustive and gated, the model was the M/M/1 queue, the arrival rate used was Poisson distribution and the services rate used was Exponential distribution. In the gated service policy, the server served only vehicles that came before the green signal appears at an intersection. Considered that there were 2 types of exhaustive policy in the signalized intersection system, namely normal exhaustive (vehicles only served during the green signal was still active, and exhaustive (there was the green signal duration addition at the intersection, when the green signal duration at an intersection finished. The results of this queueing simulation program were to obtain characteristics and performance of the system, i.e. average number of vehicles and waiting time of vehicles in the intersection and in the system, as well as system utilities. Then from these values, it would be known which of the cyclic service policies (normal exhaustive, exhaustive and gated was the most suitable when applied to a signalized intersection system
Design and Analysis of a Multiscale Active Queue Management Scheme
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qi-Jin Ji; Yong-Qiang Dong
2006-01-01
Since Internet is dominated by TCP-based applications, active queue management (AQM) is considered as an effective way for congestion control. However, most AQM schemes suffer obvious performance degradation with dynamic traffic. Extensive measurements found that Internet traffic is extremely bursty and possibly self-similar. We propose in this paper a new AQM scheme called multiscale controller (MSC) based on the understanding of traffic burstiness in multiple time scale. Different from most of other AQM schemes, MSC combines rate-based and queue-based control in two time scales. While the rate-based dropping on burst level (large time scales) determines the packet drop aggressiveness and is responsible for low and stable queuing delay, good robustness and responsiveness, the queue-based modulation of the packet drop probability on packet level (small time scales) will bring low loss and high throughput. Stability analysis is performed based on a fluid-flow model of the TCP/MSC congestion control system and simulation results show that MSC outperforms many of the current AQM schemes.
Queueing network model for obstetric patient flow in a hospital.
Takagi, Hideaki; Kanai, Yuta; Misue, Kazuo
2016-03-03
A queueing network is used to model the flow of patients in a hospital using the observed admission rate of patients and the histogram for the length of stay for patients in each ward. A complete log of orders for every movement of all patients from room to room covering two years was provided to us by the Medical Information Department of the University of Tsukuba Hospital in Japan. We focused on obstetric patients, who are generally hospitalized at random times throughout the year, and we analyzed the patient flow probabilistically. On admission, each obstetric patient is assigned to a bed in one of the two wards: one for normal delivery and the other for high-risk delivery. Then, the patient may be transferred between the two wards before discharge. We confirm Little's law of queueing theory for the patient flow in each ward. Next, we propose a new network model of M/G/ ∞ and M/M/ m queues to represent the flow of these patients, which is used to predict the probability distribution for the number of patients staying in each ward at the nightly census time. Although our model is a very rough and simplistic approximation of the real patient flow, the predicted probability distribution shows good agreement with the observed data. The proposed method can be used for capacity planning of hospital wards to predict future patient load in each ward.
Multilevel Queue-Based Scheduling for Heterogeneous Grid Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kumaresh.V.S
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Grid computing is the federation of pooling resources so as to solve large-scale problems. Scheduling is the main issue in grid computing and is the process of making scheduling decisions over multiple grid resources. In this paper, we propose a scheduling technique which classifies the subtasks based on the priority assigned by the user. This is mainly applicable in places where the high priority critical subtasks may need to be scheduled prior to other low priority subtasks. We thus segregate the subtasks into three queues based on their priority. Subtasks within each queue are reordered based on two new parameters, viz. complexity factor and realization factor, with computational complexity defined as the time of computation of a process. We evaluate the realization factor as the product of number of operations per cycle per processor and the speed of the processor. The subtasks are assigned high priority when both complexity factor and realization factor are high. Once the processes are classified into three queues we make use of a technique similar to round robin that reduces starvation of low and medium priority subtasks. The effectiveness of Starvation free (SF Scheduling algorithm is evaluated through simulation results.
A New Vector Markov Process for M／G／1 Queue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
严庆强; 史定华; 郭兴国
2005-01-01
In this paper, by considering the stochastic process of the busy period and the idle period, and introducing the unfinished work as a supplementary variable, a new vector Markov process was presented to study the M/G/1 queue again. Through establishing and solving the density evolution equations, the busy-period distribution, and the stationary distributionof waiting time and queue length were obtained. In addition, the stability condition of this queue system was given by means of an imbedded renewal process.
The priority queue as an example of hardware/software codesign
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høeg, Flemming; Mellergaard, Niels; Staunstrup, Jørgen
1994-01-01
The paper identifies a number of issues that are believed to be important for hardware/software codesign. The issues are illustrated by a small comprehensible example: a priority queue. Based on simulations of a real application, we suggest a combined hardware/software realization of the priority...... queue. A priority queue is a data structure with a simple interface which in many applications is a performance bottleneck...
On the Fluid Approximation for a Multiclass Queue under Non-Preemptive SBP Service Discipline
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong Jiang GUO
2012-01-01
A multi-class single server queue under non-preemptive static buffer priority (SBP) service discipline is considered in this paper.Using a bounding technique,we obtain the fluid approximation for the queue length and busy time processes.Furthermore,we prove that the convergence rate of the fluid approximation for the queue length and busy time processes is exponential for large N.Additionally,a sufficient condition for stability is obtained.
Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal
1999-01-01
We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative custom...
Flow-level convergence and insensitivity for multi-class queueing networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neil S. Walton
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a multi-class queueing network as a model of packet transfer in a communication network. We define a second stochastic model as a model of document transfer in a communication network where the documents transferred have a general distribution. We prove the weak convergence of the multi-class queueing process to the document transfer process. Our convergence result allows the comparison of general document size distributions, and consequently, we prove general insensitivity results for the limit queueing process. We discuss how this separation of time-scales method of proving insensitivity may be applied to other insensitive queueing systems.
Many-server queues with customer abandonment: Numerical analysis of their diffusion model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuangchi He
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We use a multidimensional diffusion process to approximate the dynamics of aqueue served by many parallel servers. Waiting customers in this queue may abandonthe system without service. To analyze the diffusion model, we develop a numericalalgorithm for computing its stationary distribution. A crucial part of the algorithm ischoosing an appropriate reference density. Using a conjecture on the tailbehavior of the limit queue length process, we propose a systematic approach toconstructing a reference density. With the proposed reference density, thealgorithm is shown to converge quickly in numerical experiments. Theseexperiments demonstrate that the diffusion model is a satisfactory approximation formany-server queues, sometimes for queues with as few as twenty servers.
Stability Analysis of GI/G/c/K Retrial Queue with Constant Retrial Rate
Avrachenkov, Konstantin
2010-01-01
We consider a GI/G/c/K-type retrial queueing system with constant retrial rate. The system consists of a primary queue and an orbit queue. The primary queue has $c$ identical servers and can accommodate the maximal number of $K$ jobs. If a newly arriving job finds the full primary queue, it joins the orbit. The original primary jobs arrive to the system according to a renewal process. The jobs have general i.i.d. service times. A job in front of the orbit queue retries to enter the primary queue after an exponentially distributed time independent of the orbit queue length. Telephone exchange systems, Medium Access Protocols and short TCP transfers are just some applications of the proposed queueing system. For this system we establish minimal sufficient stability conditions. Our model is very general. In addition, to the known particular cases (e.g., M/G/1/1 or M/M/c/c systems), the proposed model covers as particular cases the deterministic service model and the Erlang model with constant retrial rate. The l...
Ramp Metering by Limitation of Density and Queue Length
Kamel, Boumediene; Benasser, Amar; Jolly, Daniel
2009-03-01
As shown by many works and studies, the control of traffic flow remains the best and the efficient solution of the congestion problems. The ramp metering is a means to reduce congestion effects, it has shown his effectiveness to improve the flow and consequently to reduce the total time spent (TTS) by the vehicles in the network. In Kamel et al. [2008] the concept of flatness-based control was applied to regulate the flow at the mainline section of the road on the traffic flow model LWR. This work was preceded by Abouaïssa et al. [2006]. In this article we have proceeded the same way to set the flat output for a second order model METANET. Unfortunately we were unable to prove that the system is flat and therefore define density as flat output, but we manage to define the control laws in order to respect constraints on density and queue length at the on-ramp. The idea is to express the control variable (the outflow of the on-ramp) according to the output (density or queue length at the on-ramp), then inject it in the system. We use this control method in the ramp metering case. The first aim of the control is to keep the density in the segment where the on-ramp is connected below a density (called the target density YT) for which we have the lowest TTS, and the second aim is to keep the queue length at the on-ramp below a maximum value. In order to evaluate the controller's efficiency and applicability, a comparison is made with traditional ALINEA based controller. We illustrate this approach by comparing the cases 'no control' and 'ramp metering' for a simple network.
Approximations for the waiting time distribution in an M/G/c priority queue
Al Hanbali, A.M.; Alvarez, E.M.; Heijden, van der M.C.
2013-01-01
We investigate the use of priority mechanisms when assigning service engineers to customers as a tool for service differentiation. To this end, we analyze a non-preemptive M/G/c priority queue with various customer classes. For this queue, we present various accurate and fast methods to estimate the
Exponential and Strong Ergodicity for Markov Processes with an Application to Queues
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuanyuan LIU; Zhenting HOU
2008-01-01
For an ergodic continuous-time Markov process with a particular state in its space, the authors provide the necessary and sufficient conditions for exponential and strongerg odicity in terms of the moments of the first hitting time on the state. An application to the queue length process of M/G/1 queue with multiple vacations is given.
First in Line Waiting Times as a Tool for Analysing Queueing Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koole, G. M.; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielsen, Thomas Bang
2012-01-01
We introduce a new approach to modelling queueing systems where the priority or the routing of customers depends on the time the first customer has waited in the queue. This past waiting time of the first customer in line, WFIL, is used as the primary variable for our approach. A Markov chain is ...
The challenge of stabilizing control for queueing systems with unobservable server states
Nazarathy, Y.; Taimre, T.; Asanjarani, A.; Kuhn, J.; Patch, B.; Vuorinen, A.
2016-01-01
We address the problem of stabilizing control for complex queueing systems where servers follow unobservable Markovian environments. The controller needs to assign servers to queues without full information about the servers' states. A control challenge is to devise a policy that matches servers to
Approximate queueing models for capacitated multi-stage inventory systems under base-stock control
Avsar, Zeynep Müge; Zijm, Willem H.M.
2014-01-01
A queueing analysis is presented for base-stock controlled multi-stage production-inventory systems with capacity constraints. The exact queueing model is approximated by replacing some state-dependent conditional probabilities (that are used to express the transition rates) by constants. Two
Analysis of a single server queue interacting with a fluid reservoir
Adan, I.J.B.F.; van Doorn, Erik A.; Resing, J.A.C.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.
1998-01-01
We consider a single-server queueing system with Poisson arrivals in which the speed of the server depends on whether an associated fluid reservoir is empty or not. Conversely, the rate of change of the content of the reservoir is determined by the state of the queueing system, since the reservoir
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussein Abdel-jaber
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Congestion control is one of the hot research topics that helps maintain the performance of computer networks. This paper compares three Active Queue Management (AQM methods, namely, Adaptive Gentle Random Early Detection (Adaptive GRED, Random Early Dynamic Detection (REDD, and GRED Linear analytical model with respect to different performance measures. Adaptive GRED and REDD are implemented based on simulation, whereas GRED Linear is implemented as a discrete-time analytical model. Several performance measures are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the compared methods mainly mean queue length, throughput, average queueing delay, overflow packet loss probability, and packet dropping probability. The ultimate aim is to identify the method that offers the highest satisfactory performance in non-congestion or congestion scenarios. The first comparison results that are based on different packet arrival probability values show that GRED Linear provides better mean queue length; average queueing delay and packet overflow probability than Adaptive GRED and REDD methods in the presence of congestion. Further and using the same evaluation measures, Adaptive GRED offers a more satisfactory performance than REDD when heavy congestion is present. When the finite capacity of queue values varies the GRED Linear model provides the highest satisfactory performance with reference to mean queue length and average queueing delay and all the compared methods provide similar throughput performance. However, when the finite capacity value is large, the compared methods have similar results in regard to probabilities of both packet overflowing and packet dropping.
Rare-event simulation for tandem queues: A simple and efficient importance sampling scheme
Miretskiy, D.; Scheinhardt, W.; Mandjes, M.
2009-01-01
This paper focuses on estimating the rare event of overflow in the downstream queue of a tandem Jackson queue, relying on importance sampling. It is known that in this setting ‘traditional’ state-independent schemes perform poorly. More sophisticated state-dependent schemes yield asymptotic efficien
Rainfall time series synthesis from queue scheduling of rain event fractals over radio links
Alonge, Akintunde A.; Afullo, Thomas J.
2015-12-01
Rainfall attenuation over wireless networks stems from random fluctuations in the natural process of arriving rainfall rates over radio links. This arrival process results in discernible rainfall traffic pattern which manifests as naturally scheduled and queue-generated rain spikes. Hence, the phenomenon of rainfall process can be approached as a semi-Markovian queueing process, with event characteristics dependent on queue parameters. However, a constraint to this approach is the knowledge of the physical characteristics of queue-generated rain spikes. Therefore, this paper explores the probability theory and descriptive mathematics of rain spikes in rainfall processes. This investigation presents the synthesis of rainfall queue with rain spikes at subtropical and equatorial locations of Durban (29°52'S, 30°58'E) and Butare (2°36'S, 29°44'E), respectively. The resulting comparative analysis of rainfall distributions, using error analysis at both locations, reveals that queue-generated rainfall compares well with measured rainfall data set. This suggests that the time-varying process of rainfall, though stochastic, can be synthesized via queue scheduling with the application of relevant queue parameters at any location.
Correlations in Output and Overflow Traffic Processes in Simple Queues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Don McNickle
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We consider some simple Markov and Erlang queues with limited storage space. Although the departure processes from some such systems are known to be Poisson, they actually consist of the superposition of two complex correlated processes, the overflow process and the output process. We measure the cross-correlation between the counting processes for these two processes. It turns out that this can be positive, negative, or even zero (without implying independence. The models suggest some general principles on how big these correlations are, and when they are important. This may suggest when renewal or moment approximations to similar processes will be successful, and when they will not.
Stochastic network optimization with application to communication and queueing systems
Neely, Michael
2010-01-01
This text presents a modern theory of analysis, control, and optimization for dynamic networks. Mathematical techniques of Lyapunov drift and Lyapunov optimization are developed and shown to enable constrained optimization of time averages in general stochastic systems. The focus is on communication and queueing systems, including wireless networks with time-varying channels, mobility, and randomly arriving traffic. A simple drift-plus-penalty framework is used to optimize time averages such as throughput, throughput-utility, power, and distortion. Explicit performance-delay tradeoffs are prov
A note on bias optimality in controlled queueing systems
2000-01-01
The use of bias optimality to distinguish among gain optimal policies was recently studied by Haviv and Puterman [1] and extended in Lewis et al. [2]. In [1], upon arrival to an M/M/1 queue, customers offer the gatekeeper a reward R. If accepted, the gatekeeper immediately receives the reward, but is charged a holding cost, c(s), depending on the number of customers in the system. The gatekeeper, whose objective is to `maximize' rewards, must decide whether to admit the cust...
FIFO Queueing Policies for Packets with Heterogeneous Processing
Kogan, Kirill; Nikolenko, Sergey I; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Tugaryov, Denis
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of managing a bounded size First-In-First-Out (FIFO) queue buffer, where each incoming unit-sized packet requires several rounds of processing before it can be transmitted out. Our objective is to maximize the total number of successfully transmitted packets. We consider both push-out (when the policy is permitted to drop already admitted packets) and non-push-out cases. In particular, we provide analytical guarantees for the throughput performance of our algorithms. We further conduct a comprehensive simulation study which experimentally validates the predicted theoretical behaviour.
Algorithm for queueing networks with multi-rate traffic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iversen, Villy Bæk; Ko, King-Tim
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a new algorithm for evaluating queueing networks with multi-rate traffic. The detailed state space of a node is evaluated by explicit formulæ. We consider reversible nodes with multi-rate traffic and find the state probabilities by taking advantage of local balance. Theory...... is reversibility which implies that the arrival process and departure process are identical processes, for example state-dependent Poisson processes. This property is equivalent to reversibility. Due to product form, an open network with multi-rate traffic is easy to evaluate by convolution algorithms because...
The Robo-AO automated intelligent queue system
Riddle, Reed L.; Hogstrom, Kristina; Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.
2014-07-01
Robo-AO is the first automated laser adaptive optics instrument. In just its second year of scientific operations, it has completed the largest adaptive optics surveys to date, each comprising thousands of targets. Robo-AO uses a fully automated queue scheduling system that selects targets based on criteria entered on a per observing program or per target basis, and includes the ability to coordinate with US Strategic Command automatically to avoid lasing space assets. This enables Robo-AO to select among thousands of targets at a time, and achieve an average observation rate of approximately 20 targets per hour.
The Robo-AO automated intelligent queue system
Riddle, Reed L; Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M
2014-01-01
Robo-AO is the first automated laser adaptive optics instrument. In just its second year of scientific operations, it has completed the largest adaptive optics surveys to date, each comprising thousands of targets. Robo-AO uses a fully automated queue scheduling system that selects targets based on criteria entered on a per observing program or per target basis, and includes the ability to coordinate with US Strategic Command automatically to avoid lasing space assets. This enables Robo-AO to select among thousands of targets at a time, and achieve an average observation rate of approximately 20 targets per hour.
PRIORITIZED QUEUE WITH ROUND ROBIN SCHEDULER FOR BUFFERED CROSSBAR SWITCHES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Narayanan Prasanth
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Research in high speed switching systems is in greater demand as the internet traffic gets rapid increase. Designing an efficient scheduling algorithm with high throughput and low delay is an open challenge. Most of the algorithms achieve 100% throughput in uniform traffics but failed to attain the same performance under non-uniform traffics. Moreover these algorithms are also suffers from starvation leads to extended waiting time of VOQ. In this paper, Prioritized Queue with Round Robin Scheduler (PQRS is proposed for Buffered Crossbar Switches. We proved that our proposed scheduler can achieve 85% throughput under any non-uniform traffic without starvation.
Queueing interpretation of adaptive reconstructive multiparameter τ-opening filters
Chen, Yidong; Dougherty, Edward R.
1998-04-01
A multiparameter binary (tau) -opening is a union of parameterized openings in which parameters for each opening are individually defined and a structuring element can be parameterized relative to both size and shape. The reconstructive filter corresponding to an opening is defined by fully passing any grain not eliminated by the opening and deleting all other grains. Adaptive design results from treating the parameter vector of a reconstructive multiparameter (tau) -opening as the state space of a Markov chain. The present paper considers the relationship between Markovian queueing networks and adaptive multiparameter (tau) - openings for the signal-union-noise model.
Scheduling in Parallel Queues with Randomly Varying Connectivity and Switchover Delay
Celik, Guner D; Modiano, Eytan
2010-01-01
We consider a dynamic server control problem for two parallel queues with randomly varying connectivity and server switchover time between the queues. At each time slot the server decides either to stay with the current queue or switch to the other queue based on the current connectivity and the queue length information. The introduction of switchover time is a new modeling component of this problem, which makes the problem much more challenging. We develop a novel approach to characterize the stability region of the system by using state action frequencies, which are stationary solutions to a Markov Decision Process (MDP) formulation of the corresponding saturated system. We characterize the stability region explicitly in terms of the connectivity parameters and develop a frame-based dynamic control (FBDC) policy that is shown to be throughput-optimal. In fact, the FBDC policy provides a new framework for developing throughput-optimal network control policies using state action frequencies. Furthermore, we d...
Cycle-by-Cycle Queue Length Estimation for Signalized Intersections Using Multi-Source Data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhongyu Wang; Qing Cai; Bing Wu; Yinhai Wang; Linbo Li
2015-01-01
In order to estimate vehicular queue length at signalized intersections accurately and overcome the shortcomings and restrictions of existing studies especially those based on shockwave theory, a new methodology is presented for estimating vehicular queue length using data from both point detectors and probe vehicles. The methodology applies the shockwave theory to model queue evolution over time and space. Using probe vehicle locations and times as well as point detector measured traffic states, analytical formulations for calculating the maximum and minimum ( residual) queue length are developed. The proposed methodology is verified using ground truth data collected from numerical experiments conducted in Shanghai, China. It is found that the methodology has a mean absolute percentage error of 17�09%, which is reasonably effective in estimating the queue length at traffic signalized intersections. Limitations of the proposed models and algorithms are also discussed in the paper.
Ten Year Review of Queue Scheduling of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope
Shetrone, Matthew; Fowler, James R; Gaffney, Niall; Laws, Benjamin; Mader, Jeff; Mason, Cloud; Odewahn, Stephen; Roman, Brian; Rostopchin, Sergey; Schneider, Donald P; Umbarger, James; Westfall, Amy
2007-01-01
This paper presents a summary of the first 10 years of operating the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) in queue mode. The scheduling can be quite complex but has worked effectively for obtaining the most science possible with this uniquely designed telescope. The queue must handle dozens of separate scientific programs, the involvement of a number of institutions with individual Telescope Allocation Committees as well as engineering and instrument commissioning. We have continuously revised our queue operations as we have learned from experience. The flexibility of the queue and the simultaneous availability of three instruments, along with a staff trained for all aspects of telescope and instrumentation operation, have allowed optimum use to be made of variable weather conditions and have proven to be especially effective at accommodating targets of opportunity and engineering tasks. In this paper we review the methodology of the HET queue along with its strengths and weaknesses.
Mueen, Zeina; Ramli, Razamin; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura
2016-08-01
In this paper, we propose a procedure to find different performance measurements under crisp value terms for new single fuzzy queue FM/F(H1,H2)/1 with two classes, where arrival rate and service rates are all fuzzy numbers which are represented by triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. The basic idea is to obtain exact crisp values from the fuzzy value, which is more realistic in the practical queueing system. This is done by adopting left and right ranking method to remove the fuzziness before computing the performance measurements using conventional queueing theory. The main advantage of this approach is its simplicity in application, giving exact real data around fuzzy values. This approach can also be used in all types of queueing systems by taking two types of symmetrical linear membership functions. Numerical illustration is solved in this article to obtain two groups of crisp values in the queueing system under consideration.
The M/M/1 Queue with Controlled Multiple Working Vacations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hong-bo; FENG Ping-hua
2013-01-01
In this paper,we study an M/M/1 queue with multiple working vacations under following Bernoulli control policy:at the instants of the completion of a service in vacation,the server will interrupt the vacation and enter regular busy period with probabiiity1-p (if there are customers in the queue) or continue the vacation with probability p.For this model,we drive the analytic expression of the stationary queue length and demonstrate stochastic decomposition structures of the stationary queue length and waiting time,also we obtain the additional queue length and the additional delay of this model.The results we got agree with the corresponding results for working vacation model with or without vacation interruption if we set p =0 or p =1,respectively.
Transient Solution to an infinite Server Queue with Varying Arrival and Departure Rate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. El-Sherbiny
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: In many potential application of queueing theory, the transient solution of queueing system is important. Approach: This study presented the transient solution for infinite server queues with Poisson arrivals and exponential service times when the parameters of both distributions are allowed to vary with time. Based on generating functions technique which results in a simple differential equation. Using the properties of Bessel functions in the solution of this differential equation, the solution of an infinite server queues can be given in simple form. Results: The researcher obtained the transient solution an infinite server queues with Poisson arrivals and exponential service times when the parameters of both distributions are allowed to vary with time and prove that some past results are special case from his results. Conclusion: These results indicated that the probabilities can be extracted in a direct way.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amita CHOUDHARY
2011-01-01
Full Text Available While in multi-user environment, CPU has to manage lot of requests generated over the same time. Waiting queue of processes generates a problem of scheduling for processors. Designers and hardware architects have suggested system of multiprocessors to overcome the queue length. Lottery scheduling is one such method where processes in waiting queue are selected through a chance manner. This opens a way to use probability models to get estimates of system parameters. This paper is an application where the processing time of jobs in ready queue is predicted using the sampling method under the k-processors environment (k>1.The random selection of one process by each of k processors through without replacement method is a sample data set which helps in the prediction of possible ready queue processing time. Some theorems are established and proved to get desired results in terms of confidence intervals.
New Approach for Finding Basic Performance Measures of Single Server Queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siew Khew Koh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Consider the single server queue in which the system capacity is infinite and the customers are served on a first come, first served basis. Suppose the probability density function f(t and the cumulative distribution function F(t of the interarrival time are such that the rate f(t/1-F(t tends to a constant as t→∞, and the rate computed from the distribution of the service time tends to another constant. When the queue is in a stationary state, we derive a set of equations for the probabilities of the queue length and the states of the arrival and service processes. Solving the equations, we obtain approximate results for the stationary probabilities which can be used to obtain the stationary queue length distribution and waiting time distribution of a customer who arrives when the queue is in the stationary state.
Convolution Model of a Queueing System with the cFIFO Service Discipline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sławomir Hanczewski
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents an approximate convolution model of a multiservice queueing system with the continuous FIFO (cFIFO service discipline. The model makes it possible to service calls sequentially with variable bit rate, determined by unoccupied (free resources of the multiservice server. As compared to the FIFO discipline, the cFIFO queue utilizes the resources of a multiservice server more effectively. The assumption in the model is that the queueing system is offered a mixture of independent multiservice Bernoulli-Poisson-Pascal (BPP call streams. The article also discusses the results of modelling a number of queueing systems to which different, non-Poissonian, call streams are offered. To verify the accuracy of the model, the results of the analytical calculations are compared with the results of simulation experiments for a number of selected queueing systems. The study has confirmed the accuracy of all adopted theoretical assumptions for the proposed analytical model.
THE BULK INPUT M[X]/M/1 QUEUE WITH WORKING VACATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiuli XU; Mingxin LIU; Xiaohua ZHAO
2009-01-01
In this paper, we analyze a bulk input M[X]/M/1 queue with multiple working vacations. A quasi upper triangle transition probability matrix of two-dimensional Markov chain in this model is obtained, and with the matrix analysis method, highly complicated probability generating function(PGF) of the stationary queue length is firstly derived, from which we got the stochastic decomposition result for the stationary queue length which indicates the evident relationship with that of the classical M[X]/M/1 queue without vacation. It is important that we find the upper and the lower bounds of the stationary waiting time in the Laplace transform order using the properties of the conditional Erlang distribution. Furthermore, we gain the mean queue length and the upper and the lower bounds of the mean waiting time.
On queue-size scaling for input-queued switches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Devavrat Shah
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We study the optimal scaling of the expected total queue size in an n×n input-queued switch, as a function of the number of ports n and the load factor ρ, which has been conjectured to be Θ(n/(1−ρ (cf. [15]. In a recent work [16], the validity of this conjecture has been established for the regime where 1−ρ=O(1/n2. In this paper, we make further progress in the direction of this conjecture. We provide a new class of scheduling policies under which the expected total queue size scales as O(n1.5(1−ρ−1log(1/(1−ρ when 1−ρ=O(1/n. This is an improvement over the state of the art; for example, for ρ=1−1/n the best known bound was O(n3, while ours is O(n2.5logn.
Multiserver Queue with Guard Channel for Priority and Retrial Customers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuki Kajiwara
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers a retrial queueing model where a group of guard channels is reserved for priority and retrial customers. Priority and normal customers arrive at the system according to two distinct Poisson processes. Priority customers are accepted if there is an idle channel upon arrival while normal customers are accepted if and only if the number of idle channels is larger than the number of guard channels. Blocked customers (priority or normal join a virtual orbit and repeat their attempts in a later time. Customers from the orbit (retrial customers are accepted if there is an idle channel available upon arrival. We formulate the queueing system using a level dependent quasi-birth-and-death (QBD process. We obtain a Taylor series expansion for the nonzero elements of the rate matrices of the level dependent QBD process. Using the expansion results, we obtain an asymptotic upper bound for the joint stationary distribution of the number of busy channels and that of customers in the orbit. Furthermore, we develop an efficient numerical algorithm to calculate the joint stationary distribution.
Queueing-Based Synchronization and Entrainment for Synthetic Gene Oscillators
Mather, William; Butzin, Nicholas; Hochendoner, Philip; Ogle, Curtis
Synthetic gene oscillators have been a major focus of synthetic biology research since the beginning of the field 15 years ago. They have proven to be useful both for biotechnological applications as well as a testing ground to significantly develop our understanding of the design principles behind synthetic and native gene oscillators. In particular, the principles governing synchronization and entrainment of biological oscillators have been explored using a synthetic biology approach. Our work combines experimental and theoretical approaches to specifically investigate how a bottleneck for protein degradation, which is present in most if not all existing synthetic oscillators, can be leveraged to robustly synchronize and entrain biological oscillators. We use both the terminology and mathematical tools of queueing theory to intuitively explain the role of this bottleneck in both synchronization and entrainment, which extends prior work demonstrating the usefulness of queueing theory in synthetic and native gene circuits. We conclude with an investigation of how synchronization and entrainment may be sensitive to the presence of multiple proteolytic pathways in a cell that couple weakly through crosstalk. This work was supported by NSF Grant #1330180.
Scaling of avalanche queues in directed dissipative sandpiles
Tadic; Priezzhev
2000-09-01
Using numerical simulations and analytical methods we study a two-dimensional directed sandpile automaton with nonconservative random defects (concentration c) and varying driving rate r. The automaton is driven only at the top row and driving rate is measured by the number of added particles per time step of avalanche evolution. The probability distribution of duration of elementary avalanches at zero driving rate is exactly given by P1(t,c)=t(-3/2) exp[t ln(1-c)]. For driving rates in the interval 0 server queue in the queue theory. We study scaling properties of the busy period and dissipated energy of sequences of noninterrupted activity. In the limit c-->0 and varying linear system size Lqueues are characterized by a multifractal scaling and we determine the corresponding spectral functions. For L>1/c increasing the driving rate somewhat compensates for the energy losses at defects above the line r approximately sqrt[c]. The scaling exponents of the distributions in this region of phase diagram vary approximately linearly with the driving rate. Using properties of recurrent states and the probability theory we determine analytically the exact upper bound of the probability distribution of busy periods. In the case of conservative dynamics c=0 the probability of a continuous flow increases as F(infinity) approximately r(2) for small driving rates.
Upper Bound for Queue length in Regulated Burst Service Scheduling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmood Daneshvar Farzanegan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quality of Service (QoS provisioning is very important in next computer/communication networks because of increasing multimedia services. Hence, very investigations are performed in this area. Scheduling algorithms effect QoS provisioning. Lately, a scheduling algorithm called Regulated Burst Service Scheduling (RBSS suggested by author in [1] to provide a better service to bursty and delay sensitive services such as video. One of the most significant feature in RBSS is considering burstiness of arrival traffic in scheduling algorithm. In this paper, an upper bound of queue length or buffer size and service curve are calculated by Network Calculus analysis for RBSS. Because in RBSS queue length is a parameter that is considered in scheduling arbitrator, analysis results a differential inequality to obtain service curve. To simplify, arrival traffic is assumed to be linear that is defined in the paper clearly. This paper help to analysis delay in RBSS for different traffic with different specifications. Therefore, QoS provisioning will be evaluated.
Invasion percolation on a tree and queueing models.
Gabrielli, A; Caldarelli, G
2009-04-01
We study the properties of the Barabási model of queuing [A.-L. Barabási, Nature (London) 435, 207 (2005); J. G. Oliveira and A.-L. Barabási, Nature (London) 437, 1251 (2005)] in the hypothesis that the number of tasks grows with time steadily. Our analytical approach is based on two ingredients. First we map exactly this model into an invasion percolation dynamics on a Cayley tree. Second we use the theory of biased random walks. In this way we obtain the following results: the stationary-state dynamics is a sequence of causally and geometrically connected bursts of execution activities with scale-invariant size distribution. We recover the correct waiting-time distribution PW(tau) approximately tau(-3/2) at the stationary state (as observed in different realistic data). Finally we describe quantitatively the dynamics out of the stationary state quantifying the power-law slow approach to stability both in single dynamical realization and in average. These results can be generalized to the case of a stochastic increase in the queue length in time with limited fluctuations. As a limit case we recover the situation in which the queue length fluctuates around a constant average value.
The Recursive Solution for Geom/G/1(E,SV) Queue with Feedback and Single Server Vacation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chuan-yi Luo; Ying-hui Tang
2011-01-01
Using recursive method, this paper studies the queue size properties at any epoch n+ in Geom/G/i(E, SV) queueing model with feedback under LASDA (late arrival system with delayed access) setup. Some new results about the recursive expressions of queue size distribution at different epoch (n+, n, n-) are obtained.Furthermore the important relations between stationary queue size distribution at different epochs are discovered.The results are different from the relations given in M/G/1 queueing system. The model discussed in this paper can be widely applied in many kinds of communications and computer network.
Identification of waiting time distribution of M/G/1, Mx/G/1, GIr/M/1 queueing systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ghosal
1988-01-01
Full Text Available This paper brings out relations among the moments of various orders of the waiting time of the 1st customer and a randomly selected customer of an arrival group for bulk arrivals queueing models, and as well as moments of the waiting time (in queue for M/G/1 queueing system. A numerical study of these relations has been developed in order to find the (β1,β2 measures of waiting time distribution in a comutable form. On the basis of these measures one can look into the nature of waiting time distribution of bulk arrival queues and the single server M/G/1 queue.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonatha Anselmi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We consider a queueing system composed of a dispatcher that routes jobs to a set of non-observable queues working in parallel. In this setting, the fundamental problem is which policy should the dispatcher implement to minimize the stationary mean waiting time of the incoming jobs. We present a structural property that holds in the classic scaling of the system where the network demand (arrival rate of jobs grows proportionally with the number of queues. Assuming that each queue of type r is replicated k times, we consider a set of policies that are periodic with period k∑rpr and such that exactly pr jobs are sent in a period to each queue of type r. When k→∞, our main result shows that all the policies in this set are equivalent, in the sense that they yield the same mean stationary waiting time, and optimal, in the sense that no other policy having the same aggregate arrival rate to all queues of a given type can do better in minimizing the stationary mean waiting time. This property holds in a strong probabilistic sense. Furthermore, the limiting mean waiting time achieved by our policies is a convex function of the arrival rate in each queue, which facilitates the development of a further optimization aimed at solving the fundamental problem above for large systems.
Heavy traffic queue length behavior in a switch under the MaxWeight algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siva Theja Maguluri
2016-11-01
Full Text Available We consider a switch operating under the MaxWeight scheduling algorithm, under any traffic pattern such that all the ports are loaded. This system is interesting to study since the queue lengths exhibit a multi-dimensional state-space collapse in the heavy-traffic regime. We use a Lyapunov-type drift technique to characterize the heavy-traffic behavior of the expectation of the sum queue lengths in steady-state, under the assumption that all ports are saturated and all queues receive non-zero traffic. Under these conditions, we show that the heavy-traffic scaled queue length is given by (1−1/2n||σ||2, where σ is the vector of the standard deviations of arrivals to each port in the heavy-traffic limit. In the special case of uniform Bernoulli arrivals, the corresponding formula is given by (n−3/2+1/2n. The result shows that the heavy-traffic scaled queue length has optimal scaling with respect to n, thus settling one version of an open conjecture; in fact, it is shown that the heavy-traffic queue length is at most within a factor of two from the optimal. We then consider certain asymptotic regimes where the load of the system scales simultaneously with the number of ports. We show that the MaxWeight algorithm has optimal queue length scaling behavior provided that the arrival rate approaches capacity sufficiently fast.
Infinite Queue Management via Cascade Control for Industrial Routers in Smart Grid IP Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ku-Hwan Kim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Smart grid applications experience an extremely wide range of communication delay. Data flows of those applications are normally aggregated at industrial network routers in substations, form infinite (long queues termed bufferbloat issue, and might damage the operation of transmission control protocol. The default queue management scheme, DropTail, in such routers just drops packets if queue is full while the others in literature are mostly based on one-loop feedback control where an optimal point of performance between queue length and drop rate is limited. In this paper, we study the problem of managing a long queue of industrial router at substation under heterogeneous smart grid networks. Specifically, we propose an enqueue-dequeue dropping cascade control using a two-loop design method to control both window size and queue length. Moreover, our proposal can be easily implemented into router firmware with provided discrete expressions. Finally, our simulation results are presented to validate the possible benefits that can be gained from cascade control and compare the existing queue management methods as well.
Alonge, Akintunde A.; Afullo, Thomas J.
2014-08-01
Attenuation due to precipitation remains an important design factor in the future deployment of terrestrial and earth-space communication radio links. Largely, there are concerted efforts to understand the dynamics of precipitation in attenuation occurrence at subtropical, tropical, and equatorial region of Africa. In this deliberate approach, rainfall spikes pertaining to rain cells are conceptualized as distinct rain spike traffic over radio links, by applying queueing theory concepts. The queue distributions at Durban (29°52'S, 30°58'E) and Butare (2°36'S, 29°44'E)—respectively, of subtropical and equatorial climates—are investigated from distrometer measurements. The data sets at both sites are observed over four rain regimes: drizzle, widespread, shower, and thunderstorm. The queue parameters of service time and inter-arrival of rain spikes traffic at both regions are found to be Erlang-k distributed (Ek) and exponentially distributed (M), respectively. It is established that the appearance of rain rates over radio links invariably follows a First Come, First Served (FCFS), multi-server (s), infinite queue, and semi-Markovian process, designated as M/Ek/s/∞/FCFS discipline. Modeled queue parameters at both regions are found to vary significantly over different regimes. However, these queue parameters over the entire data set suggest similar queue patterns at both sites. More importantly, power law relationships describing other queue-related parameters are formulated. The paper concludes by demonstrating an application of queueing theory for rainfall synthesis. The proposed technique will provide an alternative method of estimating rain cell sizes and rain attenuation over satellite and terrestrial links.
Simple Queueing Model Applied to the City of Portland
Simon, Patrice M.; Esser, Jörg; Nagel, Kai
We use a simple traffic micro-simulation model based on queueing dynamics as introduced by Gawron [IJMPC, 9(3):393, 1998] in order to simulate traffic in Portland/Oregon. Links have a flow capacity, that is, they do not release more vehicles per second than is possible according to their capacity. This leads to queue built-up if demand exceeds capacity. Links also have a storage capacity, which means that once a link is full, vehicles that want to enter the link need to wait. This leads to queue spill-back through the network. The model is compatible with route-plan-based approaches such as TRANSIMS, where each vehicle attempts to follow its pre-computed path. Yet, both the data requirements and the computational requirements are considerably lower than for the full TRANSIMS microsimulation. Indeed, the model uses standard emme/2 network data, and runs about eight times faster than real time with more than 100 000 vehicles simultaneously in the simulation on a single Pentium-type CPU. We derive the model's fundamental diagrams and explain it. The simulation is used to simulate traffic on the emme/2 network of the Portland (Oregon) metropolitan region (20 000 links). Demand is generated by a simplified home-to-work destination assignment which generates about half a million trips for the morning peak. Route assignment is done by iterative feedback between micro-simulation and router. An iterative solution of the route assignment for the above problem can be achieved within about half a day of computing time on a desktop workstation. We compare results with field data and with results of traditional assignment runs by the Portland Metropolitan Planning Organization. Thus, with a model such as this one, it is possible to use a dynamic, activities-based approach to transportation simulation (such as in TRANSIMS) with affordable data and hardware. This should enable systematic research about the coupling of demand generation, route assignment, and micro
On the M/G/1 queueing system with multiclass customers and fixed feedback
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Qi-zhi
2008-01-01
The M/G/1 queueing system with multiclass customer arrivals, fixed feedback, and first come first served policy is considered, where different classes of customers have different arrival rates, service-time distributions, and feedback numbers. The joint probability generation function of queue size of each class and the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the total sojourn time of a customer in each class are presented, which extended the results obtained by Choi B D. The mean queue size of each class and mean total sojourn time of a customer in each class are obtained with this result. The results can be used in computer and communication networks for their performance analysis.
Researches on Active Queue Management%主动队列管理机制研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李方敏; 叶澄清; 李仁发
2001-01-01
Currently,there are two methods suggested to handle congestion. The first approach uses packet or link scheduling on multiple logical or physical queues to explicitly reserve and allocate output bandwidth to each class of traffic. The second approach,called Active Queue management,uses advanced packet queuing disciplines on an outbound queue of a router to actively avoid congestion with the help of cooperative traffic sources. On the basis of analyzing the two approaches ,in order to efficiently support flow-controlled contnuous multimedia flows,we compare and analyze RED,FRED,CBT,D-CBT. Finally,we point out the shortcomings and the next research topic.
A Self-tuning Fuzzy Queue Management Algorithm for Congestion Control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Jingyuan(张敬辕); Xie Jianying
2004-01-01
This letter presents an effective self-tuning fuzzy queue management algorithm for congestion control. With the application of the algorithm, routers in IP network regulate its packet drop probability by a self-tuning fuzzy controller. The main advantage of the algorithm is that, with the parameter self-tuning mechanism, queue length can keep stable in a variety of network environments without the difficulty of parameter configuration. Simulations show that the algorithm is efficient, stable and outperforms the popular RED queue management algorithm significantly.
Practical Multiwriter Lock-Free Queues for "Hard Real-Time" Systems without CAS
Lee, Jeremy
2007-01-01
FIFO queues with a single reader and writer can be insufficient for "hard real-time" systems where interrupt handlers require wait-free guarantees when writing to message queues. We present an algorithm which elegantly and practically solves this problem on small processors that are often found in embedded systems. The algorithm does not require special CPU instructions (such as atomic CAS), and therefore is more robust than many existing methods that suffer the ABA problem associated with swing pointers. The algorithm gives "first-in, almost first-out" guarantees under pathological interrupt conditions, which manifests as arbitrary "shoving" among nearly-simultaneous arrivals at the end of the queue.
Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Woo Shin
1999-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.
Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.
1979-01-01
A model of a central processor (CPU) which services background applications in the presence of time critical activity is presented. The CPU is viewed as an M/M/1 queueing system subject to periodic interrupts by deterministic, time critical process. The Laplace transform of the distribution of service times for the background applications is developed. The use of state of the art queueing models for studying the background processing capability of time critical computer systems is discussed and the results of a model validation study which support this application of queueing models are presented.
Ultrasound waiting lists: rational queue or extended capacity?
Brasted, Christopher
2008-06-01
The features and issues regarding clinical waiting lists in general and general ultrasound waiting lists in particular are reviewed, and operational aspects of providing a general ultrasound service are also discussed. A case study is presented describing a service improvement intervention in a UK NHS hospital's ultrasound department, from which arises requirements for a predictive planning model for an ultrasound waiting list. In the course of this, it becomes apparent that a booking system is a more appropriate way of describing the waiting list than a conventional queue. Distinctive features are identified from the literature and the case study as the basis for a predictive model, and a discrete event simulation model is presented which incorporates the distinctive features.
Using simulation in out-patient queues: a case study.
Huarng, F; Lee, M H
1996-01-01
Overwork and overcrowding in some periods was an important issue for the out-patient department of a local hospital in Chia-Yi in Taiwan. The hospital administrators wanted to manage the patient flow effectively. Describes a study which focused on the utilization of doctors and staff in the out-patient department, the time spent in the hospital by an out-patient, and the length of the out-patient queue. Explains how a computer simulation model was developed to study how changes in the appointment system, staffing policies and service units would affect the observed bottleneck. The results show that the waiting time was greatly reduced and the workload of the doctor was also reduced to a reasonable rate in the overwork and overcrowding periods.
A comparison of queueing, cluster and distributed computing systems
Kaplan, Joseph A.; Nelson, Michael L.
1993-01-01
Using workstation clusters for distributed computing has become popular with the proliferation of inexpensive, powerful workstations. Workstation clusters offer both a cost effective alternative to batch processing and an easy entry into parallel computing. However, a number of workstations on a network does not constitute a cluster. Cluster management software is necessary to harness the collective computing power. A variety of cluster management and queuing systems are compared: Distributed Queueing Systems (DQS), Condor, Load Leveler, Load Balancer, Load Sharing Facility (LSF - formerly Utopia), Distributed Job Manager (DJM), Computing in Distributed Networked Environments (CODINE), and NQS/Exec. The systems differ in their design philosophy and implementation. Based on published reports on the different systems and conversations with the system's developers and vendors, a comparison of the systems are made on the integral issues of clustered computing.
WSAP: provide loss rate differentiation with active queue management
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Miao; Wu Jianping; Xu Ke
2005-01-01
How to provide service differentiation in the Internet is a hot research topic. One proposal is to provide loss rate differentiation by assigning levels of dropprecedence to IP packets. This paper proposes a new Active Queue Management (AQM) mechanism, Weighted SAP (WSAP) to achieve this goal. WSAP is based on a new AQM algorithm called Simple Adaptive Proportional (SAP). WSAP can approximate proportional loss rate differentiation, while keeping high link utilization and short queuing delay. Compared with Weighted RED(WRED) and RED In and Out (RIO), WSAP is easier to configure and can provide better performance. Furthermore, an architecture for differentiated service is proposed. In the design of this architecture, more attention is paid to the characte of network traffic in the Internet and an attempt is made to preserve the Internet's oringinal design principles.
Autonomous Hybrid Priority Queueing for Scheduling Residential Energy Demands
Kalimullah, I. Q.; Shamroukh, M.; Sahar, N.; Shetty, S.
2017-05-01
The advent of smart grid technologies has opened up opportunities to manage the energy consumption of the users within a residential smart grid system. Demand response management is particularly being employed to reduce the overall load on an electricity network which could in turn reduce outages and electricity costs. The objective of this paper is to develop an intelligible scheduler to optimize the energy available to a micro grid through hybrid queueing algorithm centered around the consumers’ energy demands. This is achieved by shifting certain schedulable load appliances to light load hours. Various factors such as the type of demand, grid load, consumers’ energy usage patterns and preferences are considered while formulating the logical constraints required for the algorithm. The algorithm thus obtained is then implemented in MATLAB workspace to simulate its execution by an Energy Consumption Scheduler (ECS) found within smart meters, which automatically finds the optimal energy consumption schedule tailor made to fit each consumer within the micro grid network.
Channel Coding over Multiple Coherence Blocks with Queueing Constraints
Qiao, Deli; Velipasalar, Senem
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the performance of wireless systems that employ finite-blocklength channel codes for transmission and operate under queueing constraints in the form of limitations on buffer overflow probabilities. A block fading model, in which fading stays constant in each coherence block and change independently between blocks, is considered. It is assumed that channel coding is performed over multiple coherence blocks. An approximate lower bound on the transmission rate is obtained from Feintein's Lemma. This lower bound is considered as the service rate and is incorporated into the effective capacity formulation, which characterizes the maximum constant arrival rate that can be supported under statistical queuing constraints. Performances of variable-rate and fixed-rate transmissions are studied. The optimum error probability for variable rate transmission and the optimum coding rate for fixed rate transmission are shown to be unique. Moreover, the tradeoff between the throughput and the number of...
A-MMLQ Algorithm for Multi-level Queue Scheduling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manupriya Hasija
2013-07-01
Full Text Available This being the era of advancement in computing domain, the emphasis is on better resource scheduling. Scheduling is not confined to dealing multiple tasks by a single processor. It’s a dawn with multiprocessing and multitasking. Although multiprocessor systems impose several overheads but still make the concept amazingly interesting. The scheduling field has taken a whirlwind after the notion of multiprocessing. Many of the uniprocessor algorithms do fit well under the multiprocessor systems but, still necessitating a further development aiming solely on multiprocessor scheduling. This paper thus sketches a new idea to modify and extend the well-known multi-level queue scheduling, taking into account the arrival time/ arrival sequence to conceptualize an innovative scheduling algorithm.
Analysis of a multi-server queueing model of ABR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Núñez-Queija
1998-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present a queueing model for the performance analysis of Available Bit Rate (ABR traffic in Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM networks. We consider a multi-channel service station with two types of customers, denoted by high priority and low priority customers. In principle, high priority customers have preemptive priority over low priority customers, except on a fixed number of channels that are reserved for low priority traffic. The arrivals occur according to two independent Poisson processes, and service times are assumed to be exponentially distributed. Each high priority customer requires a single server, whereas low priority customers are served in processor sharing fashion. We derive the joint distribution of the numbers of customers (of both types in the system in steady state. Numerical results illustrate the effect of high priority traffic on the service performance of low priority traffic.
Asymptotic expansions for large closed and loss queueing networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kogan Yaakov
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Loss and closed queueing network models have long been of interest to telephone and computer engineers and becoming increasingly important as models of data transmission networks. This paper describes a uniform approach that has been developed during the last decade for asymptotic analysis of large capacity networks with product form of the stationary probability distribution. Such a distribution has an explicit form up to the normalization constant, or the partition function. The approach is based on representing the partition function as a contour integral in complex space and evaluating the integral using the saddle point method and theory of residues. This paper provides an introduction to the area and a review of recent work.
Passive queue management algorithm based on synchronized queue%基于S排队的被动队列管理算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢立春
2012-01-01
为了解决网络拥塞问题,基于“弃头”方式建立了一种新的被动队列管理算法(DFSQ).该算法首先利用S排队推导网络队长的数学表达式,并提出丢包概率和丢包策略.同时,通过仿真实验深入研究了影响网络队长的关键因素,并将DFSQ与随机早期检测算法(RED)、“弃尾”算法进行对比分析,结果表明DFSQ算法性能更优.%In order to mitigate the network congestion problem, a new passive queue management algorithm Drop Front n based on Synchronized Queue (DFSQ) was proposed by Drop Front. In this algorithm, the network queue length was deducted with synchronized queue, and drop packet probability and drop packet strategy were presented. Then, a simulation was conducted to research on the key influencing factors of queue length. The results show that, compared with Random Early Detection (RED) and Drop Tail algorithm, the performance of DFSQ is better.
Fluid Approximation and Its Convergence Rate for GI/G/1 Queue with Vacations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yong-jiang Guo
2011-01-01
A GI/G/1 queue with vacations is considered in this paper. We develop an approximating technique on max function of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables, that is max{ηi, 1 ≤ i ≤ n}.The approximating technique is used to obtain the fluid approximation for the queue length, workload and busy time processes. Furthermore, under uniform topology, if the scaled arrival process and the scaled service process converge to the corresponding fluid processes with an exponential rate, we prove by the approximating technique that the scaled processes characterizing the queue converge to the corresponding fluid limits with the exponential rate only for large N. Here the scaled processes include the queue length process, workload process and busy time process.
Collaborative Virtual Queue: Fair Management of Congested Departure Operations and Benefit Analysis
Burgain, Pierrick; Clarke, John-Paul
2008-01-01
Due to the stochastic nature of departure operations, working at full capacity makes major US airports very sensitive to uncertainties. Consequently, airport ground operations face critically congested taxiways and long runway queues. In this report, we show how improved management of departure operations from the ready-to-push-back time to the wheels-off time can potentially yield significant benefits to airlines and air traffic services. We develop a Collaborative Virtual Queue to enable better optimization capabilities during congested situations while taking into account the laissez-faire competitive environment. Results are evaluated using a departure system model, validated using current statistics and previous studies. First, the Collaborative Virtual Queue enables keeping aircraft away from runway queues, which increases wheels-off time predictability. Second, holding aircraft enables last-minute intra-airline flight switching. This creates new optimization capabilities for airlines i.e. it gives airl...
A Hybrid Circular Queue Method for Iterative Stencil Computations on GPUs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Yang; Hui-Min Cui; Xiao-Bing Feng; Jing-Ling Xue
2012-01-01
In this paper,we present a hybrid circular queue method that can significantly boost the performance of stencil computations on GPU by carefully balancing usage of registers and shared-memory.Unlike earlier methods that rely on circular queues predominantly implemented using indirectly addressable shared memory,our hybrid method exploits a new reuse pattern spanning across the multiple time steps in stencil computations so that circular queues can be implemented by both shared memory and registers effectively in a balanced manner.We describe a framework that automatically finds the best placement of data in registers and shared memory in order to maximize the performance of stencil computations.Validation using four different types of stencils on three different GPU platforms shows that our hybrid method achieves speedups up to 2.93X over methods that use circular queues implemented with shared-memory only.
Queueing model for an ATM multiplexer with unequal input/output link capacities
Long, Y. H.; Ho, T. K.; Rad, A. B.; Lam, S. P. S.
1998-10-01
We present a queuing model for an ATM multiplexer with unequal input/output link capacities in this paper. This model can be used to analyze the buffer behaviors of an ATM multiplexer which multiplexes low speed input links into a high speed output link. For this queuing mode, we assume that the input and output slot times are not equal, this is quite different from most analysis of discrete-time queues for ATM multiplexer/switch. In the queuing analysis, we adopt a correlated arrival process represented by the Discrete-time Batch Markovian Arrival Process. The analysis is based upon M/G/1 type queue technique which enables easy numerical computation. Queue length distributions observed at different epochs and queue length distribution seen by an arbitrary arrival cell when it enters the buffer are given.
Store operation with conditional push of a tag value to a queue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard
2015-07-28
According to one embodiment, a method for a store operation with a conditional push of a tag value to a queue is provided. The method includes configuring a queue that is accessible by an application, setting a value at an address in a memory device including a memory and a controller, receiving a request for an operation using the value at the address and performing the operation. The method also includes the controller writing a result of the operation to the address, thus changing the value at the address, the controller determining if the result of the operation meets a condition and the controller pushing a tag value to the queue based on the condition being met, where the tag value in the queue indicates to the application that the condition is met.
The Number Served in a Head Of The Line Priority Queue with General Service
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.N. Gaur
1977-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, using the supplementary variable method, the head-of-the-line priority queueing system with general service time distributions have been studied to obtain an expression for the Laplace transform of the generating function of the joint probability distribution of the number of priority and non-priority units in the queue at time t, and the number of units served (including non-priority units in time t. In particular cases, explicit solution for the model with exponential service time distributions have been obtained; expression for the joint distribution of the queue length and the number served in time t, for an M/G/1 queue has also been derived.
Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted
2009-01-01
Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about waiting time and patience distributions in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent...
Reliability analysis of M/G/1 queues with general retrial times and server breakdowns
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jinting
2006-01-01
This paper concerns the reliability issues as well as queueing analysis of M/G/1 retrial queues with general retrial times and server subject to breakdowns and repairs. We assume that the server is unreliable and customers who find the server busy or down are queued in the retrial orbit in accordance with a first-come-first-served discipline. Only the customer at the head of the orbit queue is allowed for access to the server. The necessary and sufficient condition for the system to be stable is given. Using a supplementary variable method, we obtain the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the reliability function of the server and a steady state solution for both queueing and reliability measures of interest. Some main reliability indexes, such as the availability, failure frequency, and the reliability function of the server, are obtained.
Methods for estimating vehicle queues at a marine terminal: A computational comparison
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Gang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available A long queue of vehicles at the gate of a marine terminal is a common traffic phenomenon in a port-city, which sometimes causes problems in urban traffic. In order to be able to solve this issue, we firstly need accurate models to estimate such a vehicle queue length. In this paper, we compare the existing methods in a case study, and evaluate their advantages and disadvantages. Particularly, we develop a simulation-based regression model, using the micro traffic simulation software PARAMIC. In simulation, it is found that the queue transient process follows a natural logarithm curve. Then, based on these curves, we develop a queue length estimation model. In the numerical experiment, the proposed model exhibits better estimation accuracy than the other existing methods
A FUZZY-LOGIC CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR ACTIVE QUEUE MANAGEMENT IN IP NETWORKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Active Queue Management (AQM) is an active research area in the Internet community. Random Early Detection (RED) is a typical AQM algorithm, but it is known that it is difficult to configure its parameters and its average queue length is closely related to the load level. This paper proposes an effective fuzzy congestion control algorithm based on fuzzy logic which uses the predominance of fuzzy logic to deal with uncertain events. The main advantage of this new congestion control algorithm is that it discards the packet dropping mechanism of RED, and calculates packet loss according to a preconfigured fuzzy logic by using the queue length and the buffer usage ratio. Theoretical analysis and Network Simulator (NS) simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves more throughput and more stable queue length than traditional schemes. It really improves a router's ability in network congestion control in IP network.
An algorithmic technique for a class of queueing models with packet switching applications
Morris, R. J. T.
The need to analyze the performance of a class of hardware packet switches leads to consideration of a queueing model consisting of a single server queue with input given by a function of a Markov chain. An algorithmic technique is developed to obtain the joint stationary distribution of the bivariate Markov chain which describes the system. Both the infinite and finite capacity cases are considered. The technique is used to study several design issues which arise when a packet switch is subjected to independent streams of bursty input traffic. Guidelines are given which aid in estimating the queueing space required to keep traffic losses acceptably small. It is seen that the commonly employed heuristic of dimensioning queueing space using the tail of the infinite capacity distribution can lead to considerable error when compared with exact results.
Mean time for the development of large workloads and large queue lengths in the GI/G/1 queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Knessl
1996-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the GI/G/1 queue described by either the workload U(t (unfinished work or the number of customers N(t in the system. We compute the mean time until U(t reaches excess of the level K, and also the mean time until N(t reaches N0. For the M/G/1 and GI/M/1 models, we obtain exact contour integral representations for these mean first passage times. We then compute the mean times asymptotically, as K and N0→∞, by evaluating these contour integrals. For the general GI/G/1 model, we obtain asymptotic results by a singular perturbation analysis of the appropriate backward Kolmogorov equation(s. Numerical comparisons show that the asymptotic formulas are very accurate even for moderate values of K and N0.
Kempa, Wojciech M.
2015-11-01
A finite-buffer GI/M/1/N-type queueing model with single working vacations is considered. Every time when the system becomes empty the server initializes an exponentially distributed single working vacation period, during which the processing of jobs is carried out with another (slower) rate. After finishing the vacation period the service process is being continued with normal (higher) speed. The next working vacation period is started at the next moment at which the queue empties and so on. The systems of integral equations for time-dependent queueing delay distributions, conditioned by the initial level of buffer saturation and related to each other, are built for systems beginning the operation in normal and working vacation modes, separately. The solutions for corresponding systems written for Laplace transforms are given explicitly using the linear algebraic approach.
Scheduling queues in the Ethernet switch, considering the waiting time of frames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kizilov Evgeniy
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Authors proposes an algorithm to scheduling queues with temporal selection of frames in the Ethernet switches with QoS support, which is based on the waiting time of frames in the queues of different classes. Evaluation of the effectiveness of this algorithm compared to the classical cyclic algorithms by simulation with hierarchical temporal coloured Petri nets using CPN Tools package was conducte.
The Jackson Queueing Network Model Built Using Poisson Measures. Application To A Bank Model
Ciuiu Daniel
2014-01-01
In this paper we will build a bank model using Poisson measures and Jackson queueing networks. We take into account the relationship between the Poisson and the exponential distributions, and we consider for each credit/deposit type a node where shocks are modeled as the compound Poisson processes. The transmissions of the shocks are modeled as moving between nodes in Jackson queueing networks, the external shocks are modeled as external arrivals, and the absorption of shocks as departures fr...
Managing Network Congestion with a Modified Kohonen-based RED Queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Priscilla,
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The robustness of today’s Internet depends heavily on the TCP congestion control mechanism. Congestion is a key factor in transmission control protocol (TCP which leads to many researches. Congestion control techniques are extensively used in order to maintain the stability and reliability of the network. One of theimportant issues in the congestion control study is the Queue management technique employed by the network. An exponential increase in network traffic causes increasing packet loss rates. So, the IETF is considering the deployment of active queue management techniques to stem the increasing packet loss rates. Even though the packet loss rates are reduced in the internet by means of active queue management, the prevention of high loss rates is still a major concern for the present techniques. The severity of congestion is indicated by the queue lengths which is the main problem in the present queue management algorithms. Therefore, a fundamentally different active queue management algorithm called Random Early Detection (RED is proposed to overcome the above mentioned problem. BLUE uses packet loss and link idle events to manage congestion. Usingsimulation and controlled experiments, RED is shown to perform significantly better than other techniques both in terms of packet loss rates and buffer size requirements in the network. Then RED approach is combined with Kohonen technique that enables a stable queue length without complex parameters setting and passive measurements. This paper extends the Kohonen RED technique with the modified Kohonen based RED queue technique. It is clearly observed from the experimental results that the proposed approach provides better recognition accuracy with very low training time.
AN M/M/C RETRIAL QUEUEING SYSTEM WITH BERNOULLI VACATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. Krishna KUMAR; R. RUKMANI; V. THANGARAJ
2009-01-01
In this paper, a steady-state Markovian multi-server retrial queueing system with Bernoulli vacation scheduling service is studied. Using matrix-geometric approach, various interesting and important system performance measures are obtained. Further, the probability descriptors like ideal retrial and vain retrial are provided. Finally, extensive numerical illustrations are presented to indicate the quantifying nature of the approach to obtain solutions to this queueing system.
A Second-order Fluid Queue with Subordinator Input and Markov-modulated Linear Output
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin-zhi Li
2009-01-01
We consider an infinite capacity second-order fluid queue with subordinator input and Markov-modulated linear release rate. The fluid queue level is described by a generalized Langevin stochastic differ-ential equation (SDE). Applying infinitesimal generator, we obtain the stationary distribution that satisfies an integro-differential equation. We derive the solution of the SDE and study the transient level's convergence in distribution. When the coefficients of the SDE are constants, we deduce the system transient property.
A Simple Proof for the Stability of Global FIFO Queueing Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-kui Yang
2009-01-01
We study the stability of multiclass queueing networks under the global FIFO (first in first out) service discipline,which was established by Bramson in 2001.For these networks,the service priority of a customer is determined by his entrance time.Using fluid models,we describe the entrance time of the most senior customer in the networks at time t,which is the key to simplify the proof for the stability of the global FIFO queueing networks.
The Unreliable M/M/1 Retrial Queue in a Random Environment
2012-01-01
quasi-toeplitz markov chains and their application in queueing theory. Queueing Systems: Theory and Applications, 54:245– 259, 2006. [26] V. G. Kulkarni...assume the environment is an ergodic continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) on a finite state space. We analyze this system using classical matrix...process can be viewed as an asymptotically quasi-Toeplitz Markov chain . Using results from [25], they determine the stability condition and devise an
Multimedia Traffic Queueing Analysis in High-Speed Networks: a Frequency Domain Approach
Hwang, Chia-Lin
Multimedia traffic in high speed networks possesses correlation and burstiness properties. Classical queueing theory has generally ignored such properties by making renewal assumption on message interarrival time. Developing a new traffic theory for integration of multimedia services on high speed networks becomes absolutely essential. In this dissertation, we explore a new concept of spectral characterization of wide-band input process in high speed networks. It provides us a much richer and heterogeneous input environment, while keeping the complexity of queueing analysis tractable. The correlation nature of multimedia traffic is well captured by the input spectral functions. The queue response to the power spectrum and higher order statistics has been studied. Our study shows that the input power spectrum is the most essential statistic for queueing analysis. Further, the input power in low-frequency band has dominant impact on queueing performance, whereas the high-frequency power to a large extent can be neglected. Understanding of queue response to input spectrum provides us a great deal of knowledge to develop advanced network traffic measure theory, and to introduce effective network resource allocation policies. The interrelationship between the traffic spectral statistics and link capacity allocation in high speed network has been investigated. Finally we developed a sophisticated computational tool, called SMAQ, that can integrate traffic measurement and queueing analysis for stochastic modeling. The SMAQ tool takes a unique frequency-domain approach to combine the techniques of signal processing and performance analysis. Essentially, signal processing techniques are used to obtain the steady -state and second-order statistics of a traffic stream. The focus here is on the construction of a special class of Markov chains that can statistically match with each given traffic stream (or superposition of different traffic streams). The analytical queueing
AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE QUEUEING SYSTEM GI/PH/1 WITH SERVER BREAKDOWNS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN Xueming; LI Wei
2003-01-01
In the existing literature of Repairable Queueing Systems (RQS), i.e., queueing systems with server breakdowns, it is almost all assumed that interarrival times of successive customers are independent, identically exponentially distributed. In this paper, we deal with more generic system GI/PH/1 with server's exponential uptime and phase-type repair time. With matrix analysis theory, we establish the equilibrium condition and the characteristics of the system, derive the transient and stationary availability behavior of the system.
Optimal Control for Bufferbloat Queue Management Using Indirect Method with Parametric Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amr Radwan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Because memory buffers become larger and cheaper, they have been put into network devices to reduce the number of loss packets and improve network performance. However, the consequences of large buffers are long queues at network bottlenecks and throughput saturation, which has been recently noticed in research community as bufferbloat phenomenon. To address such issues, in this article, we design a forward-backward optimal control queue algorithm based on an indirect approach with parametric optimization. The cost function which we want to minimize represents a trade-off between queue length and packet loss rate performance. Through the integration of an indirect approach with parametric optimization, our proposal has advantages of scalability and accuracy compared to direct approaches, while still maintaining good throughput and shorter queue length than several existing queue management algorithms. All numerical analysis, simulation in ns-2, and experiment results are provided to solidify the efficiency of our proposal. In detailed comparisons to other conventional algorithms, the proposed procedure can run much faster than direct collocation methods while maintaining a desired short queue (≈40 packets in simulation and 80 (ms in experiment test.
All-optical queue buffer using optical threshold functions and wavelength converters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuancheng Zhang; Hongming Zhang; Minyu Yao
2012-01-01
A modular,cascadable,and self-controlled optical queue buffer is proposed,which can solve the packet contention at a 2 × 1 optical node.Controlled by incoming optical packets,the buffer can realize firstin-first-out queue buffering without the necessity of external control signals.By using optical threshold functions and wavelength converters based on semiconductor optical amplifier,the push and pop operations of packets on queue can both be achieved.In addition,preliminary experiment is carried out.%A modular, cascadable, and self-controlled optical queue buffer is proposed, which can solve the packet contention at a 2 x 1 optical node. Controlled by incoming optical packets, the buffer can realize first-in-first-out queue buffering without the necessity of external control signals. By using optical threshold functions and wavelength converters based on semiconductor optical amplifier, the push and pop operations of packets on queue can both be achieved. In addition, preliminary experiment is carried out.
Ergodicity of the IPP +M=M=c Queue%IPP+M/M/C排队的遍历性
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李晓花; 侯振挺
2011-01-01
The IPP + M/M/c queueing system has been extensively used in the modern communication system. The existence and uniqueness of stationary distribution of the queue length L(t) for IPP + M/M/1 queue has been proved in [10]. In this paper, we shall give the su±cient and necessary conditions of l-ergodicity, geometric ergodicity, and prove that they are neither uniformly polynomial ergodicity nor strong ergodicity.
A bulk queueing system under N-policy with bilevel service delay discipline and start-up time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David C. R. Muh
1993-01-01
Full Text Available The author studies the queueing process in a single-server, bulk arrival and batch service queueing system with a compound Poisson input, bilevel service delay discipline, start-up time, and a fixed accumulation level with control operating policy. It is assumed that when the queue length falls below a predefined level r(≥1, the system, with server capacity R, immediately stops service until the queue length reaches or exceeds the second predefined accumulation level N(≥r. Two cases, with N≤R and N≥R, are studied.
On the Discrete-Time GeoX/G/1 Queues under N-Policy with Single and Multiple Vacations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung J. Kim
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the discrete-time GeoX/G/1 queue under N-policy with single and multiple vacations. In this queueing system, the server takes multiple vacations and a single vacation whenever the system becomes empty and begins to serve customers only if the queue length is at least a predetermined threshold value N. Using the well-known property of stochastic decomposition, we derive the stationary queue-length distributions for both vacation models in a simple and unified manner. In addition, we derive their busy as well as idle-period distributions. Some classical vacation models are considered as special cases.
The Effectiveness Analysis of Waiting Processes in the Different Branches of a Bank by Queue Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah ÖZÇİL
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Despite the appreciable increase in the number of bank branches every year, nowadays queues for services don’t decrease and even become parts of our daily lives. By minimizing waiting processes the least, increasing customer satisfaction should be one of branch managers’ main goals. A quick and also customer oriented service with high quality is the most important factor for customer loyalty. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in six different branches of two banks operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by six branches of two banks called as A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. At the end of study it is presented to the company some advices that can bring benefits to the staff and customers. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in three different branches of a bank operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by three branches of the bank called A1, A2 and A3. At last it is presented to the company some advices that can bring more benefits to the staff and clients.
QUEUEING MODELS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Baskar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs has gain an essential part of the attention of researchers and become very well-liked in last few years. MANETs can operate with no fixed communications and can live rapid changes in the network topology. They can be studied officially as graphs in which the set of boundaries varies in time. One of the main methods to determine the presentation of MANETs is simulation. This study proposes Enhanced Probabilistic Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector (EPAODV routing protocol, which solves the broadcast storm problem of Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV. Our evaluation of MANETs is based on the evaluation of the throughput, end to end delay and packet delivery ratio. We evaluated the end to end delay as it is one of the most important characteristic evaluation metric in computer networks. In our proposed algorithm, using a queueing model M/M/C: ∞/FIFO, we are able to enhance that better results are obtained in the case EPAODV protocol such as increasing throughput, data delivery ratio and then decreasing the end delay compare to the existing protocols.
Care on demand in nursing homes: a queueing theoretic approach.
van Eeden, Karin; Moeke, Dennis; Bekker, René
2016-09-01
Nursing homes face ever-tightening healthcare budgets and are searching for ways to increase the efficiency of their healthcare processes without losing sight of the needs of their residents. Optimizing the allocation of care workers plays a key role in this search as care workers are responsible for the daily care of the residents and account for a significant proportion of the total labor expenses. In practice, the lack of reliable data makes it difficult for nursing home managers to make informed staffing decisions. The focus of this study lies on the 'care on demand' process in a Belgian nursing home. Based on the analysis of real-life 'call button' data, a queueing model is presented which can be used by nursing home managers to determine the number of care workers required to meet a specific service level. Based on numerical experiments an 80/10 service level is proposed for this nursing home, meaning that at least 80 percent of the clients should receive care within 10 minutes after a call button request. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to develop a quantitative model for the 'care on demand' process in a nursing home.
Probabilistic Analysis of Buffer Starvation in Markovian Queues
Xu, Yuedong; El-Azouzi, Rachid; Haddad, Majed; Elayoubi, Salaheddine; Jimenez, Tania
2011-01-01
Our purpose in this paper is to obtain the exact distribution of the number of buffer starvations within a sequence of $N$ consecutive packet arrivals. The buffer is modeled as an M/M/1 queue, plus the consideration of bursty arrivals characterized by an interrupted Poisson process. When the buffer is empty, the service restarts after a certain amount of packets are prefetched. With this goal, we propose two approaches, one of which is based on Ballot theorem, and the other uses recursive equations. The Ballot theorem approach gives an explicit solution, but at the cost of the high complexity order in certain circumstances. The recursive approach, though not offering an explicit result, needs fewer computations. We further propose a fluid analysis of starvation probability on the file level, given the distribution of file size and the traffic intensity. The starvation probabilities of this paper have many potential applications. We apply them to optimize the quality of experience (QoE) of media streaming serv...
Optimum and equilibrium in a transport problem with queue effects
Crippa, Gianluca; Pratelli, Aldo
2008-01-01
Consider a distribution of citizens in an urban area in which some services (supermarkets, post offices...) are present. Each citizen, in order to use a service, spends an amount of time which is due both to the travel time to the service and to the queue time waiting in the service. The choice of the service to be used is made by every citizen in order to be served more quickly. Two types of problems can be considered: a global optimization of the total time spent by the citizens of the whole city (we define a global optimum and we study it with techniques from optimal mass transportation) and an individual optimization, in which each citizen chooses the service trying to minimize just his own time expense (we define the concept of equilibrium and we study it with techniques from game theory). In this framework we are also able to exhibit two time-dependent strategies (based on the notions of prudence and memory respectively) which converge to the equilibrium.
Preemptive queueing system with randomized push-out mechanism
Muliukha, Vladimir; Ilyashenko, Alexander; Zayats, Oleg; Zaborovsky, Vladimir
2015-04-01
In this article considered a queueing theory model with limited buffer size, one service channel, and two incoming flows. In this model one of the flows has a power to preempt other tasks. We call it a high-priority flow. Another one is low-priority. This priority mechanism is realized in a two different ways. The first one is a preemptive priority, which allows high-priority packets to interrupt low-priority packets in service channel and push them out. The second one is a randomized push-out mechanism with probability α, which allows us to choose what type of packets should be pushed out of the system when it is full. In this article we provide an algorithm for computing statistical characteristics of the model for all values of push-out probability α. We have used generating functions method to simplify the system of linear equations. This method allows us to reduce the order of linear equations system from k(k + 1)/2 to (k + 1). As the result we have got two effects in this model. The first one is a linear behavior of loss probabilities in the model with low overload. The second one is a "closing" of a system for low-priority packets with high overload.
Tele-Network Design Based on Queue Competition Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Zhang-can; Wan Li-jun; Tang Tao; Chen Zheng-xu
2003-01-01
In this paper, we report research on how to design the tele-network. First of all, we defined the reliability of tele-network. According to the definition, we divide the whole reliability into two parts:the reliability of the mini-way and that of the whole system. Then we do algebra unintersection of the mini-way, deriving a function of reliability of tele-network. Also, we got a function of the cost of tele-network after analyzing the cost of arcs and points. Finally, we give a mathematical model to design a tele-network. For the algorithm, we define the distance of a network and adjacent area within certain boundaries . We present a new algorithm Queue Competition Algorithm(QCA)based on the adja cent area . The QCA correlates sequence of fitnesses in their fathergenerations with hunting zone of mutation and the number of individuals generated by mutation, making the stronger fitness in a small zone converge at a local extreme value, but the weaker one takes the advantage of lots of individuals and a big zone to hunt a new local extreme value. In this way, we get the overall extreme value. Numerical simulation shows that we can get the efficient hunting and exact solution by using QCA. The QCA efficient hunting and exact solution.
DESAIN FRAMEWORK MULTIMEDIA QUEUEING SYSTEM BERBASIS ANDROID ANTRIAN PASIEN PUSKESMAS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erika Devi Udayanti
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Saat ini antrian di puskesmas masih dilakukan dengan metode konvensional, yaitu dengan menumpuk kartu registrasi. Metode seperti ini memungkinkan kartu menjadi terselip. Selain itu, penumpukan kartu yang tidak benar dapat mengakibatkan urutan menjadi tidak sesuai dengan urutan yang seharusnya. Pasien yang datang lebih ahir dimungkinkan untuk dapat dilayani lebih awal dari pasien yang sudah lama menunggu. Penelitian ini mengusulkan multimedia queueing system berbasis android untuk layanan antrian pasien puskesmas. Sistem ini mencatat antrian di dalam database server, sehingga tidak ada kartu yang terselip ataupun salah tumpuk. Lebih lanjut lagi, penelitian ini akan mengangkat kecanggihan mesin android sebagai input device. Sedangkan untuk output devicenya, menggunakan portable bluetooth printer dan layar LCD. Setiap pasien yang datang dapat mencetak tiket antrian dengan menyentuh tombol pada layar mesin android. Mesin android tersebut kemudian akan mencetak tiket melaui printer portable yang disediakan dan mengirim nomor antrian ke database server. Selain itu, mesin android ini juga memotret wajah pasien yang masuk, dan file foto akan dikirim beserta nomor antrian ke server. Pada saat giliran pasien tiba, layar LCD akan menampilkan nomor antrian pasien beserta fotonya. Metode ini diharapkan mampu menyelesaikan problem kartu registrasi terselip, dan juga membantu pasien yang buta huruf/angka. Kata Kunci: puskesmas, sistem antrian, android
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofian De Clercq
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper we present here introduces a new priority mechanism in discrete-time queueing systems. It is a milder form of priority when compared to HoL priority, but it favors customers of one type over the other when compared to regular FCFS. It also provides an answer to the starvation problem that occurs in HoL priority systems. In this new priority mechanism, customers of different priority classes entering the system during the same time slot are served in order of their respective priority class—hence the name slot-bound priority. Customers entering during different slots are served on an FCFS basis. We consider two customer classes (pertaining to two levels of priority such that type-1 customers are served before type-2 customers that enter the system during the same slot. A general independent arrival process and generally distributed service times are assumed. Expressions for the probability generating function (PGF of the system content (number of type- customers, in regime are obtained using a slot-to-slot analysis. The first moments are calculated, as well as an approximation for the probability mass functions associated with the found PGFs. Lastly, some examples allow us some deeper insight into the inner workings of the slot-bound priority mechanism.
A robust and high-performance queue management controller for large round trip time networks
Khoshnevisan, Ladan; Salmasi, Farzad R.
2016-05-01
Congestion management for transmission control protocol is of utmost importance to prevent packet loss within a network. This necessitates strategies for active queue management. The most applied active queue management strategies have their inherent disadvantages which lead to suboptimal performance and even instability in the case of large round trip time and/or external disturbance. This paper presents an internal model control robust queue management scheme with two degrees of freedom in order to restrict the undesired effects of large and small round trip time and parameter variations in the queue management. Conventional approaches such as proportional integral and random early detection procedures lead to unstable behaviour due to large delay. Moreover, internal model control-Smith scheme suffers from large oscillations due to the large round trip time. On the other hand, other schemes such as internal model control-proportional integral and derivative show excessive sluggish performance for small round trip time values. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a system entailing two individual controllers for queue management and disturbance rejection, simultaneously. Simulation results based on Matlab/Simulink and also Network Simulator 2 (NS2) demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure and verify the analytical approach.
Transient probabilities for queues with applications to hospital waiting list management.
Joy, Mark; Jones, Simon
2005-08-01
In this paper we study queuing systems within the NHS. Recently imposed government performance targets lead NHS executives to investigate and instigate alternative management strategies, thereby imposing structural changes on the queues. Under such circumstances, it is most unlikely that such systems are in equilibrium. It is crucial, in our opinion, to recognise this state of affairs in order to make a balanced assessment of the role of queue management in the modern NHS. From a mathematical perspective it should be emphasised that measures of the state of a queue based upon the assumption of statistical equilibrium (a pervasive methodology in the study of queues) are simply wrong in the above scenario. To base strategic decisions around such ideas is therefore highly questionable and it is one of the purposes of this paper to offer alternatives: we present some (recent) research whose results generate performance measures and measures of risk, for example, of waiting-times growing unacceptably large; we emphasise that these results concern the transient behaviour of the queueing model-there is no asssumption of statistical equilibrium. We also demonstrate that our results are computationally tractable.
Managing target of opportunity (ToO) observations in queue mode at Gemini Observatory
Roth, Katherine C.; Carrasco, E. Rodrigo; Miller, Bryan W.; Stephens, Andrew W.; Jørgensen, Inger; Rodgers, Bernadette
2010-07-01
Target of opportunity observations (ToO) are an integral part of multi-instrument queue operations at Gemini Observatory. ToOs comprise a significant fraction of the queue (20-25% of the highest ranking band) and with the advent of large survey telescopes (eg. Pan-STARRS, LSST) dedicated to searching for transient events this fraction may reasonably be expected to increase significantly in the coming years. While some important aspects of ToO execution at Gemini Observatory are managed automatically (eg. trigger alerts, data distribution), other areas such as duplications checking, scheduling and relative priority determination still require manual intervention. In order to increase efficiency and improve our commitment to ToOs and queue observing in general, these aspects need to be formalized and incorporated into improved phase 2 checking, automated queue scheduling and on-the-fly nightly plan generation software. We discuss the different flavors of ToOs supported at Gemini Observatory and how each kind is scheduled with respect to existing queue observations. We present ideas for formalizing these practices into a system of dynamical prioritization which automatically self adjusts as new ToO observations are triggered, high priority targets become endangered, and timing windows near expiration.
Queue Management Practices of Quick ServiceRestaurants (QSR in Lipa City, Philippines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leoven A. Austria
2015-12-01
Full Text Available –Problems regarding waiting line in quick service restaurants (QSR has been one of the main concerns of industries and scholars nowadays. It is because people today demand not only for qualityfood but also for speed. Quick service restaurant players explore on the approaches to optimize the efficiency of restaurant management. One important area that defines how well and efficient a fast food restaurant delivers its product and services to customers is its waiting line (queue management practices. The study was conducted at Lipa City, involving five popular quick service restaurants named by the researcher as QSR A, B, C, D, and E. It made used of 363customer respondents proportionally obtained from five restaurants.It intended to assess the extent of implementation of the queue management practices of the restaurants and the level of satisfaction of the customers in such practices in terms of customer arrival, waiting line and service facility. The findings revealed the queuing system used and the waiting line structured utilized by the restaurants. The extent of implementation of the queue management practices in the three areas mentioned of the five QSR’s was presented comparatively. Likewise, the level of customer’s satisfaction on the queue management practices was also determined. Significant difference in the extent of implementation and in the level of customer satisfaction were determined if the respondents were grouped according to restaurant’s profile. Recommendations in the improvement of queue were given based on the findings.
Priority Queues with Fractional Service for Tiered Delay QoS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gary Chang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Packet scheduling is key to quality of service (QoS capabilities of broadband wired and wireless networks. In a heterogeneous traffic environment, a comprehensive QoS packet scheduler must strike a balance between flow fairness and access delay. Many advanced packet scheduling solutions have targeted fair bandwidth allocation while protecting delay-constrained traffic by adding priority queue(s on top of a fair bandwidth scheduler. Priority queues are known to cause performance uncertainties and, thus, various modifications have been proposed. In this paper, we present a packet queueing engine dubbed Fractional Service Buffer (FSB, which, when coupled with a configurable flow scheduler, can achieve desired QoS objectives, such as fair throughputs and differentiated delay guarantees. Key performance metrics, such as delay limit and probability of delay limit violation, are derived as a function of key FSB parameters for each delay class in the packet queueing engine using diffusion approximations. OPNET simulations verify these analytical results.
Multiserver queue with semi-Markovian batch arrivals with application to the MPEG frame sequence
Takagi, Hideaki; Wu, De-An
2002-07-01
We consider a queueing system consisting of multiple identical servers and a common queue. The service time follows an exponential distribution and the arrival process is governed by a semi-Markov process (SMP). The motivation to study the queueing system with SMP arrivals lies in that it can model the auto-correlated traffic on the high speed network generated by a real time communication, for example, the MPEG-encoded VBR video. Our analysis is based on the theory of piecewise Markov process. We first derive the distributions of the queue size and the waiting time. When the sojourn time of SMP follows an exponential distribution all the unknown constants contained in the generating function of queue size can be determined through the zeros of the denominator for this generating function. Based on the result of the analysis, we propose a model to evaluate the waiting time of MPEG video traffic on an ATM network with multiple channels. Here, the SMP corresponds to the exact MPEG sequence of frames. Finally, a numerical example using a real video data is shown.
The congestion control algorithm based on queue management of each node in mobile ad hoc networks
Wei, Yifei; Chang, Lin; Wang, Yali; Wang, Gaoping
2016-12-01
This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. As the network load increases, local congestion of mobile ad hoc network may lead to network performance degradation, hot node's energy consumption increase even failure. If small energy nodes congested because of forwarding data packets, then when it is used as the source node will cause a lot of packet loss. This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. Controlling nodes buffer queue in different levels of congestion area probability by adjusting the upper limits and lower limits, thus nodes can adjust responsibility of forwarding data packets according to their own situation. The proposed algorithm will slow down the send rate hop by hop along the data package transmission direction from congestion node to source node so that to prevent further congestion from the source node. The simulation results show that, the algorithm can better play the data forwarding ability of strong nodes, protect the weak nodes, can effectively alleviate the network congestion situation.
A parametric programming solution to the F-policy queue with fuzzy parameters
Yang, Dong-Yuh; Chang, Po-Kai
2015-03-01
This paper investigates the F-policy queue using fuzzy parameters, in which the arrival rate, service rate, and start-up rate are all fuzzy numbers. The F-policy deals with the control of arrivals in a queueing system, in which the server requires a start-up time before allowing customers to enter. A crisp F-policy queueing system generalised to a fuzzy environment would be widely applicable; therefore, we apply the α-cuts approach and Zadeh's extension principle to transform fuzzy F-policy queues into a family of crisp F-policy queues. This study presents a mathematical programming approach applicable to the construction of membership functions for the expected number of customers in the system. Furthermore, we propose an efficient solution procedure to compute the membership function of the expected number of customers in the system under different levels of α. Finally, we give an example of the proposed system as applied to a case in the automotive industry to demonstrate its practicality.
Unreliable bulk retrial queues with delayed repairs and modified vacation policy
Jain, Madhu; Bhagat, Amita
2014-06-01
The present investigation deals with the bulk arrival M/G/1 retrial queue with impatient customers and modified vacation policy. The incoming customers join the virtual pool of customers called orbit if they find the server being busy, on vacation or in broken down state otherwise the service of the customer at the head of the batch is started by the server. The service is provided in k essential phases to all the customers by the single server which may breakdown while rendering service to the customers. The broken down server is sent to a repair facility wherein the repair is performed in d compulsory phases. As soon as the orbit becomes empty, the server goes for vacation and takes at most J vacations until at least one customer is noticed. The incoming customers are impatient and may renege on seeing a long queue of the customers for the service. The probability generating functions and queue length for the number of customers in the orbit and queue have been obtained using supplementary variable technique. Various system characteristics viz. average number of customers in the queue and the orbit, long run probabilities of the system states, etc. are obtained. Furthermore, numerical simulation has been carried out to study the sensitivity of various parameters on the system performance measures by taking an illustration.
Cost Comparison of B-1B Non-Mission-Capable Drivers Using Finite Source Queueing with Spares
2012-09-06
the other internal users (Dewan & Mendelson , 1990). Queueing Much research has been done in the queueing field. Two specific categories of...Dewan, S., & Mendelson , H. (1990). User Delay Costs and Internal Pricing for a Service Facility. Management Science, 36 (12), 1502-1517. Elsayed, E
Analysis of a state-independent change of measure for the $G|G|1$ tandem queue
Buijsrogge, Anne; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.
2016-01-01
In 1989, Parekh and Walrand introduced a method to efficiently estimate the probability of a rare event in a single queue or network of queues. The event they consider is that the total number of customers in the system reaches some level $N$ in a busy cycle. Parekh and Walrand introduce a simple ch
Analysis of a state-independent change of measure for the $G|G|1$ tandem queue
Buijsrogge, Anne; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.
2016-01-01
In (Parekh and Walrand, 1989) a method is introduced to efficiently estimate the probability of a rare event in a single queue or network of queues. The event they consider is that the total number of customers in the system reaches some level N in a busy cycle. Parekh and Walrand introduce a simple
A GA-based PID active queue management control design for TCP/IP networks
Kuo, H.-H.; Chen, C.-K.; Yan, J.-J.; Liao, T.-L.
2008-02-01
In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based (GA-based) proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller as an active queue manager for Internet routers is proposed to reduce packet loss and improve network utilization in TCP/IP networks. Based on the window-based nonlinear dynamics, the TCP network was modeled as a time-delayed system with a saturated input due to the limitations of packet-dropping probability and the effects of propagation delays in TCP networks. An improved genetic algorithm is employed to derive optimal or near optimal PID control gains such that a performance index of integrated-absolute error (IAE) in terms of the error between the router queue length and the desired queue length is minimized. The performance of the proposed control scheme was evaluated in various network scenarios via a series of numerical simulations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed scheme outperforms other AQM schemes.
MULTIPATH VIRTUAL QUEUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE PACKET SCHEDULING IN MPLS NETWORKS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Ramachandran
2012-09-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of communication and networking technologies VOIP has become an alternate to traditional telephony. These applications prefer timeliness in packet delivery. To perform load balancing, link utilization and to minimize the packet loss rate Multipath virtual Queue Management System for Effective Packet Scheduling in MPLS networks is proposed. The VoIP flows are dispersed into multiple available label switched paths to perform load balancing and link utilization. Virtual queues are maintained in all output ports to avoid queuing delay and HOL blocking. The proposed system ensures the arrival order of all the packets and plays back in the order of transmission. The performance of the proposed Virtual queuing system is compared with single path CSFQ queuing system with no virtual queue and Simulation results are proposed to show theefficiency of the proposed system.
Some reflections on the Renewal-theory paradox in queueing theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert B. Cooper
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The classical renewal-theory (waiting time, or inspection paradox states that the length of the renewal interval that covers a randomly-selected time epoch tends to be longer than an ordinary renewal interval. This paradox manifests itself in numerous interesting ways in queueing theory, a prime example being the celebrated Pollaczek-Khintchine formula for the mean waiting time in the M/G/1 queue. In this expository paper, we give intuitive arguments that explain why the renewal-theory paradox is ubiquitous in queueing theory, and why it sometimes produces anomalous results. In particular, we use these intuitive arguments to explain decomposition in vacation models, and to derive formulas that describe some recently-discovered counterintuitive results for polling models, such as the reduction of waiting times as a consequence of forcing the server to set up even when no work is waiting.
A discrete single server queue with Markovian arrivals and phase type group services
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Attahiru Sule Alfa
1995-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a single-server discrete queueing system in which arrivals occur according to a Markovian arrival process. Service is provided in groups of size no more than M customers. The service times are assumed to follow a discrete phase type distribution, whose representation may depend on the group size. Under a probabilistic service rule, which depends on the number of customers waiting in the queue, this system is studied as a Markov process. This type of queueing system is encountered in the operations of an automatic storage retrieval system. The steady-state probability vector is shown to be of (modified matrix-geometric type. Efficient algorithmic procedures for the computation of the rate matrix, steady-state probability vector, and some important system performance measures are developed. The steady-state waiting time distribution is derived explicitly. Some numerical examples are presented.
Active Queue Management in TCP Networks Based on Fuzzy-Pid Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein ASHTIANI
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a novel and robust active queue management (AQM scheme based on a fuzzy controller, called hybrid fuzzy-PID controller. In the TCP network, AQM is important to regulate the queue length by passing or dropping the packets at the intermediate routers. RED, PI, and PID algorithms have been used for AQM. But these algorithms show weaknesses in the detection and control of congestion under dynamically changing network situations. In this paper a novel Fuzzy-based proportional-integral derivative (PID controller, which acts as an active queue manager (AQM for Internet routers, is proposed. These controllers are used to reduce packet loss and improve network utilization in TCP/IP networks. A new hybrid controller is proposed and compared with traditional RED based controller. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that, the new hybrid fuzzy PID controller provides better performance than random early detection (RED and PID controllers
Design and analysis of a model predictive controller for active queue management.
Wang, Ping; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xiaoping; Ma, Yan
2012-01-01
Model predictive (MP) control as a novel active queue management (AQM) algorithm in dynamic computer networks is proposed. According to the predicted future queue length in the data buffer, early packets at the router are dropped reasonably by the MPAQM controller so that the queue length reaches the desired value with minimal tracking error. The drop probability is obtained by optimizing the network performance. Further, randomized algorithms are applied to analyze the robustness of MPAQM successfully, and also to provide the stability domain of systems with uncertain network parameters. The performances of MPAQM are evaluated through a series of simulations in NS2. The simulation results show that the MPAQM algorithm outperforms RED, PI, and REM algorithms in terms of stability, disturbance rejection, and robustness.
ON THE SINGLE SERVER RETRIAL QUEUE WITH PRIORITY SUBSCRIBERS AND SERVER BREAKDOWNS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinting WANG
2008-01-01
The author concerned the reliability evaluation as well as queueing analysis of M1, M2/G1, G2/1 retrial queues with two different types of primary customers arriving according to independent poisson flows. In the case of blocking, the first type of customers can be queued whereas the second type of customers must leave the service area but return after some random period of time to try their luck again. The author assumes that the server is unreliable and it has a service-type dependent, exponentially distributed life time as well as a service-type dependent, generally distributed repair time. The necessary and sufficient condition for the system to be stable is investigated. Using a supplementary variable method, the author obtains a steady-state solution for queueing measures, and the transient as well as the steady-state solutions for reliability measures of interest.
Improving Packet Processing Efficiency on Multi-core Architectures with Single Input Queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Orosz
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Generic purpose multi-core PC architectures are facing performance challenges of high rate packet reception on gigabit per second and higher speed network interfaces. In order to assign a CPU core to a networking softIRQ, the single input queue design of the low-level packet processing subsystem relies on the kernel's Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP scheduler, which does not perform load balancing of the softIRQ instances between the CPU cores. In practice, when single receive queue is used all of the softIRQs are assigned to a single CPU core. This typical arrangement could easily drive to CPU resource exhaustion and high packet loss ratio on high bandwidth interfaces. The non-steady state of the system is triggered by the high arrival rate of the packets. This work presents a proposal for improving the packet processing efficiency in single input queue multi-core systems.
MX/G/1 unreliable retrial queue with option of additional service and Bernoulli vacation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charan Jeet Singh
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, retrial queue with unreliable server and bulk arrivals is investigated. The server is capable of providing m-optional services and any one of these available services, may be rendered to the customer after the first essential service if the customer opts for the same. It is assumed that the server may fail while rendering any phase of service and undergoes for the immediate repair. After the completion of the service of a customer, the server may either take a vacation for a random period or may continue to provide the service to the other customers waiting in the queue. The supplementary variables corresponding to service time, repair time and retrial time are incorporated to determine the queue size distribution. To examine the effect of different parameters on the performance measures of the system, the numerical illustration is given which is supported by numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhruba Das
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this article, based on Zadeh’s extension principle we have apply the parametric programming approach to construct the membership functions of the performance measures when the interarrival time and the service time are fuzzy numbers based on the Baruah’s Randomness- Fuzziness Consistency Principle. The Randomness-Fuzziness Consistency Principle leads to defining a normal law of fuzziness using two different laws of randomness. In this article, two fuzzy queues FM/M/1 and M/FM/1 has been studied and constructed their membership functions of the system characteristics based on the aforesaid principle. The former represents a queue with fuzzy exponential arrivals and exponential service rate while the latter represents a queue with exponential arrival rate and fuzzy exponential service rate.
A Batch Arrival Retrial Queue with Two Phases of Service and Bernoulli Vacation Schedule
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gautam Choudhury; Kandarpa Deka
2013-01-01
We consider an MX/G/1 queueing system with two phases of heterogeneous service and Bernoulli vacation schedule which operate under a linear retrial policy.In addition,each individual customer is subject to a control admission policy upon the arrival.This model generalizes both the classical M/G/1 retrial queue with arrivals in batches and a two phase batch arrival queue with a single vacation under Bernoulli vacation schedule.We will carry out an extensive stationary analysis of the system,including existence of the stationary regime,embedded Markov chain,steady state distribution of the server state and number of customer in the retrial group,stochastic decomposition and calculation of the first moment.
On the Queueing Behavior of Random Codes over a Gilbert-Elliot Erasure Channel
Parag, Parimal; Pfister, Henry D; Narayanan, Krishna R
2010-01-01
This paper considers the queueing performance of a system that transmits coded data over a time-varying erasure channel. In our model, the queue length and channel state together form a Markov chain that depends on the system parameters. This gives a framework that allows a rigorous analysis of the queue as a function of the code rate. Most prior work in this area either ignores block-length (e.g., fluid models) or assumes error-free communication using finite codes. This work enables one to determine when such assumptions provide good, or bad, approximations of true behavior. Moreover, it offers a new approach to optimize parameters and evaluate performance. This can be valuable for delay-sensitive systems that employ short block lengths.
An agent-based model for queue formation of powered two-wheelers in heterogeneous traffic
Lee, Tzu-Chang; Wong, K. I.
2016-11-01
This paper presents an agent-based model (ABM) for simulating the queue formation of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) in heterogeneous traffic at a signalized intersection. The main novelty is that the proposed interaction rule describing the position choice behavior of PTWs when queuing in heterogeneous traffic can capture the stochastic nature of the decision making process. The interaction rule is formulated as a multinomial logit model, which is calibrated by using a microscopic traffic trajectory dataset obtained from video footage. The ABM is validated against the survey data for the vehicular trajectory patterns, queuing patterns, queue lengths, and discharge rates. The results demonstrate that the proposed model is capable of replicating the observed queue formation process for heterogeneous traffic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Kim Quoc
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The bottleneck control by active queue management mechanisms at network nodes is essential. In recent years, some researchers have used fuzzy argument to improve the active queue management mechanisms to enhance the network performance. However, the projects using the fuzzy controller depend heavily on professionals and their parameters cannot be updated according to changes in the network, so the effectiveness of this mechanism is not high. Therefore, we propose a model combining the fuzzy controller with neural network (FNN to overcome the limitations above. Results of the training of the neural networks will find the optimal parameters for the adaptive fuzzy controller well to changes of the network. This improves the operational efficiency of the active queue management mechanisms at network nodes.
The Geo/Geo/1+1 Queueing System with Negative Customers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhanyou Ma
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study a Geo/Geo/1+1 queueing system with geometrical arrivals of both positive and negative customers in which killing strategies considered are removal of customers at the head (RCH and removal of customers at the end (RCE. Using quasi-birth-death (QBD process and matrix-geometric solution method, we obtain the stationary distribution of the queue length, the average waiting time of a new arrival customer, and the probabilities of servers in busy or idle period, respectively. Finally, we analyze the effect of some related parameters on the system performance measures.
Chaotic queue-based genetic algorithm for design of a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller
Saini, Sanju; Saini, J. S.
2012-11-01
This paper employs a chaotic queue-based method using logistic equation in a non-canonical genetic algorithm for optimizing the performance of a self-tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller, used for controlling a nonlinear double-coupled system. A comparison has been made with a standard canonical genetic algorithm implemented on the same plant. It has been shown that chaotic queue-method brings an improvement in the performance of the FLC for wide range of set point changes by a more profound initial population spread in the search space.
Calculations of Backscattering Mueller Matrices for Turbid Media with a Sphere Queue Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Qing-Hua; LI Zhen-Hua; LAI Jian-Cheng; ZHANG Ying-Ying; HE An-Zhi
2006-01-01
A sphere queue model is introduced to calculate Mueller matrices of turbid media. Combined with the single scattering approximation, the backscattering Mueller matrices of turbid media can be computed rapidly by Mie theory. The numerical results agree with the azimuthal dependences of backscattering Mueller matrices' patterns from turbid media, which indicates that the major contribution to the Mueller matrices' patterns comes from the single scattering of the sphere queue, and the multiple scattering considered as a high-order correction does not change the patterns. The numerical analysis reveals that the contrast of Mueller matrices' patterns will decrease with increase of the concentration of media and the distance from the incident point.
The Jackson Queueing Network Model Built Using Poisson Measures. Application To A Bank Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ciuiu Daniel
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper we will build a bank model using Poisson measures and Jackson queueing networks. We take into account the relationship between the Poisson and the exponential distributions, and we consider for each credit/deposit type a node where shocks are modeled as the compound Poisson processes. The transmissions of the shocks are modeled as moving between nodes in Jackson queueing networks, the external shocks are modeled as external arrivals, and the absorption of shocks as departures from the network.
Optimal scaling of average queue sizes in an input-queued switch: an open problem
Shah, Devavrat; Tsitsiklis, John N.; Zhong, Yuan
2011-01-01
We review some known results and state a few versions of an open problem related to the scaling of the total queue size (in steady state) in an n×n input-queued switch, as a function of the port number n and the load factor ρ. Loosely speaking, the question is whether the total number of packets in queue, under either the maximum weight policy or under an optimal policy, scales (ignoring any logarithmic factors) as O(n/(1 − ρ)).
A queueing model for error control of partial buffer sharing in ATM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahn Boo Yong
1999-01-01
Full Text Available We model the error control of the partial buffer sharing of ATM by a queueing system M 1 , M 2 / G / 1 / K + 1 with threshold and instantaneous Bernoulli feedback. We first derive the system equations and develop a recursive method to compute the loss probabilities at an arbitrary time epoch. We then build an approximation scheme to compute the mean waiting time of each class of cells. An algorithm is developed for finding the optimal threshold and queue capacity for a given quality of service.
Efficient simulation of finite horizon problems in queueing and insurance risk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rojas-Nandayapa, Leonardo; Asmussen, Søren
Let ψ(u, t) be the probability that the workload in an initially empty M/G/1 queue exceeds u at time t < ∞, or, equivalently, the ruin probability in the classical Crámer-Lundberg model. Assuming service times/claim sizes to be subexponential, various Monte Carlo estimators for ψ(u, t) are sugges......Let ψ(u, t) be the probability that the workload in an initially empty M/G/1 queue exceeds u at time t service times/claim sizes to be subexponential, various Monte Carlo estimators for ψ(u, t...
A Service Ratio-Based Dynamic Fair Queueing Algorithm for Packet Switching Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YIN De-bin; XIE Jian-ying; ZHANG Yan; WU Jian-zhen; SUN Hua-li
2008-01-01
A new weighted fair queeetng algodthm is proposed,which uses the novel flow-based service ratio parameters to schedule flows.This solves the main drawback of traditional weighted fair quoneing algorithmsthe packet-based calculation of the weight parameters.In addition,this paper proposes a novel service ratio calculation method and a queue management techaology.The former adjusts the service ratio parameters adaptively based on the dynamics of the packet lengths and then solves the unfairness problem induced by the variable packet length.The latter impgoves the utilization of the server's queue buffeg and reduces the delay jitter throegh restricting the buffer length for each flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhao Yi Fan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available paper presents a new use of double queues asymmetric gated service polling system in the intelligent traffic light control system.Usually there are more vehicles in main road than minor road,so there are more green light time be needed in the main road.From the computer simulation and theory analysis,we can find that the application of double queues asymmetric gated service polling theory in intelligent traffic system can balance intersections load and set suitable passing time for vehicles to assure the roads open.
On Eigenvalues of the Generator of a C0-Semigroup Appearing in Queueing Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geni Gupur
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We describe the point spectrum of the generator of a C0-semigroup associated with the M/M/1 queueing model that is governed by an infinite system of partial differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Our results imply that the essential growth bound of the C0-semigroup is 0 and, therefore, that the semigroup is not quasi-compact. Moreover, our result also shows that it is impossible that the time-dependent solution of the M/M/1 queueing model exponentially converges to its steady-state solution.
Stochastic Processes and Queueing Theory used in Cloud Computer Performance Simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florin-Catalin ENACHE
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The growing character of the cloud business has manifested exponentially in the last 5 years. The capacity managers need to concentrate on a practical way to simulate the random demands a cloud infrastructure could face, even if there are not too many mathematical tools to simulate such demands.This paper presents an introduction into the most important stochastic processes and queueing theory concepts used for modeling computer performance. Moreover, it shows the cases where such concepts are applicable and when not, using clear programming examples on how to simulate a queue, and how to use and validate a simulation, when there are no mathematical concepts to back it up.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woźniak Marcin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, application of an evolutionary strategy to positioning a GI/M/1/N-type finite-buffer queueing system with exhaustive service and a single vacation policy is presented. The examined object is modeled by a conditional joint transform of the first busy period, the first idle time and the number of packets completely served during the first busy period. A mathematical model is defined recursively by means of input distributions. In the paper, an analytical study and numerical experiments are presented. A cost optimization problem is solved using an evolutionary strategy for a class of queueing systems described by exponential and Erlang distributions.
A Novel Analytic Technique for the Service Station Reliability in a Discrete-Time Repairable Queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renbin Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a decomposition technique for the service station reliability in a discrete-time repairable GeomX/G/1 queueing system, in which the server takes exhaustive service and multiple adaptive delayed vacation discipline. Using such a novel analytic technique, some important reliability indices and reliability relation equations of the service station are derived. Furthermore, the structures of the service station indices are also found. Finally, special cases and numerical examples validate the derived results and show that our analytic technique is applicable to reliability analysis of some complex discrete-time repairable bulk arrival queueing systems.
An M/M/2 Queueing System with Heterogeneous Servers Including One with Working Vacation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Krishnamoorthy
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes an M/M/2 queueing system with two heterogeneous servers, one of which is always available but the other goes on vacation in the absence of customers waiting for service. The vacationing server, however, returns to serve at a low rate as an arrival finds the other server busy. The system is analyzed in the steady state using matrix geometric method. Busy period of the system is analyzed and mean waiting time in the stationary regime computed. Conditional stochastic decomposition of stationary queue length is obtained. An illustrative example is also provided.
Reservicing some customers in M/G/1 queues under three disciplines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. R. Salehi-Rad
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Consider an M/G/1 production line in which a production item is failed with some probability and is then repaired. We consider three repair disciplines depending on whether the failed item is repaired immediately or first stockpiled and repaired after all customers in the main queue are served or the stockpile reaches a specified threshold. For each discipline, we find the probability generating function (p.g.f. of the steady-state size of the system at the moment of departure of the customer in the main queue, the mean busy period, and the probability of the idle period.
Single-Producer/Single-Consumer Queues on Shared Cache Multi-Core Systems
Torquati, Massimo
2010-01-01
Using efficient point-to-point communication channels is critical for implementing fine grained parallel program on modern shared cache multi-core architectures. This report discusses in detail several implementations of wait-free Single-Producer/Single-Consumer queue (SPSC), and presents a novel and efficient algorithm for the implementation of an unbounded wait-free SPSC queue (uSPSC). The correctness proof of the new algorithm, and several performance measurements based on simple synthetic benchmark and microbenchmark, are also discussed.
Performance Study of OBS Combined Node via Mixed Loss Delay Queueing Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Faisal Hayat
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a performance study of OBS (Optical Burst Switched combined node via mixed loss delay queueing models. In an OBS network, a node combining both edge and core switching functions multiplex the local traffic with the transit traffic on the output wavelengths channels. To control the channel sharing, strategies are proposed and analyzed in this study by extending the basic mixed loss delay queueing models. The presented models are solved by Markov chain techniques and the results are compared, and where necessary also supported, by the simulations of an OBS node implemented in detail
A closed-form solution for a two-server heterogeneous retrial queue with threshold policy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
TIEN VAN DO; DENES PAPP; RAM CHAKKA; JINTING WANG; JANOS SZTRIK
2016-08-01
In this paper, we reconsider a two-server heterogeneous retrial queue with threshold policy. However, the computation time with the existing method is prohibitively large for certain values of the threshold parameter. Applying the spectral expansion method, we derive a closed-form expression for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors matrix that are needed to determine the steady-state distribution of a quasi-birth-death process describing the queue. As a result, the computation time for the performance measures does not depend on the threshold parameter.
Comparison of TEAR and TFRC throughput for Drop tail and RED Queue Management Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parminderjeet Singh
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The comparison of throughput for TEAR (TCP emulation at receivers and TFRC TCP friendly rate control in MANETs is done with varying Active queue Management Techniques. The analysis reveals that for bandwidth constraint links, TEAR and TFRC perform far better than normal traffic propagation through TCP. In case of TEAR, the processing and route congestion algorithm load is shared by the receiver resulting in lesser load at the transmitters. In TFRC the TCP traffic is propagated via an algorithm to curb acknowledgement congestions. The effect of these two techniques is monitored on Droptail and RED, two of the most common Active Queue Management Techniques.
Approximating response time distributions in closed queueing network models of computer performance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salza, S.; Lavenberg, S.S.
1981-01-01
Hierarchical decomposition methods for approximating response time distributions in certain closed queueing network models of computer performance are investigated. The methods investigated apply whenever part of a customer's response time consists of a geometrically distributed number of successive cycles within a subnetwork. The key step involves replacing the subnetwork with parallel exponential servers having queue-size dependent service rates. Results on thinning stochastic point processes are used to justify this replacement when the mean number of cycles is large. Preliminary numerical comparisons of the approximations with simulation results indicate that the approximations are quite accurate even when the mean number of cycles is small. 17 references.
A power-efficient and scalable load-store queue design
Castro, F.; Chaver Martínez, Daniel Ángel; Piñuel Moreno, Luis; Prieto Matías, Manuel; Huang, M.C.; Tirado Fernández, Francisco
2005-01-01
The load-store queue (LQ-SQ) of modem superscalar processors is responsible for keeping the order of memory operations. As the performance gap between processing speed and memory access becomes worse, the capacity requirements for the LQ-SQ increase, and its design becomes a challenge due to its CAM structure. In this paper we propose an efficient load-store queue state filtering mechanism that provides a significant energy reduction (on average 35% in the LSQ and 3.5% in the whole processor)...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We prove a heavy traffic limit theorem to justify diffusion approximations for multiclass queueing networks under preemptive priority service discipline and provide effective stochastic dynamical models for the systems. Such queueing networks appear typically in high-speed integrated services packet networks about telecommunication system. In the network, there is a number of packet traffic types. Each type needs a number of job classes (stages) of processing and each type of jobs is assigned the same priority rank at every station where it possibly receives service. Moreover, there is no inter-routing among different traffic types throughout the entire network.
Design of ATM Networks Congestion Controller Based on the Virtual Queue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhi-xin; GUAN Xin-ping; LONG Cheng-nian
2004-01-01
The single bottleneck node of ATM networks is considered. The virtual queue mechanism and the method of proportion-integral-differential(PID) control are adopted in the congestion control. The sufficient condition of the considered system's stability is given. The method of determining the PID parameters is given further. To quicken the speed of startup and remove the congestion rapidly, the factors of increase and decrease are set according to the length of queue. The result of simulation shows that the system, given an appropriate group of parameters, can acquire good robustness and dynamic performance, and guarantees the quality of service at the same time.
The M/M/1 queue with inventory, lost sale and general lead times
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saffari, Mohammad; Asmussen, Søren; Haji, Rasoul
We consider an M/M/1 queueing system with inventory under the (r,Q) policy and with lost sales, in which demands occur according to a Poisson process and service times are exponentially distributed. All arriving customers during stockout are lost. We derive the stationary distributions of the joi...... queue length (number of customers in the system) and on-hand inventory when lead times are random variables and can take various distributions. The derived stationary distributions are used to formulate long-run average performance measures and cost functions in some numerical examples....
Chen, Dong; Gara, Alana; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Wisniewski, Robert
2014-09-16
Implementation primitives for concurrent array-based stacks, queues, double-ended queues (deques) and wrapped deques are provided. In one aspect, each element of the stack, queue, deque or wrapped deque data structure has its own ticket lock, allowing multiple threads to concurrently use multiple elements of the data structure and thus achieving high performance. In another aspect, new synchronization primitives FetchAndIncrementBounded (Counter, Bound) and FetchAndDecrementBounded (Counter, Bound) are implemented. These primitives can be implemented in hardware and thus promise a very fast throughput for queues, stacks and double-ended queues.
A queueing model of pilot decision making in a multi-task flight management situation
Walden, R. S.; Rouse, W. B.
1977-01-01
Allocation of decision making responsibility between pilot and computer is considered and a flight management task, designed for the study of pilot-computer interaction, is discussed. A queueing theory model of pilot decision making in this multi-task, control and monitoring situation is presented. An experimental investigation of pilot decision making and the resulting model parameters are discussed.
Dynamic properties of chasers in a moving queue based on a delayed chasing model
Ning, Guo; Jian-Xun, Ding; Xiang, Ling; Qin, Shi; Reinhart, Kühne
2016-05-01
A delayed chasing model is proposed to simulate the chase behavior in the queue, where each member regards the closest one ahead as the target, and the leader is attracted to a target point with slight fluctuation. When the initial distances between neighbors possess an identical low value, the fluctuating target of the leader can cause an amplified disturbance in the queue. After a long period of time, the queue recovers the stable state from the disturbance, forming a straight-line-like pattern again, but distances between neighbors grow. Whether the queue can keep stable or not depends on initial distance, desired velocity, and relaxation time. Furthermore, we carry out convergence analysis to explain the divergence transformation behavior and confirm the convergence conditions, which is in approximate agreement with simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71071044, 71001001, 71201041, and 11247291), the Doctoral Program of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20110111120023 and 20120111120022), the Postdoctoral Fund Project of China (Grant No. 2013M530295), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB725404), and 1000 Plan for Foreign Talent, China (Grant No. WQ20123400070).
A fast cross-entropy method for estimating buffer overflows in queueing networks
Boer, de P.T.; Kroese, D.P.; Rubinstein, R.Y.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we propose a fast adaptive importance sampling method for the efficient simulation of buffer overflow probabilities in queueing networks. The method comprises three stages. First, we estimate the minimum cross-entropy tilting parameter for a small buffer level; next, we use this as a
Fokker-Planck description for the queue dynamics of large tick stocks
Garèche, A.; Disdier, G.; Kockelkoren, J.; Bouchaud, J.-P.
2013-09-01
Motivated by empirical data, we develop a statistical description of the queue dynamics for large tick assets based on a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck (diffusion) equation. Our description explicitly includes state dependence, i.e., the fact that the drift and diffusion depend on the volume present on both sides of the spread. “Jump” events, corresponding to sudden changes of the best limit price, must also be included as birth-death terms in the Fokker-Planck equation. All quantities involved in the equation can be calibrated using high-frequency data on the best quotes. One of our central findings is that the dynamical process is approximately scale invariant, i.e., the only relevant variable is the ratio of the current volume in the queue to its average value. While the latter shows intraday seasonalities and strong variability across stocks and time periods, the dynamics of the rescaled volumes is universal. In terms of rescaled volumes, we found that the drift has a complex two-dimensional structure, which is a sum of a gradient contribution and a rotational contribution, both stable across stocks and time. This drift term is entirely responsible for the dynamical correlations between the ask queue and the bid queue.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lian-Hui Li
Full Text Available The production task queue has a great significance for manufacturing resource allocation and scheduling decision. Man-made qualitative queue optimization method has a poor effect and makes the application difficult. A production task queue optimization method is proposed based on multi-attribute evaluation. According to the task attributes, the hierarchical multi-attribute model is established and the indicator quantization methods are given. To calculate the objective indicator weight, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC is selected from three usual methods. To calculate the subjective indicator weight, BP neural network is used to determine the judge importance degree, and then the trapezoid fuzzy scale-rough AHP considering the judge importance degree is put forward. The balanced weight, which integrates the objective weight and the subjective weight, is calculated base on multi-weight contribution balance model. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS improved by replacing Euclidean distance with relative entropy distance is used to sequence the tasks and optimize the queue by the weighted indicator value. A case study is given to illustrate its correctness and feasibility.
Analysis of Markov-modulated infinite-server queues in the central-limit regime
Blom, J.G.; Turck, K. de; Mandjes, M.R.H.
2014-01-01
This paper focuses on an infinite-server queue modulated by an independently evolving finite-state Markovian background process, with transition rate matrix $Q\\equiv(q_{ij})_{i,j=1}^d$. {Both arrival rates and service rates are depending on the state of the background process.} The main contributi
Queueing Delay and Energy Efficiency Analyses of Sleep Based Power Saving Mechanism
Zhu, Fan; Wu, Yiqun; Niu, Zhisheng
In wireless networks, sleep mode based power saving mechanisms can reduce the energy consumption at the expense of additional packet delay. This letter analyzes its packet queueing delay and wireless terminals' energy efficiency. Based on the analysis, optimal sleep window size can be derived to optimize terminal energy efficiency with delay constraint.
Li, Lian-Hui; Mo, Rong
2015-01-01
The production task queue has a great significance for manufacturing resource allocation and scheduling decision. Man-made qualitative queue optimization method has a poor effect and makes the application difficult. A production task queue optimization method is proposed based on multi-attribute evaluation. According to the task attributes, the hierarchical multi-attribute model is established and the indicator quantization methods are given. To calculate the objective indicator weight, criteria importance through intercriteria correlation (CRITIC) is selected from three usual methods. To calculate the subjective indicator weight, BP neural network is used to determine the judge importance degree, and then the trapezoid fuzzy scale-rough AHP considering the judge importance degree is put forward. The balanced weight, which integrates the objective weight and the subjective weight, is calculated base on multi-weight contribution balance model. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) improved by replacing Euclidean distance with relative entropy distance is used to sequence the tasks and optimize the queue by the weighted indicator value. A case study is given to illustrate its correctness and feasibility.
Analysis of congestion periods of an m/m/∞-queue
Roijers, F.; Mandjes, M.; Berg, J.L. van den
2007-01-01
A c-congestion period of an m/m/ ∞-queue is a period during which the number of customers in the system is continuously above level c. Interesting quantities related to a c-congestion period are, besides its duration Dc, the total area Ac above c, and the number of arrived customers Nc. In the liter
DROP TAIL AND RED QUEUE MANAGEMENT WITH SMALL BUFFERS:STABILITY AND HOPF BIFURCATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ganesh Patil
2011-06-01
Full Text Available There are many factors that are important in the design of queue management schemes for routers in the Internet: for example, queuing delay, link utilization, packet loss, energy consumption and the impact of router buffer size. By considering a fluid model for the congestion avoidance phase of Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD TCP, in a small buffer regime, we argue that stability should also be a desirable feature for network performance. The queue management schemes we study are Drop Tail and Random Early Detection (RED. For Drop Tail, the analytical arguments are based on local stability and bifurcation theory. As the buffer size acts as a bifurcation parameter, variations in it can readily lead to the emergence of limit cycles. We then present NS2 simulations to study the effect of changing buffer size on queue dynamics, utilization, window size and packet loss for three different flow scenarios. The simulations corroborate the analysis which highlights that performance is coupled with the notion of stability. Our work suggests that, in a small buffer regime, a simple Drop Tail queue management serves to enhance stability and appears preferable to the much studied RED scheme.
Boots, Nam Kyoo; Shahabuddin, Perwez
2001-01-01
This paper deals with estimating small tail probabilities of thesteady-state waiting time in a GI/GI/1 queue with heavy-tailed (subexponential) service times. The problem of estimating infinite horizon ruin probabilities in insurance risk processes with heavy-tailed claims can be transformed into th
Analysis of congestion periods of an M/M/infinity-queue
Roijers, F.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van den Berg, H
2007-01-01
ABSTRACT A c-congestion period of an m/m/~-queue is a period during which the number of customers in the system is continuously above level c. Interesting quantities related to a c-congestion period are, besides its duration D"c, the total area A"c above c, and the number of arrived customers N"c. I
Woudt, Edwin; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.
2007-01-01
Previous work on state-dependent adaptive importance sampling techniques for the simulation of rare events in Markovian queueing models used either no smoothing or a parametric smoothing technique, which was known to be non-optimal. In this paper, we introduce the use of kernel smoothing in this con
A new, analysis-based, change of measure for tandem queues
Boer, de Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Werner R.W.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a simple analytical approximation for the overflow probability of a two-node tandem queue. From this, we derive a change of measure, which turns out to have good performance in almost the entire parameter space. The form of our new change of measure sheds an interesting n
Boots, Nam Kyoo; Shahabuddin, Perwez
2001-01-01
This paper deals with estimating small tail probabilities of thesteady-state waiting time in a GI/GI/1 queue with heavy-tailed (subexponential) service times. The problem of estimating infinite horizon ruin probabilities in insurance risk processes with heavy-tailed claims can be transformed into th
Adaptive state-dependent importance sampling simulation of Markovian queueing networks
de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.
2002-01-01
In this paper, a method is presented for the efficient estimation of rare-event (buffer overflow) probabilities in queueing networks using importance sampling. Unlike previously proposed change of measures, the one used here is not static, i.e., it depends on the buffer contents at each of the
Active Methodologies in a Queueing Systems Course for Telecommunication Engineering Studies
Garcia, J.; Hernandez, A.
2010-01-01
This paper presents the results of a one-year experiment in incorporating active methodologies in a Queueing Systems course as part of the Telecommunication Engineering degree at the University of Zaragoza, Spain, during the period of adaptation to the European Higher Education Area. A problem-based learning methodology has been introduced, and…
Active Methodologies in a Queueing Systems Course for Telecommunication Engineering Studies
Garcia, J.; Hernandez, A.
2010-01-01
This paper presents the results of a one-year experiment in incorporating active methodologies in a Queueing Systems course as part of the Telecommunication Engineering degree at the University of Zaragoza, Spain, during the period of adaptation to the European Higher Education Area. A problem-based learning methodology has been introduced, and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.Sinthu Janita Prakash
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Wireless links are characterized by high error rates and intermittent connectivity. TCP congestion control has been developed on the assumption that network congestion is the only cause for packet loss. Upon detecting a packet loss, TCP drops its transmit window resulting in an unnecessary reduction of end-to-end throughput which results in suboptimal performance.The sender has to be made aware by some feedback mechanism that some of the losses reported are not due to congestion. The Active Queue Management algorithms (AQM are used to reduce congestion, and in this paper, we have analysed four AQM algorithms, Random Early Deduction (RED, Wireless Explicit Congestion Notification (WECN, Queue Management Backward Congestion Control Algorithm (QMBCCA and its enhanced version Extended Queue Management Backward Congestion Control Algorithm (EQMBCCA. WECN, QMBCCA & EQMBCCA algorithms make use of feedback mechanisms. WECN gives feedback using the CE bit. QMBCCA and EQMBCCA make use of ISQ notifications and also the CE bit whenever the average queue size crosses minimum threshold value. EQMBCCA reduces the reverse ISQ traffic by introducing a configurable intermediate threshold value IntThres. The comparison is made in terms of Delay, HTTP packet loss percentage and fairness for FTP flows in a wireless environment. It is found that the performance of EQMBCCA is almost equal to that of QMBCCA and better than RED and WECN.
Optimal hysteretic control for a BMAP/SM/1/N queue with two operation modes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander N. Dudin
2000-01-01
Full Text Available We consider BMAP/SM/1 type queueing system with finite buffer of size N. The system has two operation modes, which are characterized by the matrix generating function of BMAP-input, the kernel of the semi-Markovian service process, and utilization cost. An algorithm for determining the optimal hysteresis strategy is presented.
ON THE TRANSIENT DEPARTURE PROCESS OF Mx/G/1 QUEUEING SYSTEM WITH SINGLE SERVER VACATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yinghui TANG
2007-01-01
This paper studies the transient departure process of Mx/G/1 queueing system with single server vacation. We present a simple probability decomposition method to derive the expected number of departures occurring in finite time interval from any initial state and the asymptotic expansion of the expected number. Especially, we derive some more practical results for some special cases.
Proposition of delay model for signalized intersections with queueing theory analytical models usage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grzegorz SIERPIŃSKI
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Time delay on intersections is a very important transport problem. Thearticle includes a proposition of time delay model. Variance of service times is considered by used average waiting time in queue for queuing system with compressed queuing processes usage as a part of proposed time delays model.
A Busy period analysis for the state dependent M/M/1/K queue
Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Boxma, Onno
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a state dependent M/M/1/K queue during the busy period. We derive in closed-form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number of customers served during the busy period, and the number of losses during the busy period. For two
A Busy period analysis of the level dependent PH/PH/1/K queue
Al Hanbali, Ahmad
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a level dependent single server queuing system with a waiting room of finite size during the busy period. The focus is on the level dependent PH/PH/1/K queue. We derive in closed form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number
Large Deviations Methods and the Join-the-Shortest-Queue Model
Ridder, Ad; Shwartz, Adam
2005-01-01
We develop a methodology for studying ''large deviations type'' questions. Our approach does not require that the large deviations principle holds, and is thus applicable to a larg class of systems. We study a system of queues with exponential servers, which share an arrival stream. Arrivals are rou
Note---A Note on Computing Optimal Control Limits for GI/M/1 Queueing Systems
1987-01-01
This note corrects an error in van Nunen and Puterman (van Nunen, J. A. E. E., M. L. Puterman. 1983. Computing optimal control limits for GI/M/s queueing systems with controlled arrivals. Management Sci. 29 725--734.) and extends some of their results to the average reward case.
Fluid limits for overloaded multiclass FIFO single-server queues with general abandonment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amber L. Puha
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider an overloaded multiclass nonidling first-in-first-outsingle-server queue with abandonment. The interarrival times, servicetimes, and deadline times are sequences of independent and identically,but generally distributed random variables. In prior work, Jennings andReed studied the workload process associated with this queue. Undermild conditions, they establish both a functional law of large numbersand a functional central limit theorem for this process. We build on thatwork here. For this, we consider a more detailed description of thesystem state given by K finite, nonnegative Borel measures on thenonnegative quadrant, one for each job class. For each time and jobclass, the associated measure has a unit atom associated with each jobof that class in the system at the coordinates determined by what arereferred to as the residual virtual sojourn time and residual patiencetime of that job. Under mild conditions, we prove a functional law oflarge numbers for this measure-valued state descriptor. This yieldsapproximations for related processes such as the queue lengths andabandoning queue lengths. An interesting characteristic of theseapproximations is that they depend on the deadline distributions intheir entirety.
Many-server queues with customer abandonment: numerical analysis of their diffusion models
Dai, J G
2011-01-01
We use multidimensional diffusion processes to approximate the dynamics of a queue served by many parallel servers. The queue is served in the first-in-first-out (FIFO) order and the customers waiting in queue may abandon the system without service. Two diffusion models are proposed in this paper. They differ in how the patience time distribution is built into them. The first diffusion model uses the patience time density at zero and the second one uses the entire patience time distribution. To analyze these diffusion models, we develop a numerical algorithm for computing the stationary distribution of such a diffusion process. A crucial part of the algorithm is to choose an appropriate reference density. Using a conjecture on the tail behavior of a limit queue length process, we propose a systematic approach to constructing a reference density. With the proposed reference density, the algorithm is shown to converge quickly in numerical experiments. These experiments also show that the diffusion models are go...
On the Control of a Queueing System with Aging State Information
M. Onderwater (Martijn); S. Bhulai (Sandjai); R.D. van der Mei (Rob)
2015-01-01
htmlabstractWe investigate control of a queueing system in which a component of the state space is subject to aging. The controller can choose to forward incoming queries to the system (where it needs time for processing), or respond with a previously generated response (incurring a penalty for not
Busy period analysis of the level dependent PH/PH/1/K queue
Al Hanbali, Ahmad
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study the transient behavior of a level dependent single server queuing system with a waiting room of finite size during the busy period. The focus is on the level dependent PH/PH/1/K queue. We derive in closed form the joint transform of the length of the busy period, the number o
Stochastic Approximations and Monotonicity of a Single Server Feedback Retrial Queue
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on stochastic comparison of the Markov chains to derive some qualitative approximations for an M/G/1 retrial queue with a Bernoulli feedback. The main objective is to use stochastic ordering techniques to establish various monotonicity results with respect to arrival rates, service time distributions, and retrial parameters.
Stochastic Approximations and Monotonicity of a Single Server Feedback Retrial Queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Boualem
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on stochastic comparison of the Markov chains to derive some qualitative approximations for an M/G/1 retrial queue with a Bernoulli feedback. The main objective is to use stochastic ordering techniques to establish various monotonicity results with respect to arrival rates, service time distributions, and retrial parameters.
The application of queue theory in cloud computing to reduce the waiting time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.N. Bharkad
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new technology in computer field to provide on line service to the customers. -Cloud computing has got enormous popularity as it offers dynamic, low-cost computing solutions. To get the service of cloud the user has to be in queue until he is served. Each arriving Cloud computing User (CCU requests Cloud computing Service Provider (CCSP to use the resources, if server is available, the arriving user will seize and hold it for a length of time, which leads to queue length and more waiting time. A new arrival leaves the queue with no service. After service completion the server is made immediately available to others. From the user’s point of view he needs to be served immediately and to prevent waiting the CCSP’s can use infinite servers to reduce waiting time & queue length. The arrival pattern is often Poisson in queuing theory. In this article we analyzed the dynamic behavior of the system with infinite servers by finding various effective measures like response time, average time spend in the system, utilization and throughput.
Efficient simulation of finite horizon problems in queueing and insurance risk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rojas-Nandayapa, Leonardo; Asmussen, Søren
2007-01-01
Let ψ(u,t) be the probability that the workload in an initially empty M/G/1 queue exceeds u at time t<∞, or, equivalently, the ruin probability in the classical Crámer-Lundberg model. Assuming service times/claim sizes to be subexponential, various Monte Carlo estimators for ψ(u,t) are suggested....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dudu G. Sokhela
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Background: Comprehensive Primary Health Care (PHC, based on the principles of accessibility, availability, affordability, equity and acceptability, was introduced in South Africa to address inequalities in health service provision. Whilst the Fast Queue was instrumental in the promotion of access to health care, a major goal of the PHC approach, facilities were not prepared for the sudden influx of clients. Increased access resulted in long waiting times and queues contributing to dissatisfaction with the service which could lead to missed appointments and non-compliance with established treatment plans.Objectives: Firstly to describe the experiences of clients using the Fast Queue strategy to access routine healthcare services and secondly, to determine how the clients’ experiences led to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the Fast Queue service.Method: A descriptive qualitative survey using content analysis explored the experiences of the Fast Queue users in a PHC setting. Setting was first identified based on greatest number using the Fast Queue and geographic diversity and then a convenience sample of health care users of the Fast Queue were sampled individually along with one focus group of users who accessed the Queue monthly for medication refills. The same interview guide questions were used for both individual interviews and the one focus group discussion. Five clinics with the highest number of attendees during a three month period and a total of 83 health care users of the Fast Queue were interviewed. The average participant was female, 31 years old, single and unemployed.Results: Two themes with sub-themes emerged: health care user flow and communication, which highlights both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the fast queue and queue marshals, could assist in directing users to the respective queues, reduce waiting time and keep users satisfied with the use of sign posts where there is a lack of human resources
A spectral approach to compute the mean performance measures of the queue with low-order BMAP input
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ho Woo Lee
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper targets engineers and practitioners who want a simple procedure to compute the mean performance measures of the Batch Markovian Arrival process (BMAP/G/1 queueing system when the parameter matrices order is very low. We develop a set of system equations and derive the vector generating function of the queue length. Starting from the generating function, we propose a spectral approach that can be understandable to those who have basic knowledge of M/G/1 queues and eigenvalue algebra.
The truncated Hyper-Poisson queues: Hk/Ma,b/C/N with balking, reneging and general bulk service rule
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shawky A.I.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to derive the analytical solution of the queue: Hk/Ma,b/C/N with balking and reneging in which (I units arrive according to a hyper-Poisson distribution with k independent branches, (II the queue discipline is FIFO; and (III the units are served in batches according to a general bulk service rule. The steady-state probabilities, recurrence relations connecting various probabilities introduced are found and the expected number of units in the queue is derived in an explicit form. Also, some special cases are obtained. .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dudu G. Sokhela
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Comprehensive Primary Health Care (PHC, based on the principles of accessibility, availability, affordability, equity and acceptability, was introduced in South Africa to address inequalities in health service provision. Whilst the Fast Queue was instrumental in the promotion of access to health care, a major goal of the PHC approach, facilities were not prepared for the sudden influx of clients. Increased access resulted in long waiting times and queues contributing to dissatisfaction with the service which could lead to missed appointments and non-compliance with established treatment plans. Objectives: Firstly to describe the experiences of clients using the Fast Queue strategy to access routine healthcare services and secondly, to determine how the clients’ experiences led to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the Fast Queue service.Method: A descriptive qualitative survey using content analysis explored the experiences of the Fast Queue users in a PHC setting. Setting was first identified based on greatest number using the Fast Queue and geographic diversity and then a convenience sample of health care users of the Fast Queue were sampled individually along with one focus group of users who accessed the Queue monthly for medication refills. The same interview guide questions were used for both individual interviews and the one focus group discussion. Five clinics with the highest number of attendees during a three month period and a total of 83 health care users of the Fast Queue were interviewed. The average participant was female, 31 years old, single and unemployed.Results: Two themes with sub-themes emerged: health care user flow and communication, which highlights both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the fast queue and queue marshals, could assist in directing users to the respective queues, reduce waiting time and keep users satisfied with the use of sign posts where there is a lack of human resources
ANALYSIS AND COMPUTATIONAL ALGORITHM FOR QUEUES WITH STATE-DEPENDENT VACATIONS I: G/M(n)/1/K
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiuli CHAO; Ayyar RAHMAN
2006-01-01
In this paper we study a queueing system with state-dependent services and state-dependent vacations, or simply G/M(n)/1/K. Since the service rate is state-dependent, this system includes G/M/c and G/M/c/K queues with various types of station vacations as special cases. We provide a recursive algorithm using the supplementary variable technique to numerically compute the stationary queue length distribution of the system. The only input requirement is the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the interarrival distribution as well as the state-dependent service rate and state-dependent vacation rate. In a subsequent companion paper, we study its dual system M(n)/G/1/K queue with statedependent vacations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.ReniSagaya Raj
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a state-dependent queueing system in which the system is subject to random breakdowns. Customer arrive at the system randomly following a Poisson process with state-dependent rates. Service times follows PH distribution and repair times are exponentially distributed. The server may fail to service with probability depending on the number of customer completed since the last repair. The main result of this paper is the matrix-geometric solution of the steady-state queue length from which many performance measurements of this queueing system like the stationary queue length distribution, waiting time distribution and the distribution of regular busy period, system utilization are obtained. Numerical examples are presented for both cases.
Analysis of an M/M/c Queueing System with Impatient Customers and Synchronous Vacations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dequan Yue
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider an M/M/c queueing system with impatient customers and a synchronous vacation policy, where customer impatience is due to the servers’ vacation. Whenever a system becomes empty, all the servers take a vacation. If the system is still empty, when the vacation ends, all the servers take another vacation; otherwise, they return to serve the queue. We develop the balance equations for the steady-state probabilities and solve the equations by using the probability generating function method. We obtain explicit expressions of some important performance measures by means of the two indexes. Based on these, we obtain some results about limiting behavior for some performance measures. We derive closed-form expressions of some important performance measures for two special cases. Finally, some numerical results are also presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bindu Abraham
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze DAR(1/D/s Queue with Discrete Mittag-Leffler [DML(α] as marginal distribution. Simulation study of the sample path of the arrival process is conducted. For this queueing system, the stationary distribution of the system size and the waiting time distribution of an arbitrary packet is obtained with the help of matrix analytic methods and Markov regenerative theory. The quantitative effect of the stationary distribution on system size, waiting time and the autocorrelation function as well as the parameters of the input traffic is illustrated empirically. The model is applied to a real data on the passenger arrivals at a subway bus terminal in Santiago de Chile and is established that the model well suits this data.
Optimal operating policy for a controllable queueing model with a fuzzy environment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chuen-homg LIN; Jau-chuan KE
2009-01-01
We construct the membership functions of the fuzzy objective values of a controllable queueing model, in which cost elements, arrival rate and service rate are all fuzzy numbers. Based on Zadeh's extension principle, a set of parametric nonlinear programs is developed to find the upper and lower bounds of the minimal average total cost per unit time at the possibility level. The membership functions of the minimal average total cost are further constructed using different values of the possibility level. A numerical example is solved successfully to illustrate the validity of the proposed approach. Because the object value is ex-pressed and governed by the membership functions, the optimization problem in a fuzzy environment for the controllable queueing models is represented more accurately and analytical results are more useful for system designers and practitioners.
Improving Internet Quality of Service through Active Queue Management in Routers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gamal Attiya
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The traffic characteristics of real-time and non real-time applications require a certain Quality of Service (QoS from the Internet in terms of bandwidth, delay, packet loss, fairness and jitter. However, most of the current Active Queue Management (AQM algorithms at the internet routers do not guarantee QoS for real time traffics such as video and audio. This is because; most of the algorithms handle different packets of different traffics by the same strategy. In this paper, we propose a new AQM strategy to guarantee QoS for real time traffics. The proposed strategy uses three queues at the internet routers, each of which handles a single class of traffic. Where, the arriving packets are queued according to their class type. Additionally, the queued packets are scheduled according to a predefined weight. The proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with the most recent algorithms by using the Network simulator NS-2.
Impact of sensing errors on the queueing delay and transmit power in cognitive radio access
Hamza, Doha R.
2011-03-01
We study a multiple-access system with a primary user (PU) and a secondary user (SU) utilizing the same frequency band and communicating with a common receiver. Both users transmit with a fixed transmission rate by employing a channel inversion power control scheme. The SU transmits with a certain probability that depends on the sensing outcome, its queue length and whether it has a new packet arrival. We consider the case of erroneous sensing. The goal of the SU is to find the optimal transmission scheduling policy so as to minimize its queueing delay under constraints on its average transmit power and the maximum tolerable primary outage probability caused by miss-detection. The access probabilities are obtained efficiently using linear programming. © 2011 IEEE.
Jain, Mamta; Kumar, Anil; Choudhary, Rishabh Charan
2016-09-09
In this article, we have proposed an improved diagonal queue medical image steganography for patient secret medical data transmission using chaotic standard map, linear feedback shift register, and Rabin cryptosystem, for improvement of previous technique (Jain and Lenka in Springer Brain Inform 3:39-51, 2016). The proposed algorithm comprises four stages, generation of pseudo-random sequences (pseudo-random sequences are generated by linear feedback shift register and standard chaotic map), permutation and XORing using pseudo-random sequences, encryption using Rabin cryptosystem, and steganography using the improved diagonal queues. Security analysis has been carried out. Performance analysis is observed using MSE, PSNR, maximum embedding capacity, as well as by histogram analysis between various Brain disease stego and cover images.
A discrete-time queueing system with changes in the vacation times
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atencia Ivan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper considers a discrete-time queueing system in which an arriving customer can decide to follow a last come first served (LCFS service discipline or to become a negative customer that eliminates the one at service, if any. After service completion, the server can opt for a vacation time or it can remain on duty. Changes in the vacation times as well as their associated distribution are thoroughly studied. An extensive analysis of the system is carried out and, using a probability generating function approach, steady-state performance measures such as the first moments of the busy period of the queue content and of customers delay are obtained. Finally, some numerical examples to show the influence of the parameters on several performance characteristics are given.
Data Model Approach And Markov Chain Based Analysis Of Multi-Level Queue Scheduling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diwakar Shukla
2010-01-01
Full Text Available There are many CPU scheduling algorithms inliterature like FIFO, Round Robin, Shortest-Job-First and so on.The Multilevel-Queue-Scheduling is superior to these due to itsbetter management of a variety of processes. In this paper, aMarkov chain model is used for a general setup of Multilevelqueue-scheduling and the scheduler is assumed to performrandom movement on queue over the quantum of time.Performance of scheduling is examined through a rowdependent data model. It is found that with increasing value of αand d, the chance of system going over the waiting state reduces.At some of the interesting combinations of α and d, it diminishesto zero, thereby, provides us some clue regarding better choice ofqueues over others for high priority jobs. It is found that ifqueue priorities are added in the scheduling intelligently thenbetter performance could be obtained. Data model helpschoosing appropriate preferences.
Energy Efficiency in the Low-SNR Regime under Queueing Constraints and Channel Uncertainty
Qiao, Deli; Velipasalar, Senem
2009-01-01
Energy efficiency of fixed-rate transmissions is studied in the presence of queueing constraints and channel uncertainty. It is assumed that neither the transmitter nor the receiver has channel side information prior to transmission. The channel coefficients are estimated at the receiver via minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) estimation with the aid of training symbols. It is further assumed that the system operates under statistical queueing constraints in the form of limitations on buffer violation probabilities. The optimal fraction of power allocated to training is identified. Spectral efficiency--bit energy tradeoff is analyzed in the low-power and wideband regimes by employing the effective capacity formulation. In particular, it is shown that the bit energy increases without bound in the low-power regime as the average power vanishes. A similar conclusion is reached in the wideband regime if the number of noninteracting subchannels grow without bound with increasing bandwidth. On the other hand, it is pr...
Fast distributed strategic learning for global optima in queueing access games
Tembine, Hamidou
2014-08-24
In this paper we examine combined fully distributed payoff and strategy learning (CODIPAS) in a queue-aware access game over a graph. The classical strategic learning analysis relies on vanishing or small learning rate and uses stochastic approximation tool to derive steady states and invariant sets of the underlying learning process. Here, the stochastic approximation framework does not apply due to non-vanishing learning rate. We propose a direct proof of convergence of the process. Interestingly, the convergence time to one of the global optima is almost surely finite and we explicitly characterize the convergence time. We show that pursuit-based CODIPAS learning is much faster than the classical learning algorithms in games. We extend the methodology to coalitional learning and proves a very fast formation of coalitions for queue-aware access games where the action space is dynamically changing depending on the location of the user over a graph.
On a BMAP/G/1 G-queue with Setup Times andMultiple Vacations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi PENG; Xiang-qun YANG
2011-01-01
In this paper,we consider a BMAP/G/1 G-queue with setup times and multiple vacations.Arrivals of positive customers and negative customers follow a batch Markovian arrival process (BMAP) and Markovian arrival process (MAP) respectively.The arrival of a negative customer removes all the customers in the system when the server is working.The server leaves for a vacation as soon as the system empties and is allowed to take repeated (multiple) vacations.By using the supplementary variables method and the censoring technique,we obtain the queue length distributions.We also obtain the mean of the busy period based on the renewal theory.
A Discrete-Time Queue with Balking, Reneging, and Working Vacations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Veena Goswami
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of balking and reneging in finite-buffer discrete-time single server queue with single and multiple working vacations. An arriving customer may balk with a probability or renege after joining according to a geometric distribution. The server works with different service rates rather than completely stopping the service during a vacation period. The service times during a busy period, vacation period, and vacation times are assumed to be geometrically distributed. We find the explicit expressions for the stationary state probabilities. Various system performance measures and a cost model to determine the optimal service rates are presented. Moreover, some queueing models presented in the literature are derived as special cases of our model. Finally, the influence of various parameters on the performance characteristics is shown numerically.
The MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive priority
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bong Dae Choi
1997-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive resume priority, where low priority customers arrive to the system according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP and high priority customers according to a Poisson process. The service time density function of low (respectively: high priority customers is g1(x (respectively: g2(x. We use the supplementary variable method with Extended Laplace Transforms to obtain the joint transform of the number of customers in each priority queue, as well as the remaining service time for the customer in service in the steady state. We also derive the probability generating function for the number of customers of low (respectively, high priority in the system just after the service completion epochs for customers of low (respectively, high priority.
A SINGLE SERVER RETRIAL QUEUE WITH GENERAL RETRIAL TIMES AND TWO-PHASE SERVICE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinting WANG; Jianghua LI
2009-01-01
An M/G/1 retrial queue with a first-come-first-served (FCFS) orbit, general retrial time, two-phase service and server breakdown is investigated in this paper. Customers are allowed to balk and renege at particular times. Assume that the customers who find the server busy are queued in the orbit in accordance with an FCFS discipline. All customers demand the first "essential" service, whereas only some of them demand the second "optional" service, and the second service is multi-optional. During the service, the server is subject to breakdown and repair. Assume that the retrial time, the service time, and the repair time of the server are all arbitrarily distributed. By using the supplementary variables method, the authors obtain the steady-state solutions for both queueing and reliability measures of interest.
OPTIMAL CONTROL OF AN M/G/1 RETRIAL QUEUE WITH VACATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Arnar AISSANI
2008-01-01
In this note, we consider an M/G/1 retrial queue with server vacations, when retrial times, servicetimes and vacation times are arbitrary distributed. The distribution of the number of customers in the system in stationary regime is obtained in terms of generating function. Next, we give heavy traffic approximation of such distribution. We show that the system size can be decomposed into two random variables, one of which corresponds to the system size of the ordinary M/G/1 FIFO queue without vacation. Such a stochastic decomposition property is useful for the computation of performance measures of interest. Finally, we solve simple problems of optimal control of vacation and retrial policies.
Queues and care: how medical residents organize their work in a busy clinic.
Finlay, W; Mutran, E J; Zeitler, R R; Randall, C S
1990-09-01
How do medical residents organize their work in settings where queue demands are heavy and resources are limited? Under such conditions, a queue theory would predict the delivery of care that is indifferent to clients' needs or that gets rid of clients as quickly as possible. In an exploratory case study of medical residents in a Veterans Administration outpatient clinic, we found instead that the medical residents' work was characterized by a high level of professional commitment: they provided thorough medical examinations and attempted to expedite patient care in other ways. We attribute the residents' professional ethos to opportunities provided in the VA hospital to learn the craft of routine medicine and to be directly responsible for patient care; such opportunities were not available in other settings.
Sto godina Teorije redova čekanja / A hundred years of the Queueing Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nebojša V. Nikolić
2009-07-01
Full Text Available U radu je prikazan nastanak i razvoj Teorije redova čekanja, poznate i kao Teorija masovnog opsluživanja. Opisan je i istorijsko-tehnološki kontekst vremena u kojem je došlo do publikovanja prvih radova u oblasti koja će se kasnije razviti u samostalnu naučnu disciplinu. U 2009. godini Teorija redova čekanja navršava čitav vek od svog nastanka. / The paper presents a short review of histrorical development of the Queueing Theory, also known as Theory of Waiting Lines or Theory of Mass Servicing. We described historical and technological conditions at the time when first Queueing Theory papers were published. The motivation for this report comes from fact that the year 2009 is the 100th birthday of this theory.
Queue-Aware Distributive Resource Control for Delay-Sensitive Two-Hop MIMO Cooperative Systems
Wang, Rui; Cui, Ying
2010-01-01
In this paper, we consider a queue-aware distributive resource control algorithm for two-hop MIMO cooperative systems. We shall illustrate that relay buffering is an effective way to reduce the intrinsic half-duplex penalty in cooperative systems. The complex interactions of the queues at the source node and the relays are modeled as an average-cost infinite horizon Markov Decision Process (MDP). The traditional approach solving this MDP problem involves centralized control with huge complexity. To obtain a distributive and low complexity solution, we introduce a linear structure which approximates the value function of the associated Bellman equation by the sum of per-node value functions. We derive a distributive two-stage two-winner auction-based control policy which is a function of the local CSI and local QSI only. Furthermore, to estimate the best fit approximation parameter, we propose a distributive online stochastic learning algorithm using stochastic approximation theory. Finally, we establish techn...
Queue size and delay analysis for a communication system subject to traffic activity mode changes
Zukerman, M.; Rubin, I.
1986-06-01
A discrete single-server queueing/communication system in which the arrival distribution is changing stochastically with time is considered. The distribution of the number of messages to arrive within a time slot depends on a traffic activity process of modes. This process of modes is a two-state Markov chain: mode 0 and mode 1, which represent light and heavy traffic conditions, respectively. The transition probabilities of this Markov chain, or mode duration parameters (MDP's) determine the distribution of the duration of time the process stays in each mode. Expressions for the z-transform, expectation, and variance are obtained for the steady-state queue size and delay. A special consideration is given to the effect of the MDPs on the system performance, and the limiting cases (where the MDPs approach zero) are studied.
Second order effect of binary sources on characteristics of queue and loss rate
Sheng, Hong-Dah; Li, San-Qi
1994-02-01
A wideband source in high speed networks is typically represented by a binary random process. In this paper we characterize the second-order properties of each binary source by a multi-state MMPP. A comprehensive numerical study is carried out to identify the individual effect of the source second-order dynamics on the queue length and loss rate. The results can be used to verify the validity of the two-state Markov chain binary source assumption which is commonly made within the framework of input rate control and bandwidth allocation in high speed networks. The concept of input power spectrum is then developed as a unified source characterization for multimedia traffic queueing analyses.
Multicast Services of QoS-Aware Active Queue Management over IP Multimedia Applications
Hwang, I.-Shyan; Hwang, Bor-Jiunn; Chang, Pen-Ming
2010-10-01
Recently, the multimedia services such as IPTV, video conference emerges to be the main traffic source. When UDP coexists with TCP, it induces not only congestion collapse but also unfairness problem. In this paper, a new Active Queue Management (AQM) algorithm, called Traffic Sensitive Active Queue Management (TSAQM), is proposed for providing multimedia services. The TSAQM comprise Dynamic Weight Allocate Scheme (DWAS) and Service Guarantee Scheme (SGS), the purpose of DWAS is to allocate resource with fairness and high end-user utility, and the purpose of SGS is to determine the satisfactory threshold (TH) and threshold region (TR). Several objectives of this proposed scheme include achieving high end-user utility for video service, considering the multicast as well as unicast proprieties to meet inter-class fairness and achieving the QoS requirement by adjusting the thresholds adaptively based on traffic situations.
A finite capacity queue with Markovian arrivals and two servers with group services
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Chakravarthy
1994-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider a finite capacity queuing system in which arrivals are governed by a Markovian arrival process. The system is attended by two exponential servers, who offer services in groups of varying sizes. The service rates may depend on the number of customers in service. Using Markov theory, we study this finite capacity queuing model in detail by obtaining numerically stable expressions for (a the steady-state queue length densities at arrivals and at arbitrary time points; (b the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the stationary waiting time distribution of an admitted customer at points of arrivals. The stationary waiting time distribution is shown to be of phase type when the interarrival times are of phase type. Efficient algorithmic procedures for computing the steady-state queue length densities and other system performance measures are discussed. A conjecture on the nature of the mean waiting time is proposed. Some illustrative numerical examples are presented.
Computing the Performance Measures in Queueing Models via the Method of Order Statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yousry H. Abdelkader
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on new measures of performance in single-server Markovian queueing system. These measures depend on the moments of order statistics. The expected value and the variance of the maximum (minimum number of customers in the system as well as the expected value and the variance of the minimum (maximum waiting time are presented. Application to an M/M/1 model is given to illustrate the idea and the applicability of the proposed measures.
Fight for your breeding right: hierarchy re-establishment predicts aggression in a social queue
Wong, Marian; Balshine, Sigal
2010-01-01
Social aggression is one of the most conspicuous features of animal societies, yet little is known about the causes of individual variation in aggression within social hierarchies. Recent theory suggests that when individuals form queues for breeding, variation in social aggression by non-breeding group members is related to their probability of inheriting breeding status. However, levels of aggression could also vary as a temporary response to changes in the hierarchy, with individuals becom...
Brouns, G.A.J.F.; van der Wal, J.
2006-01-01
We consider a two-class M-lambda 1,M-lambda 2\\M-mu\\1 preemptive priority queue in which there are two essential, on-line decisions that have to be taken. The first is the decision to either accept or reject new type-1 or type-2 jobs. The second is the decision to abort jobs, i.e., to remove any type
Delay decomposition at a single server queue with constant service time and multiple inputs
Ziegler, C.; Schilling, D. L.
1978-01-01
Two network consisting of single server queues, each with a constant service time, are considered. The external inputs to each network are assumed to follow some general probability distribution. Several interesting equivalencies that exist between the two networks considered are derived. This leads to the introduction of an important concept in delay decomposition. It is shown that the waiting time experienced by a customer can be decomposed into two basic components called self-delay and interference delay.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamas Berczes
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to draw the attention of the readers of this special issue to the modeling issues of sensor networks. The novelty of this investigation is the introduction of servers vacation combined with priority customers for finite-source retrial queues and its application to wireless sensor networks. In this paper we analyze a priority finite-source retrial queue with repeated vacations. Two types of priority customers are defined, customers with priority 1 (P1 go directly to an ordinary FIFO queue. However, if customers with priority 2 (P2 find the server in busy or unavailable state go to the orbit. These customers stay in the orbit and retry their request until find the server in idle and available state. We assume that P1 customers have non-preemptive priority over P2 customers. The server starts with a listening period and if no customer arrive during this period it will enter in the vacation mode. When the vacation period is terminated, then the node wakes up. If there is a P1 customer in the queue the server begin to serve it, and when there is no any P1 customer, the node will remain awake for exponentially distributed time period. If that period expires without arrivals the node will enter in the next sleeping period. All random variables involved in model construction are supposed to be independent and exponentially distributed ones. Our main interest is to give the main steady-state performance measures of the system computed by the help of the MOSEL tool. Several Figures illustrate the effect of input parameters on the mean response time.
R+WFQ: a novel SLA-supported packet fair queueing algorithm for OLT scheduler
Zou, Junni; Qi, Shijie; Song, Yingxiong; Lin, Rujian
2005-02-01
To implement both fairness and priority scheduling in OLT scheduler, this paper proposes a SLA-supported packet fair queueing algorithm named R+WFQ. It employs WFQ discipline to serve high-priority sessions and Round Robin discipline to transmit low-priority sessions in free moments existed in traditional WFQ. Computer simulation results as well as theoretic analysis show that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance in terms of the implementation complexity, fairness and delay properties.
Nearly periodic behavior in the overloaded G/D/s+GI queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ward Whitt
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Under general conditions, the number of customers in a GI/D/s+GI many-server queue at time t converges to a unique stationary distribution as t → ∞. However, simulations show that the sample paths routinely exhibit nearly periodic behavior over long time intervals when the system is overloaded and s is large, provided that the system does not start in steady state. Moreover, the precise periodic behavior observed depends critically on the initial conditions. We provide insight into the transient behavior by studying the deterministic fluid model, which arises as the many-server heavy-traffic limit. The limiting fluid model also has a unique stationary point, but that stationary point is not approached from any other initial state as t → ∞. Instead, the fluid model performance approaches one of its uncountably many periodic steady states, depending on the initial conditions. Simulation experiments confirm that the time-dependent performance of the stochastic queueing model is well approximated by the fluid model. Like the fluid model, the behavior of the queueing system is highly sensitive to the initial conditions over long intervals of time.
A queueing theory description of fat-tailed price returns in imperfect financial markets
Lamba, H.
2010-09-01
In a financial market, for agents with long investment horizons or at times of severe market stress, it is often changes in the asset price that act as the trigger for transactions or shifts in investment position. This suggests the use of price thresholds to simulate agent behavior over much longer timescales than are currently used in models of order-books. We show that many phenomena, routinely ignored in efficient market theory, can be systematically introduced into an otherwise efficient market, resulting in models that robustly replicate the most important stylized facts. We then demonstrate a close link between such threshold models and queueing theory, with large price changes corresponding to the busy periods of a single-server queue. The distribution of the busy periods is known to have excess kurtosis and non-exponential decay under various assumptions on the queue parameters. Such an approach may prove useful in the development of mathematical models for rapid deleveraging and panics in financial markets, and the stress-testing of financial institutions.
Dynamic Performance Optimization for Cloud Computing Using M/M/m Queueing System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lizheng Guo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Successful development of cloud computing has attracted more and more people and enterprises to use it. On one hand, using cloud computing reduces the cost; on the other hand, using cloud computing improves the efficiency. As the users are largely concerned about the Quality of Services (QoS, performance optimization of the cloud computing has become critical to its successful application. In order to optimize the performance of multiple requesters and services in cloud computing, by means of queueing theory, we analyze and conduct the equation of each parameter of the services in the data center. Then, through analyzing the performance parameters of the queueing system, we propose the synthesis optimization mode, function, and strategy. Lastly, we set up the simulation based on the synthesis optimization mode; we also compare and analyze the simulation results to the classical optimization methods (short service time first and first in, first out method, which show that the proposed model can optimize the average wait time, average queue length, and the number of customer.
A BATCH ARRIVAL RETRIAL QUEUE WITH STARTING FAILURES, FEEDBACK AND ADMISSION CONTROL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jinting WANG; Peng-Feng ZHOU
2010-01-01
This paper is concerned with the analysis of a feedback M[X]/G/1 retrial queue with starting failures and general retrial times.In a batch,each individual customer is subject to a control admission policy upon arrival.If the server is idle,one of the customers admitted to the system may start its service and the rest joins the retrial group,whereas all the admitted customers go to the retrial group when the server is unavailable upon arrival.An arriving customer(primary or retrial)must turn-on the server,which takes negligible time.If the server is started successfully(with a certain probability),the customer gets service immediately.Otherwise,the repair for the server commences immediately and the customer must leave for the orbit and make a retrial at a later time.It is assumed that the customers who find the server unavailable are queued in the orbit in accordance with an FCFS discipline and only the customer at the head of the queue is allowed for access to the server.The Markov chain underlying the considered queueing system is studied and the necessary and sufficient condition for the system to be stable is presented.Explicit formulae for the stationary distribution and some performance measures of the system in steady-state are obtained.Finally,some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the influence of the parameters on several performance characteristics.
Predictive functional control for active queue management in congested TCP/IP networks.
Bigdeli, N; Haeri, M
2009-01-01
Predictive functional control (PFC) as a new active queue management (AQM) method in dynamic TCP networks supporting explicit congestion notification (ECN) is proposed. The ability of the controller in handling system delay along with its simplicity and low computational load makes PFC a privileged AQM method in the high speed networks. Besides, considering the disturbance term (which represents model/process mismatches, external disturbances, and existing noise) in the control formulation adds some level of robustness into the PFC-AQM controller. This is an important and desired property in the control of dynamically-varying computer networks. In this paper, the controller is designed based on a small signal linearized fluid-flow model of the TCP/AQM networks. Then, closed-loop transfer function representation of the system is derived to analyze the robustness with respect to the network and controller parameters. The analytical as well as the packet-level ns-2 simulation results show the out-performance of the developed controller for both queue regulation and resource utilization. Fast response, low queue fluctuations (and consequently low delay jitter), high link utilization, good disturbance rejection, scalability, and low packet marking probability are other features of the developed method with respect to other well-known AQM methods such as RED, PI, and REM which are also simulated for comparison.
BOB-RED queue management for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Jean-Lien
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Multimedia services over resource constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs face a performance bottleneck issue from the gateway node to the sink node. Therefore, the queue management at the gateway node is crucial for diversified messages conveyed from the front nodes to the sink node. In this article, beacon order-based random early detection (BOB-RED queue management is proposed. BOB-RED is a dynamic adaptation scheme based on adjusting beacon interval and superframe duration in the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC superframe accompanied with RED queue management scheme to increase the transmission efficiency of multimedia over WSNs. We focus on the performance improvement upon different traffic loads over WSNs. Evaluation metrics include end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption in IEEE 802.15.4 beacon enabled mode. Simulation results show that BOB-RED can effectively decrease end-to-end delay and energy consumption compared to the DropTail scheme.
Queue-based random-access algorithms: Fluid limits and stability issues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javad Ghaderi
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We use fluid limits to explore the (instability properties of wireless networks with queue-based random-access algorithms. Queue-based random-access schemes are simple and inherently distributed in nature, yet provide the capability to match the optimal throughput performance of centralized scheduling mechanisms in a wide range of scenarios. Unfortunately, the type of activation rules for which throughput optimality has been established, may result in excessive queue lengths and delays. The use of more aggressive/persistent access schemes can improve the delay performance, but does not offer any universal maximum-stability guarantees. In order to gain qualitative insight and investigate the (instability properties of more aggressive/persistent activation rules, we examine fluid limits where the dynamics are scaled in space and time. In some situations, the fluid limits have smooth deterministic features and maximum stability is maintained, while in other scenarios they exihibit random oscillatory characteristics, giving rise to major technical challenges. In the latter regime, more aggressive access schemes continue to provide maximum stability in some networks, but may cause instability in others. In order to prove that, we focus on a particular network example and conduct a detailed analysis of the fluid limit process for the associated Markov chain. Specifically, we develop a novel approach based on stopping time sequences to deal with the switching probabilities governing the sample paths of the fluid limit process. Simulation experiments are conducted to illustrate and validate the analytical results.
Huang, Xuan-Chao
2010-01-01
One of the main problems in all-optical packet-switched networks is the lack of optical buffers, and one feasible technology for the constructions of optical buffers is to use optical crossbar Switches and fiber Delay Lines (SDL). In this two-part paper, we consider SDL constructions of optical queues with a limited number of recirculations through the optical switches and the fiber delay lines. Such a problem arises from practical feasibility considerations. In Part I, we have proposed a class of greedy constructions for certain types of optical queues, including linear compressors, linear decompressors, and 2-to-1 FIFO multiplexers, and have shown that every optimal construction among our previous constructions of these types of optical queues under the constraint of a limited number of recirculations must be a greedy construction. In Part II, the present paper, we further show that there are at most two optimal constructions and give a simple algorithm to obtain the optimal construction(s). The main idea i...
一类N-策略M/G/1排队系统队长分布%The Queue Length Distribution of Queueing System under N-Policy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘晓燕; 孙玺菁; 刘丹
2013-01-01
In this paper, a new method was developedfor calculating the queue length distribution on one M/G/1 queueing system under N-policy with general startup/closedown. Firstly, the stochastic decomposition property was used to derive the p.g.f. of the queue length distribution. By the Leibniz formula of derivation, the addition⁃al queue length distribution was investigated, and then, the expression of queue length distribution was derived. Finally, an example was given for illustrating the application of the expression.% 引入一种新的分析方法，研究了一类具有启动/关闭时间的N-策略的M/G/1排队系统的队长分布。首先，使用随机分解技术导出了系统的队长分布的概率母函数；再根据Leibniz公式结合随机分解结果直接得到附加队长分布，进一步得到该排队系统队长分布的表达式；最后，举例说明队长分布表达式的分析应用。
A two-stage approach in solving the state probabilities of the multi-queue M/G/1 model
Chen, Mu-Song; Yen, Hao-Wei
2016-04-01
The M/G/1 model is the fundamental basis of the queueing system in many network systems. Usually, the study of the M/G/1 is limited by the assumption of single queue and infinite capacity. In practice, however, these postulations may not be valid, particularly when dealing with many real-world problems. In this paper, a two-stage state-space approach is devoted to solving the state probabilities for the multi-queue finite-capacity M/G/1 model, i.e. q-M/G/1/Ki with Ki buffers in the ith queue. The state probabilities at departure instants are determined by solving a set of state transition equations. Afterward, an embedded Markov chain analysis is applied to derive the state probabilities with another set of state balance equations at arbitrary time instants. The closed forms of the state probabilities are also presented with theorems for reference. Applications of Little's theorem further present the corresponding results for queue lengths and average waiting times. Simulation experiments have demonstrated the correctness of the proposed approaches.
Design of Active Queue Management for Robust Control on Access Router for Heterogeneous Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Åhlund Christer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The Internet architecture is a packet switching technology that allows dynamic sharing of bandwidth among different flows with in an IP network. Packets are stored and forwarded from one node to the next until reaching their destination. Major issues in this integration are congestion control and how to meet different quality of service requirements associated with various services. In other words streaming media quality degrades with increased packet delay and jitter caused by network congestion. To mitigate the impact of network congestion, various techniques have been used to improve multimedia quality and one of those techniques is Active Queue Management (AQM. Access routers require a buffer to hold packets during times of congestion. A large buffer can absorb the bursty arrivals, and this tends to increase the link utilizations but results in higher queuing delays. Traffic burstiness has a considerable negative impact on network performance. AQM is now considered an effective congestion control mechanism for enhancing transport protocol performance over wireless links. In order to have good link utilization, it is necessary for queues to adapt to varying traffic loads. This paper considers a particular scheme which is called Adaptive AQM (AAQM and studies its performance in the presence of feedback delays and its ability to maintain a small queue length as well as its robustness in the presence of traffic burstiness. The paper also presents a method based on the well-known Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MPP to capture traffic burstiness and buffer occupancy. To demonstrate the generality of the presented method, an analytic model is described and verified by extensive simulations of different adaptive AQM algorithms. The analysis and simulations show that AAQM outperforms the other AQMs with respect to responsiveness and robustness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meifang Shen
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Existing researches on performance analysis of SCTPs Concurrent Multipath Transfer (CMT-SCTP usually use DropTail algorithm as queue management algorithm without considering the impact of the background traffic. However, the background traffic of realistic network environments has an important impact on the QoS of SCTP. Besides, more and more Active Queue Management (AQM algorithms have been proposed as a router-based mechanism for early congestion detection to keep the stability of the whole network. This paper investigates the effect of background traffic on the performance of CMT-SCTP, and evaluates the performance of CMT-SCTP under two realistic simulation topologies with reasonable background traffic and different AQM algorithms in NS-2. The simulation results show that: 1 the performance of CMT-SCTP depends on characteristic of background traffic; and 2 the different AQM algorithms used as queue management algorithm under same background traffic have the different effects. Finally, this paper summarizes the proposals to satisfy the QoS requirements in terms of throughput, end-to-end packet delay and loss rate. Since CMT-PF2 is recommended by RFC4960 but without taking impact of cross traffic into account. In the second part, we use the most promising topology which meets the developing network and base on result of analysis mentioned in the first part to analyze the performance CMT-PF1/2/3/4 played respectively, in this part, the most common scenario, symmetric CMT-SCTP, is adopted and CMT-PF algorithm is turned on. A conclusion had been nailed down that, CMT-PF3 can get more advantage in terms of average throughput than CMT-PF2 which is recommended by RFC4960. Per reasonable analyzing, we lastly recommend a more reasonable resolution for realistic network in order to reaching more satisfied QoS.
Li, Jie; Li, Qiyue; Qu, Yugui; Zhao, Baohua
2011-01-01
Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC) for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay.
一类排队模型的适定性%Well-Posedness of a Queueing Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
阿力米·米吉提
2013-01-01
In this paper,we study a single server queueing system.First we convert the mathematical model of the queueing system into an abstract Cauchy problem in a Banach space and then by using the Hille-Yosida theorem,Phillips theorem and Fattorini theorem we prove that the single server queueing model in this paper has a unique nonnegative time-dependent solution.%研究一类单服务员排队系统.首先对应于此系统的数学模型化为Banach空间中的抽象Cauchy问题,然后运用Hille-Yosida定理,Phillips定理与Fattorini定理证明此排队模型存在唯一的概率瞬态解.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U. C. Gupta
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a finite-buffer single-server queue with Markovian arrival process (MAP where the server serves a limited number of customers, and when the limit is reached it goes on vacation. Both single- and multiple-vacation policies are analyzed and the queue length distributions at various epochs, such as pre-arrival, arbitrary, departure, have been obtained. The effect of certain model parameters on some important performance measures, like probability of loss, mean queue lengths, mean waiting time, is discussed. The model can be applied in computer communication and networking, for example, performance analysis of token passing ring of LAN and SVC (switched virtual connection of ATM.
Computational Approach to Profit Optimization of a Loss-Queueing System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dinesh Kumar Yadav
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Objective of the paper is to deal with the profit optimization of a loss queueing system with the finite capacity. Here, we define and compute total expected cost (TEC, total expected revenue (TER and consequently we compute the total optimal profit (TOP of the system. In order to compute the total optimal profit of the system, a computing algorithm has been developed and a fast converging N-R method has been employed which requires least computing time and lesser memory space as compared to other methods. Sensitivity analysis and its observations based on graphics have added a significant value to this model.
Optimal Tracking Controller Design for Active Queue Management Routers via LQ-Servo
Lee, Kang Min; Yang, Ji Hoon; Suh, Byung Suhl
2009-01-01
This paper proposes the LQ-Servo controller for AQM (Active Queue Management) routers. The proposed controller structure is made by taking a traditional servo mechanism based on Linear Quadratic approach and by augmenting a new state variable to the feed forward loop. Since the controller structure is consists of a standard optimal feedback regulator and a feed forward controller, it is able to enhance the usefulness of resources and to reduce unnecessary memory reservations such as RAM (Random Access Memory) or SMA (Shared Memory Area) on ordinary router systems, respectively.
Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted
confidence intervals and statistical tests, including a simple bootstrap two-sample test for comparing patience distributions. The methods are exemplified in a small simulation study, and a real data example is given involving comparison of patience distributions for two customer classes in a call center.......Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about the waiting time and patience distribution in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent...
A MECHANISM FOR EARLY DETECTING DDOS ATTACKS BASED ON M/G/R PS QUEUE
Nguyen Hong Son
2016-01-01
When service system is under DDoS attacks, it is important to detect anomaly signature at starting time of attack for timely applying prevention solutions. However, early DDoS detection is difficult task because the velocity of DDoS attacks is very high. This paper proposes a DDoS attack detection method by modeling service system as M/G/R PS queue and calculating monitoring parameters based on the model in odder to early detect symptom of DDoS attacks. The proposed method is validated by ...
Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using stochastic Petri nets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K Ramanath
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The theory of non-Markovian stochastic Petri nets is employed in this paper to derive an alternative method for studying the steady state behaviour of the M/G/1 vacation queueing system with a limited service discipline. Three types of vacation schemes are considered, and sytems with both a finite population and those with an infinite population (but finite capacity are considered. Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the functionality of the methods and some useful performance measures for the system are obtained.
Properties of Multi-Stage M/G/1/K Queues with Series Arrangement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hernández-González Salvador
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We propose a modification to the Buzacott & Shantikumar (1993 method to evaluate the properties of M/G/1/K queues with series arrangement. We made several tests and compared with simulation to validate the results. We observed that, with the proposed modification, the method has an acceptable level of exactitude. It can be considered an alternative calculation to other methods in the literature. The fact that this method requires less computational effort, can be useful to practitioners and managers that require tools to analyze the performance of systems in production and services areas.
Joint queue-perturbed and weakly-coupled power control for wireless backbone networks
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Olwal, TO
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Ricatti equation P� SWARRE sta- bilising solu- tion UCG unified chan- nel graph ui(t) power control sequence 2. System model and analysis 2.1. Queue system perturbation. In order to simplify our approach and still accomplish our study objectives... an optimal transmission power sequence. Set i ? E, where E = {1, 2, . . . , i, . . . , E}, as the energy level available for transmitting a packet over a wireless medium by each transmit?receive NIC pair (user). Set ?i, where ?i ? [0, 1...
A Novel Processor Scheduling Schema in Programmable Router Based on Queue Length Thresholds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xu Ke(徐恪); Lin Chuang; Wu Jianping
2004-01-01
Programmable router may execute computing tasks except for forwarding IP packets. How to schedule the CPU in the programmable router is an important issue that needs to be solved. In this paper, the authors establish general software architecture of programmable router firstly. Based on this architecture, authors present a novel CPU scheduling algorithm based on queue length thresholds. We model this algorithm using stochastic Petri nets. The analytic results show that this scheduling algorithm can guarantee the requirements of computing of best-effort flows and QoS flows in programmable router at the same time.
SOME NEW RESULTS ON WAITING TIME AND BUSY TIME IN M/G/1 QUEUE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper considers an M/G/1 queue with Poisson rate λ ＞ 0 and servicetime distribution G(t) which is supposed to have finite mean 1/μ. The following questions are first studied: (a) The closed bounds of the probability that waiting time is more than a fixed value; (b)The total busy time of the server, which including the distribution,probability that are more than a fixed value during a given time interval (0, t], and the expected value. Some new and important results are obtained by theories of the classes of life distributions and renewal process.
Optimal Heavy-Traffic Queue Length Scaling in an Incompletely Saturated Switch
Maguluri, Siva Theja; Burle, Sai Kiran; Srikant, R.
2016-01-01
We consider an input queued switch operating under the MaxWeight scheduling algorithm. This system is interesting to study because it is a model for Internet routers and data center networks. Recently, it was shown that the MaxWeight algorithm has optimal heavy-traffic queue length scaling when all ports are uniformly saturated. Here we consider the case when an arbitrary number of ports are saturated (which we call the incompletely saturated case), and each port is allowed to saturate at a d...
Analysis of Repairable Geo/G/1 Queues with Negative Customers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doo Ho Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider discrete-time Geo/G/1 queues with negative customers and a repairable server. The server is subject to failure due to a negative customer arrival. As soon as a negative customer arrives at a system, the server fails and one positive (ordinary customer is forced to leave. At a failure instant, the server is turned off and the repair process immediately begins. We construct the mathematical model and present the probability generating functions of the system size distribution and the FCFS sojourn time distribution. Finally, some numerical examples are given to show the influence of negative customer arrival on the performance measures of the system.
A Single Server Queue in a Hard-Real-Time Environment.
1985-05-01
Society, Series B24, 1962, pp. 73-90. [51 P. Henrici , Applied and Computational Complex Analysis , Vol. 1, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1974. [6] C...Baccelli and K. Trivedi, " Analysis of M/G/2 - Standby Redundant System," Proc. 9th IFIP International Symposium on Computer Performance Modeling...D-i6@ 349 Rl SINGLE SERVER QUEUE IN A HARD-REAL-TIE ENVIRONMENT i/i (U) DUKE UNI DURHAMI NC DEPT OF COMPUTER SC IENCEr K STRIVEDI ET AL. MAY 8,5
Staffing of Time-Varying Queues to Achieve Time-Stable Performance
Zohar Feldman; Avishai Mandelbaum; William A. Massey; Ward Whitt
2008-01-01
This paper develops methods to determine appropriate staffing levels in call centers and other many-server queueing systems with time-varying arrival rates. The goal is to achieve targeted time-stable performance, even in the presence of significant time variation in the arrival rates. The main contribution is a flexible simulation-based iterative-staffing algorithm (ISA) for the M t /G/s t + G model--with nonhomogeneous Poisson arrival process (the M t ) and customer abandonment (the + G). F...
IMPLEMENTATION OF CENTRAL QUEUE BASED REALTIME SCHEDULER FOR MULTIPLE SOURCE DATA STREAMING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Kaviha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Real-time data packet sources are required to remain robust against different security threats. This study proposes a real-time secure scheduling strategy for data transmission to enhance the communication throughput and reduce the overheads. The proposed system combines real-time scheduling with security service enhancement, error detection and realtime scheduler based on EDF algorithm using uc/os-II real time operating system, implemented on cortex M3 processor. The scheduling unit uses central queue management model and the security enhancement scheme adopts a blowfish encryption mechanism.
Performance analysis for queueing systems with close down periods and server under maintenance
Krishna Kumar, B.; Anbarasu, S.; Lakshmi, S. R. Anantha
2015-01-01
A single server queue subject to maintenance of the server and the close down period is considered. We obtain explicit expressions for the transient probabilities of the system size, the server under maintenance state and the close down period. The time-dependent performance measures of the system and the probability density function of the first-passage-time to reach the maintenance state are discussed. The corresponding steady state analysis and key performance measures of the system are also presented. Finally, the effect of various parameters on system performance measures is demonstrated by a numerical example.
Transient and Stationary Losses in a Finite-Buffer Queue with Batch Arrivals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrzej Chydzinski
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present an analysis of the number of losses, caused by the buffer overflows, in a finite-buffer queue with batch arrivals and autocorrelated interarrival times. Using the batch Markovian arrival process, the formulas for the average number of losses in a finite time interval and the stationary loss ratio are shown. In addition, several numerical examples are presented, including illustrations of the dependence of the number of losses on the average batch size, buffer size, system load, autocorrelation structure, and time.
Congestion control scheme in ATM networks based on fast tracing-queue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Zhixin; Guan Xinping
2007-01-01
One of the more challenging and unresolved issues in ATM networks is the congestion control of available bit rate (ABR). The dynamic controller is designed based on the control theory and the feedback mechanism of explicit rates.With the given method of a chosen parameter, it can guarantee the stability of the controller and closed loop system with propagation delay and bandwidth oscillation. It needs less parameters(only one) to be designed. The queue length can converge to the given value in the least steps. The fairness of different connections is considered further. The simulations show better performance and good quality of service(QoS) is achieved.
Queueing Analysis of a Large-Scale Bike Sharing System through Mean-Field Theory
Li, Quan-Lin; Chen, Chang; Fan, Rui-Na; Xu, Liang; Ma, Jing-Yu
2016-01-01
The bike sharing systems are fast increasing as a public transport mode in urban short trips, and have been developed in many major cities around the world. A major challenge in the study of bike sharing systems is that large-scale and complex queueing networks have to be applied through multi-dimensional Markov processes, while their discussion always suffers a common difficulty: State space explosion. For this reason, this paper provides a mean-field computational method to study such a lar...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Tang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model for M/G/1-type queueing networks with multiple user applications and limited resources is established. The goal is to develop a dynamic distributed algorithm for this model, which supports all data traffic as efficiently as possible and makes optimally fair decisions about how to minimize the network performance cost. An online policy gradient optimization algorithm based on a single sample path is provided to avoid suffering from a “curse of dimensionality”. The asymptotic convergence properties of this algorithm are proved. Numerical examples provide valuable insights for bridging mathematical theory with engineering practice.
Method, apparatus and system for managing queue operations of a test bench environment
Ostler, Farrell Lynn
2016-07-19
Techniques and mechanisms for performing dequeue operations for agents of a test bench environment. In an embodiment, a first group of agents are each allocated a respective ripe reservation and a second set of agents are each allocated a respective unripe reservation. Over time, queue management logic allocates respective reservations to agents and variously changes one or more such reservations from unripe to ripe. In another embodiment, an order of servicing agents allocated unripe reservations is based on relative priorities of the unripe reservations with respect to one another. An order of servicing agents allocated ripe reservations is on a first come, first served basis.
Trapman, Pieter; Bootsma, Martinus Christoffel Jozef
2009-05-01
In this paper we establish a relation between the spread of infectious diseases and the dynamics of so called M/G/1 queues with processor sharing. The relation between the spread of epidemics and branching processes, which is well known in epidemiology, and the relation between M/G/1 queues and birth death processes, which is well known in queueing theory, will be combined to provide a framework in which results from queueing theory can be used in epidemiology and vice versa. In particular, we consider the number of infectious individuals in a standard SIR epidemic model at the moment of the first detection of the epidemic, where infectious individuals are detected at a constant per capita rate. We use a result from the literature on queueing processes to show that this number of infectious individuals is geometrically distributed.
ANALYSIS AND COMPUTATIONAL ALGORITHM FOR QUEUES WITH STATE-DEPENDENT VACATIONS Ⅱ: M(n)/G/1/K
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiuli CHAO; Ayyar RAHMAN
2006-01-01
We study a single-server queueing system with state-dependent arrivals and general service distribution, or simply M(n)/G/1/K, where the server follows an N policy and takes multiple vacations when the system is empty. We provide a recursive algorithm using the supplementary variable technique to numerically compute the stationary queue length distribution of the system. The only input requirements are the Laplace-Stieltjes transforms of the service time distribution and the vacation time distribution, and the state-dependent arrival rate. The computational complexity of the algorithm is O(K3).
Discrete-time retrial queue with Bernoulli vacation, preemptive resume and feedback customers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peishu Chen
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a discrete-time Geo/G/1 retrial queue where the retrial time follows a general distribution, the server subject to Bernoulli vacation policy and the customer has preemptive resume priority, Bernoulli feedback strategy. The main purpose of this paper is to derive the generating functions of the stationary distribution of the system state, the orbit size and some important performance measures. Design/methodology: Using probability generating function technique, some valuable and interesting performance measures of the system are obtained. We also investigate two stochastic decomposition laws and present some numerical results. Findings: We obtain the probability generating functions of the system state distribution as well as those of the orbit size and the system size distributions. We also obtain some analytical expressions for various performance measures such as idle and busy probabilities, mean orbit and system sizes. Originality/value: The analysis of discrete-time retrial queues with Bernoulli vacation, preemptive resume and feedback customers is interesting and to the best of our knowledge, no other scientific journal paper has dealt with this question. This fact gives the reason why efforts should be taken to plug this gap.
Effect of Data Model Approach In State Probability Analysis Of Multi-Level Queue Scheduling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diwakar Shukla
2010-07-01
Full Text Available In the uniprocessor environment, the number of jobs arriving at the processor of CPU at a time is very large which causes a long waiting queue. When conflict arises due to shared resources or overlap of instructions or logical error, the deadlock state appears where further processing of jobs is blocked completely. While the scheduler jumps from one job to another in order to perform the processing the transition mechanism appears. This paper presents a general structure of transition scenario for the functioning of CPU scheduler in the presence of deadlock condition in setup of multilevel queue scheduling. A data model based Markov chain model is proposed to study the transition phenomenon and a general class of scheduling scheme is designed. Some specific and well known schemes are treated as its particular cases and are compared under the setup of model through a proposed deadlock-waiting index measure. Simulation study is performed to evaluate the comparative merits of specific schemes belonging to the class designed with the help of varying values of α and d.
A QoS-Based Dynamic Queue Length Scheduling Algorithm in Multiantenna Heterogeneous Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verikoukis Christos
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The use of real-time delay-sensitive applications in wireless systems has significantly grown during the last years. Therefore the designers of wireless systems have faced a challenging issue to guarantee the required Quality of Service (QoS. On the other hand, the recent advances and the extensive use of multiple antennas have already been included in several commercial standards, where the multibeam opportunistic transmission beamforming strategies have been proposed to improve the performance of the wireless systems. A cross-layer-based dynamically tuned queue length scheduler is presented in this paper, for the Downlink of multiuser and multiantenna WLAN systems with heterogeneous traffic requirements. To align with modern wireless systems transmission strategies, an opportunistic scheduling algorithm is employed, while a priority to the different traffic classes is applied. A tradeoff between the maximization of the throughput of the system and the guarantee of the maximum allowed delay is obtained. Therefore, the length of the queue is dynamically adjusted to select the appropriate conditions based on the operator requirements.
An MPI Implementation of a Self-Submitting Parallel Job Queue
Neuberger, John M; Swift, James W
2012-01-01
We present a simple and easy to apply methodology for using high-level self-submitting parallel job queues in an MPI environment. Using C++, we implemented a library of functions, MPQueue, both for testing our concepts and for use in real applications. In particular, we have applied our ideas toward solving computational combinatorics problems and for finding bifurcation diagrams of solutions of partial differential equations (PDE). Our method is general and can be applied in many situations without a lot of programming effort. The key idea is that workers themselves can easily submit new jobs to the currently running job queue. Our applications involve complicated data structures, so we employ serialization to allow data to be effortlessly passed between nodes. Using our library, one can solve large problems in parallel without being an expert in MPI. We demonstrate our methodology and the features of the library with several example programs, and give some results from our current PDE research. We show that...
Optimization of a forest harvesting set based on the Queueing Theory: Case study from Karelia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shegelman Ilya
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The modern technological process of timber harvesting is a complex system both technically and organizationally. Nowadays, the study of such systems and improvement of their efficiency is impossible without the use of mathematical modeling methods. The paper presents the methodology for the optimization of logging operations based on the queueing theory. We show the adapted queueing model, which characterizes the process of logging with the use of a harvesting set consisting of harvesters and forwarders. We also present the experimental verification of the designated model that confirmed mode’s adequacy. The analysis of the effectiveness of the investigated harvesting set was conducted and the recommendations for its optimization were drawn. The research was conducted in the Pryazhinsky District in the Republic of Karelia. We showed that significant improvement of operational efficiency of the investigated harvesting set in the study area cannot be done by adjusting separate machine operations (i.e. by reducing the time of operations execution and their steadiness. However, a change in the number of machines allowed significant improvement in the operational efficiency. The most optimal harvesting set design for the experimental area consisted of two harvesters and two forwarders.
Diffusion models for double-ended queues with renewal arrival processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We study a double-ended queue where buyers and sellers arrive to conduct trades. When there is a pair of buyer and seller in the system, they immediately transact a trade and leave. Thus there cannot be a non-zero number of buyers and sellers simultaneously in the system. We assume that sellers and buyers arrive at the system according to independent renewal processes, and they would leave the system after independent exponential patience times. We establish fluid and diffusion approximations for the queue length process under a suitable asymptotic regime. The fluid limit is the solution of an ordinary differential equation, and the diffusion limit is a time-inhomogeneous asymmetric Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process (O-U process. A heavy traffic analysis is also developed, and the diffusion limit in the stronger heavy traffic regime is a time-homogeneous asymmetric O-U process. The limiting distributions of both diffusion limits are obtained. We also show the interchange of the heavy traffic and steady state limits.
Queueing induced by bidirectional motor motion near the end of a microtubule
Ashwin, Peter; Lin, Congping; Steinberg, Gero
2010-11-01
Recent live observations of motors in long-range microtubule (MT) dependent transport in the fungus Ustilago maydis have reported bidirectional motion of dynein and an accumulation of the motors at the polymerization-active (the plus-end) of the microtubule. Quantitative data derived from in vivo observation of dynein has enabled us to develop an accurate, quantitatively-valid asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) model that describes the coordinated motion of anterograde and retrograde motors sharing a single oriented microtubule. We give approximate expressions for the size and distribution of the accumulation, and discuss queueing properties for motors entering this accumulation. We show for this ASEP model, that the mean accumulation can be modeled as an M/M/∞ queue that is Poisson distributed with mean Farr/pd , where Farr is the flux of motors that arrives at the tip and pd is the rate at which individual motors change direction from anterograde to retrograde motion. Deviations from this can in principle be used to gain information about other processes at work in the accumulation. Furthermore, our work is a significant step toward a mathematical description of the complex interactions of motors in cellular long-range transport of organelles.
Survival of the Fittest: An Active Queue Management Technique for Noisy Packet Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shirish S. Karande
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We present a novel active queue management (AQM technique to demonstrate the efficacy of practically harnessing the predictive utility of SSR indications for improved video communication. We consider a network within which corrupted packets are relayed over multiple hops, but a certain percentage of packets needs to be dropped at an intermediate node due to congestion. We propose an AQM technique, survival of the fittest (SOTF, to be employed at the relay node, within which we use packet state information, available from SSR indications and checksums, to drop packets with the highest corruption levels. On the basis of actual 802.11b measurements we show that such a side information (SI aware processing within the network can provide significant performance benefits over an SI-unaware scheme, random queue management (RQM, which is forced to randomly discard packets. With trace-based simulations, we show the utility of the proposed AQM technique in improving the error recovery performance of cross-layer FEC schemes. Finally, with the help of H.264-based video simulations these improvements are shown to translate into a significant improvement in video quality.
A Single-server Discrete-time Retrial G-queue with Server Breakdowns and Repairs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin-ting Wang; Peng Zhang
2009-01-01
This paper concerns a discrete-time Geo/Geo/1 retrial queue with both positive and negative customers where the server is subject to breakdowns and repairs due to negative arrivals.The arrival of a negative customer causes one positive customer to be killed if any is present,and simultaneously breaks the server down.The server is sent to repair immediately and after repair it is as good as new.The negative customer also causes the server breakdown if the server is found idle,but has no effect on the system if the server is under repair.We analyze the Markov chain underlying the queueing system and obtain its ergodicity condition.The generating function of the number of customers in the orbit and in the system are also obtained,along with the marginal distributions of the orbit size when the server is idle,busy or down.Finally,we present some numerical examples to illustrate the influence of the parameters on several performance characteristics of the system.
Analysis of Multiserver Queueing System with Opportunistic Occupation and Reservation of Servers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a multiserver queueing system with two input flows. Type-1 customers have preemptive priority and are lost during arrival only if all servers are occupied by type-1 customers. If all servers are occupied, but some provide service to type-2 customers, service of type-2 customer is terminated and type-1 customer occupies the server. If the number of busy servers is less than the threshold M during type-2 customer arrival epoch, this customer is accepted. Otherwise, it is lost or becomes a retrial customer. It will retry to obtain service. Type-2 customer whose service is terminated is lost or moves to the pool of retrial customers. The service time is exponentially distributed with the rate dependent on the customer’s type. Such queueing system is suitable for modeling cognitive radio. Type-1 customers are interpreted as requests generated by primary users. Type-2 customers are generated by secondary or cognitive users. The problem of optimal choice of the threshold M is the subject of this paper. Behavior of the system is described by the multidimensional Markov chain. Its generator, ergodicity condition, and stationary distribution are given. The system performance measures are obtained. The numerical results show the effectiveness of considered admission control.
Cheng, Jay; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Chao, Tsz-Hsuan; Lee, Duan-Shin; Lien, Ching-Min
2010-01-01
In this two-part paper, we consider SDL constructions of optical queues with a limited number of recirculations through the optical switches and the fiber delay lines. We show that the constructions of certain types of optical queues, including linear compressors, linear decompressors, and 2-to-1 FIFO multiplexers, under a simple packet routing scheme and under the constraint of a limited number of recirculations can be transformed into equivalent integer representation problems under a corresponding constraint. Given $M$ and $k$, the problem of finding an \\emph{optimal} construction, in the sense of maximizing the maximum delay (resp., buffer size), among our constructions of linear compressors/decompressors (resp., 2-to-1 FIFO multiplexers) is equivalent to the problem of finding an optimal sequence ${\\dbf^*}_1^M$ in $\\Acal_M$ (resp., $\\Bcal_M$) such that $B({\\dbf^*}_1^M;k)=\\max_{\\dbf_1^M\\in \\Acal_M}B(\\dbf_1^M;k)$ (resp., $B({\\dbf^*}_1^M;k)=\\max_{\\dbf_1^M\\in \\Bcal_M}B(\\dbf_1^M;k)$), where $\\Acal_M$ (resp., ...
Cui, Ying; Lau, Vincent K N
2010-01-01
In this paper, we propose a two-timescale delay-optimal dynamic clustering and power allocation design for downlink network MIMO systems. The dynamic clustering control is adaptive to the global queue state information (GQSI) only and computed at the base station controller (BSC) over a longer time scale. On the other hand, the power allocations of all the BSs in one cluster are adaptive to both intra-cluster channel state information (CCSI) and intra-cluster queue state information (CQSI), and computed at the cluster manager (CM) over a shorter time scale. We show that the two-timescale delay-optimal control can be formulated as an infinite-horizon average cost Constrained Partially Observed Markov Decision Process (CPOMDP). By exploiting the special problem structure, we shall derive an equivalent Bellman equation in terms of Pattern Selection Q-factor to solve the CPOMDP. To address the distributive requirement and the issue of exponential memory requirement and computational complexity, we approximate the...
Optimal Control of a Single Queue with Retransmissions: Delay-Dropping Tradeoffs
Giovanidis, Anastasios; Buehler, Joerg
2009-01-01
A single queue incorporating a retransmission protocol is investigated, assuming that the sequence of per effort success probabilities in the Automatic Retransmission reQuest (ARQ) chain is a priori defined and no channel state information at the transmitter is available. A Markov Decision Problem with an average cost criterion is formulated where the possible actions are to either continue the retransmission process of an erroneous packet at the next time slot or to drop the packet and move on to the next packet awaiting for transmission. The cost per slot is a linear combination of the current queue length and a penalty term in case dropping is chosen as action. The investigation seeks policies that provide the best possible average packet delay-dropping trade-off for Quality of Service guarantees. An optimal deterministic stationary policy is shown to exist, several structural properties of which are obtained. Based on that, a class of suboptimal -policies is introduced. These suggest that it is almost opt...
Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain
Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-wei; Wang, Dian-hai
2015-01-01
Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays. PMID:25759720
Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Sun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.
Study on the calculation models of bus delay at bays using queueing theory and Markov chain.
Sun, Feng; Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-Wei; Wang, Dian-Hai
2015-01-01
Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.
Jahn, Beate; Theurl, Engelbert; Siebert, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Karl-Peter
2010-01-01
In most decision-analytic models in health care, it is assumed that there is treatment without delay and availability of all required resources. Therefore, waiting times caused by limited resources and their impact on treatment effects and costs often remain unconsidered. Queuing theory enables mathematical analysis and the derivation of several performance measures of queuing systems. Nevertheless, an analytical approach with closed formulas is not always possible. Therefore, simulation techniques are used to evaluate systems that include queuing or waiting, for example, discrete event simulation. To include queuing in decision-analytic models requires a basic knowledge of queuing theory and of the underlying interrelationships. This tutorial introduces queuing theory. Analysts and decision-makers get an understanding of queue characteristics, modeling features, and its strength. Conceptual issues are covered, but the emphasis is on practical issues like modeling the arrival of patients. The treatment of coronary artery disease with percutaneous coronary intervention including stent placement serves as an illustrative queuing example. Discrete event simulation is applied to explicitly model resource capacities, to incorporate waiting lines and queues in the decision-analytic modeling example.
A Voice Priority Queue (VPQ Fair Scheduler for the VoIP over WLANs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kashif Nisar
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Transmission of VoIP over packet switching networks is one of the rapidly emerging real-time Internet Protocol. The real-time application of the Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is growing rapidly for it is more flexible than the traditional Public Switched Telephone Networks systems (PSTN. Meanwhile, the VoIP deployment on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs, which is based on IEEE 802.11 standards, is increasing. Currently, many schedulers have been introduced such as Weighted Fair Queueing (WFQ, Strict Priority (SP General processor sharing (GPS, Deficit Round Robin (DRR, andContention-Aware Temporally fair Scheduling (CATS. Unfortunately, the current scheduling techniques have some drawbacks on real-time applications and therefore will not be able to handle the VoIP packetsin a proper way. The objective of this research is to propose a new scheduler system model for the VoIP application named Voice Priority Queue (VPQ scheduler. The scheduler system model is to ensureefficiency by producing a higher throughput and fairness for VoIP packets. In this paper, only the First Stage of the VPQ packet scheduler and its algorithm are presented. Simulation topologies for VoIP traffic were implemented and analyzed using the Network Simulator (NS-2. The results show that this method can achieve a better and more accurate VoIP quality throughput and fairness index.
Computation of a near-optimal service policy for a single-server queue with homogeneous jobs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren Glud; Larsen, Christian
2001-01-01
We present an algorithm for computing a near-optimal service policy for a single-server queueing system when the service cost is a convex function of the service time. The policy has state-dependent service times, and it includes the options to remove jobs from the system and to let the server...
Computation of a near-optimal service policy for a single-server queue with homogeneous jobs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren Glud; Larsen, Christian
2000-01-01
We present an algorithm for computing a near optimal service policy for a single-server queueing system when the service cost is a convex function of the service time. The policy has state-dependent service times, and it includes the options to remove jobs from the system and to let the server...
Verloop, I.M.; Ayesta, U.; Núñez-Queija, R.
2009-01-01
We analyze a generalization of the Discriminatory Processor Sharing (DPS)queue in a heavy-traffic setting. Customers present in the system are served simultaneously at rates controlled by a vector of weights. We assume phase-type distributed service requirements and allow that customers have differe
A note on many-server queueing systems with ordered entry, with an application to conveyor theory
Nawijn, W.M.
1983-01-01
Consider a many-server queueing system in which the servers are numbered. If a customer arrives when two or more servers are idle he selects the server with lowest index (this is called the ordered entry selection rule). An explicit expression for the traffic handled by the various servers in a
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Gang; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Zhong-Zhen
2013-01-01
implementation scenarios of TAS: static TAS (STAS) and dynamic TAS (DTAS). First, a non-stationary M(t)/E/c(t) queueing model is used to analyse a terminal gate system, and solved with a new approximation approach. Then, genetic algorithm is applied to optimise the hourly quota of entry appointments in STAS...
L.A. van Vianen (Lars); A.F. Gabor (Adriana); J.C.W. van Ommeren (Jan-Kees)
2014-01-01
textabstractIn this article we give a new derivation for the waiting time distributions in an M/M/c queue with multiple priorities and a common service rate by using elementary lattice paths counting. An advantage of the approach is that it does not require inversion of the Laplace-Stieltjes transfo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Ben Atkinson
1995-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the transient analysis of the M/G/1/0 queue, for which Pn(t denotes the probability that there are no customers in the system at time t, given that there are n(n=0,1 customers in the system at time 0. The analysis, which is based upon coupling theory, leads to simple bounds on Pn(t for the M/G/1/0 and M/PH/1/0 queues and improved bounds for the special case M/Er/1/0. Numerical results are presented for various values of the mean arrival rate λ to demonstrate the increasing accuracy of approximations based upon the above bounds in light traffic, i.e., as λ→0. An important area of application for the M/G/1/0 queue is as a reliability model for a single repairable component. Since most practical reliability problems have λ values that are small relative to the mean service rate, the approximations are potentially useful in that context. A duality relation between the M/G/1/0 and GI/M/1/0 queues is also described.
Mandjes, M.R.H.; Ridder, Annemarie
2002-01-01
This article analyzes the transient buffer content distribution of a queue fed by a large number of Markov fluid sources. We characterize the probability of overflow at time t, given the current buffer level and the number of sources in the on-state. After scaling buffer and bandwidth resources by
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Gang; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Zhong-Zhen
2013-01-01
implementation scenarios of TAS: static TAS (STAS) and dynamic TAS (DTAS). First, a non-stationary M(t)/E/c(t) queueing model is used to analyse a terminal gate system, and solved with a new approximation approach. Then, genetic algorithm is applied to optimise the hourly quota of entry appointments in STAS...
Cheung, S.K.; Berg, J.L. van den; Boucherie, R.J.
2006-01-01
This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper deri
Lee, Moon Ho; Dudin, Alexander; Shaban, Alexy; Pokhrel, Subash Shree; Ma, Wen Ping
Formulae required for accurate approximate calculation of transition probabilities of embedded Markov chain for single-server queues of the GI/M/1, GI/M/1/K, M/G/1, M/G/1/K type with heavy-tail lognormal distribution of inter-arrival or service time are given.
考虑展宽段的路段排队长度检测算法%Road Queue Length Detection Algorithm Considering Stretching Segment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨雷; 吕鹏
2012-01-01
为了实时估计路段车辆排队长度,利用铺设在路段上的检测器,提出了一种车辆排队估计方法,对车辆排队进行实时跟踪.该方法考虑了一般的道路拓扑结构,路段排队的演化过程分为四个阶段:初始排队阶段、排队蔓延阶段、排队上溯阶段和堵塞路段阶段,不同阶段的排队利用不同的信息,通过不同的模型进行推算,通过实地调查验证,可以高效实时追踪路段排队的演化.%In order to estimate real-time queue length and provide information for traffic management, an algorithm was proposed. This method uses detector lay under road surface to track vehicle queue. General road topology was considered. Queue evolution was divided into four stages: initial queue stage, queue propagation stage, queue spillover stage, and fully congested stage. Different information was used to estimate queue length in different stages. The field test proves the effectiveness of the method.
Two-parameter sample path large deviations for infinite-server queues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose H. Blanchet
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Let Qλ(t,y be the number of people present at time t with y units of remaining service time in an infinite server system with arrival rate equal to λ>0. In the presence of a non-lattice renewal arrival process and assuming that the service times have a continuous distribution, we obtain a large deviations principle for Qλ( · /λ under the topology of uniform convergence on [0,T]×[0,∞. We illustrate our results by obtaining the most likely path, represented as a surface, to ruin in life insurance portfolios, and also we obtain the most likely surfaces to overflow in the setting of loss queues.
WQM: An Aggregation-aware Queue Management Scheme for IEEE 802.11n based Networks
Showail, Ahmad
2014-08-17
Choosing the right buffer size in Wi-Fi networks is challenging due to the dynamic nature of the wireless environment. Over buffering or \\'bufferbloat\\' may produce unacceptable end-to-end delays, while static small buffers may limit the performance gains that can be achieved with various 802.11n enhancements, such as frame aggregation. We propose WQM, a queue management scheme customized for wireless networks. WQM adapts the buffer size based on measured link characteristics and network load. Furthermore, it accounts for aggregate length when deciding about the optimal buffer size. We implement WQM on Linux and evaluate it on a wireless testbed. WQM reduces the end-to-end delay by up to 8x compared to Linux default buffer size, and 2x compared to CoDel, the state-of-the-art bufferbloat solution, while achieving comparable network goodput. Further, WQM improves fairness as it limits the ability of a single flow to saturate the buffer.
Computing a constrained control policy for a single-server queueing system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Christian
We consider a single-server queueing system designed to serve homogeneous jobs. The jobs arrive to the system after a Poisson process and all processing times are deterministic. There is a set-up cost for starting up production and a holding cost rate is incurred for each job present. Also......, there is a service cost per job, which is a convex function of the service time. The control policy specifies when the server is on or off. It also specifies the state-dependent processing times. In order to avoid a very detailed control policy (which could be hard to implement) we will only allow the server to use...... control policy. Finally some numerical results are presented....
Comparing the Overhead of Lock-based and Lock-free Implementations of Priority Queues
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Passas, Stavros; Karlsson, Sven
2011-01-01
structures is to allow multiple cores to safely access the data structure. Traditionally, mutual exclusion using lock primitives has been used to avoid interference between cores. However, lock primitives cause a high synchronization overhead in situations with high contention. More recently, lock-free data...... structures have been proposed as a solution to decrease the synchronization overhead. Lock-free data structures are more complex than their lock-based counterparts. It is not evident if the benefits of lower synchronization overhead can offset the higher sequential execution time caused by the complexity....... In this paper, we compare a lock-free implementation of a priority queue with a lock-based implementation. We perform experiments with processors of different generations and observe large performance differences for lock-free data structures depending on the processor generation. The lock-free implementation...
Batch arrival retrial queue with delay time and additional multi-optional repair
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Sumitha
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with MX/G/1 retrial queue with unreliable server and multi-optional repair. It is assumed that the server is subject to active breakdowns and the repair of the failed server starts after a random amount of time. Restoration of the failed server is done with two phases, first essential and second multi optional. After completion of the repair the server continues the interrupted service and it is not allowed to accept new customers until the interrupted customer leaves the system. The retrial, service, delay and repair times are arbitrarily distributed. The model is analysed using the supplementary variable technique and the probability generating function of system size at random epoch and stochastic decomposition are obtained. Performance measures and reliability indices to predict the behaviour of the system are derived.
Secure Wireless Communication and Optimal Power Control under Statistical Queueing Constraints
Qiao, Deli; Velipasalar, Senem
2010-01-01
In this paper, secure transmission of information over fading broadcast channels is studied in the presence of statistical queueing constraints. Effective capacity is employed as a performance metric to identify the secure throughput of the system, i.e., effective secure throughput. It is assumed that perfect channel side information (CSI) is available at both the transmitter and the receivers. Initially, the scenario in which the transmitter sends common messages to two receivers and confidential messages to one receiver is considered. For this case, effective secure throughput region, which is the region of constant arrival rates of common and confidential messages that can be supported by the buffer-constrained transmitter and fading broadcast channel, is defined. It is proven that this effective throughput region is convex. Then, the optimal power control policies that achieve the boundary points of the effective secure throughput region are investigated and an algorithm for the numerical computation of t...
Fuzzy variable structure algorithms for active queue management with delay compensation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Based on the linearized model of the TCP connections through the congested routers, this paper puts forward an active queue management algorithm (FVS-T). The algorithm utilizes the fuzzy variable structure control algorithm with delay factor to compensate time varying round-trip times (RTT) and uncertainties with respect to the number of active TCP sessions. By analyzing the robustness and performance of the control scheme for the nonlinear TCP/AQM model, we show that the proposed design has good performance and robustness, which are central to the notion of AQM. Implementation issues were discussed and ns simulations were provided to validate the design and compare its performance to other peer schemes in different scenarios. The results show that the proposed design significantly outperforms the other congestion schemes in terms of packet loss ratio, throughput and buffer fluctuation.
Mueen, Zeina; Ramli, Razamin; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura
2015-12-01
There are a number of real life systems that can be described as a queuing system, and this paper presents a queuing system model applied in a manufacturing system example. The queuing model considered is depicted in a fuzzy environment with retrial queues and unreliable server. The stability condition state of this model is investigated and the performance measurement is obtained by adopting the left and right method. The new approach adopted in this study merges the existing α-cut interval and nonlinear programming techniques and a numerical example was considered to explain the methodology of this technique. From the numerical example, the flexibility of the method was shown graphically showing the exact real mean value of customers in the system and also the expected waiting times.
MODELING AND SIMULATION OF QUEUE WAITING THROUGH THE CONCEPT OF PETRI NETS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emilija KAMCEVA
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Petri Nets-PN are a graphical formalism which is gaining popularity in recent years as a tool in Matlab for the representation of complex logical interactions among physical components or activities in a system. This notes are devoted to introduce the formalism of Petri nets with particular emphasis on the application of the methodology in the area of the performance and reliability modelling and analysis of systems. A technique is presented whereby queueing network models and generalized stochastic Petri nets are combined in such a way as to exploit the best features of both modeling techniques. The resulting hierarchical modeling approach is useful in the solution of complex models of system behavior.
SUBGEOMETRIC RATES OF CONVERGENCE OF THE GI/G/1 QUEUEING SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Xiaohua; Hou Zhenting
2012-01-01
The article deals with the waiting time process of the GI/G/1 queueing system.We shall give that the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution and the decay of the stationary tail only depend on the tail of the service distribution,but not on the interarrival distribution.We shall also give explicit criteria for the rate of convergence and decay of stationary tail for three specific types of subgeometric cases (Case 1:the rate function r(n) =exp(sn1/1+α),α ＞ 0,s ＞ 0; Case 2:polynomial rate function r(n) =nα,α ＞ 0; Case 3:logarithmic rate function r(n) =logα n,α ＞ 0).
Review on buffer management schemes for packet queues in wired & wireless network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaheen C. Pathan,
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Mobile AdHoc Network (MANET is a wireless network with a set of mobile nodes that can communicate with each other with no access point and without any fixed infrastructure. But mobile devices usually have limited resources (battery power, memory, CPU which limit their transmission range. Hence, in order to conserve the limited resource, it is highly desirable that transmission should be as efficient as possible. MANET can be implemented in any environment because of its dynamic nature. For routing of information packets queuing is done at the buffer and transferred through intermediate nodes to the destination on priority basis which help to improve the overall network performance. This paper provides a review of various buffer management schemes for packet queues in wired & wireless networks (specialy MANET.
An asymptotic optimality result for the multiclass queue with finite buffers in heavy traffic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rami Atar
2015-03-01
Full Text Available For a multiclass G/G/1 queue with finite buffers, admission and scheduling control, and holding and rejection costs, we construct a policy that is asymptotically optimal in the heavy traffic limit. The policy is specified in terms of a single parameter which constitutes the free boundary point from the Harrison-Taksar free boundary problem, but otherwise depends explicitly on the problem data. The cμ priority rule is also used by the policy, but in a way that is novel, and, in particular, different than that used in problems with infinite buffers. We also address an analogous problem where buffer constraints are replaced by throughput time constraints.
ANALYSIS OF MULTI-SERVER QUEUEING SYSTEM WITH PREEMPTIVE PRIORITY AND REPEATED CALLS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Dudin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Multi-server retrial queueing system with no buffer and two types of customers is analyzed as the model of cognitive radio system. Customers of type 1 have a preemptive priority. Customers of both types arrive according to Markovian Arrival Processes. Service times have exponential distribution with parameter depending on the customer type. Type 2 customers are admitted for service only if the number of busy servers is less than the predefined threshold. The rejected type 2 customers retry for the service. Existence condition of the stationary mode of system operation is derived. Formulas for computing key performance measures of the system are presented.
Bachmat, Eitan
2014-01-01
This monograph describes problems in the field of performance analysis, primarily the study of storage systems and the diverse mathematical techniques that are required for solving such problems. Topics covered include best practices for scheduling I/O requests to a disk drive, how this problem is related to airplane boarding, and how both problems can be modeled using space-time geometry. The author also explains how Riemann's proof of the analytic continuation and functional equation of the Riemann zeta function can be used to analyze express-line queues in a minimarket. Overall, the book reveals the surprising applicability of abstract mathematical ideas that are not usually associated with applied topics. Advanced undergraduate students or graduate students with an interest in the applications of mathematics will find this book a useful resource. It will also be of interest to professional mathematicians who want exposure to the surprising ways that theoretical mathematics may be applied to engineering pr...
ANALYSIS OF A DISCRETE-TIME GI/GEO/1/N QUEUE WITH MULTIPLE WORKING VACATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Veena GOSWAMI; G.B.MUND
2010-01-01
This paper analyzes a finite-buffer renewal input single server discrete-time queneing system with multiple working vacations.The server works at a different rate rather than completely stopping working during the multiple working vacations.The service times during a service period,service time during a vacation period and vacation times are geometrically distributed.The queue is analyzed using the supplementary variable and the imbedded Markov-chain techniques.We obtain steady-state system length distributions at pre-arrival,arbitrary and outside observer's observation epochs.The analysis of actual waiting-time distribution and some performance measures are carried out.We present some numerical results and discuss special cases of the model.
Explicit Convergence Rates of the Embedded M/G/1 Queue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yuan Yuan LIU; Zhen Ting HOU
2007-01-01
This paper investigates the explicit convergence rates to the stationary distribution π of the embedded M/G/1 queue; specifically, for suitable rate functions r(n) which may be polynomial with r(n)=nl,l＞0 or geometric with r(n) =αn,α＞ 1 and "moments" f≥1, we find the conditions under which ∑∞n=0r(n)||Pn(i,·)-π(·)||f≤M(i) for all i∈E. For the polynomial case, the explicit bounds on M(i) are given in terms of both "drift functions" and behavior of the first hitting time on the state 0; and for the geometric case, the largest geometric convergence rate α* is obtained.
Grouping Based Job Scheduling Algorithm Using Priority Queue and Hybrid Algorithm in Grid Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pinky Rosemarry
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Grid computing enlarge with computing platform which is collection of heterogeneous computing resources connected by a network across dynamic and geographically dispersed organization to form a distributed high performance computing infrastructure. Grid computing solves the complex computing problems amongst multiple machines. Grid computing solves the large scale computational demands in a high performance computing environment. The main emphasis in the grid computing is given to the resource management and the job scheduler .The goal of the job scheduler is to maximize the resource utilization and minimize the processing time of the jobs. Existing approaches of Grid scheduling doesn’t give much emphasis on the performance of a Grid scheduler in processing time parameter. Schedulers allocate resources to the jobs to be executed using the First come First serve algorithm. In this paper, we have provided an optimize algorithm to queue of the scheduler using various scheduling methods like Shortest Job First, First in First out, Round robin. The job scheduling system is responsible to select best suitable machines in a grid for user jobs. The management and scheduling system generates job schedules for each machine in the grid by taking static restrictions and dynamic parameters of jobs and machinesinto consideration. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient job scheduling algorithm to maximize the resource utilization and minimize processing time of the jobs. Queues can be optimized byusing various scheduling algorithms depending upon the performance criteria to be improved e.g. response time, throughput. The work has been done in MATLAB using the parallel computing toolbox.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dudin Alexander
2016-06-01
Full Text Available A single-server queueing system with an infinite buffer is considered. The service of a customer is possible only in the presence of at least one unit of energy, and during the service the number of available units decreases by one. New units of energy arrive in the system at random instants of time if the finite buffer for maintenance of energy is not full. Customers are impatient and leave the system without service after a random amount of waiting time. Such a queueing system describes, e.g., the operation of a sensor node which harvests energy necessary for information transmission from the environment. Aiming to minimize the loss of customers due to their impatience (and maximize the throughput of the system, a new strategy of control by providing service is proposed. This strategy suggests that service temporarily stops if the number of customers or units of energy in the system becomes zero. The server is switched off (is in sleep mode for some time. This time finishes (the server wakes up if both the number of customers in the buffer and the number of energy units reach some fixed threshold values or when the number of energy units reaches some threshold value and there are customers in the buffer. Arrival flows of customers and energy units are assumed to be described by an independent Markovian arrival process. The service time has a phase-type distribution. The system behavior is described by a multi-dimensional Markov chain. The generator of this Markov chain is derived. The ergodicity condition is presented. Expressions for key performance measures are given. Numerical results illustrating the dependence of a customer’s loss probability on the thresholds defining the discipline of waking up the server are provided. The importance of the account of correlation in arrival processes is numerically illustrated.
GPID:变速PID主动队列管理算法%Gearshift PID-based Active Queue Management Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘琳琅; 王万良; 姚信威; 陈伟杰
2012-01-01
Active queue management (AQM) is one of the hot research field in network congestion. In this paper, a congestion control algorithm Gearshift integral PID( GPID) is proposed, which tends to address the problem of overshoot and big jitter of PID in AQM. The algorithm is characteristic of dynamic changes of the integral role on PID in accordance with the deviation of stimutaneous queue length, that is, the larger the deviation in queue length is, the smaller the integral coefficients are, the faster the convergence rate is and the bigger the overshoot is and vice versa. This algorithm can effectively control the deviation of the queue length so that it can attain the expected length. The simulation result shows that GPID has a faster convergence speed, a higher rate of link utilization and that the average queue length is closer to the expected length.%主动队列管理(Active Queue Management,简称AQM)是网络拥塞控制领域的一个热点.针对主动队列管理中PID算法超调量大,抖动大的问题,提出一种GPID(Gearshift PID)的拥塞控制算法.该算法特点是:积分作用大小跟随瞬时队列长度的偏差大小变动而变动,队列长度的偏差越大,则积分系数值越小,收敛速度越慢,超调量越大；反之,偏差越小,积分系数值越大,收敛速度越快,超调量越大.该算法可以有效的控制队列长度的偏差变化,调节瞬时队列长度趋于队列期望值收敛.仿真实验结果表明,该算法收敛速度快,链路利用率高,平均队列长度更趋于期望值.
Research and Simulation of Queue Management Algorithms DropTail and RED%队列管理算法DropTail和RED研究与仿真
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖权权; 段迅
2011-01-01
Queue management functions are responsible for router's queue establishment, maintenance and line up and determine when to accept or discard packets. Active queue management algorithm DropTail is widely used for congestion control in Internet. Random Early Detection (PIED) is recommendedly used by IETF for queue management. The article uses the NS2.network simulator to simulate DropTail and RED queue management algorithm. Through analysis of the simulation data, the obtained RED queue management algorithm is higher than the overall performance of DropTail. This study provides the basis for further research of the RED algorithm.%队列管理主要负责路由器内部队列的建立、维护和排队,以决定何时接收或者丢弃某个包.目前Internet普遍采用的拥塞控制机制是DropTail主动队列管理算法,而随机早期检测(RED,Random Early Detection)是IETF推荐使用的队列管理算法.本文利用NS2网络仿真器在队列监视角度对DropTail与RED进行仿真模拟,比较分析得出RED队列管理算法整体性能高于DropTail,为进一步研究RED算法提供了依据.
Optimal management for infinite capacity N-policy M/G/1 queue with a removable service station
Chang, Y. C.; Pearn, W. L.
2011-07-01
In this article, we consider an infinite capacity N-policy M/G/1 queueing system with a single removable server. Poisson arrivals and general distribution service times are assumed. The server is controllable that may be turned on at arrival epochs or off at service completion epochs. We apply a differential technique to study system sensitivity, which examines the effect of different system input parameters on the system. A cost model for infinite capacity queueing system under steady-state condition is developed, to determine the optimal management policy at minimum cost. Analytical results for sensitivity analysis are derived. We also provide extensive numerical computations to illustrate the analytical sensitivity properties obtained. Finally, an application example is presented to demonstrate how the model could be used in real applications to obtain the optimal management policy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Asif Ali Shah
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Flow time analysis is a powerful concept to analyze the flow time of any arriving customer in any system at any instant. A load management mechanism can be employed very effectively in any queueing system by utilizing a system which provides probability of dual service rate. In this paper, we develop and demonstrate the flow and service processes transition diagram to determine the flow time of a customer in a load management late arrival state dependent finite discrete time queueing system with dual service rate where customers are hypogeometrically distributed. We compute the probability mass function of each starting state and total probability mass function. The obtained analytical results are validated with simulation results for varying values of arrival and service probabilities.
Approximation of an M/M/s queue by the M/M/∞ one using the operator mathod
Bareche, A.; Cherfaoui, M.; Aïssani, D.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we provide an approximate analysis of an M/M/s queue using the operator method (strong stability method). Indeed, we use this approach to study the stability of the M/M/∞ system (ideal system), when it is subject to a small perturbation in its structure (M/M/s is the resulting perturbed system). In other words, we are interested in the approximation of the characteristics of an M/M/s system by those of an M/M/∞ one. For this purpose, we first determine the approximation conditions of the characteristics of the perturbed system, and under these conditions we obtain the stability inequalities for the stationary distribution of the queue size. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we develop an algorithm which allows us to compute the various obtained theoretical results and which is executed on the considered systems in order to compare its output results with those of simulation.
An M[x]/G/1 Retrial G-queue with Single Vacation Subject to the Server Breakdown and Repair
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shu-ping YANG; Jin-biao WU; Zai-ming LIU
2013-01-01
An M[X]/G/1 retrial G-queue with single vacation and unreliable server is investigated in this paper.Arrivals of positive customers form a compound Poisson process,and positive customers receive service immediately if the server is free upon their arrivals; Otherwise,they may enter a retrial orbit and try their luck after a random time interval.The arrivals of negative customers form a Poisson process.Negative customers not only remove the customer being in service,but also make the server under repair.The server leaves for a single vacation as soon as the system empties.In this paper,we analyze the ergodical condition of this model.By applying the supplementary variables method,we obtain the steady-state solutions for both queueing measures and reliability quantities.
On the Rate of Convergence to Stationarity of the M/M/N Queue in the Halfin-Whitt Regime
Gamarnik, David
2010-01-01
We study the rate of convergence to stationarity of the $M/M/n$ queue in the Halfin-Whitt regime. We prove that there is an interesting \\emph{phase transition} in the system's behavior, occurring when the excess parameter $B$ reaches $B^* \\approx 1.85772$. For $B < B^*$, the exponential rate of convergence is $\\frac{B^2}{4}$; above $B^*$ it is the solution to an equation involving the parabolic cylinder functions. We also bound the prefactor governing the rate of convergence uniformly over $n$ when $B < B^*$, and use our bounds to derive a rule-of-thumb for determining the time it takes a severely overloaded (underloaded) queueing system to return (probabilistically) to the steady-state.
Hein, G. F.
1974-01-01
Special purpose satellites are very cost sensitive to the number of broadcast channels, usually will have Poisson arrivals, fairly low utilization (less than 35%), and a very high availability requirement. To solve the problem of determining the effects of limiting C the number of channels, the Poisson arrival, infinite server queueing model will be modified to describe the many server case. The model is predicated on the reproductive property of the Poisson distribution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vaidya Nathan
2012-03-01
Full Text Available A maximum likelihood estimator (MLE, a consistent asymptotically normal (CAN estimator and asymptotic confidence limits for the expected number of customers in the system for a sequential two station, single server system with Poisson input and exponential service, where no queue is allowed in front of station 1 and atmost one customer is allowed to wait between the stations and with blocking are obtained.
Ziegler, C.; Schilling, D. L.
1977-01-01
Two networks consisting of single server queues, each with a constant service time, are considered. The external inputs to each network are assumed to follow some general probability distribution. Several interesting equivalencies that exist between the two networks considered are derived. This leads to the introduction of an important concept in delay decomposition. It is shown that the waiting time experienced by a customer can be decomposed into two basic components called self delay and interference delay.
2013-01-01
The main contribution of this paper is to present a new sufficient condition for the subexponential asymptotics of the stationary distribution of a GI/GI/1-type Markov chain without jumps from level "infinity" to level zero. For simplicity, we call such Markov chains {\\it GI/GI/1-type Markov chains without disasters} because they are often used to analyze semi-Markovian queues without "disasters", which are negative customers who remove all the customers in the system (including themselves) o...
一种适于Internet拥塞控制的自校正队列管理算法%A Self-Tuning Queue Management Algorithm for Internet Congestion Control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张敬辕; 谢剑英; 刘立祥
2002-01-01
As an effective method for congestion control, Active Queue Management plays an important role in im-proving the Internet QoS. In this paper,we first analyze the properties of RED,then design an effective queue manage-ment algorithm based on gradient descent approach. With the application of this algorithm,routers in IP network ad-just its packet drop probability according to the queue length in the buffer. The main advantage of this algorithm isthat the queue length can keep stable at a low level in a varity of network environments. Simulations show that thisself-tuning queue management algorithm is efficient,stable and outperforms RED queue management algorithms sig-nificantly.
Gamarnik, David
2011-01-01
We consider a heterogeneous queueing system consisting of one large pool of $O(r)$ identical servers, where $r\\to\\infty$ is the scaling parameter. The arriving customers belong to one of several classes which determines the service times in the distributional sense. The system is heavily loaded in the Halfin-Whitt sense, namely the nominal utilization is $1-a/\\sqrt{r}$ where $a>0$ is the spare capacity parameter. Our goal is to obtain bounds on the steady state performance metrics such as the number of customers waiting in the queue $Q^r(\\infty)$. While there is a rich literature on deriving process level (transient) scaling limits for such systems, the results for steady state are primarily limited to the single class case. This paper is the first one to address the case of heterogeneity in the steady state regime. Moreover, our results hold for any service policy which does not admit server idling when there are customers waiting in the queue. We assume that the interarrival and service times have exponenti...
Simulation Analysis of Queue System Based on Simio%基于Simio的排队系统仿真分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张凯; 伍瑞昌; 陶学强
2011-01-01
The new generation object-oriented simulation software Simio is used to model, simulate and analyze the complex queue system, since it is difficult to solve these related problems with traditional numerical methods. A simulation model of queue system is built, and then statistics and analysis of this mode are carried out. In addition, two improved solutions to the original system are modeled, simulated and vivificated. The result shows, it is convenient to model a queue system and its related problems in various fields, based on Simio.%针对传统数值方法难以求解复杂排队系统模型的问题,采用新一代面向对象的Simio仿真软件进行建模和仿真分析.采用Simio软件构建排队系统的仿真模型,对模型进行统计分析,并对原系统的2种改进方案进行建模仿真和比较验证.分析结果表明,利用Simio软件可方便地对各领域的排队模型及其相关问题进行建模仿真,具有较大的应用潜力.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yugui Qu
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay.
New TETRA Trunked Queue Management Method%一种新的TETRA集群队列管理方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
游晓黔; 喻后强
2011-01-01
This paper compares the advantages and disadvantages of additive increase and multiplicative decrease control mechanism and proportional fair schedule on TETRA trunked network, and it finds that the additive increase and multiplicative decrease scheme of TCP can degrade QoS performance of TETRA trunked system. For solving this problem, it puts forward a new TETRA trunked queue management method, and designs a queue management counter based on dynamic starting mechanism to manage queue based on average channel quality. The effectiveness of the method on TETRA trunked network is demonstrated by simulation.%比较陆地集群无线电系统(TETRA)集群网络中加增乘减控制机制和按比公平时序调度的优缺点,指出TCP的加增乘减机制会降低TETRA集群系统的QoS性能.提出一种新的TETRA集群队列管理方法,设计基于动态起点机制的队列管理计数器,基于平均信道质量进行队列管理.仿真实验验证了该方法在TETRA集群网络中的有效性.
Shen, Yi; Ren, Gang; Liu, Yang
2016-06-01
In this paper, we propose a biased-shortest path method with minimal congestion. In the method, we use linear-prediction to estimate the queue length of nodes, and propose a dynamic accepting probability function for nodes to decide whether accept or reject the incoming packets. The dynamic accepting probability function is based on the idea of homogeneous network flow and is developed to enable nodes to coordinate their queue length to avoid congestion. A path strategy incorporated with the linear-prediction of the queue length and the dynamic accepting probability function of nodes is designed to allow packets to be automatically delivered on un-congested paths with short traveling time. Our method has the advantage of low computation cost because the optimal paths are dynamically self-organized by nodes in the delivering process of packets with local traffic information. We compare our method with the existing methods such as the efficient path method (EPS) and the optimal path method (OPS) on the BA scale-free networks and a real example. The numerical computations show that our method performs best for low network load and has minimum run time due to its low computational cost and local routing scheme.
Ke, Jau-Chuan; Lin, Chuen-Horng
2008-11-01
We consider the M[x]/G/1 queueing system, in which the server operates N policy and a single vacation. As soon as the system becomes empty the server leaves for a vacation of random length V. When he returns from the vacation and the system size is greater than or equal to a threshold value N, he starts to serve the waiting customers. If he finds fewer customers than N. he waits in the system until the system size reaches or exceeds N. The server is subject to breakdowns according to a Poisson process and his repair time obeys an arbitrary distribution. We use maximum entropy principle to derive the approximate formulas for the steady-state probability distributions of the queue length. We perform a comparative analysis between the approximate results with established exact results for various batch size, vacation time, service time and repair time distributions. We demonstrate that the maximum entropy approach is efficient enough for practical purpose and is a feasible method for approximating the solution of complex queueing systems.
1D Runoff-runon stochastic model in the light of queueing theory : heterogeneity and connectivity
Harel, M.-A.; Mouche, E.; Ledoux, E.
2012-04-01
Runoff production on a hillslope during a rainfall event may be simplified as follows. Given a soil of constant infiltrability I, which is the maximum amount of water that the soil can infiltrate, and a constant rainfall intensity R, runoff is observed where R is greater than I. The infiltration rate equals the infiltrability when runoff is produced, R otherwise. When ponding time, topography, and overall spatial and temporal variations of physical parameters, such as R and I, are neglected, the runoff equation remains simple. In this study, we consider soils of spatially variable infiltrability. As runoff can re-infiltrate on down-slope areas of higher infiltrabilities (runon), the resulting process is highly non-linear. The stationary runoff equation is: Qn+1 = max(Qn + (R - In)*Δx , 0) where Qn is the runoff arriving on pixel n of size Δx [L2/T], R and In the rainfall intensity and infiltrability on that same pixel [L/T]. The non-linearity is due to the dependence of infiltration on R and Qn, that is runon. This re-infiltration process generates patterns of runoff along the slope, patterns that organise and connect to each other differently depending on the rainfall intensity and the nature of the soil heterogeneity. The runoff connectivity, assessed using the connectivity function of Allard (1993), affects greatly the dynamics of the runoff hillslope. Our aim is to assess, in a stochastic framework, the runoff organization on 1D slopes with random infiltrabilities (log-normal, exponential, bimodal and uniform distributions) by means of theoretical developments and numerical simulations. This means linking the nature of soil heterogeneity with the resulting runoff organisation. In term of connectivity, we investigate the relations between structural (infiltrability) and functional (runoff) connectivity. A theoretical framework based on the queueing theory is developed. We implement the idea of Jones et al. (2009), who remarked that the above formulation is
An emergency department patient flow model based on queueing theory principles.
Wiler, Jennifer L; Bolandifar, Ehsan; Griffey, Richard T; Poirier, Robert F; Olsen, Tava
2013-09-01
The objective was to derive and validate a novel queuing theory-based model that predicts the effect of various patient crowding scenarios on patient left without being seen (LWBS) rates. Retrospective data were collected from all patient presentations to triage at an urban, academic, adult-only emergency department (ED) with 87,705 visits in calendar year 2008. Data from specific time windows during the day were divided into derivation and validation sets based on odd or even days. Patient records with incomplete time data were excluded. With an established call center queueing model, input variables were modified to adapt this model to the ED setting, while satisfying the underlying assumptions of queueing theory. The primary aim was the derivation and validation of an ED flow model. Chi-square and Student's t-tests were used for model derivation and validation. The secondary aim was estimating the effect of varying ED patient arrival and boarding scenarios on LWBS rates using this model. The assumption of stationarity of the model was validated for three time periods (peak arrival rate = 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.; a moderate arrival rate = 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m.; and lowest arrival rate = 4:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m.) and for different days of the week and month. Between 10:00 a.m. and 12:00 p.m., defined as the primary study period representing peak arrivals, 3.9% (n = 4,038) of patients LWBS. Using the derived model, the predicted LWBS rate was 4%. LWBS rates increased as the rate of ED patient arrivals, treatment times, and ED boarding times increased. A 10% increase in hourly ED patient arrivals from the observed average arrival rate increased the predicted LWBS rate to 10.8%; a 10% decrease in hourly ED patient arrivals from the observed average arrival rate predicted a 1.6% LWBS rate. A 30-minute decrease in treatment time from the observed average treatment time predicted a 1.4% LWBS. A 1% increase in patient arrivals has the same effect on LWBS rates as a 1