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Sample records for quercus robur fagus

  1. BVOC emissions from English oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) along a latitudinal gradient

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    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    English oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are amongst the most common tree species growing in Europe, influencing the annual biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) budget in this region. Studies have shown great variability in the emissions from these tree species, originating from both genetic variability and differences in climatic conditions between study sites. In this study, we examine the emission patterns for English oak and European beech in genetically identical individuals and the potential variation within and between sites. Leaf scale BVOC emissions, net assimilation rates and stomatal conductance were measured at the International Phenological Garden sites of Ljubljana (Slovenia), Grafrath (Germany) and Taastrup (Denmark). Sampling was conducted during three campaigns between May and July 2014. Our results show that English oak mainly emitted isoprene whilst European beech released monoterpenes. The relative contribution of the most emitted compounds from the two species remained stable across latitudes. The contribution of isoprene for English oak from Grafrath and Taastrup ranged between 92 and 97 % of the total BVOC emissions, whilst sabinene and limonene for European beech ranged from 30.5 to 40.5 and 9 to 15 % respectively for all three sites. The relative contribution of isoprene for English oak at Ljubljana was lower (78 %) in comparison to the other sites, most likely caused by frost damage in early spring. The variability in total leaf-level emission rates from the same site was small, whereas there were greater differences between sites. These differences were probably caused by short-term weather events and plant stress. A difference in age did not seem to affect the emission patterns for the selected trees. This study highlights the significance of within-genotypic variation of BVOC emission capacities for English oak and European beech, the influence of climatic variables such as temperature and light on emission

  2. Effect of flooding on C metabolism of flood-tolerant (Quercus robur) and non-tolerant (Fagus sylvatica) tree species.

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    Ferner, Eleni; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Flooding is assumed to cause an energy crisis in plants because-due to a lack of O(2)-mitochondrial respiration is replaced by alcoholic fermentation which yields considerably less energy equivalents. In the present study, the effect of flooding on the carbon metabolism of flooding-tolerant pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and flooding-sensitive European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings was characterized. Whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations dropped in roots of F. sylvatica, they were constant in Q. robur during flooding. At the same time, root alcohol dehydrogenase activities were decreased in beech but not in oak, suggesting substrate limitation of alcoholic fermentation in beech roots. Surprisingly, leaf and phloem sap sugar concentrations increased in both species but to a much higher degree in beech. This finding suggests that the phloem unloading process in flooding-sensitive beech was strongly impaired. It is assumed that root-derived ethanol is transported to the leaves via the transpiration stream. This mechanism is considered an adaptation to flooding because it helps avoid the accumulation of toxic ethanol in the roots and supports the whole plant's carbon metabolism by channelling ethanol into the oxidative metabolism of the leaves. A labelling experiment demonstrated that in the leaves of flooded trees, ethanol metabolism does not differ between flooded beech and oak, indicating that processes in the roots are crucial for the trees' flooding tolerance.

  3. Visible leaf injury in young trees of Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus robur L. in relation to ozone uptake and ozone exposure. An Open-Top Chambers experiment in South Alpine environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, G. [Catholic University of Brescia, Department of Mathematics and Physics, Via dei Musei 41, 25125 Brescia (Italy); Marzuoli, R. [Catholic University of Brescia, Department of Mathematics and Physics, Via dei Musei 41, 25125 Brescia (Italy)], E-mail: riccardo.marzuoli@unicatt.it; Desotgiu, R.; Bussotti, F. [University of Florence, Department of Plant Biology, Piazzale delle Cascine 28, 50144 Florence (Italy); Ballarin-Denti, A. [Catholic University of Brescia, Department of Mathematics and Physics, Via dei Musei 41, 25125 Brescia (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    An Open-Top Chambers experiment on Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur seedlings was conducted in order to compare the performance of an exposure-based (AOT40) and a flux-based approaches in predicting the appearance of ozone visible injuries on leaves. Three different ozone treatments (charcoal-filtered; non-filtered; and open plots) and two soil moisture treatments (watered and non-watered plots) were performed. A Jarvisian stomatal conductance model was drawn up and parameterised for both species and typical South Alpine environmental conditions, thus allowing the calculation of ozone stomatal fluxes for every treatment. A critical ozone flux level for the onset of leaf visible injury in beech was clearly identified between 32.6 and 33.6 mmol O{sub 3}m{sup -2}. In contrast, it was not possible to identify an exposure critical level using the AOT40 index. Water stress delayed the onset of the leaf visible injuries, but the flux-based approach was able to take it into account accurately. - Ozone fluxes are more accurate than AOT40 exposure index in predicting ozone visible foliar injury onset on beech seedlings in South Alpine environmental conditions.

  4. A discrimination between Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.G.; Dam, van B.C.; Eck, van H.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    In natural populations, Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl. comprise a morphological continuum due to hybridization and/or an overlap in variation between the two species. In order to obtain diagnostic markers to investigate these morphological intermediate forms, leaf morphology and AFLP

  5. Variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

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    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine variability of acorn anatomical characteristics in seventeen Quercus robur L. genotypes. Acorns were collected in clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia. Microscopic measurements were done for pericarp (total thickness, thickness of exocarp and mesocarp, seed coat (total thickness, thickness of outer epidermis, parenchyma, and inner epidermis, and embryo axis (diameter, thickness of cortical region, and diameter of stellar zone. Obtained results revealed certain divergence between genotypes. The thickness of pericarp varied from 418 to 559 mm (genotypes 20 and 22, respectively. On average, the participation of exocarp in the total thickness of pericarp was 36.3%, of mesocarp 61.0%, while of endocarp 2.6%. The thickness of seed coat for individual genotypes ranged from 71 mm (genotype 28 to 157 mm (genotype 38. In addition, anatomic parameters of embryo axis varied among studied genotypes. The lowest cortical zone thickness and stellar zone diameter were measured in genotype 40, while the highest values in genotype 33.

  6. Preliminary Comparative Analysis of Phenological Varieties of Quercus robur by ISSR-Markers

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    Vasiliy Chokheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus robur L. is a valuable wood species having long ontogeny and promising to create long-living artificial plantings of recreational and ameliorative purposes in the steppes zone of Russia and other countries. In this work we have performed the genotyping of varieties of Quercus robur L. obtained from collection of Botanical Garden of Southern Federal University using intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR molecular markers. The most polymorphic ISSR-marker (GA 8YC was found in the collection. The polymorphic DNA markers identified in the present study can be used for the future breeding works to obtain valuable genotypes of Quercus genus. In addition we have performed DNA fingerprinting of the prospective sample of the variety Q. robur var. tardiflora Czern.

  7. Quercus robur vitality structure and its dynamics at the initial stages of ontogeny

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    V. M. Dehtiarov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of evaluation of vitality structure of ontogenetic subcenopopulations of juvenile and immature (im1 and im2 plants Quercus robur L. in seven aggregations of forest vegetation of Krolevets-Hlukhiv Geobotanical Region. It is found that ontogenetic subcenopopulations of Q. robur young generation, formed under canopy of deciduous forests of the region under study, are noted for high level of vitality structure diversity and for having three qualitative types: blooming, balanced and depressive ones. It is observed that dynamics of Q quality index values in ontogenetic subcenopopulations Q. robur in the aggregations under study fits three variants of changes. In the first one we can see stable decrease of Q quality index values in the line j → im1 → im2. Three of seven aggregations under study have dynamics of Q index values fitting the variant where increase of values takes place in the phase j → im1, and their decrease occurs in the phase im1 → im2. Q index values also decrease in the phase j → im1 and their increase in the phase im1 → im2 is established in three more phytocenoces. It is proved that change to every next phase of development (from j to im1, and also from im1 to im2 is accompanied by the appearance of vitality plasticity in Q. robur young generation (i.e. Q quality index value changes and vitality variability (changes of share of individuals of various vitality classes, respectively. Quantitative as well as qualitative aspects of vitality plasticity realization are evaluated based on the original factor – index of vitality dynamics – IVD. It is found that at the initial stages of ontogenetic development negative changes of vitality structure in Q. robur happen more often then positive ones. Decrease in the individuals’ vitality and worsening of vitality structure are mainly accompanied by the reduction of cohort quality status. Ascertained facts as for vitality structure of ontogenetic

  8. Drying of the aqueous extract of acorn Quercus robur in a spout-fluid bed

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    Rakić S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the chemical investigations of variously treated acorn samples are presented in this paper with the aim of obtaining data on the amount of nutritious components and biologically active substances. The Quercus robur acorn, which belongs to the Fagaceae family, was investigated in a raw, thermally treated form and as an extract that was subsequently dried in a dryer with a fluidized bed. The obtained results regarding the content of tannin, nitrogen containing compounds, macro- and microelements indicate that acorn maintains its functional characteristics after the investigated treatments.

  9. Histological investigation of the multiplication step in secondary somatic embryogenesis of Quercus robur L.

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Standardized explants composed of hypocotyl and root-tip were prepared from embryonic structures obtained from one embryogenic line of Quercus robur L. maintained by regular transfer onto a solidified reference medium composed of the MS mineral solutions, glucose (0.12 M), casamino acid (0.1% ), and NAA (10.74 $\\mu$M). The regeneration capacity from these explants were tested on the reference medium and on 2 alternative media in which the NAA (10.74 $\\mu$M) was omitted...

  10. COENOTICAL CHAINS OF ACER PLATANOIDES AND QUERCUS ROBUR IN THE FORESTS OF NOVGOROD-SEVERSKOYE POLESYE

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    Skliar V. G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarized information on association of small undergrowth of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. and English oak (Quercus robur L. under the canopy of the forest with plants that form the grass-shrub layer within Novgorod-Severskoye Polesye. We founded that the association at certain extent depends on the type of population behavior of undergrowth and grasses. Small undergrowth of A. platanoides being the tolerant species according to the type of population behavior demonstrates negative association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. The pattern of association of A. platanoides with tolerant species depends on their vegetative mobility: the maple has positive association with species with no vegetative mobility and positive and negative association with species characterized by high extent of vegetative mobility. The undergrowth of Q. robur which is the competitive species due to population behavior shows positive association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. We estimated the coenotic parameters that are required for successful resumption of maple and oak in the region of research. We also shown that coenotic optimum for A. platanoides corresponds to the environment with weak intensity of competition in the living soil cover with thin grass layer and density of coverage does not exceed 50%. Q. robur has coenotic optimum among habitats in the herbaceous layer with domination of green moss and (or Convallaria majalis L., Fragaria vesca L. with no grains and density of coverage in living ground cover not more than 60%.

  11. Effects of above- and below-ground competition from shrubs on photosynthesis, transpiration and growth in Quercus robur L

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    Anna M. Jensen; Magnus Lof; Emile S. Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    For a tree seedling to successfully establish in dense shrubbery, it must maintain function under heterogeneous resource availability. We evaluated leaf-level acclimation in photosynthetic capacity, seedling-level transpiration, and seedling morphology and growth to gain an understanding of the effects of above- and below-ground competition on Quercus robur seedlings....

  12. Protective effect of Castanea sativa and Quercus robur leaf extracts against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species.

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    Almeida, Isabel F; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José L F C; Costa, P C; Bahia, M F

    2008-05-29

    Topical natural antioxidants are a useful strategy for the prevention of photoaging and oxidative stress mediated skin diseases. In view of this underlying principle, the screening of natural plant extracts with scavenging activity for pro-oxidant reactive species is a primary requirement for the development of new topical antioxidant formulations. In the present study, an ethanol:water (7:3) extract from Castanea sativa leaves and a ethanol:water (2:3) extract from Quercus robur leaves were evaluated for their putative in vitro scavenging effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) namely superoxide radical (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()), peroxyl radical (ROO()), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) as well as on reactive nitrogen species (RNS) namely nitric oxide (()NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The extracts presented a high potency to scavenge the tested reactive species, all the IC(50)s being found at the microg/mL level. IC(50)s (mean+/-SE) for the ROS O(2)(-),HO(),H(2)O(2) and (1)O(2) were 13.6+/-1.8; 216+/-4; 410+/-8; 12.3+/-0.7 microug/mL, respectively, for C. sativa, and 11.0+/-0.5; 285+/-22; 251+/-32; 7.90+/-0.56 microg/mL, respectively, for Q. robur. The ORAC values obtained for ROO() were 1.24+/-0.13 for C. sativa and 1.09+/-0.06 for Q. robur. The IC(50)s (mean+/-SE) for ()NO and ONOO(-) were 3.10+/-0.14 and 1.49+/-0.10 microg/mL, respectively, for C. sativa and 3.13+/-0.11 and 0.95+/-0.02 microg/mL, respectively, for Q. robur. The content of total phenolics for C. sativa and Q. robur were 284+/-9 and 346+/-4 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of lyophilized extract respectively. The observed effects might be of relevance considering the putative interest of these extracts as topical antioxidants.

  13. Rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography of oak (Quercus robur L.) bark.

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    Vovk, Irena; Simonovska, Breda; Andrensek, Samo; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia

    2003-04-04

    The versatile novel instrument for rotation planar extraction and rotation planar chromatography was exploited for the investigation of oak bark (Quercus robur L.). The same instrument enabled extraction of the bark, analytical proof of (+)-catechin directly in the crude extract and also its fractionation. Additionally, epimeric flavan-3-ols, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were separated by analytical ultra-micro rotation planar chromatography on cellulose plates with pure water as developing solvent. A comparison of the extraction of oak bark with 80% aqueous methanol by rotation planar extraction and medium pressure solid-liquid extraction was carried out and both techniques were shown to be suitable for the efficient extraction of oak bark. The raw extracts and fractions on thin-layer chromatography showed many compounds that possessed antioxidant activity after spraying with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Rotation planar fractionation of 840 mg of crude oak bark extract on silica gel gave 6.7 mg of pure (+)-catechin in one run.

  14. QUERCUS ROBUR, Q. CERRIS AND Q. PETRAEA AS HOT SPOTS OF BIODIVERSITY

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    Ecaterina FODOR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different bipartite networks (pathogenic, ectomycorrhizal and galling insects established by Quercus robur L., Q. cerris L. and Q. petraea (Matt. Liebl. were merged in order to investigate the topological properties of the complex network, shading light on how biodiversity was organized through complex interactions. The complex network contains 290 species – 137 are pathogens (parasitic interaction, 72 are mycorrhizal fungi (mutualists and 81 species of galling insects (herbivores. Most relevant network descriptors, connectivity, nestedness and modularity were analyzed. The main network and subnetworks displayed different behaviors in terms of topological properties, three of four networks showing significant modularity (galling insects network was marginally significant in what regards modularity. High connectivity and different degrees of nestedness characterized all networks. Clustering and Non Metric Multidimensional scaling refined the information provided by network analysis showing that networks occupy distant positions in ordination space and there are differences in terms of resemblance patterns.

  15. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of Oak wood ( Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis): optimization of the processing parameters

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    Bahar, Rim; Azzouz, Soufien; Remond, Romain; Ouertani, Sahbi; Elaieb, Mohamed Taher; El Cafci, Mohamed Afif

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the moisture desorption isotherms and essentials thermodynamic properties of two Oak wood varieties. Desorption isotherms were measured using a static gravimetric method at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C within the range of 5-90 % relative humidity. The equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature and decreased with decreasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. The `Thermodynamic' sorption equation was found to be the best for describing the experimental moisture sorption isotherms of woods within the range of temperature and water activity investigated. The Fiber saturation point, deduced from the `Thermodynamic' model parameters, depends on the temperature and varying from 22.6 to 54.4 (% kg water/kg dry matter). Isosteric heat of desorption and differential entropy were calculated by applying Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the desorption data fitted by the `Thermodynamic' model. The isosteric heat of desorption and the differential entropy decreased with increasing moisture content according to an exponential law equation and varying from 2.03 to 31.14 kJ/mol and from 73.98 to 4.34 J/(mol K), respectively. The linear relationship between differential enthalpy and entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The sign of Gibbs free energy was found to be positive (+283 J/mol) and (+97 J/mol) for Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis, respectively. The isokinetic temperature was found to be greater than the harmonic temperature. Based on the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory, it could be concluded that the moisture desorption isotherm of Oak wood is a non-spontaneous and enthalpy-controlled process.

  16. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of Oak wood (Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis): optimization of the processing parameters

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    Bahar, Rim; Azzouz, Soufien; Remond, Romain; Ouertani, Sahbi; Elaieb, Mohamed Taher; El Cafci, Mohamed Afif

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the moisture desorption isotherms and essentials thermodynamic properties of two Oak wood varieties. Desorption isotherms were measured using a static gravimetric method at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C within the range of 5-90 % relative humidity. The equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature and decreased with decreasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. The `Thermodynamic' sorption equation was found to be the best for describing the experimental moisture sorption isotherms of woods within the range of temperature and water activity investigated. The Fiber saturation point, deduced from the `Thermodynamic' model parameters, depends on the temperature and varying from 22.6 to 54.4 (% kg water/kg dry matter). Isosteric heat of desorption and differential entropy were calculated by applying Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the desorption data fitted by the `Thermodynamic' model. The isosteric heat of desorption and the differential entropy decreased with increasing moisture content according to an exponential law equation and varying from 2.03 to 31.14 kJ/mol and from 73.98 to 4.34 J/(mol K), respectively. The linear relationship between differential enthalpy and entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The sign of Gibbs free energy was found to be positive (+283 J/mol) and (+97 J/mol) for Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis, respectively. The isokinetic temperature was found to be greater than the harmonic temperature. Based on the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory, it could be concluded that the moisture desorption isotherm of Oak wood is a non-spontaneous and enthalpy-controlled process.

  17. Water metabolism of leaves of Quercus robur in antierosion stands in the south of its range

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    V. P. Bessonova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the main parameters of water exchange in leaves of Quercus robur L. which grow on the south-facing slope of the Viyskoviy ravine in a variety of water supply conditions. We established that the greatest intensity of transpiration of leaves of Q. robur occurred in the forest vegetation conditions of SG2, the smallest in SG1–0. In all study periods the largest amplitude of daily fluctuations in intensity of transpiration occurred in leaves of plants along the talweg, at other test sites the limits were much lower. The highest rates of transpiration were in September, which is connected with the high temperatures and lower relative air humidity compared with the days of measurement in July and May. We established that at the beginning of the growing season there was no difference in the total amount of water in the leaves of the trees that grow on the middle and upper parts of the slope, but that it was greater in plants along the talweg. In the following months the difference between the water content in the leaves of trees along the talweg and upper third of the slope increased. The leaves of trees that grow in the poorest conditions of water supply were characterized by the highest water-holding capacity, which is coordinated with their containing the highest content of hydrophilic colloids. The values for water deficit in May and in July fell within the maximum fluctuations for the species studied, but in early September they exceeded the maximum value in the leaves of trees on the upper third of the slope.

  18. A comparative analysis of stomata and leaf trichome characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes

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    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine genotype variability of leaf trichome and stoma characteristics. Leaves were sampled from seventeen pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L genotypes originating from clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, the Vojvodina Province. The pedunculate oak has hypostomatal leaves. Statistically significant differences were found for the dimensions and density of stomata. Genotype variability of stomatal dimensions was less pronounced in comparison with their density (CV = 8.88%. Stomata number ranged from 530 to 791 per mm2 of leaf area; genotypes 18 and 25 could be distinguished from the others for the highest stomata number per leaf unit area, genotype 35 for the lowest number. In all genotypes, only solitary eglandular trichomes were observed on the adaxial leaf surface while both solitary eglandular and uniseriate glandular hairs were present on the abaxial surface. Single glandular trichomes were observed in all genotypes, while some of them were characterized by the presence of two (genotypes 4, 5, 6, 16, 22, 25, 28, 29, 30, 35, 38, 40, and 85 or three (genotypes 16, 25, 35 hairs joined by their basal cells.

  19. Pedunculate oak forests (Quercus robur L. survey in the Ticino Regional Park (Italy by remote sensing

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    Rossini M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedunculate oak forests (Quercus robur L. in the Ticino Regional Park (Italy show sensible damage conditions due to different environmental stresses: insect attacks, summer drought and air pollution. Knowing whether oaks are healthy or stressed can provide useful information in order to conserve the forest ecosystems and avoid the lost of valuable natural resources. Environmental stresses can affect tree biochemical and structural variables, such as the concentration, composition and efficiency in light harvesting of foliar pigments, and the Leaf Area Index (LAI. Interest in the use of these variables for forest condition assessment has recently increased because they can be indirectly estimated from remote observations at leaf and canopy level. In particular, in this research we found that total chlorophyll (Chl concentration, a biochemical variable related to crown discoloration rate, was the most suitable variable for the detection of pedunculate oak decline in the Ticino Park. A regression analysis between Chl concentration and optical indices computed from hyperspectral MIVIS data was performed in order to estimate Chl concentration from remote observations. The good correlation between field measurements of Chl concentration and MIVIS optical indices allowed the development of a model to map Chl concentration across the Ticino Park forested area. Promising results demonstrated that remotely sensed data can provide an accurate estimation of Chl concentration and indicated the potential of this technique for forest condition monitoring.

  20. The macrofungal diversity and community of Atlantic oak (Quercus petraea and Q. robur forests in Ireland

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    Harrington, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The oak species Quercus petraea and Q. Robur are dominant canopy tree species of native deciduous forests in Ireland and coastal regions of Western Europe. These forests are typically plant species-rich, and can also have a rich fungal flora. This survey examined macrofungi found in five native oak sites across Ireland over three years. Overall, 94 macrofungal species belonging to 39 genera were discovered with Mycena, Lactarius, Russula and Cortinarius the most species-rich genera. The species accumulation curve did not show signs of levelling off, indicating that more sampling would reveal more new species. Species richness estimation using the Chao2 estimator indicated that up to 135 species may be present across all of our plots, with individual plots receiving estimates from 19 to 61 species per plot. Sampled-based rarefaction analysis showed no significant differences in macrofungal species richness between our plots. The five most common species were Laccaria amethystina, L. laccata, Stereum hirsutum, Armillaria mellea and Cortinarius flexipes. Comparisons of the results with results from oak forests in similar regions found that the communities in Great Britain were most similar to those found in Ireland. There were some key oak forest distinguishing fungal species from the family Boletaceae lacking from Irish oak forests. It is hypothesised that the historic deforestation of Ireland, caused a reduction of suitable habitats for Irish oak associated macrofungi, leading to the unspecific mycota found in the oak forests of this study. The threats to Atlantic oak forests in Ireland are briefly discussed.Las especies de Quercus petraea y Q. Robur se encuentran en bosques de Irlanda y regiones de influencia atlántica de Europa Occidental. Estos bosques, típicamente ricos en especies de plantas, presentan una abundante micobiota. Este estudio examina la diversidad de macromicetes en cinco bosques naturales de roble en Irlanda durante un

  1. Associations between growth, wood anatomy, carbon isotope discrimination and mortality in a Quercus robur forest.

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    Levanic, Tom; Cater, Matjaz; McDowell, Nate G

    2011-03-01

    Observations of forest mortality are increasing globally, but relatively little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms driving these events. Tree rings carry physiological signatures that may be used as a tool for retrospective analyses. We capitalized on a local soil water drainage event in 1982 that resulted in increased mortality within a stand of oak trees (Quercus robur), to examine the underlying physiological patterns associated with survival and death in response to soil water limitations. Pre-dawn water potentials showed more negative values for trees in the process of dying compared with those that survived. We used tree rings formed over the 123 years prior to mortality to estimate productivity from basal area increment (BAI, mm(2)), multiple xylem hydraulic parameters via anatomical measurements and crown-level gas exchange via carbon isotope discrimination (Δ, ‰). Oaks that died had significantly higher BAI values than trees that survived until the drainage event, after which the BAI of trees that died declined dramatically. Hydraulic diameter and conductivity of vessels in trees that died were higher than in surviving trees until the last 5 years prior to mortality, at which time both groups had similar values. Trees that died had consistently lower Δ values than trees that survived. Therefore, tree mortality in this stand was associated with physiological differences prior to the onset of soil water reduction. We propose that trees that died may have been hydraulically underbuilt for dry conditions, which predisposes them to severe hydraulic constraints and subsequent mortality. Measurements of above-ground/below-ground dry mass partitioning will be critical to future tests of this hypothesis. Based on these results, it is probable that pedunculate oak trees will experience greater future mortality if climate changes cause more severe droughts than the trees have experienced previously.

  2. Soil development in OSL dated sandy dune substrates under Quercus robur Forest (Netherlands)

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    van Mourik, J. M.; Nierop, Ir. K.; Verstraten, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal dune landscapes are very dynamic. The present distribution of vegetation and soil is the result of over 2000 years of natural processes and human management. The initial soil development was controlled by an increase of the organic matter content, which consisted mainly of decomposed roots of grasses (rhizomull), and a decrease of the soil pH to 3-4 by decalcification. This stage was followed by the development of a deciduous forest, which was dominated by Quercus robur. Since 1600 AD, a large part of the deciduous forest that dominated the east side of the coastal dune landscape transferred in expensive residential areas and urbanizations. Nevertheless some parts of the oak forest belt remained. The present forest soils are acid and the controlling soil processes are leaching of sesquioxides and storage of organic matter in mormoder humus forms. The sustainability of ecosystems is closely related to the quality of the humus form, controlling nutrient cycling and water supply. Therefore, improve of knowledge of humus form development and properties is important. We applied soil micromorphology and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to investigate more details of humus form development at two locations (Duivendrift and Hoek van Klaas) in the coastal dune area of the Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (near Haarlem, the Netherlands). However, to understand forest soil development, including the organic matter composition in the humus form, the age of the substrate and the forest is required. Therefore, we used tradition techniques as pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating but also the recently introduced optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. OSL dating works excellent for aeolian sandy deposits with a high percentage of quartz grains. The OSL age is defined as the time after the last bleaching by solar radiation of mineral grains. Or in other words, the start of a stable period without sand drifting. In the Ah horizons we

  3. Sweets for the foe - effects of nonstructural carbohydrates on the susceptibility of Quercus robur against Phytophthora quercina.

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    Angay, Oguzhan; Fleischmann, Frank; Recht, Sabine; Herrmann, Sylvie; Matyssek, Rainer; Oßwald, Wolfgang; Buscot, François; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2014-09-01

    The root-rot pathogen Phytophthora quercina is a key determinant of oak decline in Europe. The susceptibility of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) to this pathogen has been hypothesized to depend on the carbon availability in roots as an essential resource for defense. Microcuttings of Q. robur undergo an alternating rhythm of root and shoot growth. Inoculation of mycorrhizal (Piloderma croceum) and nonmycorrhizal oak roots with P. quercina was performed during both growth phases, that is, root flush (RF) and shoot flush (SF). Photosynthetic and morphological responses as well as concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) were analyzed. Infection success was quantified by the presence of pathogen DNA in roots. Concentrations of NSC in roots depended on the alternating root/shoot growth rhythm, being high and low during RF and SF, respectively. Infection success was high during RF and low during SF, resulting in a significantly positive correlation between pathogen DNA and NSC concentration in roots, contrary to the hypothesis. The alternating growth of roots and shoots plays a crucial role for the susceptibility of lateral roots to the pathogen. NSC availability in oak roots has to be considered as a benchmark for susceptibility rather than resistance against P. quercina.

  4. Genome scanning for interspecific differentiation between two closely related oak species [Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Mariette, Stéphanie; Porth, Ilga; Goicoechea, Pablo G; Barreneche, Teresa; Bodénès, Catherine; Burg, Kornel; Kremer, Antoine

    2004-11-01

    Interspecific differentiation values (G(ST)) between two closely related oak species (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) were compiled across different studies with the aim to explore the distribution of differentiation at the genome level. The study was based on a total set of 389 markers (isozymes, AFLPs, SCARs, microsatellites, and SNPs) for which allelic frequencies were estimated in pairs of populations sampled throughout the sympatric distribution of the two species. The overall distribution of G(ST) values followed an L-shaped curve with most markers exhibiting low species differentiation (G(ST) 10% levels. Twelve percent of the loci exhibited significant G(ST) deviations to neutral expectations, suggesting that selection contributed to species divergence. Coding regions expressed higher differentiation than noncoding regions. Among the 389 markers, 158 could be mapped on the 12 linkage groups of the existing Q. robur genetic map. Outlier loci with large G(ST) values were distributed over 9 linkage groups. One cluster of three outlier loci was found within 0.51 cM; but significant autocorrelation of G(ST) was observed at distances <2 cM. The size and distribution of genomic regions involved in species divergence are discussed in reference to hitchhiking effects and disruptive selection.

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidative enrichment of oak (Quercus robur) bark by rotation planar extraction using ExtraChrom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrensek, Samo; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Fyhrquist, Pia; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia

    2004-04-15

    The multifunctional ExtraChrom instrument was used in the extraction of antimicrobial and radical scavenging components from oak (Quercus robur L.) bark. Milled and sieved oak bark was extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol solution in water on the ExtraChrom instrument using step-gradient in the preparative separation. Extracts were tested using agar diffusion method on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Candida albicans. Some extracts showed moderate bactericidal, fungicidal, bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity. The composition related to activity of the fractions and extracts was screened simultaneously by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) detected by UV and by spraying the plate with radical scavenging reagent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) to detect antioxidant activity. Thus, we could demonstrate the antiradical and antimicrobial activity of oak beneficial in the storage of wine against the oxidation and human microbial exposure.

  6. UV light impact on ellagitannins and wood surface colour of European oak ( Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahri, S.; Belloncle, C.; Charrier, F.; Pardon, P.; Quideau, S.; Charrier, B.

    2007-03-01

    Two European oak species ( Q. petraea and Q. robur) have a high content of phenols which may participate in the alteration of colour upon UV irradiation. To study the photodegradation process of oak surfaces, the two oak species extractives, vescalagin, castalagin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were analysed quantitatively by HPLC before and after UV irradiation. Irradiation time was altered between 3, 24, 72, 96, 120, 144, 192 and 216 h. In parallel, any colour changes of Oak wood surface was followed after 120 h of UV-irradiation by measuring CIELAB parameters (DL*, Da*, Db* and DE*). We observed that 60% of total phenol content of extractives decreased after the maximal exposure time. Our findings also showed that castalagin and gallic acid were destroyed after 216 h and vescalagin and ellagic acid after 72 h. This study proves the photosenibility of oakwood extractives which, supplementary to lignin degradation, would strongly result in the discolouration of oak heartwood.

  7. Tree-Ring Chronology of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur and its Potential for Development of Dendrochronological Research in Croatia

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    Katarina Čufar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the local tree-ring chronology of pedunculate oak (Qercus robur from Kobiljak near Zagreb, Croatia (16º09’ E, 45º49’ N, 140 m a.s.l.. The chronology is based on 17 trees and is 127 years long and covers the period of 1883-2009. The well replicated part of the residual version of the ARSTAN chronology with SSS>0.80 (interval of 88 years, period 1922-2009 was used for dendroclimatological analysis, which showed that June precipitation has positive and temperature has negative effect on tree-ring variation. Comparison with 40 available oak chronologies from the surrounding countries confi rmed its good teleconnection with 2 local oak chronologies from Austria, 2 from Hungary, and 3 from Slovenia. It also exhibits good heteroconnection, i.e. similarity with chronologies of beech (Fagus sylvatica, from various sites in Slovenia. The similarities can be ascribed to response to common climatic factors. The results indicate that the chronology could be a good reference point for constructing a longer regional chronology in Croatia and surrounding countries, which could be used for different purposes including dating of objects of cultural heritage.

  8. Comparison of the autoecology of Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka Liebl. stands in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula

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    A. Rodriguez-Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to characterize the functioning of the ecosystems of semideciduous and deciduous Atlantic oaks in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The studied species were: Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Mattuschka Liebl. To advance in the knowledge of the autecology of these species it is necessary to descend at the regional level and describe in detail the variability of the environment to determine their potential, and to decide the silvicultural treatments to be applied to preserve them and to analyze future actuations in order to a possible expansion. The analysis of the results allows knowing differences in continentalityand site conditions, with more precipitation, soil variability and humidification in Q. petraea forests respect to Q. robur. These information represent appropriate measures for the sustainable and multifunctional management of these forests, useful as indicators environmental and forestry parameters as well as the conservationstatus of these formations.

  9. Increased Drying Rate Lowers the Critical Water Content for Survival in Embryonic Axes of English Oak (Quercus robur L.) Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tobias M. Ntuli; William E. Finch-Savage; Patricia Berjak; Norman W. Pammenter

    2011-01-01

    The potential to cryopreserve embryonic axes of desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds is limited by damage during the desiccation necessary for low temperature survival, but the basis of this injury and how to reduce it is not well understood. The effects of drying rate on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical-mediated processes were therefore investigated during dehydration of Quercus robur L. embryonic axes. Viability, assessed by evidence of germination and tetrazolium staining, showed a sharp decline at 0.27 and 0.8 g/g during rapid (<12 h) or slow (3 d) dehydration, respectively. Rapid dehydration therefore lowered the critical water content for survival. At any given water content rapid dehydration was associated with higher activities of the free radical processing enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and lower levels of hydroperoxide and membrane damage. Rapid dehydration was also associated with lower malate dehydrogenase activity, and a reduced decline in phosphofructokinase activity and in levels of the oxidized form of nicotinamide dinucleotide. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in hydrated storage after 3 d. The results presented are consistent with rapid dehydration reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions.

  10. Caracterización energética de Quercus robur L.

    OpenAIRE

    González Rodríguez, Alberto Jesús

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis se buscan justificaciones sólidas que respalden la implantación de un proceso de silvicultura eficaz aplicable a las masas de Quercus con el doble objetivo de sanearlas a la vez que extraer de ellas biomasa forestal de calidad utilizable en procesos de producción energética a pequeña escala. Para conseguir estos dos objetivos debemos primero plantear la importancia actual del carballo en Galicia en su contexto más global y justificar así una inversión importante en labores silví...

  11. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  12. Modeling of stomatal conductance to estimate stomatal ozone uptake by Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Azuchi, Fumika; Uehara, Yui; Kanomata, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To construct stomatal conductance models and estimate stomatal O3 uptake for Fagus crenata, Quercus serrata, Quercus mongolica var. crispula and Betula platyphylla, stomatal conductance (gs) was measured in seedlings of the four tree species. Better estimates of gs were made by incorporating the acute effects of O3 on gs into the models and the models could explain 34-52% of the variability in gs. Although the O3 concentration was relatively high in spring from April to May, COU of F. crenata, Q. serrata and Q. mongolica var. crispula were relatively low and the ratios of COU in spring to total COU in one year were 16.8% in all tree species because of low gs limited mainly by leaf pre-maturation and/or low temperature. The COU of B. platyphylla were relatively high mainly because of rapid leaf maturation and lower optimal temperature for stomatal opening.

  13. Velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling in woody stems of Castanea sativa, Morus nigra and Quercus robur measured by IDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Gilbert; Xu, Bingcheng; Hacker, Juergen

    2010-08-01

    Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) was used to monitor the velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) during freezing of stems of Castanea sativa L., Morus nigra L. and Quercus robur L. that exhibit a macro- and ring-porous xylem. Measurements were conducted on the surface of cross- and longitudinal stem sections. During high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs; -2.8 to -9.4°C), initial freezing was mainly observed in the youngest year ring of the sapwood (94%), but occasionally elsewhere (older year rings: 4%; bark: 2%). Initially, ice propagated rapidly in the largest xylem conduits. This resulted in a distinct freezing pattern of concentric circles in C. sativa and M. nigra. During HTEs, supercooling of XPCs became visible in Q. robur stems, but not in the other species that have narrower pith rays. Intracellular freezing of supercooled XPCs of Q. robur became visible by IDTA during low-temperature freezing exotherms (<-17.4 °C). Infrared differential thermal analysis revealed the progress and the two-dimensional pattern of XPC freezing. XPCs did not freeze at once, but rather small cell groups appeared to freeze at random anywhere in the xylem. By IDTA, ice propagation and deep supercooling in stems can be monitored at meaningful spatial and temporal resolutions.

  14. Adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of Croatian and Austrian Quercus robur L. populations at a drought prone field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials, where populations of different geographical origin are tested in a common environment (common garden test, are a tool suited to allow the study of intraspecific adaptive genetic variation. Research of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. adaptive genetic variability through analyses of populations in common garden tests has a long tradition. However, pedunculated oak populations originating south-eastern from the Alps have been scarcely studied in this way. This study addresses the adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of pedunculate oak populations originating from Austria and Croatia in a provenance/progeny field trial. Studied plants were six years old and were growing at the trial for three years. After two years of unusually low precipitations height and survival were analysed. The total mean height of all plants in the trial was 137.8 cm and ranged from 123.0 cm to 151.8 cm. The overall mean survival rate was rather high (0.85. Mean population survival ranged from 0.64 to 0.94. Individual narrow-sense heritabilities (hi2, family mean heritabilities (hf2, the coefficients of additive genetic variation (CVA and quantitative genetic differentiation coefficients (QST were calculated. A multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis was used to determine the pattern of genetic differentiation of the populations. Individual heritabilities for height ranged between 0.00 and 0.39. Family mean heritabilities for height were rather low in most populations as well (<0.5. Family mean heritabilities for survival were higher than for height (ranging between 0.00 and 0.77. Calculated QST coefficients (0.25 for height and 0.14 for survival indicated between-population genetic differentiation. The populations were separated into two clusters by MRT analysis regarding a climatic variable, namely Hargreaves’ reference evapotranspiration. Populations originating from comparatively more humid habitats were grouped in the first

  15. Xylem-Transported Glucose as an Additional Carbon Source for Leaf Isoprene Formation in Quercus Robur L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, M.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Schnitzler, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Rennenberg, H.

    2003-04-01

    Isoprene is emitted from mature, photosynthesizing leaves of many plant species, particularly of trees. Current interest in understanding the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling isoprene formation is caused by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) thereby generating oxidizing agents such as ozone and organic peroxides. Ozone causes significant deterioration in air quality and can pose threats to human health therefore its control is a major goal in Europe and the United States. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the pathways of isoprene biosynthesis. Nevertheless the regulatory mechanisms controlling isoprene emission are not completely understood. Light and temperature appear to be the main factors controlling short-term variations in isoprene emission. Exposure of plants to C-13 labeled carbon dioxide showed instantaneous assimilated carbon is the primary carbon source for isoprene formation. However, variations in diurnal and seasonal isoprene fluxes, which cannot be explained by temperature, light, and leaf development led to the suggestion that alternative carbon sources may exist contributing to isoprene emissions. The aim of the present study was to test whether xylem-transported carbohydrates act as additional sources for isoprene biosynthesis. For this purpose, [U-C-13] alpha-D-glucose was fed to photosynthesizing leaves via the xylem of Quercus robur L. seedlings and the incorporation of glucose derived C-13 into emitted isoprene was monitored in real time using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). A rapid incorporation of C-13 from xylem-fed glucose into single (mass 70) and double (mass 71) C-13 labeled isoprene molecules was observed after a lag phase of approximately 5 to 10 minutes. This incorporation was temperature dependent and was highest (up to 13% C-13 of total carbon emitted as isoprene) at the temperature optimum of

  16. Flood-Ring Formation and Root Development in Response to Experimental Flooding of Young Quercus robur Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Loesberg, Walter A.; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of ‘flood rings’ that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm. The effect of flooding on root and vessel development was assessed immediately after the flooding treatment and at the end of the growing season. Ring width and earlywood-vessel size and density were measured at 25- and 75-cm stem height and collapsed vessels were recorded. Stem flooding inhibited earlywood-vessel development in flooded stem parts. In addition, flooding upon budswell and internode expansion led to collapsed earlywood vessels below the water level. At the end of the growing season, mean earlywood-vessel size in the flooded stem parts (upon budswell and internode expansion) was always reduced by approximately 50% compared to non-flooded stem parts and 55% compared to control trees. This reduction was already present 2 weeks after flooding and occurred independent of flooding duration. Stem and root flooding were associated with significant root dieback after 4 and 6 weeks and mean radial growth was always reduced with increasing flooding duration. By comparing stem and root flooding, we conclude that flood rings only occur after stem flooding. As earlywood-vessel development was hampered during flooding, a considerable number of narrow earlywood vessels present later in the season, must have been formed after the actual flooding events. Our study indicates that root dieback, together with strongly reduced hydraulic

  17. Differential radial growth patterns between beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) on periodically waterlogged soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnweber, Tobias; Manthey, Michael; Wilmking, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Climate scenarios for northern Central Europe project rising temperatures and increasing frequency and intensity of droughts but also a shift in precipitation pattern with more humid winters. This in turn may result in soil waterlogging during the following spring, leading to increasing stress for trees growing on hydric sites. The influence of waterlogging on growth of common beech and pedunculate oak has been studied intensively on seedlings under experimental conditions. However, the question remains whether results of these studies can be transferred to mature trees growing under natural conditions. To test this, we investigated general growth patterns and climate-growth relationships in four mature stands of beech and oak growing on hydromorphic soils (Stagnosols) in northeast Germany using dendrochronological methods. Our results confirmed the expected tolerance of oak to strong water-level fluctuations. Neither extremely wet conditions during spring nor summer droughts significantly affected its radial growth. Oak growth responded positively to warmer temperatures during previous year October and March of the current year of ring formation. Contrary to our expectations, also beech showed relatively low sensitivity to periods of high soil water saturation. Instead, summer drought turned out to be the main climatic factor influencing ring width of beech even under the specific periodically wet soil conditions of our study. This became evident from general climate-growth correlations over the last century as well as from discontinuous (pointer year) analysis with summer drought being significantly correlated to the occurrence of growth depressions. As ring width of the two species is affected by differing climate parameters, species-specific chronologies show no coherence in high-frequency variations even for trees growing in close proximity. We assume differences in rooting depth as the main reason for the differing growth patterns and climate correlations of the two species under study. Our results indicate that under the projected future climate scenarios, beech may suffer from increasing drought stress even on hydromorphic soils. Oak might be able to maintain a sufficient hydraulic status during summer droughts by reaching water in deeper soil strata with its root system. Wet phases with waterlogged soil conditions during spring or summer appear to have only a little direct influence on radial growth of both species.

  18. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9-140 years old), oak (11-140 years) and alder (4-76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0-30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha(-1), 3.71 Mg ha(-1) and 1.53 Mg ha(-1), for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0-30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0-30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands.

  19. Estimating the relative nutrient uptake from different soil depths in Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Hans; Wallander, Håkan; Ingerslev, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of fine roots and external ectomycorrhizal mycelium of three species of trees was determined down to a soil depth of 55 cm to estimate the relative nutrient uptake capacity of the trees from different soil layers. In addition, a root bioassay was performed to estimate the nutrient...... or spruce roots was not influenced by soil depth. In modelling the nutrient sustainability of forest soils, the utilization of nutrient resources in deep soil layers has been found to be a key factor. The present study shows that the more shallow-rooted spruce can have a similar capacity to take up...

  20. Mycorrhizal status of several Quercus species in Romania (Quercus cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. robur and the optimization perspective of growth conditions for in vitro propagated plants transplanted in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest for important tree species conservation in the context of climate change, anthropogenic pressure and invasion of alien tree species. A key factor in the survival of trees is represented by the mycorrhizal association. The success of micropropagated trees also depends on the acquisition of mycorrhizal mutualists. Ectomycorrhizal roots samples from several Quercus species (Q. cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. robur were examined for mycorrhizal morphotypes’ characterization. The samples were collected during the vegetation season from stands located in Southern and North-Western Romania. 30 morphotypes of active mycorrhizaewere identified with Cenococcum geophilum Fr. (Ascomycota asdominating morphotype. Previous studies on somatic embryogenesis inQ. robur and Q. frainetto demonstrated the utility of in vitro techniques in obtaining plants from these recalcitrant seed producing species, considered at risk in various areas of the country, due to increasingly stressful conditions. The success rate of the acclimatization process depends on the mycorrhization performed either artificially, in the laboratory, either naturally, in the field. Ex situ mycorrhization solutions are considered as less costly, yet efficient alternative to improve the ex vitro survival ofmicropropagated plants or endangered tree species or for those with economic importance, in vitro propagation is an important conservation tool combined with the acquisition of appropriate mycorrhizal mutualists.

  1. Root vitality of Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea Liebl. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in mature mixed forest stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygoruk Dorota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the present study was to investigate the root vitality of common beech Fagus sylvatica L., sessile oak Quercus petraea Liebl. and sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the optimal g rowth conditions in south-western Poland. The study was carried out in 130-year-old mixed stand located within natural range of studied tree species. The density of roots (g/100 cm3 of soil and biomass of fine roots (g/m2 in topsoil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm were determined in the tree biogroups of the same species. The mean total root density ranged from 0.248 to 0.417 g/100 cm3 in the 0-5 cm soil layer, and it decreased in the deeper soil layer (5-15 cm. There were found no statistically significant differences of total root densities between tree biogroups in topsoil layers. Diversity of fine root biomass was comparable in the tree biogroups (H’ = 1.5, but common beech showed more intensive growth of fine roots in the topsoil 0-15 cm when compared to sessile oak and sycamore maple. The results of the study point out the stability of the multi-species structure of the mixed stand studied, and consequently - the ability of beech, sessile oak and sycamore maple trees to coexist in the mixed stands - in the area of natural range of these species.

  2. Top-down control of herbivory by birds and bats in the canopy of temperate broad-leaved oaks (Quercus robur.

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    Stefan M Böhm

    Full Text Available The intensive foraging of insectivorous birds and bats is well known to reduce the density of arboreal herbivorous arthropods but quantification of collateral leaf damage remains limited for temperate forest canopies. We conducted exclusion experiments with nets in the crowns of young and mature oaks, Quercus robur, in south and central Germany to investigate the extent to which aerial vertebrates reduce herbivory through predation. We repeatedly estimated leaf damage throughout the vegetation period. Exclusion of birds and bats led to a distinct increase in arthropod herbivory, emphasizing the prominent role of vertebrate predators in controlling arthropods. Leaf damage (e.g., number of holes differed strongly between sites and was 59% higher in south Germany, where species richness of vertebrate predators and relative oak density were lower compared with our other study site in central Germany. The effects of bird and bat exclusion on herbivory were 19% greater on young than on mature trees in south Germany. Our results support previous studies that have demonstrated clear effects of insectivorous vertebrates on leaf damage through the control of herbivorous arthropods. Moreover, our comparative approach on quantification of leaf damage highlights the importance of local attributes such as tree age, forest composition and species richness of vertebrate predators for control of arthropod herbivory.

  3. Photosynthetic activity of Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. in a mixed stand at Maljen mountain

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    Popović Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the photosynthetic performance of co-existing tree species with pronounced differences in ecophysiological context (Aranda et al. 1996 Leuschner et al. 2001 could provide insight into their vitality and competitive abilities at a particular site. Gas exchange, composition of photosynthetic pigments, and the water status of beech (Fagus sylvatica L and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl were studied in the present work. The investigation was performed on Mt. Maljen (Western Serbia, near the town of Mionica at an altitude of 950 m, in an ecotope within the confines of the mountain's beech forest belt. Codominant samplings [three of each species, 30-years old (n=6, 10-12 m high] were selected for the measurements, which were conducted on fully developed leaves from the out­ermost branches and from the innermost canopy. Photosynthetic measurements were performed using an LI-6200 closed photo­synthesis system (LI-Cor. Inc, Lincoln, NE, USA, while irradiance was detected with a selenium cell mounted on the leaf chamber. Parameters of gas exchange are expressed on the basis of leaf area, using the AREAMETER software (Karadžić et al. 1999. Chlorophyll content was spectrophotometrically determined based on light absorption of the solution obtained after extraction with dMSO (Hiscox and Israelstam, 1979. The midday water saturation deficit was determined according to Turner (1981. For data analysis, we used the Statistic for Windows program package. The ANOVA one-way break­down was applied to compare differences within (leaves inside vs. leaves outside the surface of the tree canopy and between species for all investigated parameters at the 0.05 level of significance.

  4. Mycorrhizal status of several Quercus species in Romania (Quercus cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. robur and the optimization perspective of growth conditions for in vitro propagated plants transplanted in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest for important tree species conservation in the context of climate change, anthropogenic pressure and invasion of alien tree species. A key factor in the survival of trees is represented by the mycorrhizal association. The success of micropropagated trees also depends on the acquisition of mycorrhizal mutualists. Ectomycorrhizal roots samples from several Quercus species (Q. cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. robur were examined for mycorrhizal morphotypes’ characterization. The samples were collected during the vegetation season from stands located in Southern and North-Western Romania. 30 morphotypes of active mycorrhizae were identified with Cenococcum geophilumFr. (Ascomycota as dominating morphotype. Previous studies on somatic embryogenesis in Q. roburand Q. frainetto demonstrated the utility of in vitro techniques in obtaining plants from these recalcitrant seed producing species, considered at risk in various areas of the country, due to increasingly stressful conditions. The success rate of the acclimatization process depends on the mycorrhization performed either artificially, in the laboratory, either naturally, in the field. Ex situ mycorrhization solutions are considered as less costly, yet efficient alternative to improve the ex vitro survival of micropropagated plants or endangered tree species or for those with economic importance, in vitro propagation is an important conservation tool combined with the acquisition of appropriate mycorrhizal mutualists. 

  5. Mycorrhizal status of several Quercus species in Romania (Quercus cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. robur and the optimization perspective of growth conditions for in vitro propagated plants transplanted in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest for important tree species conservation in the context of climate change, anthropogenic pressure and invasion of alien tree species. A key factor in the survival of trees is represented by the mycorrhizal association. The success of micropropagated trees also depends on the acquisition of mycorrhizal mutualists. Ectomycorrhizal roots samples from several Quercus species (Q. cerris, Q. frainetto, Q. robur were examined for mycorrhizal morphotypes’ characterization. The samples were collected during the vegetation season from stands located in Southern and North-Western Romania. 30 morphotypes of active mycorrhizae were identified with Cenococcum geophilumFr. (Ascomycota as dominating morphotype. Previous studies on somatic embryogenesis in Q. roburand Q. frainetto demonstrated the utility of in vitro techniques in obtaining plants from these recalcitrant seed producing species, considered at risk in various areas of the country, due to increasingly stressful conditions. The success rate of the acclimatization process depends on the mycorrhization performed either artificially, in the laboratory, either naturally, in the field. Ex situ mycorrhization solutions are considered as less costly, yet efficient alternative to improve the ex vitro survival of micropropagated plants or endangered tree species or for those with economic importance, in vitro propagation is an important conservation tool combined with the acquisition of appropriate mycorrhizal mutualists. 

  6. Evaluation of the degree of healthiness of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. acorns in the Włoszczowa– Jędrzejów Nature Park and its neighbouring area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk-Badowska Jolanta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to demonstrate the degree of healthiness of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur acorns found in the Włoszczowa-Jędrzejów Nature Park (abbreviation: W-JOChK and in the neighbouring area. It was dealt with by making the analysis of health of the acorns (total 3,600. The research material included the samples of fallen down acorns, collected under the pedunculate oaks in Kurzelów (W-JOChK, as well as Żelisławice. The study was conducted from late September 2014 to early October 2015.

  7. Growth and form of Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior respond distinctly different to initial growing space: results from 24-year-old Nelder experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Kuehne; Edgar Kublin; Patrick Pyttel; Jürgen Bauhus

    2013-01-01

    Initial growing space is of critical importance to growth and quality development of individual trees.We investigated how mortality,growth (diameter at breast height,total height),natural pruning (height to first dead and first live branch and branchiness) and stem and crown form of 24-year-old pedunculate oak (Quercus robur [L.]) and European ash (Fraxinus excelsior [L.]) were affected by initial spacing.Data were recorded from two replicate single-species Nelder wheels located in southern Germany with eight initial stocking regimes varying from 1,020to 30,780 seedlings·ha-1.Mortality substantially decreased with increasing initial growing space but significantly differed among the two species,averaging 59% and 15% for oak and ash plots,respectively.In contrast to oak,the low self-thinning rate found in the ash plots over the investigated study period resulted in a high number of smaller intermediate or suppressed trees,eventually retarding individual tree as well as overall stand development.As a result,oak gained greater stem dimensions throughout all initial spacing regimes and the average height of ash significantly increased with initial growing space.The survival of lower crown class ashes also appeared to accelerate self-pruning dynamics.In comparison to oak,we observed less dead and live primary branches as well as a smaller number of epicormic shoots along the first 6 m of the lower stem of dominant and co-dominant ashes in all spacing regimes.Whereas stem form of both species was hardly affected by initial growing space,the percentage of brushy crowns significantly increased with initial spacing in oak and ash.Our findings suggest that initial stockings of ca.12,000seedlings per hectare in oak and 2,500 seedlings per hectare in ash will guarantee a sufficient number of at least 300 potential crop trees per hectare in pure oak and ash plantations at the end of the self-thinning phase,respectively.If the problem of epicormic shoots and inadequate self

  8. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family.

  9. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Inácio

    Full Text Available The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS, a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family.

  10. Análisis espacio-temporal de los vasos primaverales de Quercus robur L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd.: Respuesta al estrés climático en la transición atlántico-mediterránea

    OpenAIRE

    Souto Herrero, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se estudiaron los elementos conductores primaverales de Quercus robur L. y Q. pyrenaica Willd. con el objetivo de valorar su potencial dendroecológico. Mediante su empleo se trató de identificar los factores climáticos más relevantes que controlan el crecimiento en la transición entre las regiones biogeográficas atlántica y mediterránea en el noroeste de la Península Ibérica. Para abordar este trabajo se aplicaron técnicas dendrocronológicas tales como la medición de la...

  11. Representational difference analysis reveals genomic differences between Q. robur and Q. suber: implications for the study of genome evolution in the genus Quercus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoldos, V; Siljak-Yakovlev, S; Papes, D; Sarr, A; Panaud, O

    2001-04-01

    Very similar genome sizes, similar karyotypes and heterochromatin organisation, and identical number/position of ribosomal loci characterise the common oak (Q. robur) and the cork oak (Q. suber), two distantly related oak species. Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) was used to subtract the genome of Q. suber from the genome of Q. robur in order to search for genome differentiation. A library of 400 clones (bearing RDA fragments) representing genome differences between the two species was obtained. Seven Q. robur-specific DNA sequences were analysed with respect to their molecular and chromosome organisation. All belong to the dispersed repetitive component of the genome, as revealed by Southern hybridisation and in situ hybridisation. They are present in the Q. robur genome in between 100 and 700 copies, and are distributed along the length of almost all chromosomes. A search for homologies between RDA fragments and sequences in Genbank revealed similarities of all RDA fragments with known retrotransposons. The RDA fragments were also tested for their presence/absence in the genomes of six additional oak species belonging to different phylogenetic groups, in order to examine the evolutionary dynamics of these DNA sequences.

  12. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Controlling Respiration Rates of Above- and Belowground Woody Debris of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomura, Mayuko; Akashi, Yuhei; Itoh, Hiromu; Yuki, Risa; Sakai, Yoshimi; Maruyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    As a large, long-term pool and source of carbon and nutrients, woody litter is an important component of forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the factors that regulate the rate of decomposition of coarse and fine woody debris (CFWD) of dominant tree species in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. Respiration rates of dead stems, branches, and coarse and fine roots of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula felled 4 years prior obtained in situ ranged from 20.9 to 500.1 mg CO2 [kg dry wood](-1) h(-1) in a one-time measurement in summer. Respiration rate had a significant negative relationship with diameter; in particular, that of a sample of Q. crispula with a diameter of >15 cm and substantial heartwood was low. It also had a significant positive relationship with moisture content. The explanatory variables diameter, [N], wood density, and moisture content were interrelated. The most parsimonious path model showed 14 significant correlations among 8 factors and respiration. Diameter and [C] had large negative direct effects on CFWD respiration rate, and moisture content and species had medium positive direct effects. [N] and temperature did not have direct or indirect effects, and position and wood density had indirect effects. The model revealed some interrelationships between controlling factors. We discussed the influence of the direct effects of explanatory variables and the influence especially of species and position. We speculate that the small R2 value of the most parsimonious model was probably due to the omission of microbial biomass and activity. These direct and indirect effects and interrelationships between explanatory variables could be used to develop a process-based CFWD decomposition model.

  13. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Controlling Respiration Rates of Above- and Belowground Woody Debris of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Jomura

    Full Text Available As a large, long-term pool and source of carbon and nutrients, woody litter is an important component of forest ecosystems. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the factors that regulate the rate of decomposition of coarse and fine woody debris (CFWD of dominant tree species in a cool-temperate forest in Japan. Respiration rates of dead stems, branches, and coarse and fine roots of Fagus crenata and Quercus crispula felled 4 years prior obtained in situ ranged from 20.9 to 500.1 mg CO2 [kg dry wood](-1 h(-1 in a one-time measurement in summer. Respiration rate had a significant negative relationship with diameter; in particular, that of a sample of Q. crispula with a diameter of >15 cm and substantial heartwood was low. It also had a significant positive relationship with moisture content. The explanatory variables diameter, [N], wood density, and moisture content were interrelated. The most parsimonious path model showed 14 significant correlations among 8 factors and respiration. Diameter and [C] had large negative direct effects on CFWD respiration rate, and moisture content and species had medium positive direct effects. [N] and temperature did not have direct or indirect effects, and position and wood density had indirect effects. The model revealed some interrelationships between controlling factors. We discussed the influence of the direct effects of explanatory variables and the influence especially of species and position. We speculate that the small R2 value of the most parsimonious model was probably due to the omission of microbial biomass and activity. These direct and indirect effects and interrelationships between explanatory variables could be used to develop a process-based CFWD decomposition model.

  14. Age-related variation in carbon allocation at tree and stand scales in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) using a chronosequence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, H; Bréda, N; Dufrêne, E

    2010-02-01

    Two types of physiological mechanisms can contribute to growth decline with age: (i) the mechanisms leading to the reduction of carbon assimilation (input) and (ii) those leading to modification of the resource economy. Surprisingly, the processes relating to carbon allocation have been little investigated as compared to research on the processes governing carbon assimilation. The objective of this paper was thus to test the hypothesis that growth decrease related to age is accompanied by changes in carbon allocation to the benefit of storage and reproductive functions in two contrasting broad-leaved species: beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.). Age-related changes in carbon allocation were studied using a chronosequence approach. Chronosequences, each consisting of several even-aged stands ranging from 14 to 175 years old for beech and from 30 to 134 years old for sessile oak, were divided into five or six age classes. In this study, carbon allocations to growth, storage and reproduction were defined as the relative amount of carbon invested in biomass increment, carbohydrate increment and seed production, respectively. Tree-ring width and allometric relationships were used to assess biomass increment at the tree and stand scales. Below-ground biomass was assessed using a specific allometric relationship between root:shoot ratio and age, established from the literature review. Seasonal variations of carbohydrate concentrations were used to assess carbon allocation to storage. Reproduction effort was quantified for beech stands by collecting seed and cupule production. Age-related flagging of biomass productivity was assessed at the tree and stand scales, and carbohydrate quantities in trees increased with age for both species. Seed and cupule production increased with stand age in beech from 56 gC m(-)(2) year(-1) at 30 years old to 129 gC m(-2) year(-1) at 138 years old. In beech, carbon allocation to storage and

  15. The impact of the 2003 summer drought on the intra-annual growth pattern of beech (Fagus sylvatica l.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) on a dry site in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der G.W.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is expected to result in more extreme weather conditions over large parts of Europe, such as the prolonged drought of 2003. As water supply is critical for tree growth on many sites in North-Western Europe, such droughts will affect growth, species competition, and forest dynamics. To

  16. Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Alice; Simard, Sonia; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Dufrêne, Eric; Damesin, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring cambial phenology and intra-annual growth dynamics is a useful approach for characterizing the tree growth response to climate change. However, there have been few reports concerning intra-annual wood formation in lowland temperate forests with high time resolution, especially for the comparison between deciduous and coniferous species. The main objective of this study was to determine how the timing, duration and rate of radial growth change between species as related to leaf phenology and the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under the same climatic conditions. We studied two deciduous species, Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and an evergreen conifer, Pinus sylvestris L. During the 2009 growing season, we weekly monitored (i) the stem radial increment using dendrometers, (ii) the xylem growth using microcoring and (iii) the leaf phenology from direct observations of the tree crowns. The NSC content was also measured in the eight last rings of the stem cores in April, June and August 2009. The leaf phenology, NSC storage and intra-annual growth were clearly different between species, highlighting their contrasting carbon allocation. Beech growth began just after budburst, with a maximal growth rate when the leaves were mature and variations in the NSC content were low. Thus, beech radial growth seemed highly dependent on leaf photosynthesis. For oak, earlywood quickly developed before budburst, which probably led to the starch decrease quantified in the stem from April to June. For pine, growth began before the needles unfolding and the lack of NSC decrease during the growing season suggested that the substrates for radial growth were new assimilates of the needles from the previous year. Only for oak, the pattern determined from the intra-annual growth measured using microcoring differed from the pattern determined from dendrometer data. For all species, the ring width was significantly influenced by growth duration

  17. Fagus dominance in Chinese montane forests: natural regeneration of Fagus lucida and Fagus hayatae var. pashanica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, K.F.

    1995-01-01

    Fagus species are important components of certain mesic temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Of eleven Fagus species distinguished, five are found in China. Chinese beeches are restricted to the mountains of southern China. In the montane zones of the northern subtropics beeches (Fagus engl

  18. Intrapopulation and Interpopulation Genetic Variation ofQuercus in Denmark in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Jensen, Jan Svejgaard

    2001-01-01

    Native Danish oak stands are fragmented and decreasing because of the extensive use of foreign seed sources. Therefore, the population structure of natural Danish oak stands was analysed by means of six polymorphic enzyme loci. A total of 17 stands of Quercus robur L. (including an ‘‘outgroup......-Weinberg proportions, suggesting a low level of inbreeding. The differentiation of the Q. petraea and Q. robur populations was quanti. ed with Wright's F-statistics. The within-species component was populations was quanti. ed with Wright's -statistics. The within-species component was low, 0.022, re¿ ecting the wind...

  19. EFFECTS OF GAP AND UNDERSTORY EVIRONMENTS ON THE REGENERATION OF QUERCUS ALIENA VAR. ACUTESERRATA AND FAGUS ENGLERIANA%林隙与林下环境对锐齿槲栎和米心水青冈种群更新的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志刚; 樊大勇; 张旺锋; 谢宗强

    2005-01-01

    锐齿槲栎(Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata)和米心水青冈(Fagus engleriana)是广泛分布在我国暖温带和亚热带山地中海拔地段的主要建群种,对水土保持和维持生态系统稳定具重要意义.该文通过在神农架地区的典型样地调查,分析了这2个种群在林隙和林下不同光环境中的更新状况和径级结构;利用便携式Licor-6400光合仪测量了2种苗木的光饱和及光诱导曲线,探讨了光对这2个树种更新的影响机理.实验结果表明,在所调查的林地中,锐齿槲栎和米心水青冈种群都有充足的幼苗库,锐齿槲栎幼苗以实生为主,米心水青冈幼苗以萌生为主;从幼苗到幼树的转化过程中,锐齿槲栎的成活率几乎为零,而米心水青冈的成活率约为6%~8%;在两者的混交林中,米心水青冈种群呈稳定的金字塔形年龄结构,而锐齿槲栎则是某一生长阶段的种群占据主导地位.光饱和曲线显示,对2年生同生群苗木,在林窗下,锐齿槲栎的最大净光合速率(4.61μmol·m-2·s-1)比米心水青冈的(4.16 μmol·m-2·s-1)要高;而在林冠下,米心水青冈的最大净光合速率(Pn=3.89μmol·m-2·s-1)比锐齿槲栎的最大净光合速率(Pn=3.68μmol·m-2·s-1)要高.无论在林窗下或林冠下,米心水青冈幼苗的光饱和点比锐齿槲栎的要低.两者混交林下的光诱导曲线显示,与米心水青冈幼苗相比,锐齿槲栎幼苗对光的反应速度较慢,最大净光合速率也较低,在林冠下表现出较弱的竞争力.资源分配试验证明,锐齿槲栎在幼苗阶段以地上部分生长为主,而米心水青冈倾向于把更多的干物质贮藏在根部,显示出不同的光利用策略.

  20. High Genetic Differentiation among European White Oak Species (Quercus spp. at a Dehydrin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacob CRĂCIUNESC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dehydryn genes are involved in plant response to environmental stress and may be useful to examine functional diversity in relation to adaptive variation. Recently, a dehydrin gene (DHN3 was isolated in Quercus petraea and showed little differentiation between populations of the same species in an altitudinal transect. In the present study, inter- and intraspecific differentiation patterns in closely related and interfertile oaks were investigated for the first time at the DHN3 locus. A four-oak-species stand (Quercus frainetto Ten., Q. petraea (Matt. Liebl., Q. pubescens Willd., Q. robur L. and two populations for each of five white oak species (Q. frainetto Ten., Q. petraea (Matt. Liebl., Q. pubescens Willd., Q. robur L. and Q. pedunculiflora K. Koch were analyzed. Three alleles shared by all five oak species were observed. However, only two alleles were present in each population, but with different frequencies according to the species. At population level, all interspecific pairs of populations showed significant differentiation, except for pure Q. robur and Q. pedunculiflora populations. In contrast, no significant differentiation (p > 0.05 was found among conspecific populations. The DHN3 locus proved to be very useful to differentiate Q. frainetto and Q. pubescens from Q. pedunculiflora (FST = 0.914 and 0.660, respectively and Q. robur (FST = 0.858 and 0.633, respectively. As expected, the lowest level of differentiation was detected between the most closely related species, Q. robur and Q. pedunculiflora (FST = 0.020. Our results suggest that DHN3 can be an important genetic marker for differentiating among European white oak species.

  1. Co-occurrence patterns of trees along macro-climatic gradients and their potential influence on the present and future distribution of Fagus sylvatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, E.S.; Edwards, T.C.; Kienast, Felix; Dobbertin, M.; Zimmermann, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim During recent and future climate change, shifts in large-scale species ranges are expected due to the hypothesized major role of climatic factors in regulating species distributions. The stress-gradient hypothesis suggests that biotic interactions may act as major constraints on species distributions under more favourable growing conditions, while climatic constraints may dominate under unfavourable conditions. We tested this hypothesis for one focal tree species having three major competitors using broad-scale environmental data. We evaluated the variation of species co-occurrence patterns in climate space and estimated the influence of these patterns on the distribution of the focal species for current and projected future climates.Location Europe.Methods We used ICP Forest Level 1 data as well as climatic, topographic and edaphic variables. First, correlations between the relative abundance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and three major competitor species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur) were analysed in environmental space, and then projected to geographic space. Second, a sensitivity analysis was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) to evaluate where and how much the predicted F. sylvatica distribution varied under current and future climates if potential competitor species were included or excluded. We evaluated if these areas coincide with current species co-occurrence patterns.Results Correlation analyses supported the stress-gradient hypothesis: towards favourable growing conditions of F. sylvatica, its abundance was strongly linked to the abundance of its competitors, while this link weakened towards unfavourable growing conditions, with stronger correlations in the south and at low elevations than in the north and at high elevations. The sensitivity analysis showed a potential spatial segregation of species with changing climate and a pronounced shift of zones where co-occurrence patterns may play a major role

  2. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to two fungal pathogens in Quercus robur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécile Robin; Amira Mougou-Hamdane; Jean-Marc Gion; Antoine Kremer; Marie-Laure. Desprez-Loustau

    2012-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe alphitoides (Ascomycete), is the most frequent disease of oaks, which are also known to be host plants for Phytophthora cinnamomi (Oomycete), the causal agent of ink disease. Components of genetic resistance to these two pathogens, infecting either leaves or root and collar, were...

  3. A conceptual model for the development of Phytophthora disease in Quercus robur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, U

    2006-01-01

    Here, a conceptual model is presented for the development of Phytophthora disease in pedunculate oak. The model is presented using the causal loop diagram tool and gives an overview of how various abiotic and biotic factors, such as soil moisture, nutrient availability and mycorrhizal colonization, may affect the reproduction and the infective capacity of soil-borne Phytophthora species, the susceptibility of the host and subsequent disease development. It is suggested that the link between the root damage caused by Phytophthora species and overall tree vitality is in the assimilation and allocation of carbon within the plants. The potential impact of environmental factors on these processes is discussed. The model is presented with reference to scenarios related to variation in soil moisture and nutrient availability. The need for species-specific validation of the model and the implications of the model are discussed.

  4. Colour-Based Binary Discrimination of Scarified Quercus robur Acorns under Varying Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jabłoński

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to predict the germination ability of acorns using their shape, length, diameter and density are reported in the literature. These methods, however, are not efficient enough. As such, a visual assessment of the viability of seeds based on the appearance of cross-sections of seeds following their scarification is used. This procedure is more robust but demands significant effort from experienced employees over a short period of time. In this article an automated method of acorn scarification and assessment has been announced. This type of automation requires the specific setup of a machine vision system and application of image processing algorithms for evaluation of sections of seeds in order to predict their viability. In the stage of the analysis of pathological changes, it is important to point out image features that enable efficient classification of seeds in respect of viability. The article shows the results of the binary separation of seeds into two fractions (healthy or spoiled using average components of regular red-green-blue and perception-based hue-saturation-value colour space. Analysis of accuracy of discrimination was performed on sections of 400 scarified acorns acquired using two various setups: machine vision camera under uncontrolled varying illumination and commodity high-resolution camera under controlled illumination. The accuracy of automatic classification has been compared with predictions completed by experienced professionals. It has been shown that both automatic and manual methods reach an accuracy level of 84%, assuming that the images of the sections are properly normalised. The achieved recognition ratio was higher when referenced to predictions provided by professionals. Results of discrimination by means of Bayes classifier have been also presented as a reference.

  5. Severe winter rings of oak trees (Quercus robur L.) from Central European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, B F

    2013-11-01

    Oak trees were sampled in a flood plain forest in the valley of the Zapadnaya Dvina (Daugava) river (Tver region, Russia). Annual rings of the time period from 1826 to 2010 were studied. Anatomically distinct rings with a stripe of small-sized cells in the innermost part and narrow earlywood vessels located in three to four rows occurred in 1861, 1862, 1929, 1940, 1942, 1956 and 1979. Deviations of earlywood development were associated with the drop of winter temperature below -42 °C. The percentage of severe winter ring (SWR) occurrence depends upon tree age and decreases from 75.6 % in younger specimens (under 41 years old at the time of the severe winter) to 27.1 % in middle-aged ones (from 41 to 80 years) to 3.5 % in trees older than 80 years. Described anatomical features can be used in the reconstruction of severe winter frequency in the past.

  6. Manifestation of embryogenic potential in culture of zygotic embryos of Quercus robur L.

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    Maria G. Ostrolucká

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the initiation of somatic embryogenesis early cotyledonary stage of zygotic embryo explants (from 15th July until late August was suitable. The highest frequency of differentiation of somatic embryos was obtained on cotyledons of zygotic embryos cultured on basal modified medium MS (with 1/2 concentration macronutrients or WPM medium containing 500 mg•l-1 glutamine, proline and casein hydrolysate and supplemented with 2,4-D (1,0-2,0 mg•l-1 and BAP (0,5-1,0 mg•l-1. The development of somatic embryos was direct and indirect and the process was continuous over a long period. Primary somatic embryos were able to produce secondary embryos. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis led to the proliferation of a large number of new somatic embryos on their cotyledons, hypocotyl or radicula. The process of embryo differentation is asynchronous - various stages of somatic embryos could be observed in embryogenic culture. A somatic embryo conversion was rare on tested media. Embryo germination occured on medium containing BAP (0,1 mg•l-1 or on medium with ABA and GA3 (each 0,2 mg•l-1 after a previous culture on WPM medium without plant growth regulators supplemented with sorbitol (6%. The embryo germination occurred also on WPM medium with 0.2 mg•l-1 BAP when cultures were mantained at 2oC for 4 weeks. Only 8 somatic embryos developed into plantlets. Their transplantation to in vivo conditions was unsuccessful.

  7. Pathogenicity of Phytophthora isolates originating from several woody hosts in Bulgaria and Poland

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    Lyubenova Aneta B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to examine the virulence of eight Phytophthora isolates belonging to three species (Phytophthora cryptogea, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora quercina obtained from diverse European ecosystems (in Bulgaria, Poland and Germany towards three forest tree hosts – English oak (Quercus robur L., Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L..

  8. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: calatayud_viclor@gva.e [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose [Laboratorio de Anatomia e Histologia Vegetal ' Julio Iranzo' , Jardin Botanico, Universitat de Valencia, c/Quart 80, 46008 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Reig-Arminana, Jose [Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD{sub 1.6}) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  9. Growth of Fagus in transition zones of forest and soil on the western slope of Mt. Chokai, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2012-04-01

    A wide transition zone for forest structure is expected to distribute on the gentle slope of western side of Mt. Chokai ,Yamagata prefecture, northern Japan (N39° 05'57", E140°02'55"). The annual mean temperature and total precipitation at summit (2,059 m asl.) are 0.5° C and 3,285mm, respectively. The parent materials of the soils are weathered Andesite associated with non-tephric loess deposits transported from continental China. Representative sites were selected in forests of Quercus mongolica and Fagus crenata to examine characteristics of transition zones of vegetation and soil in the western slope of Mt. Chokai with concern on the growth of Fagus in transition zones. Surveys on vegetation profile and projection diagram of canopy for each site (10-10m plots) were carried out in 7 sites selected along altitudinal sequence on the western slope of Mt. Chokai; Ch1-7: 550-1,100m asl.. Growth rate of Fagus was estimated by the measurement of tree rings from increment core samples. Timber volume of Fagus at each point was calculated based on diameter of breast height; DBH as an indicator of tree biomass. Soil profiles were observed at the above 7 sites and soil samples were collected from each horizon. As for soil analyses, soil pH (H2O, KCl, NaF) values were measured by the glass electrode method in the suspension mixture of soil with a 2.5 times volume of H2O or 1N KCl and 50 times volume of 4% NaF. Pyrophosphate, acid oxalate and dithionite-citrate extractable Al (Alp, Alo, Ald), Fe (Feo, Fed) and Si (Sio, Sid) were measured by ICP-AES. The content of exchangeable Al (AlEX) was obtained by titration of extract with 1N KCl. Sclerotia formed by species of Cenococcum, ectomycorrhizal fungi, were collected for grains of diameter larger than 0.5mm from wet samples. Sclerotia content was obtained by weight (mg g-1 soil). Due to intensive base leaching under extremely high precipitation and the mineralogical properties, Ah and Ae horizons of all profiles had low soil

  10. Volatile Organic Compound Emission from Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis, and its hybridisation product Quercus afares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, S.; Bracho Nuñez, A.; Staudt, M.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    Oaks represent one of the most important plant genera in the Northern hemisphere and include many intensively VOC emitting species. The major group constitutes the isoprene emitters, but also monoterpene emitters and non-emitters can be found. These variations in the oak species might partly be due to their propensity for inter- and intraspecific hybridisation. This study addresses the foliar VOC production of the former hybridisation product the deciduous Quercus afares and its parents, two very distant species: the evergreen monoterpene emitter Quercus suber and the deciduous isoprene emitter Quercus canariensis. The measurements were performed in Southern France, applying two different methods. Plants were investigated in situ in the field with a portable gas exchange measuring system as well as in the laboratory on cut branches with an adapted enclosure system. Quercus afares was found to be a monoterpene emitting species. However, the monoterpene emission was lower and the composition different to that of Quercus suber. Whereas Quercus suber trees belonged to the pinene type most individuals of Quercus afares were identified to represent a limonene type. Quercus canariensis emitted besides high amounts of isoprene also linalool and (Z)-3-hexenylacetate. Emissions from Quercus suber and Quercus afares were higher in the field measurements than in the laboratory on cut branches whereas Quercus canariensis exhibited lower isoprene emissions from cut branches. The results demonstrate the need of further emission studies on a plant species level.

  11. Cretaceous and Paleogene Fagaceae from North America and Greenland: evidence for a Late Cretaceous split between Fagus and the remaining Fagaceae

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    Grímsson Friðgeir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern lineages of the beech family, Fagaceae, one of the most important north-temperate families of woody flowering plants, have been traced back to the early Eocene. In contrast, molecular differentiation patterns indicate that the Fagus lineage, Fagoideae, with a single modern genus, evolved much earlier than the remaining lineages within Fagaceae (Trigonobalanoideae, Castaneoideae, Quercoideae. The minimum age for this primary split in the Fagaceae has been estimated as 80 ± 20 Ma (i.e. Late Cretaceous in recently published, time-calibrated phylogenetic trees including all Fagales. Here, we report fagaceous fossils from the Campanian of Wyoming (82-81 Ma; Eagle Formation [Fm], the Danian of western Greenland (64-62 Ma; Agatdal Fm, and the middle Eocene of British Columbia (ca 48 Ma; Princeton Chert, and compare them to the Fagaceae diversity of the recently studied middle Eocene Hareøen Fm of western Greenland (42-40 Ma. The studied assemblages confirm that the Fagus lineage (= Fagoideae and the remainder of modern Fagaceae were diverged by the middle Late Cretaceous, together with the extinct Fagaceae lineage(s of Eotrigonobalanus and the newly recognised genus Paraquercus, a unique pollen morph with similarities to both Eotrigonobalanus and Quercus. The new records push back the origin of (modern Fagus by 10 Ma and that of the earliest Fagoideae by 30 Ma. The earliest Fagoideae pollen from the Campanian of North America differs from its single modern genus Fagus by its markedly thicker pollen wall, a feature also seen in fossil and extant Castaneoideae. This suggests that a thick type 1 foot layer is also the plesiomorphic feature in Fagoideae although not seen in any of its living representatives. The Danian Fagus pollen of Greenland differs in size from those of modern species but is highly similar to that of the western North American early Eocene F. langevinii, the oldest known beech so far. Together with the Quercus pollen record

  12. A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming

    2012-08-01

    Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

  13. Leaf morphological variability and intraspecific taxonomic units for pedunculate oak and grayish oak (genus Quercus L., series Pedunculatae Schwz.) in Southern Carpathian Region (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Ecaterina Nicoleta; Curtu, Alexandru Lucian; Daia, Liviu Mihai; Apostol, Bogdan; Dinu, Cristiana Georgeta; Şofletea, Neculae

    2017-07-26

    Even though pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and grayish oak (Quercus pedunculiflora K. Koch) have different ecological requirements, they have been considered as having low differentiation at the level of morphological traits and genetic variation. The leaf morphology for 862 trees has been assessed in 16 natural populations, seven of Q. robur, eight of Q. pedunculiflora and a mixed forest were both taxa coexist. In total, fifteen descriptors have been analysed by using discriminant analysis, while it was found that with only four out of the fifteen leaf traits (abaxial pubescence, abaxial colour of the leaf, petiole length and basal shape of lamina) the two taxa could be clearly differentiated. A dendrogram has been constructed on the basis of these traits, where the populations of each taxon have been clustered together. PU and CL traits of Q. pedunculiflora were discussed for their adaptive value for drought resistance in the steppe habitats occupied by this taxon. Using the leaves' morphological descriptors and data from the literature, intra-taxonomic units (varieties, forms and sub-forms) have been identified in all analysed populations. Eight intraspecific units for Q. robur and six for Q. pedunculiflora have been identified in the investigated area. An analysis of spatial distribution of the two taxa and of their intraspecific units has been performed using maps of ecoregions for the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. y Quercus laurina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Flores-Velázquez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las características de maquinado con base en la norma ASTM D 1666-87, en las operaciones de cepillado, barrenado, moldurado, torneado y lijado de la madera de Quercus affinis y Quercus laurina. Los mejores resultados de cepillado para Q. affinis se encontraron al combinar el ángulo de corte de 15º y una velocidad de alimentación de 7.5 m·min-1, para Q. laurina no hubo influencia del ángulo de corte. En el barrenado se obtuvieron excelentes resultados con las dos velocidades de giro de broca probadas. Para el moldurado, los resultados para las dos especies fueron excelentes en ambos cortes. En el torneado se encontró que no existe influencia del contenido de humedad para Q. laurina, mientras que para Q. affinis se clasificó como buena para un contenido de humedad menor y excelente para el mayor contenido de humedad. Y para el lijado los resultados fueron excelentes. De acuerdo a los resultados de las pruebas, las dos especies son apropiadas para ser utilizadas por la industria maderera para la elaboración de productos terminados de alta calidad.

  15. Using common mycorrhizal networks for controlled inoculation of Quercus spp. with Tuber melanosporum: the nurse plant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Guillermo; Palfner, Götz; Chávez, Daniel; Suz, Laura M; Machuca, Angela; Honrubia, Mario

    2013-07-01

    The high cost and restricted availability of black truffle spore inoculum for controlled mycorrhiza formation of host trees produced for truffle orchards worldwide encourage the search for more efficient and sustainable inoculation methods that can be applied globally. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the nurse plant method for the controlled inoculation of Quercus cerris and Quercus robur with Tuber melanosporum by mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures. Pine bark compost, adjusted to pH 7.8 by liming, was used as substrate for all assays. Initially, Q. robur seedlings were inoculated with truffle spores and cultured for 12 months. After this period, the plants presenting 74 % mycorrhizal fine roots were transferred to larger containers. Nurse plants were used for two treatments of two different nursling species: five sterilized acorns or five 45-day-old, axenically grown Q. robur or Q. cerris seedlings, planted in containers around the nurse plant. After 6 months, colonized nursling plant root tips showed that mycorrhiza formation by T. melanosporum was higher than 45 % in the seedlings tested, with the most successful nursling combination being Q. cerris seedlings, reaching 81 % colonization. Bulk identification of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae was based on morphological and anatomical features and confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of selected root tips. Our results show that the nurse plant method yields attractive rates of mycorrhiza formation by the Périgord black truffle and suggest that establishing and maintaining common mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures enables sustained use of the initial spore inoculum.

  16. Content of plant growth regulators in the developing seeds of oak (Quercus robur L.) III. Kinetin-like substances

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek Michalski

    2015-01-01

    Kinetin-like substances in developing oak seeds have been investigated. The methods of extraction, fractionation, paper and column chromatography and bioassays, demonstrated that an active cell division factor appears in various phases of seeds development. A high level of this substance has been found mainly in developing acorns. In the course of thier ripening this level decreases considerably.

  17. Content of plant growth regulators in the developing seeds of oak (Quercus robur L. III. Kinetin-like substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Michalski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetin-like substances in developing oak seeds have been investigated. The methods of extraction, fractionation, paper and column chromatography and bioassays, demonstrated that an active cell division factor appears in various phases of seeds development. A high level of this substance has been found mainly in developing acorns. In the course of thier ripening this level decreases considerably.

  18. Cultivation techniques in a 34 years old farming oak (Quercus robur L. plantation in the Arno valley (Tuscany

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    Serena Ravagni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to provide a description of the cultivation techniques adopted at the oldest oak pure plantation (age 34 established within the environmental restoration plan of soil dumps at the Santa Barbara ENEL Company opencast mine in Cavriglia (AR. The goals of the initial plan, following which the plantation was carried out, were to (i verify the possibility of restoring the soil dump by using tree farming plantations and produce a range of valuable timber assortments; (ii test the growth potential of the oak species in a pure plantation. The plantation, carried out with a stem density of 1,111 trees per hectare, was managed by targeted practices (pruning up to the stem height of 4-5 m and then undertaking four thinnings.  A geometric-selective thinning was applied first and, later, periodical thinning from above was implemented, releasing, as a result, about 70 crop trees per hectare. In the meanwhile, it was possible to monitor  the growth parameters concerning dbh, tree height and crown diameter. The stem quality and the presence of epicormic branches were evaluated in 2013 and the relationship between the presence of epicormic branches and tree characteristics were also analyzed. The wood production was compared with other European plantations, especially from France. Today, 34 years after the plantation got started, the site is an interesting case-study of tree farming as it plays a consistent role within the environmental restoration of the area. The applied management system allowed to reach a noticeable wood production level andalso valuable timber assortments for industrial use. Crop trees (70 per hectare reached a mean dbh of 38.1 cm, the height of 22.3 m at the age of 34. 

  19. Taxonomical notes on macrofungi in roadside verges planted with trees in Drenthe (The Netherlands) — I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Peter-Jan; Arnolds, Eef

    1994-01-01

    In this study descriptions, drawings and observations are presented of rare, critical or less well-known macromycetes that were encountered during mycocoenological investigations carried out in roadside verges planted with Quercus robur L. (53 plots) or Fagus sylvatica L. (23 plots). In this first p

  20. Codominance of Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia: the role of Fagus root sprouts along a slope gradient in an old-growth forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Arii, Ken; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2010-09-01

    We studied how the unusual capacity of mature Fagus grandifolia to form clumps of clonal stems from root sprouts can contribute to its frequent codominance with Acer saccharum in southern Quebec, Canada. In an old-growth forest, the degree of dominance by the two species shifted along topographic gradients spanning a few hundreds of meters, with Fagus more frequent on lower slopes and Acer on upper slopes. The frequency distribution of Fagus stem diameter had an inverse J distribution at all slope positions, which is indicative of continuous recruitment. Acer stem diameter also had an inverse J pattern, except at lower slope positions where size structure was discontinuous. For stems Fagus regenerated mainly by sprouts at the upper and mid-slopes, while regeneration from seed was more pronounced on the lower slope. This change of regeneration mode affected the spatial pattern of Fagus stems. Understory trees of Fagus were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees on upper and mid-slopes, but not on lower slopes where Fagus regenerated mainly by seedlings. Understory trees of Acer were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees only on the mid-slope. There were many Fagus seedlings around Acer canopy trees at the lower slope, suggesting the potential replacement of Acer canopy trees by Fagus. This study suggests that the regeneration traits of the two species changed with slope position and that Fagus patches originating from root sprouts can contribute to the maintenance of Acer-Fagus codominance at the scale of local landscapes.

  1. Phenols in leaves and bark of Fagus sylvatica as determinants of insect occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Panos V; Spanos, Kostas; Feest, Alan; Daskalakou, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    Beech forests play an important role in temperate and north Mediterranean ecosystems in Greece since they occupy infertile montane soils. In the last glacial maximum, Fagus sylvatica (beech) was confined to Southern Europe where it was dominant and in the last thousand years has expanded its range to dominate central Europe. We sampled four different beech forest types. We found 298 insect species associated with beech trees and dead beech wood. While F. sylvatica and Quercus (oak) are confamilial, there are great differences in richness of the associated entomofauna. Insect species that inhabit beech forests are less than one fifth of those species living in oak dominated forests despite the fact that beech is the most abundant central and north European tree. There is a distinct paucity of monophagous species on beech trees and most insect species are shared between co-occurring deciduous tree species and beech. This lack of species is attributed to the vegetation history and secondary plant chemistry. Bark and leaf biophenols from beech indicate that differences in plant secondary metabolites may be responsible for the differences in the richness of entomofauna in communities dominated by beech and other deciduous trees.

  2. Use of microsatellite markers in an American beech (Fagus grandifolia) population and paternity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Koch; Dave Carey; M.E. Mason

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species amplification of six microsatellite markers from European beech (Fagus sylvatica Linn) and nine markers from Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) was tested in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Three microsatellites from each species were successfully adapted for use in American beech...

  3. Fractal dimension does not adequately describe the complexity of leaf margin in seedlings of Quercus species

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    Camarero, Jesús Julio

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We quantified the complexity of leaf margin in a set of Quercus tree species using fractal dimension estimated by the box-counting method (FDb. Leaves were sampled from seedlings in a set of 15 Quercus species with a wide range of leaf morphology (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q.faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber, and Q. velutina. To describe leaf-edge roughness, we used simple indices: P/L - the ratio of leaf perimeter (P to maximum leaf length (L along the main nerve; P/A - the ratio of leaf perimeter to leaf-blade area (A and its dimensionless version (P/A0'; and WM/Wm -the ratio of maximum distance from the lobe tip to the main nerve (WM to minimum distance from the lobe incision to the main nerve (Wm. There was a strong positive relationship between FDb and P/A. Clustering analysis revealed the existence of three groups of leaves, namely those with: smooth or spiny margins (e.g., Q. coccifera, Q. velutina, shallow lobes (e.g., Q. petraea, and deep lobes (e.g., Q. pyrenaica. In the studied Quercus species, the ratio WM/Wm is a simple and suitable leaflobation index. It is suggested that the flux rate along the leaf edge is related to the complexity of this boundary.Se ha cuantificado la complejidad del margen de las hojas de varias especies arboreas del genero Quercus utilizando la dimension fractal estimada mediante el modo del recuento de cajas (FDb. Se tomaron hojas procedentes de plantulas pertenecientes a 15 especies de Quercus con un amplio rango de morfologfa foliar (Q. agrifolia, Q. alba, Q. cerris, Q. chrysolepis, Q. coccifera, Q. faginea, Q. frainetto, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur, Q. rubra, Q. suber y Q. velutina. Se usaron varios Indices sencillos para describir la complejidad del borde de la hoja: P/L, la relation entre el perimetro foliar (P y la longitud

  4. Species-specific climate response of oaks (Quercus spp. under identical environmental conditions

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    Sanders TGM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oak forests play a major role in Britain due to their economic, social and historic value. Sudden oak death and general decline symptoms have therefore caused major concerns in the forestry sector over the past decade. Several strategies have been proposed to preserve the economic and social value of oak forests, including the planting of native species with more southerly origins, or non-native species of oak that may be better suited to the projected climate of the future. The Ovington research plots, established 50 years ago at the Bedgebury Pinetum in southeast England, provided the opportunity to compare annual growth rates and climate-growth relationships of five oak species growing adjacent to each other on the same soil type and under the same climatic conditions. Clear differences were evident in annual increment and climate-growth responses for the five Quercus species. Growth rates were significantly lower (p<0.05 for the two species native to the UK (Q. petraea and Q. robur compared to the southern European and American species. A partitioning analysis using key climatic variables separates Q. coccinea from the other species due to its negative response to low temperatures. These results were confirmed by pointer year analysis. The analysis suggests that Q. robur is likely to be the more resilient of the two native species of oak to the future climate of southern Britain. Of the non-native species of oak evaluated, Q. coccinea represents an alternative species to Q. robur and Q. petraea on very dry, nutrient-poor sites. Q. palustris may also have some potential under current conditions for species diversification, but its requirement for higher summer precipitation than the other four species suggests that this potential may not be sustained as climate change progresses. However, if alternative species are selected as more resilient to climate change in terms of growth, it will be essential to consider a range of other issues

  5. Frequent cytoplasmic exchanges between oak species that are not closely related: Quercus suber and Q. ilex in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahbib, N; Pemonge, M H; Ouassou, A; Sbay, H; Kremer, A; Petit, R J

    2001-08-01

    Chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation were studied in 97 populations of cork oak (Quercus suber) in Morocco; in 31 of these populations, holm oak (Quercus ilex), a clearly distinct species, also occurred and was compared with Q. suber. Three cpDNA and one mtDNA primer pairs were used in the survey, each in combination with one restriction enzyme. Six haplotypes belonging to two very divergent lineages were detected; one lineage predominates in each species, and is probably ancestral, as inferred from comparisons with other oak species. In the mixed-species populations, cytoplasmic genomes were frequently shared across species, as indicated by an introgression ratio of 0.63. This index is a new measure of the propensity of species to share locally genetic markers, varying from zero (complete differentiation) to one (no differentiation). By contrast, more closely related deciduous oak species (Q. robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens) have introgression ratios varying from 0.82 to 0.97. The introgression events appear to have been more frequent in the direction Q. ilex (female) x Q. suber (male), a finding which seems attributable to the flowering phenology of these two species. This asymmetry may have favoured immigration of Q. suber beyond its main range, in regions already colonized by Q. ilex. There, rare hybridization and further introgression through long distance pollen flow have established populations that are morphologically indistinguishable from Q. suber but that have cytoplasmic genomes originating from the local Q. ilex populations.

  6. Ecology and conservation of bryophytes and lichens on Fagus sylvatica

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Örjan

    2009-01-01

    Environmental factors related to the occurrence of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens were examined in beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests in the Province of Halland, Sweden. Patterns in species composition and species number at different temporal and spatial scales were analyzed with emphasis on species of conservation concern (i.e. red-listed and indicator species). (I) At stand level, the availability of substrate, a high stand age and forest continuity were the most important factors explaining...

  7. Nomenclatura popular de Quercus (Fagaceae: en los valles meridionales de Cantabria (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo de Santayana, Manuel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the Ethnotaxonomy and Ethnonomenclature of southern Cantabria Quercus (Q- faginea subsp. faginea, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robur is presented. An extensive vocabulary associated with these popular species has been compiled. The analysis of this lexicón shows the richness and complexity of folk plant taxonomy and nomenclature. In total 28 vernacular ñames, which are different forms of 12 principal lexemes, have been compiled. Maps with the geographical distribution of the ñames let us delimit lingüistical áreas. An analysis of this rich lexicón is also presented. The meaning of the ñames, often polisemic, theiretymologies and geographical distribution is studied.Se presenta un estudio sobre la etnotaxonomía y etnonomenclatura de los Quercus (Q. faginea subsp. faginea, Q. ilex subsp. ilex, Q. petraea, Q. pyrenaica, Q. robar que viven en el S de Cantabria. Se ha desarrollado un abundante léxico en tomo a estas especies tan cotidianas, que sirve de ejemplo para estudiar la complejidad y riqueza de la nomenclatura popular. Se han recopilado 28 nombres vernáculos, variantes de 12 lexemas principales. Se han realizado mapas de distribución de los nombres recopilados que permiten delimitar zonas lingüísticas. Además se presenta un análisis de este rico léxico en el que se hace hincapié en su significado, muchas veces polisémico, etimología y distribución geográfica.

  8. Growth, ectomycorrhization and biochemical parameters of Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daoudi

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... stomatal conductance and photosynthesis of plants, which changes .... polyphenols were quantified after colorimetric reaction using Folin-. Ciocalteu ..... of different water and light intensities on cork oak (Quercus suber L.).

  9. The taxonomic status of the Mexican oak Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus El estatus taxonómico del encino mexicano Quercus undata (Fagaceae, Quercus, Sección Quercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Bacon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus has a complex taxonomic and nomenclatural history. Intensive sampling of oaks at the type locality of Q. undata Trel. in Durango, Mexico and evaluation of herbarium specimens and plants in the field indicate that Q. undata represents variation in Quercus chihuahuensis Trel. in white oak communities where introgressive hybridization among Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., and a third white oak, Q. arizonica Sarg. made species identification difficult. Endlich's type specimen of Q. undata, as designated by Trelease, was apparently destroyed in bombing raids on Berlin during World War II, and we propose herein as lectotype the Trelease illustration of the type. An epitype is also designated in support of the lectotype, given that some features cannot be critically observed on the illustration. The long peduncles of the specimen illustrated by Trelease indicate a close relation to Q. chihuahuensis.Quercus undata Trel. (Fagaceae, Quercus, Section Quercus tiene una compleja historia taxonómica y de nomenclatura. Un muestreo intensivo de los encinos en la localidad tipo de Q. undata en Durango, México y análisis de ejemplares en herbario y en el campo indican que Q. undata representa variación en Q. chihuahuensis Trel. en los sitios donde la hibridación introgresiva entre Q. chihuahuensis, Q. grisea Liebm., y un tercer encino blanco, Q. arizonica Sarg., dificultan la identificación de especies. El ejemplar tipo designado por Trelease aparentemente fue destruido en el bombardeo de Berlín durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, por lo que se propone como lectotipo a la ilustración del tipo en la obra de Trelease. Se designa también un epitipo dado que algunos rasgos no pueden ser críticamente observados en la ilustración. Los largos pedúnculos del espécimen ilustrado por Trelease indican la relación cercana a Q. chihuahuensis.

  10. Estudio de tratamientos pregerminativos en semilla de Fagus sylvatica L.

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbao Larringan, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    La propuesta para llevar a cabo un estudio sobre la reproducción sexual de la especie Fagus sylvatica, vino de la mano de Asociación de Viveristas Forestales de Euskadi, motivada principalmente por un previsible aumento en la demanda de plantas de dicha especie y por la heterogeneidad en la obtención del material vegetal de propagación (vecería). Esta vecería tan acusada, obliga a realizar un buen manejo en general de la semilla que se recoge, para poder tener material de repro...

  11. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (L...

  12. Estudio cariológico de Quercus humboldtti Bonpl Caryological study of Quercus humboldtii Bonpl

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    Alvarado de Coral Cecilia

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comprobó que la especie del roble Ouercus humboldtii Bonpl. tiene 2 n= 24 cromosomas, al igual que la mayoría de las especies estudiadas de Quercus. Utilizando pretratamiento y tinción con orceina lactopropiónica fue posible obtener el cariotipo e ideograma.Using lactopropionic orceine for a previus tintion we obtained the Caryotype and ideogram of Quercus humboldtii Bonpl. and we observed that it has 2 n = 24 chromosomes as most studied species of Quercus do.

  13. Did the late spring frost in 2007 and 2011 affect tree-ring width and earlywood vessel size in Pedunculate oak ( Quercus robur) in northern Poland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchałka, Radosław; Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Julia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Dąbrowski, Henryk P.

    2016-08-01

    Trees are sensitive to extreme weather and environmental conditions. This sensitivity is visible in tree-ring widths and cell structure. In our study, we hypothesized that the sudden frost noted at the beginning of May in both 2007 and 2011 affected cambial activity and, consequently, the number and size of vessels in the tree rings. It was decided to test this hypothesis after damage to leaves was observed. The applied response function model did not show any significant relationships between spring temperature and growth. However, this method uses average values for long periods and sometimes misses the short-term effects. This is why we decided to study each ring separately, comparing them with rings unaffected by the late frost. Our study showed that the short-term effect of sudden frost in late spring did not affect tree rings and selected cell parameters. The most likely reasons for this are (i) cambial activity producing the earlywood vessels before the occurrence of the observed leaf damage, (ii) the forest micro-climate protecting the trees from the harsh frost and (iii) the temperature decline being too short-lived an event to affect the oaks. On the other hand, the visible damage may be occasional and not affect cambium activity and tree vitality at all. We conclude that oak is well-adapted to this phenomenon.

  14. Varijabilnost morfometrijskih svojstava žireva i visina sadnica hrasta lužnjaka (Quercus robur L.) iz sjemenskih sastojina u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanković, Mladen; Popović, Maja; Bogdan, Saša

    2011-01-01

    Radi verifikacije važećih sjemenskih zona hrasta lužnjaka u Hrvatskoj na temelju znanstvenih spoznaja, započela su nova istraživanja genetske varijabilnosti u području prirodnog areala ove vrste. U jesen 2006. godine prikupljeno je sjeme iz tzv. priznatih sjemenskih sastojina, čija je osnovna uloga izvorište kvalitetnijeg sjemena za potrebe umjetne obnove gospodarskih sastojina. U radu se prikazuju rezultati morfometrijske analize sjemena i visina jednogodišnjih sadnica podrijetlom iz 17 uzor...

  15. El roble (Quercus robur L. y otras plantas boreales en el macizo del Moncayo (Soria-Zaragoza

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    Gómez García, D.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We report chorological and ecological information of 74 boreal plant species found in the Moncayo massif (Soria-Zaragoza provinces, Spain. These plants have been grouped in five general habitats. Most of these plants are extremely rare and reliclic species, someone with a southeastern distribution limit in the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. Moreover, a new hybrid, Narcissus x rafaelii Patino & Uribe-Echebarría ((N. assoanus Léon-Dufour x N. eugeniae Fdez.-Casas, is described.

    Se aportan citas de 74 plantas vasculares con distribución boreal, presentes en el macizo del Moncayo (provincias de Soria y Zaragoza. España. Se trata de especies raras que forman poblaciones relictas y muy reducidas; algunas de estas plantas parecen alcanzar en el Moncayo su límite suroriental de distribución en el Sistema Ibérico. Además, se describe como nueva especie híbrida Narcissus xrafaelii Patino & Uribe-Echebarría (N. assoanus Léon-Dufour x N. eugeniae Fdez.-Casas.

  16. Tree Species Richness and Stand Productivity in Low-Density Cluster Plantings with Oaks (Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka Liebl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kuehne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Low density plantings complemented by natural regeneration is an increasingly common reforestation technique to ensure growth of a sufficient number of trees from desired species while maintaining natural processes such as succession. One such form of low density planting that aims at lowering establishment costs—oak clusters—has been developed as an alternative to row planting since the 1980s in central Europe. However, whether cluster planting provides higher species richness and productivity than high density row planting has not previously been analyzed. Here, we compare tree species richness and productivity (measured as stand basal area between oak cluster plantings and conventional row planting in young (10–26 years old forest stands at seven study sites in Germany. Tree species richness was significantly higher in cluster plantings than in row plantings, whereas total basal areas were comparable. Naturally regenerated trees contributed on average to 43% of total stand basal area in cluster plantings, which was significantly higher than in row plantings. Total stand basal area in cluster planting was significantly related to the density of naturally regenerated trees. In turn, tree species diversity, density and basal area of naturally regenerated trees were increased with the size of unplanted area between clusters. Our results demonstrate that the admixture of naturally regenerated, early and mid-successional tree species compensates for a possible loss in productivity from planting fewer oaks. Low density cluster plantings can offer significant environmental benefits, at least for the first few decades of stand development, without compromising productivity.

  17. Safe for saplings not safe for seeds : Quercus robur recruitment in relation to coarse woody debris in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, H.A.L.; Kuijper, D.P.J.; Churski, M.; Zub, K.; Szafranska, P.; Smit, C.

    2013-01-01

    In forested ecosystems, oak saplings can be found in association with coarse woody debris (CWD) that offers protection against herbivore browsing. In this study we investigated whether CWD is already a safe site during the earlier stages of oak recruitment, i.e. at the seed and seedling phase, or wh

  18. Safe for saplings not safe for seeds : Quercus robur recruitment in relation to coarse woody debris in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, H.A.L.; Kuijper, D.P.J.; Churski, M.; Zub, K.; Szafranska, P.; Smit, C.

    2013-01-01

    In forested ecosystems, oak saplings can be found in association with coarse woody debris (CWD) that offers protection against herbivore browsing. In this study we investigated whether CWD is already a safe site during the earlier stages of oak recruitment, i.e. at the seed and seedling phase, or

  19. Dimeric and trimeric hydrolyzable tannins from Quercus coccifera and Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Khennouf, Seddik; Gharzouli, Kamel; Yoshida, Takashi

    2002-03-01

    Three new hydrolyzable tannins, cocciferins D(1) (1), D(2) (2), and T(1) (4), were isolated from the leaves of Quercus coccifera. Cocciferin D(2) (2) and two additional new tannins, cocciferins D(3) (3) and T(2) (5), were also obtained from the leaves of Quercus suber. Their oligomeric structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 were rare oligomers possessing glucose cores with both open-chain and pyranose forms.

  20. Quercus petraea in België

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompaey, van E.

    1957-01-01

    Naar aanleiding van het artikel over Quercus petraea in het Corr. bl. no. 4 zend ik u hierbij een kopie van de Belgische verspreidingskaart, omdat daar m.i. wel een en ander uit af te leiden is, dat ook Nederland aanbelangt: 1. Bij bet massale verspreidingsgebied ten Z. van de lijn Samber-Maas (de l

  1. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  2. Triterpenes as α-glucosidase inhibitors from Fagus hayatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chien-Kuang; Tsai, Sheng-Fa; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    Triterpenoids, 1-3, 8 and 9, along with 24 known compounds were isolated from leaves and twigs of Fagus hayatae. Of these, compound 1, 1,10-seco-3β,10α,23-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-1,28-dioic acid 1,23-lactone, possesses a hitherto unknown 1,10-seco-oleanane skeleton. In addition, 2,3-seco-20(29)-lupene-2,3-dioic acid (16), previously described as a synthetic product, is now established as a plant natural product; the neolignan-9'-O-rhamnoside 19 is also characterized herein. Their structures were deduced mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Seven of these compounds possess moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase type IV (Bacillus stearothermophilus).

  3. Customers’ buying behaviour   toward premium dog food brands -   A case study of Bozita Robur

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Christofer; Liashchenko, Anastasiia; Andreasson, Rebecka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge of customers’ buying behaviour toward premium dog food by examining their brand associations and how these are shaped by using Bozita Robur as a case study. Background: Market for dog food has increased heavily during the last decades what made knowledge of underlying driving forces of dog food consumption crucial for dog food producers. Quite peculiar is a phenomenon of purchasing behaviour towards a product purchased but not ...

  4. Large-scale patterns of Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Quercus pyrenaica regeneration in central-western Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Rolo, Víctor; Moreno, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    categories, from small seedlings to large saplings, and for the three oak species studied, especially the evergreens. Of the Quercus ilex, Q. suber, and Q. pyrenaica plots studied, 49%, 62%, and 20% were lacking any small seedlings, and 82%, 96%, and 56% did not have any large saplings, respectively......In Central-Western Spain, forests and woodlands composed of Quercus sp. support outstanding levels of biodiversity, but there is increasing concern about their long-term persistence due to a lack of regeneration. We hypothesize that this regenerative lack is operating on a large geographic scale...... and Q. suber were positively correlated with all understory variables, suggesting that the presence of pioneer shrubs represent a major safe site for early tree recruitment, independent from specific shrub species. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC....

  5. Variability of leaf characteristics in different pedunculate oak genotypes (Ouercus robur L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nataša P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine genotype influences on pedunculate oak's leaf traits: leaf area, specific leaf area (leaf area per unit of leaf mass, concentration of photosynthetic pigments, rates of photosynthesis and respiration, and nutrient concentrations (nitrogen phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and sodium. Leaf samples were taken from seventeen Q. robur genotypes originating from clonal seed orchard Banov Brod (Srem, Vojvodina, Serbia. Leaf area of the studied genotypes ranged from 248.4 to 628.8 cm2, SLA from 109.4 to 160.7 cm2 dry matter-1, rates of photosynthesis and respiration from 6.98 to 20.32 and from 6.73 to 14.65 µmol O2 m-2 s-1, respectively. The leaves of genotype 35 contained the highest concentration of photosynthetic pigments, while the lowest were recorded in genotype 29. The following pattern of nutrient concentrations was obtained for the studied genotypes: N>Ca>K>P>Na. Genotype variability of P K, Ca, and Na concentrations was more pronounced when compared with nitrogen. Estimated quantitative differences are the consequence of interaction of certain genotype and common environmental conditions for all trees. These results will provide information on intraspecific variation of the studied leaf characteristics.

  6. New Secondary Metabolites from Quercus coccifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Şöhretoğlu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new secondary metabolites kermesoside (1, cocciferoside (2 and (--8-chlorocatechin (3, were isolated from the the stems with barks of Quercus coccifera along with five known phenolic compounds, 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-propan-1-one (4 and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-propan-1-one (5, trans-resveratrol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (6 lyoniresinol-9-O-β-xylopyranoside (7, lyoniresinol-9-O-β-glucopyranoside (8. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was performed by spectroscopic methods (UV, 1D- and 2D- NMR and HR-MS.

  7. Cork Oak Trees (Quercus suber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rubén; Toribio, Mariano; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás Fernández, Ricardo-Javier

    2006-01-01

    A transformation system for selected mature Quercus suber L. trees using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses are inoculated with AGL1 strain harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint, which carries the nptII and uidA genes. Evidence of stable transgene integration is obtained by polymerase chain reaction for nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos are germinated and successfully transferred to soil.

  8. Holocene variability in the range distribution and abundance of Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus in Romania; implications for their current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Tanţău, Ioan; Fărcaş, Sorina

    2011-10-01

    constrained, as populations below ca 1000 m were replaced by Fagus sylvatica from ca 4000 years ago, Recently, Pinus (mainly P. sylvestris) and P. abies have both experienced range expansions a consequence of forest management. Quercus is the only continental deciduous tree that has maintained high abundance throughout the whole Holocene. Members of this genus demonstrated high resilience to climate change and disturbance; following a period of decline it was capable of recovery during subsequent intervals of warm conditions or disturbance.

  9. Selective bark-stripping of beech, Fagus sylvatica, by free-ranging horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Sluijs, van der L.A.M.; Wytema, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and intensity of bark-stripping by horses was surveyed in stands and tree lanes of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Veluwezoom National Park, by using transects. Damage was apparent on 38% of beech trees, and 11% were seriously damaged (score 3 or more). Susceptibility to bark-stripp

  10. Signals from beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in response to precipitation extremes - flowering induction and reduced foliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    Reduced foliation in older (but also young) beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands was observed in Denmark in the mid 1990ies and culminated with the 1996 summer drought and heat wave. Large differences in the degree of reduced foliation between regions and within stands were observed e.g. reflecting...

  11. The likely impact of climate change on the biodiversity of Italian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on literature results and our expert evaluation, we report some likely impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of forest communities in Italy by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region and on the Apennines: at low altitudes, vulnerability of Pinus sp. and Quercus ilex forests, with loss of intraspecific genetic variability; transition from Mediterranean closed-canopy macchia to scattered shrublands; risk of local extinction for coastal populations of mesic/relic hardwood species (e.g., Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus, Zelkova sicula, Fraxinus sp.; ’eastern’ relic species like Quercus troiana, Quercus frainetto, Quercus aegilops, and Q. gussonei in Sicily, and the peripheral low-altitude Fagus sylvatica populations, will be highly vulnerable; in the mid-altitude forest, vulnerability of most demanding species like Quercus cerris and Castanea sativa, possible immigration of Mediterranean species like Quercus ilex; in the montane forest, Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba will be less competitive with respect to more continental and drought-resistant tree species, and could loose genetic variability; relic species like Taxus baccata and Betula aetnensis may be at risk. In the alpine region: upward movement of timberline and changes in timberline communities, for instance Picea abies may be more competitive over Larix decidua, and fragmented species like Pinus cembra might become vulnerable. In general, we recognize the difficulty in separating the effects of climatic variables from those of other processes, like fires and land-use change.

  12. Phylogeographical Variation of Chloroplast DNA in Cork Oak (Quercus suber)

    OpenAIRE

    Lumaret, Roselyne; TRYPHON-DIONNET, MATHIEU; MICHAUD, HENRI; SANUY, AURÉLIE; IPOTESI, EMILIE; Born, Céline; MIR, CÉLINE

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims In the last decades, the geographical location of the centre of origin of Quercus suber (cork oak), a strictly western Mediterranean oak species, has been the subject of controversy.

  13. Flower Bud Differentiation in Quercus suber L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Varela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cork oak (Quercus suber L. is one of the most important forest species growing in the Western Mediterranean region. This investigation intends to assess the timing of flowering differentiation of cork oak and contribute to the deepening of the knowledge about the process of the sexual reproduction of the species. Materials and Methods: In 2010 four trees were selected (9, 14, 24, 25 from a plot of 25 trees located at Quinta da Serra, Portugal. A total of 240 buds were collected from these four trees, on three days (8, 14 and 23 March, from 4 branches per tree and 5 positions per branch for the assessment of meristem differentiation. Results: Meristem differentiation analysed on the sampling days revealed there were only vegetative structures by 8 March; a few male and female primordia on 14 March; and fully differentiated reproductive structures on 23 March. Conclusions: Flowering sex determination of cork oak occurs about one month before the flowering onset.

  14. [Genoprotective activities of the oils from leaves and fruits of Fagus orientalis Lipsky].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabeĭli, R A; Mirzazade, G G

    2011-01-01

    The antimutagenic activities of the oils obtained from leaves and fruits of Fagus orientalis have been shown in experiments with spontaneous and mutagen- and ageing-induced variability. The aberrations of chromosomes in the meristematic cells of the Allium cepa L., Vicia faba L., Triticum aestivum L., and marrow cells of Vistar rats as well as Arabidopsis thaliana gene mutations have been mobilized as experimental tests.

  15. Effects of fertilization on the vascular ground vegetation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Lieb.) stands

    OpenAIRE

    Misson, Laurent; Gaëtan Du Bus De Warnaffe,; Jonard, Mathieu

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this study was to assess the effects of base cation (Ca, Mg, K) and phosphorous (P) fertilization on the vascular ground vegetation in mature European beech and sessile oak stands located on acid brown soils. Two types of treatment were applied next to control plots (dolomite lime, dolomite lime + natural phosphate + potassium sulphate). Specific richness, total cover (% ), equitability coefficient as well as the Ecological Group of the ground vegetati...

  16. The diversification of terpene emissions in Mediterranean oaks: lessons from a study of Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis and its hybrid Quercus afares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Saskia; Bracho-Nuñez, Araceli; Mir, Céline; Zimmer, Ina; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lumaret, Roselyne; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Staudt, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Interspecific gene flow is common in oaks. In the Mediterranean, this process produced geographical differentiations and new species, which may have contributed to the diversification of the production of volatile terpenes in the oak species of this region. The endemic North African deciduous oak Quercus afares (Pomel) is considered to be a stabilized hybrid between the evergreen Quercus suber (L.) and the deciduous Quercus canariensis (Willd.), presumably being monoterpene and isoprene emitters, respectively. In a common garden experiment, we examined the terpene emission capacities, terpene synthase (TPS) activities and nuclear genetic markers in 52 trees of these three oak species. All but one of the Q. suber and Q. canariensis trees were found to be genetically pure, whereas most Q. afares trees possessed a mixed genotype with a predominance of Q. suber alleles. Analysis of the foliar terpene emissions and TPS activities revealed that all the Q. canariensis trees strongly produced isoprene while all the Q. suber trees were strong monoterpene producers. Quercus afares trees produced monoterpenes as well but at more variable and significantly lower rates, and with a monoterpene pattern different than that observed in Q. suber. Among 17 individuals tested, one Q. afares tree emitted only an insignificant amount of terpenes. No mixed isoprene/monoterpene emitter was detected. Our results suggest that the capacity and pattern of volatile terpene production in Algerian Q. afares populations have strongly diverged from those of its parental species and became quantitatively and qualitatively reduced, including the complete suppression of isoprene production.

  17. TOLERANCIA AL FUEGO EN Quercus magnoliifolia1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López Moctezuma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENCon el objetivo de conocer la respuesta de Quercus magnoliifolia al fuego en mortalidad y rebrotación, se aplicó una quema prescrita intensa, en fajas a favor de viento y pendiente, a una parcela de 0.5 ha en el estado de Guerrero, México, en abril de 2009. La quema inició a las 10:20 y duró 1 h 26 min. Se midieron las variables meteorológicas temperatura (25-28 °C, humedad relativa (33-24%, y velocidad del viento (7-25 km/h; y de comportamiento del fuego (largo de llama, de 0.5 a 3 m.Seis meses después se midieron variables de la estructura del arbolado y de severidad de la quema. El análisis de datos involucró regresión logarítmica y regresión logística. Los valores estructurales medios fueron: altura (11.2 m, diámetro normal (12. 2 cm y altura de copas (6.8 m. Se halló relación logarítmica directa entre el largo de llama y la velocidad del viento (R2=0.65. No hubo mortalidad producto de la quema, pero 33 % de los árboles rebrotaron. Las variables explicativas de la probabilidad de rebrotación fueron: altura (p=0.0159, diámetro normal (p=0.0394y altura a la base de copas (p=0.0487. La cicatriz sobre el tronco alcanzó 2.6 m y el chamuscado de copas 62 %, en promedio. La especie muestra resistencia a fuego poco severo, gracias a su corteza, y tolerancia a fuego más severo. Las quemas prescritas contribuirían a reducir impactos negativos de incendios en el arbolado.

  18. SORPTION PERFORMANCE OF QUERCUS CERRIS CORK WITH POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND TOXICITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Àngels Olivella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quercus cerris is an important oak species extended in large areas of Eastern Europe and Minor Asia that has a thick bark which is not utilized at all. The sorption performance of cork from Quercus cerris bark with four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene was investigated. Quercus cerris cork was characterized for elemental analysis, acidic groups, and summative chemical composition, and the results were compared with Quercus suber cork. A Microtox® test was carried out to test for the release of any toxic compounds into the solution. All isotherms fit the Freundlich model and displayed linear n values. Quercus cerris exhibited a high efficiency for sorption of PAHs for the studied concentrations (5 to 50 µg/L with 80-96% removal, while the desorption isotherms showed a very low release of the adsorbed PAHs (<2%. In relation to Quercus suber cork, KF values of Quercus cerris cork are about three times lower. The quantity of Quercus cerris cork required to reduce water pollution by PAHs was estimated to be less than twice the quantity of other adsorbents such as aspen wood and leonardite. Toxicity tests indicated that non-toxic compounds were released into the solution by the Quercus cerris and Quercus suber cork samples. Overall the results indicate the potential use of Quercus cerris cork and of Quercus suber cork as effective and economical biosorbents for the treatment of PAH-contaminated waters.

  19. Bioclimatic characteristic of oak species Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis and Quercus petraea subsp. pinnatiloba in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargioglu, Mustafa; Serteser, Ahmet; Senkul, Cetin; Konuk, Muhsin

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine some bioclimatic characteristics such as humidity category (Q2), winter variant (m), the length of the dry season (LDS) and the dry season water deficit (DSWD) of naturally growing two endemic oak taxa, Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis and Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba, living in Turkey. Our findings showed that bioclimatic tolerance range of Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis possess 7 different types of Mediterranean bioclimate while Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba had 8 of them. Although Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis was ranging among the semiarid, freezing and very cold, Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba was among sub-humid, freezing and very cold ambient. It was briefly established that Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis prefers semi-arid and very cold/freezing conditions and Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba prefers sub-humid and cold/very cold climatic conditions.

  20. Cryopreservation of Quercus suber and Quercus ilex embryonic axes: in vitro culture, desiccation and cooling factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M Elena; Prieto, Roberto-Moreno; Herradon, Esther; Martin, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This study examines different factors included in the cryopreservation protocols for Quercus ilex and Q. suber embryonic axes. In vitro incubation temperature played an important role in the appropriate development of Q. ilex axes, as 15 degrees C was superior to 25 degrees C. Q. suber axes proved to be more sensitive to desiccation and cooling. Poor survival (35%) was observed when axes were included into cryovials and then in liquid nitrogen, and none when immersed in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (-210 degrees C). Q. ilex axes showed poorly organised development in vitro (c. 50% of non-cooled axes showed shoot development). However, c. 80% survival was observed after cryopreservation (either in liquid nitrogen or sub-cooled liquid nitrogen at 0.34 g water / g dry weight), of which c. 15% showed shoot development.

  1. POLLEN ANALYSIS OF MOSS POLSTERS FROM BEECH FORESTS (FAGUS CRENATA)IN HIRAKAMIDAKE,NORTHERN HONSHU,JAPAN WITH REMARKS ON THE REPRESENTATION OF FAGUS POLLEN%日本本州北部白神山地圆齿水青冈林(Fagus crenata)表土花粉分析及水青冈属花粉的代表性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒军武

    2012-01-01

    为揭示和探讨水青冈表土花粉与现生植被的关系及其花粉代表性,我们对日本本州北部白神岳圆齿水青冈林中苔藓表土花粉进行了分析,结合前人研究资料,结果表明Fagus花粉可有效指示青冈林森林植被:在水青冈优势林中Fagus花粉百分含量达35%-40%以上;偏离水青冈林或无水青冈林分布时,含量低于5%—10%;介于两者之间为含有水青冈的混交林.这一结果与我国众多学者报道的表土花粉研究显示Fagus花粉的低代表性不相一致,其主要原因可能与国内取样点松属(Pinus)花粉的突出含量及林地较高的植物多样性紧密相关,从而干扰“遮掩”了水青冈花粉具有合适代表性这一特点.%To clarity the relationship between Fagus pollen percentages and its vegetation coverage, we conduct a pollen analysis of moss polsters from beech forests (Fagus crenata) in Hirakamidake, northern Honshu, Japan. A total of seven samples were selected for pollen analysis. It shows that Fagus pollen is well represented in samples from beech-dominant forests, most of which have percentages more than 40%. Integrated with published data, our results show that Fagus usually accounts for more than 35%-40% in Fagus-dominant forests, 35%-40% to 5% -10% in Fagus-mixed forests and lower than 5% -10% in Fagus-absent vegetation or outside of beech forests. The reported under-representation of Fagus pollen in China could generally result from the rich plant diversity, and especially abundant Pinus in samples which is notoriously over-represented, thus considerably overshading the representation of Fagus in surface pollen.

  2. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  3. A new cycloartane nortriterpenoid from Quercus variabilis Blume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xin; Ling Yun Jia; Jiu Zhi Yuan; Qi Shi Sun

    2009-01-01

    The leaves and stems of Quercus variabilis Blume afforded a new cycloartane nortriterpenoid, 3α-acetyloxy-4α, 14α-dimethyl9β, 19-cycloergost-24-oic acid (1), along with five known compounds (2-6). The structure of I was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopy.

  4. Ellagitannins and complex tannins from Quercus petraea bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, M; Scholz, E; Hartmann, R; Lehmann, W; Rimpler, H

    1994-10-01

    The ellagitannins 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucose, pedunculagin, vescalagin, and castalagin; the flavanoellagitannins acutissimin A, acutissimin B, eugenigrandin A, guajavin B, and stenophyllanin C; and the procyanidinoellagitannin mongolicanin have been isolated from the bark of Quercus petraea. The ellagitannin fraction had a weak antisecretory effect.

  5. Interspecific variation in functional traits of oak seedlings (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana, Quercus virgiliana) grown under artificial drought and fire conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiatante, D; Tognetti, R; Scippa, G S; Congiu, T; Baesso, B; Terzaghi, M; Montagnoli, A

    2015-07-01

    To face summer drought and wildfire in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, plants adopt different strategies that involve considerable rearrangements of biomass allocation and physiological activity. This paper analyses morphological and physiological traits in seedlings of three oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus trojana and Quercus virgiliana) co-occurring under natural conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate species-specific characteristics and the response of these oak seedlings to drought stress and fire treatment. Seedlings were kept in a growth chamber that mimicked natural environmental conditions. All three species showed a good degree of tolerance to drought and fire treatments. Differences in specific biomass allocation patterns and physiological traits resulted in phenotypic differences between species. In Q. ilex, drought tolerance depended upon adjustment of the allocation pattern. Q. trojana seedlings undergoing mild to severe drought presented a higher photosystem II (PSII) efficiency than control seedlings. Moreover, Q. trojana showed a very large root system, which corresponded to higher soil area exploitation, and bigger leaf midrib vascular bundles than the other two species. Morphological and physiological performances indicated Q. trojana as the most tolerant to drought and fire. These characteristics contribute to a high recruitment potential of Q. trojana seedlings, which might be the reason for the dominance of this species under natural conditions. Drought increase as a result of climate change is expected to favour Q. trojana, leading to an increase in its spatial distribution.

  6. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness develops progressively in Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Watanabe, Makoto; Inada, Naoki; Koike, Takayoshi

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the effects of ozone and leaf senescence on steady-state stomatal conductance and stomatal response to light variation. Measurements were carried out in a free-air ozone exposure experiment on a representative deciduous broadleaved tree species in Japan (Fagus crenata). Both steady-state and dynamic stomatal response to light variation varied intrinsically with season due to leaf senescence. Ozone induced the decrease in steady-state leaf gas exchange and the sluggish stomatal closure progressively. These findings suggest that ozone reduces the ability of plants to adapt to a fluctuating light environment under natural conditions, and therefore impairs plant growth and ability to control water loss.

  7. Formation of cis-coniferin in cell-free extracts of Fagus grandifolia Ehrh bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, E.; Inciong, E. J.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.

    1990-01-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh) bark exclusively accumulates cis-monolignols and their glucosidic conjugates; no evidence for the accumulation of trans-monolignols has been found. The glucosyltransferase from this source exhibits a very unusual substrate specificity for cis, and not trans, monolignols. This is further evidence that cis monolignols are involved in lignin formation in these plant tissues. Preliminary evidence for the existence of a novel trans-cis monolignol isomerase was obtained, in agreement with our contention that this isomerization is not photochemically mediated.

  8. Volumen y transparencia. AEG, Fagus, Bauhaus, evolución de un tema de esquina

    OpenAIRE

    García, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Los edificios objeto de este estudio forman un conjunto ya clásico en su consideración como hitos en el proceso de la arquitectura moderna. Existe a este respecto una larga tradición historiográfica, comenzada por Pevsner', en la que se los presenta como eslabones de una misma cadena. Especialmente en los dos primeros, la fábrica de turbinas de la AEG y la Fagus, la comparación básica y casi ya tópica, se ha centrado en el carácter de sus esquinas, con alguna referencia ulterior al tratamient...

  9. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  10. Frequency of inversions affects senescence phenology of Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christina; Kirchner, Manfred; Jakobi, Gert; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    In mountainous regions, inversion situations with cold-air pools in the valleys occur frequently, especially in fall and winter. With the accumulation of inversion days, trees in lower elevations experience lower temperature sums than those in middle elevations. In a two-year observational study, deciduous trees, such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica, on altitudinal transects responded in their fall leaf senescence phenology. Phenological phases were advanced and senescence duration was shortened by the cold temperatures in the valley. This effect was more distinct for late phases than for early phases since they experienced more inversion days. The higher the inversion frequency, the stronger the signal was. Acer pseudoplatanus proved to be more sensitive to cold temperatures compared to Fagus sylvatica. We conclude that cold-air pools have a considerable impact on the vegetation period of deciduous trees. Considering this effect, trees in the mid hillside slopes gain advantages compared to lower elevations. Our findings will help to improve knowledge about ecological drivers and responses in mountainous forest ecosystems.

  11. Effects of desiccation on temperate recalcitrant seeds: differential scanning calorimetry, gas chromatography, electron microscopy, and moisture studies on Quercus nigra and Quercus alba

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.F. Connor; F.T. Bonner; J.A Vozzo

    1996-01-01

    Investigations into the nature of desiccation-sensitive, or recalcitrant, seed behavior have as yet failed to identify exact causes of this phenomenon. Experiments with Quercus nigra L. and Quercus alba L. were conducted to examine physiological and biochemical changes brought about by seed desiccation and to determine if there...

  12. The formation of a ligno-suberised layer and necrophylactic periderm in beech bark (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primoz Oven; Niko Torelli; Walter C. Shortle; Martin Zupancic

    1999-01-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) bark was wounded in early April of 1993 and tissue changes followed on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 84, 112, and 140. In 7 days, tissue at the wound surface became necrotic and discoloured. In 14 days the walls of the parenchyma cells immediately underneath the necrotic tissue became thickened and after 21 days...

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies a major gene for beech bark disease resistance in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina Ćalić; Jennifer Koch; David Carey; Charles Addo-Quaye; John E. Carlson; David B. Neale

    2017-01-01

    Background: The American Beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), native to eastern North America, is ecologically important and provides high quality wood products. This species is susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) and is facing high rates of mortality in North America. The disease occurs from an interaction between the woolly beech scale...

  14. Intrapopulation and Interpopulation Genetic Variation ofQuercus in Denmark in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Jensen, Jan Svejgaard

    2001-01-01

    -Weinberg proportions, suggesting a low level of inbreeding. The differentiation of the Q. petraea and Q. robur populations was quanti. ed with Wright's F-statistics. The within-species component was populations was quanti. ed with Wright's -statistics. The within-species component was low, 0.022, re¿ ecting the wind-pollinated...

  15. Morphological Response of Eight Quercus Species to Simulated Wind Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tonggui; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Geoff G; Yu, Mukui

    Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (Pwind load, such as bigger leaf thickness, larger stem diameter, allocation to root biomass, and smaller stem height (Pwind can reduce drag and increase the mechanical strength of the tree. Leaf dissection index (LDI), an important index of leaf shape, was correlated with morphological response to wind load (Pwind load.

  16. SSR markers for Quercus suber tree identification and embryo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; Pintos, B; Aguiriano, E; Manzanera, J A; Bueno, M A

    2001-01-01

    Three Quercus simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from nuclear DNA extracts of trees and in vitro-induced haploid embryos from anther cultures of Quercus suber L. These markers were sufficiently polymorphic to identify 10 of 12 trees located in two Spanish natural areas. The same loci have been analyzed in anther-derived haploid embryos showing the parental tree allele segregation. All the alleles were present in the haploid progeny. The presence of diverse alleles in embryos derived from the same anther demonstrated that they were induced on multiple microspores or pollen grains and they were not clonally propagated. Also, diploid cultures and mixtures of haploid-diploid tissues were obtained. The origin of such cultures, either somatic or gametic, was elucidated by SSR markers. All the embryos showed only one allele, corroborating a haploid origin. Allelic composition of the haploid progeny permitted parental identification among all analyzed trees.

  17. Clima y crecimiento de Quercus robur L. en Galicia: variación geográfica del crecimiento y respuesta a factores climáticos limitantes en su límite suroccidental de distribución.

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Ortiz, Vicente Fernando; González García, A.; Lamas Pose, S.; García González, I.

    2009-01-01

    14 páginas, 4 figuras, 2 tablas / 19 diapositivas -- Comunicación presentada al 5º Congreso Forestal Español que se celebró del 21 y 25 de septiembre de 2009 en Ávila, bajo el lema “Montes y sociedad: saber qué hacer”.

  18. Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings acclimate to elevated

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Leaf gas-exchange, leaf and shoot anatomy, wood density and hydraulic conductivity were investigated in seedlings of Quercus suber L. grown for 15 months either at elevated (700 lmol mol-1) or normal (350 lmol mol-1) ambient atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Plants were grown in greenhouses in a controlled environment: relative humidity 50% (±5), temperature similar to external temperature and natural light conditions. Plants were supplied with nutrients and two water re...

  19. Morphological Response of Eight Quercus Species to Simulated Wind Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Geoff G.; Yu, Mukui

    2016-01-01

    Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (PSLA), stem base diameter and stem height under windy conditions when compared to the control. The Quercus trees with leaves characterized by lanceolate or sinuous edges, showed positive morphological responses to wind load, such as bigger leaf thickness, larger stem diameter, allocation to root biomass, and smaller stem height (PSLA, in stem base diameter and in allocation to root biomass. These results suggest that trees with higher LDI, such as those with more and/or deeper lobes, are better adapted to wind load. PMID:27662594

  20. Dynamics of Long-lived Foundation Species: The History of Quercus in Southern Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, David Russell; Lindbladh, Matts

    2010-01-01

    (1) The long-term history of Quercus in southern Scandinavia has received little attention despite its important role in modern conservation. In this study the 4000-year dynamics of Quercus, its habitat and other important taxa were analysed with pollen data from 25 small hollows and 6 regional sites across southern Scandinavia. The aim was to provide a context for understanding the species’ current status and managing its future dynamics. (2) The results indicate that Quercus is much less ab...

  1. Effect of tannins from Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khennouf, Seddik; Benabdallah, Hassiba; Gharzouli, Kamel; Amira, Smain; Ito, Hideyuki; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoshida, Takashi; Gharzouli, Akila

    2003-02-26

    The gastroprotective effects of 70% acetone extracts of Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves and of tannins (pedunculagin, castalagin, phillyraeoidin A, and acutissimin B) purified from these extracts were examined in the mouse using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Both extracts (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), given orally, prevented the formation of ethanol-induced lesions in the stomach. The percent protection varied between 68 and 91%. Purified tannins (50 mg/kg) were also effective in protecting the stomach against ethanol, and the percent protection varied from 66 to 83%. Castalagin was the most potent. Both extracts and all of the tannins tested (10, 25, and 50 microg/mL) strongly inhibited (55-65%) the lipid peroxidation of rabbit brain homogenate. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effects of extracts of Q. suber and Q. coccifera leaves and the purified tannins in this experimental model are related to their anti-lipoperoxidant properties.

  2. Fast wood decay in a mountain Mediterranean area having Fagus sylvatica forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravolini, Giulia; Egli, Markus; Cherubini, Paolo; Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Deadwood and litter act as important linkages between recent productivity and current community, and ecosystem processes. The increasing interest in the quantity and properties of coarse woody debris (CWD) and litter is relevant both to maintaining biodiversity and to global C dynamics. Mountain and Mediterranean areas, furthermore, are considered to be especially sensitive to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, a need exists to understand more in detail the interplay between soils, forests, deadwood and climate in general and in particular in mountain Mediterranean areas such as the Appenine. Due to the fact that linkages between climate, coarse woody decay and soils in mountain Mediterranean areas are only poorly understood, we aimed at investigating the decay mechanism of Fagus silvatica as a function of altitude and exposure. Furthermore, the effects of exposure on the decay dynamics of dead wood and soils were compared along a altitudinal sequence in an Appenine mountain forest (Majella Mountain). Ten sites, five of which having north and the other 5 having south exposure, were investigated, ranging from 1000 m to 1650 m asl. All sites have a Fagus sylvatica forest. In addition to this, experimental plots were installed at each site. In May 2014 standardised wood blocks (5 x 5 x 2 cm) of local Fagus sylvatica were placed at each site inside PVC tubes ('mesocosms') that was filled with undisturbed soil material. The sampling design foresees that three replicates of such mesocosms per site will be sampled after 8 , 16, 52 and 104 weeks. After 8 weeks three tubes were removed from the sites (sampled soil and dead wood blocks) and the wood blocks analysed for cellulose, lignin and density. At each site, three cores were taken to analyse soil properties. The soil cores were subdivided in 0 - 5, 5 - 10 and 10 - 15 cm depth and measured for organic carbon, carbonates and pH. In addition, the humus forms at each site were determined. Already after 8 weeks

  3. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  4. Microwave Radiation Effect on Axial Fluid Permeability in False Heartwood of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Koiš

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of microwave radiation on the fluid permeability and compression strength parallel to the grain of beech false heartwood. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. was selected, and samples of false heartwood with dimensions of 30×20×20 mm3 were used. The microwave treatment was carried out in a laboratory device at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The testing samples were divided into three groups (untreated, treated at 20-s intervals, and treated at 30-s intervals. The permeability was measured in the axial direction using distilled water. The coefficient of specific permeability was calculated using Darcy’s law. The results showed that the coefficient of specific permeability increased by up to 159% in comparison with untreated samples. The compression strength parallel to the grain decreased by up to 15%.

  5. Modeling stomatal conductance and ozone uptake of Fagus crenata grown under different nitrogen loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuchi, Fumika; Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Matsumura, Tomoe; Kanomata, Tomoaki; Uehara, Yui; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A multiplicative stomatal conductance model was constructed to estimate stomatal O3 uptake of Fagus crenata exposed to O3 under different N loads to the soil. Our stomatal conductance model included environmental functions such as the stomatal responses of F. crenata to diurnal changes, chronic O3 stress (AOT0), acute O3 stress (O3 concentration), and nitrogen load to soil. The model could explain 62% of the variability in stomatal conductance. We suggest therefore that stomatal closure induced by O3 and N load-induced soil acidification must be taken into account in developing a stomatal conductance model for estimating stomatal O3 uptake for future risk assessment of O3 impact on Japanese forest tree species such as F. crenata.

  6. Do variations in leaf phenology affect radial growth variations in Fagus sylvatica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čufar, Katarina; De Luis, Martin; Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; Črepinšek, Zalika; Merela, Maks; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka

    2015-08-01

    We used a dendrochronological and leaf phenology network of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica) in Slovenia, a transitional area between Mediterranean, Alpine and continental climatic regimes, for the period 1955-2007 to test whether year to year variations in leaf unfolding and canopy duration (i.e. time between leaf unfolding and colouring) influence radial growth (annual xylem production and tree ring widths) and if such influences are more pronounced at higher altitudes. We showed that variability in leaf phenology has no significant effect on variations in radial growth. The results are consistent in the entire region, irrespective of the climatic regime or altitude, although previous studies have shown that leaf phenology and tree ring variation depend on altitude. The lack of relationship between year to year variability in leaf phenology and radial growth may suggest that earlier leaf unfolding—as observed in a previous study—probably does not cause increased tree growth rates in beech in Slovenia.

  7. The cough suppressive activity of sulfated glucuronoxylan from Fagus sylvatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosáľova, G; Jureček, L; Turjan, J; Capek, P; Prisenžňáková, L; Fraňová, S

    2014-06-01

    Hemicellulose polysaccharides represent a large group of natural renewable polymers, however, their application potency is still low. In our study a hardwood 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan was isolated by alkali peroxide extraction of Fagus sylvatica sawdust and modified into sulfated water soluble derivative (MGXS). Highly sulfated MGXS was characterized by HPLC, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, and tested in vivo on chemically induced cough reflex and smooth muscles reactivity. Farmacological tests revealed an interesting antitussive activity of MGXS. Comparative tests with drug commonly used in a clinical practice revealed that antitussive activity of MGXS was lower than that of opioid receptor agonist codeine, the strongest antitussive drug. Furthermore, the specific reactivity of airways smooth muscle was not significantly affected by MGXS, indicating thus that the polymer is not involved in the bronchodilation process.

  8. Genotypic variability and phenotypic plasticity of cavitation resistance in Fagus sylvatica L. across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortemann, Rémi; Herbette, Stéphane; Barigah, Têtè Sévérien; Fumanal, Boris; Alia, Ricardo; Ducousso, Alexis; Gomory, Dusan; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia; Cochard, Hervé

    2011-11-01

    Xylem cavitation resistance is a key physiological trait correlated with species tolerance to extreme drought stresses. Little is known about the genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity of this trait in natural tree populations. Here we measured the cavitation resistance of 17 Fagus sylvatica populations representative of the full range of the species in Europe. The trees were grown in three field trials under contrasting climatic conditions. Our findings suggest that the genotypic variability of cavitation resistance is high between genotypes of a given population. By contrast, no significant differences were found for this trait across populations, the mean population cavitation resistance being remarkably constant in each trial. We found a significant site effect and a significant site × population interaction, suggesting that cavitation resistance has a high phenotypic plasticity and that this plasticity is under genetic control. The implications of our findings for beech forest management in a context of climate change are discussed.

  9. Exclusive accumulation of Z-isomers of monolignols and their glucosides in bark of Fagus grandifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N. G.; Inciong, E. J.; Ohashi, H.; Towers, G. H.; Yamamoto, E.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to Z-coniferyl and Z-sinapyl alcohols, bark extracts of Fagus grandifolia also contain significant amounts of the glucosides, Z-coniferin, Z-isoconiferin (previously called faguside) and Z-syringin. The corresponding E-isomers of these glucosides do not accumulate to a detectable level. The accumulation of the Z-isomers suggests that either they are not lignin precursors or that they are reservoirs of monolignols for subsequent lignin biosynthesis; it is not possible to distinguish between these alternatives. The co-occurrence of Z-coniferin and Z-isoconiferin demonstrate that glucosylation of monolignols can occur at either the phenolic or the allylic hydroxyl groups.

  10. Do interactions between plant and soil biota change with elevation? A study on Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, Emmanuel; Courbaud, Benoît; Marcais, Benoît; Thuiller, Wilfried; Granda, Elena; Kunstler, Georges

    2011-10-23

    Theoretical models predict weakening of negative biotic interactions and strengthening of positive interactions with increasing abiotic stress. However, most empirical tests have been restricted to plant-plant interactions. No empirical study has examined theoretical predictions of interactions between plants and below-ground micro-organisms, although soil biota strongly regulates plant community composition and dynamics. We examined variability in soil biota effects on tree regeneration across an abiotic gradient. Our candidate tree species was European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), whose regeneration is extremely responsive to soil biota activity. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured tree survival in sterilized and non-sterilized soils collected across an elevation gradient in the French Alps. Negative effects of soil biota on tree survival decreased with elevation, similar to shifts observed in plant-plant interactions. Hence, soil biota effects must be included in theoretical models of plant biotic interactions to accurately represent and predict the effects of abiotic gradient on plant communities.

  11. Is there a Future for the Isolated Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky Forests in Southern Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YILMAZ, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky is mainly found in the northern region of Turkey.There is also an approximate 40,000 ha of isolated relict oriental beech forest in southern Turkey. Thisrelict population differs somewhat from the northern distribution in terms of average altitudinaldistribution, health conditions, and reactions to climate change. Beech forest distribution in southernTurkey starts at about 1000 m, contrary to the northern distribution, which begins at about 150-200 m. Insouthern Turkey, the average temperature is higher, and summer drought occurs due to irregular rainfall.Beech trees in the south decay at earlier ages due to their sprout origins and higher temperatures than in thenorth. In recent decades, some part of the beech forests have shed leaves during the summer in response tosevere drought. Therefore, these relict populations are on the verge of extinction under unfavorableconditions.

  12. Emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as a function of light and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kesselmeier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a dynamic branch enclosure technique European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. was characterised as a strong emitter of monoterpenes, with sabinene being the predominant compound released. Since monoterpene emission was demonstrated to be a function of light and temperature, application of light and temperature dependent algorithms resulted in reasonable agreement with the measured data. Furthermore, during high temperature periods the depression of net CO2 exchange during midday (midday depression was accompanied by a depression of monoterpene emission on one occasion. The species dependent standard emission factor and the light and temperature regulated release of monoterpenes is of crucial importance for European VOC emissions. All measurements were performed within the framework of the ECHO project (Emission and CHemical transformation of biogenic volatile Organic compounds during two intensive field campaigns in the summers of 2002 and 2003.

  13. Effect of Altitude and Aspect on Wood-Water Relations of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Topaloğlu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of altitude and aspect on wood-water relations in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. were studied. Study area divided into five altitude steps and two aspect groups, total of 20 trees were cut off. In order to determine the wood-water relations; volume density value, fiber saturation point, maximum moisture content, and shrinkage and swelling percentages were determined. According to results, with 95% significance level (p<0,05, altitude affects volume density value, shrinkage and swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content; aspect affects volume density value, tangential and radial shrinkage percentages, volumetric shrinkage percentage, tangential and longitudinal swelling percentages, fiber saturation point and maximum moisture content while it has no effect on longitudinal shrinkage percentage, radial and volumetric swelling percentages. Results demonstrated that northern aspect and first altitude step has the lowest values, thus, this aspect and altitude step making a suitable place for this tree species to be used as solid wood.

  14. Gap formation in Danish beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests of low management intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Vesterdal, Lars

    2006-01-01

    WATBAL for one of the sites. Two forests were non-intervention forests (semi-natural and unmanaged), the third was subject to nature-based management. The study was intended to assess the range of effects of gap formation in forests of low management intensity. In the unmanaged and the nature......, measurements were carried out up to 29 months after gap formation. Average NO3-N concentrations in the gap were 19.3 mg NO3-N l(-1). Gap formation alone did not account for this high level, as concentrations were high also under closed canopy (average 12.4 mg NO3-N l(-1)). However, the gap had significantly....... In the semi-natural forest, advanced regeneration and lateral closure of the gap affected soil moisture levels in the gap in the last year of the study. Author Keywords: gaps; drainage fluxes; Fagus sylvatica L.; nitrate; soil moisture; soil solution; unmanaged forest ecosystems; WATBAL...

  15. Volumen y transparencia. AEG, Fagus, Bauhaus, evolución de un tema de esquina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Los edificios objeto de este estudio forman un conjunto ya clásico en su consideración como hitos en el proceso de la arquitectura moderna. Existe a este respecto una larga tradición historiográfica, comenzada por Pevsner', en la que se los presenta como eslabones de una misma cadena. Especialmente en los dos primeros, la fábrica de turbinas de la AEG y la Fagus, la comparación básica y casi ya tópica, se ha centrado en el carácter de sus esquinas, con alguna referencia ulterior al tratamiento de este mismo tema en el pabellón de talleres de la Bauhaus en Dessau, de gran afinidad con los anteriores.

  16. Xylem Phenology of Fagus sylvatica in Rarău Mountains (Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca SEMENIUC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The cambium activity and the tree ring formation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from the Rarău Mountains was monitored during 2009, 2010 and 2011 in a beech - coniferous stand, representative for Eastern Carpathian mixed forests. Wood microcores were collected weekly from five trees and prepared in order to describe the different phases of wood formation. Four phases of tree ring development were quantified, in number of cells and phase duration: cambial phase, cell enlargement, cell wall thickening and cell maturation. The onset of the cambial activity took place in the first week of May 2009, one week later in 2010 and in the last week of April 2011. The beech tree ring development period varies between 127 days in 2009 and 137 days in 2011.

  17. Do variations in leaf phenology affect radial growth variations in Fagus sylvatica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čufar, Katarina; De Luis, Martin; Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; Črepinšek, Zalika; Merela, Maks; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka

    2015-08-01

    We used a dendrochronological and leaf phenology network of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) in Slovenia, a transitional area between Mediterranean, Alpine and continental climatic regimes, for the period 1955-2007 to test whether year to year variations in leaf unfolding and canopy duration (i.e. time between leaf unfolding and colouring) influence radial growth (annual xylem production and tree ring widths) and if such influences are more pronounced at higher altitudes. We showed that variability in leaf phenology has no significant effect on variations in radial growth. The results are consistent in the entire region, irrespective of the climatic regime or altitude, although previous studies have shown that leaf phenology and tree ring variation depend on altitude. The lack of relationship between year to year variability in leaf phenology and radial growth may suggest that earlier leaf unfolding--as observed in a previous study--probably does not cause increased tree growth rates in beech in Slovenia.

  18. Mass Mortality of Beech (Fagus sylvatica in South-West Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOLNÁR, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass mortality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in Hungary, which started in 2003 andwent on through 2004, is the result of a typical damage chain. Mortality appeared first of all in beechforests close or outside of its native distribution area. The most significant reason was the droughtperiod from 2000 to 2004, which weakened the trees, and favoured the development of different pestsand pathogens. Characteristic symptoms were frequent at stand margins and in stands thinned forregeneration. The direct causes of the mortality were insects, the green jewel beetle (Agrilus viridisand the beech bark beetle (Taphrorychus bicolor as well as the fungus species Biscogniauxianummularia. With the improvement of weather conditions a continuous recovery of the stands hasbeen observed since 2005.

  19. Tracing the mode and speed of intrageneric evolution : a phylogenetic case study on genus Acer L. (Aceraceae) and genus Fagus L. (Fagaceae) using fossil, morphological, and molecular data

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Guido W.

    2003-01-01

    Aus der Korrelation fossiler, morphologischer und molekulargenetischer Datensätze wird ein detaillierter Einblick in die intragenerische Evolution zweier Baumgattungen aufgezeigt. Die ausgewählten Gattungen Acer (dt. Ahorn) und Fagus (dt. Buche) unterscheiden sich dabei sowohl in ihrer morphologischen Vielfältigkeit (Acer mit ca. 120 Arten, Fagus mit ca. 10 Arten) als auch ihrer genetischen Variabilität, die exemplarisch am intern transkribierten Spacer der nukleären ribosomalen DNS untersuch...

  20. Drought-adaptation potential in Fagus sylvatica: linking moisture availability with genetic diversity and dendrochronology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R Pluess

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microevolution is essential for species persistence especially under anticipated climate change scenarios. Species distribution projection models suggested that the dominant tree species of lowland forests in Switzerland, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., might disappear from most areas due to expected longer dry periods. However, if genotypes at the moisture boundary of the species climatic envelope are adapted to lower moisture availability, they can serve as seed source for the continuation of beech forests under changing climates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With an AFLP genome scan approach, we studied neutral and potentially adaptive genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica in three regions containing a dry and a mesic site each (n(ind. = 241, n(markers = 517. We linked this dataset with dendrochronological growth measures and local moisture availabilities based on precipitation and soil characteristics. Genetic diversity decreased slightly at dry sites. Overall genetic differentiation was low (F(st = 0.028 and Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all populations together suggesting high (historical gene flow. The Bayesian outlier analyses indicated 13 markers with three markers differing between all dry and mesic sites and the others between the contrasting sites within individual regions. A total of 41 markers, including seven outlier loci, changed their frequency with local moisture availability. Tree height and median basal growth increments were reduced at dry sites, but marker presence/absence was not related to dendrochronological characteristics. CONCLUSION AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE: The outlier alleles and the makers with changing frequencies in relation to moisture availability indicate microevolutionary processes occurring within short geographic distances. The general genetic similarity among sites suggests that 'preadaptive' genes can easily spread across the landscape. Yet, due to the long live span of

  1. Nitrogen storage dynamics are affected by masting events in Fagus crenata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kabeya, Daisuke; Iio, Atsuhiro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2014-03-01

    It is generally assumed that the production of a large crop of seeds depletes stores of resources and that these take more than 1 year to replenish; this is accepted, theoretically, as the proximate mechanism of mast seeding (resource budget model). However, direct evidence of resource depletion in masting trees is very rare. Here, we trace seasonal and inter-annual variations in nitrogen (N) concentration and estimate the N storage pool of individuals after full masting of Fagus crenata in two stands. In 2005, a full masting year, the amount of N in fruit litter represented half of the N present in mature leaves in an old stand (age 190-260 years), and was about equivalent to the amount of N in mature leaves in a younger stand (age 83-84 years). Due to this additional burden, both tissue N concentration and individual N storage decreased in 2006; this was followed by significant replenishment in 2007, although a substantial N store remained even after full masting. These results indicate that internal storage may be important and that N may be the limiting factor for fruiting. In the 4 years following full masting, the old stand experienced two moderate masting events separated by 2 years, whilst trees in the younger stand did not fruit. This different fruiting behavior may be related to different "costs of reproduction" in the full masting year 2005, thus providing more evidence that N may limit fruiting. Compared to the non-fruiting stand, individuals in the fruiting stand exhibited an additional increase in N concentrations in roots early in the 2007 growing season, suggesting additional N uptake from the soil to supply resource demand. The enhanced uptake may alleviate the N storage depletion observed in the full masting year. This study suggests that masting affects N cycle dynamics in mature Fagus crenata and N may be one factor limiting fruiting.

  2. Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea; Thomas, Frank M

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acer platanoides) revealed a "home field advantage" of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself.

  3. Drought-adaptation potential in Fagus sylvatica: linking moisture availability with genetic diversity and dendrochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Andrea R; Weber, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Microevolution is essential for species persistence especially under anticipated climate change scenarios. Species distribution projection models suggested that the dominant tree species of lowland forests in Switzerland, European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), might disappear from most areas due to expected longer dry periods. However, if genotypes at the moisture boundary of the species climatic envelope are adapted to lower moisture availability, they can serve as seed source for the continuation of beech forests under changing climates. With an AFLP genome scan approach, we studied neutral and potentially adaptive genetic variation in Fagus sylvatica in three regions containing a dry and a mesic site each (n(ind.) = 241, n(markers) = 517). We linked this dataset with dendrochronological growth measures and local moisture availabilities based on precipitation and soil characteristics. Genetic diversity decreased slightly at dry sites. Overall genetic differentiation was low (F(st) = 0.028) and Bayesian cluster analysis grouped all populations together suggesting high (historical) gene flow. The Bayesian outlier analyses indicated 13 markers with three markers differing between all dry and mesic sites and the others between the contrasting sites within individual regions. A total of 41 markers, including seven outlier loci, changed their frequency with local moisture availability. Tree height and median basal growth increments were reduced at dry sites, but marker presence/absence was not related to dendrochronological characteristics. CONCLUSION AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE: The outlier alleles and the makers with changing frequencies in relation to moisture availability indicate microevolutionary processes occurring within short geographic distances. The general genetic similarity among sites suggests that 'preadaptive' genes can easily spread across the landscape. Yet, due to the long live span of trees, fostering saplings originating from dry sites and

  4. The Quercus feeding Stigmella species of the West Palaearctic: new species, key and distribution (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Johansson, R.

    2003-01-01

    The species of the Stigmella ruficapitella group occurring in the Western Palaearctic and feeding on Quercus are reviewed. We recognise 19 species, five of which are described as new: Stigmella fasciata sp. n. on Quercus pubescens from Slovenia, Croatia, Greece and Turkey, S. cocciferae sp. n. on Q.

  5. Improved genetic transformation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernández, Rubén; Ordás, Ricardo-Javier

    2012-01-01

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for selected mature Quercus suber L. trees has been established. Leaf-derived somatic embryos in an early stage of development are inoculated with an AGL1 strain harboring a kanamycin-selectable plasmid carrying the gene of interest. The transformed embryos are induced to germinate and the plantlets transferred to soil. This protocol, from adult cork oak to transformed plantlet, can be completed in about one and a half years. Transformation efficiencies (i.e., percentage of inoculated explants that yield independent transgenic embryogenic lines) vary depending on the cork oak genotype, reaching up to 43%.

  6. A pyrosequencing insight into sprawling bacterial diversity and community dynamics in decaying deadwood logs of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Björn; Krger, Krüger; Kahl, Tiemo; Arnstadt, Tobias; Buscot, François; Bauhus, Jürgen; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-04-08

    Deadwood is an important biodiversity hotspot in forest ecosystems. While saproxylic insects and wood-inhabiting fungi have been studied extensively, little is known about deadwood-inhabiting bacteria. The study we present is among the first to compare bacterial diversity and community structure of deadwood under field conditions. We therefore compared deadwood logs of two temperate forest tree species Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure at different stages of decay in forest plots under different management regimes. Alphaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant taxonomic groups in both tree species. There were no differences in bacterial OTU richness between deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies. Bacteria from the order Rhizobiales became more abundant during the intermediate and advanced stages of decay, accounting for up to 25% of the entire bacterial community in such logs. The most dominant OTU was taxonomically assigned to the genus Methylovirgula, which was recently described in a woodblock experiment of Fagus sylvatica. Besides tree species we were able to demonstrate that deadwood physico-chemical properties, in particular remaining mass, relative wood moisture, pH, and C/N ratio serve as drivers of community composition of deadwood-inhabiting bacteria.

  7. Two Lactarius species associated with a relict Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana population in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, L; Haug, I; Bandala, V M

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fleshy fungi are being monitored in a population of Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana persisting in a montane cloud forest refuge on a volcano in a subtropical region of central Veracruz (eastern Mexico). The population of Fagus studied represents one of the 10 recognized forest fragments still housing this tree genus in Mexico. This is the first attempt to document EM fungi associated with this tree species in Mexico. We present evidence of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for Lactarius badiopallescens and L. cinereus with this endemic tree. Species identification of Lactarius on Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana was based on the comparison of DNAsequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). The occurrence of Lactarius badiopallescens and L. cinereus populations in the area of study represent the southernmost record known to date of these two species in North America and are new for the Neotropical Lactarius mycota. Descriptions coupled with illustrations of macro- and micromorphological features of basidiomes as well as photographs of ectomycorrhizas are presented.

  8. Growth and posture control strategies in Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings in response to canopy disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Catherine; Fournier, Mériem; Ningre, François; Hounzandji, Ablo Paul-Igor; Constant, Thiéry

    2011-06-01

    Forest tree saplings that grow in the understorey undergo frequent changes in their light environment to which they must adapt to ensure their survival and growth. Crown architecture, which plays a critical role in light capture and mechanical stability, is a major component of sapling adaptation to canopy disturbance. Shade-adapted saplings typically have plagiotropic stems and branches. After canopy opening, they need to develop more erect shoots in order to exploit the new light conditions. The objective of this study was to test whether changes in sapling stem inclination occur after canopy opening, and to analyse the morphological changes associated with stem reorientation. A 4-year canopy-opening field experiment with naturally regenerated Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings was conducted. The appearance of new stem axes, stem basal diameter and inclination along the stem were recorded every year after canopy opening. Both species showed considerable stem reorientation resulting primarily from uprighting (more erect) shoot movements in Fagus, and from uprighting movements, shoot elongation and formation of relay shoots in Acer. In both species, the magnitude of shoot uprighting movements was primarily related to initial stem inclination. Both the basal part and the apical part of the stem contributed to uprighting movements. Stem movements did not appear to be limited by stem size or by stem growth. Stem uprighting movements in shade-adapted Fagus and Acer saplings following canopy disturbance were considerable and rapid, suggesting that stem reorientation processes play a significant role in the growth strategy of the species.

  9. STANDARDIZATION AND CONTAMINATION STUDIES ON NUTGALLS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drug consists of nutgalls of Quercus infectoria (Family-Fagaceae, commonly known as “Mazuphal”. Standardization parameters like, physical constants, ash content, solvent residues, phytochemical screening, fluorescence and microscopical analysis were carried out for the quality, strength and purity of the drug. The present work is an also attempt to evaluate contamination parameters for safety of an herbal drug Quercus infectoria such as microbial contamination, aflatoxins, pesticide residues and heavy metals. Result revealed that the total ash content and acid insoluble siliceous matter were found 2.11% and 0.22% respectively in the drug. The extractive values were varies at different solvent at different condition. Loss on drying and pH at 25(ºC were 9.97 and 6.1 respectively. Study revealed that total bacterial count and total fungal count were found to be within the permissible limit. Heavy metal like cadmium and mercury were not detected in the drug but arsenic (0.31 mg/kg and lead (0.70 mg/kg were found under permissible limit. Pesticide residue such as o, p- DDD, p, p- DDD, o p- DDE, p, p- DDE, o, p- DDT, p, p- DDT, α- Endosulfan, β – Endosulfan, Parathion, α- HCH, β- HCH, γ- HCH, δ- HCH was absent in the nutgalls.

  10. Myxomycetes from the bark of the evergreen oak Quercus ilex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrigley de Basanta, Diana

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of 81 moist chamber cultures of bark from living Quercus ilex trees are reponed. A total of 37 taxa are cited, extending the number of species found on this substrate to 55. The presence of Licea deplanata on the Iberian Península is confirmed. Seven new records are included for the province of Madrid. Some data are contributed on species frequency and incubation times.Se presentan los resultados de 81 cultivos en cámara húmeda de corteza de Quercus ilex vivo. Se citan 37 táxones, que amplían a 55 el número de especies de mixomicetes encontrados sobre este sustrato. Se confirma la presencia en la Península Ibérica de Licea deplanata, y se incluyen siete nuevas citas para la provincia de Madrid. Se aportan datos sobre frecuencia de aparición y tiempos de incubación de algunas especies.

  11. Vulnerability of Quercus ilex facing increasing drought: which functional adjustments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rambal, Serge; Misson, Laurent; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rocheteau, Alain; Rodriguez, Raquel

    2010-05-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, precipitation is expected to decline as a consequence of climate change, and so will induce summer drought duration and intensity increase. The responses of a Quercus ilex coppice to such a decline in water availability were studied for several years within a throughfall exclusion experiment. This study focuses on the ecophysiological and morphological responses that modify transpiration and productivity. The main mechanisms regulating transpiration under decreasing water availability were assessed: stomatal control, twig and stem hydraulic conductance and leaf area adjustment. The decline of transpiration due to the reduced water availability was mainly driven by a reduced leaf area. In the meantime, other hydraulic traits were not significantly modified by the increased drought severity. The phenotypic plasticity of Quercus ilex leaves yielded some modifications of leaf traits, but with slight concurrent consequences on leaf photosynthesis. The decreased water availability reduced carbon assimilation and, in turn, the primary growth and the starch storage of trees. Finally, none of the several adjustments to the long-term experimentally increased drought was observed to reduce the individual vulnerability to water stress.

  12. Allozymes Genetic Diversity of Quercus mongolica Fisch in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenying; GU Wanchun

    2006-01-01

    A gel electrophoresis method was used to study the genetic diversity of 8 Quercus mongolica populations throughout its range in China.Eleven of 21 loci from 13 enzymes assayed were polymorphic.Q.mongolica maintained low level of genetic variation compared with the average Quercus species.At the species level,: the mean number of alleles per locus (A) was 1.905, the percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 52.38%, the observed heterozygosity (He) was 0.092 and the expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.099.At the population level, the estimates were A =1.421, P =28.976%, Ho= 0.088, He =0.085.Genetic differentiation (Gst was high among populations, it was 0.107.According to the UPGMA cluster analysis based on the genetic distance, 4 populations located in northeast and 2 populations in southwest of the geographical distribution are classified into 2 subgroups, but there was no clear relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance among populations.The low level of genetic diversity of Q.mongolica might be related to the long-term exploitation as economic tree species in history are comparatively seriously disturbed and damaged by human beings, and most of the existing stands are secondary forests.

  13. Competition, mortality, and development of spatial patterns in two Cantabrian populations of Fagus sylvatica L. (Fagaceae

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    Fernández Prieto, José Antonio

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the spatial patterns of size and mortality of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. were analy sed in two deciduous forest plots of Northern Spain. ¿i general terms, radial growth of F. sylvatica yields a direct relationship with size and an inverse relation with intraspecific competition while tree mortality seems be related to intraspecific competition. In the overall even-aged population, a lack of a recognisable structure in tree-size distribution, a small-scale regularity of survivors, and a regular pattern of dominant trees was noticed. This is a consequence of intense intraspecific competition at local level. In the old-growth plot, the wide repulsión between small and large beeches yields a specific spatial structure in tree-size distribution, showing even-sized groups of trees in different stages. Mortality in this plot occurs mainly within the dense group of small trees, which produces a broad regular pattern among the live beech trees. The random spatial pattern of dominant beeches seems to be characteristic of old-growth forests and could be a consequence of either self-thinning processes or exogenous factors.En el presente trabajo se analizan las distribuciones espaciales de tamaño y mortalidad en poblaciones de haya (Fagus sylvatica L. incluidas en dos parcelas de bosque atlántico. En general, el crecimiento radial de F. sylvatica es directamente proporcional al tamaño e inversamente proporcional a la competencia intraespecífica, mientras que la mortalidad parece estar condicionada por competencia con individuos de la misma especie. La población formada sobre todo por árboles coetáneos presenta características espaciales indicativas de una intensa competencia intraespecífica entre árboles vecinos, como lo son la ausencia de una distribución ordenada de tamaños, regularidad local de los árboles vivos y un patrón regular en los árboles dominantes. La población incluida en bosque maduro presenta una

  14. Soil properties and understory herbaceous biomass in forests of three species of Quercus in Northeast Portugal

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    Marina Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to characterize some soil properties within the first 25 cm of the soil profile and the herbaceous biomass in Quercus forests, and the possible relationships between soil properties and understory standing biomass.Area of study: Three monoespecific Quercus forests (Q. suber L., Q. ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd in NE Portugal.Material and methods: During 1999 and 2000 soil properties (pH-KCl, total soil nitrogen (N, soil organic carbon (SOC, C/N ratio, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K and herbaceous biomass production of three forest types: Quercus suber L., Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia Lam. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd were studied.Main results: The results showed a different pattern of soil fertility (N, SOC, P, K in Quercus forests in NE of Portugal. The C/N ratio and the herbaceous biomass confirmed this pattern. Research highlights: There is a pattern of Quercus sp. distribution that correlates with different soil characteristics by soil characteristics in NE Portugal. Q. pyrenaica ecosystems were found in more favoured areas (mesic conditions; Q. rotundifolia developed in nutrient-poor soils (oligotrophic conditions; and Q. suber were found in intermediate zones.Keywords: fertility; biomass; C/N ratio; cork oak; holm oak; pyrenean oak.

  15. Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in northwestern Yunnan, China as compared to the Mediterranean evergreen Quercus forests in California, USA and northeastern Spain

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    C. Q. Tang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in NW Yunnan (China were studied and compared with the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous Quercus forests in central coastal California (USA and Catalonia (NE Spain. Forests of Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, Q. longispica of NW Yunnan, Q. agrifolia of California and Q. ilex of NE Spain were analyzed as representative communities. The similarities and differences at the community level in the contemporary vegetation of the sclerophyllous Quercus forest found in the three regions are clarified. The general patterns of the evergreen Quercus forest in the three regions were similar, though different assemblages of species were involved. The species diversity in all three regions was rather low. The species richness did not significantly differ among the forests, although in the Q. longispica forest it is somewhat higher than the others. The three representative species of evergreen Quercus in NW Yunnan reached the greatest maximum height, while Q. agrifolia of California had the largest basal area per ha. The Q. ilex forest of Spain had the lowest values for maximum tree height and dbh and the highest density per ha. Frequency of dbh size classes indicated that Q. aquifolioides, Q. pannosa, and Q. agrifolia had potentially good regeneration of the sporadic type with highest values for the intermediate size classes, and the regeneration of Q. longispica and Q. ilex was strong as indicated by a reverse-J pattern. Still, in each area, most regeneration was from sprouting. In all three regions the evergreen Quercus species have adapted to environmental changes, for instance by development of sprouting and rooting abilities to resist drought, cold conditions and various disturbances. The evergreen Quercus forests in NW Yunnan were structurally more similar to the Q. agrifolia forest of central coastal California than to the Q. ilex forest of NE Spain.

  16. Identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes from Fagus sylvatica roots after infection with Phytophthora citricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, Katja

    2009-05-01

    Phytophthora species are major plant pathogens infecting herbaceous and woody plants including European beech, the dominant or co-dominant tree in temperate Europe and an economically important species. For the analysis of the interaction of Phytophthora citricola with Fagus sylvatica suppression subtractive hybridization was used to isolate transcripts induced during infection and 1,149 sequences were generated. Hybridizations with driver and tester populations demonstrated differential expression in infected roots as compared to controls and verify efficient enrichment of these cDNAs during subtraction. Up regulation of selected genes during pathogenesis demonstrated using RT-PCR is consistent with these results. Pathogenesis-related proteins formed the largest group among functionally categorized transcripts. Cell wall proteins and protein kinases were also frequently found. Several transcription factors were isolated that are reactive to pathogens or wounding in other plants. The library contained a number of jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene responsive genes as well as genes directly involved in signaling pathways. Besides a mechanistic interconnection among signaling pathways another factor explaining the activation of different pathways could be the hemibiotrophic life style of Phytophthora triggering different signals in both stages.

  17. Utilizing pigment-producing fungi to add commercial value to American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sara C; Tudor, Daniela; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-02-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is an abundant, underutilized tree in certain areas of North America, and methods to increase its market value are of considerable interest. This research utilized pigment-producing fungi to induce color in American beech to potentially establish its use as a decorative wood. Wood samples were inoculated with Trametes versicolor, Xylaria polymorpha, Inonotus hispidus, and Arthrographis cuboidea to induce fungal pigmentation. Black pigmentation (T. versicolor, X. polymorpha, I. hispidus) was sporadic, occurred primarily on the surfaces of the heartwood, but not internally. Pink pigmentation (A. cuboidea) occurred throughout all of the tested beech samples, but was difficult to see in the heartwood due to the darker color of the wood. To increase the visibility of the pink stain, beech blocks were pretreated with T. versicolor for 4 weeks before being inoculated with A. cuboidea. This method significantly increased the saturation of the pink stain on both beech heartwood and sapwood, creating coloration similar to that found on sugar maple. This value-adding process should be particularly effective for small-scale wood pigmentation, and should help establish a market for this currently underutilized wood species.

  18. Fine root dynamics of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as influenced by elevated ozone concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainiero, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.mainiero@iap.c [Department for Systematic Botany and Ecology, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Kazda, Marian, E-mail: marian.kazda@uni-ulm.d [Department for Systematic Botany and Ecology, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz, E-mail: haeberle@wzw.tum.d [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Nikolova, Petia Simeonova, E-mail: nikolova@wzw.tum.d [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer, E-mail: matyssek@wzw.tum.d [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Fine root dynamics (diameter < 1 mm) in mature Fagus sylvatica, with the canopies exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone concentrations, were investigated throughout 2004. The focus was on the seasonal timing and extent of fine root dynamics (growth, mortality) in relation to the soil environment (water content, temperature). Under ambient ozone concentrations, a significant relationship was found between fine root turnover and soil environmental changes indicating accelerated fine root turnover under favourable soil conditions. In contrast, under elevated ozone, this relationship vanished as the result of an altered temporal pattern of fine root growth. Fine root survival and turnover rate did not differ significantly between the different ozone regimes, although a delay in current-year fine root shedding was found under the elevated ozone concentrations. The data indicate that increasing tropospheric ozone levels can alter the timing of fine root turnover in mature F. sylvatica but do not affect the turnover rate. - Doubling of ozone concentrations in mature European beech affected the seasonal timing of fine root turnover rather than the turnover rate.

  19. Habitat differences influence genetic impacts of human land use on the American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumibao, Candice Y; McLachlan, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Natural reforestation after regional forest clearance is a globally common land-use sequence. The genetic recovery of tree populations in these recolonized forests may depend on the biogeographic setting of the landscape, for instance whether they are in the core or in the marginal part of the species' range. Using data from 501 individuals genotyped across 7 microsatellites, we investigated whether regional differences in habitat quality affected the recovery of genetic variation in a wind-pollinated tree species, American beech (Fagus grandifolia) in Massachusetts. We compared populations in forests that were recolonized following agricultural abandonment to those in remnant forests that have only been logged in both central inland and marginal coastal regions. Across all populations in our entire study region, recolonized forests showed limited reduction of genetic diversity as only observed heterozygosity was significantly reduced in these forests (H(O) = 0.520 and 0.590, respectively). Within inland region, this pattern was observed, whereas in the coast, recolonized populations exhibited no reduction in all genetic diversity estimates. However, genetic differentiation among recolonized populations in marginal coastal habitat increased (F(st) logged = 0.072; F(st) secondary = 0.249), with populations showing strong genetic structure, in contrast to inland region. These results indicate that the magnitude of recovery of genetic variation in recolonized populations can vary at different habitats.

  20. Shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies in relation to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Sabine [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)]. E-mail: sabine.braun@iap.ch; Schindler, Christian [Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Basel, Steinengraben 49, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: christian.schindler@unibas.ch; Rihm, Beat [Meteotest, Fabrikstrasse 14, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: rihm@meteotest.ch; Flueckiger, Walter [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Epidemiological analysis of sequential growth data may be a tool in assessing ozone sensitivity of mature trees. Annual shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica in 83 Swiss permanent forest observation plots and of Picea abies in 61 plots was evaluated for 11 and 8 consecutive years, respectively, using branches harvested every 4 years. The data were assessed as annual deviation from average growth and related to fructification, ozone, meteorological parameters, and modelled soil water content using a mixed linear model. In beech, a significant association between ozone and shoot growth was observed which corresponded to a 7.4% growth reduction between 0 and 10 ppm h AOT40 (accumulated ozone over threshold 40). This is in the same order of magnitude as the response observed in experiments with seedlings. No interaction was found between ozone and drought parameters. In Norway spruce, shoot growth was neither associated with ozone nor with drought. - Epidemiological assessment of shoot growth suggests an ozone sensitivity of mature beech which is similar to seedlings.

  1. Insights into xylem vulnerability to cavitation in Fagus sylvatica L.: phenotypic and environmental sources of variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbette, Stephane; Wortemann, Remi; Awad, Hosam; Huc, Roland; Cochard, Herve; Barigah, Tete Severien

    2010-11-01

    Xylem vulnerability to cavitation is a key parameter in understanding drought resistance of trees. We determined the xylem water pressure causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P(50)), a proxy of vulnerability to cavitation, and we evaluated the variability of this trait at tree and population levels for Fagus sylvatica. We checked for the effects of light on vulnerability to cavitation of stem segments together with a time series variation of P(50). Full sunlight-exposed stem segments were less vulnerable to cavitation than shade-exposed ones. We found no clear seasonal change of P(50), suggesting that this trait was designed for a restricted period. P(50) varied for populations settled along a latitudinal gradient, but not for those sampled along an altitudinal gradient. Moreover, mountainside exposure seemed to play a major role in the vulnerability to cavitation of beech populations, as we observed the differences along north-facing sides but not on south-facing sides. Unexpectedly, both north-facing mountainside and northern populations appeared less vulnerable than those grown on the southern mountainside or in the South of France. These results on beech populations were discussed with respect to the results at within-tree level.

  2. Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: a Bayesian modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Hammerle, Albin; Sturm, Patrick; Ogée, Jérôme; Wingate, Lisa; Siegwolf, Rolf; Plüss, Peter; Baur, Thomas; Buchmann, Nina; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Field measurements of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination ((13)Δ) of Fagus sylvatica, conducted with branch bags and laser spectrometry, revealed a high variability of (13)Δ, both on diurnal and day-to-day timescales. We tested the prediction capability of three versions of a commonly used model for (13)Δ [called here comprehensive ((13)(Δcomp)), simplified ((13) Δsimple) and revised ((13)(Δrevised)) versions]. A Bayesian approach was used to calibrate major model parameters. Constrained estimates were found for the fractionation during CO(2) fixation in (13)(Δcomp), but not in (13)(Δsimple), and partially for the mesophyll conductance for CO(2)(gi). No constrained estimates were found for fractionations during mitochondrial and photorespiration, and for a diurnally variable apparent fractionation between current assimilates and mitochondrial respiration, specific to (13)(Δrevised). A quantification of parameter estimation uncertainties and interdependencies further helped explore model structure and behaviour. We found that (13)(Δcomp) usually outperformed (13)(Δsimple) because of the explicit consideration of gi and the photorespiratory fractionation in (13)(Δcomp) that enabled a better description of the large observed diurnal variation (≈9‰) of (13)Δ. Flux-weighted daily means of (13)Δ were also better predicted with (13)(Δcomp) than with (13)(Δsimple).

  3. Ecological determinants of mating system within and between three Fagus sylvatica populations along an elevational gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauzere, Julie; Klein, Etienne K; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2013-10-01

    Studies addressing the variation of mating system between plant populations rarely account for the variability of these parameters between individuals within populations, although this variability is often non-negligible. Here, we propose a new direct method based on paternity analyses (Mixed Effect Mating Model) to estimate individual migration (mi ) and selfing rates (si ) together with the pollen dispersal kernel. Using this method and the KINDIST approach, we investigated the variation of mating system parameters within and between three populations of Fagus sylvatica along an elevational gradient. Among the mother trees, si varied from 0% to 48%, mi varied from 12% to 86% and the effective number of pollen donors (Nepi ) varied from 2 to 364. The mating patterns differed along the gradient, the top population showing higher m and lower s, and a trend to higher Nep than the bottom populations. The phenological lag shaped long-distance pollen flow both within population (by increasing mi at mother-tree level) and between populations (by increasing m at high elevation). Rather than the mate density, the canopy density was detected as a major mating system determinant within population; it acted as a barrier to pollen flow, decreasing the proportion of long-distance pollen flow and increasing si . Overall, the effects of ecological factors on mating system were not the same within vs. between populations across the gradient, and these factors also differed from those traditionally found to shape variation at range-wide scale, highlighting the interest of multiscale approaches.

  4. Analysis of release cutting effects on increment and growth in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücesan, Zafer; Ozçelik, Sevilay; Oktan, Ercan

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effects of release cuttings on stand structures and increment and growth relations were investigated in afforested oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands. To maximize spatial variation in dataset, stratified random sampling was used to layout transects. 24 sampling plots were determined which reflects average characteristics of actual stand structure. 8 sampling plots were selected from unthinned stands, 8 sampling plots were selected from lightly thinned (19% of the total basal area removed) stand and 8 sampling plots were selected from heavily thinned (40% of the total basal area removed) stand. Light thinning was done in the year 2008 and heavy thinning in 2009. Stem analyses were carried out and pre- and post-treatment height, diameter, basal area and volume increments were examined according to thinning intensities. Obtained results showed that removal of 40% of the basal area does not contribute to stand increment and growth more positively than those in stands treated by removal of 19% of the basal area. Expected increase in height and diameter increment did not occurr post-treatment in 2008 and 2009. However, in only lightly thinned stands mean basal area increment increased after treatment. Release cuttings in beech stand needs to be practiced at least twice every 5 to 6 years, provided that peculiar characteristics of every habitat are considered.

  5. Identification and molecular characterization of LTR and LINE retrotransposable elements in Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliani G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposable elements are important and peculiar genetic components derived from ancient retrovirus insertion inside plants genome. Their ability to move and/or replicate inside the genome is an important evolutionary force, responsible for the increase of genome size and the regulation of gene expression. Retrotransposable elements are well characterized in model or crop species like Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, but are poorly known in forest tree species. In this paper the molecular identification of retrotransposable elements in Fagus sylvatica L. is reported. Two retrotransposons, belonging to the two major classes of LTR and non-LTR elements, were characterized trough a SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region strategy. The analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple copies of retrotransposable elements inside the genome of beech, in accordance with the viral quasi-species theory of retrotransposon evolution. The cloning and sequencing of amplification products and a Cleaved Amplified Polymorphisms (CAPs approach on the identified retrotransposons, showed a high level of diversity among the multiple copies of both elements. The identification of retrotransposable elements in forest trees represents an important step toward the understanding of mechanisms of genome evolution. Furthermore, the high polymorphism of retrotransposable elements can represent a starting point for the development of new genetic variability markers.

  6. RPV Model Parameters Based on Hyperspectral Bidirectional Reflectance Measurementsof Fagus sylvatica L. Leaves

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    Dimitrios Biliouris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bidirectional reflectance parametric and semi-empirical Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (RPV model was inverted based on Bidirectional Reflectance Factor (BRF measurements of 60 Fagus sylvatica L. leaves in the optical domain between 400 nm and 2,500 nm. This was accomplished using data retrieved from the Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG with an azimuth and zenith angular step of 30 and 15 degrees, respectively. Wavelength depended RPV parameters describing the leaf reflectance shape (rho0, the curve convexity (k and the dominant forward scattering (Θ were derived using the RPVinversion-2 software (Joint Research Centre package with Correlation Coefficient values between modelled and measured data varying between 0.71 and 0.99 for all wavelengths, azimuth and zenith positions. The RPV model parameters were compared with a set of leaves not participating in the inversion procedure and presented Correlation Coefficient values ranging between 0.64 and 0.94 suggesting that RPV could be also used for simulating single canopy elements such as leaves.

  7. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana–Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China

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    Jielin Ge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus–Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in themountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010 from a permanent 120 m ×80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzedthe dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm. We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.

  8. Changes Caused by Heat Treatment in Color and Dimensional Stability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Wood

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    Ioannis Barboutis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal modification of wood permanently alters several of its chemical and physical properties. Beech wood is one of the most important hardwoods in Central and Eastern Europe and is extensively used in furniture production. In this study the effects of thermal modification of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L. on hygroscopic properties were examined and the color changes of the treated wood were determined. Beech wood has been subjected to a heat treatment at the temperature of 180 °C for five different durations ranging from 2 to 10 h. A more intense, gradual color change of the treated samples was observed after 4-h treatment, whereas in some other cases the recorded alterations were less intense. The most pronounced color differentiations compared to untreated samples occurred in 8-h and 10-h treatments. Dimensional stability and absorption were measured after 1-h, 3-h, 6-h, 1 day and 3 days immersion in water. The 8-h treatment duration exhibits the greatest reduction of swelling and absorption percentage.

  9. The Effects of Exposure, Elevation and Tree Age on Seed Characteristics of Fagus orientalis Lipsky

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    Murat Ertekin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Natural or artificial regeneration, rehabilitation, and conversion from coppice to high forest are important practices in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky forests in Turkey. Studies of the seeds of this species have increased in number because mast years are infrequent and seed germination is inhibited by dormancy. In this study we quantified the effects of tree age (40-59, 60-79 and 80-99 years, stand exposure (north, west, east and south and elevation (600 and 800 m a.s.l. on seed characteristics (germination, moisture content, and weight of Oriental beech. Material and Methods: The seeds used in this study were collected from natural beech forest at Kumluca, Bartin, in the western Black Sea region of Turkey. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and the greenhouse of Bartin University. Results: Seed germination and moisture content varied significantly by elevation, and seed germination was strongly influenced by elevation. Moisture content was 14% at 600 m and 16% at 800 m. The effects of elevation and tree age on 100 seed weights were not significant but exposure had a significant effect. The highest 100 seed weight was recorded for trees on southern exposures and the highest germination percentage of 82% was recorded for trees on northern exposures. Conclusions: In conclusion, since oriental beech seedlings are produced by generative propagation method, seeds should be harvested in optimum distribution area of beech, from average ages and phenotypically plus tree.

  10. Comparing monoterpenoid emissions and net photosynthesis of beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in controlled and natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimpraga, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Demarcke, M.; Joó, É.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Dewulf, J.; Van Langenhove, H.; Heinesch, B.; Aubinet, M.; Müller, J.-F.; Steppe, K.

    2011-06-01

    Although biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) only represent a very limited fraction of the plant's carbon (C) budget, they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry for example as a precursor of tropospheric ozone. We performed a study comparing BVOC emissions of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) in controlled and natural environmental conditions. A young and adult beech tree was exposed to short-term temperature variations in growth room conditions and in an experimental forest, respectively. This study attempts to clarify how short-term temperature variations between days influenced the ratio between monoterpenoid (MT) emissions and net photosynthesis (Pn). Within a temperature range of 17-27 °C and 13-23 °C, the MT/Pn carbon ratio increased 10-30 fold for the growth room and forest, respectively. An exponential increasing trend between MT/Pn C ratio and air temperature was observed in both conditions. Beech trees re-emitted a low fraction of the assimilated C back into the atmosphere as MT: 0.01-0.12% and 0.01-0.30% with a temperature rise from 17 to 27 °C and 13-23 °C in growth room and forest conditions, respectively. However, the data showed that the MT/Pn C ratio of young and adult beech trees responded significantly to changes in temperature.

  11. Leaf nitrogen distribution in relation to crown architecture in the tall canopy species, Fagus crenata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Yasumura, Yuko; Ishida, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    The theory of optimal leaf N distribution predicts that the C gain of plants is maximized when the N content per unit area (N(area)) scales with light availability, but most previous studies have demonstrated that the N distribution is not proportional to light availability. In tall trees, the leaves are often clustered on twigs (leaf cluster) and not evenly distributed within the crowns. Thus, we hypothesized that the suboptimal N distribution is partly caused by the limited capacity to translocate N between leaf clusters, and consequently, the relationship between light and N(area) differs for leaves in different clusters. We investigated the light availability and N content of all individual leaves within several leaf clusters on tall trees of a deciduous canopy species Fagus crenata in Japan. We observed that the within-cluster leaf N distribution patterns differed from the between-cluster patterns and the slopes of the relationships between light and N(area) were lower within clusters than between clusters. According to the detailed analysis of the N distribution within leaf clusters, N(area) was greater for current-year shoots with greater light availability or a larger total leaf area. The latter pattern was probably caused by the greater sink strength of the current-year shoots with a larger leaf area. These N distribution patterns suggest that leaf clusters are fairly independent with respect to their N use, and the productivity of real F. crenata crowns may be less than optimal.

  12. Variation in Ecophysiological Traits and Drought Tolerance of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Seedlings from Different Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudia; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, L'ubica; Marino, Stefano; Maiuro, Lucia; Alvino, Arturo; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Bolte, Andreas; Tognetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Frequency and intensity of heat waves and drought events are expected to increase in Europe due to climate change. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most important native tree species in Europe. Beech populations originating throughout its native range were selected for common-garden experiments with the aim to determine whether there are functional variations in drought stress responses among different populations. One-year old seedlings from four to seven beech populations were grown and drought-treated in a greenhouse, replicating the experiment at two contrasting sites, in Italy (Mediterranean mountains) and Germany (Central Europe). Experimental findings indicated that: (1) drought (water stress) mainly affected gas exchange describing a critical threshold of drought response between 30 and 26% SWA for photosynthetic rate and Ci/Ca, respectively; (2) the Ci to Ca ratio increased substantially with severe water stress suggesting a stable instantaneous water use efficiency and an efficient regulation capacity of water balance achieved by a tight stomatal control; (3) there was a different response to water stress among the considered beech populations, differently combining traits, although there was not a well-defined variability in drought tolerance. A combined analysis of functional and structural traits for detecting stress signals in beech seedlings is suggested to assess plant performance under limiting moisture conditions and, consequently, to estimate evolutionary potential of beech under a changing environmental scenario. PMID:27446118

  13. Catalytic Rapid Pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis over Nanoporous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Koo Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic rapid pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis, a Korean native tree species, was carried out using Py-GC/MS. Mesoporous MFI, which has both nanopores and micropores, and three nanoporous materials, Al-MCM-41, Al-SBA-15, and γ-Al2O3, were used as the catalyst. The acid sites of mesoporous MFI were strong Brønsted acid sites, whereas those of nanoporous materials were mostly weak acid sites. The composition of the product bio-oil varied greatly depending on the acid characteristics of the catalyst used. Phenolics were the most abundant species in the bio-oil, followed by acids and furanics, obtained over Al-MCM-41 or Al-SBA-15 with weak acid sites, whereas aromatics were the most abundant species produced over mesoporous MFI with strong acid sites, followed by phenolics. Aromatics, phenolics, and furanics are all important chemicals contributing to the improvement of bio-oil quality.

  14. Antimutagenicity of a suberin extract from Quercus suber cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizková, L; Lopes, M H; Polónyi, J; Belicová, A; Dobias, J; Ebringer, L

    1999-12-13

    The possible protective effect of a suberin extract from Quercus suber cork on acridine orange (AO)-, ofloxacin- and UV radiation-induced mutagenicity (bleaching activity) in Euglena gracilis was examined. To our knowledge, the present results are the first attempt to analyse suberin in relation to mutagenicity of some chemicals. Suberin exhibits a significant dose-dependent protective effect against AO-induced mutagenicity and the concentration of 500 micrograms/ml completely eliminates the Euglena-bleaching activity of AO. The mutagenicity of ofloxacin is also significantly reduced in the presence of suberin (125, 250 and 500 micrograms/ml). However, the moderate protective effect of suberin on UV radiation-induced mutagenicity was observed only at concentrations 500 and 1000 micrograms/ml. Our data shows that suberin extract from Q. suber cork possess antimutagenic properties and can be included in the group of natural antimutagens acting in a desmutagenic manner.

  15. Resprouting of Quercus suber in NE Spain after fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausas, J.G. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo, Valencia (Spain)

    1997-11-01

    Many Mediterranean species have evolved strategies that allow them to survive periodic wildfires. Quercus suber trees resprout after fire, some from stem buds and others from basal buds only. In the former case the canopy recovers quickly. In the latter case the stem dies but the tree survives and regrows from basal sprouts. The probability of stem death and the degree of height recovery were studied after a fire in a Q. suber forest in NE Spain using logistic regression analysis. The results suggest that most trees survive after fire; the probability of stem death is negatively related to tree diameter; and recovery is positively related to tree diameter and to bark thickness. Implication for management and conservation of cork-oak forests are discussed 22 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition and autumn recovery in two Mediterranean oak species (Quercus ilex and Quercus suber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Gazarini, L C; David, T S; David, J S; Rodrigues, A; Maroco, J; Chaves, M M

    2010-08-01

    Responses of leaf water relations and photosynthesis to summer drought and autumn rewetting were studied in two evergreen Mediterranean oak species, Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia and Quercus suber. The predawn leaf water potential (Ψ(lPD)), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A) at ambient conditions were measured seasonally over a 3-year period. We also measured the photosynthetic response to light and to intercellular CO₂ (A/PPFD and A/C(i) response curves) under water stress (summer) and after recovery due to autumn rainfall. Photosynthetic parameters, Vc(max), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) rate, were estimated using the Farquhar model. RuBisCo activity, leaf chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf carbohydrate concentration were also measured. All measurements were performed in the spring leaves of the current year. In both species, the predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate peaked in spring, progressively declined throughout the summer and recovered upon autumn rainfall. During the drought period, Q. ilex maintained a higher predawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance than Q. suber. During this period, we found that photosynthesis was not only limited by stomatal closure, but was also downregulated as a consequence of a decrease in the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) in both species. The Vc(max) and J(max) increased after the first autumnal rains and this increase was related to RuBisCo activity, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll concentration. In addition, an increase in the TPU rate and in soluble leaf sugar concentration was observed in this period. The results obtained indicate a high resilience of the photosynthetic apparatus to summer drought as well as good recovery in the following autumn rains of these evergreen oak species.

  17. Seasonal dynamics of secondary growth and xylem anatomy in two coexisting Mediterranean Quercus; Dinamica estacional del crecimiento secundario y anatomia del xilema en dos Quercus mediterraneos que coexisten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuixech, J.; Camarero, J. J.; Montserrat-Marti, G.

    2012-11-01

    The contribution of secondary growth's patterns and wood anatomy on the coexistence of two species of Quercus (Quercus ilex subsp ballota diffused porous wood and Quercus faginea ring porous wood) were studied in a location with continental Mediterranean climate, which has been studied during two years with contrasted climatology. According to our results secondary growth pattern of Q. faginea is concentrated in the spring, starting before, and responding more than Q. ilex to a rainfall increase during this period. Q. ilex extends wood formation into the fall and late summer growth. Q. ilex growth during the fall and late summer has a greater importance in terms of theoretical hydraulic conductivity than in Q. faginea, which concentrates hydraulic conductivity in spring vessels. Therefore, different response of wood phenology formation and xylem anatomy in both species to the seasonal pattern of precipitation could contribute to explain the coexistence of Q. ilex and Q. faginea. (Author) 48 refs.

  18. Tvorba marketingovej stratégie internetového obchodu Quercus

    OpenAIRE

    Krahulcová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on creation of new marketing strategy for company QUERCUS' electronic store. Theoretical part deals with basic concepts of marketing and strategic marketing planning. It further introduces marketing mix specifics on the internet, basic aspects of electronic commerce and consumer behavior on internet. Practical part includes introduction of company QUERCUS, e-shop SWOT analysis, brief characteristic of current marketing strategy and finally proposal of new marketing s...

  19. Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edurne eMartinez Del Castillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e. in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for Pinus sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for Pinus sylvestris.

  20. Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.; beda, X.; Martin, D.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Guerrero, C.

    2011-01-01

    Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silica (SiO2) and total sulphur (TS). A prescribed fire was conducted in a cork oak (Quercus suber) (Q.S) forest located in the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Samples were collected from a flat plot of 40??70m mainly composed of Q.S and Quercus robur (Q.R) trees. In order to understand the effects of the prescribed fire on the soluble elements in ash, we conducted our data analysis on three data groups: all samples, only Q.S samples and only Q.R samples. All three sample groups exhibited a significant increase in pH, EC (pwater-soluble Ca, Mg, Na, SiO2 and TS and a decrease in water-soluble Mn, Fe and Zn. Differences were identified between oak species for water-soluble K, Al and Fe. In Q.S samples we registered a significant increase in the first two elements pwater-soluble K and Al and a significant decrease in water-soluble Fe (psamples, that at some points burned with higher severity. The increase of pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na and K will improve soil fertility, mainly in the study area where soils are acidic. The application of this low severity prescribed fire will improve soil nutrient status without causing soil degradation and thus is considered to be a good management strategy. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  1. A new species of Lactarius (subgenus Gerardii) from two relict Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana populations in Mexican montane cloud forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor Manuel; Haug, Ingeborg; Stubbe, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    A new milkcap species, Lactarius fuscomarginatus, was found in the subtropical region of central Veracruz (eastern Mexico) associated with two relict populations of Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana. The species is characterized macroscopically by its dark pileus and stipe and by its distant and whitish lamellae with blackish to blackish brown edges. A molecular phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and LSU nucDNA sequences confirms the delimitation of this new taxon and places L. fuscomarginatus in subgenus Gerardii. A detailed morphological comparison is given with similar species.

  2. Carbon isotope discrimination during branch photosynthesis of Fagus sylvatica: field measurements using laser spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Sturm, Patrick; Hammerle, Albin; Siegwolf, Rolf; Wingate, Lisa; Ogée, Jérôme; Baur, Thomas; Plüss, Peter; Barthel, Matti; Buchmann, Nina; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    On-line measurements of photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination ((13)Δ) under field conditions are sparse. Hence, experimental verification of the natural variability of instantaneous (13)Δ is scarce, although (13)Δ is, explicitly and implicitly, used from leaf to global scales for inferring photosynthetic characteristics. This work presents the first on-line field measurements of (13)Δ of Fagus sylvatica branches, at hourly resolution, using three open branch bags and a laser spectrometer for CO₂ isotopologue measurements (QCLAS-ISO). Data from two August/September field campaigns, in 2009 and 2010, in a temperate forest in Switzerland are shown. Diurnal variability of (13)Δ was substantial, with mean diurnal amplitudes of ~9‰ and maximum diurnal amplitudes of ~20‰. The highest (13)Δ were generally observed during early morning and late afternoon, and the lowest (13)Δ during midday. An assessment of propagated standard deviations of (13)Δ demonstrated that the observed diurnal variation of (13)Δ was not a measurement artefact. Day-to-day variations of (13)Δ were summarized with flux-weighted daily means of (13)Δ, which ranged from 15‰ to 23‰ in 2009 and from 18‰ to 29‰ in 2010, thus displaying a considerable range of 8-11‰. Generally, (13)Δ showed the expected negative relationship with intrinsic water use efficiency. Diurnal and day-to-day variability of (13)Δ was, however, always better predicted by that of net CO₂ assimilation, especially in 2010 when soil moisture was high and vapour pressure deficit was low. Stomatal control of leaf gas exchange, and consequently (13)Δ, could only be identified under drier conditions in 2009.

  3. Functional characterization of a dehydrin protein from Fagus sylvatica seeds using experimental and in silico approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemba, Ewa Marzena; Litkowiec, Monika

    2015-12-01

    A strong increase in the level of dehydrin/response ABA transcripts expression reported from the 14th week after flowering coincident with the accumulation of 26 and 44 kDa dehydrins in the embryonic axes of developing beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds. Both transcript and protein levels were strongly correlated with maturation drying. These results suggest that the 44-kDa dehydrin protein is a putative dimer of dehydrin/response ABA protein migrating as a 26-kDa protein. Dehydrins and dehydrin-like proteins form large oligomeric complexes under native conditions and are shown as several spots differing in pI through isoelectrofocusing analyses. Detailed prediction of specific sites accessible for various post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the dehydrin/response ABA protein sequence revealed sites specific to acetylation, amidation, glycosylation, methylation, myristoylation, nitrosylation, O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamination and Yin-O-Yang modification, palmitoylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, sulfation, and ubiquitination. Thus, these results suggest that specific PTMs might play a role in switching dehydrin function or activity, water binding ability, protein-membrane interactions, transport and subcellular localization, interactions with targeted molecules, and protein stability. Despite the ability of two Cys residues to form a disulfide bond, -SH groups are likely not involved in dimer arrangement. His-rich regions and/or polyQ-tracts are potential candidates as spatial organization modulators. Dehydrin/response ABA protein is an intrinsically disordered protein containing low complexity regions. The lack of a fixed structure and exposition of amino acids on the surface of the protein structure enhances the accessibility to 40 predicted PTM sites, thereby facilitating dehydrin multifunctionality, which is discussed in the present study.

  4. Root biomass of Fagus sylvatica L. stands depending on the climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygoruk Dorota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fine root biomass of forest trees is a recognised indicator of environmental changes in the conditions of global climate change. The present study was carried out in six old-growth beech forests (112-140 years located in different climatic conditions on the range border of Fagus sylvatica L. in Poland. The root biomass was investigated by soil coring method in the upper soil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm and total layer 0-15 cm. The significantly greater total root biomass was found in the beech stands, which characterised by higher average precipitation and lower average annual temperatures in the period 2000-2005. The share of roots of diameter > 5 mm increased with increasing depth of top soils. Biomass of fine roots (diameter ≤ 2 mm decreased with increasing depth of upper soil layers. The average biomass of fine roots ranged from 175.36 to 418.16 g m-2 in the soil layer 0-15 cm. The significant differences of fine root biomass were found between studied stands in the soil layers 0-5 cm and 0-15 cm. Also, it was found significant positive correlation between fine root biomass in the soil layer 0-15 cm and precipitation during the growing season in 2006. Precipitation in the study period was connected with very high rainfall in August 2006, repeatedly exceeding the long-term monthly levels. Regional climatic conditions, in that extreme weather events in growing seasons can significantly to affect changes of fine root biomass of forest trees, consequently, changes of relationships between the growth of above- and below-ground of the old-growth forest stands.

  5. Early events in Populus hybrid and Fagus sylvatica leaves exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desotgiu, R; Bussotti, F; Faoro, F; Iriti, M; Agati, G; Marzuoli, R; Gerosa, G; Tani, C

    2010-04-01

    This paper aims to investigate early responses to ozone in leaves of Fagus sylvatica (beech) and Populus maximowiczii x Populus berolinensis (poplar). The experimental setup consisted of four open-air (OA) plots, four charcoal-filtered (CF) open-top chambers (OTCs), and four nonfiltered (NF) OTCs. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out on nonsymptomatic (CF) and symptomatic (NF and OA) leaves of both species. Qualitative analyses were performed applying microscopic techniques: Evans blue staining for detection of cell viability, CeCl3 staining of transmission electron microscope (TEM) samples to detect the accumulation of H2O2, and multispectral fluorescence microimaging and microspectrofluorometry to investigate the accumulation of fluorescent phenolic compounds in the walls of the damaged cells. Quantitative analyses consisted of the analysis of the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients (fast kinetics). The early responses to ozone were demonstrated by the Evans blue and CeCl3 staining techniques that provided evidence of plant responses in both species 1 month before foliar symptoms became visible. The fluorescence transients analysis, too, demonstrated the breakdown of the oxygen evolving system and the inactivation of the end receptors of electrons at a very early stage, both in poplar and in beech. The accumulation of phenolic compounds in the cell walls, on the other hand, was a species-specific response detected in poplar, but not in beech. Evans blue and CeCl3 staining, as well as the multispectral fluorescence microimaging and microspectrofluorometry, can be used to support the field diagnosis of ozone injury, whereas the fast kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence provides evidence of early physiological responses.

  6. Differences in transpiration characteristics of Japanese beech trees, Fagus crenata, in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Makiko; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Hiura, Tsutom

    2010-06-01

    Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) is widely distributed across the Japan archipelago. This species requires morphological and physiological plasticity to cope with the diverse environmental conditions across its geographical range. In this study, we monitored transpiration (E) to examine plasticity mechanisms as an example of geographical variation in whole-tree water use. We determined E by measuring the sap flux of Japanese beech trees in three stands: Kuromatsunai (KR), Kawatabi (KW) and Shiiba (SH), which were located in different areas in Japan. We conducted biometric measurements to characterize leaf and crown morphology and evaluated geographical variations in E characteristics, such as canopy aerodynamic conductance, canopy stomatal conductance (G(S)) and decoupling coefficient (Omega). Leaf morphology and crown shape showed clear geographical clines. Individual leaf areas decreased in the order KR > KW > SH. The crown shape in the KR and KW stands was cylindrical but planar in the SH stand. We evaluated the effects of leaf and crown morphology on E characteristics. The Omega values showed that, while E in the KW and SH stands was highly sensitive to G(S) and atmospheric evaporative demand, E in the KR stand was sensitive to radiative energy. To maximize carbon gain without further water loss, trees maintain a high G(S) in a moist habitat. For example, the KR trees may decrease E by reducing their absorbed radiation energy by adjusting the individual leaf size and crown structure. Our results indicate that the geographical variation in the water use pattern of Japanese beech is determined by the interaction between its physiological and morphological status.

  7. Faunal diversity of Fagus sylvatica forests: A regional and European perspective based on three indicator groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Walentowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the postglacial history of European beech (Fagus sylvatica and the plant species composition of beech forests in  Central Europe are fairly well understood, the faunal biodiversity has been less well investigated. We studied three groups of  mostly sedentary organisms in beech forest at regional and European scales by combining field studies with a compilation of existing literature and expert knowledge. Specifically, we examined the relationship between host tree genera and saproxylic  beetles, and the diversity and composition of forest ground-dwelling molluscs and ground beetles in relation to the abundance  of beech. At a west central European scale (Germany, where beech has a “young” ecological and biogeographical history,  we found 48 primeval forest relict species of saproxylic beetles associated with beech, 124 ground beetles and 91 molluscs  inhabiting beech forest, yet none exclusive of west central European beech forests. High levels of faunal similarity between beech and other woodland trees suggested that many of the beech forest dwelling species are euryoecious and likely to  originate from mid-Holocene mixed broadleaf forests. Beech forests of the mountain ranges in southern and east central  Europe, which are ecologically and biogeographically “old”, were found to harbour distinct species assemblages, including  beech forest specialists (such as 10 carabid species in the Carpathians and narrow-range endemics of broadleaf forest. The  observed biodiversity patterns suggest differentiated conservation priorities in “young” and “old” European beech forest  regions.

  8. A double-entry tree volume table for beech (Fagus sylvatica L. coppices in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosenzo A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to fill a gap in the collection of available algorithms for the estimation of standing tree volume. The deficiency of such tools is especially marked when their object is represented by stands undergoing strong or rapid changes in forest structure. Such is the case of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. coppices in Piedmont, once managed mainly for firewood, i.e., with fast rotations and a mean tree size much smaller than what observed in current stands. In addition, the structure of most of these stands was heavily impacted by selection cuttings in the early '90s, aimed at the conversion of coppices to high forests in the long run. A single tree volume table (inclusive of branches and bark volumes has been prepared according to the following steps: (1 selection of relevant stands, representative in their extent, density and merchantability (13 alpine valleys in 6 provinces; (2 computation of sample size according to the observed variability in the selected study areas (1085 model trees for height and volume; (3 tree measurement and data mining (statistical detection of outliers and selection of the most suitable model form for a double-entry tree volume table. The main output of the study is the volume table itself. The paramount importance of such tool for forest management is confirmed by the abundance of beech forests (136000 hectares, i.e., the second most represented forest cover type in the study region, 90% of which is still managed as coppice stands.

  9. Early Events in Populus Hybrid and Fagus sylvatica Leaves Exposed to Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Desotgiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate early responses to ozone in leaves of Fagus sylvatica (beech and Populus maximowiczii x Populus berolinensis (poplar. The experimental setup consisted of four open-air (OA plots, four charcoal-filtered (CF open-top chambers (OTCs, and four nonfiltered (NF OTCs. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out on nonsymptomatic (CF and symptomatic (NF and OA leaves of both species. Qualitative analyses were performed applying microscopic techniques: Evans blue staining for detection of cell viability, CeCl3 staining of transmission electron microscope (TEM samples to detect the accumulation of H2O2, and multispectral fluorescence microimaging and microspectrofluorometry to investigate the accumulation of fluorescent phenolic compounds in the walls of the damaged cells. Quantitative analyses consisted of the analysis of the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients (fast kinetics. The early responses to ozone were demonstrated by the Evans blue and CeCl3 staining techniques that provided evidence of plant responses in both species 1 month before foliar symptoms became visible. The fluorescence transients analysis, too, demonstrated the breakdown of the oxygen evolving system and the inactivation of the end receptors of electrons at a very early stage, both in poplar and in beech. The accumulation of phenolic compounds in the cell walls, on the other hand, was a species-specific response detected in poplar, but not in beech. Evans blue and CeCl3 staining, as well as the multispectral fluorescence microimaging and microspectrofluorometry, can be used to support the field diagnosis of ozone injury, whereas the fast kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence provides evidence of early physiological responses.

  10. 欧洲水青冈(Fagus sylvatical L.)构筑型与形态多样性研究%Review on studies of architecture and morphological diversity for Fagus sylvatica L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊清; 臧润国; 蒋有绪

    2001-01-01

    After a brief account on the study of plant architecture,this paper,taking Fagus sylvatica L. as an example,illustrates the method,steps and significance for analyses of plant architecture and morphological diversity.Fagus sylvatica L.belong to the Troll architectural model.The difference in morphology,anatomy,physiology and genetic diversity among different species and among the populations of a species in different ecological conditions were significant for Fagus sylvatica L.Although the morphology were mainly controlled by genetic characteristics in Fagus sylvatica L.,ecological conditions could strongly influence their morphological and genetic diversity.In the architectural analyses for plants,the first step is to determine which architectural model a plant belongs to,the second step is to analyze the relationship between morphological diversity of the plant and ecological conditions,then further analyze the genetic diversity of the plant.%通过对植物构件和构筑型的分析,可以了解植物的整体结构与系统演化关系。高等植物构筑型的研究以树木最为深入,植物学家对全球的树木进行了构筑模式的分类,并确定了23个基本的构筑类型。植物的构筑型和其形态的多样性是密不可分的。构筑类型确定了植物所属的整体形态类型,而对每种植物具体的形态多样性分析可以深入了解每种构筑型的数量特征及其形成过程。在概述了树木构筑型研究的基础上,系统说明了欧洲水青冈构筑型和形态多样性分析的步骤和分析的意义。水青冈属(Fagus)为Troll型构筑模式,处于不同生态条件下的同一种的不同种群之间,在形态、解剖、生理和遗传多样性方面都存在着差异。树木的形态多样性虽然主要受遗传因素的控制,但生态条件对其形态和遗传多样性也有非常显著的影响。在对树木进行构筑型分析时,首先要根据构筑要素(主要是形态

  11. La inesperada presencia de restos de madera de haya (Fagus sp. en el Balneario Romano de Archena (Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARCÍA MARTÍNEZ, M.S. y MATILLA SÉIQUER, G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se discuten diferentes aspectos relacionados con la inesperada aparición de fragmentos carbonizados de madera de haya (Fagus sp. en un vertedero del Balneario Romano de Archena (s. I d.C.. El estudio de las afinidades ecológicas del taxón y su ausencia en secuencias arqueobotánicas regionales permite descartar su desarrollo natural en el sureste peninsular. La distribución de paleorrestos de Fagus en Europa y los datos sobre la presencia en el balneario de personas de otros puntos del imperio sugieren un transporte desde zonas lejanas, como el norte peninsular, el sur de la Galia o Italia. La contextualización arqueológica de los restos, la información proporcionada por las fuentes clásicas y los datos arqueológicos disponibles, indican que probablemente pertenecieron a una caja o a algún objeto del mobiliario doméstico, quemado y desechado en este depósito.

  12. Microsatellite Primer Development for Post Oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren B. Chatwin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata. This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants.

  13. Mycorrhizas on nursery and field seedlings of Quercus garryana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Darlene; Carrington, Elizabeth M; Frank, Jonathan L; Gould, Peter; Harrington, Connie A; Devine, Warren D

    2009-03-01

    Oak woodland regeneration and restoration requires that seedlings develop mycorrhizas, yet the need for this mutualistic association is often overlooked. In this study, we asked whether Quercus garryana seedlings in nursery beds acquire mycorrhizas without artificial inoculation or access to a mycorrhizal network of other ectomycorrhizal hosts. We also assessed the relationship between mycorrhizal infection and seedling growth in a nursery. Further, we compared the mycorrhizal assemblage of oak nursery seedlings to that of conifer seedlings in the nursery and to that of oak seedlings in nearby oak woodlands. Seedlings were excavated and the roots washed and examined microscopically. Mycorrhizas were identified by DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region and by morphotype. On oak nursery seedlings, predominant mycorrhizas were species of Laccaria and Tuber with single occurrences of Entoloma and Peziza. In adjacent beds, seedlings of Pseudotsuga menziesii were mycorrhizal with Hysterangium and a different species of Laccaria; seedlings of Pinus monticola were mycorrhizal with Geneabea, Tarzetta, and Thelephora. Height of Q. garryana seedlings correlated with root biomass and mycorrhizal abundance. Total mycorrhizal abundance and abundance of Laccaria mycorrhizas significantly predicted seedling height in the nursery. Native oak seedlings from nearby Q. garryana woodlands were mycorrhizal with 13 fungal symbionts, none of which occurred on the nursery seedlings. These results demonstrate the value of mycorrhizas to the growth of oak seedlings. Although seedlings in nursery beds developed mycorrhizas without intentional inoculation, their mycorrhizas differed from and were less species rich than those on native seedlings.

  14. Temperature stress effects in Quercus suber leaf metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Inês; Passarinho, José António P; Capitão, Cláudio; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Fevereiro, Pedro; Ricardo, Cândido P P

    2011-10-15

    Based on projections that climate changes are will intensify in the near future, it is important to understand how plants respond to climate. Consequently, we have been studying the effect of contrasting temperatures on leaf metabolism of Quercus suber, an important Mediterranean oak. Potted plants were grown under controlled conditions for 53 days at 28°C or 10°C. The accumulation of major soluble metabolites was analyzed by NMR. The relative levels of transcripts of genes encoding key enzymes of the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathway (CS, PAL, CAD and ChS) were examined by means of quantitative, real-time RT-PCR. At 10°C, in the pre-existing leaves, the concentrations of sucrose, quercitol and catechin were higher, as were PAL and ChS transcripts. At 28°C, however, it was the concentration of quinic acid that was higher, as were the concentrations of CS and CAD transcripts. We conclude that contrasting temperatures greatly influence Q. suber metabolism and that a deeper analysis of the effects of more extreme temperatures is needed to understand the possible effects of temperature changes on Q. suber metabolism and physiology.

  15. Presence of env-like sequences in Quercus suber retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M; Ribeiro, T; Viegas, W; Morais-Cecilio, L; Rocheta, M

    2010-01-01

    The main difference between LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses is the presence of the envelope (env) gene in the latter, downstream of the pol gene. The env gene is involved in their infectious capacity. Here we report the presence of env-like sequences in the genome of Quercus suber (cork oak), one of the most economically important Portuguese species. These gene sequences were isolated through DNA amplification between RNaseH conserved motifs and 3' LTR, based on the structure of copia retrotransposons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that almost all the clones isolated are clustered with Cyclops-2, a Ty3-gypsy element identified in Pisum sativum, except one clustered with gypsy and copia retroelements found in different species. This suggests the existence of a potential ancestral sequence of the env gene, prior to the separation of Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia retrotransposons. Additionally, the isolated env-like sequences showed 26-39% of homology with env-like sequences characterized in viruses. The origin of env-like sequences in retrotransposons from host plant taxa is discussed.

  16. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savitri Shrestha; Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik; Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa; Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha; Latha Muuaiah Ramanna; Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results:Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions:The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.

  17. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  18. Chilling and forcing requirements for foliage bud burst of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) differ between provenances and are phenotypically plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Koen; Ducousso, Alexis; Gömöry, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) established over a wide geographic and climatic range in Europe. The analysis was based on a phenological model that represents the key processes at budburst phenology of temperate- and boreal zone deciduous trees. We conclude that adaptive differences exist between...

  19. Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (fagus sylvatiga L.) and their potential impact on the European VOC budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindorf, T.; Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Holzke, C.; Köble, R.; Seufert, G.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2006-01-01

    By using a dynamic branch enclosure system the emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated during two consecutive summer vegetation periods in the years of 2002 and 2003 in Germany. All measurements were performed under field conditions within the framework of

  20. Mapping beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Sobhan, Istiak

    2009-06-01

    Estimating forest structural attributes using multispectral remote sensing is challenging because of the saturation of multispectral indices at high canopy cover. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest ( Fagus sylvatica L.). Airborne HyMap images and data on forest structural attributes were collected from the Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive performances of vegetation indices (VI) derived from all possible two-band combinations (VI ( i, j) = ( Ri - Rj)/( Ri + Rj), where Ri and Rj = reflectance in any two bands) were evaluated using calibration ( n = 33) and test ( n = 20) data sets. The potential of partial least squares (PLS) regression, a multivariate technique involving several bands was also assessed. New VIs based on the contrast between reflectance in the red-edge shoulder (756-820 nm) and the water absorption feature centred at 1200 nm (1172-1320 nm) were found to show higher correlations with the forest structural parameters than standard VIs derived from NIR and visible reflectance (i.e. the normalised difference vegetation index, NDVI). PLS regression showed a slight improvement in estimating the beech forest structural attributes (prediction errors of 27.6%, 32.6% and 46.4% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively) compared to VIs using linear regression models (prediction errors of 27.8%, 35.8% and 48.3% for mean DBH, height and tree density, respectively). Mean DBH was the best predicted variable among the stand parameters (calibration R2 = 0.62 for an exponential model fit and standard error of prediction = 5.12 cm, i.e. 25% of the mean). The predicted map of mean DBH revealed high heterogeneity in the beech forest structure in the study area. The spatial variability of mean DBH occurs at less than 450 m. The DBH

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial, activity of Quercus incana Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana eSarwar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity of Quercus incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by DPPH and NO scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent (GAE and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Quercus incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Quercus incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55 and Aspergillus flavus (28 mm ± 0.45. Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21μg/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 μg/mL was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Quercus incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  2. Production and turnover of organic matter in three southern European Fagus sylvatica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Regina, I.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Above-ground biomass, litterfall and litter accumulation and decomposition at the soil surface were studied within three Mediterranean beech forests from Italy, France and Spain in order to better understand the recycling of elements associated with the turnover organic matter Above-ground tree biomass amounted to 131.9 Mg ha-1 at Etna (Italy, 134.2 Mg ha-1 at Sierra de la Demanda (Spain and 223.9 Mg ha-1 at Mont Lozère (France. The highest amount of total litterfall was observed at Sierra de la Demanda (4.7 Mg ha-1 year-1, followed by the Mont Lozère (4.4 Mg ha-1 year-1 and Etna (3.9 Mg ha-1 year-1. Total organic matter accumulated on the soil surface in the three beech forests amounted to 25.8 Mg ha-1 at Mont Lozère, 14.4 Mg ha-1 at Sierra de la Demanda and 12.6 Mg ha-1 at Etna. The relative proportions of leaf litter versus total litter were nearly the same in the Etna and Sierra de la Demanda forests (72 - 70%, and close to these values for Mont Lozère (65%. All the studied Mediterranean Fagus sylvatica stands appeared very similar concerning the organic matter distribution and fluxes, even if local climate and soil differences can be noticed.

    [fr] Les biomasses aériennes, les retombées de litières, leur accumulation à la surface du sol et leur décomposition, ont été étudiées dans trois hêtraies méditerranéennes d'Italie, de France et d'Espagne, pour mieux connaître la restitution au sol des bioéléments par l'intermédiaire de la matière organique. Les biomasses aériennes s'élevaient respectivement à 131.9 Mg ha-1 dans la hêtraie de l'Etna (Italie, 134.2 Mg ha-1 dans celle de Sierra de la Demanda (Espagne et à 223.9 Mg ha-1 au Mont Lozère (France. Les retombées de litière les plus fortes sont observées dans la hêtraie de la Sierra de la

  3. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  4. Quercus ilex L. carbon sequestration capability related to shrub size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratani, Loretta; Catoni, Rosangela; Varone, Laura

    2011-07-01

    CO(2) sequestration capacity of Quercus ilex L., an evergreen species developing in shrub and forest communities widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, was analysed. Experiments were carried out in the period of January to December 2009 on 20 shrubs of different size, growing at the Botanical Garden of Rome. At shrub level, the largest differences concern total photosynthetic leaf surface area per shrub and shrub volume. Shrubs structure significantly contribute to reduce total irradiance and air temperature below the canopy. Leaf mass per area is higher in sun leaves than in shade ones (20 ± 1 and 12 ± 2 mg cm( -2), respectively). Sun leaves are also characterised by the highest leaf thickness (78% higher in sun than in shade leaves), the spongy parenchyma thickness (71% higher in sun than in shade leaves) and the highest adaxial cuticle thickness (7.2 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 0.5 μm, respectively). Net photosynthetic rates (P (N)) of sun and shade leaves are the highest in spring, and shade leaves contribute 6% to the whole shrub P (N). Q. ilex CO(2) sequestration depends on shrub size. In particular, the CO(2) sequestration per shrub was 0.20 ± 0.02 Kg CO(2) year( -1) in small shrubs, and it was 75% and 98% lower than in medium and large ones. The highest CO(2) sequestration is measured in spring, decreasing 77% during drought. Q. ilex may play a significant role in mitigating carbon dioxide concentration and lowering air and soil temperature in areas around the Mediterranean Basin.

  5. Quercus cerris extracts limit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobby, Gerren H.; Quave, Cassandra L.; Nelson, Katie; Compadre, Cesar M.; Beenken, Karen E.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Quercus cerris L., Fagaceae has been used in traditional Mediterranean medicine for numerous purposes, including anti-infective therapies for diarrhea and wound care. Aim of the study To evaluate the anti-staphylococcal activity of fractions of ethanolic extracts of Q. cerris leaf and stem/fruit samples in models for biofilm and growth inhibition. Materials and methods Ethanolic extracts of Q. cerris leaves and stems/fruits were prepared, resuspended in water and fractioned by successively partitioning with hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol. The ability of the fractions to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation was tested using static crystal violet staining methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Growth studies were conducted to determine if the diminished capacity to form a biofilm was related to growth inhibition. Results The butanol extracts of both the leaf and stem/fruit samples were the most active, and at a dose of 200 μg/ml, the capacity to form a biofilm was limited to a level equivalent to that of the sarA mutant controls. Further examination of the impact of these fractions on S. aureus growth revealed that biofilm inhibition by the leaf butanol fraction was due to its bacteriostatic activity. The stem/fruit butanol fraction, however, showed a limited impact on growth, thus demonstrating that biofilm inhibition in this case is not related to the bacteriostatic activity of the extract. Conclusion Our evaluation of a medicinal plant used in Mediterranean ethnotherapies for infectious disease has demonstrated significant activity in the inhibition of staphylococcal biofilm formation with a mechanism unrelated to staphylococcal growth inhibition. These results contribute towards validation of this botanical remedy and form the groundwork for future studies in the search for novel biofilm inhibiting drugs. PMID:23127649

  6. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  7. PITYOPHAGUS QUERCUS REITTER, 1877, A NEW SAPROXYLIC SAP BEETLE FOR THE ITALIAN FAUNA (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Audisio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During ecological investigations on saproxylic beetle communities of central Italy (Latium, at Bosco Polverino (a mixed evergreen/deciduous forest fragment dominated by cork oaks, and at Allumiere (a small fragment of beech forest surrounded by turkey oak stands, the authors found three specimens of Pityophagus quercus Reitter, 1877 (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae. These are the first known records of this species in Italy, and the first one in association with an evergreen oak, Quercus suber. This discovery led us to review both bionomical and faunistic data so far available on this exceedingly rare and poorly known species.

  8. Nitrogen as a key regulator of flowering in Fagus crenata: understanding the physiological mechanism of masting by gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuko; Maruyama, Yosuke; Chiba, Yukako; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Joseph, Benesh; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Mochida, Keiichi; Hiura, Tsutom; Kon, Hirokazu; Satake, Akiko

    2014-10-01

    The role of resource availability in determining the incidence of masting has been widely studied, but how floral transition and initiation are regulated by the resource level is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that floral transition is stimulated by high resource availabiltiy in Fagus crenata based on a new technique, the expression analyses of flowering genes. We isolated F. crenata orthologues of FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY and APETALA1, and confirmed their functions using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. We monitored the gene expression levels for 5 years and detected a cycle of on and off years, which was correlated with fluctuations of the shoot-nitrogen concentration. Nitrogen fertilisation resulted in the significantly higher expression of flowering genes than the control, where all of the fertilised trees flowered, whereas the control did not. Our findings identified nitrogen as a key regulator of mast flowering, thereby providing new empirical evidence to support the resource budget model.

  9. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian

    2010-09-01

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO3SE model.

  10. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    , but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.......European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European...... beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation...

  11. Effect of CO2 enhancement on beech (Fagus sylvatica L. seedling root rot due to Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora cactorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is associated with higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The ongoing changes are likely to have significant, direct or indirect effects on plant diseases caused by many biotic agents such as phytopathogenic fungi. This study results showed that increased CO2 concentration did not stimulate the growth of 1-year-old beech Fagus sylvatica L seedlings but it activated pathogenic Phytophthora species (P. plurivora and P. cactorum which caused significant reduction in the total number of fine roots as well as their length and area. The results of the greenhouse experiment indicated that pathogens once introduced into soil survived in pot soil, became periodically active (in sufficient water conditions and were able to damage beech fine roots. However, the trees mortality was not observed during the first year of experiment. DNA analyses performed on soil and beech tissue proved persistence of introduced Phytophthora isolates.

  12. Parametric identification of a functional-structural tree growth model and application to beech trees (Fagus sylvatica)

    CERN Document Server

    Letort, Veronique; Mathieu, Amélie; De Reffye, Philippe; Constant, Thiéry

    2010-01-01

    Functional-structural models provide detailed representations of tree growth and their application to forestry seems full of prospects. However, owing to the complexity of tree architecture, parametric identification of such models remains a critical issue. We present the GreenLab approach for modelling tree growth. It simulates tree growth plasticity in response to changes of their internal level of trophic competition, especially topological development and cambial growth. The model includes a simplified representation of tree architecture, based on a species-specific description of branching patterns. We study whether those simplifications allow enough flexibility to reproduce with the same set of parameters the growth of two observed understorey beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of different ages in different environmental conditions. The parametric identification of the model is global, i.e. all parameters are estimated simultaneously, potentially providing a better description of interactions between sub...

  13. Unraveling the growth determinism of Fagus sylvatica: a hybrid data-model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Joannès; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas; Delpierre, Nicolas; François, Christophe; Soudani, Kamel; Restoux, Gwendal; Dufrêne, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The physiological processes underlying the limitation of forest growth are still under debate. Growth has long been considered as a carbone (C) limited process (Sala et al., 2012). As a matter of facts, a recent global meta-analysis has shown good agreements between assimilated C and forest productivity (Litton et al., 2007). Consequently, a majority of the process-based productivity models considers growth as a fraction of the net primary production (NPP) (Lacointe et al., 2000; Sitch et al., 2003. However, investigations at the stand scale report conflicting results (Rocha et al., 2006, Mund et al., 2010) and are not systematically consistent with a strict C limitation of growth, thus challenging the C-centric paradigm. The mechanisms that potentially degrade the link between NPP and growth include: i) the direct effect of environmental factors on growth (Zweifel et al., 2006, Körner et al., 2003), ii) the temporal variability of the growth allocation coefficient, due either to ontogeny (Genet et al., 2009), or to the initial physiological state of the tree i.e. to the reaction to past conditions. Indeed, many dendrochronological and ecological studies have shown a correlation between growth and climatic factors of the previous years (e.g. Lebourgeois et al., 2005; Richardson et al., 2012). In this work, we used a hybrid data model approach in order to assess the determinant of Fagus sylvatica stem growth along a spatial gradient across France. Despite they could brought essential insight on tree functioning, intra-specific studies across contrasted sites are still lacking in the current debate. Standardized annual growth data series at the stand scale were calculated using circumference inventories and dendrochronological series on 17 plots of the RENECOFOR network. We used the process-based model CASTANEA, thoroughly validated in long term flux simulation across Europe (e.g. Delpierre et al. 2009), to simulate the annual NPP of the corresponding periods. We

  14. Xylem dysfunction in Quercus: vessel sizes, tyloses, cavitation and seasonal changes in embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochard, H; Tyree, M T

    1990-12-01

    The seasonal progression of xylem dysfunction from tyloses and embolism induced both by cavitation and frost was studied in Quercus rubra L. and Quercus alba L. branches. Vessel lengths and diameters were measured in current-year rings of branches of various ages. Vessels in current-year shoots are about the same size as those in many diffuse porous trees, but vessels in older branches are two to six times larger in diameter and typically more than 10 times longer. Large Quercus vessels were more vulnerable to cavitation than small vessels. The small vessels in current-year shoots were more vulnerable to cavitation than vessels of comparable size in diffuse porous species. Earlywood vessels are completely blocked by tyloses within a year of their formation. Tylose growth starts in winter, but the vessels are not fully blocked until the next summer. Many latewood vessels, by contrast, remain free of complete blockage for several years. In Q. rubra, loss of hydraulic conductivity in current-year shoots due to cavitation reaches 20% by August and > 90% after the first hard frost. Both laboratory and field observations confirm that the role of frost in causing loss of hydraulic conduction by embolism is much more dramatic in Quercus than in conifers and diffuse porous hardwoods.

  15. Intraspecific Phenotypic Variation and Ecological Genetics of Blue Oak (Quercus douglasii Hook. & Am.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin J. Rice; Doria R. Gordon; Jeanine L. Hardison; Jeffrey M. Welker

    1991-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of soil water availability on blue oak (Quercus douglasii) seedling establishment. Acorns were planted either into cleared plots of 0, 10, 20, or 40 cm diameter. The cleared plots were located in two grazed and one ungrazed site. Half of the plots received drip irrigation in a split plot design...

  16. The effect of seed size variation in Quercus pacifica on seedling establishment and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario B. Pesendorfer

    2015-01-01

    Quercus pacifica, the island scrub-oak, is the dominant species in oak chaparral on the three largest California Channel Islands. While the population on Santa Cruz Island has experienced a strong recovery, the populations on Santa Rosa and Santa Catalina islands are of conservation concern, and managers are actively restoring oak habitat by...

  17. A bibliography for Quercus garryana and other geographically associated and botanically related oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; Melanie A. Kallas

    2002-01-01

    Interest in Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook., commonly known as Oregon white oak or Garry oak, has increased in recent years as scientists, resource managers, and the general public focus attention on a forest type in decline. To aid those interested in learning what has previously been reported on this species, we have compiled a comprehensive bibliography for Q....

  18. Estudio taxonómico de cuatro especies de encino (Quercus) descritas por Warburg

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Se determinaron como sinónimos de Quercus hintonii Warb. a Q. apiophylla Warb., Q. ochroestes Warb. y Q. sagata Warb., con base en el análisis de las descripciones originales, fototipos y ejemplares existentes en los herbarios. Además se realizaron observaciones de las poblaciones y colectas de ejemplares en las localidades tipo.

  19. Indicator values for lichens on Quercus as a tool to monitor ammonia pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, K.; Olsen, H. B.; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen vegetation on solitary Quercus trees was investigated on 13 locations in Denmark in order to test the usability of indicator values to quantify ammonia deposition from the ambient air. Indicator values calculated for each location corresponded well with the expected ecological...

  20. Concentric Ring Method for generating pollen maps. Quercus as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteros, Jose; Valencia, Rosa Mª; Del Río, Sara; Vega, Ana Mª; García-Mozo, Herminia; Galán, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Pablo; Mandrioli, Paolo; Fernández-González, Delia

    2017-01-15

    Mapping pollen concentrations is of great interest to study the health impact and ecological implications or for forestry or agronomical purposes. A deep knowledge about factors affecting airborne pollen is essential for predicting and understanding its dynamics. The present work sought to predict annual Quercus pollen over the Castilla and León region (Central and Northern Spain). Also to understand the relationship between airborne pollen and landscape. Records of Quercus and Quercus pyrenaica pollen types were collected at 13 monitoring sites over a period of 8years. They were analyzed together with land use data applying the Concentric Ring Method (CRM), a technique that we developed to study the relationship between airborne particle concentrations and emission sources in the region. The maximum correlation between the Quercus pollen and forms of vegetation was determined by shrubland and "dehesa" areas. For the specific Qi pyrenaica model (Q. pyrenaica pollen and Q. pyrenaica forest distribution), the maximum influence of emission sources on airborne pollen was observed at 14km from the pollen trap location with some positive correlations up to a distance of 43km. Apart from meteorological behavior, the local features of the region can explain pollen dispersion patterns. The method that we develop here proved to be a powerful tool for multi-source pollen mapping based on land use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting the height growth of oak species (Quercus) reproduction over a 23-year period following clearcutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Travis Swaim; Daniel C. Dey; Michael R. Saunders; Dale R. Weigel; Christopher D. Thornton; John M. Kabrick; Michael A. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    We resampled plots from a repeated measures study implemented on the Hoosier National Forest (HNF) in southern Indiana in 1988 to investigate the influence of site and seedling physical attributes on height growth and establishment success of oak species (Quercus spp.) reproduction in stands regenerated by the clearcut method. Before harvest, an...

  2. Epiphytic bryophytes of Quercus forests in Central and North inland Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore García Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity patterns are governed by a complex network of interacting factors. Studies directed to disentangle the most important factors affecting diversity have frequently shown divergent results, which has encouraged a rewarding debate about the relative importance of each factor. Scale dependency has been identified as a direct cause of at least part of such divergences. However, studies with spatially-explicit measurements at different scales are costly and therefore they are relatively scarce despite their importance. Here, we present a database to disentangle the cross-scale variation in the importance of factors affecting the diversity of epiphytic bryophyte communities in Quercus dominated forests (Quercus ilex L., Quercus pyrenaica Willd. and Quercus faginea Lam. in the North-western region of the Iberian Peninsula. We provide species-per-site abundance information with more than 9000 entries and an environmental table containing 20 in situ measured variables at three different scales (forest, stand, and sample. The database will help to advance the research of cross-scale effects of diversity patterns while at the same time providing valuable information on the distribution of a poorly known group of organisms. 

  3. Utility of ITS sequence data for phylogenetic reconstruction of Italian Quercus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellarosa, Rosanna; Simeone, Marco C; Papini, Alessio; Schirone, Bartolomeo

    2005-02-01

    Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences encoding the 5.8S RNA and the flanking internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were used to test the phylogenetic relationships within 12 Italian Quercus taxa (Fagaceae). Hypotheses of sequence orthology are tested by detailed inspection of some basic features of oak ITS sequences (i.e., general patterns of conserved domains, thermodynamic stability and predicted conformation of the secondary structure of transcripts) that also allowed more accurate sequence alignment. Analysis of ITS variation supported three monophyletic groups, corresponding to subg. Cerris, Schlerophyllodrys (=Ilex group sensu Nixon) and Quercus, as proposed by Schwarz [Feddes Rep., Sonderbeih. D, 1-200]. A derivation of the "Cerris group" from the "Ilex group" is suggested, with Q. cerris sister to the rest of the "Cerris group." Quercus pubescens was found to be sister to the rest of the "Quercus group." The status of hybrispecies of Q. crenata (Q. cerrisxQ. suber) and Q. morisii (Q. ilexxQ. suber) was evaluated and discussed. Finally, the phylogenetic position of the Italian species in a broader context of the genus is presented. The utility of the ITS marker to assess the molecular systematics of oaks is therefore confirmed. The importance of Italy as a region with a high degree of diversity at the population and genetic level is discussed.

  4. Maternal influences on seed mass effect and initial seedling growth in four Quercus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Villar, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed mass represents the reserves available for growth in the first stages of plant establishment. Variation in seed mass is an important trait which may have consequences for growth and survival of seedlings. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain how seed mass influences seedling development: the reserve use effect, the metabolic effect and the seedling-size effect. Few studies have evaluated at the same time the three hypotheses within species and none have evaluated the effect of the mother trees. We studied four Quercus species by selecting five mother trees per species. Seeds were sown in a glasshouse and the use of seed reserves, seedling growth and morphology were measured. Considering all mothers of the same species together, we did not find the reserve effect for any species, the metabolic effect was observed in all species except for Quercus suber, and the seedling-size effect was matched for all the species. Within species, maternal origin modified the studied relationships and thus the studied mechanisms as we did not observe seed mass effects on all mothers from each species. Moreover, the metabolic effect was not found in any mother of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea. We concluded that a maternal effect can change seed mass relationships with traits related to seedling establishment. The conservation of this high intra-specific variability must be considered to guarantee species performance in heterogeneous environments and in particular in the current context of climate change.

  5. Indicator values for lichens on Quercus as a tool to monitor ammonia pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, K.; Olsen, H. B.; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen vegetation on solitary Quercus trees was investigated on 13 locations in Denmark in order to test the usability of indicator values to quantify ammonia deposition from the ambient air. Indicator values calculated for each location corresponded well with the expected ecological...... as a tool for quantitative estimation of ammonia deposition in relation to sensitive Danish ecosystems.  ...

  6. THE EFFECT OF GRAIN ANGLE AND SPECIES ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOME SELECTED WOOD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasit Esen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the thermal conductivity of different wood materials was determined. For this purpose, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Uludag fir (Abies Bornmülleriana Matff, Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L, Oak (Quercus robur L., and Chestnut of Anatolia (Castanea sativa Mill. woods were used. In the test, the thermal conductivity of the woods was measured according to procedure of ASTM C 1113-99 standards. The lowest thermal conductivity was obtained in the perpendicular direction of Scots pine samples as 0.156 Kcal/mh°C. The highest thermal conductivity was obtained from perpendicular direction of samples in Oriental beech as 0.331 Kcal/mh°C.

  7. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelfhout, Stephanie; Mertens, Jan; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden...... experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Norway spruce (Picea abies), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and lime (Tilia cordata). We studied the chemical characteristics...... of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer...

  8. Masting in Fagus crenata and its influence on the nitrogen content and dry mass of winter buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingmin; Kabeya, Daisuke; Iio, Atsuhiro; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-08-01

    In Fagus, full-mast seeding years are invariably followed by at least one non-mast year. Both flower and leaf primordia develop during the summer within the same winter buds. Flower bud initiation occurs when the N content of developing seeds is increasing rapidly. We hypothesized that competition for nitrogen (N) between developing seeds and buds limits flower primordium formation in mast years and, hence, limits seed production in years following mast years. We tested this hypothesis in three Fagus crenata Blume forests at elevations of 550, 900 and 1500 m. Bud N concentration (N con), amount of N per bud (N bud) and dry mass per bud (DM) were compared between a mast year (2005) and the following non-mast year (2006), and between winter buds containing both leaf and flower primoridia (BF), which were formed during the non-mast year, and winter buds containing leaf primordia only (BL), which were formed in both mast and non-mast years. In addition, leaf numbers per shoot corresponding to the analyzed buds were counted, and the effect of masting on litter production was analyzed by quantifying the amounts of litter that fell in the years 2004 to 2007. The dry mass and N content of BF formed in 2006 by trees at both 550 and 1500 m were 2.1-3.4-fold higher than the corresponding amounts in BL, although the numbers of leaves per current-year shoot in 2007 that developed from the two bud types in the same individuals did not differ significantly. These results indicate that more N and carbohydrate are expended in producing BF than in producing BL. The amount of litter from reproductive organs produced in the mast year was similar to the amount of leaf litter at 900 and 1500 m, but three times as much at 550 m. Leaf numbers per shoot were significantly lower at all elevations in the mast year than in the non-mast years (and the amount of leaf litter at 550 and 1500 m tended to be lower in the mast year than in the non-mast years. In conclusion, preferential allocation

  9. CH_{4} production in the deep soil as a source of stem CH_{4} emission in Fagus sylvatica}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin; Machacova, Katerina; Urban, Otmar; Lang, Friederike

    2017-04-01

    Predicting greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes on a global scale requires understanding fluxes on the local scale. Understanding GHG processes in soil-plant-atmosphere systems is essential to understand and mitigate GHG fluxes on the local scale. Forests are known to act as carbon sink. Yet, trees at waterlogged sites are known to emit large amounts of CH4, what can offset the positive GHG balance due the CO2 that is sequestered as wood. Generally, upland trees like European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are assumed not to emit CH4, and the upland forest soils are regarded as CH4 sinks. Soil-atmosphere fluxes and stem-atmosphere fluxes of CH4 were studied together with soil gas profiles at two upland beech forest sites in Germany and Czech Republic. Soil was a net CH4 sink at both sites. While most trees showed no or low emissions, one beech tree had exorbitant CH4 emissions that were higher than the CH4 sink capacity of the soil. A soil survey showed strong redoximorphic color patterns in the soil adjacent to this tree. Although the soil around the tree was taking up CH4, the soil gas profiles around this tree showed CH4 production at a soil depth >0.3 m. We interpret the coincidence of the production of CH4 in the deep soil below the beech with the large stem emissions as strong hint that there is a transport link between the soil and stem. We think that the root system represents a preferential transport system for CH4 despite the fact that beech roots usually do not have a special gas transport tissue. The observed CH4 stem emissions represent an important CH4 flux in this ecosystem, and, thus, should be considered in future research. Acknowledgement This research was supported by the Czech Academy of Sciences and the German Academic Exchange Service within the project "Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Fagus sylvatica trees" (DAAD-15-03), the Czech Science Foundation (17-18112Y), National Programme for Sustainability I (LO1415) and project DFG (MA 5826

  10. Report of Investigation on Fagus of Micangshan Nature Reserve%米仓山自然保护区水青冈属(Fagus)资源调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚

    2014-01-01

    使用常规野外种群调查方法调查了米仓山自然保护区中水青冈属(Fagus)林木资源贮量.结果表明保护区有水青冈属分布的林分面积达7 064.8 hm2,占保护区有林地面积40%多;水青冈属活立木总蓄积814 600 m3,是国内目前水青冈属植物保存面积最大的地区.保护区中现有水青冈(F.longipetiolata),亮叶水青冈(F.lucida),台湾水青冈(F.hayatae),米心水青冈(F.engleriana)4个种,而在这4种水青冈属植物中,又以台湾水青冈的发现最为重要,有台湾水青冈分布的林分面积达5 923.3 hm2,以台湾水青冈为优势的林分面积2 511 hm2,台湾水青冈活立木蓄积317 000 m3.

  11. Estudio morfométrico de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae Morphometric study of Quercus sartorii and Q. xalapensis (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorismilda Martínez-Cabrera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio morfométrico con la finalidad de contribuir en la delimitación taxonómica de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis. Para ello, se revisó material de herbario y se recolectó material en 11 poblaciones distribuidas en los estados de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas y Veracruz, en México, incluyendo 2 poblaciones simpátricas. Los resultados del análisis de componentes principales y discriminante mostraron que los caracteres que contribuyeron a agrupar los individuos en su respectiva especie son los relacionados con el tamaño del fruto, en particular el diámetro de la bellota, de la nuez y de la cúpula. La bellota de Q. sartorii es de menor tamaño que la de Q. xalapensis. La variación detectada no se atribuyó a la latitud o altitud. El fenograma mostró la separación de 2 grupos que corresponden a los individuos de las 2 especies estudiadas, si los caracteres del fruto son incluidos. Además, de los caracteres cuantitativos ya mencionados, 3 del patrón de venación y 2 anatómicos contribuyeron a reconocer los individuos de cada especie. Estas diferencias se mantuvieron en los individuos de las poblaciones simpátricas, por lo que los resultados apoyaron la distinción de Quercus sartorii y Q. xalapensis.A morphometric study was carried out in order to evaluate morphological variation of Quercus sartorii and Q. xalapensis and to contribute to their taxonomic delimitation. Herbarium specimens and material of 11 populations from Mexico in the states of Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz, including 2 sympatric populations, were studied. Characters from foliar architecture, fruits and anatomical features of periderm and wood were analyzed through multivariate and phenetic methods. Principal component and discriminant analyses showed that fruit characters such as acorn, nut, and cupule diameters contributed to group individuals in their species, the acorn of Q. sartorii being smaller than that of Q

  12. Spatial variability and temporal stability of throughfall deposition under beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in relationship to canopy structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staelens, Jeroen [Ghent University, Laboratory of Forestry, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium)]. E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com; De Schrijver, An [Ghent University, Laboratory of Forestry, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris [Ghent University, Laboratory of Forestry, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium); Verhoest, Niko E.C. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Management, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2006-07-15

    Although the spatial variability of throughfall (TF) in forest ecosystems can have important ecological implications, little is known about the driving factors of within-stand TF variability, particularly in deciduous forests. While the spatial variability of TF water amount and H{sup +} deposition under a dominant beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree was significantly higher in the leafed period than in the leafless period, the spatial TF deposition patterns of most major ions were similar in both periods. The semiannual TF depositions of all ions other than H{sup +} were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.68-0.90, p < 0.05) with canopy structure above sample locations throughout the entire year. The amounts of TF water and H{sup +} deposition during the leafed period were negatively correlated with branch cover. We conclude that the spatial heterogeneity of ion deposition under beech was significantly affected by leaves in the growing period and by branches in non-foliated conditions. - Ion deposition under a deciduous beech tree was strongly affected by the canopy structure throughout the entire year.

  13. Diversity and Composition of the Leaf Mycobiome of Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Are Affected by Local Habitat Conditions and Leaf Biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterseher, Martin; Siddique, Abu Bakar; Brachmann, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Comparative investigations of plant-associated fungal communities (mycobiomes) in distinct habitats and under distinct climate regimes have been rarely conducted in the past. Nowadays, high-throughput sequencing allows routine examination of mycobiome responses to environmental changes and results at an unprecedented level of detail. In the present study, we analysed Illumina-generated fungal ITS1 sequences from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) originating from natural habitats at two different altitudes in the German Alps and from a managed tree nursery in northern Germany. In general, leaf-inhabiting mycobiome diversity and composition correlated significantly with the origin of the trees. Under natural condition the mycobiome was more diverse at lower than at higher elevation, whereas fungal diversity was lowest in the artificial habitat of the tree nursery. We further identified significant correlation of leaf chlorophylls and flavonoids with both habitat parameters and mycobiome biodiversity. The present results clearly point towards a pronounced importance of local stand conditions for the structure of beech leaf mycobiomes and for a close interrelation of phyllosphere fungi and leaf physiology.

  14. Preliminary results of modeled ozone uptake for Fagus sylvatica L. trees at selected EU/UN-ECE intensive monitoring plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Marcus [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: marcus.schaub@wsl.ch; Emberson, Lisa [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Bueker, Patrick [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Kraeuchi, Norbert [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this study was to establish whether EU and UN-ECE/ICP-Forests monitoring data (i) provide the variables necessary to apply the flux-based modeling methods and (ii) meet the quality criteria necessary to apply the flux-based critical level concept. Application of this model has been possible using environmental data collected from the EU and UN-ECE/ICP-Forests monitoring network in Switzerland and Italy for 2000-2002. The test for data completeness and plausibility resulted in 6 out of a possible total of 20 Fagus sylvatica L. plots being identified as suitable from Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and France. The results show that the collected data allow the identification of different spatial and temporal areas and periods as having higher risk to ozone than those identified using the AOT40 approach. However, it was also apparent that the quality and completeness of the available data may severely limit a complete risk assessment across Europe. - Data sets of the EU and UN-ECE/ICP-Forests monitoring network are examined regarding their suitability for the modeling of ozone uptake in trees in the view of risk assessment.

  15. Genome-environment association study suggests local adaptation to climate at the regional scale in Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Andrea R; Frank, Aline; Heiri, Caroline; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary potential of long-lived species, such as forest trees, is fundamental for their local persistence under climate change (CC). Genome-environment association (GEA) analyses reveal if species in heterogeneous environments at the regional scale are under differential selection resulting in populations with potential preadaptation to CC within this area. In 79 natural Fagus sylvatica populations, neutral genetic patterns were characterized using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genomic variation (144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of 52 candidate genes) was related to 87 environmental predictors in the latent factor mixed model, logistic regressions and isolation by distance/environmental (IBD/IBE) tests. SSR diversity revealed relatedness at up to 150 m intertree distance but an absence of large-scale spatial genetic structure and IBE. In the GEA analyses, 16 SNPs in 10 genes responded to one or several environmental predictors and IBE, corrected for IBD, was confirmed. The GEA often reflected the proposed gene functions, including indications for adaptation to water availability and temperature. Genomic divergence and the lack of large-scale neutral genetic patterns suggest that gene flow allows the spread of advantageous alleles in adaptive genes. Thereby, adaptation processes are likely to take place in species occurring in heterogeneous environments, which might reduce their regional extinction risk under CC.

  16. Morphological and molecular identification of the ectomycorrhizal association of Lactarius fumosibrunneus and Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana trees in eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Serrano, Edith; Bandala, Victor Manuel; Montoya, Leticia

    2012-11-01

    A population of Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (covering ca. 4.7 ha) is established in a montane cloud forest refuge at Acatlan Volcano in eastern Mexico (Veracruz State), and it represents one of only ten populations of this species known to occur in the country (each stand covers ca. 2-35 ha in extension) and one of the southernmost in the continent. Sporocarps of several ectomycorrhizal macrofungi have been observed in the area, and among them, individuals of the genus Lactarius are common in the forest. However, the morphological and molecular characterization of ectomycorrhizae is still in development. Currently, two species of Lactarius have been previously documented in the area. Through the phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizae, we identified the Lactarius fumosibrunneus ectomycorrhiza. The host, F. grandifolia var. mexicana, was determined comparing the amplified ITS sequence from ectomycorrhizal root tips in the GenBank database with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. The mycorrhizal system of L. fumosibrunneus is monopodial-pyramidal, characterized by its shiny, white to silver and pruinose surface, secreting a white latex when damaged, composed of three plectenchymatous mantle layers, with diverticulated terminal elements at the outer mantle. It lacks emanating hyphae, rhizomorphs, and sclerotia. A detailed morphological and anatomical description, illustrations, and photographs of the ectomycorrhiza are presented. The comparison of L. fumosibrunneus and other Lactarius belonging to subgenus Plinthogalus is presented.

  17. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.braun@iap.c [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sangrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland); Schindler, Christian [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Socinstrasse 57, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland); Leuzinger, Sebastian [Forest Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zurich, Universitaetsstr. 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO{sub 3}SE model. - A method was developed to derive stomatal functions and ozone uptake calculation from sap flow.

  18. Multivariate analysis of physiological parameters reveals a consistent O3 response pattern in leaves of adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Markus; Deckmyn, Gaby; Op de Beeck, Maarten; Blumenröther, Manuela C; Oßwald, Wolfgang; Alexou, Maria; Jehnes, Sascha; Haberer, Kristine; Rennenberg, Heinz; Herbinger, Karin; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Bahnweg, Günther; Hanke, David; Wieser, Gerhard; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Matyssek, Rainer; Tausz, Michael

    2012-10-01

    • Increasing atmospheric concentrations of phytotoxic ozone (O(3) ) can constrain growth and carbon sink strength of forest trees, potentially exacerbating global radiative forcing. Despite progress in the conceptual understanding of the impact of O(3) on plants, it is still difficult to detect response patterns at the leaf level. • Here, we employed principal component analysis (PCA) to analyse a database containing physiological leaf-level parameters of 60-yr-old Fagus sylvatica (European beech) trees. Data were collected over two climatically contrasting years under ambient and twice-ambient O(3) regimes in a free-air forest environment. • The first principal component (PC1) of the PCA was consistently responsive to O(3) and crown position within the trees over both years. Only a few of the original parameters showed an O(3) effect. PC1 was related to parameters indicative of oxidative stress signalling and changes in carbohydrate metabolism. PC1 correlated with cumulative O(3) uptake over preceding days. • PC1 represents an O(3) -responsive multivariate pattern detectable in the absence of consistently measurable O(3) effects on individual leaf-level parameters. An underlying effect of O(3) on physiological processes is indicated, providing experimental confirmation of theoretical O(3) response patterns suggested previously.

  19. The presence of amino acids affects inorganic N uptake in non-mycorrhizal seedlings of European beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelken, Gunda; Simon, Judy; Ehlting, Barbara; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the impact of organic N compounds for inorganic nitrogen uptake in the rhizosphere, we fed ammonium nitrate with or without amino acids (i.e., glutamine or arginine) to the roots of non-mycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings under controlled conditions at different levels of N availability. Uptake of individual N sources was determined from ¹⁵N (inorganic N) and ¹⁵N ¹³C (organic N) accumulation in the roots. In addition, gene fragments encoding proteins involved in N uptake and metabolism were cloned from beech for gene expression analyses by quantitative real-time PCR in the roots. Generally, ammonium was preferred over nitrate as N source. Organic N sources were taken up by beech roots as intact molecules. Uptake of organic N was significantly higher than inorganic N uptake, thus contributing significantly to N nutrition of beech. Depending on the level of N availability, inorganic N uptake was negatively affected by the presence of organic N sources. This result indicates an overestimation of the contribution of inorganic N uptake to N nutrition of beech in previous studies. Apparently, association with mycorrhizal fungi is not essential for organic N uptake by beech roots. Gene expression analyses showed that transcriptional regulation of the amino acid transporters FsCAT3, FsCAT5, FsAAT and FsAAP and the ammonium transporter FsAMT1.2 in the roots is involved in N nutrition of beech.

  20. Raman spectroscopic investigation of 13CO 2 labeling and leaf dark respiration of Fagus sylvatica L. (European beech).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiner, Robert; Gruselle, Marie-Cécile; Michalzik, Beate; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-03-01

    An important issue, in times of climate change and more extreme weather events, is the investigation of forest ecosystem reactions to these events. Longer drought periods stress the vitality of trees and promote mass insect outbreaks, which strongly affect ecosystem processes and services. Cavity-enhanced Raman gas spectrometry was applied for online multi-gas analysis of the gas exchange rates of O2 and CO2 and the labeling of Fagus sylvatica L. (European beech) seedlings with (13)CO2. The rapid monitoring of all these gases simultaneously allowed for the separation of photosynthetic uptake of CO2 by the beech seedlings and a constant (12)CO2 efflux via respiration and thus for a correction of the measured (12)CO2 concentrations in course of the labeling experiment. The effects of aphid infestation with the woolly beech aphid (Phyllaphis fagi L.) as well as the effect of a drought period on the respirational gas exchange were investigated. A slightly decreased respirational activity of drought-stressed seedlings in comparison to normally watered seedlings was found already for a low drought intensity. Cavity-enhanced Raman gas monitoring of O2, (12)CO2, and (13)CO2 was proven to be a powerful new tool for studying the effect of drought stress and aphid infestation on the respirational activity of European beech seedlings as an example of important forest species in Central Europe.

  1. How closely does stem growth of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) relate to net carbon gain under experimentally enhanced ozone stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Winkler, J Barbro; Löw, Markus; Nunn, Angela J; Kuptz, Daniel; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Reiter, Ilja M; Matyssek, Rainer

    2012-07-01

    The hypothesis was tested that O(3)-induced changes in leaf-level photosynthetic parameters have the capacity of limiting the seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. To this end, canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss were assessed in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) by using a physiologically based model, integrating environmental and photosynthetic parameters. The latter were derived from leaves at various canopy positions under the ambient O(3) regime, as prevailing at the forest site (control), or under an experimental twice-ambient O(3) regime (elevated O(3)), as released through a free-air canopy O(3) fumigation system. Gross carbon gain at the canopy-level declined by 1.7%, while respiratory carbon loss increased by 4.6% under elevated O(3). As this outcome only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth, O(3)-induced changes in allocation are referred to and discussed as crucial in quantitatively linking carbon gain with stem growth.

  2. The composition of phyllosphere fungal assemblages of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) varies significantly along an elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Tristan; Robin, Cécile; Capdevielle, Xavier; Fabreguettes, Olivier; Desprez-Loustau, Marie-Laure; Vacher, Corinne

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about the potential effect of climate warming on phyllosphere fungi, despite their important impact on the dynamics and diversity of plant communities. The structure of phyllosphere fungal assemblages along elevation gradients may provide information about this potential effect, because elevation gradients correspond to temperature gradients over short geographic distances. We thus investigated variations in the composition of fungal assemblages inhabiting the phyllosphere of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) at four sites over a gradient of 1000 m of elevation in the French Pyrénées Mountains, by using tag-encoded 454 pyrosequencing. Our results show that the composition of fungal assemblages varied significantly between elevation sites, in terms of both the relative abundance and the presence-absence of species, and that the variations in assemblage composition were well correlated with variations in the average temperatures. Our results therefore suggest that climate warming might alter both the incidence and the abundance of phyllosphere fungal species, including potential pathogens. For example, Mycosphaerella punctiformis, a causal agent of leaf spots, showed decreasing abundance with elevation and might therefore shift to higher elevations in response to warming.

  3. Non-reducing sugar levels in beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as related to withstanding desiccation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukacka, Stanisława; Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa

    2009-09-01

    Levels of sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) (raffinose and stachyose) were determined in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during development, maturation, desiccation and storage. An increase in RFOs and a marked decrease in the S:(R+St) ratio (i.e. mass ratio of sucrose to the sum of RFOs) were observed at the time of desiccation tolerance (DT) acquisition by seeds. In seeds stored at -10 degrees C through 1, 4, 7, and 12 years, changes in sucrose, raffinose and stachyose levels and in alpha-galactosidase activity were noted. The S/R+St ratio and alpha-galactosidase activity significantly increased in seeds after 7 and 12 years of storage, when a marked decrease in viability, measured as germination capacity, was recorded. Germination capacity was found to be strongly correlated with sucrose content, the S:(R+St) ratio, and alpha-galactosidase activity. A strong positive correlation was found between germination capacity and stachyose content. The results clearly indicated that the composition of RFOs in beech seeds is closely related to DT acquisition and seed viability during storage.

  4. Phosphite protects Fagus sylvatica seedlings towards Phytophthora plurivora via local toxicity, priming and facilitation of pathogen recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalio, Ronaldo J D; Fleischmann, Frank; Humez, Martina; Osswald, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora plurivora causes severe damage on Fagus sylvatica and is responsible for the extensive decline of European Beech throughout Europe. Unfortunately, no effective treatment against this disease is available. Phosphite (Phi) is known to protect plants against Phytophthora species; however, its mode of action towards P. plurivora is still unknown. To discover the effect of Phi on root infection, leaves were sprayed with Phi and roots were subsequently inoculated with P. plurivora zoospores. Seedling physiology, defense responses, colonization of root tissue by the pathogen and mortality were monitored. Additionally the Phi concentration in roots was quantified. Finally, the effect of Phi on mycelial growth and zoospore formation was recorded. Phi treatment was remarkably efficient in protecting beech against P. plurivora; all Phi treated plants survived infection. Phi treated and infected seedlings showed a strong up-regulation of several defense genes in jasmonate, salicylic acid and ethylene pathways. Moreover, all physiological parameters measured were comparable to control plants. The local Phi concentration detected in roots was high enough to inhibit pathogen growth. Phi treatment alone did not harm seedling physiology or induce defense responses. The up-regulation of defense genes could be explained either by priming or by facilitation of pathogen recognition of the host.

  5. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5-17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations.

  6. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  7. Pattern recognition of acorns from different Quercus species based on oil content and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (i to characterize different species of Quercus genus and (ii to discriminate among them on the basis of the content and fatty acid composition of the oil in their fruits and/or their morphological aspects via pattern recognition techniques (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Cluster Analysis, CA, and Discriminant Analysis, DA. Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd., grown in the same stand in the centre of Portugal, were investigated. When oil content and respective fatty acid composition were used to characterize samples, well-separated groups corresponding to each of the species were observed by PCA and confirmed by CA and DA. The ‘‘width’’ and ‘‘length’’ of acorns exhibited a low discriminant power. Acorns from Q. rotundifolia showed the highest average oil content followed by Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica acorns (9.1, 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively. Fatty acid profiles of Q. rotundifolia and Q. suber oils are similar to olive oil while the oil from Q. pyrenaica acorns is more unsaturated.El objetivo de este estudio fué (i la caracterización de diferentes especies del género Quercus y (ii la clasificación de las mismas en base al contenido y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite de sus frutos y/o en sus caracteres morfológicos, via técnicas de patrón de reconocimiento (Análisis de Componentes Principales, ACP, Análisis de Cluster, AC, y Análisis Discriminante, AD. Se han estudiado Quercus rotundifolia Lam., Quercus suber L. y Quercus pyrenaica Willd., pertenecientes a la misma zona del centro de Portugal. Al emplear el contenido de aceite y sus respectivas composiciones de ácidos grasos para caracterizar a las muestras, el ACP reveló grupos bien separados correspondientes a cada especie, los cuales, a su vez, se confirmarón con el AC y el AD. El ‘‘ancho’’ y ‘‘longitud’’ de las bellotas

  8. Identification of DNA-microsatellite markers for the characterization of somatic embryos in Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Garay, Arancha; Bueno, Angeles; Pintos, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear DNA-microsatellite markers led the possibility to characterize individually both Quercus suber trees and somatic embryos. The genotype inferred by SSR markers opens the possibility to obtain a fingerprint for clonal lines identification. Furthermore, allow to infer the origin of somatic embryos from haploid cells (microspores) or from diploid tissues. Using few SSR markers from other Quercus species and an automatic system based in fluorescence, it is possible to obtain a high discrimination power between genotypes. This method is sufficient to assign tissues to an individual tree with high statistical certainty. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take care to select the adequate DNA extraction method to avoid PCR inhibitors present in diverse Q. suber tissues.

  9. A neighborhood analysis of the consequences of Quercus suber decline for regeneration dynamics in Mediterranean forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Beatriz; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Stoll, Peter; Ávila, José M; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-01-01

    In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Mediterranean forests affected by the decline of their dominant species (Quercus suber). Our objective was to understand how the impacts of neighbor trees and shrubs on recruitment could affect future dynamics of these declining forests. Seeds of the three dominant tree species (Quercus suber, Olea europaea and Quercus canariensis) were sown in six sites during two consecutive years. Using a spatially-explicit, neighborhood approach we developed models that explained the observed spatial variation in seedling emergence, survival, growth and photochemical efficiency as a function of the size, identity, health, abundance and distribution of adult trees and shrubs in the neighborhood. We found strong neighborhood effects for all the performance estimators, particularly seedling emergence and survival. Tree neighbors positively affected emergence, independently of species identity or health. Alternatively, seedling survival was much lower in neighborhoods dominated by defoliated and dead Q. suber trees than in neighborhoods dominated by healthy trees. For the two oak species, these negative effects were consistent over the three years of the experimental seedlings. These results indicate that ongoing changes in species' relative abundance and canopy trees' health might alter the successional trajectories of Mediterranean oak-forests through neighbor-specific impacts on seedlings. The recruitment failure of dominant late-successional oaks in the gaps opened after Q. suber death would indirectly favor the establishment of other coexisting woody species, such as drought-tolerant shrubs. This could lead current forests to shift into

  10. A neighborhood analysis of the consequences of Quercus suber decline for regeneration dynamics in Mediterranean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ibáñez

    Full Text Available In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Mediterranean forests affected by the decline of their dominant species (Quercus suber. Our objective was to understand how the impacts of neighbor trees and shrubs on recruitment could affect future dynamics of these declining forests. Seeds of the three dominant tree species (Quercus suber, Olea europaea and Quercus canariensis were sown in six sites during two consecutive years. Using a spatially-explicit, neighborhood approach we developed models that explained the observed spatial variation in seedling emergence, survival, growth and photochemical efficiency as a function of the size, identity, health, abundance and distribution of adult trees and shrubs in the neighborhood. We found strong neighborhood effects for all the performance estimators, particularly seedling emergence and survival. Tree neighbors positively affected emergence, independently of species identity or health. Alternatively, seedling survival was much lower in neighborhoods dominated by defoliated and dead Q. suber trees than in neighborhoods dominated by healthy trees. For the two oak species, these negative effects were consistent over the three years of the experimental seedlings. These results indicate that ongoing changes in species' relative abundance and canopy trees' health might alter the successional trajectories of Mediterranean oak-forests through neighbor-specific impacts on seedlings. The recruitment failure of dominant late-successional oaks in the gaps opened after Q. suber death would indirectly favor the establishment of other coexisting woody species, such as drought-tolerant shrubs. This could lead current

  11. First Report of Erannis defoliaria on Quercus sp. in North West of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaussra Mannai; Olfa Ezzine; Saïd Nouira; Mohamed Lahbib Ben Jamâa

    2015-01-01

    Erannis defoliaria, a spring-feeding moth, caused severe defoliation during springs 2009 and 2010. Larvae were collected from Quercus suber in northwestern forest of Tunisia: Bellif and Ain El Baya. Caterpillars of E. defoliaria were also observed feeding on Q. canariensis, Q. afares and other shrub species such as Pistacia lentiscus, Erica arborea, and E. multiflora. In this paper, we present a first report of this pest in Tunisia.

  12. Removal of chromium (VI in aqueous environments using cork and heat-treated cork samples from Quercus cerris and Quercus suber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Şen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (VI removal and its reduction to chromium (III from aqueous solution by untreated and heat-treated Quercus cerris and heat-treated Quercus suber black agglomerate cork granules was investigated. Initial screening studies revealed that among the sorbents tested, untreated Q. cerris and Q. suber black agglomerate are the most efficient in the removal of Cr(VI ions and were selected for adsorption essays. Heat treatment adversely affected chromium adsorption and chromium (VI reduction in Q. cerris cork. The highest metal uptake was found at pH 3.0 for Q. cerris and pH 2.0 for black agglomerate. The experimental data fitted the Langmuir model and the calculated qmax was 22.98 mg/g in black agglomerate and 21.69 mg/g in untreated Q. cerris cork. The FTIR results indicated that while in black agglomerate, lignin is the sole component responsible for Cr(VI sorption, and in untreated Q. cerris cork, suberin and polysaccharides also play a significant role on the sorption. The SEM-EDX results imply that chromium has a homogenous distribution within both cork granules. Also, phloemic residues in Q. cerris granules showed higher chromium concentration. The results obtained in this study show that untreated Q. cerris and black agglomerate cork granules can be an effective and economical alternative to more costly materials for the treatment of liquid wastes containing chromium.

  13. Lluvia de semillas y emergencia de plántulas de Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana en La Mojonera, Hidalgo, México Seed rain and seedling emergence of Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Godínez-Ibarra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana es una especie restringida a pequeñas poblaciones y sujeta a fuerte presión antropogénica. Con el objetivo de obtener información relevante que permita proponer alternativas de conservación, se analizó la producción de semillas y la demografía de plántulas de primer año en la Mojonera, Hidalgo. Se estableció una parcela de observación de 4 800 m² dividida en cuadrantes de 10 X 10 m. Se utilizaron trampas de 0.5 m² para estimar la producción de semillas, así como subparcelas de 1 m² para registrar la emergencia y supervivencia de plántulas. La producción fue de 521 667 semillas ha-1, de las que sólo el 24.44% estaban llenas; el 46.01% vanas, y el 29.55% dañadas. La densidad de plántulas emergidas varió de 1 a 33 plántulas por m². El porcentaje de supervivencia de plántulas de primer año fue de 2.8% después de 10 meses de observación, siendo las de mayor supervivencia las que emergieron durante las primeras fechas. El 34.44% de las plántulas murieron por herbivoría, el 24.07% por damping-off y 23.65% por causa desconocida. La especie presenta el patrón general de supervivencia de especies arbóreas con alta mortalidad durante el primer año de vida.Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana is a species restricted to small populations under high anthropogenic pressure. With the aim to attain information to propose conservation strategies of this species, the seed rain and demography of current-year seedlings were analyzed at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico. A 4 800 m² plot divided into 10 X 10 m quadrants was established. The seed rain, seedling emergence, and survival were analyzed using seed traps of 0.5 m² and adjacent 1 m² sub-plots. The total seed rain was 521 667 seeds ha-1. A high proportion of seeds were unsound (46.01%, followed by damaged seeds (29.5% and only 24.44% were sound. Emerged seedlings fluctuated from 1 to 33 seedlings m². Alter 10 months, 2.8% of emerged seedlings were

  14. Native lignin for bonding fiber boards - evaluation of bonding mechanisms in boards made from laccase-treated fibers of beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Sanadi, Anand

    2004-01-01

    The auto-adhesion of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) fibers can be enhanced by a pretreatment of the fibers with a phenol oxidase enzyme. The mechanism of enzymatic catalyzed bonding is linked to the generation of stable radicals in lignin by oxidation. Fiberboards made from laccase-treated fibers...... indicate that lignin extractives are precipitated on the fiber surfaces. The improved bonding may be related to several factors, linked to a more lignin rich fiber surface, such as surface molecular entanglements and covalent bonding between fibers through cross-linking of radicals. (C) 2004 Published...

  15. The biotransformation of soil biocenosis by micromycetes under introduction of Fagus sylvatica L. to oak-hornbeam forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, Artur; Bilyera, Nataliya; Sedykh, Olena; Melnychuk, Maksym

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: micromycetes, beech, soil enzymes, illuminance, Penicillium canescens. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a commercially valuable tree species. As the potential distribution area for beech forest is restricted by Europe, planting of artificial stands is adopted in this region. Beech introduction can alter ecosystem considerably, but the mechanism of this transformation is not clear. We aimed to define abiotic and biotic parameters affecting floor development in beech stands introduced to the oak-hornbeam forest ecosystem ca.50 years ago in Eastern Europe (Ukraine). The daylight illuminace level was similar (2.9-6.5 klx) for both stands. However, grass cover in beech stands did not exceed 0.1-0.5 % even on sites with illuminace level 7.5-8.3 klx. It does not comply with the commonly used suggestion that shading is the main factor causes forest floor absence in the beech stands. We indicated predominantly biotic factors influencing forest floor formation. Thus, particular edaphon represented by micromycetes was able to inhibit plants and microorganisms. We isolated Penicillium canescens strains from soil under beech stands. These fungi utilized beech root exudates and phenol compounds of leaf litter, and produced biologically active substances caused cytostatic and mutagenic effects. They also accelerated (in 2-3.2 times) soil β-glucosidase activity, but had no effect on phosphatase. The biomass of fungi varied under cultivation of Penicillium canescens strains on Czapek medium with the addition of aqueous extracts of beech leaf litter. The biomass of micromycetes increased on 10-15 % at plant phenols concentrations up to 1 mg mL-1. On the contrary, increasing the concentration of phenols up to 4 mg mL-1resulted in a biomass decrease to 40%. The relationship between the concentration of plant phenols and rate of fungal biomass formation indicates that there is probably seasonal regulation of micromycetes activity in the forest biocenosis. The highest

  16. Use of thermal imaging to determine leaf conductance along a canopy gradient in European beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Stefan; Bögelein, Rebekka; Thomas, Frank M

    2012-03-01

    Using an infrared camera, we measured the leaf temperature across different canopy positions of a 23-m-tall deciduous forest tree (Fagus sylvatica L.) including typical sun and shade leaves as well as intermediate leaf forms, which differed significantly in specific leaf area (SLA). We calculated a temperature index (I(G)) and a crop water stress index (CWSI) using the surface temperatures of wet and dry reference leaves. Additional indices were computed using air temperature plus 5 °C (I(G) + 5, CWSI + 5) as dry references. The minimum temperature of the wet leaf and the maximum temperature of the dry leaf proved to be most suitable as reference values. We correlated the temperature indices with leaf area-related conductance to water vapor (g(L)) using porometry at the leaf level and using xylem sap flow at the branch level. At the leaf and at the branch level, I(G) and CWSI were equally well suited as proxies of g(L), whereas the relationships of I(G) + 5 and CWSI + 5 with g(L) were only weak or even insignificant. At the leaf level, the correlations of I(G) and CWSI with g(L) were significant in all parts of the crown. The slopes of g(L) vs. I(G) and CWSI did not differ significantly among the crown parts; this indicates that they were not influenced by SLA or irradiance. At the branch level, close correlations (r > 0.8) were found between temperature indices and g(L) across the crown. These results demonstrate that satisfactory relationships between temperature indices and g(L) can be established in tall trees even in those canopy parts that are exposed to relatively low levels of irradiance and exhibit relatively low values of g(L).

  17. Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Buiteveld, J; Geburek, T; Gerber, S; Kramer, K; Vettori, C; Vendramin, G G

    2012-03-01

    The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of factors such as isolation and tree density on gene movements. We used two paternity analysis approaches and different strategies to handle the possible presence of genotyping errors to obtain robust estimates of pollen flow in four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from Austria and France. In each country one of the two plots is located in an unmanaged forest; the other plots are managed with a shelterwood system and inside a colonization area (in Austria and France, respectively). The two paternity analysis approaches provided almost identical estimates of gene flow. In general, we found high pollen immigration (~75% of pollen from outside), with the exception of the plot from a highly isolated forest remnant (~50%). In the two unmanaged plots, the average within-population pollen dispersal distances (from 80 to 184 m) were higher than previously estimated for beech. From the comparison between the Austrian managed and unmanaged plots, that are only 500 m apart, we found no evidence that either gene flow or reproductive success distributions were significantly altered by forest management. The investigated phenotypic traits (crown area, height, diameter and flowering phenology) were not significantly related with male reproductive success. Shelterwood seems to have an effect on the distribution of within-population pollen dispersal distances. In the managed plot, pollen dispersal distances were shorter, possibly because adult tree density is three-fold (163 versus 57 trees per hectare) with respect to the unmanaged one.

  18. Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations on leaf carbon assimilation in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, I.; Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Robson, T. M.; Cano, F. J.; Alte, L.; Sanchez-Gomez, D.

    2012-07-01

    Limitations to diffusion and biochemical factors affecting leaf carbon uptake were analyzed in young beech seedlings (Fagus sylvtica L.) growing in natural gaps of a beech-wood at the southern limit of the species. Half of the seedlings received periodic watering in addition to natural rainfall to reduce the severity of the summer drought. Plant water status was evaluated by measuring predawn water potential. Basic biochemical parameters were inferred from chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis-CO{sub 2} curves (A-C{sub c}) under saturating light. The curves were established on three dates during the summer months. The main variables studied included: stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO{sub 2} (g{sub s} and g{sub m} respectively), maximum velocity of carboxylation (V{sub c}max) and maximum electron transport capacity (J{sub m}ax). The gm was estimated by two methodologies: the curve-fitting and J constant methods. Seedlings withstood moderate water stress, as the leaf predawn water potential ({Psi}{sub p}d) measured during the study was within the range -0.2 to -0.5 MPa. Mild drought caused gs and gm to decrease only slightly in response to {Psi}{sub p}d. However both diffusional parameters explained most of the limitations to CO{sub 2} uptake. In addition, it should be highlighted that biochemical limitations, prompted by V{sub c}max and J{sub m}ax, were related mainly to ontogenic factors, without any clear relationship with drought under the moderate water stress experienced by beech seedlings through the study. The results may help to further understanding of the functional mechanisms influencing the carbon fixation capacity of beech seedlings under natural conditions. (Author) 68 refs.

  19. Heterogeneous genetic structure in a Fagus crenata population in an old-growth beech forest revealed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuka, Y; Tomaru, N; Nisimura, N; Tsumura, Y; Yamamoto, S

    2004-05-01

    The within-population genetic structure of Fagus crenata in a 4-ha plot (200 x 200 m) of an old-growth beech forest was analysed using microsatellite markers. To assess the genetic structure, Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. Correlograms of Moran's I showed significant positive values less than 0.100 for short-distance classes, indicating weak genetic structure. The genetic structure within the population is created by limited seed dispersal, and is probably weakened by overlapping seed shadow, secondary seed dispersal, extensive pollen flow and the thinning process. Genetic structure was detected in a western subplot of 50 x 200 m with immature soils and almost no dwarf bamboos (Sasa spp.), where small and intermediate-sized individuals were distributed in aggregations with high density because of successful regeneration. By contrast, genetic structure was not found in an eastern subplot of the same size with mature soils and Sasa cover, where successful regeneration was prevented, and the density of the small and intermediate-sized individuals was low. Moreover, genetic structure of individuals in a small-size class (diameter at breast height large-size class (diameter at breast height >/= 12 cm). The apparent genetic structure detected in the 4-ha plot was therefore probably the result of the structure in the western portion of the plot and in small and intermediate-sized individuals that successfully regenerated under the favourable environment. The heterogeneity in genetic structure presumably reflects variation in the density that should be affected by differences in regeneration dynamics associated with heterogeneity in environmental conditions.

  20. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jule Mangels

    Full Text Available Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that - despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees - suggesting the action of associational resistance processes - and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores.

  1. Throughfall nutrients in a degraded indigenous Fagus orientalis forest and a Picea abies plantation in the of North of Iran

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    Parisa Abbasian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objective of this study was to compare the quantity and quality of TF (throughfall in an indigenous, but degraded, stand of Fagus orientalis and Picea abies plantation.Area of study: Forests of Kelar-Dasht region located in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.Material and Methods: TF measured by twenty collectors that were distributed randomly underneath each stand. For 21 storms sampled in 2012 (August-December and 2013 (April-June, we analyzed pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, NO3-, and P of  gross rainfall (GR and TF.Main results: Cumulative interception (I for F. orientalis and P. abies were 114.2 mm and 194.8 mm of the total GR, respectively. The amount of K+ (13.4 mg L-1 and Ca2+ (0.9 mg L-1 were higher (for both elements, p = 0.001 in the TF of P. abies compared to those of F. orientalis (6.8 and 0.5, mg L-1, respectively and GR (3.2 and 0.37 mg L-1, respectively. Conversely, mean P concentration was doubled (p = 0.022 in the TF of F. orientalis (11.1 mg L-1 compared to GR (5.8 mg L-1.Research highlights: P. abies plantations may provide a solution for reforestation of degraded F. orientalis forests of northern Iran, yet how P. abies plantations differentially affect the quality and quantity of rainfall reaching subcanopy soils (TF compared to F. orientalis is unknown. Understanding the connection between hydrological processes and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems is crucial for choosing the appropriate species to rehabilitate the degraded indigenous forests with nonindigenous species.  Keywords: concentration; hydrological process; interception; reforestation.

  2. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that - despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees - suggesting the action of associational resistance processes - and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores.

  3. Characterization of Acorn Fruit Oils Extracted from Selected Mediterranean Quercus Species

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    Al-Rousan, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to identifying the acorn fruit oil composition of three Mediterranean white oak group species, Quercus aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI, and Quercus calliprinus (QC. Samples were estimated for the oil contents of acorn fruits, oil chemical and physical constants, fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and sterols.The oil content, expressed as dry weight, was found to be 3.40-7.51%. The physical and chemical constants included specific gravity 0.912-0.922, refractive index 1.4529-1.4645, specific extinction at 232 nm 2.497-2.536 and at 270 nm 1.495-2.037, iodine value 75.2-87.6, and saponification value 192.6-219.4. The fatty acid compositions were determined by GC as methyl esters. The most abundant fatty acids were oleic (53.3-56.1%, linoleic 21.3-23.4%, palmitic 17.8-18.7%, linolenic 1.5-1.6% and stearic acid 1.02-1.60%. The Tocopherol content was high in the range of 1440-1783 mg kg-1, γ-tocopherol constituted 84-91% of total tocopherols. Phenolic compounds were in remarkable amounts in all the three species 84-109 mg gallic acid kg-1 oil. Total sterol contents were between 2040-2480 mg kg-1 oil, with β-sitosterol being the main component comprising of 77.20-84.61%, followed by ∆5-avenasterol (5.8-11.4%, campesterol (3.6-4.5%, and stigmasterol (2.6-3.8. The cholesterol content was relatively high (0.42-0.55%.El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la composición de aceites de bellota de tres especies del grupo del roble blanco del Mediterráneo, Quercus Aegilops (QA, Quercus infectoria (QI y Quercus calliprinus (QC. Las muestras fueron evaluadas por el contenido de aceite, parámetros físico-químicos del aceite, perfil de ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, compuestos fenólicos y esteroles. El contenido de aceite, expresado en peso seco encontrado fue de 3,40 a 7,51%. Las constantes físico-químicas fueron: densidad 0,912-0,922, índice de refracción 1,4529 a 1,4645, extinción espec

  4. Stomatal ozone flux and visible leaf injury in native juvenile trees of Fagus sylvatica L.: a field study from the Jizerske hory Mts., the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasáková-Matoušková, Leona; Hůnová, Iva

    2015-07-01

    The study was carried out at six sites in the Jizerskehory Mts. in the north of the Czech Republic. At all these sites, ranging in altitude between 460 and 962 m a. s. l., and during the period from June to September in 2008, O3 concentrations and environmental parameters important for accumulated stomatal O3 flux (AFst) into Fagus sylvatica leaves were measured. At five sites, visible injury on Fagus sylvatica L. juvenile tree leaves was observed. A combination of actual O3 levels in the Jizerkehory Mts. and environmental conditions, though relative air humidity and air temperature significantly limited stomatal conductance, has been sufficient enough to cause O3 uptake exceeding the critical level (CL) for forest ecosystems. The AFst values ranged between 13.4 and 22.3 mmol O3 m(-2). The CL for the accumulated stomatal flux of O3 above a flux threshold 1.6 nmol m(-2) s(-1) (AFst1.6) was exceeded at all sites from ca 45 to 270% (160% on average). The CL of 5 ppm h(-1) for AOT40 (accumulated O3 exposure above threshold of 40 ppb) was exceeded at four sites. The relationship between visible injury on O3 indices was found. The conclusions based on AOT40 and AFSt are not the same. AFSt has been determined as better predictor of visible injury than AOT40.

  5. A unigene set for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and its use to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in dormancy regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesur, Isabelle; Bechade, Alison; Lalanne, Céline; Klopp, Christophe; Noirot, Céline; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Kremer, Antoine; Plomion, Christophe; Le Provost, Grégoire

    2015-09-01

    Systematic sequencing is the method of choice for generating genomic resources for molecular marker development and candidate gene identification in nonmodel species. We generated 47,357 Sanger ESTs and 2.2M Roche-454 reads from five cDNA libraries for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). This tree species of high ecological and economic value in Europe is among the most representative trees of deciduous broadleaf forests. The sequences generated were assembled into 21,057 contigs with MIRA software. Functional annotations were obtained for 85% of these contigs, from the proteomes of four plant species, Swissprot accessions and the Gene Ontology database. We were able to identify 28,079 in silico SNPs for future marker development. Moreover, RNAseq and qPCR approaches identified genes and gene networks regulated differentially between two critical phenological stages preceding vegetative bud burst (the quiescent and swelling buds stages). According to climatic model-based projection, some European beech populations may be endangered, particularly at the southern and eastern edges of the European distribution range, which are strongly affected by current climate change. This first genomic resource for the genus Fagus should facilitate the identification of key genes for beech adaptation and management strategies for preserving beech adaptability.

  6. Tree-ring stable isotopes reveal twentieth-century increases in water-use efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean mountains.

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    Roberto Tognetti

    Full Text Available Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration, iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations.

  7. Tree-ring stable isotopes reveal twentieth-century increases in water-use efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations.

  8. Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Reveal Twentieth-Century Increases in Water-Use Efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  9. Six-year time course of light-use efficiency, carbon gain and growth of beech saplings (Fagus sylvatica) planted under a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) shelterwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandier, Philippe; Sinoquet, Herve; Frak, Ela; Giuliani, Rita; Vandame, Marc; Descamps, Sylvestre; Coll, Lluis; Adam, Boris; Prevosto, Bernard; Curt, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Two-year-old Fagus sylvatica L. saplings were planted under the cover of a Pinus sylvestris L. stand in the French Massif Central. The stand was differentially thinned to obtain a gradient of transmitted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR(t); 0-0.35). Eighteen Fagus saplings were sampled in this gradient, and their growth (basal stem diameter increment) was recorded over six years. Over the same period, morphological parameters (leaf area, number and arrangement in space) were monitored by 3D-digitization. Photosynthetic parameters were estimated with a portable gas-exchange analyzer. Photosynthesis was mainly related to light availability, whereas sapling morphology was mainly driven by sapling size. Annual stem diameter increment was related to the amount of light-intercepting foliage (silhouette to total leaf area ratio (STAR) x total sapling leaf area (LA)) and light availability above the saplings (PAR(t)). However, light-use efficiency, i.e., the slope of the relationship between STAR x LA x PAR(t) and stem diameter increment, decreased over time as a result of a relative decrease in the proportion of photosynthetic tissues to total sapling biomass.

  10. Composición, estructura y diversidad de la comunidad de Ácaros Mesostigmata de un hayedo natural (Fagus sylvatica del sur de Europa

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    Moraza, M. L.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, structure and diversity of the soil Mesostigmatid mite’s community was studied in European beech forest (Fagus sylvatica L. in Navarra (Spain, southern Europe. Twelve samples were taken and 653 mites were identified. They represented to 41 species from 14 families, the most abundant species being Paragamasus ponantinus Athias-Henriot, 1967; Veigaia nemorensis (C. L. Koch, 1839; Paragamasus rothamstedensis Bhattacharyya, 1963 and Rhodacarus coronatus Berlese, 1921. Haft part of the mites community inhabits the humic layer of the soil. The value of the Shannon’s diversity index (H´ log2 in the forest studied is 4,42, and the equitability (J´ is 0,82.Se estudia la composición específica de la comunidad de ácaros Mesostigmata en una hayedo (Fagus sylvatica L. de Navarra (España, Sur de Europa. Se han identificado 653 ácaros procedentes de 12 muestras. Estos representan a 41 especies de 14 familias y las especies más abundantes son Paragamasus ponantinus Athias-Henriot, 1967; Vegaia nemorensis (C. L. Koch, 1839; Paragamasus rothamstedensis Bhattacharyya, 1963 y Rhodacarus coronatus Berlese, 1921. La mitad de la comunidad habita en el horizonte húmico del suelo. En este hayedo el valor de la diversidad de Shannon (H´ log2 es 4,42 y el de la equitabilidad (J´ 0,82.

  11. The influence of O3, NO2 and SO2 on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzika, R M; Guyette, R P; Zielonka, T; Liebhold, A M

    2004-07-01

    At 17 long-term pollution monitoring sites throughout the Carpathian Mountains, tree growth patterns and variation in growth rate were examined to determine relationship of tree growth to specific pollutants. Canopy dominant Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica were selected at each site. Basal area increment (BAI) values were calculated from raw ring widths and used as an estimate of tree growth. Across all sites, BAI chronologies were highly variable, therefore local conditions and forest structure accounted for considerable variation. Several significant relationships, however, implicated a role of pollutants on tree growth. Average levels (1997-1999) of NO(2) and SO(2) were inversely related to BAI means (1989-1999). Although average O(3) alone was not related to growth, the maximum O(3) value reported at the sites was negatively correlated with overall growth. A variable representing the combined effect of O(3), NO(2) and SO(2) was negatively correlated with both P. abies and F. sylvatica growth. Pollution data were used to categorize all sites into 'high' or 'low' pollution sites. Difference chronologies based on these categories indicated trends of decline in the 'high' pollution sites relative to 'low' pollution site. In the more heavily polluted sites, the BAI of Fagus sylvatica has declined approximately 50% and Picea abies has declined 20% over the past 45 years.

  12. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

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    MARZIEH BEGYOM-FAGHIR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haddadi-Moghaddam H, Begyom-Faghir M, Abedi T. 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 89-94.This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran province. Fifteen gaps in small, medium, and large sizes were randomly selected. Abundance of tree saplings, shrubs and herbaceous species were counted on 4 m2 micro-plots within the gaps. Diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur's N1, Hill's N2, species richness and Smith-Wilson’s evenness index were computed. The results revealed that there was significant difference among three gap categories in terms of diversity. The highest diversity values of tree and herbaceous species were obtained in the large gaps, while the highest diversity value of shrub species was in the medium gaps. Species composition of small gaps (28 species: 7 trees and 21 herbaceous, medium gaps (37 species: 7 trees, 5 shrubs and 25 herbaceous and large gaps (40 species: 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 29 herbaceous were recognized. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in order to maintain plant diversity and composition up to 400 m2 gap size cloud be used in this forests.

  13. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, F., E-mail: fleischmann@wzw.tum.d [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Raidl, S. [Department Biology I and GeoBioCenterLMU, Systematic Mycology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Menzinger Strasse 67, 80638 Muenchen (Germany); Osswald, W.F. [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO{sub 2}- and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO{sub 2}-treatment, whereas elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO{sub 2} and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities. - Susceptibility of Fagus sylvatica to the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola increased under elevated CO{sub 2}

  14. Species diversity of Fagus engleriana community in Daba Mountains, Sichuan, China%四川大巴山米心水青冈(Fagus engleriana)群落的物种多样性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊莉军; 郭柯; 赵常明; 刘长成

    2008-01-01

    四川省大巴山处于秦岭南部的北亚热带,水青冈属植物分布较集中.该处米心水青冈(Fagus engleriana)林分布面积较大,生长良好,保存相对完好,具有重要的地域代表性.分析了米心水青冈群落的物种组成、区系地理成分、物种多样性以及群落自身特征与物种多样性的灰色关联度,得到以下主要结果:(1)在4个样地28个10m×10m群落样方中,一共记录到维管束植物197种,隶属140属、74科. 群落乔木层物种主要由壳斗科、蔷薇科、杜鹃花科、桦木科、槭树科等科组成;灌木层物种主要由蔷薇科、忍冬科、杜鹃花科等科组成;草本层主要由莎草科、菊科、百合科等科植物组成.(2)地理区系成分中,温带成分分别占群落总属数、总种数的65.38%和64.32%,处于主导地位;热带和亚热带成分占总属数、总种数的23.85%、24.32%.(3)群落中物种数目-多度在不同的层次变化趋势不同.(4)群落的物种丰度以灌木层最高、乔木层最低.Shannon指数、Simpson指数、均匀度指数以草本层最高、灌木层最低.(5)乔、灌、草3层的物种多样性均受到乔、灌两层植物的多度与盖度的影响,说明群落自身的特征与群落物种多样性是紧密相关的.

  15. Fitotoxicidad del fosfonato en brinzales de encina Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Inmaculada; Porras Tejero, Carlos Javier; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V.; Ariza-Mateos, David; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2007-01-01

    El fosfonato es un fertilizante foliar que ha sido utilizado con éxito en el control de P. cinnamomi en varias especies forestales. Aunque se considera que los fosfonatos tienen un bajo nivel de toxicidad, se han observado síntomas de daños en varias especies y utilizando distintos métodos de aplicación. En este trabajo se estudia la fitotoxicidad de los fosfonatos en brinzales de Quercus ilex. Se han ensayado dos concentraciones de fosfonato, 10 y 15 g l-1, y se han realizado medidas de la f...

  16. Comparison between ethanol and hexane for oil extraction from Quercus suber L. fruits

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    Abreu, José M.F.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to (i evaluate the feasibility of replacing n-hexane with ethanol for the extraction of oil from Quercus suber fruits and (ii optimize, at lab scale, sample preparation and extraction time for both solvents used (n-hexane vs. anhydrous ethanol. For both solvents, the effect of the conditioning process on extraction yield was evaluated. Therefore, a full factorial design was used as a function of four variables: dehulling (with vs. without husks, and thermal treatment of the crushed material (40ºC vs. 75ºC, at different times (5 min vs. 120 min and pressures (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Higher oil yields were obtained with n-hexane when dehulled fruits were conditioned under atmospheric pressure. Better yields were obtained with n-hexane, when dehulled material was treated at 75ºC for 90 min. Ethanol was not adequate for oil extraction from Quercus fruits, since other materials rather than oil were also extracted.El objetivo de este estudio fue (i evaluar la posibilidad de reemplazar el n-hexano por el etanol para la extracción del aceite de los frutos de Quercus suber y (ii optimizar, a escala de laboratorio, la preparación de la muestra y el tiempo de extracción para ambos solventes (n-hexano vs. etanol anhidro. Para ambos solventes, se ha evaluado el efecto del proceso de acondicionamiento en el rendimiento de la extracción. Para ello, se ha empleado un diseño factorial completo como función de cuatro variables: descascarillado (con vs sin cascarilla, y tratamiento térmico del material triturado (40ºC vs. 75ºC, a diferentes tiempos (5 min vs. 120 min y presiones (10 kPa vs. 100 kPa. Los rendimientos más elevados de extracción de aceite se obtuvieron con n-hexano cuando los frutos descascarillados se acondicionaron a presión atmosférica. Cuando el material descascarillado fue tratado a 75ºC por 90 min, se obtuvieron mejores rendimientos con n-hexano. El etanol demostró no ser adecuado para la

  17. Genetic transformation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) for herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rubén; Alvarez, José M; Humara, Jaime M; Revilla, Angeles; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2009-09-01

    The bar gene was introduced into the cork oak genome. Cork oak embryogenic masses were transformed using the Agrobacterium strain AGL1 which carried the plasmid pBINUbiBar. This vector harbours the genes, nptII and bar, the latter under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The transgenic embryogenic lines were cryopreserved. Varying activities of phosphinothricin acetyl transferase were detected among the lines, which carried 1-4 copies of the insert. Molecular and biochemical assays confirmed the stability and expression of the transgenes 3 months after thawing the cultures. These results demonstrate genetic engineering of herbicide tolerance in Quercus spp.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented.

  19. Study on Genetic Diversity of Fagus engleriana%米心水青冈遗传多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周则刚; 方炎明

    2012-01-01

    采用RAPD分子标记技术分析9个自然居群米心水青冈的遗传关系和多样性.20条随机引物共扩出260个条带,平均每条引物扩增出13个条带,其DNA带的分子量在200~3000 bp.其中多态性条带有180条,多态位点比率(PPL)为69.2%.种内Shannon多样性指数为0.302 1,群体内所占比例为72.10%,群体间所占比例为27.90%.种内Nei's基因多样性为0.2045,群体内平均基因多样性为0.1502,基因分化系数GST为0.2631.米心水青冈的遗传多样性水平处于中等,遗传分化也处于中等水平.%The genetic relationship and genetic diversity of nine natural populations of Fagus engleriana from four provinces were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA ( RAPD) marker technique. Totally 260 bands were amplified by 20 primers, 13 bands were averagely amplified by each primer. The molecular weight of the band DNA was between 200 bp and 3 000 bp. Out of the 260 bands, 180 bands were polymorphic and the percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) was 69. 2%. The average Shannon index value within the species of F. engleriana was 0. 302 1, and the PPL within the population and among the nine populations was 72. 10% and 27. 90% respectively. The average Nei' s genetic diversity within the species of F. engleriana was 0. 204 5 , and 0. 150 2 for the index within the population. The coefficient of genetic differentiation was 0. 263 1. Compared with other species, the genetic diversity of F. engleriana was at a moderate level. And its genetic variance level within the populations was also at a moderate level.

  20. Transport of soluble carbohydrates in temperate deciduous trees: beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Ronny; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    The structure of phloem cells and the physiology of the transport of soluble carbohydrates in plants are well studied. However, the influence of different phloem un- and uploading strategies on the translocation of carbohydrates in different tree species is largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a pulse labeling on 20 young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) respectively, using the stable isotope 13C in a temperate deciduous forest in Central Germany. In one growing season each tree species was labeled in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 5 h. The compound specific δ 13C from carbohydrates in the different compartments leaf, branch, stem and root was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). We found that both tree species used sucrose as a transport sugar, but carbohydrates of the raffinose group (RFO) served as main transport sugar in ash trees. This indicate that beech used only the apoplastic loading strategy into the phloem cells while ash trees relied on both, apoplastic and symplastic loading, preferring the latter at the end of the growing season. Furthermore, we observed different transport velocities of labeled sugars in the two species. Here, sucrose in beech and carbohydrates of the RFO in ash were transported fastest, whereas sucrose was constantly slowest in ash trees. The label of carbohydrates was found over 60 day in the roots of both tree species, with the highest δ 13C enrichment in carbohydrates of RFO than in the other sugars. Accordingly, the mean residence time (MRT) and half life time (HLT) of 13C in different compartments were longest for carbohydrates of RFO in roots (25.6 days) and sucrose in stems (14.9 days), while the shortest MRT and HLT for sucrose appeared in beech in all compartments. Our results give evidence that RFO are preferentially transported to the root tissue as an agent against frost

  1. Influence of litter chemistry and stoichiometry on glucan depolymerization during decomposition of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Sonja; Wanek, Wolfgang; Wild, Birgit; Haemmerle, Ieda; Kohl, Lukas; Keiblinger, Katharina M; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Glucans like cellulose and starch are a major source of carbon for decomposer food webs, especially during early- and intermediate-stages of decomposition. Litter quality has previously been suggested to notably influence decomposition processes as it determines the decomposability of organic material and the nutrient availability to the decomposer community. To study the impact of chemical and elemental composition of resources on glucan decomposition, a laboratory experiment was carried out using beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) litter from four different locations in Austria, differing in composition (concentration of starch, cellulose and acid unhydrolyzable residue or AUR fraction) and elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P ratio). Leaf litter was incubated in mesocosms for six months in the laboratory under controlled conditions. To investigate the process of glucan decomposition and its controls, we developed an isotope pool dilution (IPD) assay using (13)C-glucose to label the pool of free glucose in the litter, and subsequently measured the dilution of label over time. This enabled us to calculate gross rates of glucose production through glucan depolymerization, and glucose consumption by the microbial community. In addition, potential activities of extracellular cellulases and ligninases (peroxidases and phenoloxidases) were measured to identify effects of resource chemistry and stoichiometry on microbial enzyme production. Gross rates of glucan depolymerization and glucose consumption were highly correlated, indicating that both processes are co-regulated and intrinsically linked by the microbial demand for C and energy and thereby to resource allocation to enzymes that depolymerize glucans. At early stages of decomposition, glucan depolymerization rates were correlated with starch content, indicating that starch was the primary source for glucose. With progressing litter decomposition, the correlation with starch diminished and glucan depolymerization rates were

  2. A highly spatially resolved GIS-based model to assess the isoprenoid emissions from key Italian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Claudia Kemper; Fares, Silvano; Ciccioli, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The amount of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from terrestrial vegetation is of great importance in atmospheric reactivity, particularly for ozone-forming reactions and as condensation nuclei in aerosol formation and growth. This work presents a detailed inventory of isoprenoid emissions from vegetation in Italy using an original approach which combines state of the art models to estimate the species-specific isoprenoid emissions and a Geographic Information System (GIS) where emissions are spatially represented. Isoprenoid species and basal emission factors were obtained by combining results from laboratory experiments with those published in literature. For the first time, our investigation was not only restricted to isoprene and total monoterpenes, but our goal was to provide maps of isoprene and individual monoterpenes at a high-spatial (˜1 km2) and temporal resolution (daily runs, monthly trends in emissions are discussed in the text). Another novelty in our research was the inclusion of the effects of phenology on plant emissions. Our results show that: a) isoprene, a-pinene, sabinene and b-pinene are the most important compounds emitted from vegetation in Italy; b) annual biogenic isoprene and monoterpene fluxes for the year 2006 were ˜31.30 Gg and ˜37.70 Gg, respectively; and c) Quercus pubescens + Quercus petrea + Quercus robur, Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and Fagus sylvatica are the principal isoprenoid emitting species in the country. The high spatial and temporal resolution, combined with the species-specific emission output, makes the model particularly suitable for assessing local budgets, and for modeling photochemical pollution in Italy.

  3. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  4. Polyphenol deposition in leaf hairs of Olea europaea (Oleaceae) and Quercus ilex (Fagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabourniotis, G; Kofidis, G; Fasseas, C; Liakoura, V; Drossopoulos, I

    1998-07-01

    The subcellular localization (cytoplasm, vacuoles, cell walls) of polyphenol compounds during the development of the multicellular nonglandular leaf hairs of Olea europaea (scales) and Quercus ilex (stellates), was investigated. Hairs of all developmental stages were treated with specific inducers of polyphenol fluorescence, and the bright yellow-green fluorescence of individual hairs was monitored with epifluorescence microscopy. During the early ontogenetic stages, bright fluorescence was emitted from the cytoplasm of the cells composing the multicellular shield of the scales of O. europaea. Transmission electron micrographs of the same stages showed that these cells possessed poor vacuolation and thin cell walls. The nucleus of these cells may be protected against ultraviolet-B radiation damage. The progressive vacuolation that occurred during maturation was followed by a shifting of the bright green-yellow fluorescence from the perinuclear region and the cytoplasm to the cell walls. The same trends were observed during the development of the nonglandular stellate hairs of Quercus ilex, in which maturation was also accompanied by a considerable secondary thickening of the cell walls. Despite the differences in morphology, high concentrations of polyphenol compounds are initially located mainly in the cytoplasm of the developing nonglandular hairs, and their deposition on the cell walls takes place during the secondary cell wall thickening. These structural changes during the development of the leaf hairs make them a very effective barrier against abiotic (uv-B radiation) and probably biotic (pathogenic) stresses.

  5. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Maryam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L. used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus.

  6. Photosynthesis of Quercus suber is affected by atmospheric NH3 generated by multifunctional agrosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Da Silva, Anabela Bernardes; Flexas, Jaume; Dias, Teresa; Zarrouk, Olfa; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Cruz, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Montados are evergreen oak woodlands dominated by Quercus species, which are considered to be key to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. This ecosystem is often used for cattle breeding in most regions of the Iberian Peninsula, which causes plants to receive extra nitrogen as ammonia (NH(3)) through the atmosphere. The effect of this atmospheric NH(3) (NH(3atm)) on ecosystems is still under discussion. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an NH(3atm) concentration gradient downwind of a cattle barn in a Montado area. Leaves from the selected Quercus suber L. trees along the gradient showed a clear influence of the NH(3) on δ(13)C, as a consequence of a strong limitation on the photosynthetic machinery by a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll conductance. A detailed study of the impact of NH(3atm) on the photosynthetic performance of Q. suber trees is presented, and new mechanisms by which NH(3) affects photosynthesis at the leaf level are suggested.

  7. Post-fire ecological restoration of a mixed Pinus-Quercus forest in northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alanís-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se desarrolló en un bosque de Pinus-Quercus en el Parque Ecológico Chipinque (noreste de México, el cual fue afectado por un incendio forestal y sometido a tratamiento de restauración ecológica. Los objetivos fueron evaluar el establecimiento artificial de Pinus pseudostrobus (Lindl. y analizar el efecto de las barreras de retención de suelo después de 10 años de su instalación. Para ello se estableció un área de estudio con tratamiento de restauración ecológica y otra área sin tratamiento en las que se muestreó la comunidad vegetal y la profundidad del suelo. De acuerdo con los resultados, se registró 35 % de supervivencia de la plantación, la cual se considera como no aceptable. Las barreras de retención de suelo tuvieron efecto positivo, pues incrementaron la profundidad del suelo hasta 25 %. Con la investigación se concluye que las técnicas de restauración post-incendio aplicadas han sido eficaces, ya que incorporan una especie clave de ecosistemas maduros y evitan la pérdida de suelo por arrastre, por lo que se recomienda su uso en rodales de Pinus-Quercus afectados por incendios en la Sierra Madre Oriental.

  8. Penicillium cecidicola, a new species on cynipid insect galls on Quercus pacifica in the western United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, K.A.; Hoekstra, E.H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    A synnematous species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was found inside emergence tunnels from insect galls (Cynipidae, Hymenoptera, the so-called gall wasps) on scrub oaks (Quercus pacifica Nixon & C.H. Muller) collected in the western United States. The fungus produces synnemata with white...

  9. Distribution of Quercus agrifolia mycorrhizae deep within weathered bedrock: a potential mechanism for transport of stored water

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Bornyasz; R. Graham; M. Allen

    2002-01-01

    In southwestern California, Quercus agrifolia distribution closely matches regions of granitic regolith. High annual evapotranspiration demand and inherent shallow soil conditions lead to a dependence on a deep rooting system and an ability to access water from deep within the regolith. Most of the plant available water in weathered granitic rock is...

  10. Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bareroot Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to shortterm (1, 3, and 5...

  11. Interactive effects of O3 exposure on California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) seedlings with and without N amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Handley; Nancy Grulke

    2008-01-01

    We examined the short-term separate and combined effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (fertilization) and ozone (O3) exposure on California black oak seedlings (Quercus kelloggii Newb.), an ecologically important tree of the San Bernardino Mountains downwind of Los Angeles. Realistic concentrations of O3...

  12. Artificial regeneration of major oak (Quercus) species in the eastern United States - a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Douglass Jacobs; Ken McNabb; Gary W. Miller; V. Baldwin; G. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Although natural regeneration is often the best method for establishing new oak (Quercus spp.) stands, there are increasingly more situations in which high potential for oak regeneration failure dictates the use of artificial regeneration including direct seeding and planting seedlings. Additionally, afforestation planting programs frequently...

  13. Effects of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L. and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Mattusch. Liebl. on the forest soil chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltner Stanislav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L. is one of the most important introduced tree species in the Czech Republic, occupying about 6,000 ha with ca. 900,000 m3 of the standing volume. The presented study aims to evaluate its soil forming effects on natural oak sites. Soil chemistry of the upper soil layers (F+H, Ah, B horizons was studied in three pairs of stands of both species. In each stand, four bulk samples were taken separately for particular horizons, each consisting of 5 soil-borer cores. The soil characteristics analysed were: pH (active and potential, soil adsorption complex characteristics (content of bases, exchangeable cation capacity, base saturation, exchangeable acidity (exchangeable Al and H, total carbon and nitrogen content, and plant available nutrients content (P, K, Ca, Mg. Total macronutrient content (P, K, Ca, Mg was analysed only in holorganic horizons. Results confirmed acidification effects of red oak on the upper forest soil layers such as decreased pH, base content, base saturation, all nutrient contents in total as well as plant-available form and increased soil exchangeable acidity (exchangeable Al in comparison to the sessile oak stands, especially in holorganic horizons and in the uppermost mineral layer (Ah horizon. Northern red oak can be considered as a slightly site-soil degrading species in the studied sites and environmental conditions in comparison to native oak species.

  14. Crecimiento de plántulas y árboles de seis especies de Quercus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos principales de este trabajo son: a describir algunas características importantes relativas a los rasgos funcionales en plántulas de las especies del género Quercus, b determinar cómo varía la proporción de hoja, tallo y raíz en adultos, y c estimar las tasas de crecimiento relativo(RGR de estas especies para plántulas e individuos adultos. Para ello, usamos los datos de experimentos realizados en plántulas bajo condiciones controladas, del Inventario Forestal Nacional (IFN2 e IFN3 y de las ecuaciones alométricas desarrolladas por Montero et al. (2005. Las especies de Quercus se caracterizan por tener semillas grandes, y las plántulas presentan una baja RGR y área específica foliar (SLA y una alta proporción de raíz (RMR. Uno de los factores más importantes que explican las diferencias en RGR entre las especies de Quercus (tanto en plántulas como en adultos es la diferencia en SLA. Considerando los datos de biomasa de árboles, se observa que la proporción de hoja (LMR y de raíz (RMR disminuye con el tamaño, mientras que la proporción de tallo (SMR aumenta con éste. Si consideramos un árbol medio de 20 cm de diámetro de tronco, los valores de LMR son de sólo 1-5 % y los de SMR van del 50 al 80 %. Considerando los datos del IFN, dentro de cada especie existe una gran variación en RGR. Aun así, cuando se comparan las RGR de las plántulas con los adultos se observa una relación significativa y positiva. Uno de los factores que afectó significativamente a RGR fue el tamaño del árbol, de forma que árboles de mayor tamaño crecían más lentamente.

  15. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the replenishment of stored water of A. saccharum and L. tulipifera that was lost during the daytime. These results implied different strategies among the

  16. Hepatoprotective effects of Quercus infectoria gall extract against carbon tetrachloride treated liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Lodhi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the present study, galls of Quercus infectoria possessing potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties were evaluated for their hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Subcutaneous injection of CCl4, administered twice a week, produced a marked elevation in the serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. Histological analysis of the liver of these rats revealed marked necro-inflammatory changes that were associated with increase in the levels of TBARS, PGE2 and catalase and decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. Daily oral administration of aqueous ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria galls at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg doses produced a dose dependent reduction in the serum levels of liver enzymes and inflammatory mediators and attenuated the necroinflammatory changes in the liver. The QIE treatment also normalized various biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Our study shows that the hepatoprotective effects of QIE and silymarin were comparable and suggests that QIE could be used as a hepatoprotective agent. Industrial relevance. Research in traditional medicine has lead to the development of many modern medicines. In recent times, focus on plants research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence has been collected to show immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. It is very interesting to note that there is no drug available in the modern system of medicine for treating hepatic disorders; only certain herbal preparations are available to treat this quite vulnerable disease. The situation/background thus explained above warrants for developing a safe, effective and scientifically validated hepatoprotective agent taking lead from traditional medicine, which is affordable for the rural poor

  17. Effects of chronic elevated ozone exposure on gas exchange responses of adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) as related to the within-canopy light gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Löw, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; Grams, Thorsten E E; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    The effects of elevated O3 on photosynthetic properties in adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) were investigated in relation to leaf mass per area as a measure of the gradually changing, within-canopy light availability. Leaves under elevated O3 showed decreased stomatal conductance at unchanged carboxylation capacity of Rubisco, which was consistent with enhanced delta 13C of leaf organic matter, regardless of the light environment during growth. In parallel, increased energy demand for O3 detoxification and repair was suggested under elevated O3 owing to enhanced dark respiration. Only in shade-grown leaves,light-limited photosynthesis was reduced under elevated O3, this effect being accompanied by lowered F(v)/F(m). These results suggest that chronic O3 exposure primarily caused stomatal closure to adult beech trees in the field regardless of the within-canopy light gradient. However, light limitation apparently raised the O3 sensitivity of photosynthesis and accelerated senescence in shade leaves.

  18. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, F; Raidl, S; Osswald, W F

    2010-04-01

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO(2)- and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO(2)-treatment, whereas elevated CO(2) enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO(2) and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities.

  19. Effects of rhizopheric nitric oxide (NO) on N uptake in Fagus sylvatica seedlings depend on soil CO2 concentration, soil N availability and N source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Simon, Judy; Rienks, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    Rhizospheric nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are signalling compounds known to affect physiological processes in plants. Their joint influence on tree nitrogen (N) nutrition, however, is still unknown. Therefore, this study investigated, for the first time, the combined effect of rhizospheric NO and CO2 levels on N uptake and N pools in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings depending on N availability. For this purpose, roots of seedlings were exposed to one of the nine combinations (i.e., low, ambient, high NO plus CO2 concentration) at either low or high N availability. Our results indicate a significant effect of rhizospheric NO and/or CO2 concentration on organic and inorganic N uptake. However, this effect depends strongly on NO and CO2 concentration, N availability and N source. Similarly, allocation of N to different N pools in the fine roots of beech seedlings also shifted with varying rhizospheric gas concentrations and N availability.

  20. Growth losses in Swiss forests caused by ozone: epidemiological data analysis of stem increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat

    2014-09-01

    The estimate of growth losses by ozone exposure of forest trees is a significant part in current C sequestration calculations and will also be important in future modeling. It is therefore important to know if the relationship between ozone flux and growth reduction of young trees, used to derive a Critical Level for ozone, is also valid for mature trees. Epidemiological analysis of stem increment data from Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. observed in Swiss forest plots was used to test this hypothesis. The results confirm the validity of the flux-response relationship at least for beech and therefore enable estimating forest growth losses by ozone on a country-wide scale. For Switzerland, these estimates amount to 19.5% growth reduction for deciduous forests, 6.6% for coniferous forests and 11.0% for all forested areas based on annual ozone stomatal uptake during the time period 1991-2011.

  1. Beech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H2SO4) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light.

  2. The influence of stemflow from an European Beech Tree (Fagus Sylvatica L.) on soil solution and seepage fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Valle, Nicolas; Michalzik, Beate; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2014-05-01

    European Beech (Fagus sylcatica L.) is particularly prone to produce large amounts of stemflow even during comparatively small precipitation events. This may lead to preferential flow and solute transport to greater depths next to the stem at lower precipitation heights than would be expected without considering water redistribution by the canopy. In this study we investigated the influence of beech stemflow on soil solution and seepage fluxes, based on observed quality of all precipitation components as well as soil water. For estimation of transport, the soil water flow was modeled. We measured concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+-N, NO3--N, Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in throughfall, stemflow and soil solution at depths of 10 cm and 30 cm and stem distances of 10 cm, 40 cm and 100 cm during autumn 2012 and spring and summer 2013. Throughfall and stemflow were sampled at 38 precipitation events during summer and autumn 2012 and summer 2013 from 192 (throughfall) and 16 (stemflow) collectors, respectively. Soil solutions were collected on 10 events during autumn 2012 and spring and summer 2013. Element fluxes were calculated from the chemical and hydrological measurements and model results. Water flow through the soil was calculated using the model VS2DTI and was based on Richard's equation and the model of van Genuchten and Mualem for predicting unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The model also accounted for evapotranspiration, which was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation with meteorological data from a nearby weather station. Longterm time series of throughfall and stemflow were estimated based on the observed relations and using rainfall data from the same weather station. Since the actual stemflow infiltration area was unknown, two scenarios with assumed infiltration areas of 1 m² and 2.76 m² were calculated. All concentrations and fluxes were within the range of published results. However, stemflow

  3. Photosynthetic responses to ozone of upper and lower canopy leaves of Fagus crenata Blume seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinose, Yoshiyuki; Fukamachi, Yoshinobu; Okabe, Shigeaki; Hiroshima, Hiroka; Watanabe, Makoto; Izuta, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to clarify the effects of ozone (O3) on photosynthetic ability of upper and lower canopy leaves of Fagus crenata Blume seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions. To accomplish this objective, we analyzed the response of photosynthetic parameters such as maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) to cumulative stomatal O3 uptake (ΣFst) and reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst as an index of detoxification capacity for O3. The seedlings of Fagus crenata were grown for two growing seasons (2014-2015) in nine treatments comprised of a combination of three levels of gas treatments (charcoal-filtered air or 1.0- or 1.5-times ambient O3 concentration) and three levels of soil nutrient treatments (non-fertilized or a supply of relatively low or high concentrations of compound fertilizer). The nutrient supply significantly increased the degree of O3-induced reduction in Vcmax in September. However, nutrient supply did not significantly increase ΣFst and reduce the detoxification capacity for O3. On the other hand, the degree of O3-induced reduction in Vcmax of upper canopy leaves was higher as compared with that of lower canopy leaves in August due to the higher ΣFst. However, the reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst in lower canopy leaves was higher than that in upper canopy leaves, indicating lower detoxification capacity for O3 in lower canopy leaves. Reduction rate of Vcmax per unit ΣFst over the threshold, which is assumed to be proportional to gross photosynthetic rate, was similar between upper and lower canopy leaves. Therefore, capacity of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation is likely to be associated with detoxification capacity for O3 in upper and lower canopy leaves of F. crenata seedlings grown under different soil nutrient conditions.

  4. The influence of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzika, R.M.; Guyette, R.P.; Zielonka, T.; Liebhold, A.M

    2004-07-01

    Trends in tree growth rates can be explained by long-term effects of air pollution. - At 17 long-term pollution monitoring sites throughout the Carpathian Mountains, tree growth patterns and variation in growth rate were examined to determine relationship of tree growth to specific pollutants. Canopy dominant Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica were selected at each site. Basal area increment (BAI) values were calculated from raw ring widths and used as an estimate of tree growth. Across all sites, BAI chronologies were highly variable, therefore local conditions and forest structure accounted for considerable variation. Several significant relationships, however, implicated a role of pollutants on tree growth. Average levels (1997-1999) of NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were inversely related to BAI means (1989-1999). Although average O{sub 3} alone was not related to growth, the maximum O{sub 3} value reported at the sites was negatively correlated with overall growth. A variable representing the combined effect of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} was negatively correlated with both P. abies and F. sylvatica growth. Pollution data were used to categorize all sites into 'high' or 'low' pollution sites. Difference chronologies based on these categories indicated trends of decline in the 'high' pollution sites relative to 'low' pollution site. In the more heavily polluted sites, the BAI of Fagus sylvatica has declined approximately 50% and Picea abies has declined 20% over the past 45 years.

  5. [Age structure and dynamics of Quercus wutaishanica population in Lingkong Mountain of Shanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Shangguan, Tie-Liang; Duan, Yi-Hao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Wei-Hua; Guo, Dong-Gang

    2014-11-01

    Using the plant survivorship theory, the age structure, and the relationship between tree height and diameter (DBH) of Quercus wutaishanica population in Lingkong Mountain were analyzed, and the static life table was compiled and the survival curve plotted. The shuttle shape in age structure of Q. wutaishanica population suggested its temporal stability. The linear regression significantly fitted the positive correlation between tree height and DBH. The maximal life expectancy was observed among the trees beyond the age of the highest mortality and coincided with the lowest point of mortality density, suggesting the strong vitality of the seedlings and young trees that survived in the natural selection and intraspecific competition. The population stability of the Q. wutaishanica population was characterized by the Deevey-II of the survival curve. The dynamic pattern was characterized by the recession in the early phase, growth in the intermediate phase, and stability in the latter phase.

  6. Rapid Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles from Quercus incana and Their Antimicrobial Potential against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In current study, bioreduction of tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4·3H2O was carried out using leaves extract of Quercus incana for nanoparticle synthesis. The nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrum (UV, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis. The gold nanoparticles (GNPs were generally clumpy agglomerates of polydispersed particles, with an average size in the range 5.5–10 nm. The Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS qualitative analysis and FT-IR data supported the presence of bioactive compounds, which are responsible for the metal reduction and nanoparticles stabilization. The biocompatibility of synthesized GNPs was evaluated via antibacterial activity by using human bacterial pathogens. The results showed that synthesized GNPs showed enhanced antibacterial activity against all bacterial pathogens.

  7. Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten., an important host plant for folivorous lepidoptera larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulfan, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a structured analysis of lepidoptera larvae taxocenoses living in leaf bearing crowns of Dalechampii oak (Quercus dalechampii Ten. in nine study plots in the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Central Europe. The differences between lepidoptera taxocenoses in individual oak stands were analyzed. A total of 96 species and 2,140 individuals were found. Species abundance peaked in May, while number of species and species diversity reached the highest values from April to May and from April to June, respectively. Abundance showed two notable peaks in flush feeders and in late summer feeders. Lepidoptera taxocenosis in the study plot Horný háj (isolated forest, high density of ants differed significantly from all other taxocenoses according to Sörensen’s index of species similarity, species diversity, analysis of similarity on the basis of permutation and pairwise tests (ANOSIM, seasonal variability of species composition, and NMDS ordination.

  8. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide.

  9. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF QUERCUS SUBER L. IN LAZIO (CENTRAL ITALY: A CAUSALISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SCHIRONE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive statistical approach to the causalistic distribution of Quercus suber in Lazio (Central Italy, based on presence/absence data and mean values of an array of environmental variables standardized on a geographical 6,9 x 5,5 Km grid, shows that only temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope are significant. At this scale, soil conditions and aspect are apparently no limiting factors to the colonization ability of the species. A simulated potential range, based on this parameterization, identifies a larger area than the one occupied by the species today. It suggests that competition and human disturbance might account for the large gaps and discontinuities in the real range. Since inland disjunct outposts still lie either outside or at the boundary of this simulated range, their establishment is likely to have originated under macroclimatic conditions different from the present day ones.

  10. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY OF QUERCUS SUBER L. IN LAZIO (CENTRAL ITALY: A CAUSALISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. SPADA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive statistical approach to the causalistic distribution of Quercus suber in Lazio (Central Italy, based on presence/absence data and mean values of an array of environmental variables standardized on a geographical 6,9 x 5,5 Km grid, shows that only temperature, precipitation, elevation and slope are significant. At this scale, soil conditions and aspect are apparently no limiting factors to the colonization ability of the species. A simulated potential range, based on this parameterization, identifies a larger area than the one occupied by the species today. It suggests that competition and human disturbance might account for the large gaps and discontinuities in the real range. Since inland disjunct outposts still lie either outside or at the boundary of this simulated range, their establishment is likely to have originated under macroclimatic conditions different from the present day ones.

  11. Epigenetic marks in the mature pollen of Quercus suber L. (Fagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Viegas, Wanda; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2009-03-01

    We have analysed the distribution of epigenetic marks for histone modifications at lysine residues H3 and H4, and DNA methylation, in the nuclei of mature pollen cells of the Angiosperm tree Quercus suber; a monoecious wind pollinated species with a protandrous system, and a long post-pollination period. The ultrasonic treatment developed for the isolation of pollen nuclei proved to be a fast and reliable method, preventing the interference of cell wall autofluorescence in the in situ immunolabelling assays. In contrast with previous studies on herbaceous species with short progamic phases, our results are consistent with a high level of silent (5-mC and H3K9me2) epigenetic marks on chromatin of the generative nucleus, and the prevalence of active marks (H3K9me3 and H4Kac) in the vegetative nucleus. The findings are discussed in terms of the pollination/fertilization timing strategy adopted by this plant species.

  12. Genetic transformation of selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Alonso, P; Cortizo, M; Celestino, C; Hernández, I; Toribio, M; Ordás, R J

    2004-10-01

    A transformation system for selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA105, LBA4404 or AGL1 harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint [carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (uidA) genes]. The highest transformation efficiency (4%) was obtained when freshly isolated explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Evidence of stable transgene integration was obtained by PCR for the nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos were germinated and successfully transferred to soil.

  13. Symptoms of the naturalisation of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. in Polish forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielewicz Władysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L., the natural range of which embraces southern Europe and Asia Minor, belongs to trees rarely introduced into Polish forests. Tree stands where it appears, established before the Second World War, can be found in some 20 localities, mostly in the western part of the country. Because this species is capable of a natural renewal in a woodland environment, a research was made to find in what conditions and how far it undergoes spontaneous naturalisation. Three study sites were chosen in the forests of central Wielkopolska. An inventory was made of mature stands of the Turkey oak and its generative renewal. Plant communities in which the young generation of Q. cerris usually appears were characterised. It was found that self-sown seedlings of this species grew at a distance of up to 2,500 m from parent trees. The highest number and the greatest density of specimens of the secondary generation of the Turkey oak were found at ‘Racot’, which is a 100-hectare, mid-field woodland island where mesotrophic habitats predominate and where about 50% of the area is occupied by communities with manmade pine tree stands. At all sites, Q. cerris penetrates primarily this type of deformed phytocoenoses, developing mostly on former farmland. It has become a permanent component of the underbrush and undergrowth in them, and in some places, it also makes up the tree layer. It was observed that in the study area, it penetrated the woodland environment much more effectively than Quercus rubra, considered an invasive species. The expansion of the Turkey oak in several of the examined localities can be regarded as a basic manifestation of its naturalisation in places where there are phytocoenoses with pine stands in broad-leaf forest habitats in the neighbourhood of parent trees.

  14. Considerations for Sustainable Biomass Production in Quercus-Dominated Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor; Yan, Shuai; Hochbichler, Eduard

    2013-04-01

    Our current energy system is mainly based on carbon (C) intensive metabolisms, resulting in great effects on the earth's biosphere. The majority of the energy sources are fossil (crude oil, coal, natural gas) and release CO2 in the combustion (oxidation) process which takes place during utilization of the energy. C released to the atmosphere was once sequestered by biomass over a time span of millions of years and is now being released back into the atmosphere within a period of just decades. In the context of green and CO2 neutral Energy, there is an on-going debate regarding the potentials of obtaining biomass from forests on multiple scales, from stand to international levels. Especially in the context of energy, it is highlighted that biomass is an entirely CO2 neutral feedstock since the carbon stored in wood originates from the atmospheric CO2 pool and it was taken up during plant growth. It needs systems approaches in order to justify this statement and ensure sustainability covering the whole life-cycle from biomass production to (bio)energy consumption. There are a number of Quercus woodland management systems focussing solely on woody biomass production for energetic utilization or a combination with traditional forestry and high quality timber production for trades and industry. They have often developed regionally as a consequence of specific demands and local production capacities, which are mainly driven by environmental factors such as climate and soil properties. We assessed the nutritional status of a common Quercus-dominated forest ecosystem in northern Austria, where we compared biomass- with belowground C and nutrient pools in order to identify potential site limits if the management shifts towards systems with a higher level of nutrient extraction. Heterogeneity of soils, and soil processes are considered, as well as other, growth-limiting factors (e.g. precipitation) and species-specific metabolisms and element translocation.

  15. Antibacterial effects of Quercus Brantii fruits and Stachys lavandulifolia methanol extracts on imipenemase-type metallo-beta lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F. Shahi; A. Hashemi; Kh. Abdolmaleki; Z. Shahi; Sh. Amraei; H. Goudarzi; F. Fallah; S. Khoshnood

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Stachys lavandulifolia and Quercus brantii on the IMP-type metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods...

  16. Removal of acorns of the alien oak Quercus rubra on the ground by scatter-hoarding animals in Belgian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merceron, NR.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Quercus rubra L. is considered an invasive species in several European countries. However, little is known about its dispersal in the introduced range. Objectives. We investigated the significance of animal dispersal of Q. rubra acorns on the ground by vertebrates in its introduced range, and identified the animal species involved. Method. During two consecutive autumns, the removal of acorns from Q. rubra and from a native oak was assessed weekly in forest sites in Belgium. We used automated detection camera traps to identify the animals that removed acorns. Results. Quercus rubra acorns were removed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L., red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L., rats (Rattus sp., and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.. The two former are scatter-hoarding rodents and can be considered potential dispersers. Conclusions. Dispersal of Q. rubra acorns in Western Europe by scatter-hoarding animals may help the species increasingly colonize forest ecosystems.

  17. Early markers are present in both embryogenesis pathways from microspores and immature zygotic embryos in cork oak, Quercus suber L

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Quercus suber, cork oak, a Mediterranean forest tree of economic and social interest, rapid production of isogenic lines and clonal propagation of elite genotypes have been achieved by developing in vitro embryogenesis from microspores and zygotic embryos respectively. Despite its high potential in tree breeding strategies, due to their recalcitrancy, the efficiency of embryogenesis in vitro systems in many woody species is still very low since factors responsible for embryogen...

  18. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis decne

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Y

    1984-01-01

    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the Yahudia Forest; the inventory of vertebrates; the inventory of vegetation, analysing composition and mapping; described and researched Quercus ithaburensis from various aspects, wit...

  19. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis Decne

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Y.

    1984-01-01

    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the Yahudia Forest; the inventory of vertebrates; the inventory of vegetation, analysing composition and mapping; described and researched Quercus ithaburensis from various aspects, with emphasis on phenolo...

  20. First Report of the Winter Moth Operophtera brumata on Quercus canariensis and Q. afares in North West of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaussra Mannai; Olfa Ezzine; Said Nouira; Mohamed Lahbib Ben Jamâa

    2015-01-01

    Operophtera brumata is a newly detected moth in Tunisia. It is considered the most important leaffeeding pest infesting fruit trees and deciduous forests in northern Europe. A recent outbreak of the winter moths was observed between 2009 and 2014 in oak forest in the North West of Tunisia with a peak density in 2010-2011. O. brumata was observed on totally defoliated Quercus canariensis and Q. afares. In this paper, we present a first report of this pest.

  1. Effects of experimental warming, litter species, and presence of macroinvertebrates on litter decomposition and associated decomposers in a temperate mountain stream

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferreira, Verónica; Chauvet, Eric; Canhoto, Cristina

    .... Here we report on a manipulative study aiming at evaluating the effects of warming (+2.8 °C), litter identity (chestnut (Castanea sativa) or oak (Quercus robur) litter), and the structure of the detrital food web...

  2. Propagación in vitro de encinos mexicanos (Quercus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Silvestre Delgadillo-Díaz de León

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de ofrecer una alternativa a los sistemas convencionales de propagación, se desarrolló un protocolo para la multiplicación in vitro de cuatro especies mexicanas deQuercus, las cuales son explotadas para la producción de madera y carbón y están actualmente amenazadas. Se describe la inducción de brotes múltiples a partir de embriones cigóticos deQuercus castanea,Q. eduardii,Q. resinosayQ. rugosacultivados en medio de Murashige y Skoo-genriquecido con 6-bencilaminopurina (BA o cinetina. Los resultados mostraron que ambas citocininas afectaron la regeneración de brotes, donde la BA mostró la mayor efi ciencia. La mayor frecuencia de proliferación de brotes se observó enQ. castaneayQ. eduardii(91.7%, dando promedios de 6.3 y 6.5 brotes por explante al utilizar 3.0 y 4.0 mg l-1de BA, respectivamente. ParaQ. resinosa, la mejor respuesta fue obtenida con BA a 3.0 mg l-1produciendo 3.8 brotes por explante. Finalmente,Q. rugosaprodujo 3.6 brotes por explante con 1.0 mg l-1de BA. Los brotes fueron separados de las plántulas y transferidos a un medio basal a la mitad de su concentración enriquecido con 10.0 mg l-1de ac. indolbutírico por dos a cinco días, y luego transferidos a medio a la mitad de su concentración para su enraizamiento. Bajo estas condiciones, el 100, 100, 66.7 y 83.3% de los brotes deQ. castanea,Q. eduardii,Q. resinosayQ. rugosageneraron raíces, respectivamente. Las plántulas fueron aclimatadas a suelo en condiciones de invernadero de manera exitosa con frecuencias de sobrevivencia de 80% paraQ. castanea, 83.3% paraQ. eduardii, 73.3% paraQ. resinosa, y 70.0% paraQ. rugosa. Este método de propagación in vitro puede contribuir a la producción de plantas con fines de reforestación apoyando así la conservación y uso racional de estas especies.

  3. Evaluating the species- and site-specific differences in the physiological response of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Rothe, Andreas; Treydte, Kerstin

    2013-04-01

    Sensitive regions like the Alps are very vulnerable to climate change. Especially warmer temperatures and a higher frequency of drought periods may imply strong effects on mountain ecosystems. In the Northern Limestone Alps, temperatures were already 1 °C higher (compared to the reference period 1941-1970) in the last two decades. Within a Bavarian-Austrian EU-project (INTERREG program) we investigated long-term growth patterns of mountain tree species and a possible growth effect caused by climate change using a dendroecological approach. In total we measured the ring widths of ~1300 living, on average 180 year old trees. The samples were taken along altitudinal gradients, ranging from 500 up to 1700 m a.s.l., in five different regions in the Northern Austrian and Bavarian Limestone Alps, covering the most prevalent coniferous (Picea abies, Abies alba, Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris) and broad-leafed (Fagus sylvatica, Acer pseudoplatanus) mountain forest species. To get more detailed information about the physiological response to climate and especially drought events of different tree species, an additional study was conducted in the Kalkalpen Nationalpark, Austria. Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) of Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua tree-rings (8 trees per species and site) were analysed at three different sites. The sites are located at the montane elevation level (900 m a.s.l.) on a south-facing and a north-facing slope as well on a plateau situation with deeper soils. Our main focus deals with the following questions: i) Is it possible to identify "drought events" in a region like the Alps with generally humid precipitation conditions (1400 mm/a), by analysing stable isotopes in tree rings? ii) Are there species- and/or site-specific differences in the isotopic signatures - also with respect to the trees' climate response? We will present (i) the isotopic signatures for the common period 1970-2010, (ii) their response to climate conditions

  4. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

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    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall extracts against multidrug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Nor Amilah, W A W; Masrah, M; Hasmah, A; Noor Izani, N J

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial activities of plants have long been evaluated for their promising use as antimicrobial agent and in minimizing the unwanted resistance effects of microorganisms. The study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Quercus infectoria gall crude extracts against multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vitro. The screening test was determined by disc diffusion technique using sterile filter paper discs impregnated with 1 mg/ disc (50 mg/ml) aqueous and ethanol extracts of Q. infectoria galls tested on five selected MDR bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the twofold serial micro dilution technique at concentration ranging from 5.00 mg/ml to 0.01 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by sub culturing the microtitre wells showing no turbidity on the agar plate to obtain the MBC value. Both extracts showed substantial inhibitory effects against methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A slightly reduced inhibitory zone diameter was observed with MDR Acinetobacter sp. while no inhibitory effect was displayed among the extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) K. pneumoniae and ESBL E. coli isolates. A significant difference in the zone sizes between both extracts was only observed in MRSA (p antibacterial activities and may be considered as a potentially good source of antimicrobial agent especially against MDR Gram positive bacteria.

  6. Scaling-up method for stand water consumption of Quercus variabilis water conservation forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huatian; XING Lifeng; MA Lüyi; SUN Pengsen

    2006-01-01

    Single tree's sapwood scattering style and diurnal water consumption rhythm for different diameter classes were studied in a 48-year-old Quercus variabilis stand,water protection forest in Beijing.Results showed that the tree's sapwood area was closely related to diameter at breast height (DBH).Single tree's daily water consumption ascended as DBH and sapwood area increased.Daily water consumption of different diameter classes in September ascended steeply in the early morning and reached the peak around 11:00,and then descended slowly to the valley at 18:00.The course of daily accumulated water consumption was in accordance with a typical Richards model (R=0.985,8).Parameters of diameter-time equation for scal ing-up can be achieved by parameter-recovering method in the gradient of all diameter classes and at any time of a day,characteristic parameters of the course of daily stand water consumption were calculated from a modulated Richards equation derivative:Wdltl = (-7.147 + 1.174dl )[1- (-3,025.937 +di2.175)1/e(-0.01 1tj) ]1-di0.242

  7. Morphological variation of Quercus Iiaotungensis leaves in Lingkong Mountain,Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; HAN Hairong; KANG Fengfeng; MA Qinyan

    2007-01-01

    In order to study variation of morphological traits and the influencing factors of natural populations of Quercus liaotungensis Koidz.in Lingkong Mountain Nature Reserve of Shanxi region,five populations were included,and 24 morphological traits of leaf and apical bud were investigated.The analysis of variance showed that variation of all the morphological traits within population were significant,whereas significant difference existed in five property indices among populations (α = 0.05),which resulted from genetic and environmental factors.The results revealed that direction and degree of slope,average diameter at breast height in populations,and population density were the main influencing factors.Intrapopulation variation mainly contributed to morphological variation,and the phenotypic differentiation coefficient was 13.31%,which indicated low level of differentiation.But several characteristics exhibited high differentiation level,such as width of the tooth of leaf base (25.99%) and the middle apical bud (25.23%).The morphological indices,including the tooth of leaf base,leaf tip,petiole,and leaf area were precarious and changed a lot within population,which arose from the variation of individual's development.However,only two morphological indices,the middle apical bud and the tooth of leaf base,are unstable,which indicates the extensive influence of environmental factors.

  8. FENOLOGÍA DEL ROBLE (Quercus humboldtii Bonpland EN POPAYÁN (CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    CRISTIAN ANDRÉS PÉREZ L.

    Full Text Available Se realizó un registro fenológico del roble Quercus humboldtii Bonpland entre marzo del 2010 y marzo de 2011 - en el municipio de Popayán (Cauca, Colombia. La producción de flores femeninas y frutos jóvenes se presentó entre finales de marzo y principios de abril, correlacionándose positivamente estas dos fenofases durante todo el año con la temperatura (r=0,64 y r=0,44, respectivamente y en los inicios de estas dos fenofases se correlacionó con la precipitación (r=0,69 y r=0,92 respectivamente. Los frutos maduros aparecieron en mayo, aunque su cantidad se redujo hacia el final del año 2010 por el aborto de frutos en los meses anteriores. La actividad vegetativa se caracterizó por la presencia permanente de hojas nuevas, maduras, amarillas, sobremaduras y caída de follaje. Sin embargo, en agosto, debido al aumento significativo de la temperatura y a la disminución en la precipitación, se observó en los árboles caída de follaje, disminución de hojas maduras y producción de hojas nuevas.

  9. The effect of Quercus brantii gall extract on burn wound healing in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Baradaran Mahdavi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Najafi, Somaye; Zandifar, Alireza; Manouchehri, Navid; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Quercus brantii galls extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of the galls of Q. brantii was used to treat the induced burn wounds on the back of 32 Wistar rats divided into 4 groups. The groups were treated by placebo, 1%, 2% and 4% concentration gall extract gels for 14 days and the efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound area, as well as histological and molecular characteristics. Results: The mean wound surface in the 14th day, in all groups treated by Q. brantii gall extracts were larger than control group and the differences were statistically significant (P=0.043). The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Analysis of nitric oxide and platelet derived growth factor concentration in wound fluids in the 5th day of study showed that there was not any significant difference between groups (P=0.468 and 0.312 respectively). Fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) concentration in the wound fluids, was significantly higher in group treated with 1% gall extract gel in comparison to the control group (P=0.026). Conclusion: Our results could not prove the significant positive effect of Q. brantii galls extract on the burning wound healing. More studies with more groups treated with different doses of the Q. brantii extract are recommended. PMID:27872712

  10. [Predicting the impact of global warming on the geographical distribution pattern of Quercus variabilis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xing-wang; Fang, Yan-ming

    2014-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Quercus variabilis in China with its climate characteristics was analyzed based on DIVA-GIS which was also used to estimate the response of future potential distribution to global warming by Bioclim and Domain models. Analysis results showed the geographical distribution of Q. variabilis could be divided into 7 subregions: Henduan Mountains, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China, East China, Liaodong-Shandong Peninsula, Taiwan Island, and Qinling-Daba Mountains. These subregions are across 7 temperature zones, 2 moisture regions and 17 climatic subregions, including 8 climate types. The modern abundance center of Q. variabilis is Qinling, Daba and Funiu mountains. The condition of mean annual temperature 7.5-19.8 degrees C annual precipitation 471-1511 mm, is suitable for Q. variabilis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values), of Domain and Boiclim models were 0.910, 0.779; the former predicted that the potential regions of high suitability for Q. variabilis are Qinling, Daba, Funiu, Tongbai, and Dabie mountains, eastern and western Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, hills of southern Jiangsu and Anhui, part of the mountains in North China. Global warming might lead to the shrinking in suitable region and retreating from the south for Q. variabilis.

  11. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardans, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF - Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: j.sardans@creaf.uab.cat; Penuelas, J. [Unitat d' Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, CREAF, Centre de Recerca Ecologica d' Aplicacions Forestals, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 g ha{sup -1}) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. - Drought increased biomass concentrations of As and Cd and favors exportation of some trace elements to continental waters in a Mediterranean forest.

  12. PAHs in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and PAH dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric PAH contamination on soil PAH content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and PAH dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The PAHs showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The PAHs in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, PAH dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a PAH increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene.

  13. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Archa

    2009-01-01

    A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens -- Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated) and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated). The cup-plate method was used in anti-bacterial activity of the extracts at concentration of 200 mg/ml against dental pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of most effective extracts against the most susceptible bacteria were determined using a two-fold serial micro dilution method. Methanolic extract showed maximum anti-bacterial activity against all the bacteria. The most susceptible bacteria were S. sanguis followed by S. aureus, S. mutans, S. salivarius and L. acidophilus. The MIC values showed that methanolic extract was more effective than water extract. The plant has the potential to generate herbal metabolites. The crude extracts demonstrating anti-dental caries activity could result in the discovery of new chemical classes of antibiotics. These chemical classes of antibiotics could serve as selective agents for the maintenance of human health and provide bio-chemical tools for the study of infectious diseases.

  14. A phytosociological analysis of the Quercus coccifera L. stands in south Albania (NE Mediterranean

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    Jasprica Nenad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a phytosociological investigation of the Quercus coccifera L. stands occurring along the Adriatic and Ionian coasts in south Albania are given. The surveyed stands are localized in the Thermo-Mediterranean and Meso-Mediterranean belts. On the basis of literature and unpublished data, Q. coccifera stands extend from the shoreline up to 680 m of altitude, within the Quercetea ilicis vegetation zone. According to numerical analysis, Q. coccifera stands in south Albania can be divided into two broad groups forming macchia of 3–4 m height and low shrublands [0.5–1.5(-2 m] defined primarily by degree of human pressure and altitudes. In addition, relevés from Q. coccifera stands in Albania were differentiated from Croatian and Montenegrin the Fraxino orni-Quercetum cocciferae associations. Conversely, Q. coccifera stands in south Albania share several biological and ecological similarities with those of the eastern Adriatic coast: hemicryptophytes prevailed and the chorological spectrum highlights a clear dominance of the steno-Mediterraneans. With respect to indicator values, an important differentiation from the eastern Adriatic associations was shown only in higher light intensity of the stands in Albania.

  15. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

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    Marcela Soto-García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE and organic extract (OE. The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1±12.0 GAE/g. Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC; OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg and the extracts (50 mg/kg were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets.

  16. [Effects of coat and sowing depth on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Fui; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Kao-Wen; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Under shade environment in glasshouse, the effects of seed coat and sowing depth (0, 2, 5, 10 or 15 cm) on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica were studied. Seed coat had obvious inhibiting effects on the germination of Q. wutaishanica seeds. The germination percentage of uncoated seeds increased significantly, averagely by 19.4% at different sowing depths. The germination index and vigor index were increased significantly and the germination was speeded in the peeling treatment. The germination percentages of uncoated and coated seeds were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm with 78.9% and 62.2%, respectively. The germination index and vigor index were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm, while the coefficient of rate of germination were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm. Leaf area per seedling and dry mass of seedlings increased significantly in the peeling treatment compared with those in the unpeeling treatment, but specific root length decreased significantly. The shoot height in the peeling and unpeeling treatments were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm with 13.8 and 14.2 cm, respectively. With the increasing of sowing depth, the basal stem diameter of seedlings increased, but tap-root length, number of lateral root and maximum of lateral root all decreased. Sowing depth had little influence on dry mass of seedlings.

  17. Nutrient composition and starch characteristics of Quercus glandulifera Bl. seeds from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songnan; Zhou, Yibin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Shengnan

    2015-10-15

    The chemical composition and starch characteristics of acorn (Quercus glandulifera Bl.) were studied. The moisture content of acorn seeds was 7.55%. The crude fat, crude protein, dietary fiber, total ash, and nitrogen-free extract contents of acorn seed were 4.20%, 10.16%, 2.95%, 0.03%, and 82.66%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic were the most predominant fatty acids. UFA:SFA and SFA:MUFA:PUFA ratios were 2.6:1 and 1.25:1.34:1, respectively. The essential amino acid content from acorn seeds was low based on FAO reference values. Acorn seeds were a good source of Fe, Zn, and Mn. The contents of vitamins A and E were 1.40 mg RE/100g and 10.78 mg/100 g, respectively. Starch extracted from acorn seeds had round, triangle, and elliptical morphology with granule size of 3.3-126.2 μm. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin contents was 25.39:72.94. Acorn starch had a typical A-type crystal pattern with 23.53% relative crystallinity. The gelatinization temperature was 66.53 °C and the transition enthalpy was 4.33 J/g.

  18. Conservation Strategies for the Threatened Quercus Semecarpifolia Sm. A Himalayan Timberline Oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemlata BISHT

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. is a temperate, timberline, multipurpose oak species. It plays an important role in the Himalayan ecosystem. Human pressure, predation, short-lived acorns, failure of good seed crop every year, poor regeneration, desiccation, frost sensitivity and climate change may lead to complete extinction of the species in a near future. Immediate attention to conservation and restoration measures of the Himalayan ecosystem, in which this species grows, is required. Thus, an experiment was designed to analyze the role of planting stock and micro-sites for the regeneration of Q. semecarpifolia in-situ. For that purpose, 16 microsites with presence/absence of litter, canopy and sunlight were identified, where seeds/propagules were planted. The presence of litter, canopy and sunlight influenced the seedling production, mainly impairing the processes, leading to the expansion in diameter of the radicle, causing shoot/root emergence. Radicle emergence took place in all the seeds immediately after shedding but only 20% of seedlings recovered; however, when the stored seeds were sown as soon as the emerging radicle attained 10-15cm in length and 2-3cm in diameter, 80% of seedlings were recovered. Surprisingly, after being detached from the seed the swollen radicle acted as a propagule and produced 80% seedlings irrespective of the microsites; however, radicles detached prior to diameter expansion failed to produce seedlings which is a crucial insight for promoting seedling production.

  19. Oak (Quercus Floribunda: A Prominent Indigenous Multipurpose Tree for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Potential

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    K. K. Pandey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic growth model (CO2FIX has been used for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of Oak (Quercus floribunda, an indigenous multipurpose tree used for timber, fuel wood, fiber and specially fodder in addition to its ability of soil binder. The present study has been carried out in the campus of V.C.S.G. College of Horticulture, U.U.H.F., Bharsar, Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand. It is capable of thriving on snow and heavy rainfall condition. CO2FIX was parameterized for a simulation of 100 years respectively. The results indicate that the long term tree biomass accumulated was 120.11 t/ha in above ground and 79.89 t/ha in below ground (Soil Carbon component respectively at the end of simulation period assuming a tree density of 825t/ha (approximately. The net annual carbon sequestration for Oak over the entire simulation period was 1.9 Mg C ha-1 yr -1 (t/ha/yr. Useful for scientific planning and effective implementation of Forestry and Agroforestry developmental programmes at district level as well as at State level for the development of country. For future research work following are few suggestions for better planning and development of State. This type of study can be taken including other parameters/resources such as different trees, different area, and different state and different country as well.

  20. Behavior of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. wood to different thermal treatments

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    Todaro L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quercus pubescens Willd. is a common oak species in the Mediterranean area, where it is currently exploited mainly for purposes such as firewood. To improve the technological properties of its wood, various steaming and/or heat treatments were applied to 160 wood samples from a southern Italian stand, cut from either sapwood or heartwood, while 20 samples served as controls. Steaming was carried out in an autoclave at 120 °C, whereas heat treatments were performed in an oven at 150 or 200 °C for 3 or 6 h. The equilibrium moisture content, swelling, mass loss, wood density, compression strength, color variation, and lignin content of the samples were measured and compared among treatments. The swelling and water adsorption of wood samples decreased due to the hydrothermal treatments. The mass loss was strictly related to the temperature and duration of the heat treatments, whereas it was not influenced by the steaming treatment. The average axial compression strength value was positively influenced by the combination of steaming and heat treatments. A significant and general darkening of color was also observed for the harshest treatments, while an increase of lignin content was detected mainly in the sapwood. Thus, pubescent oak wood subjected to steaming and heat treatments may acquire useful characteristics suitable for its industrial use.

  1. The bulk elastic modulus and the reversible properties of cell walls in developing Quercus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takami; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Terashima, Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    We examined the relationship between the bulk elastic modulus (epsilon) of an individual leaf obtained by the pressure-volume (P-V) technique and the mechanical properties of cell walls in the leaf. The plants used were Quercus glauca and Q. serrata, an evergreen and a deciduous broad-leaved tree species, respectively. We compared epsilon and Young's modulus of leaf specimens determined by the stretch technique at various stages of their leaf development. The results showed that epsilon increased from approximately 5 to 20 MPa during leaf development, although other potential determinants of epsilon such as the apoplastic water content in the leaf and the diameter of a palisade tissue cells remained almost constant. epsilon in these two species was similar at every developmental stages, although the apparent mechanical strength of the leaf lamina and thickness of mesophyll cell walls were greater in Q. glauca. There were significant linear relationships between Young's modulus and epsilon (P < 0.01; R (2) = 0.78 and 0.84 in Q. glauca and Q. serrata, respectively) with small y-intercepts. From these results, we conclude that epsilon is closely related to the reversible properties of the cell walls. From the estimation of epsilon based on a physical model, we suggest that the effective thickness of cell walls responsible for epsilon is smaller than the observed wall thickness.

  2. Detection of hybrids in nature: application to oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarella, C; Lorenzo, Z; Jabbour-Zahab, R; Lumaret, R; Guichoux, E; Petit, R J; Soto, A; Gil, L

    2009-05-01

    Powerful and accurate detection of first-generation (F1) hybrids and backcrosses in nature is needed to achieve a better understanding of the function and dynamics of introgression. To document the frequency of ongoing interspecific gene exchange between two Mediterranean evergreen oaks, the cork oak (Quercus suber) and the holm oak (Q. ilex), we analyzed 1487 individuals originating from across the range of the two species using eight microsatellite loci and two Bayesian clustering approaches (implemented in the programs STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS). Simulated data were used to assess the differences between the two clustering methods and to back up the choice of the threshold value for the posterior probability to discriminate admixed from pure individuals. We found that the use of STRUCTURE resulted in the highest power to detect hybrids, whereas NEWHYBRIDS provided the highest accuracy. Irrespective of the approach, the two species were clearly distinguished as independent genetic entities without any prior information. In contrast with previous reports, we found no evidence for unidirectional introgression. The overall hybridization rate was very low (<2% of introgressed individuals). Only two individuals were identified as F1 hybrids and five as early backcrosses. This work shows that the combined application of the two complementary Bayesian approaches and their systematic validation with simulations, fit for the case at hand, helps gain resolution in the identification of admixed individuals.

  3. Quercus Suber L. Cork Extracts Induce Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukaemia HL-60 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ignacio; Godoy-Cancho, Belén; Franco, Lourdes; Martínez-Cañas, Manuel A; Tormo, María A

    2015-08-01

    Quercus suber L. cork contains a diversity of phenolic compounds, mostly low molecular weight phenols. A rising number of reports support with convergent findings that polyphenols evoke pro-apoptotic events in cancerous cells. However, the literature related to the anti-cancer bioactivity of Q. suber L. cork extractives (QSE) is still limited. Herein, we aim to describe the antitumor potential displayed by cork extractives obtained by different extraction methods in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. In order to quantify the effects of QSE on cancer cells viability, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle were evaluated. The results indicated that the QSE present a time-dependent and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. Such a noxious effect leads these leukaemia cells to their death through apoptotic processes by altering the mitochondrial outer membrane potential, activating caspase-3 and externalizing phosphatidylserine. However, cells cycle progression was not affected by the treatments. This study contributes to open a new way to use this natural resource by exploiting its anti-cancer properties. Moreover, it opens new possibilities of application of cork by-products, being more efficient in the sector of cork-based agriculture. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Assessment of ploidy stability of the somatic embryogenesis process in Quercus suber L. using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, J; Pinto, G; Lopes, T; Dolezel, J; Santos, C

    2005-08-01

    Flow cytometry analyses were used to verify the ploidy stability of Quercus suber L. somatic embryogenesis process. Leaf explants of two adult cork oak trees (QsG0 and QsG5) of the North of Portugal were inoculated on MS medium with 2,4-D and zeatin. After 3 months, calluses with embryogenic structures were isolated and transferred to fresh MS medium without growth regulators and somatic embryo evolution was followed. Morphologically normal somatic embryos (with two cotyledons) and abnormal somatic embryos (with one or three cotyledons) were used in this assay. Flow cytometry combined with propidium iodide staining was employed to estimate DNA ploidy levels and nuclear DNA content of somatic embryos and leaves from mother plants. No significant differences (P< or =0.05) were detected among embryos, and between the embryos and the mother plants. Also, after conversion of these embryos, no significant morphological differences were observed among the somatic embryo-derived plants. These results and further studies using converted plantlet leaves and embryogenic callus tissue indicate that embryo cultures and converted plantlets were stable with regard to ploidy level. As no major somaclonal variation was detected our primary goal of "true-to-type" propagation of cork oak using somatic embryogenesis was assured at this level. The estimation of the 2C nuclear DNA content for this species is similar to the previously obtained value.

  5. Recurrent fires and environment shape the vegetation in Quercus suber L. woodlands and maquis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Curt, Thomas; Véla, Errol; Tatoni, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    The effects of fire recurrence on vegetation patterns in Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus communities in Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems of south-eastern France were examined on stands belonging to 5 fire classes, corresponding to different numbers of fires (from 0 to 4) and time intervals between fires since 1959. A common pool of species was identified among the plots, which was typical of both open and closed maquis. Fire recurrence reduced the abundance of trees and herbs, whereas it increased the abundance of small shrubs. Richness differed significantly between the most contrasting classes of fire recurrence, with maximal values found in control plots and minimal values in plots that had burned recurrently and recently. Equitability indices did not vary significantly, in contrast to Shannon's diversity index which mostly correlated with richness. Forest ecosystems that have burnt once or twice in the last 50 years were resilient; that is to say they recovered a biomass and composition similar to that of the pre-fire state. However, after more than 3-4 fires, shrubland communities displayed lower species richness and diversity indices than unburned plots. The time since the last fire and the number of fires were the most explanatory fire variables, governing the structure of post-fire plant communities. However, environmental factors, such as slope or exposure, also made a significant contribution. Higher rates of fire recurrence can affect the persistence or expansion of shrublands in the future, as observed in other Mediterranean areas.

  6. Proteins associated with cork formation in Quercus suber L. stem tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Cândido P P; Martins, Isabel; Francisco, Rita; Sergeant, Kjell; Pinheiro, Carla; Campos, Alexandre; Renaut, Jenny; Fevereiro, Pedro

    2011-08-12

    Cork (phellem) formation in Quercus suber stem was studied by proteomic analysis of young shoots of increasing age (Y0, Y1 and Y4) and recently-formed phellem (Y8Ph) and xylem (Y8X) from an 8-year-old branch. In this study 99 proteins were identified, 45 excised from Y8X and 54 from Y8Ph. These ones, specifically associated with phellem, are of "carbohydrate metabolism" (28%), "defence" (22%), "protein folding, stability and degradation" (19%), "regulation/signalling" (11%), "secondary metabolism" (9%), "energy metabolism" (6%), and "membrane transport" (2%). The identification in phellem of galactosidases, xylosidases, apiose/xylose synthase, laccases and diphenol oxidases suggests intense cell wall reorganization, possibly with participation of hemicellulose/pectin biosynthesis and phenol oxidation. The identification of proteasome subunits, heat shock proteins, cyclophylin, subtilisin-like proteases, 14-3-3 proteins, Rab2 protein and enzymes interacting with nucleosides/nucleic acids gives additional evidence for cellular reorganization, involving cellular secretion, protein turnover regulation and active control processes. The high involvement in phellem of defence proteins (thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, SGT1 protein, cystatin, and chitinases) suggests a strong need for cell protection from the intense stressful events occurring in active phellem, namely, desiccation, pests/disease protection, detoxification and cell death. Identically, highly enhanced defence functions were previously reported for potato periderm formation.

  7. Studies on the ectomycorrhizal community in a declining Quercus suber L. stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Enrico; Franceschini, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    This survey was carried out in a Quercus suber L. stand with many trees affected by the disease "oak decline". Its aim was to obtain information about both the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a declining Q. suber stand as a whole, and the ectomycorrhizal fungal community of individual tree (EFT) detected in healthy and diseased plants. To this end, we first categorized the trees into four different decline classes (one for healthy plants and three for diseased plants) and then, by using morphological and molecular tools, we identified the ectomycorrhizas isolated from samples collected near the trees with different declining classes. The ectomycorrhizal community as a whole was seen to be composed of numerous ectomycorrhizal fungal species, only some of which appeared to be dominant (Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and some species of Tomentella genus), while most occurred sporadically. Results show that all root tips observed are mycorrhized and that decline class does not influence the number of ectomycorrhizal root tips found in the EFTs, thus oak decline does not impact the investment in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. However, some statistical differences can be observed in the values of evenness and taxonomic distinctness in the EFT associated with trees with different states of health. Finally, both the analysis of similarity test and the ordination technique highlight a compositional difference between the EFT associated with trees in different health conditions, but also suggest that other factors may play a role in causing these differences.

  8. Demonstration of pectic polysaccharides in cork cell wall from Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, S M; Coimbra, M A; Delgadillo, I

    2000-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis were used to observe the cell wall changes that occur in cork with "mancha amarela", when compared to a standard cork. To mimic the microbial attack exhibited in cork with mancha amarela, the standard cork was treated enzymatically with commercial pectinase and hemicellulase preparations. The tissues treated with pectinase were comparable with those attacked with mancha amarela. Both were composed by deformed and wrinkly cells and exhibited cell wall separation at the middle lamella level, which suggests solubilization/removal of the pectic polysaccharides. The cork cell wall material, prepared as alcohol-insoluble residue, was fractionated by hot water (Pect(H)()2(O)) and hot dilute acid (Pect(acid)). The relatively large amount of hexuronic acid and the occurrence of Ara in the SPect(H)()2(O) and SPect(acid) allow to confirm, as far as we know, for the first time the presence of pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls of cork from Quercus suber L. They accounted for ca. 1.5% of the cork and may consist of polymers with long side chains of arabinosyl residues. These polymers have to be taken into account in any realistic model of the cork cell wall. Cork with mancha amarela contained a smaller amount of pectic polysaccharides (ca. 0.5%), which confirms that the cellular separation observed by SEM is related to the degradation/removal of the middle lamella pectic polysaccharides.

  9. Composition of suberin extracted upon gradual alkaline methanolysis of Quercus suber L. cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M H; Gil, A M; Silvestre, A J; Neto, C P

    2000-02-01

    The monomeric composition of suberin extracts obtained by gradual alkaline methanolysis of Quercus suber cork was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that 1-alkanols and alkanoic and alpha,omega-alkanedioic acids are preferentially removed upon mild alkaline conditions, whereas mid-chain-modified omega-hydroxyalkanoic acids are preferentially removed under stronger alkaline conditions. Saturated omega-hydroxyalkanoic acids are found to be abundant in all suberin extracts. These results are consistent with two distinct suberin fractions with different locations in cork cell walls and/or esterification degrees. It is proposed that these fractions correlate with the two main suberin peaks in the solid state (13)C NMR spectra of cork and suberin extracts. Quantitative GC-MS analysis showed that suberin monomers comprise approximately 30% (w/w) of the suberin extracts, the remaining comprising nonvolatile structures with high M(n) values, as measured by vapor pressure osmometry. The presence of a large fraction of high molecular weight aliphatic structures in suberin extracts is supported by the corresponding NMR spectra.

  10. Corky, a gypsy-like retrotransposon is differentially transcribed in Quercus suber tissues

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    Rocheta Margarida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs make up a large part of eukaryotic genomes. Due to their repetitive nature and to the fact that they harbour regulatory signals, TEs can be responsible for chromosomal rearrangements, movement of gene sequences and evolution of gene regulation and function. Retrotransposon ubiquity raises the question about their function in genomes and most are transcriptionally inactive due to rearrangements that compromise their activity. However, the activity of TEs is currently considered to have been one of the major processes in genome evolution. Findings We report on the characterization of a transcriptionally active gypsy-like retrotransposon (named Corky from Quercus suber, in a comparative and quantitative study of expression levels in different tissues and distinct developmental stages through RT-qPCR. We observed Corky’s differential transcription levels in all the tissues analysed. Conclusions These results document that Corky’s transcription levels are not constant. Nevertheless, they depend upon the developmental stage, the tissue analysed and the potential occurring events during an individuals’ life span. This modulation brought upon by different developmental and environmental influences suggests an involvement of Corky in stress response and during development.

  11. Antioxidant and biological properties of bioactive phenolic compounds from Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Fernandes, Iva; Cruz, Luís; Mateus, Nuno; Cabral, Miguel; de Freitas, Victor

    2009-12-09

    Phenolic compounds, namely, hydrolyzable tannins and low molecular weight phenolic compounds, were isolated and purified from Portuguese cork from Quercus suber L. Some of these compounds were studied to evaluate their antioxidant activity, including free-radical scavenging capacity (DPPH method) and reducing capacity (FRAP method). All compounds tested showed significant antioxidant activity, namely, antiradical and reducing properties. The antiradical capacity seemed to increase with the presence of galloyl groups. Regarding the reducing capacity, this structure-activity relationship was not so clear. These compounds were also studied to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect on the estrogen responsive human breast cancer cell line (ER+) MCF-7 and two other colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29). Generally, all the compounds tested exhibited, after a continuous exposure during a 48 h period, a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect. Relative inhibitory activity was primarily related to the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups (galloyl and HHDP moieties) found in the active structures, with more groups generally conferring increased effects, except for HHDP-di-galloyl-glucose. Mongolicain B showed a greater potential to inhibit the growth of the three cell lines tested, identical to the effect observed with castalagin. Since these compounds are structurally related with each other, this activity might be based within the C-glycosidic ellagitannin moiety.

  12. Cryopreservation of Quercus suber somatic embryos by encapsulation-dehydration and evaluation of genetic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Pedro; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Pinto, Glória; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Santos, Conceição

    2008-12-01

    We describe an encapsulation and dehydration procedure for the cryopreservation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) somatic embryos that resulted in at least 90% survival. Genetic stability of the regenerated material was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). Cryopreservation of embryogenic clusters involved encapsulation of each cluster in an alginate bead, followed by a 3-day culture in 0.7 M sucrose and subsequent desiccation to 25 or 35% water content (WC), followed by freezing in liquid nitrogen. Thawed, cryopreserved somatic embryos had high viability and exhibited long-term survival. No morphological differences were observed between somatic embryos desiccated to 25 and 35% WC. Analysis of DNA ploidy stability of control (i.e., encapsulated and dehydrated but not frozen) and cryopreserved material by flow cytometry showed no significant differences. Similarly, DNA-marker analyses (AFLPs and SSR) revealed no significant differences between control and cryopreserved samples at the DNA-sequence level. Nonetheless, because polymorphisms were found between control material and samples cryopreserved and desiccated to 25% WC, the 35% WC method is recommended for cryopreservation of this tissue type. Cryopreservation of Q. suber somatic embryos by this encapsulation-dehydration procedure has potential for use in long-term conservation programs.

  13. Histology of Organogenic and Embryogenic Responses in Cotyledons of Somatic Embryos of Quercus Suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigderrajols; Celestino; Suils; Toribio; Molinas

    2000-05-01

    In cork oak (Quercus suber L.), recurrent embryogenesis is produced in vitro through autoembryony without exogenous plant growth regulators (PGRs); secondary embryos appear on the embryo axis but seldom on cotyledons. Focusing mainly on the histological origin of neoformations, we investigated the influence of the embryo axis and exogenous PGRs on the embryogenic potential of somatic embryo cotyledons. Isolated cotyledons of somatic embryos became necrotic when cultured on PGR-free medium but gave secondary embryos when cultured on media containing benzyladenine and naphthaleneacetic acid. Cotyledons of cork oak somatic embryos are competent to give embryogenic responses. Isolated cotyledons without a petiole showed a lower percentage of embryogenic response than did those with a petiole. In petioles, somatic embryos arose from inner parenchyma tissues following a multicellular budding pattern. Joined to the embryo axis, cotyledons did not show morphogenic responses when cultured on PGR-free medium but revealed budlike and phylloid formations when cultured on medium with PGRs. The different morphogenic behavior displayed by somatic cotyledons indicates an influence of the embryo axis and indicates a relationship between organogenic and embryogenic regeneration pathways.

  14. Cryopreservation of embryogenic cultures from mature Quercus suber trees using vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Silvia; Toribio, Mariano; Celestino, Cristina; Vieitez, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in somatic embryogenesis from selected mature trees of Quercus suber, has led to a demand for maintenance of a large number of selected embryogenic lines. To facilitate the management of this material a protocol for the long-term storage of this germplasm should be defined. This study reports on the use of a simple vitrification procedure for the successful cryopreservation of three cork oak embryogenic lines. High embryo recovery levels (88-93 percent) were obtained by first preculturing 2-4 mg clumps of two or three globular embryos on semisolid medium containing 0.3 M sucrose for three days, followed by incubation in PVS2 vitrification solution at 0 degree C for 60 min before direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. The mean number of embryos produced per explant was significantly greater for cryostored embryos than for untreated stock cultures, but the productivity of the latter was recovered in subsequent subcultures of the material produced by cryostored embryos. The germination and plant regeneration rates achieved by cultures derived from cryostored embryos, around 60 percent, were similar to those of non-cryopreserved stock cultures.

  15. Enzymatic isolation and structural characterisation of polymeric suberin of cork from Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, S M; Goodfellow, B J; Delgadillo, I; Neto, C P; Gil, A M

    2001-01-10

    An enzymatic method has been used to isolate, for the first time, polymeric suberin from the bark of Quercus suber L. or cork. This was achieved by solvent extraction (dichloromethane, ethanol and water), followed by a step-by-step enzymatic treatment with cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase, and a final extraction with dioxane/water. The progress of suberin isolation was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a photoacoustic cell (FTIR-PAS). The material obtained (polymeric suberin (PS)) was characterised by solid-state and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, FTIR-PAS and vapour pressure osmometry, and compared with the suberin fraction obtained by alkaline depolymerisation (depolymerised suberin (DS)). The results showed that PS is an aliphatic polyester of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, with an average molecular weight (M(w)) of 2050 g mol(-1). Although this fraction represents only 10% of the whole suberin of cork, its polymeric nature gives valuable information about the native form of the polymer. DS was found to have an average M(w) of 750 g mol(-1) and to comprise a significant amount of acidic and alcoholic short aliphatic chains.

  16. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level. PMID:28045988

  17. Genetic Differentiation between Quercus frainetto Ten. and Q. pubescens Willd. in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian CURTU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic differences among Quercus frainetto and Q. pubescens, two species of section Dascia Kotschy (subgenus Lepidobalanus, white oaks that reach in Romania the margins of their natural distribution range. A set of genomic SSRs (simple sequence repeats and EST (expressed sequence tags-SSRs was used to estimate the genetic differentiation among four natural populations of the two species. Q. pubescens had higher values of genetic diversity than Q. frainetto, although the differences were not significant. Two out of seven marker-loci, QrZAG112 and QpZAG110, displayed very high FST values. Averaged across loci, the genetic differentiation was high and significant (FST = 0.067. Genetic distances were much higher among species than among populations within species. A Bayesian analysis indicated that two is the most appropriate number of genetic clusters. Using a blind procedure (i.e. based on multilocus genotypes only the vast majority of sampled individuals (90% could be assigned to the cluster corresponding to their phenotypes. When information about sampling localities was introduced in the assignment test, all individual trees were correctly classified. The higher degree of admixture in Q. frainetto as compared to Q. pubescens may be explained by different rates of introgressive hybridization.

  18. Imprints of natural selection along environmental gradients in phenology-related genes of Quercus petraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Florian J; Derory, Jérémy; Boury, Christophe; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Kremer, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    We explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in candidate genes for bud burst from Quercus petraea populations sampled along gradients of latitude and altitude in Western Europe. SNP diversity was monitored for 106 candidate genes, in 758 individuals from 32 natural populations. We investigated whether SNP variation reflected the clinal pattern of bud burst observed in common garden experiments. We used different methods to detect imprints of natural selection (FST outlier, clinal variation at allelic frequencies, association tests) and compared the results obtained for the two gradients. FST outlier SNPs were found in 15 genes, 5 of which were common to both gradients. The type of selection differed between the two gradients (directional or balancing) for 3 of these 5. Clinal variations were observed for six SNPs, and one cline was conserved across both gradients. Association tests between the phenotypic or breeding values of trees and SNP genotypes identified 14 significant associations, involving 12 genes. The results of outlier detection on the basis of population differentiation or clinal variation were not very consistent with the results of association tests. The discrepancies between these approaches may reflect the different hierarchical levels of selection considered (inter- and intrapopulation selection). Finally, we obtained evidence for convergent selection (similar for gradients) and clinal variation for a few genes, suggesting that comparisons between parallel gradients could be used to screen for major candidate genes responding to natural selection in trees.

  19. Biogeographic patterns of nutrient resorption from Quercus variabilis Blume leaves across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Kang, H; Chen, H Y H; Björn, B; Samuel, B F; Liu, C

    2016-05-01

    The variation in nutrient resorption has been studied at different taxonomic levels and geographic ranges. However, the variable traits of nutrient resorption at the individual species level across its distribution are poorly understood. We examined the variability and environmental controls of leaf nutrient resorption of Quercus variabilis, a widely distributed species of important ecological and economic value in China. The mean resorption efficiency was highest for phosphorus (P), followed by potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg) and carbon (C). Resorption efficiencies and proficiencies were strongly affected by climate and respective nutrients concentrations in soils and green leaves, but had little association with leaf mass per area. Climate factors, especially growing season length, were dominant drivers of nutrient resorption efficiencies, except for C, which was strongly related to green leaf C status. In contrast, green leaf nutritional status was the primary controlling factor of leaf nutrient proficiencies, except for C. Resorption efficiencies of N, P, K and S increased significantly with latitude, and were negatively related to growing season length and mean annual temperature. In turn, N, P, K and S in senesced leaves decreased with latitude, likely due to their efficient resorption response to variation in climate, but increased for Mg and did not change for C. Our results indicate that the nutrient resorption efficiency and proficiency of Q. variabilis differed strongly among nutrients, as well as growing environments. Our findings provide important insights into understanding the nutrient conservation strategy at the individual species level and its possible influence on nutrient cycling.

  20. Site quality assessment of degraded Quercus frainetto stands in central Greece

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    Kitikidou K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential yield of a site is measured by site index, which is defined as the dominant height of a stand at a base age. A site index model for site quality assessment of Quercus frainetto (Hungarian oak stands in central Greece was developed using a base age of 50 years. Data were collected from 39 temporary sample plots of 10 x 10 m. Linear regression models widely used in site index studies were fitted to height-age data. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj, root mean square error (RMSE, bias, coefficient of determination for the prediction (R2pr and residual plots were used for the choice of the best-fitting model. The best model was H = -0.231+0.251A-0.001A2, where H is the predicted height at age A. The guide curve method was adopted in constructing the sites curves, with the chosen model as the guide curve. Based on this curve, the study area was divided into three site quality classes (I to III, with class I representing the best and class III the poorest. Also, the presence of a Simpson’s paradox in these analyses is discussed. The results showed that a 50-year-old stand in the study area attained an average dominant height of about 11, 8 and 6 m on site quality classes I, II and III, respectively. The Hungarian oak stands of the present study can be considered very low productivity stands.

  1. Photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron flow in the alpine evergreen species Quercus guyavifolia in winter

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    Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap, stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm, CO2 assimilation rate (An, and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap, the diurnal values of gs, gm, An and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures.

  2. Photosynthesis and Photosynthetic Electron Flow in the Alpine Evergreen Species Quercus guyavifolia in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap), stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm), CO2 assimilation rate (An), and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII) at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap), the diurnal values of gs, gm, An, and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures. PMID:27812359

  3. Post-fire recolonization of dominant epiphytic lichen species on Quercus hypoleucoides (Fagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagni, J G; Gries, C

    2000-12-01

    Following a forest fire (27 500 ha) in 1994, post-fire recolonization of Quercus hypoeleucoides by epiphytic lichens was documented as changes in lichen cover, number of small thalli, specific factors that affected reestablishment of lichens, and modes of dispersal. Three sites in the Chiricahua Mountains (Arizona, USA) were chosen according to the severity of fire damage-unburned, moderately burned, and severely burned. From 1994 through 1997, the amount of dead lichen cover significantly increased at the moderately burned site. For the same time period, the amount of live lichen cover significantly increased at the severely burned site. Numbers of new thalli increased significantly at the severely burned site each year but only in the last year (1996-1997) for the moderately burned site. Bark texture and proximity to trees with lichens were among the most important physical factors for recolonization. The most important means of dispersal for Flavopunctelia praesignis was fragmentation. For Punctelia hypoleucites, the primary means of dispersal was spores. Increases in live lichen cover and numbers of new thalli occur faster in severely burned areas probably due to the loss of lichens on tree trunks, which provides space and a lack of competition.

  4. Epigenetic and hormonal profile during maturation of Quercus Suber L. somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Marta; Viejo, Marcos; LaCuesta, Maite; Toorop, Peter; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful alternative to conventional mass propagation of Quercus suber L. However, poor quality and incomplete maturation of somatic embryos restrict any application. Given that epigenetic and hormonal control govern many developmental stages, including maturation of zygotic embryos, global DNA methylation and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during development and maturation of cork oak somatic embryos. Our results indicated that development of somatic embryos concurred with a decrease in 5-mdC. In contrast, endogenous ABA content showed a transient increase with a peak in immature E2 embryos denoting the onset of the maturation phase. A cold stratification phase was necessary for embryos to acquire germination ability, which coincided with a significant decrease in 5-mdC and ABA content. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that there was a specific spatial-temporal regulation during embryogenesis, particularly after the cold treatment. The acquisition of germination capacity concurred with a general low 5-mdC signal in the root meristem, while retention of the 5-mdC signal was mainly located in the shoot meristem and provascular tissues. Conversely, ABA immunolocalization was mainly located in the root and shoot apical meristems. Furthermore, a strong decrease in the ABA signal was observed in the root cap after the stratification treatment suggesting a role for the root cap during development of somatic embryos. These results suggest that, in addition to ABA, epigenetic control appears to play an important role for the correct maturation and subsequent germination of cork oak somatic embryos.

  5. Diurnal changes in photoprotective mechanisms in leaves of cork oak (Quercus suber) during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, T.; García-Plazaola, J. I.; Abadía, A.; Cerasoli, S.; Pereira, J. S.; Chaves, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Daily variations in photoprotective mechanisms were studied in sun and shade leaves of 40-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees during early summer in Portugal. Although trees were not severely water stressed because predawn leaf water potentials remained high, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased at midday. The midday depression in gas exchange was not reversed by short-term exposure to "optimal" conditions of temperature, light and vapor pressure deficit. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, maximum photochemical yield of photosystem II and the quantum yield of noncyclic electron transport showed midday depressions, but recovered by the evening. Both short-term changes in the components of the xanthophyll cycle (reversible de-epoxidation of violaxanthin during the day) as well as long-term changes (higher xanthophyll content in sun compared with shade leaves) were detected and may play a role in the dissipation of excess energy at midday. Because the activities of enzymes of the antioxidant system, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, were high enough to cope with the increase in oxygen reactive species likely to arise under the stressful conditions of midday, we conclude that these enzymes may provide an additional mechanism for energy dissipation.

  6. The distribution of Quercus suber chloroplast haplotypes matches the palaeogeographical history of the western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, D; Fineschi, S; Bellarosa, R; Buonamici, A; Sebastiani, F; Schirone, B; Simeone, M C; Vendramin, G G

    2007-12-01

    Combining molecular analyses with geological and palaeontological data may reveal timing and modes for the divergence of lineages within species. The Mediterranean Basin is particularly appropriate for this kind of multidisciplinary studies, because of its complex geological history and biological diversity. Here, we investigated chloroplast DNA of Quercus suber populations in order to detect possible relationships between their geographical distribution and the palaeogeographical history of the western Mediterranean domain. We analysed 110 cork oak populations, covering the whole distribution range of the species, by 14 chloroplast microsatellite markers, among which eight displayed variation among populations. We identified five haplotypes whose distribution is clearly geographically structured. Results demonstrated that cork oak populations have undergone a genetic drift geographically consistent with the Oligocene and Miocene break-up events of the European-Iberian continental margin and suggested that they have persisted in a number of separate microplates, currently found in Tunisia, Sardinia, Corsica, and Provence, without detectable chloroplast DNA modifications for a time span of over 15 million years. A similar distribution pattern of mitochondrial DNA of Pinus pinaster supports the hypothesis of such long-term persistence, in spite of Quaternary climate oscillations and of isolation due to insularity, and suggests that part of the modern geographical structure of Mediterranean populations may be traced back to the Tertiary history of taxa.

  7. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Vera; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level.

  8. Characterization of the responses of cork oak (Quercus suber) to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorcena, Y; Molias, N; Larbi, A; Abadía, J; Abadía, A

    2001-12-01

    We studied responses of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to iron (Fe) deficiency by comparing seedlings grown hydroponically in nutrient solution with and without Fe. Seedlings grown without Fe developed some responses typical of the Strategy I group of Fe-efficient plants, including two- and fourfold increases in plasma membrane ferric chelate reductase activity of root tips after 2 and 4 weeks of culture in the absence of Fe, respectively. Moreover, seedlings grown hydroponically for 2 weeks without Fe caused marked decreases in the pH of the nutrient solution, indicating that root plasma membrane ATPase activity was induced by Fe deficiency. Iron deficiency also caused marked decreases in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, and chlorophyll concentrations were decreased more than carotenoid concentrations. Iron deficiency resulted in an 8% decrease in the dark-adapted efficiency of photosystem II and a 43% decrease in efficiency of photosystem II at steady-state photosynthesis. No major root morphological changes were observed in seedlings grown without Fe, although seedlings grown in Fe-deficient nutrient solution had light-colored roots in contrast to the dark brown color of control roots.

  9. Diurnal and seasonal emissions of volatile organic compounds from cork oak ( Quercus suber) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, C. A.; Silva, P. A.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Nunes, T. V.

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds from Quercus suber (cork oak) were investigated at two rural sites in Portugal using a branch enclosure method with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Q. suber leaves released important amounts of monoterpenes, mainly in the form of limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene and sabinene. However, significant temporal and intraspecific variations in the relative abundance of the dominant compounds were found during this survey. Emissions from Q. suber were strongly dependent on light and temperature, showing a similar behaviour to that of plant species known to be isoprene producers. But, this work also revealed that, although at lower rates, emissions of monoterpenes continued in the dark for several hours. Emission rates were quite well predicted by algorithms based on the Guenther and Tingey equations; correlations of measurements with modelled data were, on average, r2=0.80. A pronounced seasonal variation was recorded for the emissions of monoterpenes. During the 1-yr study period, standard emission rates ranged between a minimum of 0.2 μg g dw-1 h -1, in winter, and a maximum of 20-30 μg g dw-1 h -1, in summer.

  10. Canopy-level stomatal narrowing in adult Fagus sylvatica under O3 stress - means of preventing enhanced O3 uptake under high O3 exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Baumgarten, M; Hummel, U; Häberle, K-H; Kitao, M; Wieser, G

    2015-01-01

    Spatio-temporally consistent O(3) doses are demonstrated in adult Fagus sylvatica from the Kranzberg Forest free-air fumigation experiment, covering cross-canopy and whole-seasonal scopes through sap flow measurement. Given O(3)-driven closure of stomata, we hypothesized enhanced whole-tree level O(3) influx to be prevented under enhanced O(3) exposure. Although foliage transpiration rate was lowered under twice-ambient O(3) around noon by 30% along with canopy conductance, the hypothesis was falsified, as O(3) influx was raised by 25%. Nevertheless, the twice-ambient/ambient ratio of O(3) uptake was smaller by about 20% than that of O(3) exposure, suggesting stomatal limitation of uptake. The O(3) response was traceable from leaves across branches to the canopy, where peak transpiration rates resembled those of shade rather than sun branches. Rainy/overcast-day and nightly O(3) uptake is quantified and discussed. Whole-seasonal canopy-level validation of modelled with sap flow-derived O(3) flux becomes available in assessing O(3) risk for forest trees.

  11. Wide variation in spatial genetic structure between natural populations of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and its implications for SGS comparability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, A S; Rico, L; Coll, M; Peñuelas, J

    2012-06-01

    Identification and quantification of spatial genetic structure (SGS) within populations remains a central element of understanding population structure at the local scale. Understanding such structure can inform on aspects of the species' biology, such as establishment patterns and gene dispersal distance, in addition to sampling design for genetic resource management and conservation. However, recent work has identified that variation in factors such as sampling methodology, population characteristics and marker system can all lead to significant variation in SGS estimates. Consequently, the extent to which estimates of SGS can be relied on to inform on the biology of a species or differentiate between experimental treatments is open to doubt. Following on from a recent report of unusually extensive SGS when assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms in the tree Fagus sylvatica, we explored whether this marker system led to similarly high estimates of SGS extent in other apparently similar populations of this species. In the three populations assessed, SGS extent was even stronger than this previously reported maximum, extending up to 360 m, an increase in up to 800% in comparison with the generally accepted maximum of 30-40 m based on the literature. Within this species, wide variation in SGS estimates exists, whether quantified as SGS intensity, extent or the Sp parameter. Consequently, we argue that greater standardization should be applied in sample design and SGS estimation and highlight five steps that can be taken to maximize the comparability between SGS estimates.

  12. Age-related changes in protein metabolism of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during alleviation of dormancy and in the early stage of germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa M; Pukacka, Stanislawa

    2015-09-01

    The long-term storage of seeds generally reduces their viability and vigour. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of long-term storage on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds at optimal conditions, over 9 years, on the total and soluble protein levels and activity of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases, as well as free amino acid levels and protein synthesis, in dry seeds, after imbibition and during cold stratification leading to dormancy release and germination. The same analyses were conducted in parallel on seeds gathered from the same tree in the running growing season and stored under the same conditions for only 3 months. The results showed that germination capacity decreased from 100% in freshly harvested seeds to 75% in seeds stored for 9 years. The levels of total and soluble proteins were highest in freshly harvested seeds and decreased significantly during storage, these proportions were retained during cold stratification and germination of seeds. Significant differences between freshly harvested and stored seeds were observed in the activities of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases, and in the levels of free amino acids. The neosynthesis of proteins during dormancy release and in the early stage of seed germination was significantly weaker in stored seeds. These results confirm the importance of protein metabolism for seed viability and the consequences of its reduction during seed ageing.

  13. Enhanced ozone strongly reduces carbon sink strength of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) - Resume from the free-air fumigation study at Kranzberg Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyssek, R., E-mail: matyssek@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wieser, G. [Dept. Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Federal Office and Research Centre for Forests, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ceulemans, R. [Dept. of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Rennenberg, H. [Tree Physiology, Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 53, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Pretzsch, H. [Forest Growth and Yield Sciences, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Haberer, K. [Tree Physiology, Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 53, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Loew, M.; Nunn, A.J. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Werner, H. [Ecoclimatology (formerly: Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research), Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wipfler, P. [Forest Growth and Yield Sciences, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Osswald, W. [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Nikolova, P. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Hanke, D.E. [Dept. Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA (United Kingdom); Kraigher, H. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Forest Biology, Ecology and Technology, Vecna pot 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tausz, M. [Dept. of Forest and Ecosystem Science, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, Water Street, Creswick Vic 3363 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Ground-level ozone (O{sub 3}) has gained awareness as an agent of climate change. In this respect, key results are comprehended from a unique 8-year free-air O{sub 3}-fumigation experiment, conducted on adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) at Kranzberg Forest (Germany). A novel canopy O{sub 3} exposure methodology was employed that allowed whole-tree assessment in situ under twice-ambient O{sub 3} levels. Elevated O{sub 3} significantly weakened the C sink strength of the tree-soil system as evidenced by lowered photosynthesis and 44% reduction in whole-stem growth, but increased soil respiration. Associated effects in leaves and roots at the gene, cell and organ level varied from year to year, with drought being a crucial determinant of O{sub 3} responsiveness. Regarding adult individuals of a late-successional tree species, empirical proof is provided first time in relation to recent modelling predictions that enhanced ground-level O{sub 3} can substantially mitigate the C sequestration of forests in view of climate change. - Empirical proof corroborates substantial mitigation of carbon sequestration in the tree-soil system of a forest site under enhanced O{sub 3} impact for adult beech.

  14. Effects of chronic elevated ozone exposure on gas exchange responses of adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) as related to the within-canopy light gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi [Hokkaido Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Sapporo 062-8516 (Japan)], E-mail: kitao@ffpri.affrc.go.jp; Loew, Markus [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Heerdt, Christian [Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    The effects of elevated O{sub 3} on photosynthetic properties in adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) were investigated in relation to leaf mass per area as a measure of the gradually changing, within-canopy light availability. Leaves under elevated O{sub 3} showed decreased stomatal conductance at unchanged carboxylation capacity of Rubisco, which was consistent with enhanced {delta}{sup 13}C of leaf organic matter, regardless of the light environment during growth. In parallel, increased energy demand for O{sub 3} detoxification and repair was suggested under elevated O{sub 3} owing to enhanced dark respiration. Only in shade-grown leaves, light-limited photosynthesis was reduced under elevated O{sub 3}, this effect being accompanied by lowered F{sub v}/F{sub m}. These results suggest that chronic O{sub 3} exposure primarily caused stomatal closure to adult beech trees in the field regardless of the within-canopy light gradient. However, light limitation apparently raised the O{sub 3} sensitivity of photosynthesis and accelerated senescence in shade leaves. - Across leaf differentiation in adult beech crowns, elevated ozone acted through stomatal closure on gas exchange although enhancing photosynthetic sensitivity of shaded leaves.

  15. Variation in photosynthetic performance and hydraulic architecture across European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations supports the case for local adaptation to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Ismael; Cano, Francisco Javier; Gascó, Antonio; Cochard, Hervé; Nardini, Andrea; Mancha, Jose Antonio; López, Rosana; Sánchez-Gómez, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide new insights into how intraspecific variability in the response of key functional traits to drought dictates the interplay between gas-exchange parameters and the hydraulic architecture of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Considering the relationships between hydraulic and leaf functional traits, we tested whether local adaptation to water stress occurs in this species. To address these objectives, we conducted a glasshouse experiment in which 2-year-old saplings from six beech populations were subjected to different watering treatments. These populations encompassed central and marginal areas of the range, with variation in macro- and microclimatic water availability. The results highlight subtle but significant differences among populations in their functional response to drought. Interpopulation differences in hydraulic traits suggest that vulnerability to cavitation is higher in populations with higher sensitivity to drought. However, there was no clear relationship between variables related to hydraulic efficiency, such as xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity or stomatal conductance, and those that reflect resistance to xylem cavitation (i.e., Ψ(12), the water potential corresponding to a 12% loss of stem hydraulic conductivity). The results suggest that while a trade-off between photosynthetic capacity at the leaf level and hydraulic function of xylem could be established across populations, it functions independently of the compromise between safety and efficiency of the hydraulic system with regard to water use at the interpopulation level.

  16. Down-regulation of defense genes and resource allocation into infected roots as factors for compatibility between Fagus sylvatica and Phytophthora citricola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlink, Katja

    2010-05-01

    Phytophthora citricola is a wide spread and highly aggressive pathogen of Fagus sylvatica. The hemibiotrophic oomycete infects the roots and establishes a compatible interaction with F. sylvatica. To investigate the transcriptional changes associated with P. citricola infection, 68 custom oligo-microarray measurements were conducted. Hierarchical as well as non-hierarchical clustering was carried out to analyze the expression profiles. Experimental setup includes a time scale covering the biotrophic and necrotrophic stages of interaction as well as comparative analyses of the local and systemic responses. The local reaction of F. sylvatica is characterized by a striking lack of defense gene induction leading to the conclusion that P. citricola escapes the main recognition systems and/or suppresses the host's response. The analysis of the systemic reaction revealed a massive shift in gene expression patterns during the biotrophic phase that is interpreted as evidence of resource allocation into the roots to support the increased sink caused by pathogen growth. Defense genes known to be responsive to salicylic acid (effective against biotrophs), jasmonic acid, and ethylene (effective against necrotrophs and herbivores) are represented on the arrays. All significant changes in gene expression measured for salicylic acid responsive genes were down-regulations in roots and leaves while some jasmonic acid responsive genes showed a very late up-regulation only in leaves, probably caused by the desiccation shortly before plant death. Together, these expression changes could explain the success of the pathogen.

  17. Acclimation of fine root respiration to soil warming involves starch deposition in very fine and fine roots: a case study in Fagus sylvatica saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Antonino; Giacomuzzi, Valentino; Chiatante, Donato

    2016-03-01

    Root activities in terms of respiration and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage and mobilization have been suggested as major physiological roles in fine root lifespan. As more frequent heat waves and drought periods within the next decades are expected, to what extent does thermal acclimation in fine roots represent a mechanism to cope with such upcoming climatic conditions? In this study, the possible changes in very fine (diameter Fagus sylvatica saplings subjected to a simulated long-lasting heat wave event and to co-occurring soil drying. For both very fine and fine roots, soil temperature (ST) resulted inversely correlated with specific root length, respiration rates and SSs concentration, but directly correlated with root mass, root tissue density and starch concentration. In particular, starch concentration increased under 28 °C for successively decreasing under 21 °C ST. These findings showed that thermal acclimation in very fine and fine roots due to 24 days exposure to high ST (∼ 28 °C), induced starch accumulation. Such 'carbon-savings strategy' should bear the maintenance costs associated to the recovery process in case of restored favorable environmental conditions, such as those occurring at the end of a heat wave event. Drought condition seems to affect the fine root vitality much more under moderate than high temperature condition, making the temporary exposure to high ST less threatening to root vitality than expected.

  18. Variation of Soil Nutrition in a Fagus engleriana Seem.-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon Oerst. Community Over a Small Scale in the Shennongjia Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil nutrition is a key factor influencing species composition in a community, but it has clearly scaledependent heterogeneity. In the present study, geostatistics methods and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to detect: (i) the variation range of soil spatial heterogeneity; (ii) the influence of topographic factors on the distribution of soil nutrition; and (iii) the relationships between soil chemical properties and species in the community. In all, 23 soil variables were measured, including total N and organic C, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4-N, Ni, NO3-N, Pb, pH, P, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Semi-variograms of these variables were calculated and mapped. All indices showed autocorrelations, with ranges between 29 and 200 m. When the sample method was larger than these distances, spatial autocorrelations were avoided. The distribution patterns of Ca, Cr, Ga, K, Mg, organic C, P, Pb, and pH, and total N were related to the microtopography and the distribution of these compounds was clumped in water catchments area. The CCA method was used to investigate the relationship between plant species and soil properties in this community. Fagus engleriana Seem., Lindera obtusiloba BI. Mus., and Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax were correlated with organic C, available N, and P.

  19. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Latte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L. were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old. The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate, mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity, mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1 before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition; and (2 since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands.

  20. Influences of environmental factors on the radial profile of sap flux density in Fagus crenata growing at different elevations in the Naeba Mountains, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mitsumasa; Tenhunen, John; Zimmerman, Reiner; Schmidt, Markus; Adiku, Samuel; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2005-05-01

    Sap flux density was measured continuously during the 1999 and 2000 growing seasons by the heat dissipation method in natural Fagus crenata Blume (Japanese beech) forests growing between 550 and 1600 m on the northern slope of the Kagura Peak of the Naeba Mountains, Japan. Sap flux density decreased radially toward the inner xylem and the decrease was best expressed in relation to the number of annual rings from the cambium, or in relation to the relative depth between the cambium and the trunk center, rather than as a function of absolute depth. The relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and soil water on sap flux density during the growing season were similar for the outer and inner xylem, and at all sites. Measurements of soil water content and water potential at a depth of 0.25 m demonstrated that sap flux density responded similarly and sensitively to water potential changes in this soil layer, despite large differences in rooting depth at different elevations, localizing one important control point in the functioning of this forest ecosystem. Identification of the relative influences of radiation, vapor pressure deficit and drying of the upper soil layer on sap flux density provides a framework for in-depth analysis of the control of transpiration in Japanese beech forests. In addition, the finding that the same general controls are operating on sap flux density despite climate gradients and large differences in overall forest stand structure will enhance understanding of water use by forests along elevation gradients.

  1. Modelling Facilitates Silvicultural Decision-Making for Improving the Mitigating Effect of Beech (Fagus Sylvatica L. Dominated Alpine Forest against Rockfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kajdiž

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In southeast Europe, silvicultural measures for improving forest protective effects against rockfall are often based on unsystematic observation and experience. We compared formalised expert assessment of forest protective effects and silvicultural decision-making with an approach supported by modelling (Rockyfor3D, Rockfor.NET, shadow angle method. The case study was conducted in Fagus sylvatica dominated Alpine forests above the regional road leading to the Ljubelj pass, in Slovenia. We analysed rock sources, silent witnesses, forest structure and regeneration. Expert assessment indicated acceptable protection effects of the forest and their decline in the future. Modelling revealed several road sections endangered by rockfalls. It also indicated subtle differences between silvicultural alternatives: current forest, current forest with cable crane lines, selection forest and non-forested slope. This outcome may be due to short transition zones, small rock sizes, low rock source heights and low resolution of the digital elevation model. Modelling requires more initial input than formalised expert assessment but gives spatially explicit results that enable comparison of silvicultural alternatives, coordination of silviculture and forest operations, and delineation of protection forests. Modelling also supported prioritising of silvicultural measures, where the necessity of silvicultural measures increases with increasing rockfall susceptibility and decreasing long-term stability of stands.

  2. Effect of livestock grazing and human uses on herbaceous species diver-sity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests, Guilan, Masal, northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sepide Sadat Ebrahimi; Hassan Pourbabaei; David Potheir; Ali Omidi; Javad Torkaman

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversity plays key ecological roles in forest ecosystems, including influencing succession, resilience and nutrient cycling. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of livestock grazing and human uses on herbaceous species diversity. We surveyed 50 ha of pro-tected area and 50 ha of unprotected area to evaluate herbaceous species diversity in oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forests in northern Iran. We calculated and compared three indices each of diversity and evenness, and species richness between the two areas. Herbaceous cover was higher in the unprotected area while leaf litter depth and tree canopy cover were higher in the protected area. The diversity indices, H (Shan-non-Wiener index ), N1 (McArthur index), N2 (Hill΄s index), EQ (Modified Nee index), Evar (Smith-Wilson index), E5 (modified index of Hill) and R=S (species richness) and species richness R=S were greater in the protected area than in the unprotected area, suggesting that protection from grazing results in increased numbers of plants and species. The effect of land protection on plant diversity was more pronounced for evenness than for species richness and the positive correlation between diversity and even-ness indices was higher than that between diversity and richness.

  3. Enhanced ozone strongly reduces carbon sink strength of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica)--resume from the free-air fumigation study at Kranzberg Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Ceulemans, R; Rennenberg, H; Pretzsch, H; Haberer, K; Löw, M; Nunn, A J; Werner, H; Wipfler, P; Osswald, W; Nikolova, P; Hanke, D E; Kraigher, H; Tausz, M; Bahnweg, G; Kitao, M; Dieler, J; Sandermann, H; Herbinger, K; Grebenc, T; Blumenröther, M; Deckmyn, G; Grams, T E E; Heerdt, C; Leuchner, M; Fabian, P; Häberle, K-H

    2010-08-01

    Ground-level ozone (O(3)) has gained awareness as an agent of climate change. In this respect, key results are comprehended from a unique 8-year free-air O(3)-fumigation experiment, conducted on adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) at Kranzberg Forest (Germany). A novel canopy O(3) exposure methodology was employed that allowed whole-tree assessment in situ under twice-ambient O(3) levels. Elevated O(3) significantly weakened the C sink strength of the tree-soil system as evidenced by lowered photosynthesis and 44% reduction in whole-stem growth, but increased soil respiration. Associated effects in leaves and roots at the gene, cell and organ level varied from year to year, with drought being a crucial determinant of O(3) responsiveness. Regarding adult individuals of a late-successional tree species, empirical proof is provided first time in relation to recent modelling predictions that enhanced ground-level O(3) can substantially mitigate the C sequestration of forests in view of climate change.

  4. Assessment of spatial discordance of primary and effective seed dispersal of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) by ecological and genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerón, M; López de Heredia, U; Lorenzo, Z; Alonso, J; Dounavi, A; Gil, L; Nanos, N

    2013-03-01

    Spatial discordance between primary and effective dispersal in plant populations indicates that postdispersal processes erase the seed rain signal in recruitment patterns. Five different models were used to test the spatial concordance of the primary and effective dispersal patterns in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) population from central Spain. An ecological method was based on classical inverse modelling (SSS), using the number of seed/seedlings as input data. Genetic models were based on direct kernel fitting of mother-to-offspring distances estimated by a parentage analysis or were spatially explicit models based on the genotype frequencies of offspring (competing sources model and Moran-Clark's Model). A fully integrated mixed model was based on inverse modelling, but used the number of genotypes as input data (gene shadow model). The potential sources of error and limitations of each seed dispersal estimation method are discussed. The mean dispersal distances for seeds and saplings estimated with these five methods were higher than those obtained by previous estimations for European beech forests. All the methods show strong discordance between primary and effective dispersal kernel parameters, and for dispersal directionality. While seed rain was released mostly under the canopy, saplings were established far from mother trees. This discordant pattern may be the result of the action of secondary dispersal by animals or density-dependent effects; that is, the Janzen-Connell effect. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Ionic charge, radius, and potential control root/soil concentration ratios of fifty cationic elements in the organic horizon of a beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest podzol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Germund

    2004-08-15

    The root/organic soil concentration ratio; R/S) of 50 cationic mineral elements was related to their ionic properties, including ionic radius (r), ionic charge (z), and ionic potential (z/r or z2/r). The materials studied were ectomycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) roots and their almost purely organic soil substrate, the O-horizon (mor; raw humus) of a Podzol in South Sweden, developed in a site which has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since at least 50 years and located in an area with no local sources of pollution. Elements determined by ICP-AES were aluminium, barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium and strontium. Determined by ICP-MS were silver, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, caesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gallium, gadolinium, hafnium, mercury, holmium, indium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, niobium, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, tin, terbium, thorium, titanium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. The R/S ratios were most clearly related to the ionic potential of the cationic elements studied, which accounted for approximately 60% of the variability in R/S among elements. The ionic charge of an element was more important than the ionic radius. Elements with high ionic charge had low R/S ratios and vice versa. No clear differences in R/S between essential and non-essential plant nutrients were observed, especially when ions of similar charge were compared.

  6. Detecting short spatial scale local adaptation and epistatic selection in climate-related candidate genes in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csilléry, Katalin; Lalagüe, Hadrien; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Fady, Bruno; Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie

    2014-10-01

    Detecting signatures of selection in tree populations threatened by climate change is currently a major research priority. Here, we investigated the signature of local adaptation over a short spatial scale using 96 European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) individuals originating from two pairs of populations on the northern and southern slopes of Mont Ventoux (south-eastern France). We performed both single and multilocus analysis of selection based on 53 climate-related candidate genes containing 546 SNPs. FST outlier methods at the SNP level revealed a weak signal of selection, with three marginally significant outliers in the northern populations. At the gene level, considering haplotypes as alleles, two additional marginally significant outliers were detected, one on each slope. To account for the uncertainty of haplotype inference, we averaged the Bayes factors over many possible phase reconstructions. Epistatic selection offers a realistic multilocus model of selection in natural populations. Here, we used a test suggested by Ohta based on the decomposition of the variance of linkage disequilibrium. Overall populations, 0.23% of the SNP pairs (haplotypes) showed evidence of epistatic selection, with nearly 80% of them being within genes. One of the between gene epistatic selection signals arose between an FST outlier and a nonsynonymous mutation in a drought response gene. Additionally, we identified haplotypes containing selectively advantageous allele combinations which were unique to high or low elevations and northern or southern populations. Several haplotypes contained nonsynonymous mutations situated in genes with known functional importance for adaptation to climatic factors.

  7. Habitat use by wild boar Sus scrofa in Moncayo Nature Park, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use by wild boar Sus scrofaz was examined during a three-year period in Moncayo Nature Park, a protected mountain area in the Iberian mountain system, Spain. Tracking indirect signs of activity was used to collect data on the species occurrence, according to vegetation type, topography, hunting activity, and season. The data were analysed using binary logistic regression. Habitat used by wild boar differed according seasons, management practices, and vegetation. Main selected habitats were at medium elevations (1,101-1,600 m in areas dominated by holm oak (Quercus ilex, beech (Fagus sylvatica and oak woods of Q. robur, Q. petraea and Q. pyrenaica. Non-hunting areas were selected over hunting areas. We found a seasonal variation in the habitat use of wild boar, with areas dominated by holm oak being used disproportionately in spring, and areas at medium elevations selected only during summer. The results also support the view that non-hunting areas provide a refuge for this species inside the protected area.Estudiamos el uso del hábitat por parte del jabalí Sus scrofa a lo largo de tres años en el Parque Natural del Moncayo, un área protegida de montaña en el Sistema Ibérico, España. Para ello rastreamos las huellas y señales de su actividad en función de la vegetación, topografía, actividad cinegética y estacionalidad. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando regresiones logísticas binarias. El hábitat usado por el jabalí difiere según las estaciones, gestión y vegetación. Los hábitat mayoritariamente seleccionados fueron las altitudes medias (1101-1600 m en áreas dominadas por la encina (Quercus ilex, haya (Fagus sylvatica y robles (Q. robur, Q. petraea y Q. pirenaica. Las zonas no cinegéticas fueron seleccionadas frente a las cinegéticas. Encontramos diferencias estacionales en el uso del hábitat, con un uso mayor al esperado de los encinares en primavera así como de altitudes medias durante el verano. Los

  8. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  9. Light response of hydraulic conductance in bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Mihaela C; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Tyree, Melvin T

    2008-07-01

    A four- to seven-fold enhancement of leaf hydraulic conductance by light has been reported in three temperate tree species. The enhancement occurs in the liquid-flow pathway between the petiole and the site of water evaporation. The enhancement occurs within 1 h, and dissipates in darkness over a period of 1 to 10 h depending on species. Here we report light-induced enhancement of leaf hydraulic conductance in a fourth species, bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.), the dependence of the effect on light flux and color, its absence in leaves of seedlings, and the impact on the response of leaf vein severance and several metabolic inhibitors. The light response of leaf hydraulic conductance approached saturation at a photosynthetic photon flux of 150 mumol m(-2) s(-1). Hydraulic enhancement was greater in response to blue and green light than to visible radiation of longer wavelengths, although at the same irradiance, the response to white light was greater than to light of any single color. Atrazine (a photosystem II inhibitor), fusicoccin (which stimulates plasma membrane-bound H(+)-ATPase) and HgCl(2) (an aquaporin blocker) reduced the light response of leaf lamina hydraulic conductance. When 2-mercaptoethanol was added following mercury treatment, the light response was totally suppressed. Our results are consistent with the notion that the effect of light on leaf lamina hydraulic conductance is controlled by factors acting outside the leaf veins, possibly through light-induced changes in membrane permeability of either mesophyll or bundle sheath cells, or both.

  10. Continuous Spectrum LEDs Promote Seedling Quality Traits and Performance of Quercus ithaburensis var. macrolepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnakou, Sonia; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi M

    2017-01-01

    Regulation of the growth, development, and quality of plants by the control of light quality has attracted extensive attention worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of continuous LED spectrum for indoor plant pre-cultivation and to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of a common broadleaved tree species in Mediterranean environment, Quercus ithaburensis var. macrolepis at seedling developmental stage. Thus, the seedlings were pre-cultivated for 28 days, under five different LED light qualities: (1) Fluorescent (FL) as control light (2) L20AP67 (high in green and moderate in far-red), (3) AP673L (high in green and red), (4) G2 (highest in red and far-red), AP67 (high in blue, red, and far-red), and (5) NS1 (highest in blue and green and lowest in far-red) LEDs. Further examination was held at the nursery for 1 year, on several seedling quality traits. Indeed, AP67 and AP673L triggered higher leaf formation, while L20AP67 positively affected seedling shoot development. NS1 and AP67 LED pre-cultivated seedlings showed significantly higher root fibrosity than those of FL light. Furthermore, NS1 and AP673L LEDs induced fourfold increase on seedling root dry weight than FL light. Hence, evaluating the seedling nursery performance attributes, most of those photomorphogenetic responses previously obtained were still detectable. Even more so, LED pre-cultivated seedlings showed higher survival and faster growth indicating better adaptation even under natural light conditions, a fact further reinforced by the significantly higher Dickson's quality index acquired. In conclusion, the goal of each nursery management program is the production of high quality seedlings with those desirable traits, which in turn satisfy the specific needs for a particular reforestation site. Thus, the enhanced oak seedling quality traits formed under continuous LEDs spectrum especially of NS1 and AP673L pre-cultivation may potentially fulfill this goal.

  11. Addressing post-transplant summer water stress in Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardos M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In central Spain, post-transplant water stress produces high seedling mortality after the first summer following outplanting. Our study was designed to determine whether survival and performance of outplanted stone pine (Pinus pinea and holm oak (Quercus ilex seedlings in a burned area could be improved by summer irrigation and mulching and to identify whether there is a species-specific adaptive capacity to respond to treatment and environment. Seedlings were outplanted in March 2011 in 200 planting holes in an area of 1.1 ha. Mulch was added in June; irrigation started in July and was repeated every week until mid-September. The severity of the 2011 summer drought constrained growth rates and photosynthetic characteristics, mainly in the non-irrigated seedlings, whose survival at the end of the year after planting was approximately 2.5%. Stone pine and holm oak seedlings responded more to irrigation than to mulching in terms of shoot growth, biomass and survival. Furthermore, stone pine seedlings were found to be more responsive to the partial alleviation of summer drought than holm oak seedlings. Irrigation alone produced similar results to those obtained when both irrigation and mulching were employed. In conclusion, first year summer irrigation should be considered as a planned adaptation measure in the management of outplanted Mediterranean ecosystems, because once a gravimetrically measured soil moisture level as low as 2% is achieved seedling survival and physiological performance can be guaranteed. However, the repercussions for the potential persistence of both species in the area will not only be related to the recurrence and intensity of summer droughts but also to drought duration.

  12. ECUACIONES ALOMÉTRICAS PARA ESTIMAR BIOMASA Y CARBONO EN Quercus magnoliaefolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús D. Gómez-Díaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ejido El Zapote de la Reserva de la Biosfera "Sierra de Huautla", estado de Morelos, México, se seleccionaron doce árboles de Quercus magnoliaefolia Née y se determinó su biomasa en la parte aérea. El modelo alométrico quedó expresado como: B = 0.0345 * DAP2.9334 en donde B es la biomasa (kg y DAP es el diámetro a la altura del pecho (cm, con un coeficiente de determinación (R2= 0.98; P<0.001. Adicionalmente, se estimó la biomasa mediante una regresión lineal múltiple que consideró el área basal (AB, la densidad específica de la madera (DEM y la altura de los árboles (H. Una alta proporción de la varianza de la biomasa fue explicada solamente por el área basal. La DEM y H no incrementaron significativamente la precisión de los modelos. El porcentaje promedio de carbono en los árboles de Q. magnoliaefolia fue de 47.14 con valores de 46.29 % para el fuste, 46.83 % para las ramas y 48.31 % para el follaje. La proporción promedio de los componentes de la especie estudiada fue de 2.5 % para el fuste, 27.8 % para las ramas y 9.6 % para el follaje.

  13. Indirect effects of precipitation variation on the decomposition process of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) leaf litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuefeng; HAN Shijie; ZHANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    The effect of precipitation variation on the chemistry of Mongolian oak(Quercus mongolica)leaf litters was examined by analyzing litters of Mongolia oak saplings under four precipitation gradients.The decomposing process of these leaf litters in the Mongolian oak dominated forest was assessed using litter bag method.Compared with the litters of the Mongolian oak saplings from the natural precipitation site(A),litters produced by Mongolian oak from the driest precipitation gradient(A450)had significantly higher concentrations of nitrogen(N),phosphorus(P)and potassium(K)while lower acid-insoluble fraction(A/F)concentration.The decomposition study showed that A450 exhibited significantly higher decomposition rate,mineralization rates of N,P and K as well as much shorter N and P net immobilization periods.On the contrary,litters produced by seedlings from wettest gradient(Ass0)showed a totally opposite pattern.Litters from saplings that received comparable precipitation(A650)to those at the natural site(A)had significantly higher N concentration and faster decomposition rate as well as release rates of N,P and K.The mass loss patterns for the four litter types fitted the exponential model and the decay constant(k)can be well predicted by initial AIF/N.During the decomposition period,N concentration was best related to the percentage of mass remaining of the litters with relatively higher AIF concentrations and lower N concentrations,but the percentage of mass remaining of litters with lower AIF concentrations and higher N concentrations correlates strongly with AIF concentration.Our study proved that changes in precipitation significantly altered the litter quality,and therefore indirectly changed the decay process of leaf litters.

  14. Lignin Composition and Structure Differs between Xylem, Phloem and Phellem in Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Rencoret, Jorge; Chemetova, Catarina; Gominho, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; del Río, José C.; Pereira, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The composition and structure of lignin in different tissues—phellem (cork), phloem and xylem (wood)—of Quercus suber was studied. Whole cell walls and their respective isolated milled lignins were analyzed by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC). Different tissues presented varied p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl (H:G:S) lignin compositions. Whereas lignin from cork has a G-rich lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 2:85:13), lignin from phloem presents more S-units (H:G:S molar ratio of 1:58:41) and lignin from xylem is slightly enriched in S-lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 1:45:55). These differences were reflected in the relative abundances of the different interunit linkages. Alkyl-aryl ethers (β–O–4′) were predominant, increasing from 68% in cork, to 71% in phloem and 77% in xylem, as consequence of the enrichment in S-lignin units. Cork lignin was enriched in condensed structures such as phenylcoumarans (β-5′, 20%), dibenzodioxocins (5–5′, 5%), as corresponds to a lignin enriched in G-units. In comparison, lignin from phloem and xylem presented lower levels of condensed linkages. The lignin from cork was highly acetylated at the γ-OH of the side-chain (48% lignin acetylation), predominantly over G-units; while the lignins from phloem and xylem were barely acetylated and this occurred mainly over S-units. These results are a first time overview of the lignin structure in xylem, phloem (generated by cambium), and in cork (generated by phellogen), in agreement with literature that reports that lignin biosynthesis is flexible and cell specific. PMID:27833631

  15. Carbon storage in degraded cork oak (Quercus suber forests on flat lowlands in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oubrahim H

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to quantify the carbon stored in a degraded cork oak (Quercus suber L. ecosystem in the north west of Morocco, in view of potential management implications. To this end, carbon stocks were evaluated in the first 100 cm of the soil, the cork oak trees, and the understorey species (both above- and belowground. Results show that the total carbon stocks in the cork oak ecosystem ranges from 65 to 237 Mg ha-1 with a mean value of 121 Mg ha-1. The first 100 cm of the soil (including the forest floor represents the largest carbon pool (~51% of the total organic carbon of the ecosystem. Tree biomass (above- and belowground tissues of cork oak represents the second largest pool (47%, whereas the contribution of the understorey is less than 2%. Within the first 100 cm of the soil, over 87% of all the soil organic carbon is situated in the first 40 cm of the soil depth. The amount of carbon stored here ranges from 30 to 110 Mg ha-1and these organic carbon stocks vary considerably with the stand basal area of the cork oak (R2 = 0.82. In practice, the carbon stocks of the different pools considered are strongly correlated with the stand density of the cork oak stands. In the semi-arid forest ecosystems of our study, management prescriptions aiming at increasing the standing biomass of the cork oak should thus considerably contribute, both directly through tree biomass and indirectly through increased soil organic matter, to efficient carbon sequestration.

  16. Physiological function of insoluble dietary fiber prepared from exploded oak wood (Quercus mongolica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Kim, Chang-Joon; Shin, Yong-Seung; Han, Dae-Yong; Han, Sang-Woo; Lim, Bu-Kug; Lee, Jong-Yoon; Rhee, Soon-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the production of insoluble dietary fiber using exploded and chemically treated oak wood (Quercus mongolica) and the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber in laboratory animals. To produce high quality insoluble dietary fiber, the steam explosion treatment was performed at 25 kgf/cm2 pressure for 6 minutes. In the chemical analysis of insoluble dietary fiber, exploded oak wood was pretreated by 1% sodium hydroxide solution. The insoluble dietary fiber contained 7.6% residual lignin and 61.7% of alpha-cellulose. In order to compare the physiological functions of prepared insoluble dietary fiber with those of commercial insoluble dietary fiber, Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100 +/- 10 g were randomly assigned to one normal diet and five high cholesterol diets, containing 1% cholesterol. The high cholesterol diet groups were classified as the fiber-free diet (FF group), 5% commercial alpha-cellulose diet group (5C group), 10% commercial alpha-cellulose group (10C group), 5% insoluble dietary fiber group (5M group) and 10% insoluble dietary fiber group (10M group). Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio in high cholesterol groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group, but there were no significant differences among the high cholesterol diet groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the weights of liver, kidney and small intestine in insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. Cecum weights in all insoluble dietary fiber groups were significantly higher than those of the FF group. There were no significant differences in the activities of the glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) among the insoluble dietary fiber-supplemented groups. In conclusion, the prepared insoluble dietary fiber and the commercially available insoluble fiber showed the same physiological effects. Moreover, the preparation method for the insoluble dietary

  17. Effects of cadmium on cork oak (Quercus suber L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorcena, Yolanda; Larbi, Ajmi; Andaluz, Sofia; Carpena, Ramón O; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an autochthonous tree species that is being used for reforestation in heavy-metal-contaminated areas in Spain. A hydroponics experiment was carried out to characterize the effects of Cd on several morphological and physiological parameters in this species, including shoot length, nutrient concentrations and allocation in different organs, leaf pigment concentrations, photosynthetic efficiency, root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and organic acid concentrations in xylem sap. Four different Cd treatments were applied, adding Cd chelated with EDTA or as chloride salt at two different concentrations (10 and 50 µM Cd). After 1 month of Cd treatment, plant growth was significantly inhibited in all treatments. Results indicate that Cd accumulates in all organs 7- to 500-fold when compared with control plants. The highest Cd concentration was found in the 50 µM CdCl(2) treatment, which led to concentrations of ~30, 123 and 1153 µg Cd g(-1) dry weight in leaves, stems and roots, respectively. In the strongest Cd treatments the concentrations of P and Ca decreased in some plant parts, whereas the Mn leaf concentrations decreased with three of the four Cd treatments applied. The concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids on an area basis decreased, whereas the (zeaxanthin plus antheraxanthin)/(total violaxanthin cycle carotenoids) ratio and the non-photochemical quenching increased significantly in all Cd treatments. Cadmium treatments caused significant increases in the activity of the enzyme FCR in roots and in the concentrations of organic acids in xylem sap. Some of the physiological changes found support the fact that Cd induces a deficiency of Fe in cork oak, although the plant Fe concentrations were not reduced significantly. At higher concentrations the effects of Cd were more pronounced, and were more marked when Cd was in the free ion form than when present in the form of Cd-EDTA.

  18. Soil Respiration in Relation to Photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica Trees at Elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO2 is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO2-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO2 (EC = 500 µmol mol−1) and ambient CO2 (AC = 370 µmol mol−1) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO2 assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO2 fixation of plants in a CO2-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration. PMID:21151897

  19. [Effects of light intensity on Quercus liaotungensis seed germination and seedling growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-fu; Wang, Jian-li; Zhou, Li-biao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (55.4%, 18.9%, 5.5%, 2.2%, 0.5% , and 0.3% natural sunlight) on the seed germination and seedling growth of Quercus liaotungensis. The seed germination rate and germination index were the highest (72.5% and 0.22, respectively) at 55.4% natural sunlight, declined with decreasing light intensity, and were the lowest (42.5% and 0.11, respectively) at 0.3% natural sunlight. Strong light had definite delaying effect on the germination. The index of germination vigor increased with decreasing light intensity, being the maximum at 0.5% natural sunlight. The delay of seed germination under strong light could be the selective tradeoff on varied seed fates. Strong light benefited the basal stem diameter and root system growth and dry mass accumulation of Q. liaotunensis seedling, but resulted in the minimum seedlings height (6.06 cm). Greater morphological plasticity was observed for the seedlings under different shading, which lent support to the higher adaptability of the seedlings to light environment. For example, the specific leaf area, specific shoot length, specific root length, and chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents were the maximum at 0.5% natural sunlight, being 142.57 cm2 x g(-1), 156.86 cm x g(-1), 271.87 cm x g(-1), 0.07 g x cm(-2), and 0.24 g x cm(-2), respectively, and the minimum at 55.4% natural sunlight, being 44.89 cm2 x g(-1), 52.84 cm x g(-1), 101.98 cm x g(-1), 0.04 g x cm(-2), and 0.15 g x cm(-2), respectively. The variation of the root/shoot ratio of Q. liaotungensis seedlings under different shading could be the effects of the combination of light intensity and water availability.

  20. How drought severity constrains GPP and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rambal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments has a crucial role in the carbon sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought prone forests. We analyzed the fate of GPP in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Gross and net carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy-covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy-covariance fluxes with annual productions we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic and heterotrophic respirations, NPP and carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio between NPP and GPP. Average values of yearly NEP, GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m−2. The corresponding ANPP components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m−2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits and stems. Gross and net carbon exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected, the stem growth, to the least affected, the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease more slightly in response to drought than GPP and NPP, probably due to drought-acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem and highlight the value of maintaining continuous

  1. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia Wheni Indrianingsih; Sanro Tachibana; Rizna Triana Dewi; Kazutaka Itoh

    2015-01-01

    To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume (Q. gilva). Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as catechin (1), epicatechin (2), and tiliroside (3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of (22.55 ± 2.23) µmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of (28.08 ± 2.39) µmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of (40.86 ± 3.45) µmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of (160.24 ± 8.15) µmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of (28.36 ± 0.11) µmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with (168.60 ± 5.15) and (920.60 ± 10.10) µmol/L, respectively. Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva confirmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  2. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor activities of natural compounds isolated from Quercus gilva Blume leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia; Wheni; Indrianingsih; Sanro; Tachibana; Rizna; Triana; Dewi; Kazutaka; Itoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and investigate antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the leaves of Quercus gilva Blume(Q. gilva).Methods: Dry leaves of Q. gilva were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was further separated by silica gel column chromatography using several solvents with increasing polarity. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using various in vitro assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reducing power assay. The α-glucosidase inhibitory assay was conducted against α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Results: Three compounds were isolated and their structures were identii ed as catechin(1), epicatechin(2), and tiliroside(3) using an instrumental analysis. Compound 2 had higher antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of(22.55 ± 2.23) μmol/L than that of quercetin, which was used as the standard, with an IC50 of(28.08 ± 2.39) μmol/L, followed by compound 1 with IC50 of(40.86 ± 3.45) μmol/L. On the other hand, compound 3 had the lowest antioxidant activity with an IC50 of(160.24 ± 8.15) μmol/L. However, compound 3 had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of(28.36 ± 0.11) μmol/L, followed by compounds 1 and 2 with(168.60 ± 5.15) and(920.60 ± 10.10) μmol/L, respectively.Conclusions: The results obtained for the antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in a methanolic extract from the leaves of Q. gilva coni rmed the potential of this plant as a source of natural antioxidants and antidiabetic medicine.

  3. Is thinning adequate for adapting old Quercus ilex coppices to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Perez-Ramos, Ignacio-Manuel; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Misson, Laurent; Joffre, Richard; Rambal, Serge; Martin, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Future climatic scenarios call for an increasing involvement of management for forest preservation, but little is known on how forestry practices will benefit stands in facing variation of climatic components. We investigated how thinning affected tree responses to six years of continued throughfall reduction in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex stand formerly managed as a coppice. Thinned plots (≈33% basal area removal) and unthinned plots were subsequently subject to either throughfall exclusion (≈28% throughfall reduction) or normal rainfall. Stem-diameter growth, stem survival and seed production were monitored over the following six years; the presence, abundance and growth of new sprouts were measured in the last year. In the absence of thinning, throughfall exclusion accelerated the mortality of small stems, reduced the production of viable acorns and stimulated the emergence of new sprouts. Throughfall exclusion did not have any effect on stem growth. Rather, trees responded to the imposed reduction on throughfall by decreasing the leaf area and thus by minimizing the risk of xylem cavitation. Thinning reduced the mortality of stems, enhanced the diameter growth of residual stems and caused a profuse emission of resprouts. Thinning also increased total seed production but the crop had a large proportion of aborted seeds. Overall, the results point out to a better disposition of thinned Q. ilex coppice stands to cope with future (probably longer and more intense) droughts, at least in the short term. The reduction in standing dead biomass reduces the probability of occurrence of wildfires while the increase in growth and probably carbon reserves may help trees to overcome dry summers where CO2 assimilation is strongly limited. The mere felling of dominated and diseased stems, however, will probably not result in any longer-term advantage derived from seed regeneration without any further silvicultural treatment that promote seedling recruitment.

  4. How drought severity constrains GPP and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-06-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments has a crucial role in the carbon sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought prone forests. We analyzed the fate of GPP in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Gross and net carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy-covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy-covariance fluxes with annual productions we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic and heterotrophic respirations, NPP and carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly NEP, GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding ANPP components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems. Gross and net carbon exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected, the stem growth, to the least affected, the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease more slightly in response to drought than GPP and NPP, probably due to drought-acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem and highlight the value of maintaining continuous experimental

  5. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida eRocheta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalised cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterised and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step towards the characterisation of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution towards the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species.

  6. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheta, Margarida; Sobral, Rómulo; Magalhães, Joana; Amorim, Maria I; Ribeiro, Teresa; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M R

    2014-01-01

    Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalized cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious, or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterized and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution toward the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species.

  7. Lignin Composition and Structure Differs between Xylem, Phloem and Phellem in Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Rencoret, Jorge; Chemetova, Catarina; Gominho, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Del Río, José C; Pereira, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The composition and structure of lignin in different tissues-phellem (cork), phloem and xylem (wood)-of Quercus suber was studied. Whole cell walls and their respective isolated milled lignins were analyzed by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC). Different tissues presented varied p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl (H:G:S) lignin compositions. Whereas lignin from cork has a G-rich lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 2:85:13), lignin from phloem presents more S-units (H:G:S molar ratio of 1:58:41) and lignin from xylem is slightly enriched in S-lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 1:45:55). These differences were reflected in the relative abundances of the different interunit linkages. Alkyl-aryl ethers (β-O-4') were predominant, increasing from 68% in cork, to 71% in phloem and 77% in xylem, as consequence of the enrichment in S-lignin units. Cork lignin was enriched in condensed structures such as phenylcoumarans (β-5', 20%), dibenzodioxocins (5-5', 5%), as corresponds to a lignin enriched in G-units. In comparison, lignin from phloem and xylem presented lower levels of condensed linkages. The lignin from cork was highly acetylated at the γ-OH of the side-chain (48% lignin acetylation), predominantly over G-units; while the lignins from phloem and xylem were barely acetylated and this occurred mainly over S-units. These results are a first time overview of the lignin structure in xylem, phloem (generated by cambium), and in cork (generated by phellogen), in agreement with literature that reports that lignin biosynthesis is flexible and cell specific.

  8. Molecular characterization of Quercus suber MYB1, a transcription factor up-regulated in cork tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tânia; Menéndez, Esther; Capote, Tiago; Ribeiro, Teresa; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2013-01-15

    The molecular processes associated with cork development in Quercus suber L. are poorly understood. A previous molecular approach identified a list of genes potentially important for cork formation and differentiation, providing a new basis for further molecular studies. This report is the first molecular characterization of one of these candidate genes, QsMYB1, coding for an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. The R2R3-MYB gene sub-family has been described as being involved in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways, both involved in cork biosynthesis. The results showed that the expression of QsMYB1 is putatively mediated by an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism that originates two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2), differing only in the 5'-untranslated region, due to retention of the first intron in one of the variants. Moreover, within the retained intron, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) was identified. The upstream regulatory region of QsMYB1 was extended by a genome walking approach, which allowed the identification of the putative gene promoter region. The relative expression pattern of QsMYB1 transcripts determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that both transcripts were up-regulated in cork tissues; the detected expression was several times higher in newly formed cork harvested from trees producing virgin, second or reproduction cork when compared with wood. Moreover, the expression analysis of QsMYB1 in several Q. suber organs showed very low expression in young branches and roots, whereas in leaves, immature acorns or male flowers, no expression was detected. These preliminary results suggest that QsMYB1 may be related to secondary growth and, in particular, with the cork biosynthesis process with a possible alternative splicing mechanism associated with its regulatory function.

  9. Regulation of transpirational water loss in Quercus suber trees in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, D O; Schmidt, M W T; Kurz-Besson, C; Lobo Do Vale, R; Pereira, J S; Tenhunen, J D

    2007-08-01

    Sap flux density in branches, leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf water potentials were measured in 16-year-old Quercus suber L. trees growing in a plantation in southern Portugal to understand how evergreen Mediterranean trees regulate water loss during summer drought. Leaf specific hydraulic conductance and leaf gas exchange were monitored during the progressive summer drought to establish how changes along the hydraulic pathway influence shoot responses. As soil water became limiting, leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration declined significantly. Predawn leaf water potential reflected soil water potential measured at 1-m depth in the rhizospheres of most trees. The lowest predawn leaf water potential recorded during this period was -1.8 MPa. Mean maximum stomatal conductance declined from 300 to 50 mmol m(-2) s(-1), reducing transpiration from 6 to 2 mmol m(-2) s(-1). Changes in leaf gas exchange were attributed to reduced soil water availability, increased resistances along the hydraulic pathway and, hence, reduced leaf water supply. There was a strong coupling between changes in soil water content and stomatal conductance as well as between stomatal conductance and leaf specific hydraulic conductance. Despite significant seasonal differences among trees in predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration and leaf specific hydraulic conductance, there were no differences in midday leaf water potentials. The strong regulation of changes in leaf water potential in Q. suber both diurnally and seasonally is achieved through stomatal closure, which is sensitive to changes in both liquid and vapor phase conductance. This sensitivity allows for optimization of carbon and water resource use without compromising the root-shoot hydraulic link.

  10. Lignin composition and structure differs between xylem, phloem and phellem in Quercus suber L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourenço

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition and structure of lignin in different tissues - phellem (cork, phloem and xylem (wood - of Quercus suber was studied. Whole cell walls and their respective isolated milled lignins were analyzed by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC. Different tissues presented varied p-hydroxyphenyl:guaiacyl:syringyl (H:G:S lignin compositions. Whereas lignin from cork has a G-rich lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 2:85:13, lignin from phloem presents more S-units (H:G:S molar ratio of 1:58:41 and lignin from xylem is slightly enriched in S-lignin (H:G:S molar ratio 1:45:55. These differences were reflected in the relative abundances of the different interunit linkages. Alkyl-aryl ethers (β–O–4´ were predominant, increasing from 68% in cork, to 71% in phloem and 77% in xylem, as consequence of the enrichment in S-lignin units. Cork lignin was enriched in condensed structures such as phenylcoumarans (β-5´, 20%, dibenzodioxocins (5-5´, 5%, as corresponds to a lignin enriched in G-units. In comparison, lignin from phloem and xylem presented lower levels of condensed linkages. The lignin from cork was highly acetylated at the γ-OH of the side-chain (48% lignin acetylation, predominantly over G-units; while the lignins from phloem and xylem were barely acetylated and this occurred mainly over S-units. These results are a first time overview of the lignin structure in xylem, phloem (generated by cambium, and in cork (generated by phellogen, in agreement with literature that lignin biosynthesis is flexible and cell specific.

  11. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  12. Quercus suber range dynamics by ecological niche modelling: from the Last Interglacial to present time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessella, Federico; Simeone, Marco Cosimo; Schirone, Bartolomeo

    2015-07-01

    Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) is widely used to depict species potential occurrence according to environmental variables under different climatic scenarios. We tested the ENM approach to infer past range dynamics of cork oak, a keystone species of the Mediterranean Biome, from 130 ka to the present time. Hindcasting implications would deal with a better species risk assessment and conservation management for the future. We modelled present and past occurrence of cork oak using seven ENM algorithms, starting from 63,733 spatially unique presence points at 30 arc-second resolution. Fourteen environmental variables were used and four time slices were considered (Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, mid-Holocene and present time). A threshold-independent evaluation of the goodness-of-fit of the models was evaluated by means of ROC curve and fossil or historical evidences were used to validate the results. Four weighted average maps depicted the dynamics of area suitability for cork oak in the last 130 ka. The derived species autoecology allowed its long-term occurrence in the Mediterranean without striking range reduction or shifting. Fossil and historical post-processing validation support the modelled past spatial extension and a neglected species presence at Levantine until the recent time. Despite the severe climatic oscillation since the Last Glacial Maximum, cork oak potential distribution area experienced limited range changes, confirming its strong link with the Mediterranean Basin. The ecological amplitude of Quercus suber could be therefore adopted as a reference to trace the Mediterranean bioclimate area. A better knowledge of the past events of Mediterranean vegetation, a wider range of study species and environmental determinants are essential to inform us about its current state, its sensitivity to human impact and the potential responses to future changes.

  13. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P; Miguel, Célia

    2012-01-01

    The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks.

  14. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Marum

    Full Text Available The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber, have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy. The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks.

  15. [Effects of simulated acid rain on Quercus glauca seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Jiang, Fu-wei; Yin, Xiu-min; Lu, Mei-juan

    2009-09-01

    Taking the seedlings of Quercus glauca, a dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species in subtropical area, as test materials, this paper studied their photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content under effects of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 4.0, and 5.6 (CK). After 2-year acid rain stress, the net photosynthetic rate of Q. glauca increased significantly with decreasing pH of acid rain. The acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0 increased the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and the effect was more significant under pH 2.5. The intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0. The maximum photosynthetic rate, light compensation point, light saturation point, and dark respiration rate were significantly higher under pH 2.5 and 4.0 than under pH 5.6, while the apparent quantum yield was not sensitive to acid rain stress. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II and the potential activity of PS II under pH 2.5 and 4.0 were significantly higher than those under pH 5.6. The relative chlorophyll content was in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0, and there was a significant difference between pH 2.5 and 4.0. All the results suggested that the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of Q. glauca increased under the effects of acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0, and the acid rain with pH 2.5 had more obvious effects.

  16. Ecophysiological characteristics and cadmium accumulation in Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocozza C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals provoke environmental pollution with potentially toxic effects on human and plants systems. Recently, investigations are conducted on plants that may play a relevant role on pollutants absorption or stabilization, focusing on fast growing tree species in agronomic conditions; little is known on the effects of contaminants on tree species colonizing abandoned fields to be used in restoration ecology. The effects of Cd on photosynthetic performance and metal accumulation were investigated in Quercus pubescens Willd. seedlings grown in pots containing a mixture of sand, clay, turf and Cd-treatments (0, 25 and 75 mg kg-1 dry soil. The studied photosynthetic parameters (Asat= net phytosynthesis; Rday= day respiration; Γcomp= CO2 compensation point; Vcmax= maximum carboxylation rate; Jmax = electron transport rate; TPU = triose phosphate use; Ci/Ca = ratio of intercellular (Ci to ambient (Ca [CO2] (Ci/Ca; Jmax/Vcmax = ratio; (gsmax = maximum stomatal conductance; (lg = stomatal conductance estimated relative to the photosynthetic rate; (Fv/Fm = maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry; (ΔF/F’m = effective photochemical efficiency varied progressively with increasing Cd concentration in the soil, highlighting a negative impact on photosynthetic potential and PSII functioning. Approximately 10% of added Cd was found to be extractable from the substrate, at the maximum concentration applied, with about 12 and 0.75 as bioaccumulation and translocation factors, respectively. Analogously, Cd accumulated up to 34, 30 and 46 mg kg−1 in leaves, stem and roots, respectively. While it is not possible to extrapolate from the present study with seedlings to effects on mature pine trees, there are clear implications for regeneration in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may lead to ecosystem deterioration.

  17. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%-248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  18. Influence of pericarp, cotyledon and inhibitory substances on sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (STO, mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS, removing the pericarp (RP, and cutting off 1/2 (HC and 2/3 (TC cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis seeds (CCS were also investigated for CCS cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol. The results showed that the majority of roots and shoots from acorns with RP and HC treatment emerged two weeks earlier, more simultaneously, and their total emergencies were more than 46% and 28% higher, respectively. TC accelerated root and shoot emergence time and root length, but root and shoot germination rate and shoot height had no significant difference from the control. Positive consequences were not observed on all indices of RS treatment. The germination rates of CCS watered by 1.0 g · ml(-1 methanol extracts from the embryo and cotyledon were significantly lower than those from the pericarp, and all concentrations resulted in decreased growth of root and shoot. Methanol extracts from pericarp significantly reduced root length of CCS, but presented little response in germination percentage and shoot length. The inhibitory effect was gradually increased with the increasing concentration of the methanol extract. We conclude that both the mechanical restriction of the pericarp and the presence of germination inhibitors in the embryo, cotyledon and pericarp are the causes for delayed and asynchronous germination of STO acorns.

  19. Phenolic compounds and fatty acids from acorns (Quercus spp.), the main dietary constituent of free-ranged Iberian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos; López-Bote, Clemente; de la Hoz, Lorenzo; Ordóñez, Juan A; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-10-08

    The aim of the present work was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and fatty acids in acorns from Quercus ilex, Quercus rotundifolia, and Quercus suber. The concentration of oleic acid was >63% of total fatty acids in all cases, followed by palmitic and linoleic acids at similar concentrations (12-20%). The concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in Q. rotundifolia, Q. ilex, and Q. suber were 19, 31, and 38 mg/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively, whereas the concentrations of gamma-tocopherol were 113, 66, and 74 mg/kg of DM, respectively. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were distinguished. All of them were gallic acid derivatives, in the form of either galloyl esters of glucose, combinations of galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of glucose, tergallic O- or C-glucosides, or ellagic acid derivatives. Several tergallic acid C-glucosides were also present in the extracts obtained from Q. suber. Acorns from Q. ilex and Q. rotundifolia showed similar polyphenol patterns mainly with gallic acid-like spectra. Chromatograms of Q. suber showed mainly polyphenols with ellagic acid-like spectra. Valoneic acid dilactone was especially abundant in Q. suber skin. The contribution of skin to the total phenolics of the acorn was relatively small in Q. rotundifolia and Q. ilex but relatively high in Q. suber. Skin extracts from Q. suber, Q. rotundifolia, and Q. ilex showed 1.3, 1.4, and 1.0 antioxidant efficiencies, respectively (compared to that of butylhydroxyanisole). Endosperm extracts showed lower capacity to prevent lipid peroxidation than skin extracts.

  20. Limitations due to water stress on leaf net photosynthesis of Quercus coccifera in the Portuguese evergreen scrub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenhunen, J.D.; Lange, O.L.; Harley, P.C.; Beyschlag, W.; Meyer, A.

    1985-01-01

    Gas exchange characteristics in leaves of the sclerophyll shrub Quercus coccifera were studied in the natural habitat in Portugal during spring and during the summer dry period. Compared to other sclerophyll species growing at the same site, photosynthesis in leaves of Quercus coccifera was less affected by water stress. Moderate water stress after six weeks of drought led to large decreases in stomatal conductance but no change in mesophyll photosynthetic capacity as compared to late spring. Leaf internal CO/sub 2/ pressure remained near 220 ..mu..bar during diurnal courses in the spring. On midsummer days, leaf internal CO/sub 2/ decreased from a late morning value of 200 ..mu..bar to a late afternoon value of approximately 150 ..mu..bar. In contrast to Quercus suber, restriction of CO/sub 2/ supply due to stomatal closure reduced net CO/sub 2/ uptake at midday and in the afternoon during midsummer. A decrease in leaf carboxylation efficiency and an increase in CO/sub 2/ compensation point at midday also played an important role in determining the diurnal course of net photosynthesis. During the late stages of drought in September, severe water stress led to reduction in mesophyll photosynthetic capacity and further reduction in leaf conductance. The observed decrease in mesophyll photosynthetic capacity was correlated with decrease in the daily minimum leaf water potential to greater negative values than -30 bar. At this time, CO/sub 2/ saturated photosynthetic rates decreased as much as 50% over the course of a day when measured at constant saturating light, 32/sup 0/C leaf temperature, and a water vapor mole fraction difference between leaf and air of 30 mbar bar/sup -1/. 24 references, 9 figures.

  1. Rasgos funcionales en el género Quercus: estrategias adquisitivas frente a conservativas en el uso de recursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. de la Riva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del género Quercus constituyen uno de los grupos más abundantes e importantes de plantas leñosas de la Península Ibérica, estando su distribución determinada por la disponibilidad de agua, el tipo de suelo y la historia del manejo. El conocimiento de la variación de sus características morfo-funcionales puede ayudarnos a comprender el grado de diversificación de las especies del mismo género y los mecanismos que controlan sus patrones de distribución. Los objetivos principales de este estudio son: (i analizar las relaciones existentes entre los diferentes rasgos funcionales dentro del género Quercus y testar cómo se ajustan a las estrategias de captación de recursos; y (ii comprobar si existe coordinación entre los rasgos medidos a nivel de hoja, tallo y raíz. El muestreo se llevó a cabo en Sierra Morena (Córdoba y la Sierra del Aljibe (Cádiz, cuantificándose rasgos funcionales claves a nivel de hoja, tallo, raíz, tamaño de planta y fisiología en cinco especies de Quercus (Q. canariensis, Q. coccifera, Q. faginea, Q. ilex y Q. suber. Los resultados muestran que las diferentes especies de Quercus presentan claros patrones en sus estrategias funcionales que están relacionados con su distribución, encontrando un gradiente desde especies más conservativas en el uso de recursos en condiciones de menor disponibilidad de agua a especies más adquisitivas en zonas más húmedas. A su vez, se aprecia una coordinación entre los patrones de rasgos funcionales encontrados a nivel de hoja, tallo y de raíz que apoya la existencia de un “espectro de economía” a nivel de la planta entera.

  2. 米心水青冈种群萌条更新与高度生长%Sprouting and height in a Fagus engeriana population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵睿; 周学峰; 徐娜娜; 赵明水; 刘亮; 陈小勇

    2009-01-01

    Resprouting plays an important role in the regeneration of many tree species, especially in disturbed habitats. It was suggested that there is a trade-off between sprouting and height growth. This hypothesis was previously tested by comparing the heights of sprouters and its non-sprouting congeners. However, differences in life history and other biological characteristics may invalidate such a comparison. In this paper, we try to test such a hypothesis in Fagus engleriana and to understand the effect of resprouting on demography. We investigated characteristics of Fagus engleriana individuals from a community in Tianmushan. We compared the heights of single and multi-stem individuals with similar diameter at breast height (DBH) as well the heights of mature individuals of the similar size with few and abundant stems. We also quantified the sprouting characteristics and their relationship with height and DBH of the largest individual. Positive relationship was found between number of stems and DBH of the largest stem. No significant difference was found in height between single and multi-stem individuals, also between mature individuals with few and abundant stems, indicating that there is no trade-off between sprouting and height growth in F. engleriana. Positive relationship was found between height and number of stems. Negative relationship was found between variation coefficient of the largest three stem and number of stems, indicating that difference among the largest three stems decreased with increasing number of stems, due to photosynthesis of each stem. Size of the studied population was much larger at the ramet level than that at the genet level. Almost all seedling, saplings and small individuals were formed by sprouting, indicating that sprouting plays a critical role in the regeneration of the F. engleriana population in Tianmushan.%萌条是许多木本植物更新的重要方式,尤其是在干扰生境中.有种观点认为萌条需要消耗大量

  3. Efeito da pastorícia tradicional na redução de combustíveis em bosques de Quercus pyrenaica

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Marina; Castro, José; Gómez Sal, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Os bosques de Quercus pyrenaica foram no passado e continuam no presente, a ser utilizados por rebanhos de pequenos ruminantes (ovelhas e cabras) explorados em regime extensivo, pelo que são frequentemente considerados sistemas de uso múltiplo. Neste trabalho investiga-se o efeito da pastorícia tradicional na redução da acumulação de biomassa herbácea, pretendendo avaliar o efeito da presença dos animais nestes sistemas. Avaliou-se a biomassa herbácea em bosques de Quercus pyrenaica em doi...

  4. Establecimiento de cuatro especies de Quercus en el sur de la Península Ibérica: factores condicionantes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Las especies del género Quercus son muy representativas del estrato arbóreo de los bosques mediterráneos y presentan limitaciones para su regeneración, siendo la fase de plántula muy sensible a las condiciones ambientales (Jordano et al. 2008). En esta tesis se han estudiado algunos de los factores clave para el establecimiento de varias especies de Quercus (Q. ilex ssp ballota, Q. suber, Q. faginea, Q. pyrenaica), abarcando las fases de depredación post-dispersiva, emergencia, crecimiento y ...

  5. Independencia y ecología ectomicorrícica en varias especies de los géneros Quercus, Pinus y Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Oria de Rueda Salguero, Juan Andrés

    1991-01-01

    Se estudia la micorrización de varias especies de Quercus y Eucalyptus con hongos micorrícicos de los géneros Pisolithus, Krombholziella y Suillus. Se define el Período de Independencia Micorrícica, muy interesante en viveros forestales y de reproducción vegetal.Este período varía según especies y ecología y es mayor con semillas voluminosas que en las de semillas pequeñas. Mycorrization of some species of Quercus, Pinus and Eucalyptus with some mycorrhizal fungi: Pisolithus,Krombholziella...

  6. Ecología, historia y gestión de los árboles del género Quercus: simposio de Isparta, Turquía

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón, T.

    2011-01-01

    El género Quercus tiene más de 400 especies repartidas por el Hemisferio Norte. Los robles, encinas, alcornoques, quejigos y coscojas forman parte del paisaje europeo y mediterráneo y tienen un importante valor ecológico, económico y cultural. En junio de 2010 tuvo lugar en Isparta (Turquía) el segundo simposio europeo sobre la importancia de los árboles del género Quercus, 'su contribución pasada, presente y futura al paisaje, la biodiversidad, el patrimonio y el turismo europeo' (v...

  7. Root Architecture and Dynamic Changes of Seedling of Fagus longipetiolata%长柄水青冈幼苗根系构型及动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菊花; 汪正祥; 雷耘; 李中强

    2010-01-01

    长柄水青冈(Fagus longipetiolata)是我国亚热带山地林的重要组成树种,本研究在温室中用河砂培养长柄水青冈幼苗,采用直接测量法研究了长柄水青冈的根系构型.结果表明,生长50d的长柄水青冈幼苗的根系呈倒圆锥形,根宽小于根深;基根平均生长角度较小,基根的向地性小;一级侧根与主根的夹角从根系上部至下部逐渐变小;二级侧根首先发生于根系的中下部,然后其发生范围向根系上、下部扩展.虽然长柄水青冈幼苗根系构型存在较大的个体差异性,但一级侧根与主根的夹角则具有较好的稳定性.研究揭示了实验条件下长柄水青冈幼苗的根系构型及其在幼苗建成过程中的生长变化规律,为长柄水青冈的进一步研究提供科学依据.

  8. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Sandy; Hansen, Karin; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-03-15

    To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H(+) increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and highest during the dormant season for Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) (beech and spruce) and K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H(+) occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce.

  9. Within-population genetic structure in beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands characterized by different disturbance histories: does forest management simplify population substructure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piotti

    Full Text Available The fine-scale assessment of both spatially and non-spatially distributed genetic variation is crucial to preserve forest genetic resources through appropriate forest management. Cryptic within-population genetic structure may be more common than previously thought in forest tree populations, which has strong implications for the potential of forests to adapt to environmental change. The present study was aimed at comparing within-population genetic structure in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. plots experiencing different disturbance levels. Five plot pairs made up by disturbed and undisturbed plots having the same biogeographic history were sampled throughout Europe. Overall, 1298 individuals were analyzed using four highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (SSRs. Bayesian clustering within plots identified 3 to 11 genetic clusters (within-plot θ ST ranged from 0.025 to 0.124. The proportion of within-population genetic variation due to genetic substructuring (F CluPlot = 0.067 was higher than the differentiation among the 10 plots (F PlotTot = 0.045. Focusing on the comparison between managed and unmanaged plots, disturbance mostly explains differences in the complexity of within-population genetic structure, determining a reduction of the number of genetic clusters present in a standardized area. Our results show that: i genetic substructuring needs to be investigated when studying the within-population genetic structure in forest tree populations, and ii indices describing subtle characteristics of the within-population genetic structure are good candidates for providing early signals of the consequences of forest management, and of disturbance events in general.

  10. Within-population genetic structure in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands characterized by different disturbance histories: does forest management simplify population substructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Andrea; Leonardi, Stefano; Heuertz, Myriam; Buiteveld, Joukje; Geburek, Thomas; Gerber, Sophie; Kramer, Koen; Vettori, Cristina; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The fine-scale assessment of both spatially and non-spatially distributed genetic variation is crucial to preserve forest genetic resources through appropriate forest management. Cryptic within-population genetic structure may be more common than previously thought in forest tree populations, which has strong implications for the potential of forests to adapt to environmental change. The present study was aimed at comparing within-population genetic structure in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) plots experiencing different disturbance levels. Five plot pairs made up by disturbed and undisturbed plots having the same biogeographic history were sampled throughout Europe. Overall, 1298 individuals were analyzed using four highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (SSRs). Bayesian clustering within plots identified 3 to 11 genetic clusters (within-plot θ ST ranged from 0.025 to 0.124). The proportion of within-population genetic variation due to genetic substructuring (F CluPlot = 0.067) was higher than the differentiation among the 10 plots (F PlotTot = 0.045). Focusing on the comparison between managed and unmanaged plots, disturbance mostly explains differences in the complexity of within-population genetic structure, determining a reduction of the number of genetic clusters present in a standardized area. Our results show that: i) genetic substructuring needs to be investigated when studying the within-population genetic structure in forest tree populations, and ii) indices describing subtle characteristics of the within-population genetic structure are good candidates for providing early signals of the consequences of forest management, and of disturbance events in general.

  11. 基于RAPD标记的我国水青冈属植物的分类研究%RAPD Analyses of Fagus Species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉成均; 沈海花; 方精云; 谢长富; 樊拥军

    2002-01-01

    应用随机引物扩增多态性DNA(RAPD)方法,对我国水青冈属(Fagus L.)6种植物,即巴山水青冈(F.pashanica)、长柄水青冈(F.longipetiolata)、米心水青冈(F.engleriana)、亮叶水青冈(F.lucida)、台湾水青冈(F.hayatae)和浙江水青冈(F.hayatae var.zhejiangensis)进行基因组多态性分析,选用80个随机引物进行扩增,其中56个引物扩增出清晰可重复的条带,片段大小在250~3050 bp之间.采用UPGMA法对求出的遗传片段进行聚类分析.结果显示:台湾水青冈、巴山水青冈和浙江水青冈的遗传距离较近,表明它们可归并为一种.这与我国水青冈属的生态解剖学研究结果完全一致.根据结果将我国水青冈植物归并分为4种:长柄水青冈、米心水青冈、亮叶水青冈、台湾水青冈(包括巴山水青冈和浙江水青冈).

  12. Ectomycorrhizal Communities on the Roots of Two Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Populations from Contrasting Climates Differ in Nitrogen Acquisition in a Common Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberecht, Martin; Dannenmann, Michael; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Bilela, Silvija; Meier, Rudolf; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schloter, Michael; Polle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica), a dominant forest species in Central Europe, competes for nitrogen with soil microbes and suffers from N limitation under dry conditions. We hypothesized that ectomycorrhizal communities and the free-living rhizosphere microbes from beech trees from sites with two contrasting climatic conditions exhibit differences in N acquisition that contribute to differences in host N uptake and are related to differences in host belowground carbon allocation. To test these hypotheses, young trees from the natural regeneration of two genetically similar populations, one from dryer conditions (located in an area with a southwest exposure [SW trees]) and the other from a cooler, moist climate (located in an area with a northeast exposure [NE trees]), were transplanted into a homogeneous substrate in the same environment and labeled with (13)CO2 and (15)NH4 (+). Free-living rhizosphere microbes were characterized by marker genes for the N cycle, but no differences between the rhizospheres of SW or NE trees were found. Lower (15)N enrichment was found in the ectomycorrhizal communities of the NE tree communities than the SW tree communities, whereas no significant differences in (15)N enrichment were observed for nonmycorrhizal root tips of SW and NE trees. Neither the ectomycorrhizal communities nor the nonmycorrhizal root tips originating from NE and SW trees showed differences in (13)C signatures. Because the level of (15)N accumulation in fine roots and the amount transferred to leaves were lower in NE trees than SW trees, our data support the suggestion that the ectomycorrhizal community influences N transfer to its host and demonstrate that the fungal community from the dry condition was more efficient in N acquisition when environmental constraints were relieved. These findings highlight the importance of adapted ectomycorrhizal communities for forest nutrition in a changing climate.

  13. Spatial vs. temporal effects on demographic and genetic structures: the roles of dispersal, masting and differential mortality on patterns of recruitment in Fagus sylvatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddou-Muratorio, Sylvie; Klein, Etienne K; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Fady, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Trees' long lifespan, long-distance dispersal abilities and high year-to-year variability in fecundity are thought to have pervasive consequences for the demographic and genetic structure of recruited seedlings. However, we still lack experimental studies quantifying the respective roles of spatial processes such as restricted seed and pollen dispersal and temporal processes such as mast seeding on patterns of regeneration. Dynamics of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedling recruitment was monitored in three plots from 2004 to 2006. Six polymorphic microsatellite genetic markers were used to characterize seedlings and their potential parents in a 7.2-ha stand. These seedlings were shown to result from 12 years of recruitment, with one predominant year of seedling recruitment in 2002 and several years without significant recruitment. Using a spatially explicit mating model based on parentage assignment, short average dispersal distances for seed (δ(s) = 10.9 m) and pollen (43.7 m < δ(p) <57.3 m) were found, but there was also a non-negligible immigration rate from outside the plot (m(s) = 20.5%; 71.6% < m(p) < 77.9%). Hierarchical analyses of seedling genetic structure showed that (i) most of the genetic variation was within plots; (ii) the genetic differentiation among seedling plots was significant (F(ST) = 2.6%) while (iii) there was no effect of year-to-year seed rain variation on genetic structure. In addition, no significant effect of genetic structure on mortality was detected. The consequences of these results for the prediction of population dynamics at ecological timescales are discussed.

  14. Within-canopy and ozone fumigation effects on delta13C and Delta18O in adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees: relation to meteorological and gas exchange parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Arthur; Löw, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Schumacher, Johannes; Grams, Thorsten E E; Bahnweg, Günther; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the effects of different light intensities either in direct sunlight or in the shade crown of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees on delta13C and Delta18O were determined under ambient (1 x O3) and twice-ambient (2 x O3) atmospheric ozone concentrations during two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). We analysed the isotopic composition in leaf bulk, leaf cellulose, phloem and xylem material and related the results to (a) meteorological data (air temperature, T and relative humidity, RH), (b) leaf gas exchange measurements (stomatal conductance, g(s); transpiration rate, E; and maximum photosynthetic activity, A(max)) and (c) the outcome of a steady-state evaporative enrichment model. Delta13C was significantly lower in the shade than in the sun crown in all plant materials, whilst Delta18O was increased significantly in the shade than in the sun crown in bulk material and cellulose. Elevated ozone had no effect on delta13C, although Delta18O was influenced by ozone to varied degrees during single months. We observed significant seasonal changes for both parameters, especially in 2004, and also significant differences between the study years. Relating the findings to meteorological data and gas exchange parameters, we conclude that the differences in Delta18O between the sun and the shade crown were predominantly caused by the Péclet effect. This assumption was supported by the modelled Delta18O values for leaf cellulose. It was demonstrated that independent of RH, light-dependent reduction of stomatal conductance (and thus transpiration) and of A(max) can drive the pattern of Delta18O increase with the concomitant decrease of delta13C in the shade crown. The effect of doubling ozone levels on time-integrated stomatal conductance and transpiration as indicated by the combined analysis of Delta18O and delta13C was much lower than the influence caused by the light exposure.

  15. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  16. The production, localization and spreading of reactive oxygen species contributes to the low vitality of long-term stored common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Ewelina; Małecka, Arleta; Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Kalemba, Ewa Marzena

    2015-02-01

    The common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is propagated by seeds, but the seed set is irregular with five to ten years in between crops. It is therefore necessary to store the seeds. However, beech seeds lose germinability during long-term storage. In this study, beech seeds were stored at -10°C under controlled conditions for 2, 5, 8, 11 and 13 years. Our results show that beech seeds lose germinability during storage in proportion to the duration of storage. The decrease in germinability correlated with increased electrolyte leakage and accumulation of superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was observed among the releases of superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. In situ localization showed that superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide were first detectable in root cap cells. When the seed storage time was extended, the reactive oxygen species fluorescence expanded to more areas of the radicle, reaching the root apical meristem. A storage time-dependent decrease in catalase activity, observed in both embryonic axes and cotyledons, was also positively correlated with germinability. DNA fragmentation was observed in beech seeds during storage and occurred predominantly in embryonic axes stored for 5 years and more. Altogether, these results suggest that the loss of germinability in beech seeds during long-term storage depends on several factors, including strong of reactive oxygen species accumulation accompanied by reduced catalase activity as well as membrane injury and DNA alternations, which may be aging-related and ROS-derived. We suggest that the accumulating reactive oxygen species that spread to the root apical meristem are key factors that affect seed germinability after long-term storage.

  17. Effect of Forest Management of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica with Different Types of Felling on Carbon and Economic Balances in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plch, Radek; Pulkrab, Karel; Bukáček, Jan; Sloup, Roman; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The selection of the most sustainable forest management under given site conditions needs suitable criteria and indicators. For this purpose, carbon and economic balance assessment, completed with environmental impact computation using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were used. The aim of this study was to compare forestry operations and wood production of selected forest stands with different i) tree species composition (Norway spruce - Picea abies and European beech - Fagus sylvatica) and ii) type of felling (chainsaw and harvester). Carbon and economic balance methods consist in the comparison of quantified inputs (fossil fuels, electricity, used machinery, fertilizers, etc., converted into emission units of carbon in Mg of C- CO2-eq. or EUR) with quantified outputs (biomass production in Mg of carbon or EUR). In this contribution, similar forest stands (“forest site complexes”) in the 4th forest vegetation zone (in the Czech Republic approximately 400-700 m above sea-level) were selected. Forestry operations were divided into 5 main stages: i) seedling production, ii) stand establishment and pruning, iii) thinning and final cutting, iv) skidding, and v) secondary timber transport and modelled for one rotation period of timber production (ca. 100 years). The differences between Norway spruce and European beech forest stands in the carbon efficiency were relatively small while higher differences were achieved in the economic efficiency (forest stands with Norway spruce had a higher economic efficiency). Concerning the comparison of different types of felling in Norway spruce forest stands, the harvester use proved to induce significantly higher environmental impacts (emission of carbon) and lower economic costs. The comparison of forestry operation stages showed that the main part of carbon emissions, originating from fuel production and combustion, is connected with a thinning and final cutting, skidding and secondary timber transport in relations to

  18. Local adaptations to frost in marginal and central populations of the dominant forest tree Fagus sylvatica L. as affected by temperature and extreme drought in common garden experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Buhk, Constanze; Backhaus, Sabrina; Hallinger, Martin; Huber, Gerhard; Huber, Lukas; Jentsch, Anke; Konnert, Monika; Thiel, Daniel; Wilmking, Martin; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-03-01

    Local adaptations to environmental conditions are of high ecological importance as they determine distribution ranges and likely affect species responses to climate change. Increased environmental stress (warming, extreme drought) due to climate change in combination with decreased genetic mixing due to isolation may lead to stronger local adaptations of geographically marginal than central populations. We experimentally observed local adaptations of three marginal and four central populations of Fagus sylvaticaL., the dominant native forest tree, to frost over winter and in spring (late frost). We determined frost hardiness of buds and roots by the relative electrolyte leakage in two common garden experiments. The experiment at the cold site included a continuous warming treatment; the experiment at the warm site included a preceding summer drought manipulation. In both experiments, we found evidence for local adaptation to frost, with stronger signs of local adaptation in marginal populations. Winter frost killed many of the potted individuals at the cold site, with higher survival in the warming treatment and in those populations originating from colder environments. However, we found no difference in winter frost tolerance of buds among populations, implying that bud survival was not the main cue for mortality. Bud late frost tolerance in April differed between populations at the warm site, mainly because of phenological differences in bud break. Increased spring frost tolerance of plants which had experienced drought stress in the preceding summer could also be explained by shifts in phenology. Stronger local adaptations to climate in geographically marginal than central populations imply the potential for adaptation to climate at range edges. In times of climate change, however, it needs to be tested whether locally adapted populations at range margins can successfully adapt further to changing conditions.

  19. Interannual variation in leaf photosynthetic capacity during summer in relation to nitrogen, leaf mass per area and climate within a Fagus crenata crown on Naeba Mountain, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Atsuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira; Takano, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Tetsurou; Fukasawa, Hisakazu; Nose, Yachiho; Kakubari, Yoshitaka

    2008-09-01

    During the summers (July and August) of 2002-2005, we measured interannual variation in maximum carboxylation rate (V(cmax)) within a Fagus crenata Blume crown in relation to climate variables such as air temperature, daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and daily photosynthetic photon flux, leaf nitrogen per unit area (N(a)) and leaf mass per unit area (LMA). Climatic conditions in the summers of 2002-2004 differed markedly, with warm and dry atmospheric conditions in 2002, cool, humid and cloudy conditions in 2003, and warm clear conditions in 2004. Conditions in summer 2005 were intermediate between those of summers 2002 and 2003, and similar to recent (8-year) means. In July, marked interannual variation in V(cmax) was mainly observed in leaves in the high-light environment (relative photon flux > 50%) within the crown. At the crown top, V(cmax) was about twofold higher in 2002 than in 2003, and V(cmax) values in 2004 and 2005 were intermediate between those in 2002 and 2003. In August, although interannual variation in V(cmax) among the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 was less, marked variation between 2002 and the other study years was evident. Multiple regression analysis of V(cmax) against the climate variables revealed that VPD of the previous 10-30 days had a significant influence on variability in V(cmax). Neither N(a), LMA nor leaf CO(2) conductance from the stomata to the carboxylation site explained the variability in V(cmax). Our results indicate that the long-term climatic response of V(cmax) should be considered when estimating forest carbon gain across the year.

  20. Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and their potential impact on the European volatile organic compound budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindorf, T.; Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Holzke, C.; KöBle, R.; Seufert, G.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2006-08-01

    By using a dynamic branch enclosure system the emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated during two consecutive summer vegetation periods in the years of 2002 and 2003 in Germany. All measurements were performed under field conditions within the framework of the ECHO project (Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds, AFO 2000). European beech was characterized as a substantial emitter of monoterpenes, with sabinene being the predominant compound released. The monoterpene emission from European beech was shown to be a function of light and temperature and agreed well to emission algorithms that consider a light and temperature dependent release of volatile organics. Standard emission factors that were measured from these sunlit leaves of European beech ranged up to 4-13 μg g-1 h-1 (normalized to 1000 μmol m-2 s-1, 30°C) in the years of 2003 and 2002, respectively. The nighttime emission of monoterpene compounds was negligible. Also the artificial darkening of the sunlit branch during daylight conditions led to an immediate cessation of monoterpene emission. European beech is the dominating deciduous tree species in Europe. To demonstrate the effect of an updated monoterpene emission factor for European beech in combination with the consideration of a light and temperature dependent monoterpene emission, we applied a species based model simulation on a European scale. With respect to conventional estimates of the European volatile organic compound budget, the latter simulation resulted in relative increases of 16% by taking solely this tree species into account. On local scales these increases exceeded even more than 100% depending on the respective vegetation area coverage of European beech.

  1. Distribution of dead wood volume and mass in mediterranean Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Northern Iberian Peninsula. Implications for field sampling inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Herrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to 1 estimate the amount of dead wood in managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands in northern Iberian Peninsula and 2 evaluate the most appropriate volume equation and the optimal transect length for sampling downed wood. Area of study: The study area is the Aralar Forest in Navarra (Northern Iberian Peninsula. Material and methods: The amount of dead wood by component (downed logs, snags, stumps and fine woody debris was inventoried in 51 plots across a chronosequence of stand ages (0-120 years old. Main results: The average volume and biomass of dead wood was 24.43 m3 ha-1 and 7.65 Mg ha-1, respectively. This amount changed with stand development stage [17.14 m3 ha-1 in seedling stage; 34.09 m3 ha-1 inpole stage; 22.54 m3 ha-1 in mature stage and 24.27 m3 ha-1 in regular stand in regeneration stage], although the differences were not statistically significant for coarse woody debris. However, forest management influenced the amount of dead wood, because the proportion of mass in the different components and the decay stage depended on time since last thinning. The formula based on intersection diameter resulted on the smallest coefficient of variation out of seven log-volume formulae. Thus, the intersection diameter is the preferred method because it gives unbiased estimates, has the greatest precision and is the easiest to implement in the field. Research highlights: The amount of dead wood, and in particular snags, was significantly lower than that in reserved forests. Results of this study showed that sampling effort should be directed towards increasing the number of transects, instead of increasing transect length or collecting additional piece diameters that do not increase the accuracy or precision of DWM volume estimation. Keywords: snags; downed logs; stumps; fine woody debris; beech; line intersect sampling.

  2. The dynamic of annual carbon allocation to wood in European forests is consistent with a combined source-sink limitation of growth: implications for modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, J.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Dufrêne, E.; François, C.; Soudani, K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Delpierre, N.

    2015-02-01

    The extent to which forest growth is limited by carbon (C) supply (source control) or by cambial activity (sink control) will condition the response of trees to global changes. However, the physiological processes responsible for the limitation of forest growth are still under debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the key drivers of the annual carbon allocation to wood along large soil and climate regional gradients in five tree species representative of the main European forest biomes (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Quercus ilex, Quercus robur and Picea abies). Combining field measurements and process-based simulations at 49 sites (931 site-years), we assessed the stand biomass growth dependences at both inter-site and inter-annual scales. Specifically, the relative influence of forest C balance (source control), direct environmental control (water and temperature controls of sink activity) and allocation adjustments related to age, past climate conditions, competition intensity and soil nutrient availability on growth were quantified. The inter-site variability in stand C allocation to wood was predominantly driven by an age-related decline. The direct control of temperature or water stress on sink activity (i.e. independently from their effects on C supply) exerted a strong influence on the annual stand woody growth in all the species considered, including deciduous temperate species. The lagged effect of the past environment conditions was a significant driver of the annual C allocation to wood. Carbon supply appeared to strongly limit growth only in deciduous temperate species. We provide an evaluation of the spatio-temporal dynamics of annual carbon allocation to wood in European forests. Our study supports the premise that European forest growth is under a complex control including both source and sink limitations. The relative influences of the different growth drivers strongly vary across years and spatial ecological gradients. We suggest a

  3. Conservation and fruit biology of Sichou oak (Quercus sichourensis, Fagaceae – A critically endangered species in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several conservation programs have been started for the critically endangered Sichou oak (Quercus sichourensis since 2007. These programs include detailed field investigations, seedling cultivation and research on the fruit biology of the species. In this study, we first report on the five mature individual trees found in our 9-year field investigation. Thus far, a total of 10 mature individuals have been recorded. All Q. sichourensis trees are healthy and most produce healthy acorns. Acorns of Q. sichourensis are large with dry masses of 8.0–14.0 g. These acorns had high moisture contents at collection and died shortly after (7–28 d when dried with silica gel. Characteristics of Q. sichourensis acorns varied between populations. Compared with the acorns from Funing, the acorns collected from Ceheng were bigger, more viable (germination percentage was up to 96%, less sensitive to desiccation, and germinated faster. Q. sichourensis occurs in regions with a distinct 5–6 month dry season. Habitat degradation is largely responsible for the rareness of Quercus sichorensis, but desiccation sensitivity of the acorns may also limit the regeneration of the species and potentially lead to its continued rareness. As a species with extremely small populations (PSESP, Q. sichourensis is facing high risk of extinction and should be defined as a Critically Endangered species in the global IUCN Red List.

  4. Tree-ring growth and wood chemistry response to manipulated precipitation variation for two temperate Quercus species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Rebekah J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Kaye, Margot W. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Abrams, Marc D. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship among ambient and manipulated precipitation, wood chemistry, and their relationship with radial growth for two oak species in eastern Tennessee. The study took place on the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) site, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. Two dominant species, white oak (Quercus alba) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), were selected for study from a 13-year experiment of whole-stand precipitation manipulation (wet, ambient and dry). The relationships between tree-ring width and climate were compared for both species to determine the impact of precipitation manipulations on ring width index. This study used experimental spectroscopy techniques to measure the sensitivity of tree-ring responses to directional changes in precipitation over 13 years, and the results suggest that oaks at this study site are resilient to imposed changes, but sensitive to inter-annual variations in climate. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allowed us to measure nutrient intensities (similar to element concentrations) at 0.5-1.0 mm spacing along the radial growth axis of trees growing in the wet, ambient, and dry treatment sites. A difference in stemwood nutrient levels was observed between the two oak species and among the three treatments. Significant variation in element intensity was observed across treatments for some elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, N and P) suggesting the potential for long-term impacts on growth under a changing climate regimes for southeastern oaks.

  5. [Effects of relative abundance of Quercus mongolica acorns on five tree species seed dispersal in Xiaoxing' an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Yi, Xian-Feng; Wang, De-Xiang

    2013-06-01

    An investigation was conducted in a forest farm in the Xiaoxing' an Mountains in autumn, 2009 and 2010 to study the effects of Quercus mongolica acorn quantity and rodent density on the seed dispersal of five tree species (Juglans mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, Corylus mandshurica, Corylus heterophylla, and Q. mongolica). In the farm, there was an annual change in rodent density. The total capture rate of small rodents in 2009 (31.0%) was significantly higher than that in 2010 (16.7%). The acorn quantity and relative seed abundance (per capita rodent) of Quercus mongolica in 2009 (6.2 +/- 2.1 acorns x m(-2) and 20.0, respectively) were significantly lower than those in 2010 (26.7 +/- 10.2 acorns x m(-2) and 160.0, respectively). In 2009, all the seeds of the five tree species except J. mandshurica were dispersed or eaten in situ, among which, the acorns of Q. mongolica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. In 2010, the seeds of J. mandshurica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. The relative seed abundance of Q. mongolica could be the key factor determining the seed dispersal of the other tree species in the study area.

  6. Biomass dynamics of Quercus aliena var.acutesrata Community on Mountain Xiaolong in Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Anning; Ju Tianzhen; Zhang Junhua; Ge Jianping

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of tree layer biomass was studied by combining 35 sample plots of field census with biomass model estimation in a natural Quercus aliena var.acutesrata community on Mountain Xiaolong in Gansu Province,China.The tree layer biomass of Quercus aliena var.acutesrata community was 183 660 kg/ha,in which the slow growth group accounted for 64.89% of the total biomass.The fast-medium growth group accounted for 33.40% and the coniferous group accounted for 1.38%.The organs biomass was found to be in the following order:trunk>root>branch>leaf.The total biomass accumulated with the development of the community.The total biomass and the biomass of the organs were highest in the mature community and became stable as the community developed.The relative growth rate of organs was in the following order:trunk>branch>root>leaf.The biomass ratio of the slow growth group trees tended to increase and the fast-medium group trees tended to decrease as the community developed,which was reveresed in the decline development stage.The biomass of the coniferous group was very small throughout the development process.

  7. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Ha Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  8. Proteomic analysis from haploid and diploid embryos of Quercus suber L. identifies qualitative and quantitative differential expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Aranzazu; López, Juan Antonio; Pintos, Beatriz; Camafeita, Emilio; Bueno, Ma Angeles

    2009-09-01

    Quercus suber L. is a Mediterranean forest species with ecological, social and economic value. Clonal propagation of Q. suber elite trees has been successfully obtained from in vitro-derived somatic and gametic embryos. These clonal lines play a main role in breeding and genetic studies of Q. suber. To aid in unravelling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach is proposed. The proteomic analysis of Q. suber somatic and gametic in vitro culture-derived embryos, based on DIGE and MALDI-MS, has produced for the first time proteomic data on this species. Seventeen differentially expressed proteins have been identified which display significantly altered levels between gametic and somatic embryos. These proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes, most of which had been neither previously associated with embryo development nor identified in the genus Quercus. Some of these proteins are involved in stress and pollen development and others play a role in the metabolism of tannins and phenylpropanoids, which represent two of the major pathways for the synthesis of cork chemical components. Furthermore, the augmented expression levels found for specific proteins are probably related to the homozygous state of a doubled-haploid sample. Proteins involved in synthesis of cork components can be detected at such early stages of development, showing the potential of the method to be useful in searching for biomarkers related to cork quality.

  9. Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Anne; Boissard, Christophe; Ormeño, Elena; Lathière, Juliette; Guenet, Bertrand; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) released by plants mostly originate from their secondary metabolism. Their emissions are modulated, in terms of intensity and molecule diversity, by environmental conditions. Among BVOCs, isoprene has been especially studied due to its high emission fluxes and its contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, both in the gaseous and particulate phases. However, the way isoprene emissions are impacted by some abiotic factors, especially water stress, is still under debate. In a world facing climatic changes, global climate models expect air temperature and drought intensity to strengthen in the Mediterranean area by 2100. Our work focuses on the impact of water stress on isoprene emissions (ERiso) from Quercus pubescens Willd. This species covers large areas of the Mediterranean area where it appears to be the main isoprene emitter. An in situ experimentation was performed at the O3HP (Oak Observatory at OHP, southern France) in a pubescent oak forest with trees adapted to long lasting stress periods. We investigated during a whole seasonal cycle (from June 2012 to June 2013) the course of ERiso under both natural water stress (control treatment: C) and intensified water stress (stress treatment: S) by artificially reducing rain by 30% using a specific rain exclusion device. Restricted rain did not modify either the net CO2 assimilation or ERiso during the whole season. However, isoprene emission factors (Is) for trees under S were significantly higher (a factor of ˜ 2) than for trees growing under C in August (137.8 compared to 75.3 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively) and September (75.3 compared to 40.2 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively). Based on our experimental emission database, an appropriate isoprene emission algorithm (GZ2014) was developed using a statistic approach (an artificial neural network). Using ambient and edaphic environmental parameters integrated over up to 3 weeks, GZ2014 was found to represent more than 80% of

  10. Physiological Responses to Prolonged Drought Differ Among Three Oak (Quercus) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. E.; Moore, G. W.; Vogel, J. G.; Muir, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The physiological response of plants to water stress provides insights into which species may survive in exceptional drought conditions. This study conducted on a remnant post oak savanna site in College Station, Texas, examined how drought affected the physiology of three native oak species. In June 2014, after a period of equal watering, we subjected three year old Quercus shumardii (Shumard oak; SO), Q. virginiana (live oak; LO), and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak; BO) saplings to one of two watering treatments: 1) watered, receiving the equivalent of theaverage precipitation rate and 2) droughted, receiving a 100% reduction in precipitation. We measured predawn (ΨPD) and midday (ΨMD) leaf water potential; midday gas exchange (MGE) parameters including photosynthesis (Al), transpiration (T), stomatal conductance (gsw); and leaf soluble (SS) and non-soluble sugar (NSS) concentrations monthly between June and October 2014. Drought stress responses were evident after only one month of induced drought. Droughted saplings showed reduced ΨPD, ΨMD, and MGE (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to watered saplings of the same species. LO saplings exhibited greater MGE (P ≤ 0.05) while maintaining similar LWP to their respective watered and droughted BO and SO counterparts. Droughted LO exhibited MGE rates similar to those of watered BO and SO (P ≤ 0.05), while watered LO adjusted its MGE rates to changes in water availability better than BO and LO during short-term drought. Compared to water saplings, droughted saplings had greater leaf SS (P = 0.08) and lower NSS concentrations (P = 0.10), possibly due to the conversion of NSS to SS and other simple compounds and reduced consumption of SS for growth by the droughted saplings. Although SO and BO exhibited similar photosynthesis rates, leaf total sugar (SS+NSS) concentration was greater in SO (P ≤ 0.05). By displaying the greatest average photosynthesis rate (P ≤ 0.05), LO should have accumulated the greatest amount of carbon

  11. Whole-transcriptome response to water stress in a California endemic oak, Quercus lobata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugger, Paul F; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Wright, Jessica W; Sork, Victoria L

    2016-12-21

    Reduced water availability during drought can create major stress for many plant species. Within a species, populations with a history of seasonal drought may have evolved the ability to tolerate drought more than those in areas of high precipitation and low seasonality. In this study, we assessed response to water stress in a California oak species, Quercus lobata Née, by measuring changes in gene expression profiles before and after a simulated drought stress treatment through water deprivation of seedlings in a greenhouse setting. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing from nine samples from three collection localities, we identified which genes are involved in response to drought stress and tested the hypothesis that seedlings sampled from climatically different regions of the species range respond to water stress differently. We observed a surprisingly massive transcriptional response to drought: 35,347 of 68,434 contigs (52%) were differentially expressed before versus after drought treatment, of which 18,111 were down-regulated and 17,236 were up-regulated. Genes functionally associated with abiotic stresses and death were enriched among the up-regulated genes, whereas metabolic and cell part-related genes were enriched among the down-regulated. We found 56 contigs that exhibited significantly different expression responses to the drought treatment among the three populations (treatment × population interaction), suggesting that those genes may be involved in local adaptation to drought stress. These genes have stress response (e.g., WRKY DNA-binding protein 51 and HSP20-like chaperones superfamily protein), metabolic (e.g., phosphoglycerate kinase and protein kinase superfamily protein), transport/transfer (e.g., cationic amino acid transporter 7 and K(+) transporter) and regulatory functions (e.g., WRKY51 and Homeodomain-like transcriptional regulator). Baseline expression levels of 1310 unique contigs also differed among pairs of populations, and they

  12. Species Diversity of Fagus engleriana Community in Shennongjia Area, Hubei Province%神农架地区米心水青冈群落物种多样性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腾飞; 李俊清

    2009-01-01

    水青冈属(Fagus)植物是北半球温带森林的重要建群种,其中以米心水青冈(Fagus engleriana)分布最为广泛.以湖北神农架为研究点,采用标准样地调查法,应用物种丰富度、Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数、均匀度指数对米心水青冈林群落物种多样性,群落结构特征进行研究.结果表明:乔木层Shannon-Wiener指数为2.55,Simpson指数5.31,均匀度指数0.70,Shannon-Wiener指数与Simpson指数的顺序为草本层>乔木层>灌木层.径级分布研究表明整个群落更新状况良好.

  13. Effects of drought and shade on growth and water use of Quercus alba, Q. bicolor, Q. imbricaria and Q. palustris seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph J. McCarthy; Jeffrey O. Dawson

    1991-01-01

    Growth and water use efficiency were determined for 2-year-old white oak (Quercus alba), swamp white oak (Q. imbricaria) and pin oak (Q. palustris) seedlings grown under three shade treatments (30, 55 and 73%) and two irrigation regimes (container capacity and mild drought). With species and water regimes...

  14. Drivers of radial growth and carbon isotope discrimination of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) across continental gradients in precipitation, vapour pressure deficit and irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Frederick C. Meinzer; Barbara Lachenbruch; J. Renee Brooks; Richard P. Guyette

    2014-01-01

    Tree-ring characteristics are commonly used to reconstruct climate variables, but divergence from the assumption of a single biophysical control may reduce the accuracy of these reconstructions. Here, we present data from bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) sampled within and beyond the current species bioclimatic envelope to identify the primary...

  15. Experimental drought reduced acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and increased organic extractable P in soil in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardans, J.; Penuelas, J.; Ogaya, R.

    2008-01-01

    A six-year (1999-2005) experiment of drought manipulation was conducted in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest (Southern Catalonia) to simulate predicted climatic conditions projected for the decades to come. The aim was to investigate the direct and indirect effects of drought conditions on acid an

  16. Respuesta plástica a la luz y al agua en cuatro especies mediterráneas del género Quercus (Fagaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quero Perez, J.L.; Villar, R.; Marañón, T.; Murillo, A.; Zamora, R.

    2008-01-01

    Light and water availability are two of the main factors that regulate growth and survival of Mediterranean woody plants. The objective of this study is to investigate the plastic response of seedlings of four Mediterranean Quercus species to these factors, as well as to determine what traits are

  17. Drought stress signals in modern and subfossil Quercus laurifolia (Fagaceae) leaves reflect winter precipitation in southern Florida tied to El Niño-Southern Oscillation activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner-Cremer, F.; Donders, T.H.; Visscher, H.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, structural xeromorphic features in modern and subfossil Quercus laurifolia leaves from southern Florida were quantified to reconstruct past precipitation changes in sensitive terrestrial settings. Absolute cell numbers/mm2, quantified as epidermal cell density (ED) h

  18. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a secondgrowth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first...

  19. The Occurrence of Charcoal Disease Caused by Biscogniauxia mediterranea on Chestnut-Leaved Oak (Quercus castaneifolia) in the Golestan Forests of Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirabolfathy, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The chestnut-leaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia) is native to the Alborz Mountains, including the Golestan Forests, in northern Iran. Trees grow up to 35 (-50) m tall with a trunk up to 2.5 (-3.5) m in diameter. During 2010, we received reports of a decline of oak trees in the Ghorogh Region of the G

  20. Respuesta plástica a la luz y al agua en cuatro especies mediterráneas del género Quercus (Fagaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quero Perez, J.L.; Villar, R.; Marañón, T.; Murillo, A.; Zamora, R.

    2008-01-01

    Light and water availability are two of the main factors that regulate growth and survival of Mediterranean woody plants. The objective of this study is to investigate the plastic response of seedlings of four Mediterranean Quercus species to these factors, as well as to determine what traits are mo

  1. A panbiogeographical explanation of the disjunct distribution of Fagus (Fagaceae) in the northern temperate zone%北温带水青冈属的间断分布及其泛生物地理学解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 姜小龙; 雷耘; 张明理

    2012-01-01

    Aims Fagus L. has a disjunct distribution in the northern temperate zone, and there is a rich collection of Tertiary fossils from East Asia, Europe and North America. A panbiogeographical analysis of Fagus was undertaken to analyze the distribution pattern and evolution of the genus. Methods Distribution data of 581 records of 10 species were obtained from herbaria and monographs. Track analysis of panbiogeography and software MartiTrack were used for data analysis. Important findings Results indicated that there was no generalized track linking the distributions among China, Japan, Europe and North America or even between China and Japan, two adjacent areas in East Asia. Two regional generalized tracks were only found within China and Japan. These facts imply that the Fagus distribution cannot be explained by dispersal. Dispersal probably only occurred in limited and/or local regions and not as dispersal across the northern temperate zone in the Tertiary. The disjunction most likely resulted from (1) geological historical events such as Tethys westward movement, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift, and Asian monsoon action, (2) climate change since the Tertiary, especially climate fluctuation during Quaternary glaciation, and (3) Fagus biological characteristics with regard to humid and temperate climate and annual rainfall.%水青冈属(Fagus L.)在北温带呈间断分布,已发现的丰富的第三纪化石为讨论其起源和演化提供了证据.该文采用泛生物地理学的轨迹分析方法对水青冈属的分布进行了研究,试图分析水青冈属的分布格局,进而讨论其进化问题.结果表明,水青冈属在中国、日本、北美、欧洲的分布是完全间断的,没有一个共有轨迹连接它们,即使在毗邻的、且有植物亲缘关系的中国和日本,也没有一个共有轨迹连接.完全间断的轨迹对分析水青冈属的起源、演化和扩散学说,没有提供任何信息.仅有两条共有轨迹分别分布在中

  2. Light-mediated K(leaf) induction and contribution of both the PIP1s and PIP2s aquaporins in five tree species: walnut (Juglans regia) case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaziz, Khaoula Ben; Lopez, David; Rabot, Amelie; Combes, Didier; Gousset, Aurelie; Bouzid, Sadok; Cochard, Herve; Sakr, Soulaiman; Venisse, Jean-Stephane

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the response of leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) to light is a challenge in elucidating plant-water relationships. Recent data have shown that the effect of light on K(leaf) is not systematically related to aquaporin regulation, leading to conflicting conclusions. Here we investigated the relationship between light, K(leaf), and aquaporin transcript levels in five tree species (Juglans regia L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus robur L., Salix alba L. and Populus tremula L.) grown in the same environmental conditions, but differing in their K(leaf) responses to light. Moreover, the K(leaf) was measured by two independent methods (high-pressure flow metre (HPFM) and evaporative flux method (EFM)) in the most (J. regia) and least (S. alba) responsive species and the transcript levels of aquaporins were analyzed in perfused and unperfused leaves. Here, we found that the light-induced K(leaf) value was closely related to stronger expression of both the PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin genes in walnut (J. regia), but to stimulation of PIP1 aquaporins alone in F. sylvatica and Q. robur. In walnut, all newly identified aquaporins were found to be upregulated in the light and downregulated in the dark, further supporting the relationship between the light-mediated induction of K(leaf) and aquaporin expression in walnut. We also demonstrated that the K(leaf) response to light was quality-dependent, K(leaf) being 60% lower in the absence of blue light. This decrease in K(leaf) was correlated with strong downregulation of three PIP2 aquaporins and of all the PIP1 aquaporins tested. These data support a relationship between light-mediated K(leaf) regulation and the abundance of aquaporin transcripts in the walnut tree.

  3. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially expressed genes in Quercus suber in response to Phytophthora cinnamomi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadzad, Ghazal; Cravador, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    cDNA-AFLP methodology was used to gain insight into gene fragments differentially present in the mRNA profiles of Quercus suber roots infected with zoospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi at different post challenge time points. Fifty-three transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and sequenced. Six candidate genes were selected based on their expression patterns and homology to genes known to play a role in defence. They encode a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase2 (QsCAD2), a protein disulphide isomerase (QsPDI), a CC-NBS-LRR resistance protein (QsRPc), a thaumatin-like protein (QsTLP), a chitinase (QsCHI) and a 1,3-β-glucanase (QsGlu). Evaluation of the expression of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that transcript levels of QsRPc, QsCHI, QsCAD2 and QsPDI increased during the first 24 h post-inoculation, while those of thaumatin-like protein decreased. No differential expression was observed for 1,3-β-glucanase (QsGlu). Four candidate reference genes, polymerase II (QsRPII), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (QsEIF-5A), β-tubulin (QsTUB) and a medium subunit family protein of clathrin adaptor complexes (QsCACs) were assessed to determine the most stable internal references for qRT-PCR normalization in the Phytophthora-Q. suber pathosystem in root tissues. Those found to be more stable, QsRPII and QsCACs, were used as internal reference in the present work. Knowledge on the Quercus defence mechanisms against biotic stress is scarce. This study provides an insight into the gene profiling of a few important genes of Q. suber in response to P. cinnamomi infection contributing to the knowledge of the molecular interactions involving Quercus and root pathogens that can be useful in the future to understand the mechanisms underlying oak resistance to soil-borne oomycetes.

  4. Role of Rodents in Seed Fate of Fagus engleriana Seem%啮齿动物对米心水青冈种子命运的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔继法; 周友兵; 王志先; 江广华; 肖春芳; 王尹涛; 刘华

    2016-01-01

    有性生殖(实生更新)和无性生殖(萌生更新)是植物繁殖的两种关键方式.自然界中,个别物种同时具备两种更新方式,米心水青冈(Fagus engleriana Seem.)就是典型的物种.已有研究表明萌生更新在米心水青冈种群生活史中普遍存在,可使其占据原有生态位(生态位占据假说),但对米心水青冈实生更新的研究却未见报道.为了探索啮齿动物对米心水青冈实生更新的作用机制,笔者在神农架米心水青冈林中通过坚果摆放实验,研究啮齿动物对米心水青冈坚果传播机制的影响.结果显示,鼠类对坚果的原地捕食率高达81.22%;坚果被扩散率低,仅18.56%;坚果在原地平均留存时间为(5.25±5.95)d;坚果扩散距离为(2.63±1.60)m.研究发现,米心水青冈坚果被啮齿动物捕食率极高,贮藏率极低,且坚果被传播距离在同属植物中较小,不利于该物种更新繁殖.萌生更新在很大程度上弥补了米心水青冈实生更新繁殖方式的不足.本研究结果有助于对水青冈属植物繁殖策略的理解.

  5. Interaction Effect between Elevated CO2 and Fertilization on Biomass, Gas Exchange and C/N Ratio of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfiomran, Neda; Köhl, Michael; Fromm, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and interaction effects between elevated CO2 and nutrient supplies on growth and the C/N ratio of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings were studied. One-year-old beech saplings were grown in a greenhouse at ambient (385 ppm) and elevated CO2 (770 ppm/950 ppm), with or without fertilization for two growing seasons. In this study, emphasis is placed on the combined fertilization including phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen with two level of elevated CO2. The fertilized plants grown under elevated CO2 had the highest net leaf photosynthesis rate (Ac). The saplings grown under elevated CO2 had a significantly lower stomatal conductance (gs) than saplings grown under ambient air. No interaction effect was found between elevated CO2 and fertilization on Ac. A interaction effect between CO2 and fertilization, as well as between date and fertilization and between date and CO2 was detected on gs. Leaf chlorophyll content index (CCI) and leaf nitrogen content were strongly positively correlated to each other and both of them decreased under elevated CO2. At the end of both growing seasons, stem dry weight was greater under elevated CO2 and root dry weight was not affected by different treatments. No interaction effect was detected between elevated CO2 and nutrient supplies on the dry weight of different plant tissues (stems and roots). However, elevated CO2 caused a significant decrease in the nitrogen content of plant tissues. Nitrogen reduction in the leaves under elevated CO2 was about 10% and distinctly higher than in the stem and root. The interaction effect of elevated CO2 and fertilization on C/N ratio in plants tissues was significant. The results led to the conclusion that photosynthesis and the C/N ratio increased while stomatal conductance and leaf nitrogen content decreased under elevated CO2 and nutrient-limited conditions. In general, under nutrient-limited conditions, the plant responses to elevated CO2 were decreased. PMID

  6. Does reduced precipitation trigger physiological and morphological drought adaptations in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)? Comparing provenances across a precipitation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Global warming and associated decreases in summer rainfall may threaten tree vitality and forest productivity in many regions of the temperate zone in the future. One option for forestry to reduce the risk of failure is to plant genotypes which combine high productivity with drought tolerance. Growth experiments with provenances from different climates indicate that drought exposure can trigger adaptive drought responses in temperate trees, but it is not well known whether and to what extent regional precipitation reduction can increase the drought resistance of a species. We conducted a common garden growth experiment with five European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from a limited region with pronounced precipitation heterogeneity (816-544 mm year(-1)), where phylogenetically related provenances grew under small to large water deficits. We grew saplings of the five provenances at four soil moisture levels (dry to moist) and measured ∼30 morphological (leaf and root properties, root : shoot ratio), physiological (leaf water status parameters, leaf conductance) and growth-related traits (above- and belowground productivity) with the aim to examine provenance differences in the drought response of morphological and physiological traits and to relate the responsiveness to precipitation at origin. Physiological traits were more strongly influenced by provenance (one-third of the studied traits), while structural traits were primarily affected by water availability in the experiment (two-thirds of the traits). The modulus of leaf tissue elasticity ϵ reached much higher values late in summer in plants from moist origins resulting in more rapid turgor loss and a higher risk of hydraulic failure upon drought. While experimental water shortage affected the majority of morphological and productivity-related traits in the five provenances, most parameters related to leaf water status were insensitive to water shortage. Thus, plant morphology, and root

  7. N2 fixation and cycling in Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica woodland exposed to free air CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Jonathan; Godbold, Douglas; Smith, Andrew R; Grant, Helen

    2012-06-01

    We measured the effect of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)) fixation in the tree species Alnus glutinosa growing in monoculture or in mixture with the non-N(2)-fixing tree species Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. We addressed the hypotheses that (1) N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa will increase in response to increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, when growing in monoculture, (2) the impact of elevated CO(2) on N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa is the same in mixture and in monoculture and (3) the impacts of elevated CO(2) on N cycling will be evident by a decrease in leaf δ(15)N and by the soil-leaf enrichment factor (EF), and that these impacts will not differ between mixed and single species stands. Trees were grown in a forest plantation on former agricultural fields for four growing seasons, after which the trees were on average 3.8 m tall and canopy closure had occurred. Atmospheric CO(2) concentrations were maintained at either ambient or elevated (by 200 ppm) concentrations using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system. Leaf δ(15)N was measured and used to estimate the amount (N(dfa)) and proportion (%N(dfa)) of N derived from atmospheric fixation. On average, 62% of the N in A. glutinosa leaves was from fixation. The %N(dfa) and N(dfa) for A. glutinosa trees in monoculture did not increase under elevated CO(2), despite higher growth rates. However, N(2) fixation did increase for trees growing in mixture, despite the absence of significant growth stimulation. There was evidence that fixed N(2) was transferred from A. glutinosa to F. sylvatica and B. pendula, but no evidence that this affected their CO(2) response. The results of this study show that N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa may be higher in a future elevated CO(2) world, but that this effect will only occur where the trees are growing in mixed species stands.