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Sample records for quebec city metropolitan

  1. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P; Bolduc, D; Gauvin, D; Guerrier, P; Gauthier, R [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  2. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  3. Metropolitan City: the Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Franco Ferrari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the definitions of territorial organization are no longer adequate, the concept of “metropolitan areas” arises as a solution to resolve such deficit. This study shows the beginnings of this figure in Italy and the problems of identification and delimitation caused by the abstraction of the norms, therefore entailing a difficult implementation of the concept of metropolitan cities. By identifying these obstacles, this paper presents an analysis where it is possible to ensure compliance with this new reality in the near future.

  4. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  5. Planning Assignments of the Italian Metropolitan Cities. Early Trends

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    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The last stage of the process of establishment of the Italian Metropolitan Cities, which took place in 2014, follows of a few decades the start of this institutional reform. In 1990, in fact, the Act 142 (Local Autonomies Reform had planned metropolitan areas as the administrative organization more suitable to provide these territories of structures for the management and the strategic development alike the best international models. The paper proposes to analyse the first activities taken by the Italian Metropolitan Cities in the sector of territorial government, three years after the enactment in 2014 of Act nr. 56.  Focal point of the analysis is the jurisdiction in the formation of two plans (the Strategic Plan and the Metropolitan Territorial Plan and the following relationships among them, in the logical assumption that between them a necessary and strict consistency there should be. In the first part, the paper analyses some factors characterizing the metropolitan areas and the functions that the law assigns to the new institution in the territorial government sector. The second part outlines the updated situation with regard to the formation of the sectoral tools (Strategic Plan, Territorial Plan and homogeneous zones. The third part analyses the progresses in three Metropolitan Cities taken as sample (Milan, Genoa and Bologna and, in general, to those of Southern Italy. In the last part, the paper exposes some considerations regarding the issues raised in the article, particularly about the innovativeness of the tools and the timeline for the implementation of the act.

  6. FINANCING FARMLAND PRESERVATION: THE TWIN CITIES METROPOLITAN AREA EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Greden, Leah R.; Taff, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Two farmland protection programs in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) Metropolitan Area--Green Acres and Agricultural Preserves-- together enrolled 608,331 acres in 1992. The principal financing tool was a provision common to both programs under which participating landowners paid reduced property taxes in exchange for certain non- development assurances. The resulting shift in property tax obligations to other taxpayers amounted to $7.6 million for the 1993 tax year, an average shift of $12.50 per...

  7. Implementing the Green City Policy in Municipal Spatial Planning: The Case of Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality

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    Abongile Dlani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “eco-city,” and similar concepts such as “green” and “sustainable” cities, has evolved overtime concurrent to the development of the understanding of social change and mankind’s impact on environmental and economic health. With the advent of climate change impacts, modern economies developed the green city policy to create sustainable urban development, low emission, and environmentally friendly cities. In South Africa municipalities, including Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM have been tasked to and implement the green city policy. However, BCMM is yet to develop the green city policy that clearly articulate how the municipality will combat climate change and reduce its Green House Gases (GHG emissions in its spatial planning designs. Against this background, this article reviews and analyses green policy landscape in Metropolitan Municipalities. It is envisaged that the research will provide the basis for the development of a comprehensive green policy strategies and programmes for the local transition to action in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, in the Eastern Cape Province.

  8. Assessment of rain water chemistry in the Lucknow metropolitan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Purnima; Rai, Vibhuti

    2018-05-01

    Lucknow metropolitan city is one of the most populated cities of India, which have been facing many problems such as chaotic urbanization, overpopulation, water scarcity, waterlogging, etc., among these water scarcity is one of the important problem. Rain water harvesting is a futuristic tool for mitigation of water scarcity problem through conservation and storage of rain water. This rain water can be used for all purposes by human beings, thus it is necessary to check the chemistry of rain water. The rain water samples were collected from the five zones of Lucknow city. For the comparative study, water samples have been collected from two different dates first from first rainfall and second after 3 days of interval in the second rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations were found in both first and second rainfall water samples in all zones of Lucknow city. The concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead were found to be sufficiently high in several samples. These heavy metals show the concentration above the permissible limit as set by WHO, which can cause various adverse health impacts.

  9. [The Quebec Healthy Cities and Towns Network: a powerful movement faced with new challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Paule

    2007-01-01

    After twenty years serving its members, the Quebec Healthy Cities and Towns Network (QHCTN) faces several challenges. There are currently many changes being made in the local organization and the administration of services. The Network, through its capacity to mobilize the different municipalities, is the best placed to advocate and support a coordinated approach to government initiatives and also to encourage partnerships with other institutions (education, health, socio-economic) and communities. There is, nonetheless, a need to rethink its direct support to members, especially in terms of communication and networking among them.

  10. Genomic characterization of a large outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in Quebec City, 2012.

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    Simon Lévesque

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source.

  11. Designing Freshwater Resilience for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Wi, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    There are few places in the world where the water management challenges associated with global urbanization are as fully visible as in the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). MCMA has a population of 22 million of which only 82% have daily water provision and this figure is projected by local agencies to decrease drastically in the next decade due to population growth, infrastructure degradation and climate change. The city is served by a massive water delivery system, consisting of complex network of infrastructure in the surrounding basins that provides about 40% of the supply for MCMA and is characterized by increasing land use change and competition for water. The remaining 60% of MCMA's water is sourced internally from already depleted groundwater resources whose exploitation also results in significant subsidence throughout the city, further damaging already degraded infrastructure. Consequently, there is interest and need for investments that improve the performance of the freshwater delivery system, including local resources and connected basins, in the face of change and shocks that can be only partially anticipated. The quest for such resilience is a common theme in urban infrastructure design yet practical approaches for achieving it remain nascent. In this study, we use MCMA and the Cutzamala Water supply system to demonstrate a quantitative framework to evaluate investment strategies which seek resilience for the water supply system of MCMA. Multiobjective optimization and decisions under deep uncertainty approaches are used to evaluate the best performing investment portfolios across different resilience performance metrics which encompass social equity, environmental and economic objectives. This analysis shows dynamic system responses that result from different investment portfolios, elucidating difficult planning and management decisions around tradeoffs between allocations as well as performance metrics (e.g short period of total failure

  12. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

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    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  13. Water management for a megacity: Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortajada, Cecilia; Castelán, Enrique

    2003-03-01

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The analysis indicates an urgent need to radically improve the current water supply and wastewater management practices, to become sustainable. The MCMA is one of the most rapidly growing urban centers of the world, with a population of about 21 million people, a very high rate of immigration and numerous illegal settlements. In order to meet the increasing water demand, successive governments have focused almost exclusively on supply management and engineering solutions, which have resulted in investments of hundreds of millions of USD and the construction of major infrastructure projects for interbasin water transfer. Environmental, economic and social policies associated with water management are mostly inadequate and insufficient, which is resulting in increasing deterioration in the environment, health and socioeconomic conditions of a population living in one of the largest urban agglomerations of the world. Surprisingly, however, no long-term strategies on demand-management, reuse, conservation, and improved water-management practices have been developed so far.

  14. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S. [Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Col. Tiacopac San Angel (Mexico); Hernandez, C.G. [Departamento del Distrito Federal, Col. Centro (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  15. Usage of Social Media in City Marketing: A Research on 30 Metropolitan Municipalities in Turkey

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    Niyazi Gümüş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in information and communication technologies cause serious developments in marketing field similar to every sector. In parallel with these developments, the social media channels which appear as Web 2.0 applications have a number of advantages in comparison with traditional media channels. Social media gained a place in marketing activities because of its advantages. Social media is added on instruments in line with these developments that countries benefit in marketing activities for attracting more tourists, investment and becoming prominent against the other cities. Cities intensively benefit from social media because of social media’s properties like reaching the large masses, low marketing cost, interaction, receiving feedbacks rapidly, etc. Within this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the use statuses of social media by metropolitan municipalities as part of city marketing. In accordance with this purpose, official social media accounts of 30 metropolitan municipalities are investigated between the dates of 01/09/2016 and 30/09/2016, then their shares in social media channels are investigated in the context of city marketing.It is observed that two metropolitan municipalities do not have official Facebook accounts, four metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Twitter account as well. Again, it is found that 19 metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Instagram account and 17 metropolitan municipalities do not have official YouTube account. In consequence, it is observed that, our metropolitan municipalities do not benefit from social media effectively for city marketing activities.

  16. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and

  17. Access to destinations : annual accessibility measure for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes previous phases of the Access to Destinations project and applies the techniques developed : over the course of the project to conduct an evaluation of accessibility in the Twin Cities metropolitan region for : 2010. It describ...

  18. Detection of petroleum contamination in river sediments from Quebec City region using GC-IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.; Savard, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Isotopic analysis by compound specific gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) is used to detect and characterize petroleum pollution in surficial sediments along the St Lawrence River, near Quebec City. Unusually mature n-alkane distributions have been found in some recent intertidal sediments in the region. GC-IRMS results suggest that the n-alkanes are not derived from indigenous organic sources because they carry delta 13 C values between -30.0 and -27.0 per mille, as well as very small isotopic differences between odd and even numbered n-alkanes, which are both typically associated with petroleum products. Comparison of these sediments with bunker fuel, an oil used in the shipping industry, has shown a close isotopic correlation in some sites, which is further supported by biomarkers. Overall, the contamination has been dispersed along the river but is generally localized around the industrial region where hydrocarbon transfer from shore storage to ships takes place. This study illustrates how GC-IRMS can be used effectively in the detection and characterization of petroleum pollutants in sediments. (author)

  19. Is There a Global Role for Metropolitan City Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the potential for linking large metropolitan public libraries to international interlibrary loan networks. Issues involved in international networking, including funding, standards, network connectivity, and protectionism, are discussed. Examples of libraries capable of participating and brief descriptions of their collections are given.…

  20. The Role of Great Cities in Romania for the Metropolitan Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the legislation in force, in Romania there are 11 first rank cities that given their size, their importance, the level of services and the economic activity, represent attractions and are subjected to the development pressures. Still, according to the European tendencies, the urban agglomerations tend to approach this type of cooperation regardless the number of the inhabitants. Currently in Romania there are 11 great cities that have developed processes of organizing the metropolitan areas corresponding to them. Among them, two have already created metropolitan areas: Oradea (2001 and Iaşi (2004, both with the assistance of programs financed by USAID.

  1. Relevance of metropolitan government in Latin American cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paiva, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Large cities in the world confront an interesting dilemma: more democracy and therefore fragmentation of their governments into small agencies, or better performance in an integrated world system of cities and therefore better co-ordination of government functions. Fragmentation or co-ordination?

  2. Metropolitan City Finances in India: Options for A New Fiscal Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Bahl

    2012-01-01

    India will face great problems in finding a way to finance public services in its large cities in the next two decades. Backlogs in service levels and infrastructure are already great, and migration to urban areas will put even more pressure on state and local government budgets. Metropolitan cities have an economic base of significant size, but have not been empowered to tap this revenue potential. State governments have more ability to reach a buoyant tax base, and to borrow, but must also ...

  3. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  4. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  5. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

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    José María Casado Izquierdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  6. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  7. Polycentric Development for Sustainable Cities: An Evaluation for the Ankara Metropolitan Area

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    N Aydan Sat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban population growth and the accompanying urban growth and expansion are seen as the main problems of metropolitan cities; this keeps the issues of how to consider the social, economic, spatial and environmental dimensions of cities within the framework of a concept of sustainability, and how to shape cities within this context, on the agenda. In today’s world, cities are accepted as the main hubs of energy consumption and environmental pollution, as centers of capital, culture and innovation, and as the places of residence of millions of people. Expanding and sprawling urban forms are seen as unsustainable in terms of land use, energy and the consumption of environmental resources. Thus, the question ‘How should the urban development model be applied to create sustainable cities?’ is on the agenda of theorists, politicians and practitioners alike. Taking these discussions into consideration, this study searches for an answer to the question of whether the polycentric urban development model can be used as a tool for sustainable cities by taking into account the current literature and practices, and evaluating the case of the Ankara metropolitan area.

  8. Book Review of 'The Metropolitan Revolution, How Cities and Metros are fixing our Broken Policies and Fragile Economy'

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Book Reviews for Architecture Ireland of 'The Metropolitan Revolution, How Cities and Metros are fixing our Broken Policies and Fragile Economy', by Bruce Katz and Jennifer Bradley, Published by Brookings Institution Press, 288 pages.

  9. Energy and the environment: the case of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan N, G.

    1992-01-01

    The inefficient use of energy by the different types of consumers of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM, this means, Mexico city and the municipalities of the Estado de Mexico, which constitute a single economic population unit), is one of the main causes for the production of polluting emissions into the atmosphere, specially of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. This originates a deterioration of the environment, which injures the health of the population. As a consequence, the private and public sectors have been forced to establish programs in order to improve the use of energy, as well as to preserve the environment. (Author)

  10. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  11. Spatial change as drivers of risk and vulnerability in South African cities: Spatial trends in the three metropolitan cities of Gauteng

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 the South African urban landscape has been changing as a result of fundamental social, economic and political transformations. Metropolitan cities, especially, face unique challenges because of the dynamism of urban populations. South...

  12. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    A program of water-quality sampling to define the relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff has been started for the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Ten major watersheds were chosen as representative of conditions in the metropolitan area. Each will be sampled at one location near the outlet. Six of the watersheds are agricultural and range in size from 14.3 to 82.9 square miles. The four remaining watersheds are urbanized and range in size from 1.22 to 31.7 square miles. In addition, seven urban subwatersheds, which range in size from 0.12 to 0.47 square miles and reflect a dominant land-use type, will be sampled.

  13. Performance of FHWA model for predicting traffic noise: a case study of metropolitan city, Lucknow (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Srivastava

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and transport activities are the two major sources of noise pollution in any metropolitan city. Lucknow city, the capital of the largest populated state Uttar Pradesh in India has an area of 310 sq. km and is rapidly growing as a commercial, industrial and trading centre of northern India. The population of Lucknow city as per census 2001 is 22.45 Lacs. It is expected that by the year 2021 it will make 45 Lacs. The total vehicle population in Lucknow city on 31 March 2008, was nearly 1 million with almost 80% two wheelers, 12% cars, 1.36% three wheelers, 0.45% buses etc. A study was carried out to assess the existing status of noise levels and its impacts on the environment with a possibility of further expansion of the city. Ambient noise levels were measured at different locations selected on the basis of land use such as silence, heavy traffic and residential and commercial zones. It was found that noise levels at all selected locations were much higher (75–90 dB than the prescribed limits. The observed traffic volume and data on road geometry were used to predict noise levels using Federal Highway Administration Agency (FHWA model and the calculated noise levels were compared with the observed levels for checking the suitability of this model for predicting the future levels. It was established that the results obtained by FHWA model were very close to the observed noise levels and that the model was suitable to be used for other similar metropolitan cities in India.

  14. Smart Policies and Metropolitan Vision: the Spatial Dimension in the Experience of Amsterdam Smart City Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Fini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the main projects and policies recently developed by the Municipality of Amsterdam in the field of energy policies, with particular reference to the projects promoted in the context of the ASC - Amsterdam Smart City Platform. The analyzed projects and policies seem to be relevant for at least three aspects and for the matters raised by them:I. for the aim to connect policies and projects of the Amsterdam Smart City with the definition of a territorial vision for the Amsterdam metropolitan area;II. for the strong connection characterizing this experience between energy-management policies on the territory and the management’s choices related to urban planning and urban design;III. finally, the experience is relevant in relation with the consolidation of the ACS’s platform as a place where several individuals are directly involved in the management of public good and where all requests and peculiarities contribute to defining a common planning process on the energy and environmental subjects in the urban and metropolitan area.  Based on the latest, most significant information of the activities performed by Amsterdam Smart City Platform, the paper focuses on the results after four years since the projects and tests have been carried out, on the basis of a network structuring, predetermined energy-saving targets and of some space-related choices regarding the whole territory as well as ASC’s policies.

  15. Assessing Strategies for Urban Climate Change Adaptation: The Case of Six Metropolitan Cities in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As interest in climate change adaptation grows, an increasing number of national and local governments are developing adaptation strategies. This study assesses the strategies for urban climate change adaptation of municipal governments in South Korea. The adaptation plans and budget expenditures of six metropolitan cities in South Korea were compared, based on the Implementation Plan for Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (IPCCAS 2012–2016 and annual expenditure reports of each city. The results show that the actual implementation of these adaptation programs varied vis-à-vis the original plans, in terms of the level of overall expenditure and sector-specific expenditure. The following findings were drawn from the analysis: First, in most cases, the highest adaptation priorities were disaster/infrastructure, water management, and the health sector. Second, actual expenditure on climate change adaptation programs was smaller than the planned budget in the IPCCAS. Third, the prioritized sectors matched for planning and implementation in Seoul, Daegu, Daejeon, and Incheon, but not in Busan and Ulsan. Fourth, the adaptation programs of South Korean metropolitan cities do not seem to have been well-tailored to each case.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: A multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Xingming; Jiang Fan; Zhou Yingchun; Li Shenghui; Li Fei; Yan Chonghuai; Tian Ying; Zhang Yiwen; Tong Shilu; Shen Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey during November-December 2005 in eight metropolitan ...

  17. Haphazard commercialization: a potential threat to sustainable commercial development in metropolitan cities? The case of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, O.; Hameed, R.

    2005-01-01

    The demand of urban space for commercial development due to unprecedented population growth has surpassed the planned supply delivered by planning agencies in metropolitan cities of Pakistan. As a corollary to that, conversion of residential land use into various types of commercial activities has sprung up particularly along major roads of planned residential areas and arterial roads of cities. These conversions have proceeded, both with and without official consent, largely in a haphazard manner without following a coherent strategy. This has resulted in acute parking problems, reduction in traffic capacity of roads and resultant increase in congestion, energy use, air and noise pollution, and burden on utility services. Permitting conversion of land use in a haphazard manner seems not only a departure from planning principles but also jeopardizing the spatial structure of cities causing serious environmental repercussions. This paper presents evidence to the above observations through a detailed study of the environmental impact of commercial development in Lahore. The study is based on detailed land use, socio-economic, traffic, and parking surveys in carefully selected sample of three major housing schemes variously located in Lahore. The paper argues that weak development control, out-dated master plan, and inappropriate commercialization policies of the Government have lead to unsustainable pattern of commercial development even in planned residential areas. The findings of the study call for formulation of environmentally friendly commercialization policy. This will also involve redefining basic land use allocation standards and improvements in the design considerations so as to promote sustainable development of commercial areas in metropolitan cities. (author)

  18. Environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit (BRT in the Metropolitan City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit is an innovative, high capacity, lower cost public transit solution in metropolitan cities. Idea is to dedicate lanes for quick and efficient transport of passengers to their destinations. In the present investigation the environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit  in Tehran metropolitan city is brought out. For this purpose bus rapid transit Lane No. 10 is investigated. The bus rapid transit Lane No.10 is about 10 km in distance that moves up and down between Azadi and Simon Bolivar Squares. About 77500 passengers using 50 buses are transited per day in lane No. 10. These 50 buses cover a distance of 9600 km/day. The results of present study showed that about 6.5 million liters of fuel is saved annually. It should be pointed out that environmental costs are also reduced for about US$ 1.7 million/yr. The overall score of environmental impact assessment stands at +10 that is indicative of Lane No. 10 compatibility with the environmental considerations.

  19. Organotins in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and sediments of the Quebec City Harbour area of the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, L; Chan, H M; de Lafontaine, Y; Mikaelian, I

    2001-07-01

    Toxic antifouling agents such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) have been released in aquatic ecosystems through the use of antifouling paint applied to ship hulls, pleasure crafts and fish nets and these compounds can bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the extent of the distribution of organotins from a contaminated marina to the St. Lawrence River system by measuring organotin concentrations in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and in sediments collected from 9 sites along the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City in July 1998, and 2) to examine the histopathological condition of zebra mussel tissues from these sites. TBT concentrations in zebra mussels were between 37 and 1078 ng Sn g(-1) wet weight, with the highest value found in the Bassin Louise marina. Elevated concentrations were also found in two other marinas. The concentrations decreased sharply to background levels just outside the marinas. All butyltins were detected in all sediments analysed, with highest values found in the Bassin Louise marina. Phenyltins were detected in three of the nine sites in low concentrations (zebra mussels. There was a significant correlation between TBT in sediments and mussels. Gonadal development of zebra mussels varied largely between sites, and was negatively associated to TBT levels in mussel tissue. This study shows that TBT contamination remains a problem in localised freshwater sectors of the St. Lawrence River.

  20. Design and Scale Isses in the New Metropolitan City: a study of the south-east homogeneous zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mussinelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the new Metropolitan City and recent anti-sprawl legislations form part of a new urban regeneration initiative. In this context, the goal of the current research is to provide spatial forecasts, guidelines for governance, and economic feasibility scenarios for revitalisation work. The research is centred on the Milan Metropolitan area. In addition to exploring certain theories of regeneration and resilience, this paper reinstates the practice of spatial analysis of abandoned industrial areas at a metropolitan scale and identifies boundaries, environments, and issues for meta-design testing based on public initiatives aimed at increasing socio-economic resilience for the south-east sector of the Milanese metropolitan area. 

  1. Transport scenarios in two metropolitan cities in India: Delhi and Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Anjana; Parikh, Jyoti

    2004-01-01

    With rising population and increasing migration to the cities, it is expected that the urban population will increase and many more metropolitan cities will arise. Urban transport will also increase due to the high growth in population, travel demand and vehicles. In this paper, we look at the growth in vehicles and travel demand up to 2020, assuming business as usual, high GDP growth and low GDP growth scenarios for Mumbai and Delhi assuming a certain population growth. The consequent energy needs and local and global environment implications are studied. The case studies demonstrate that despite similar population and higher per capita GDP, due to the higher share of public bus transport and suburban railway system, the Mumbai transport results in 60% less energy and emissions compared to Delhi. This picture may change in the future with the introduction of metro in Delhi, but basic differences remain even in 2020, perhaps also due to the different urban design. The vehicle stock increases nearly three times in both cities in 23 years due to the increase in population, migration and economic growth. However, the vehicle ownership per 1000 persons only doubles and is far lower in 2020, even compared to the present world average ownership. Emissions, however, do not rise as much due to the introduction of more efficient vehicles and fuels, such as CNG or battery operated vehicles. The high share of public transport also helps. The effects of various policies, such as urban design, suburban railway system, transport management, control practices, etc. are very important

  2. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  3. [Population dynamics, urban structure, and production of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schteingart, M

    1989-01-01

    "In this article, an attempt is made to account for certain trends in the growth and distribution of the population, and in the structuring of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City.... Among the important conclusions of this essay are those having to do with the huge growth of some political-administrative units and the relation of this phenomenon to the practices followed by private realtors, often articulated with the policies and programs set by the State's housing agencies, as well as those that associate urban growth and expansion with the development of habitational spaces within the so-called 'formal' and 'informal' housing sectors." Data are from Mexican censuses and other official sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  4. Subaltern urbanism in India beyond the mega-city slum: The civic politics of occupancy and development in two peripheral cities in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Tara van Dijk leverages concepts from subaltern urbanism, namely political society and occupancy urbanism, to look at how residence and locality development are constituted and governed in practice across three types of settlements in two 'satellite' cities of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region:

  5. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  6. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  7. An environmental pollution study of Indian metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Chutke, N.L.; Ambulkar, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The process of urbanization and industrialization during last two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin. (author) 26 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  8. Risk to a Changing Climate in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    The issue of climate change has dominated the atmospheric sciences agenda in recent decades. The concern about an increase in climate related disasters, mainly in large population centers, has led to ask whether they are mainly due to changes in climate or in vulnerability.The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is an example of megalopolis under high climate risk, where floods, landslides, health problems, high air pollution events, socioeconomic droughts are becoming important environmental and social problems. As urbanization spreads and population increases exposure to natural hazards increases, and so the magnitude of risk to a changing climate and the negative impacts. Since the late nineteenth century, in the MCMA an average maximum temperature could be around 22°C, whereas today it is about 24.5ºC. That is, the increase in the average temperature in Mexico City is around 3°C in a hundred years. But there are areas where an increase in the average temperature is similar in only thirty years. The heating rate of the city can vary depending on the change in land use. Areas that conserve forested regions in the process of urbanization tend to warm less than areas where the transformation into concrete and cement is almost complete. Thus, the climate of the MCMA shows important changes mainly in relation to land use changes. Global warming and natural climate variability were also analyzed as possible forcing factors of the observed warming by comparing low frequency variations in local temperature and indices for natural forcing. The hydrological cycle of the MCMA has also changed with urbanization. The "bubble of hot air" over the urban area has more capacity to hold moisture now than before the UHI. However, the increased risk to floods, heat or drought appears to be related not only to more frequent intense climatic hazards induced by the urbanization effect. This process also induces increased vulnerability to a changing climate. The establishment of

  9. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  10. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  11. The medicinal animal markets in the metropolitan region of Natal City, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo S; Torres, Denise F; Brooks, Sharon E; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2010-07-06

    This study investigates the trade of animals for medicinal purposes in Natal metropolitan area, northeastern Brazil, to document which animal species are used, how and for what purposes. This study also discusses the implications of the use of zootherapeutics for wildlife conservation. Based on interviews with merchants of medicinal animals in all open fairs of the metropolitan region of Natal City, we calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species relative importance to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 23 animal species used medicinally. The zootherapeutical products sold commercially are used to treat 34 health problems that were classified into 14 broad categories. We also highlight those species valued for their effectiveness against a range of ailments. The highest ICF value (1.0) was cited for diseases of the circulatory system, which include relief of symptoms such as stroke, hemorrhage, varicose veins and edema. Our study indicated that the local population holds a great deal of ethnomedical knowledge about their local animal resources, and highlights the need for clinical investigations of these traditional remedies to test the safety and efficacy. The animal species identified in this study not only hold high medicinal value for local populations, but could potentially be a source of healing compounds that could aid pharmaceutical research. While the impact of these practices on animal populations is unknown, the high extractive value of these animal populations and the associated medicinal traditional knowledge, needs to be considered in any conservation strategy aimed at the faunistic resources of this area. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic and environmental impact analysis of new road network project, connecting the inland metropolitan cities with port city of Karachi in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohi, K.M.; Uqaili, M.A.; Harijan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Most of the developing countries face a lack of infrastructure facilities, where the road transport network is one of them. In this paper, firstly impacts of new road network project connecting with port city and inland metropolitan cities or northwest part of Pakistan are analyzed by using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. Secondly, for the estimation of economic and environmental impacts of this project, a multi-regional CGE model is proposed. It is found that construction of this project is going to change the industrial structure, especially in production of manufacturing sector, and it will also change the Equivalent Variation (EV). It is also observed that remarkable economic and environmental impacts appeared in the inland metropolitan cities or northwest region than the rest of Pakistan. After analysis of these impacts, it is easy for government to make proper policy for maintaining economic impacts and reducing environmental impacts on national and regional level. (author)

  13. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng ...

  14. A driving cycle for vehicle emissions estimation in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; López-Salinas, E

    2005-02-01

    A driving cycle derived from driving behavior and real traffic conditions in Mexico City (MC) is proposed. Data acquisition was carried out over diverse MC routes, representing travel under congested and uncongested conditions, using the chase-car approach. Thirteen different on-road patterns, including the four main access roads to MC, trips in both directions and different timetables, a total of 108 trips spanning 1044 km were evaluated in this study. The MC cycle lasts 1360 seconds with a distance of 8.8 km and average speed of 23.4 km h(-1). Both maximum speed (73.6 km h(-1)) and maximum acceleration (2.22 km h(-1)s(-1)) are lower than those of the new vehicles certification employed in Mexico ,FTP-75 cycle., that is, the MC cycle exhibits less cruising time and more transient events than the FTP cycle. A total of 30 light duty gasoline vehicles were classified into different technological groups and tested in an FTP-75 and MC driving cycles in order to compare their emission factors A potential concern is that in Mexico manufacturers design vehicles to meet the emission standards in the FTP, but emission levels increase significantly in a more representative cycle of present driving patterns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The use of a more representative cycle during certification testing, would provide an incentive for vehicle manufacturers to design emissions control systems to remain effective during operation modes that are not currently represented in the official test procedures used in the certification process. Based on the results of the study, the use of MC cycle, which better represents current day driving patterns during testing of vehicle fleets in emissions laboratories, would improve the accuracy of emissions factors used in the MAMC emissions inventories.

  15. Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Jian; Liang, Hao; Liu, Wei-Yue; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Yuan; Wan, Xu; Cai, Wei-Qi; Ju, Lei; Chen, Luo-Kan; Wang, Liu-Jun; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Kai; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-12-20

    We have demonstrated a metropolitan all-pass quantum communication network in field fiber for four nodes. Any two nodes of them can be connected in the network to perform quantum key distribution (QKD). An optical switching module is presented that enables arbitrary 2-connectivity among output ports. Integrated QKD terminals are worked out, which can operate either as a transmitter, a receiver, or even both at the same time. Furthermore, an additional link in another city of 60 km fiber (up to 130 km) is seamless integrated into this network based on a trusted relay architecture. On all the links, we have implemented protocol of decoy state scheme. All of necessary electrical hardware, synchronization, feedback control, network software, execution of QKD protocols are made by tailored designing, which allow a completely automatical and stable running. Our system has been put into operation in Hefei in August 2009, and publicly demonstrated during an evaluation conference on quantum network organized by the Chinese Academy of Sciences on August 29, 2009. Real-time voice telephone with one-time pad encoding between any two of the five nodes (four all-pass nodes plus one additional node through relay) is successfully established in the network within 60 km.

  16. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S; Pahud, Barbara A; Weldon, William C; Curns, Aaron T; Oberste, M Steven; Harrison, Christopher J

    2017-04-03

    No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012-2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%-96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6-10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2-3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2-3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4-6 y.

  17. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  18. PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT (PCE OF THROUGH VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS IN DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha SAHA

    2009-01-01

    PCE currently used in Bangladesh is based on the values given in Geometric Design of Highways (MoC, 2001, which is the modification of the values given by Webster (1958 on the study performed in the United Kingdom in the 50's and 60's. But now-a-days, the situation is far different both for traffic and road user as the characteristics have changed from that time. Hence, in this paper an empirical study was carried out to determine the PCE of different types of vehicle that reflect the actual traffic conditions of Dhaka Metropolitan City. Data were collected from ten signalized intersections and the headway ratio method was used to estimate the PCE of different types of vehicle. The main vehicle compositions observed during the study period consist of passenger cars, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and buses. The PCE obtained in this study were compared to the values established earlier. It was found that the estimated PCE are smaller than those being used in Bangladesh.

  19. Coverage and accessibility levels of health services in the metropolitan periphery of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor López

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is two fold: first, to analyze the spatial distribution of health services that different public institutions offer in the metropolitan peripheral municipalities of Mexico City; and second, give some reasons that explain that distribution. The analysis tries to demonstrate a lack of territorial approach in the construction of the social policy in the particular case of the health sector. The spatial range of health service, coverage and accessibility in the eastern part of the State of Mexico was calculate through variables much as number of doctors, nurses, beds and medical center, that the different public institution particularly IMSS, ISSSTE and ISSEMYM, offer. Results tend to show an unequal distribution of health resources either human or material, as well as a territorial disorden in their distribution with a high concentration in urban areas. Thus, analysis shows that space plays a fundamental role as a structuring factor in the application of health policies and in the planning of such services.

  20. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  1. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Johnson; B. de Foy; B. de Foy; B. Zuberi; B. Zuberi; L. T. Molina; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; M. J. Molina; Y. Xie; A. Laskin; V. Shutthanandan

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign f...

  2. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson , K. S.; De Foy , B.; Zuberi , B.; Molina , L. T.; Molina , M. J.; Xie , Y.; Laskin , A.; Shutthanandan , V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected dur...

  3. Public policy performance for social development : solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Aquino, A.R.; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y.; Kleiche Dray, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, ne...

  4. Assessing Anxiety, Depression and Psychological Wellbeing Status of Urban Elderly Under Represent of Tehran Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Alizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the present study describes assessing mental health status (anxiety, depression, and psychological wellbeing of old people in different age groups in tehran metropolitan city. The outcomes of this study could help to health policy makers to develop of better health policy in gerontology field by determine of priorities of mental care in different age groups of old people. Methods & Materials: this was a cross sectional study in 2010. The participants were (n=402 aged 60 years old and over which have underrepresented from Shahid Beheshti University. The survey methods were via face-to-face interviews, and just in a few cases as telephone interviews. The instrument to data collection included demographic questionnaire, k6 and yeild tools. Data analyzed by Stata and SPSS ver.15 through t-test, one-way anova. Regression models applied as well. Results: based on results in the past 4 weeks,10.9% of elderly had sever anxiety or depression symptoms and about half of them (46.5% had moderate psychological distress. The rate of psychological distress increased with age growing, specifically in 60- 79 years old however, this rate declined from age of 80 years and over. Psychological distress levels among elderly women were more than old men in all age groups, except of 60-69 years old people. Regarding psychological wellbeing, feeling of tireless, lone less, and depression are the most common complain of house dowelling old people in tehran metropolitan area. As the results show 43.1% elderly participants were in moderate level and 17% of them were in the bad level of psychological wellbeing. Based on regression model, sex (P=0.012, housing (P=0.004, and retirement salary (P=0.048 were significant variables that effect on psychological distress. The income rate was only important component that effect on psychological wellbeing of elderly participants. There was no significant different between aged groups 60-64 and 65-69 in psychological

  5. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  6. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  7. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  8. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  9. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S.; Pahud, Barbara A.; Weldon, William C.; Curns, Aaron T.; Oberste, M. Steven; Harrison, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012–2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%–96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6–10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2–3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2–3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4–6 y. PMID:28059613

  10. Prediction of heavy rainfall over Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India: Impact of microphysical parameterization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. S.; Bonthu, Subbareddy; Purvaja, R.; Robin, R. S.; Kannan, B. A. M.; Ramesh, R.

    2018-04-01

    This study attempts to investigate the real-time prediction of a heavy rainfall event over the Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India that occurred on 01 December 2015 using Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The study evaluates the impact of six microphysical (Lin, WSM6, Goddard, Thompson, Morrison and WDM6) parameterization schemes of the model on prediction of heavy rainfall event. In addition, model sensitivity has also been evaluated with six Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and two Land Surface Model (LSM) schemes. Model forecast was carried out using nested domain and the impact of model horizontal grid resolutions were assessed at 9 km, 6 km and 3 km. Analysis of the synoptic features using National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP-GFS) analysis data revealed strong upper-level divergence and high moisture content at lower level were favorable for the occurrence of heavy rainfall event over the northeast coast of Tamil Nadu. The study signified that forecasted rainfall was more sensitive to the microphysics and PBL schemes compared to the LSM schemes. The model provided better forecast of the heavy rainfall event using the logical combination of Goddard microphysics, YSU PBL and Noah LSM schemes, and it was mostly attributed to timely initiation and development of the convective system. The forecast with different horizontal resolutions using cumulus parameterization indicated that the rainfall prediction was not well represented at 9 km and 6 km. The forecast with 3 km horizontal resolution provided better prediction in terms of timely initiation and development of the event. The study highlights that forecast of heavy rainfall events using a high-resolution mesoscale model with suitable representations of physical parameterization schemes are useful for disaster management and planning to minimize the potential loss of life and property.

  11. Air emissions scenarios from ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Carlos A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Manzini, Fabio; Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The Mexican Biofuel Introduction Program states that during year 2010 the three biggest Mexican cities will have a gasoline blending with 6% ethanol available for all gasoline on-road vehicle fleet. Also in 2010 Mexican government has programmed to start the substitution of Tier 1 - the adopted US emission standards - by Tier 2, which are more stringent emission standards for motor vehicles and gasoline sulfur control requirements. How will the air emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) be modified by using this blending? Four scenarios up to year 2030 were constructed and simulated using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning model. Beginning with a BAU or reference scenario, in this scenario the current available fuel is a blending composed by 5% methyl tertiary butyl ether and 95% gasoline (MTBE5). Then, three alternative scenarios that use ethanol as an oxygenate are considered, one with the already programmed E6 blending (6% anhydride ethanol, 94% gasoline), for the sake of comparison the E10 blending (10% anhydride ethanol, 90% gasoline), and the other alternative to compare, ETBE13.7 (13.7% ethyl tertiary butyl ether, 86.3% gasoline; where ETBE is an ether composed by 48% anhydride ethanol and 52% isobutene). Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene were calculated using emission factors previously calculated using the adapted US-EPA computer model called MOBILE6-Mexico. Results show that Tier 1 and Tier 2 standards effectively lowers all emissions in all studied scenarios with the exception of PM10 and CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternative scenario E10 has the most total avoided emissions by weight but it is not the best when considering some individual pollutants. The greatest environmental benefit of ethanol in its final use as a gasoline oxygenate is for

  12. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  13. Local materials in the regeneration of urban space of the historic centre of the Metropolitan City of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is part of the studies conducted by the Urban Planning Board, Land Management, Environment Laboratory for the “metropolitan city” and the Big Project “Historic centre of Naples, enhancement of the UNESCO site”. Among the issues under discussion, very important for the 92 municipalities of the Metropolitan City, is the preservation of different urban identities which, although united administratively, are claiming their own cultural profile rooted in the urban space, in the architecture of places and in local resources. The work is based on the principle that the use of local resources affects the quality and perception of urban space and, as evidence of belonging to the place, it is necessary to deal its exploitation under sustainable auspices.

  14. Morbidity Forecast in Cities: A Study of Urban Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2018-05-29

    In the last two decades, urbanization has intensified, and in Brazil, about 90% of the population now lives in urban centers. Atmospheric patterns have changed owing to the high growth rate of cities, with negative consequences for public health. This research aims to elucidate the spatial patterns of air pollution and respiratory diseases. A data-based model to aid local urban management to improve public health policies concerning air pollution is described. An example of data preparation and multivariate analysis with inventories from different cities in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba was studied. A predictive model with outstanding accuracy in prediction of outbreaks was developed. Preliminary results describe relevant relations among morbidity scales, air pollution levels, and atmospheric seasonal patterns. The knowledge gathered here contributes to the debate on social issues and public policies. Moreover, the results of this smaller scale study can be extended to megacities.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: A multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xingming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey during November-December 2005 in eight metropolitan cities in China. A total of 23791 children aged 6-13 years participated in this survey. Questions from the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC were used to examine the pattern of current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the risk factors for childhood allergies. Results The average prevalence of childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema across the eight cities was 3∙3% (95% Confidence interval (CI: 3∙1%, 3∙6%, 9∙8% (95% CI: 9∙4%, 10∙2% and 5∙5% (95% CI: 5∙2%, 5∙8%, respectively. Factors related to lifestyle, mental health and socio-economic status were found to be associated with the prevalence of childhood allergies. These risk factors were unevenly distributed across cities and disproportionately affected the local prevalence. Conclusions There was apparent geographic variation of childhood allergies in China. Socio-environmental factors had strong impacts on the prevalence of childhood allergies; but these impacts differed across regions. Thus public health policies should specifically target at the local risk factors for each individual area.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhou, Yingchun; Li, Shenghui; Jiang, Fan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Yiwen; Tong, Shilu; Shen, Xiaoming

    2011-06-06

    Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China. We conducted a cross-sectional survey during November-December 2005 in eight metropolitan cities in China. A total of 23791 children aged 6-13 years participated in this survey. Questions from the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) were used to examine the pattern of current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the risk factors for childhood allergies. The average prevalence of childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema across the eight cities was 3.3% (95% Confidence interval (CI): 3.1%, 3.6%), 9.8% (95% CI: 9.4%, 10.2%) and 5.5% (95% CI: 5.2%, 5.8%), respectively. Factors related to lifestyle, mental health and socio-economic status were found to be associated with the prevalence of childhood allergies. These risk factors were unevenly distributed across cities and disproportionately affected the local prevalence. There was apparent geographic variation of childhood allergies in China. Socio-environmental factors had strong impacts on the prevalence of childhood allergies; but these impacts differed across regions. Thus public health policies should specifically target at the local risk factors for each individual area.

  17. Manifestation of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP Model on Fire Potential Zonation Mapping in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar Chhetri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though fewer people die as a result of fire than other natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood, landslide, etc., the average loss of property due to fire is high. Kathmandu Metropolitan City is becoming more vulnerable to fire due to haphazard urbanization and increase in population. To control problems due to fire, systematic studies are necessary, including fire potential mapping and risk assessment. This study applies an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal for generation of fire potential zonation map. The fire potential zonation map is prepared on the basis of available data of land use, fuel stations, and population density. This map shows that 58.04% of the study area falls under low fire potential zone, 32.92% falls under moderate fire potential zone and 9.04% falls under high fire potential zone. The map is also validated through major past fire incidents. The results show that the predicted fire potential zones are found to be in good agreement with past fire incidents, and, hence, the map can be used for future land-use planning.

  18. Metropolitan Governance and Strategic Learning in City-Regions. The Ruhr and the Randstad Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dembski, S.

    2008-01-01

    Synopis The urban transformation and the increasing inter-urban competition pose new challenges for city-regions. Cities have extended far into their hinterlands and the social and economic relations within city-regions are much less concentrated on the urban core than some decades ago. In fact,

  19. Epidemiological Characteristics and Space-Time Analysis of the 2015 Dengue Outbreak in the Metropolitan Region of Tainan City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Ng, Ka-Chon; Nguyen, Thi Luong; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2018-02-26

    The metropolitan region of Tainan City in southern Taiwan experienced a dengue outbreak in 2015. This manuscript describes basic epidemiological features of this outbreak and uses spatial and temporal analysis tools to understand the spread of dengue during the outbreak. The analysis found that, independently of gender, dengue incidence rate increased with age, and proportionally affected more males below the age of 40 years but females above the age of 40 years. A spatial scan statistic was applied to detect clusters of disease transmission. The scan statistic found that dengue spread in a north-south diffusion direction, which is across the North, West-Central and South districts of Tainan City. Spatial regression models were used to quantify factors associated with transmission. This analysis indicated that neighborhoods with high proportions of residential area (or low wetland cover) were associated with dengue transmission. However, these association patterns were non-linear. The findings presented here can help Taiwanese public health agencies to understand the fundamental epidemiological characteristics and diffusion patterns of the 2015 dengue outbreak in Tainan City. This type of information is fundamental for policy making to prevent future uncontrolled dengue outbreaks, given that results from this study suggest that control interventions should be emphasized in the North and West-Central districts of Tainan city, in areas with a moderate percentage of residential land cover.

  20. Reducing CSOs and giving the river back to the public: innovative combined sewer overflow control and riverbanks restoration of the St. Charles River in Quebec City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradet, Olivier; Pleau, Martin; Marcoux, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    After the construction of its wastewater treatment plants, the City of Quebec began to implement overflow control in wet weather to ultimately meet the effluent discharge objectives, i.e. no more than two overflows per summer season in the St. Lawrence River and no more than four in the St-Charles River. After several years of studies to determine which management strategies would best suit the purpose, and to propose optimum solutions, a first project to implement optimal and predictive management in real time, called "Pilot", came to life in 1999. Construction in phases soon followed and the work was completed in the fall of 2009. As a result, requirements with regard to environmental rejects were met in two sectors, namely the St-Charles River and the Jacques-Cartier Beach, and aquatic recreational activities could resume. Meanwhile, the City also worked at giving back access to the water courses to the public by developing sites at the Jacques-Cartier Beach and in the Bay of Beauport, and by rehabilitating the banks of the St-Charles River.

  1. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  2. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, T. M.; Adegoke, J.; Stoddard, E.; Odom, L.; Ketchum, D.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOPATHS project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). The goal of GEOPATHS is to raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. We are addressing this goal by expanding dual-credit and Advanced Placement (AP) opportunities for high school students and also by serving teachers through enhancing their understanding of geoscience content and inquiry teaching methods using GLOBE resources and protocols. Our focus in the first two years of the project is to increase the number of teachers that are certified to teach AP Environmental Science by offering specially designed professional development workshops for high school teachers in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. The structure of the workshop for each year is divided into two weeks of content knowledge exploration using the learning cycle and concept mapping, and one week of inquiry-based experiments, field projects, and exercises. We are also supporting teachers in their use of these best-practice methods by providing materials and supplies along with lesson plans for inquiry investigations for their classes. The lesson plans include activities and experiments that are inquiry-based. The last two years of the project will include direct engagement/recruiting of promising minority high school students via paid summer research internships and scholarship offers.

  3. Internet of Things (IoT) Applicability in a Metropolitan City

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT)is defined here as a network of interconnected objects. These objects can include several technological systems. This paper examines the wireless communication systems and IoT sensors. IoT is technically feasible today, allowing people and things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone. IoT privacy is a concern but security solutions exist today to solve these issues. A proposal is made to use secure IoT solutions in supporting the metropolitan need...

  4. Water-quality assessment of the largely urban blue river basin, Metropolitan Kansas City, USA, 1998 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, D.H.; Armstrong, D.J.; Hampton, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    From 1998 through 2007, over 750 surface-water or bed-sediment samples in the Blue River Basin - a largely urban basin in metropolitan Kansas City - were analyzed for more than 100 anthropogenic compounds. Compounds analyzed included nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, suspended sediment, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Non-point source runoff, hydrologic alterations, and numerous waste-water discharge points resulted in the routine detection of complex mixtures of anthropogenic compounds in samples from basin stream sites. Temporal and spatial variations in concentrations and loads of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and organic wastewater compounds were observed, primarily related to a site's proximity to point-source discharges and stream-flow dynamics. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  5. Developing a Hierarchical Model for the Spatial Analysis of PM10 Pollution Extremes in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ivan Aguirre-Salado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We implemented a spatial model for analysing PM 10 maxima across the Mexico City metropolitan area during the period 1995–2016. We assumed that these maxima follow a non-identical generalized extreme value (GEV distribution and modeled the trend by introducing multivariate smoothing spline functions into the probability GEV distribution. A flexible, three-stage hierarchical Bayesian approach was developed to analyse the distribution of the PM 10 maxima in space and time. We evaluated the statistical model’s performance by using a simulation study. The results showed strong evidence of a positive correlation between the PM 10 maxima and the longitude and latitude. The relationship between time and the PM 10 maxima was negative, indicating a decreasing trend over time. Finally, a high risk of PM 10 maxima presenting levels above 1000 μ g/m 3 (return period: 25 yr was observed in the northwestern region of the study area.

  6. Classifying neighbourhoods by level of access to stores selling fresh fruit and vegetables and groceries: identifying problematic areas in the city of Gatineau, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Adrian C; Apparicio, Philippe; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil

    2012-11-06

    Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV in Gatineau, Quebec, to identify areas where poor access is coincident with high deprivation. Food retailers were identified using two secondary sources and each store was visited to establish the total surface area devoted to the sale of fresh FV. Four population-weighted accessibility measures were then calculated for each dissemination area (DA) using road network distances. A deprivation index was created using variables from the 2006 Statistics Canada census, also at the scale of the DA. Finally, six classes of accessibility to a healthy diet were constructed using a k-means classification procedure. These were mapped and superimposed over high deprivation areas. Overall, deprivation is positively correlated with better accessibility. However, more than 18,000 residents (7.5% of the population) live in high deprivation areas characterized by large distances to the nearest retail food store (means of 1.4 km or greater) and virtually no access to fresh FV within walking distance (radius of 1 km). In this research, we identified areas where poor geographic access may introduce an additional constraint for residents already dealing with the challenges of limited financial and social resources. Our results may help guide local food security policies and initiatives.

  7. Aspects of Agricultural Landscape as a Cultural Asset in Metropolitan Areas: Case Study for Bucharest City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Typical for the last decades economical and social processes at metropolitan level induce new models of spatial organization characterized by extensive urban development. These extensive processes configure various components of the cultural landscape in different ways. Such development modifies the rural, agricultural and industrial landscapes and generates new landscape typologies modeled by interaction between urban and rural space. Diverse approaches of urban development have modified the territorial structure and also the way in which the territory visually and dynamically responds to external factors by transforming the main cultural features. In such a context, preservation of common agricultural landscape as a part of cultural landscape is becoming an important issue for the local development policies

  8. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  9. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  10. Approach of Urban Design Elements in Preservation Area Kampung Bandar Senapelan Towards Pekanbaru Metropolitan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Yose; Cheris, Rika; Repi

    2017-12-01

    The development of Pekanbaru City is very rapid, consequently is constantly experiencing changes in buildings, areas or cultural objects that need to be preserved to be disrupted, replaced by economic-oriented development - commercial. The contradiction between the construction of the metropolis will be the beginning of the problem for urban areas. Kampong Bandar Senapelan is an early town of Pekanbaru town located on the banks of the Siak River. The settlement has a typology of Malay and vernacular Malay architecture. The existence of these villages experienced concern as a contradiction of the city's development toward the metropolis which resulted in degradation of the historical value of urban development in this region. This study was conducted to make an important assessment of preserving Kampung Bandar Senapelan as the oldest area and its great influence on the development of metropolis. Preservation of historical and cultural heritage with conservation and preservation measures is one of the urban design elements to be considered for all city stakeholders to safeguard the civilization of a generation. Considerations that will become a benchmark is the history, conservation and urban development towards the metropolis. The importance of awareness of the conservation of the city through conservation and preservation in this area can lead to new characters and values to the building and its environment and will create an atmosphere different from the rapid development (modern style). In addition, this preservation will be evident in a harmonious life with a high tolerance between multi-ethnicity that co-existed in the past.

  11. Urban sustainability through strategic planning: A case of metropolitan planning in Khulna city, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ashiq Ur Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning is a crucial element for any development initiative. Planning entails choice making in pursuit of stated goals e.g. improving living conditions for individuals and societies. Planning initiatives are employed within social systems that are governed by institution, and planning intervenes with and may reconfigure these institutions resulting in social change. This paper discusses how urban sustainability can be achieved through strategic action in urban development by analysing the planning process of Khulna city, Bangladesh. This paper reviews different scholarly articles to draw a conceptual framework for identifying the interface of strategic planning, components of strategic action planning and urban sustainability. Based on this conceptual framework this paper identifies the scope of achieving urban sustainability through analysing the current planning practice of Khulna city, Bangladesh. This paper identifies that though the Khulna city plan adopted the approach of strategic planning but it failed to comply with its theoretical notion to achieve the issues related to urban sustainability. Analysis reveals that in terms of social attribute that recognizes the interest of different group of people the exiting planning packages is not sustainable. Similar phenomenon have been observed in terms of recognition of gender and marginalized people in planning, equitable provision of income and employment generation, peoples’ participation in planning and polices for ensuring equitable access to infrastructure services. Therefore the existing planning package of Khulna city failed to achieve the issues of urban sustainability through its adapted strategic planning approach.

  12. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Fuga, A.; Alves, E.R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  13. Asymmetric correlations in the ozone concentration dynamics of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz, M.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Echeverria, J. C.

    2017-04-01

    Mexico City is a megalopolis with severe pollution problems caused by vehicles and industrial activity. This condition imposes important risks to human health and economic activity. Based on hourly-sampled data during the last decade, in a recent work (Meraz et al., 2015) we showed that the pollutant dynamics in Mexico City exhibits long-term and scale-dependent persistence effects resulting from the combination of pollutants generation by vehicles and removal by advection mechanisms. In this work, we analyzed the dynamics of ozone, a key component reflecting the degree of atmospheric contamination, to determine if its long-term correlations are asymmetric in relation to the actual concentration trend (increasing or decreasing). The analysis is conducted with detrended fluctuation analysis. The results showed that the average ozone dynamics is uncorrelated when the concentration is increasing. In contrast, the ozone dynamics shows long-term anti-persistence effects when the concentration is decreasing.

  14. City School District Reorganization: An Annotated Bibliography. Centralization and Decentralization in the Government of Metropolitan Areas with Special Emphasis on the Organization, Administration, and Financing of Large-City School Systems. Educational Research Series No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, E. Brock; Najat, Sandra

    As a guide to educational administrators working in large cities, abstracts of 161 books, pamphlets, papers, and journal articles published between 1924 and 1966 are classified into five categories: (1) Centralization versus decentralization, (2) local government, (3) metropolitan organization, (4) the financing of education, and (5) the…

  15. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.

  16. Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored physical activity intervention for adults from Quebec City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, François; Walthouwer, Michel Jean Louis; de Vries, Hein; Dagenais, Gilles R; Turbide, Ginette; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Moreau, Michel; Côté, José; Poirier, Paul

    2015-10-09

    The relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) protection is well documented. Numerous factors (e.g. patient motivation, lack of facilities, physician time constraints) can contribute to poor PA adherence. Web-based computer-tailored interventions offer an innovative way to provide tailored feedback and to empower adults to engage in regular moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. To describe the rationale, design and content of a web-based computer-tailored PA intervention for Canadian adults enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). 244 men and women aged between 35 and 70 years, without CVD or physical disability, not participating in regular moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, and familiar with and having access to a computer at home, were recruited from the Quebec City Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study centre. Participants were randomized into two study arms: 1) an experimental group receiving the intervention and 2) a waiting list control group. The fully automated web-based computer-tailored PA intervention consists of seven 10- to 15-min sessions over an 8-week period. The theoretical underpinning of the intervention is based on the I-Change Model. The aim of the intervention was to reach a total of 150 min per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic PA. This study will provide useful information before engaging in a large RCT to assess the long-term participation and maintenance of PA, the potential impact of regular PA on CVD risk factors and the cost-effectiveness of a web-based computer-tailored intervention. ISRCTN36353353 registered on 24/07/2014.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for adult pulmonary tuberculosis in a metropolitan city of South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Dhanaraj

    Full Text Available The present study measured the community prevalence and risk factors of adult pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in Chennai city, and also studied geographical distribution and the presence of different M. tuberculosis strains in the survey area.A community-based cross sectional survey was carried out from July 2010 to October 2012 in Chennai city. Prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated by direct standardization method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify significant risk factors. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping was performed on isolated M. tuberculosis strains. Mapping of PTB cases was done using geographic positioning systems.Of 59,957 eligible people, 55,617 were screened by X-ray and /or TB symptoms and the prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated to be 228 (95% CI 189-265, 259 (95% CI 217-299 and 349 (95% CI 330-428 per 100,000 population, respectively. Prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was highest amongst men aged 55-64 years. Multivariate analysis showed that occurrence of both culture and bacteriologically positive PTB disease was significantly associated with: age >35 years, past history of TB treatment, BMI <18.5 Kgs/m2, solid cooking fuel, and being a male currently consuming alcohol. The most frequent spoligotype family was East African Indian. Spatial distribution showed that a high proportion of patients were clustered in the densely populated north eastern part of the city.Our findings demonstrate that TB is a major public health problem in this urban area of south India, and support the use of intensified case finding in high risk groups. Undernutrition, slum dwelling, indoor air pollution and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors for TB disease.

  18. Limitations of urban development in land of social origin: the case of the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Sánchez Pedro Leobardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the occupation process of agricultural land with social origin and urban uses in the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT, and the barriers that the population and authorities have to face in order to regularize the settlements. A mixed research method was applied, which included the use of quantitative and qualitative methods, on the basis of a theoretical analysis, to build a methodological research model, which was applied to an empirical case in municipal and metropolitan areas. The analysis of the 14 municipalities that constitute ZMCT shows that the barriers for regularizing settlements in land of social origin are the result of legal/administrative inefficiencies due to the incapability of local city halls to address the collective needs of society.

  19. Assessment of heavy metals in street dust in Kathmandu metropolitan city and their possible impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar, C.S.; Shakya, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Street dust often contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals and can influence on environment and human health. Therefore, a study on the characteristics of heavy metals in street dusts at different localities was carried out in the metropolitan city of Kathmandu of Nepal. A total of 20 street dusts have been sampled from four sampling sites with various activities or characteristics such as mechanical workshops (MWK), motor parks (MPK), market areas (MKA) and residential areas (RDA) and analyzed for Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Results showed that street dust samples contained significant levels of the metals studied compared to the values from the control site. The variation in concentration of most of the heavy metals determined decreased in an order represented as MWK>MPK>MKA>RDA>Control. While the RDA and MKA give the same element abundance order as Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd, the MPK and MWK show different abundance order in some elemental contents. In all the street dusts, zinc is the most available and labile element followed by lead. From the place of low activity (RDA) to the place of high activity (MWK), the metal concentrations in street dusts varied from 55.4-419.3 mu g/sup -1/ for Zn, 12.3-116.8 mu g/sup -1/ for Pb, 4.9-86.3 mu /sup -1/ for Ni, 1.4-14.3 mu g/sup -1/ for Cr and 0.3-39.6 mu g/sup -1/ for Cd respectively. Results indicate that the metal pollutants in street dusts could significantly contribute to deteriorate the environmental status of the city of Kathmandu metropolis. (author)

  20. Air pollution impacts of speed limitation measures in large cities: The need for improving traffic data in a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasano, José M.; Gonçalves, María; Soret, Albert; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the effects of air quality management strategies in urban areas is a major concern worldwide because of the large impacts on health caused by the exposure to air pollution. In this sense, this work analyses the changes in urban air quality due to the introduction of a maximum speed limit to 80 km h -1 on motorways in a large city by using a novel methodology combining traffic assimilation data and modelling systems implemented in a supercomputing facility. Albeit the methodology has been non-specifically developed and can be extrapolated to any large city or megacity, the case study of Barcelona is presented here. Hourly simulations take into account the entire year 2008 (when the 80 km h -1 limit has been introduced) vs. the traffic conditions for the year 2007. The data has been assimilated in an emission model, which considers hourly variable speeds and hourly traffic intensity in the affected area, taken from long-term measurement campaigns for the aforementioned years; it also permits to take into account the traffic congestion effect. Overall, the emissions are reduced up to 4%; however the local effects of this reduction achieve an important impact for the adjacent area to the roadways, reaching 11%. In this sense, the speed limitation effects assessed represent enhancements in air quality levels (5-7%) of primary pollutants over the area, directly improving the welfare of 1.35 million inhabitants (over 41% of the population of the Metropolitan Area) and affecting 3.29 million dwellers who are potentially benefited from this strategy for air quality management (reducing 0.6% the mortality rates in the area).

  1. Energy-Independent Architectural Models for Residential Complex Plans through Solar Energy in Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yul Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests energy-independent architectural models for residential complexes through the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea, was selected as the target area for the residential complex. An optimal location in the area was selected to maximize the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Then, several architectural design models were developed. Next, after analyzing the energy-use patterns of each design model, economic analyses were conducted considering the profits generated from renewable-energy use. In this way, the optimum residential building model was identified. For this site, optimal solar power generation efficiency was obtained when solar panels were installed at 25° angles. Thus, the sloped roof angles were set to 25°, and the average height of the internal space of the highest floor was set to 1.8 m. Based on this model, analyses were performed regarding energy self-sufficiency improvement and economics. It was verified that connecting solar power generation capacity from a zero-energy perspective considering the consumer’s amount of power consumption was more effective than connecting maximum solar power generation capacity according to building structure. Moreover, it was verified that selecting a subsidizable solar power generation capacity according to the residential solar power facility connection can maximize operational benefits.

  2. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-11-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  3. A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed.

  4. Hot emission model for mobile sources: application to the metropolitan region of the city of Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalán, Roberto M; Osses, Mauricio; Urrutia, Cristian M

    2002-02-01

    Depending on the final application, several methodologies for traffic emission estimation have been developed. Emission estimation based on total miles traveled or other average factors is a sufficient approach only for extended areas such as national or worldwide areas. For road emission control and strategies design, microscale analysis based on real-world emission estimations is often required. This involves actual driving behavior and emission factors of the local vehicle fleet under study. This paper reports on a microscale model for hot road emissions and its application to the metropolitan region of the city of Santiago, Chile. The methodology considers the street-by-street hot emission estimation with its temporal and spatial distribution. The input data come from experimental emission factors based on local driving patterns and traffic surveys of traffic flows for different vehicle categories. The methodology developed is able to estimate hourly hot road CO, total unburned hydrocarbons (THCs), particulate matter (PM), and NO(x) emissions for predefined day types and vehicle categories.

  5. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, M.; Gasca, J.; Gonzalez, U.

    2006-01-01

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  6. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  7. Dreptul la oraș – generația a IV-a de drepturi ale omului metropolitan (The Right to city – the IVth generation of rights for the metropolitan man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to city begins to be recently consecrated by academic research, presenting several links with the “sustainable development” paradigm. UN documents see our contemporary world as an “urban global world”, confronted with issues as chronic poverty, lack of access to basic urban services, insufficient democratic participation to main decisions regarding the urban management. This new right can be regarded as derived from solidarity rights as the right to a healthy, clean, durable environment, as well as the right to continuous improvement of life quality, but also, it can be seen as a special, distinct kind of human right. Right to have clean, sustainable cities can be recognized, at national, regional, international levels, to individuals, to local groups (as the metropolitan inhabitants of one city or to nations (having at their disposal a collective new right to own prosperous, sustainable cities, as effect of their right to economic development. We consider the right to city as being a dynamic right, in full process of exploration and consecration within academic research, more than necessary for understanding an urban globalized world characterized by proliferation of metropolises, towns, cities, megalopolises that demand new juridical approaches.

  8. Helmet "tang" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, United States. Features of Construction, Design and Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not

  9. Development of new citizenship HSE model for schools and kindergartens of Tehran Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Karbassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today many of wide scope and famous organizations design and develop HSE models to achieve a more suitable HSE management system for their own purposes. To implement such models some requirements should be considered in line with defined goals and missions. The present study was carried out in order to achieve the HSE management system for children and adolescents in education and training centers. This study was conducted in two phases, namely identification and assessment/ documentation. The study was carried out in districts one, four, six, seven and eight of Tehran municipality during eighteen months. The employer was Tehran Shahr-e-salem Company (Healthy City and the contractor was the faculty of environment, University of Tehran. As the final result of study, based on initial data and by holding brainstorming meetings, the final citizenship HSE model was constructed in five panels: Management responsibility and commitment, Infrastructures and resources management and documentation, Planning, HSE operations management and Monitoring, analysis and improvement. This model was designed by consideration of existing capacities and with the goal of being responsive to all stakeholders (service provider, recipients of services and others.

  10. Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Metropolitan Area of Edirne City, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Çelik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis may vary according to the influence of the altitude of a geographical area as well as the genetic and environmental factors. This study ained to determine the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Edirne population.Material and Methods: Patients with a definite diagnosis of MS according to McDonald’s criteria, admitted to one of the three MS clinics in Edirne, were included in this two-stage study. Also the records of hospitals in İstanbul serving patients from Edirne, have been evaluated. Results: The prevalence rate of confirmed MS patients was 33.9/100000 (95% CI: 32-36 in 2003. The mean annual incidence was 3.48/100000 (95% CI: 2.90-4.00. Mean age of the patients was 36.5±9.6 years. Mean age at onset was 29.2±8.5 years. Mean duration of disease was 6.9±5.2 years. Overall, 69.2% had a relapsing-remitting course, 20.5% had a primary progressive course and 10.3% had a secondary progressive course. Mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 3.04±2.18. The prevalence and annual incidence after one year was 36.5 per 100000 (95% CI: 33.2-38.6 and 2.60 per 100000 (95% CI: 2.1-3.8, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first city-based MS prevalence study performed in Turkey. The MS prevalence in Edirne is similar to that of Greece and Bulgaria but lower than that of European countries.

  11. ERT, GPR, InSAR, and tracer tests to characterize karst aquifer systems under urban areas: The case of Quebec City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Richard; Castellazzi, Pascal; Gloaguen, Erwan; Trépanier, Luc; Garfias, Jaime

    2018-06-01

    Urban infrastructures built over karst settings may be at risk of collapse due to hydro-chemical erosion of underlying rock structures. In such settings, mapping cave networks and monitoring ground stability is important to assure civil safety and guide future infrastructure development decisions. However, no technique can directly and comprehensively map these hydrogeological features and monitor their stability. The most reliable method to map a cave network is through speleological exploration, which is not always possible due to restrictions, narrow corridors/passages, or high water levels. Borehole drilling is expensive and is often only performed where the presence of karsts is suggested by other techniques. Numerous indirect and cost-effective methods exist to map a karst flow system, such as geophysics, geodesy, and tracer tests. This paper presents the outcomes from a challenging application in Quebec City, Canada, where a multidisciplinary approach was designed to better understand the groundwater dynamics and cave paths. Two tracer tests in groundwater flowing through the cave system indicated that water flows along an approximately straight path from the sinking stream to the spring. It also suggests the presence of a parallel flow path close to the one already partially mapped. This observation was confirmed by combining Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) techniques, and ultimately by observing voids in several boreholes drilled close to the main cave path. Lowering the water levels at the suspected infiltration zone and inside the karst, the infiltration cracks were identified and the hydraulic link between them was confirmed. In fact, almost no infiltration occurs into the karst system when the water level at the sinking stream drops below a threshold level. Finally, SAR interferometry (InSAR) using RADARSAT-2 images detected movements on few buildings located over a backfilled sinkhole intercepted by the karst

  12. Analyzing Land Use Changes in the Metropolitan Jilin City of Northeastern China Using Remote Sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Yang, Guodong; Wu, Qiong; Li, Hongqing; Liu, Xusheng; Niu, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhiheng; Wang, Qiong

    2008-09-03

    Remote sensing and GIS have been widely employed to study temporal and spatial urban land use changes in southern and southeastern China. However, few studies have been conducted in northeastern regions. This study analyzed land use change and spatial patterns of urban expansion in the metropolitan area of Jilin City, located on the extension of Changbai Mountain, based on aerial photos from 1989 and 2005 Spot images. The results indicated that urban land and transportation land increased dramatically (by 94.04% and 211.20%, respectively); isolated industrial and mining land decreased moderately (by 29.54%); rural residential land increased moderately (by 26.48%); dry land and paddy fields increased slightly (by 15.68% and 11.78%, respectively); forest and orchards decreased slightly (by 5.27% and 4.61%, respectively); grasslands and unused land decreased dramatically (by 99.12% and 86.04%, respectively). Sloped dry land (more than 4 degrees) was mainly distributed on the land below 10 degrees with an east, southeastern and south sunny direction aspect, and most sloped dry land transformed to forest was located on an east aspect lower than 12 degrees, while forest changed to dry land were mainly distributed on east and south aspects lower than 10 degrees. A spatial dependency analysis of land use change showed that the increased urban land was a logarithmic function of distance to the Songhua River. This study also provided some data with spatial details about the uneven land development in the upstream areas of Songhua River basin.

  13. Analyzing Land Use Changes in the Metropolitan Jilin City of Northeastern China Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and GIS have been widely employed to study temporal and spatial urban land use changes in southern and southeastern China. However, few studies have been conducted in northeastern regions. This study analyzed land use change and spatial patterns of urban expansion in the metropolitan area of Jilin City, located on the extension of Changbai Mountain, based on aerial photos from 1989 and 2005 Spot images. The results indicated that urban land and transportation land increased dramatically (by 94.04% and 211.20%, respectively; isolated industrial and mining land decreased moderately (by 29.54%; rural residential land increased moderately (by 26.48%; dry land and paddy fields increased slightly (by 15.68% and 11.78%, respectively; forest and orchards decreased slightly (by 5.27% and 4.61%, respectively; grasslands and unused land decreased dramatically (by 99.12% and 86.04%, respectively. Sloped dry land (more than 4 degrees was mainly distributed on the land below 10 degrees with an east, southeastern and south sunny direction aspect, and most sloped dry land transformed to forest was located on an east aspect lower than 12 degrees, while forest changed to dry land were mainly distributed on east and south aspects lower than 10 degrees. A spatial dependency analysis of land use change showed that the increased urban land was a logarithmic function of distance to the Songhua River. This study also provided some data with spatial details about the uneven land development in the upstream areas of Songhua River basin.

  14. Actual Condition of Quality Control of X-ray Imaging System in Primary Care Institution: focused on Gwangju Metropolitan City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Kyung Rae; Lee, Seun Joo; Lee, Kyu Su; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Goo, Eun Hoe; Jung, Jae Eun; Lee, Kyu Su

    2010-01-01

    With the expanded use of radiation in modern medical practices, the most important issue in regards to efforts to reduce individual exposure dose is quality assurance. Therefore in order to study the present condition of quality assurance, the Gwangju Metropolitan City area was divided into five districts each containing ten hospitals. Four experiments were conducted: a reproducibility experiment for kVp, mA, and examination time (sec) intensity of illumination; half-value layer (HVL) measurement; and beam perpendicularity test matching experiment. The tube voltage reproducibility experiment for all fifty hospitals resulted in a 95.33% passing rate and mA and examination time both resulted in a 77.0% passing rate. The passing rate for intensity of illumination was 86.0% and 52.0% for HVL, which was the lowest passing rate of all four factors. For the beam perpendicularity test matching experiment, generally the central flux is matched to within 1.5 . deg. . Of all fifty hospitals 30.0% were beyond 3 . deg. . The results of the survey showed that 58% responded that they knew about quality assurance cycle. All fifty respondents stated that they have not received any training in regards to quality assurance at their current place of employment. Although quality assurance is making relative progress, the most urgent issue is awareness of the importance of quality assurance. Therefore, the implementation of professional training focusing on safety management and accurate quality assurance of radiation will reduce the exposure to radiation for radiologists and patients and higher quality imaging using less dosage will also be possible

  15. A survey of online social networking used to support health awareness campaigns in the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Eloff

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Department of Health (DoH at the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality in South Africa develops various health awareness campaigns aimed at creating awareness of general health risks within the Johannesburg area. According to staff members of the DoH, the resources utilised in the current campaigns fail to reach a sufficiently broad audience and the campaigns struggle to deliver the intended messages. Furthermore, the development and implementation of campaigns are time consuming and costly. Objectives: This research focused on how online social networking (OSN can support health awareness campaigns for the DoH in the Johannesburg region. OSN may be regarded as a tool that will assist the DoH to reach a wider audience, send health-related messages and provide a two-way communication channel. Method: The research used an exploratory research design with a purposive non-probability sample. A survey was used as the data collection instrument. Statistical analysis was performed on the data obtained from the surveys. Results: The results indicate that the DoH can benefit from the use of OSN in health promotion campaigns. The benefits include, but are not limited to, an increase in engagement with the target market, ease of use and reach within the specified audience. Conclusion: Although there are numerous advantages associated with the integration of OSN by the DoH, the DoH needs to develop training and development programmes for OSN to encourage its use by DoH staff members. The main aim of the programmes is to create internal OSN capabilities to support the OSN strategy.

  16. Implementing GLOBE in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Trials, Errors, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, A.; Schmidt, P.; Borman, G.

    2003-12-01

    systems. To stimulate data entry, one half-day during the 3-day workshop is devoted to exploring the GLOBE website, and another to generating student research problems using the site's advanced capabilities. Three "carrots" have also improved data submission: (1)a vendor gives a probe and software to the first school in each workshop that submits 250 data items, (2)individual competitiveness (the record is 22 hours from end of training to first submission of data), and (3)congratulatory emails to teachers when they submit their first data. The "stick": a threat to repossess the instruments if no data are submitted within 6 months. We also offer training in GLOBE-related skills, such as acquiring free satellite images and digital elevation data, and workshops on the geological and environmental settings of the NYC area. Suggestions from our teachers for the future include: urbanize protocols to better welcome inner city schools to GLOBE; add protocols involving flora and fauna to fit GLOBE better into Biology classes; develop more links with researchers so GLOBE participants feel they are making a real contribution; create a NYC area listserve so teachers can discuss common issues and concerns; and develop correlations between GLOBE protocols and NYS Curricula in Earth Science, Living Environment, Chemistry, and Physics. The last would vastly improve integration of GLOBE into these Regents-level courses. Our teacher trainees are vehement in their appreciation of GLOBE for its high standards and scientific rigor.

  17. Meteorological and sulphur dioxide dispersion modelling for an industrial complex near Mexico city metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, V.R.; Sosa, G.; Molina, M.M.; Palmerin-ruiz, M.E.; Melgarejo-flores, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    , and as input to dispersion modelling. Validation of the meteorological model was focused in the variables used as input in the dispersion model, consequently simulated and observed values of profiles of wind speed and direction, potential temperature, and specific humidity and were compared. RAMS mixing heights were overestimated at late morning (0800 LST), but during the afternoon were found to be in good agreement with observations. Simulated potential temperature and specific humidity profiles showed good agreement with the corresponding observed profiles. Simulated wind speed profiles and surface winds presented similar behavior that observations, but surface wind speed was overestimated at late morning and underestimated at the early evening. HYPACT simulations indicate that air quality standard for SO/sub 2/ (=0.13 ppm or 341 mu gm/sup -3/ in 24 hours) was exceed close to source emissions. Models simulations indicate that TVA emissions can reach the Mexico City. HYPACT performed well the general behaviour of surface concentrations of SO/sub 2/ but fails to simulate the observed peaks of the pollutant. (author)

  18. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Sosa, R.; Sanchez, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Bueno, E.; Gonzalez, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, SEMARNAP, Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  19. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  20. More damnation in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, N.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy over Hydro-Quebec's plan to divert eight more rivers to generate more electricity for export to the United States was discussed. Hydro-Quebec would like to proceed with the projects in order to capitalize on the recently deregulated American energy market. Hydro-Quebec currently produces more electricity than it requires to service domestic demand. Therefore, the majority of the newly generated power will likely be exported. Hydro-Quebec's strategic plan states that it intends to undertake diversion projects in the James Bay region. Critics of the plan argue that developing all of the province's remaining hydroelectric potential would jeopardize the environment and the aboriginal communities of the region. On the other side, Hydro-Quebec maintains that hydroelectric development has not upset the ecological balance in northern Quebec. Several secondary impacts of hydroelectric development were also described. Quebec's newly created Energy Board (Regie de l'energie) will encourage discussions between consumers, industry and environmentalists to debate Quebec's energy issues, as well as oversee and regulate retail prices, exports, investments and investment priorities

  1. Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Ortega, Margarita; Rosas, Ulises; Reyes-Santiago, Jerónimo

    2017-03-31

    In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding the monitoring of carbon sequestration by green roofs. Large-scale naturation, such as the implementation of green roofs, provides a way to partially mitigate the increased carbon dioxide output in urban areas. Here, we quantified the carbon sequestration capabilities of two ornamental succulent plant species, Sedum dendroideum and Sedum rubrotinctum, which require low maintenance, and little or no irrigation. To obtain a detailed picture of these plants' carbon sequestration capabilities, we measured carbon uptake on the Sedum plants by quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and fixation as organic acids, during the day and across the year, on a green roof located in Southern Mexico City. The species displayed their typical CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Moreover, our quantification allowed us to conservatively estimate that a newly planted green roof of Sedum sequesters approximately 180,000,000 ppm of carbon dioxide per year in a green roof of 100 square meters in the short term. The patterns of CAM and carbon dioxide sequestration were highly robust to the fluctuations of temperature and precipitation between seasons, and therefore we speculate that carbon sequestration would be comparable in any given year of a newly planted green roof. Older green roof would require regular trimming to mantain their carbon sink properties, but their carbon sequestration capabilities remain to be quantified. Nevertheless, we propose that Sedum green roofs can be part of the long-term solutions to mitigate the air pollution crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan area, and other "megacities" with marked seasonal drought.

  2. Perceived stigmatization and discrimination of people with mental illness: A survey-based study of the general population in five metropolitan cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Kerem; Zieger, Aron; Mungee, Aditya; Tandon, Abhinav; Fuchs, Lukas Marian; Schomerus, Georg; Tam Ta, Thi Minh; Dettling, Michael; Bajbouj, Malek; Angermeyer, Matthias; Hahn, Eric

    2018-01-01

    India faces a significant gap between the prevalence of mental illness among the population and the availability and effectiveness of mental health care in providing adequate treatment. This discrepancy results in structural stigma toward mental illness which in turn is one of the main reasons for a persistence of the treatment gap, whereas societal factors such as religion, education, and family structures play critical roles. This survey-based study investigates perceived stigma toward mental illness in five metropolitan cities in India and explores the roles of relevant sociodemographic factors. Samples were collected in five metropolitan cities in India including Chennai ( n = 166), Kolkata ( n = 158), Hyderabad ( n = 139), Lucknow ( n = 183), and Mumbai ( n = 278). Stratified quota sampling was used to match the general population concerning age, gender, and religion. Further, sociodemographic variables such as educational attainment and strength of religious beliefs were included in the statistical analysis. Participants displayed overall high levels of perceived stigma. Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant effect of gender ( P Gender differences in cultural and societal roles and expectations could account for higher levels of perceived stigma among female participants. A higher level of perceived stigma among female participants is attributed to cultural norms and female roles within a family or broader social system. This study underlines that while India as a country in transition, societal and gender rules still impact perceived stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness.

  3. Perceived stigmatization and discrimination of people with mental illness: A survey-based study of the general population in five metropolitan cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Kerem; Zieger, Aron; Mungee, Aditya; Tandon, Abhinav; Fuchs, Lukas Marian; Schomerus, Georg; Tam Ta, Thi Minh; Dettling, Michael; Bajbouj, Malek; Angermeyer, Matthias; Hahn, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Background: India faces a significant gap between the prevalence of mental illness among the population and the availability and effectiveness of mental health care in providing adequate treatment. This discrepancy results in structural stigma toward mental illness which in turn is one of the main reasons for a persistence of the treatment gap, whereas societal factors such as religion, education, and family structures play critical roles. This survey-based study investigates perceived stigma toward mental illness in five metropolitan cities in India and explores the roles of relevant sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected in five metropolitan cities in India including Chennai (n = 166), Kolkata (n = 158), Hyderabad (n = 139), Lucknow (n = 183), and Mumbai (n = 278). Stratified quota sampling was used to match the general population concerning age, gender, and religion. Further, sociodemographic variables such as educational attainment and strength of religious beliefs were included in the statistical analysis. Results: Participants displayed overall high levels of perceived stigma. Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant effect of gender (P mental illness. PMID:29736059

  4. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  5. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  6. Is there a metropolitan bias? The relationship between poverty and city size in a selection of developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferré, Céline; Ferreira, Francisco H G; Lanjouw, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides evidence from eight developing countries of an inverse relationship between poverty and city size. Poverty is both more widespread and deeper in very small and small towns than in large or very large cities. This basic pattern is generally robust to the choice of poverty line.

  7. Forecasting summertime surface temperature and precipitation in the Mexico City metropolitan area: sensitivity of the WRF model to land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bravo, Clemente; Caetano, Ernesto; Magaña, Víctor

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the frequency and intensity of severe hydrometeorological events in recent decades in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area have motivated the development of weather warning systems. The weather forecasting system for this region was evaluated in sensitivity studies using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for July 2014, a summer time month. It was found that changes in the extent of the urban area and associated changes in thermodynamic and dynamic variables have induced local circulations that affect the diurnal cycles of temperature, precipitation, and wind fields. A newly implemented configuration (land cover update and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA)) of the WRF model has improved the adjustment of the precipitation field to the orography. However, errors related to the depiction of convection due to parameterizations and microphysics remains a source of uncertainty in weather forecasting in this region.

  8. Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, D. A.; Velasco, A.; Rosas, A.; Volke-Sepúlveda, T.

    The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (˜26000 ton day -1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of LFG from five MSW disposal sites with different operational characteristics and stages, in order to identify their contribution as potential pollutant sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Important methane (CH 4) contents (>55%) in LFG were registered at three of the five sites, while two sites were found in semi-aerobic conditions (CH 4clay cover. High values of the TGM air/LFG ratio were also related to external TGM sources of influence, as a landfill in operation stage located at a highly industrialized area.

  9. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  10. Removal of PM10 by Forests as a Nature-Based Solution for Air Quality Improvement in the Metropolitan City of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Marando

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based solutions have been identified by the European Union as being critical for the enhancement of environmental qualities in cities, where urban and peri-urban forests play a key role in air quality amelioration through pollutant removal. A remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS approach was applied to the Metropolitan City (MC of Rome to assess the seasonal particulate matter (PM10 removal capacity of evergreen (broadleaves and conifers and deciduous species. Moreover, a monetary evaluation of PM10 removal was performed on the basis of pollution externalities calculated for Europe. Deciduous broadleaves represent the most abundant tree functional group and also yielded the highest total annual PM10 deposition values (1769 Mg. By contrast, PM10 removal efficiency (Mg·ha−1 was 15%–22% higher in evergreen than in deciduous species. To assess the different removal capacity of the three functional groups in an area with homogeneous environmental conditions, a study case was performed in a peri-urban forest protected natural reserve (Castelporziano Presidential Estate. This study case highlighted the importance of deciduous species in summer and of evergreen communities as regards the annual PM10 removal balance. The monetary evaluation indicated that the overall PM10 removal value of the MC of Rome amounted to 161.78 million Euros. Our study lends further support to the crucial role played by nature-based solutions for human well-being in urban areas.

  11. [Avoidable perinatal deaths and the environment outside the health care system: a case study in a city in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria L G; Hortale, Virginia Alonso

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of environmental factors external to the health care system in the occurrence of perinatal deaths in maternity hospitals belonging to the local health system in a city in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro in 1994. Elements from the political and administrative context that contribute to an understanding of the relationship between failures in health care and structural deficiencies in these maternity hospitals were divided into four groups of variables: distribution of resources, spatial and temporal factors, organizational and managerial features, and action by interest groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The study concluded that poor performance in four groups of variables may have contributed to perinatal mortality: distribution of resources was insufficient to provide quality in health care, especially in private maternity hospitals; there was no formal or informal regional or hierarchical organization of obstetric care in the city; Ministry of Health guidelines were ignored in all four maternity hospitals, while in three of the hospitals there were no admissions procedures and delivery and fetal follow-up listed in their own rules; and the level of actual participation was low.

  12. Secure metropolitan network and the management of branches in the technological infrastructure:Case study GADM Babahoyo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffre Vicente León Acurio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the nonexistent network to the general system of data communication that currently has the GADM (Autonomous Government Decentralized Municipal of Babahoyo located in the province of Los Rios in order to develop a logical design of a metropolitan network that can support new technologies and protocols ensuring the information conveyed between branches of GADM of Babahoyo, besides providing the institution of a compatible platform with the requirements of the e-Government (eGovernment. This research allowed to collect information through instruments such as interviews, meetings and literature review also visits took place at the premises of GADM Babahoyo, reviewing aspects of securities in telecommunications under the ISO / IEC 27002: 2013 citing reference the control objective Management network security. Identification, analysis and design of a proposed network infrastructure is made, allowing communication of the various units that are in distant places. It is concluded that the implementation of a system of networks throughout the municipal entity is considered a solution to the problem and generate many benefits.

  13. Common challenges for ecological modelling: synthesis of facilitated discussions held at the symposia organized for the 2009 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modelling in Quebec City, Canada, (October 6-9, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Guy R.; Mailly, D.; Yue, T.-X.; Anand, M.; Peng, C.; Kazanci, C.; Etterson, M.; Goethals, P.; Jorgensen, S.E.; Schramski, J.R.; McIntire, E.J.B.; Marceau, D.J.; Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q.; Yang, Z.F.; Novotna, B.; Luckai, N.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Liu, J.; Munson, A.; Gordon, Andrew M.; Ascough, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The eleven symposia organized for the 2009 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modelling (ISEM 2009) held in Quebec City, Canada, October 6–9, 2009, included facilitated discussion sessions following formal presentations. Each symposium focused on a specific subject, and all the subjects could be classified into three broad categories: theoretical development, population dynamics and ecosystem processes. Following discussions with the symposia organizers, which indicated that they all shared similar issues and concerns, the facilitated discussions were task-oriented around four basic questions: (1) key challenges in the research area, (2) generating and sharing new ideas, (3) improving collaboration and networking, and (4) increasing visibility to decision-makers, partners and clients. Common challenges that emerged from the symposia included the need for improved communication and collaboration among different academic disciplines, further progress in both theoretical and practical modelling approaches, and accentuation of technology transfer. Regarding the generation and sharing of new ideas, the main issue that emerged was the type of positive interactions that should be encouraged among potential collaborators. The usefulness of the Internet, particularly for the sharing of open-source software and conducting discussion forums, was highlighted for improving collaboration and networking. Several communication tools are available today, and it is important for modellers to use them more intensively. Visibility can be increased by publishing professional newsletters, maintaining informal contacts with the public, organizing educational sessions in primary and secondary schools, and developing simplified analytical frameworks and pilot studies. Specific issues raised in each symposium are also discussed.

  14. Determination of particle size and content of metals in the atmosphere of ZMCM (Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape U, F.; Flores M, J.; Diaz, R.V.; Garcia G, R.

    1994-01-01

    Inside the breathable fraction of the atmosphere of Mexico City, the presence of metals in suspended particles, is determined and quantified. The detection was carry out simultaneously in three places of the city, using collectors of the type stacking filter unit (SFU) which allow the separation of particles according to its size. The SFU detectors allow the separation in two size: 'Gross' mass from 2.5 to 1.5 μm and 'fine' mass for particles smallest than 2.5 μm. The analysis of the samples was fulfilled by means of PIXE method. Samples were irradiated with a proton beam, and based in the X-ray spectra the elements were identified and quantified, which allow to establish the temporal behavior of the concentrations per element for gross mass and fine mass in each one of the places of sampling. (Author)

  15. Studying the urban thermal environment under a human-biometeorological point of view: The case of a large coastal metropolitan city, Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Georgiou, Giorgos K.; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment in modern cities has become potentially unfavorable and harmful for its residents, as a result of urbanization and industrialization. Exposure to these extreme thermal conditions increases the heat stress of people in cities considerably. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the urban thermal environment of the large coastal metropolitan city of Athens, in a human-biometeorologically significant way, utilizing the thermo-physiological assessment index PET. The analysis was based on three hour measurements derived from three-year datasets (2006-2009), at 12 monitoring sites located in the urban complex of Athens, on its boundaries and beyond them. The differences of PET values have been investigated in order to attribute urban and exurban thermal characteristics to the considered sites. The frequency and spatial distribution of PET as well as the urban/rural differences of PET have also been analyzed. Finally, a trend analysis has been applied in order to detect possible PET trends by employing long-term recording data (1985-2008). In terms of thermal human-biometeorological conditions, the analysis reveals that among the considered stations, those located inside the urban complex and the industrialized area present urban thermal characteristics, regardless the fact that they are installed either in a park and on a hill or at an open field. The spatial distribution of PET, at 0200 LST, shows a difference of about 3 to 4 °C, on the main axis of the city (SSW-NNE) in the summer period, while the difference exceeds 2.5 °C in the winter period. In general, cooler (less warm) thermal perception is observed at the north/northeast sites of the city as well as at the areas beyond the eastern boundaries of it. The PET differences between urban and rural sites hold a positive sign, except of those at 0500 LST and at 0800 LST. The highest differences are noted at 1400 LST and the most intense of them is noticed in the summer period

  16. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  17. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  18. Application of nuclear techniques for the assessment of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte City, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucas, Janaina Goncalves

    2009-01-01

    Toxic metals, such as Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and metalloids as As and Se and their compounds are mainly associated with the smaller diameter particulates present in the atmospheric aerosols. This fact is important, principally, when it concerns public health, because this is considered the breathable fraction of particles that can penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause damage to the alveoli. Once in the atmosphere the concentrations of trace metals, in general, show very low levels, thus the determination of the elementary composition of those particles requires the use of appropriate analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Rays Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), among others. The main objective of this study was the identification of the generating sources of gross (PM 10 ) and fine (PM 2.5 ) particles present in the atmospheric aerosols of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Neutron Activation Analyses by k 0 -method (k0NAA) combined with energy dispersed by X-ray fluorescence was used to measurement of the concentration of trace elements present in each sample. High levels of particulate concentrations, especially PM 2.5 , were measured during the sampling period. In general, the air quality varied from Reasonable to Inadequate. The receptor model used to assist in the identification of the main emission sources was the Principal Components Analysis. The results showed that the main elements presents in particulate inhalable matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, W and Zn. The results for multi-variable analyses shown clearly four pollutant sources, these being: vehicular emissions; resuspended soil/asphalt powder; secondary aerosols associated with emission of SO 2 and industrial emissions associated with fossil oil burning. (author)

  19. Reconceptualization Sexuality and Rethinking Homophobia in Metropolitan Campus Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Caglar

    2017-01-01

    The Metropolitan city gives non-metropolitan students an opportunity to meet new social groups. In this article, the perceptions of sexuality of those students who come from provincial areas to a metropolitan city for university education are examined within a framework of semi-structured interviews. The study on which this article is based used a…

  20. Analyzing on-Street Parking Duration and Demand in a Metropolitan City of a Developing Country: A Case Study of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ajeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available On-street parking is an urgent issue to address in a fast-growing city of a developing country, such as Yogyakarta City in Indonesia. However, this issue has not been satisfactorily studied due to a lack of relevant parking data. Using a sample of 21 street segments that are currently used for on-street parking in the central district of the city, this study analyzes how the parking duration and demand are differentiated by street and land use characteristics. The characteristics are evaluated through a field survey, which is supplemented by remote sensing and GIS. Specifically, QuickBird imagery is used to roughly examine the length and angle of the street segments and GIS data to calculate parking capacity and demand as well as to confirm the street length and angle. Regression models find that the parking duration is affected by the street length, parking volume, and commercial type of land use, while the street length also differentiates the parking demand. Although the model for the parking demand has only one significant variable—street length—its variation is better accounted for by the same set of variables than the variation in the parking duration. Regarding the street length, it is found to be the only significant variable in the demand model, but it becomes the weakest among those significant in the duration model, where the land use type has the highest magnitude.

  1. Public Transit Equity Analysis at Metropolitan and Local Scales: A Focus on Nine Large Cities in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Greg Phillip; Sener, Ipek Nese

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on transit service through an equity lens have captured broad trends from the literature and national-level data or analyzed disaggregate data at the local level. This study integrates these methods by employing a geostatistical analysis of new transit access and income data compilations from the Environmental Protection Agency. By using a national data set, this study demonstrates a method for income-based transit equity analysis and provides results spanning nine large auto-oriented cities in the US. Results demonstrate variability among cities' transit services to low-income populations, with differing results when viewed at the regional and local levels. Regional-level analysis of transit service hides significant variation through spatial averaging, whereas the new data employed in this study demonstrates a block-group scale equity analysis that can be used on a national-scale data set. The methods used can be adapted for evaluation of transit and other modes' transportation service in areas to evaluate equity at the regional level and at the neighborhood scale while controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Transit service equity planning can be enhanced by employing local Moran's I to improve local analysis.

  2. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  3. Recognition of the importance of geogenic sources in the content of metals in PM2.5 collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Garza-Galindo, Rodrigo; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Garcia-Arreola, Maria Elena; Ordoñez-Godínez, Sara L; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; Santos-Medina, Graciela L; Miranda, Javier; Rosas-Pérez, Irma

    2018-01-17

    The study of airborne metals in urban areas is relevant due to their toxic effects on human health and organisms. In this study, we analyzed metals including rare earth elements (REE) in particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), collected at five sites around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), during three periods in 2011: April (dry-warm season, DW), August (rainy season, R), and November (dry-cold season, DC). Principal component analysis allowed identifying factors related to geogenic sources and factors related to anthropogenic sources. The recognition of the high impact of geogenic sources in PM 2.5 is in agreement with the REE distribution patterns, which show similar behavior as those shown by igneous rocks, confirming the influence of the regional geogenic material. Metals associated to geogenic sources showed higher concentration (p  0.05) and no similar seasonal pattern among them. These unexpected results exposed outstanding information regarding the identification of different geogenic sources as the main contributors of metals in the atmospheric environment in the MCMA and highlighted the importance of meteorology in the spatial and seasonal metal patterns.

  4. The impact of the use of intraoperative radiotherapy on costs, travel time and distance for women with breast cancer in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargallo-Rocha, Juan Enrique; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Picó-Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Quintero-Rodríguez, Carlos Eduardo; Almog, David; Santiago-Concha, Gabriel; Flores-Balcazar, Christian Haydee; Corona, Jaime; Vazquez-Romo, Rafael; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Mohar, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    The low availability and poor access to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in developing countries makes it hard for women with breast cancer to receive breast conservation. We studied the effect of providing intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) on the travel time, distance, and costs of in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Sixty-nine patients treated between January 2013 and September 2014 were analyzed. Travel distance and transit time was calculated using Google Maps. The time and distance patients living in the MCMA treated with IORT would have spent if they had received EBRT was calculated. Cost analysis for each modality was performed. 71% (n = 49) lived in the MCMA. Sixteen (33%) received additional EBRT and 33 (66%) received IORT only. Mean driving distance and transit time of those 33 women was 132.6 km (SD 25.7) and 66 min (SD 32.9). Patients from the MCMA receiving IORT alone avoided 990 visits, 43 700 km and 65 400 min in transit. IORT led to a 12% reduction in costs per patient. By reducing costs and time needed for patients to receive radiotherapy, IORT could potentially enhance access to breast conservation in resource-limited developing countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Revitalización de subcentros metropolitanos. Buenos Aires entre la ciudad dispersa y la ciudad compacta / Revitalization of metropolitan subcentres. Buenos Aires between the dispersed city and the compact city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccolella, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las grandes ciudades latinoamericanas se debaten actualmente entre dos procesos de transformación socio-territorial convergentes: la densificación y verticalización de las áreas centrales, y la expansión cada vez más difusa y fragmentada de los suburbios. Esta dicotomía entre ciudad compacta y ciudad dispersa parece mostrar procesos singulares en el caso de la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires. A partir de los años dos mil, se han ralentizado los nuevos lanzamientos de urbanizaciones cerradas y, paralelamente, han comenzado a manifestarse algunos casos de revitalización de antiguas subcentralidades del sur de la metrópolis, que habían entrado en una fase de estancamiento y deterioro desde mediados de los años setenta, y actualmente experimentan una aceleración de la producción de vivienda multifamiliar de calidad. Este trabajo explora y muestra algunas experiencias concretas de esta tendencia, con la hipótesis que, al menos en Buenos Aires, los procesos de transformación y reestructuración metrolitana muestran complejidades y diversidades según los contextos temporales y territoriales que se analicen. The large Latin American cities are currently experiencing two convergent socio-territoria transformation processes: the densification and verticalization of central areas, and the increasingly diffuse and fragmented suburban expansion. This dichotomy between the compact city and the dispersed city seems to show unique features in the case of the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires. After the 2000s, the expansion of gated communities has slowed down and at the same time some old subcentralities in the South of the metropolis have begun to revitalize. Since the mid-1970s, they had entered a phase of stagnation and deterioration, and at present the production of quality multifamily housing is rapidly growing. This paper reflects on this trend and show some concrete experiences. Our hypothesis is that in Buenos Aires the process

  6. Quebec's electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)

  7. Energy in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The first part of the report is devoted to the energy sector in Quebec overall. Facts and statistical information are included on measuring the total evolution and demand for energy and its division by sector consumption as well as each form of energy in the Quebec market. Also included is a comparison of the balance sheet of energy in Quebec and that of other provinces of Canada and certain countries of the OECD, the evolution of the costs of energy, and an evaluation of the economic repercussions of the energy sector. A particular effort is made in order to prepare a numerical balance sheet of investments in the energy sector of the contribution of energy companies to the economy of Quebec as well as the energy intensity gains. There is also in a section devoted to the consumption of energy, and in particular, two indicators are related to the environmental effects of the consumption of energy including: the amounts of carbon dioxide produced and volatile organic compounds emitted to the atmosphere by the use of combustibles and motor fuels. The data presented in the first part of the report concerns only conventional energy sources such as electricity, gas, and petroleum. The second part of the report bears on the different energy sectors organized according to the form of energy concerned such as electrcity, petroleum, natural gas and non-conventional energy sources, with the intention of affording as complete a view as possible by presenting a tableau of all the recovery activities from their production to their consumption. Included therein are actual statistical evaluations available concerning non-conventional energy

  8. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new modelling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach: both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. This new framework with the use of the new volatility basis parameters for low-NOx and high-NOx conditions tends to predict 4–6 times higher anthropogenic SOA concentrations than those predicted with the older generation of models. The resulting PMCAMx-2008 was applied in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA for approximately a week during April 2003 during a period of very low regional biomass burning impact. The emission inventory, which uses as a starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory, is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The predicted organic aerosol (OA concentrations peak in the center of Mexico City, reaching values above 40 μg m−3. The model predictions are compared with the results of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations. The model reproduces both Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA concentrations and diurnal profiles. The small OA underprediction during the rush-hour periods and overprediction in the afternoon suggest potential improvements to the description of fresh primary organic emissions and the formation of the oxygenated organic aerosols, respectively, although they may also be due to errors in the simulation of dispersion and vertical mixing. However, the AMS OOA data are not specific enough to prove that the model reproduces the organic aerosol

  9. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors among the urban elderly population in Hyderabad metropolitan city, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayana, Palla; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Sai Santhosh, Vadakattu; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Lakshmi Rajkumar, Pondey; Prasad, Undrajavarapu; Raju, Banavath Bhoja; Shivakeseva, Kommula; Divya Shoshanni, Kondru; Seshacharyulu, Madabushi; Geddam, Jagjeevan Babu; Prasanthi, Prabhakaran Sobhana; Ananthan, Rajendran

    2018-03-01

    Deficiency of vitamin D has been associated with various health conditions. However, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and factors associated with VDD are not well studied, especially among the urban elderly population of India. To assess the prevalence of VDD and its associated factors among the urban free-living elderly population in Hyderabad. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 298 urban elderly (≥60 years) by adapting a random sampling procedure. Demographic particulars were collected. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded using standard equipment. Fasting glucose, lipid profile and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D] were estimated in plasma samples. The mean ± SE plasma vitamin D and the prevalence of VDD among the urban elderly population were 19.3 ± 0.54 (ng/ml) and 56.3%, respectively. The prevalence of VDD was significantly associated with education, high body mass index (BMI), hypertension (HT) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed HT as a significant predictor of vitamin D deficiency and the risk of VDD was double among the elderly with hypertension. The prevalence of VDD was high among the urban elderly population in the south Indian city of Hyderabad. High BMI, MS, HT and education are significant associated factors of VDD.

  10. Target-aimed versus wishful-thinking in designing efficient GHG reduction strategies for a metropolitan city: Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-M.; Liou, M.-L.; Yeh, S.-C.; Shang, N.-C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many national and local governments claim for a specific GHG (greenhouse gas) reduction goal targeted for many years later. In 2005, the Taipei City government announced that Taipei's total GHG emission in 2015 will reach the same level as that in 2005 and then down to 75% of that level at year 2030. However, based on the estimated energy consumption and GHG emission and the proposed emission reduction plans from the local government, it is clear that these goals are not going to be accomplished. In Taipei, the residential and commercial sector contributes more than 78% of the total GHG emission. Thus, in a business as usual scenario, the total GHG emission in 2030 would be 79% more than that in 2005, far more than the target value proclaimed. As many key factors are uncontrollable by the local government, a target-aimed strategy designing process by looking into changes in Taipei and identifying major targets is proposed in this study. It is demonstrated that such a universally applicable approach will give more confidence to the public on working toward the expected GHG reduction goal

  11. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  12. Family and Work Influences on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Among Bisexual Latino Men in the New York City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Ripkin, Alexandra; Garcia, Jonathan; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-12-01

    The empirical exploration of mental health problems among bisexual Latino men is scarce. Bisexual men experience stress because of their non-conforming sexuality from multiple-sources. In this study we focus on the family and work environments. We conducted a mixed-methods study to examine the impacts of these social environments among behavioral bisexual Latino men in New York City (N = 142). Using the Brief Symptom Inventory we measured stress, depression, and anxiety, and used specific scales to measure familial and work social environmental stress factors. We also measured four cultural factors to assess their potential influence on our hypothesized stressors. To test our hypothesis we used linear regression with stress, depression and anxiety as the primary outcome variables. Our results indicated that bisexual Latino men experienced negative mental health outcomes due to pressures in their familial and work environments. Stress was the strongest predictor of anxiety and depression among the men in the study. After taking stress into account, familial factors were stronger predictors of negative mental health outcomes than work factors. Cultural factors such as acculturation and length of living in the United States were not associated with negative mental health outcomes in our sample. Our findings suggest the importance of addressing stress, anxiety and depression among behaviorally bisexual men, and suggest that addressing family-based stressors is critical for this population. This research should inform future studies addressing this underserved population and provide mental health providers with a foundation for working with bisexual Latino men.

  13. Hydro-Quebec is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The pros and cons of the potential privatisation of Hydro-Quebec were discussed. A brief review of charges of less than competent management, low profitability and the corporation's recent administrative restructuring was presented. The general thrust of the argument was that Hydro-Quebec plays a crucial role in the economic development of Quebec, it can be made to be more profitable and that for the good of Quebec it should continue as a public corporation under the control of the provincial government

  14. Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

  15. Indicators of environmental contamination by heavy metals in leaves of Taraxacum officinale in two zones of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Barba-García, Arisbel; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; de la Mora, Michel Grutter; García-Martínez, Rocío

    2018-02-01

    The present study was designed to detect the effect of heavy metals in two zones of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), the Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera (CCA), and the Altzomoni station in the Iztaccíhuatl-Popocatépetl National Park. Taraxacum officinale was selected as the indicator organism of responses to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals. Determinations of heavy metals were performed, and total mRNA was extracted to quantify the expression of microRNA398 (miR398), superoxide dismutase 2 (CSD2), and the amounts of free radicals using the bromide of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-ilo)-2,5-diphenyltetrazole (MTT) salts reduction assay. Results from the Altzomoni station showed high concentrations of five heavy metals, especially Aluminum, while three heavy metals were identified in the CCA-UNAM zone, most importantly, Vanadium, both in the dry season; miR398 expression presented subtle changes but was greater in the leaves from the stations with higher concentrations of heavy metals. Observations included a significant expression of CSD2, mainly in the dry season in both study zones, where levels were significant with respect to controls (p < 0.05). Reduced MTT was also higher in the dry season than in the rainy season (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the increase in heavy metals on the leaves of Taraxacum officinale induces increased expression of the CSD2 gene and reduced MTT; thus, they can be used as indicators for biomonitoring heavy metal concentrations.

  16. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G. [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  17. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  18. [The capitalist development of regions and labor force mobility in Quebec, from 1966 to 1976].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, A

    1987-04-01

    "In this paper the author presents a study of the spatial mobility of the Quebec population between 1966 and 1976, in the light of regional capitalist development. Based on an empirical operationalization of the concepts of mobility and development, the author demonstrates that Quebec presents a very irregular distribution of its poles of development over its territory, and that the mobility of the work force is in the image of this distribution. A few regions within the Montreal metropolitan area have attained a relatively evolved state of capitalist development and consequently are able to attract within their limits a large majority of migrants moving inside of or toward Quebec. In contrast, it can be observed that the majority of the regions in Quebec may be qualified as 'underdeveloped', and that their net mobility figures are negative." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  19. Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mugica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out from 2003 to 2004 with the aim to develop the PM2.5 emission source profiles from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles, as well as emission source profiles from waste incineration, wood burning, LP gas combustion, and meat broiling. Over 25 chemical species were quantified from the fine particles emitted by the different combustion sources investigated, including organic and elemental carbon, ions, and elements. The OC/TC ratio found in the different PM2.5 profiles was dissimilar as well as the sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, soil species, and trace element content. Consequently, these combustion emission profiles could be used in source reconciliation studies for fine particles.

  20. Doyon report clears Quebec NUGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D; Salaff, S

    1997-06-01

    In mid-1995 the Parti Quebecois, then in opposition, claimed evidence of influence peddling, international drug money laundering, kickbacks and fraud in Quebec`s independent power program. It also claimed evidence of irregularities at Hydro-Quebec in its procedures for approving hydropower projects. The Liberal Quebec government of the day ordered a public inquiry, led by Quebec superior court judge Francois Doyon. He submitted the Commission`s final report in April 1997. The report exonerated Hydro-Quebec and the province`s independent power industry of any criminal wrong doing regarding their respect for legal and regulatory directives and the `ethical norms and practices` of sound business management. In its 600-plus page report, the Doyon Commission found that while there was a certain lack of administrative rigor which allowed certain Hydro-Quebec executives to put themselves in questionable conflict-of-interest situations, their actions were not illegal. The current Parti Quebecois Government accepted the report and its recommendation concerning tightening conflict-of-interest guidelines. The current Liberal opposition in the National Assembly charged that the conclusions of the Commission were a foregone conclusion since the demand for the inquiry was politically motivated right from the beginning.

  1. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part II. whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Dias, J.R.; Murowchick, J.B.; Welker, G.; Huggins, D.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  2. Hydro-Quebec looks south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, P.

    1997-01-01

    The recent introduction of Hydro-Quebec, the Canadian utility, into selling cheap electric power in the United States (US) deregulated power market is described, following applications to the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. As its prices are so much cheaper than its US competitors, it is expected that the company will soon have many willing customers across the USA. Hydro-Quebec will remain a publicly owned utility, but has experienced restructuring in order to meet this new competitive challenge. (UK)

  3. non-metropolitan stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Capitals gather constellations of bright and creative people, attracting them from the peripheries. Tchekhov’s sisters were anxious to get to Moscow, d’Artagnan – to Paris. Evtushenko, Shukshin and Gaidai ascended to the climax of their glory, having moved to the capital. Vampilov, Rasputin and Astafiev became internationally famous without leaving their home grounds, but having joined in the metropolitan whirl. In this regard, the architectural profession differs greatly from the literary and cinematographic ones. The destinies of the masters who fulfilled themselves far from the capital are different but equally bright and unique. The Irkutsk “Varangians”of the sixtieth – Voronezhsky, Bukh and Pavlov – built up their relations with geography in a different way:someone came from the capitals just for a few years that became the brightest, the most fruitful and the most interesting years of his creative life. But someone stayed in the non-metropolitan city for a long time and even forever. This subsection contains certain examples of self-fulfillment in the cities distant from the capitals: Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kemerovo and Anzhero-Sudzhensk.

  4. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol

  5. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  6. New Quebec renewable energy organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1998-04-01

    The recent formation of the Quebec Association for the Production of Renewable Energy (l`Association quebecoise de la production d`energie renouvelable - AQPER) was announced. The Association is becoming the centre of the Quebec private electricity generation industry. By communicating the industry`s message to the public the organization gives much needed visibility to renewable resources, new forms of energy and sustainable development. The new group is an outgrowth of the former Quebec Association of Private Hydroelectricity Producers. In its new reincarnation, the organization represents all forms of renewables, small and medium hydro, wind, solar, forest and agricultural biomass and urban waste. With deregulation of the electricity market, specifically the creation of the Regie de l`energie` in Quebec, the wider role is a welcome boost for renewable energy development in the province. In one of its first actions the AQPER recommended that all hydroelectric sites up to 50 MW be reserved for development exclusively by the private sector, in conformity with the Quebec energy policy announced in 1996.

  7. Engaging with sustainability issues in metropolitan Chennai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, L.; Varrel, A.; Denis, E.; Dupont, V.; Dhanalakshmi, R.; Roumeau, S.; Baud, I.; Pfeffer, K.; Sridharan, N.; Vijayabaskar, M.; Suresh Babu, M.; Seifelislam, A.; Rouanet, H.; Saharan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chennai is the largest metropolitan city in South India (8.7 million in 2011) and the provincial capital of the large state of Tamil Nadu (population 72 million in 2011). Before that, under British rule, the city was the capital of the Madras Presidency, and was known as Madras until 1996, when the

  8. The gas sector in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, G.

    2000-05-01

    Natural gas in Canada represents 29% of the primary energy and 42% of the energy used in the industrial sector. The biggest users are the manufacturing industries for which the low cost of natural gas and the quality of products resulting from its use represent a serious advantage in a more and more competitive market. This document takes stock of the situation of natural gas and gas-related technologies in Quebec. The first part recalls the historical evolution of the gas distribution network in Quebec and its present day situation. Then, some technical-economical data about the consumption of natural gas in Quebec are presented according to the sectors of use. The third part treats of the R and D activities linked with the gas sector, in particular the activities of the two main research organizations: the technical centre of natural gas and the research group in gas technologies of the Polytechnique school of Montreal. (J.S.)

  9. Hydro-Quebec's environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Hydro-Quebec established a new environmental policy on August 1, 1996. A summary of the policy was presented. According to this policy statement the utility undertakes to recognize the environmental implications of its activities and assumes responsibilities for these implications by integrating them into its corporate decision-making processes. The following general principles and means of implementation have been highlighted: (1) sustainable development, (2) strict, responsible environmental management, (3) environmental research, (4) enhancement of activities and facilities, (5) information, consultation and dialogue, and (6) environmental responsibility of Hydro-Quebec personnel, subsidiaries and business partners

  10. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  11. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  12. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences related to the

  13. Town and Citadel of Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Vallée Louis-Prudent, 1837-1905, photographer

    2003-01-01

    230 x 176 mm. A view looking across the St. Lawrence towards the town and Citadel of Quebec, with shipping at anchor in the river. A photograph taken from the Grand Trunk Railway Depot, Point Lewis, probably in 1870. In the foreground railway lines run down to wharves beside the terminal.

  14. Premises for Shaping Metropolitan Areas in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAULARIAN RUSU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting up of metropolitan areas is a process which is still in progress in Romania. The legislative framework for the creation of these areas has been built up only since 2001, and there are still a number of juridical inconsistencies concerning the association of administrative units to form metropolitan areas. On the other hand, political reasons and the fear of losing a certain degree of authority and to become subordinates of the large cities (in the case of rural municipalities also hindered the development of metropolitan areas in Romania. Nevertheless, the metropolitan areas already in existence are running a number of projects that are beneficial for most members of the association. Such positive examples may trigger the creation of the other metropolitan areas. Although the existing metropolitan areas did not yield spectacular results, the time passed since their foundation is yet too short to correctly assess their usefulness and territorial meaning. For the moment, the following metropolitan areas exist in Romania: Iaşi, Oradea, Braşov, Constanţa, Bacău, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş and Craiova. Bucharest, Timişoara, Ploieşti and Galaţi-Brăila metropolitan areas are still in process of setting up.

  15. The decline of official language minorities in Quebec and English Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1982-01-01

    "This paper considers the evolution of French outside of Quebec and the English in Quebec.... The total historical set of national data on ethnicity, mother tongue, knowledge of official languages and home language [is first presented]. The 120 year stability showing French at around 30 percent of the national total is a function of compensating factors including high French fertility and high English immigration. During the 1960s both of these demographic supports disappeared and thus mobility across linguistic lines has become a particularly sensitive issue. "The picture with regard to French outside of Quebec has changed rather radically in the last thirty-five years. For instance, there was one French child to every nine in 1941 and one to every twenty-one children in 1976. While the English of Quebec were once represented in various parts of the province, their strength is now largely limited to the Montreal metropolitan area which includes 76 percent of the English mother tongue group. Outside of Montreal, the English amounted to 7.9 percent of Quebec's population in 1941 and 5.6 percent in 1976. The paper concludes with a discussion of the social factors that underlie these trends and their relevance to the models of institutional and territorial bilingualism." (summary in FRE) excerpt

  16. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  17. Household food wastage by income level: A case study of five areas in the city of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is generated throughout the supply chain including at household level. Household waste contains a fairly large percentage of food in developing countries. This study assesses household food wastage in five selected areas in the City...

  18. Refining capacity in Quebec : the Quebec market, industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudelle, F.

    2004-01-01

    Canada's second largest oil refinery is operated by Ultramar Ltd. in Levis, Quebec. The refinery, which supplies 45 per cent of all Quebec's petroleum, distributes its products to Quebec, Ontario and the Maritime provinces. The refinery currently produces 215,000 barrels per day. Ultramar is a division of Valero, an American firm which has a total refining capacity of 2.4 million barrels per day. A summary of the company's petroleum energy distribution, consumption, and reserves was presented and compared with the national and global position. It was noted that world demand for petroleum products increases yearly by 1 to 1.5 per cent while the demand for automobile fuel in North America increases by 2.5 to 3.5 per cent. In the last 10 years, world demand has increased by more than 22 per cent but refining capacity has only increased by 12 per cent. The average profitability of the refining industry from 1992 to 2002 was approximately 5.5 per cent, which limited investments in new refinery installations. Much of the industry's profits have been utilized to modify installations in order to reduce the sulphur content in gasoline and diesel fuels. Furthermore, the obtention of permits to construct new refining installations has become a major obstacle and the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may signify a 30 per cent reduction in automotive fuel demand. Given this, there is currently some hesitation and uncertainty by the refining industry to proceed with new major installations. tabs., figs

  19. ISHO Real Estate Regenerating Timişoara. The non-metropolitan city of Timişoara elected as European Capital of Culture for 2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad A. Gaivoronschi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Timisoara is a major city situated in western Romania. In 2021, it will be European Capital of Culture. The city evolved around a fortified citadel surrounded by satellite settlements. After the demolition of the fortification (the XIXth century a consistent urban tissue developed between the core and satellites. During the years, our office produced projects situated in these intermediate areas, developing an ”urban landscape” perspective, managing to attribute to the interventions a connecting role between the existing landmarks and poles; an important role was given to the ”modelling” of the volumes in order  to open vistas and visual cones, as well as to the choice of forms and textures in order to ”stitch” the existing fabric and to offer a new reading of the city. We have selected one project in order to illustrate the methodology: the ”ISHO” Real Estate development.

  20. Architecture at Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Architecture at Hydro-Quebec is concerned not only with combining function and aesthetics in designing buildings and other structures for an electrical utility, but also to satisfy technical and administrative needs and to help solve contemporary problems such as the rational use of energy. Examples are presented of Hydro-Quebec's architectural accomplishments in the design of hydroelectric power stations and their surrounding landscapes, thermal power stations, transmission substations, research and testing facilities, and administrative buildings. It is shown how some buildings are designed to adapt to local environments and to conserve energy. The utility's policy of conserving installations of historic value, such as certain pre-1930 power stations, is illustrated, and aspects of its general architectural policy are outlined. 20 figs.

  1. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  2. Contemporary disease management in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogovor, Amédé; Savoie, Michelle; Moride, Yola; Krelenbaum, Marilyn; Montague, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Health or disease management (DM) has emerged as a promising solution to improve the quality of healthcare and patient outcomes in a cost-efficient way. This solution is particularly relevant in the care of our increasing, and aging, patient populations with multiple chronic diseases. This article reviews the recent history and current status of DM in the province of Quebec and summarizes its evolving perspectives and future prospects. Most DM projects in Quebec have developed from a public-private partnership, and they have addressed several disease states. The results of completed programs confirmed the presence of care gaps--the differences between best and usual care in several disease states. They also identified process changes leading to improved practices and enhanced professional satisfaction among stakeholders. Priorities identified for further research include increased knowledge of the underlying causes of care gaps and greater concentration on the measurement of clinical, humanistic and fiscal outcomes and their causal links to DM structures and processes. Although still embryonic in Quebec and Canada, the available evidence suggests that DM partnerships are practical and functional vehicles to expedite knowledge creation and transfer in the care of whole populations of patients. Future projects offer the promise of updated knowledge and continuously improved care and outcomes.

  3. Quebec mental health services networks: models and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Fleury

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the transformation of health care systems, the introduction of integrated service networks is considered to be one of the main solutions for enhancing efficiency. In the last few years, a wealth of literature has emerged on the topic of services integration. However, the question of how integrated service networks should be modelled to suit different implementation contexts has barely been touched. To fill that gap, this article presents four models for the organization of mental health integrated networks. Data sources: The proposed models are drawn from three recently published studies on mental health integrated services in the province of Quebec (Canada with the author as principal investigator. Description: Following an explanation of the concept of integrated service network and a description of the Quebec context for mental health networks, the models, applicable in all settings: rural, urban or semi-urban, and metropolitan, and summarized in four figures, are presented. Discussion and conclusion: To apply the models successfully, the necessity of rallying all the actors of a system, from the strategic, tactical and operational levels, according to the type of integration involved: functional/administrative, clinical and physician-system is highlighted. The importance of formalizing activities among organizations and actors in a network and reinforcing the governing mechanisms at the local level is also underlined. Finally, a number of integration strategies and key conditions of success to operationalize integrated service networks are suggested.

  4. Changing Housing Patterns in Metropolitan Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, George; Grier, Eunice

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes extensive studies of changing minority residential patterns in metropolitan Washington and less extensive studies of other groups; the prospects for future desegregation and for using the growing economic potential of minority families…

  5. The Quebec National Library on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Shirley; Sauve, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Quebec National Library (Bibliotheque Nationale du Quebec, or BNQ) Web site. Highlights include issues related to content, design, and technology; IRIS, the BNQ online public access catalog; development of the multimedia catalog; software; digitization of documents; links to bibliographic records; and future…

  6. The severity of dental caries in adults aged 35 to 44 years residing in the metropolitan area of a large city in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Vasconcelos, Mara; Haddad, João Paulo A; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2012-07-31

    In recent decades, studies in the field of public health have increasingly focused on social determinants that affect the health-illness process. The epidemiological perspective considers oral health to be a reflection of socioeconomic and environmental aspects, and it is particularly influenced by the social context. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the severity of dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years and characteristics on the different levels at which the determinants of caries operate (individual, social structure and social context). A home-based, cross-sectional field study was carried out involving a sample of 1,150 adults (35 to 44 years of age) residing in metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The DMFT (decayed, missing, filled tooth) index (≥14) was used to determine the severity of dental caries. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Poisson regression model with the level of significance set at 5% (p caries severity. The rate of high-severity caries in the group between 40 and 44 years of age was 1.15-fold (CI: 1.04-1.26) greater than that among those aged 35 to 39 years. A greater prevalence of high caries severity was found among those who frequently visited the dentist (PR = 1.18; CI: 1.07-1.30), those with a lower income (PR = 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23), those who reported that their neighborhood did not come together in the previous year to petition political leaders for benefits (PR = 1.16; CI: 1.05-1.28) and those who are unable to make decisions (without empowerment) (PR = 1.12; CI: 1.01-1.24). The present study revealed high dental caries severity in adults, which was associated with individual characteristics, health-related behavior and social structure and contextual variables. These findings underscore the importance of considering social determinants involved in the health-illness process when carrying out epidemiological studies on dental caries.

  7. How would the privatization of Hydro-Quebec make Quebecers richer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.

    2009-02-01

    In 1962, a total of 46 companies shared Quebec's electricity production, involving no less than 9,710 megawatts of power. The 4 companies that controlled 85 per cent of this power were Hydro-Quebec, Aluminum Company of Canada (Alcan), Shawinigan Water and Power Company and the Gatineau Power Company. At the time, electricity rates also varied considerably throughout Quebec, being extremely high in regions far from Montreal, which hindered potential industrial development in those areas. This report discussed the privatization of Hydro-Quebec and how it could make Quebecers richer. The report discussed the early days of electricity in Quebec and outlined the reasons that led Quebec to nationalize the production and distribution of electricity and to entrust its management to Hydro-Quebec. A summary of the developments undertaken to enable Hydro-Quebec to substantially boost its exports to the United States following liberalization of the American market toward the end of the twentieth century was also provided. A comparison group of companies in the United States involved in the production, transmission and distribution of electricity was also presented in order to analyze Hydro-Quebec's performance from various standpoints. Other topics that were addressed in the report included operational efficiency; use of capital; the experience of the United Kingdom; the rise in electricity rates; a strategy for privatization; the public offering; and protecting Quebec electricity consumers. The role of the Quebec government and of Hydro-Quebec were also examined. Electricity exports and electricity and aluminum smelters were also assessed. The report noted that Hydro-Quebec's annual profit would shrink from $2,882 million to $709 million if it had to pay the market price for the electricity it obtains from Churchill Falls. 23 tabs., 1 fig., 2 appendices

  8. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  9. Private cities of the 21st century. New strategies of the real estate in the metropolitan periphery of Buenos Aires / Ciudades privadas del siglo XXI. Nuevas estrategias del mercado inmobiliario en la periferia metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vidal-Koppmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of urbanism, the beginning of the twenty-first century in the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires has been characterized for the emergence of large-scale projects developed by private actors. Among them stand out private cities and commercial and services areas, called new centralities. Both urban designs are in close connection and require effective mobility conditions for its concretion. The intervention of private agents has impacted in the territorial transformations, creating a "parallel urban system" in the region, oriented towards attracting residents with a high socio-economic status. However, the traditional network of cities has not disappeared and, with the juxtaposition of this new system of private urbanism, it deepened the conditions of spatial fragmentation and social segregation. Desde la perspectiva del urbanismo, el comienzo del siglo XXI se caracteriza por la aparición en la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires, de proyectos de gran envergadura desarrollados por agentes privados. Entre ellos sobresalen las ciudades privadas y las áreas comerciales y de servicios, denominadas nuevas centralidades. Ambos diseños urbanos se mantienen en estrecha relación y requieren de eficaces condiciones de movilidad para su concreción y para su exitoso funcionamiento. La intervención de los agentes privados ha impactado en las transformaciones territoriales, creando un “sistema urbano paralelo” en la región, orientado a la captación de residentes con un alto nivel socio-económico. No obstante, la red de ciudades pre-existente no ha desaparecido y con la yuxtaposición de este nuevo sistema de urbanismo privado, se profundizan las condiciones de fragmentación espacial y de segregación social.

  10. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Association between high temperature and mortality in metropolitan areas of four cities in various climatic zones in China: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Cheng, Yibin; Cui, Guoquan; Peng, Chaoqiong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yulin; Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Jingyi; Li, Chengcheng; Wu, Zhen; Bi, Peng; Jin, Yinlong

    2014-08-07

    Numerous studies have reported on the associations between ambient temperatures and mortality. However, few multi-city studies have been conducted in developing countries including China. This study aimed to examine the association between high temperature and mortality outcomes in four cities with different climatic characteristics in China to identify the most vulnerable population, detect the threshold temperatures, and provide scientific evidence for public health policy implementations to respond to challenges from extreme heat. A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) with a Poisson distribution was used to analyze the impacts of the daily maximum temperature over the threshold on mortality after controlling for covariates including time trends, day of the week (DOW), humidity, daily temperature range, and outdoor air pollution. The temperature thresholds for all-cause mortality were 29°C, 35°C, 33°C and 34°C for Harbin, Nanjing, Shenzhen and Chongqing, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders including air pollution, strong associations between daily maximum temperature and daily mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic outcomes, and particularly diabetes, were observed in different geographical cities, with increases of 3.2-5.5%, 4.6-7.5% and 12.5-31.9% (with 14.7-29.2% in diabetes), respectively, with each 1°C increment in the daily maximum temperature over the threshold. A stronger temperature-associated mortality was detected in females compared to males. Additionally, both the population over 55 years and younger adults aged 30 to 54 years reported significant heat-mortality associations. Extreme heat is becoming a huge threat to public health and human welfare due to the strong temperature-mortality associations in China. Climate change with increasing temperatures may make the situation worse. Relevant public health strategies and an early extreme weather and health warning system should be

  12. Hydro-Quebec's buyback tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec had an installed electric generation capacity of 25,682 MW in 1990, of which 23,927 MW was hydraulic. Of the 26 thermal power plants, 22 are in remote communities on islands or in the north part of the province. The utility's development plan predicts an annual growth in demand of 2.6% to reach ca 200 TWh in 2006; this demand would be reduced to ca 180 TWh by energy efficiency measures. To increase capacity, Hydro-Quebec can utilize the hydro generation potential of its large rivers, of which 18,000 MW is economically viable, and its small rivers. Of the 10,000 MW theoretical potential of the latter, a large fraction cannot be economically developed under existing conditions. The utility has a policy to purchase energy as a function of the price of fossil fuel. For wind energy, this price was 4.22 cents/kWh in 1991; this price will be increased annually according to the inflation index. In its isolated sites such as the Magdalen Islands, current costs of diesel-generated electricity are at least 5.5 cents/kWh. There are possibilities for installing wind plants in isolated regions but their automatic control systems need to be improved for achieving a larger utilization factor relative to diesel generation and their cost needs to be reduced. 1 tab

  13. Photovoltaic energy potential of Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.; Thomas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from a study concerning the potential of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Quebec to the year 2010. The different PV applications which are or will be economically viable in Quebec for the study period are identified and evaluated in comparison with the conventional energy sources used for these applications. Two penetration scenarios are proposed. One considers little change at the level of policies established for commercialization of PV sources, and the other considers certain measures which accelerate the implementation of PV technology in certain niches. While the off-grid market is already motivated to adopt PV technology for economic reasons, it is forecast that all encouragement from lowering costs would accelerate PV sales, offering a larger purchasing power to all interested parties. Above all, lowered PV costs would open up the network market. Photovoltaics would have access to a much larger market, which will accelerate changes in the very nature of the industry and bring with it new reductions in the costs of producing PV systems. 5 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  14. Report on fine particulates and ozone in Quebec in connection with the Canada Wide Standard : 2009 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busque, D.; Bisson, M.; Paradis, J.; Proulx, M.; Guay, M.

    2010-05-01

    In June 2000, the federal and provincial governments, with the exception of Quebec, adopted a Canada Wide Standard (CWS) for particulates and ozone and set out to reduce these pollutants by 2010. Although Quebec was not a signatory to the CWS, it acts in coherence with the other governments regarding these air quality standards. Ozone and particulates are the main precursors to smog and are known to cause health and environmental problems. Ozone forms when nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) chemically react, particularly during hot sunny days. The CWS is a strategy to reduce the risk of these pollutants to public health and the environment. In order to apply this standard, Quebec must verify conformity for regions with a population of more than 100,000, which includes 6 regions, notably Montreal, Quebec City, Gatineau, the Saguenay, Sherbrooke and Trois Rivieres. Results of a 2008 study showed that air quality in Gatineau and 3 subregions of Montreal exceeded the allow limit of 65 ppb for ozone. However, ozone concentrations in Quebec City, the Saguenay, Sherbrooke and Trois Rivieres were under the allowable limits. Results of the 2008 study showed that particulate concentration in all regions were blow the allowable limits. This document revealed that there has been an improvement in air quality in terms of ozone and particulates since 2005. Most regions in Quebec were under the allowable limits projected for 2010. 7 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs., 6 appendices.

  15. Association between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 and distance from heavy traffic roads in the Mexico City metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Chow, Judith; Watson, John; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    To study the relationship between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 at various distances from heavy traffic roads and diesel vehicle counts in Mexico City. PM2.5 samples were obtained from June 2003-June 2005 in three MCMA regions. Light absorption (b abs) in a subset of PM2.5 samples was determined. We evaluated the effect of distance and diesel vehicle counts to heavy traffic roads on PM2.5 b abs using generalized estimating equation models. Median PM2.5 b abs measurements significantly decrease as distance from heavy traffic roads increases (proads. Our model predicts that PM2.5 b abs measurements would increase by 20% (CI95% 3-38) as the hourly heavy diesel vehicle count increases by 150 per hour. PM2.5 b abs measurements are significantly associated with distance from motorways and traffic density and therefore can be used to assess human exposure to traffic-related emissions.

  16. Terrorist attacks in the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan: Profile of soft tissue and skeletal injuries from a single trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shahid; Waheed, Shahan; Ali, Arif; Mumtaz, Narjis; Feroze, Asher; Noordin, Shahryar

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan has been hugely struck with massive bomb explosions (car and suicide bombs) resulting in multiple casualties in the past few years. The aim of this study is to present the patterns of skeletal and soft tissue injuries and to review the outcome of the victims who presented to our hospital. This is a retrospective chart review from January 2008 to December 2012. The medical record numbers of patients were obtained from the hospital Health Information and Management Sciences (HIMS) as per the ICD-9 coding. During the study period, more than 100 suicide and implanted bomb blast attacks took place in the public proceedings, government offices, residential areas and other places of the city. Altogether 262 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the patients was 31±14 years. The shrapnel inflicted wounds were present on to the upper limb in 24 patients and the lower limb in 50. Long bone fractures were the most common skeletal injuries. The fractures were complicated by penetrating fragments and nails which result in post operative infections and prolonged hospital stay.

  17. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  18. Association between induced abortion and suicidal ideation among unmarried female migrant workers in three metropolitan cities in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mengyun; Jiang, Xueqin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zezhou; Shen, Qiuming; Li, Rui; Cai, Yong

    2018-05-15

    Despite reports of mental health issues, suicidality has not been closely examined among the migrant population. The association between induced abortion and suicidal ideation is unknown among unmarried female migrant workers of reproductive age in China. This study aims to examine induced abortion and suicidality among the Chinese migrant population. We recruited 5115 unmarried female migrant workers during 2015 to 2016 from Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou, and collected demographic, psychosocial, reproductive and mental health information using structured questionnaires. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between lifetime induced abortion and suicidal ideation during the past year among the subjects. Overall, 8.2% of the subjects had suicidal ideation during the past year, and 15.5% of the subjects experienced induced abortion. Induced abortion was associated with nearly twice the odds of having past-year suicidal ideation (Odds ratio, OR = 1.89; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.46, 2.44) after adjusting for age, education, years in the working place, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, daily internet use, attitude towards premarital pregnancy, multiple induced abortion, self-esteem, loneliness, depression, and anxiety disorders. The association was stronger in those aged > 25 (OR = 3.37, 95% CI = 2.16, 5.28), with > 5 years of stay in the working place (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 2.02, 4.39), the non-anxiety group (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.74, 3.00), and the non-depression group (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 2.08, 4.15). Induced abortion was associated with increased odds for suicidal ideation among the unmarried female migrant workers in urban cities in China. More attention should be paid to the mental health of the population.

  19. Associations of Sleep Duration and Disturbances With Hypertension in Metropolitan Cities of Delhi, Chennai, and Karachi in South Asia: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the CARRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Roopa; Kondal, Dimple; Ali, Mohammed K; Gupta, Ruby; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Narayan, K M Venkat; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Peasey, Anne

    2017-09-01

    Sleep duration and disturbances may be risk factors for hypertension. Despite the high burden of hypertension in South Asia, little is known about this relationship in this region. We analyzed population-level cross-sectional data from the Centre for Cardiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) study that recruited representative samples of adults ≥ 20 years from three cities-Delhi, Chennai (India), and Karachi (Pakistan) during 2010-2011. We defined hypertension as self-reported treatment or measured blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg. Data on usual duration of sleep, insomnia, and snoring were collected using "The Sleep Habits Questionnaire" and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) using Epworth Sleepiness Score. Logistic and linear regression were done with hypertension and BP as outcome variables, respectively. Age, gender, education, wealth index, family history, and body mass index (BMI) were included as covariates. We used multiple imputation to account for missing variables. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.1%. The mean (SD) sleep duration was 7.3 (1.2) hours. Insomnia, snoring, and EDS were present in 13.6%, 28.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. Moderate and habitual snoring were associated with increased odds of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.04 to 1.33] and 1.47 [1.29 to 1.67], respectively), after adjusting for covariates. Rare, occasional, and frequent insomnia were associated with increased hypertension (OR 1.41 [1.12 to 1.77], 1.39 [1.16 to 1.67], and 1.34 [1.09 to 1.65], respectively). Sleep duration and EDS were not associated with hypertension. Self-reported snoring and insomnia were associated with hypertension in South Asia. This relationship needs further exploration through robust longitudinal studies in this region. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Metropolitan vision making - using backcasting as a strategic learning process to shape metropolitan futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuvonen, A.; Ache, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The need for new forward looking tools in urban planning is immense: The new functional relations and structures are stretching beyond our capacity to 'rationally' capture modern metropolitan spaces Neuman & Hull 2009). At the same time cities struggle to find tools to help manage a

  1. Insight conference proceedings : Quebec energy forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The state of Quebec's energy industry was the focus of this conference which provided an opportunity for participants to exchange their views on a broad range of topics. Recent developments within Quebec's Regie de l'energie and other regulatory frameworks were reviewed and compared with existing frameworks in other jurisdictions in Canada and the United States. One major theme at the conference was electricity supply in Quebec, with particular reference to industrial consumers, large industrial emitters and energy efficiency as it relates to the supply of electricity. Hydro-Quebec presented its position regarding the production of electricity in the province, with emphasis placed on hydroelectric development in James Bay. Administrative and judicial aspects regarding the implementation of power transmission projects were reviewed along with the effects of hydroelectricity on climate change and energy priorities in the Kyoto era. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Shakespearean dramaturgies in Quebec Shakespearean dramaturgies in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Sherlow

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available “It is just this which characterizes translation: the fact that it must be perpetually redone. I feel it to be an image of Art itself, of theatrical Art, which is the art of infinite variety. Everything must be played again and again, everything must be taken up and retranslated.” An Interview with Antoine Vitez, “The Duty to Translate.” Since 1980, the theatre of the province of Quebec has been in thegrip of a passion for Shakespeare. During this period, Shakespeare’s texts have often been retranslated and have also been vehicles for radical challenges to theatrical conventions. Best known among these experiments internationally are the productions of director Robert Lepage, among them his Shakespeare cycle (Coriolan, Macbeth, La Tempête performed in Mauberge, France (1992, Japanese versions of Macbeth and The Tempest staged in Tokyo (1993, and, above all, his A Midsummer Night’s Dream (with its infamous ‘mudwrestling’ scenes at the National Theatre, London (1993. “It is just this which characterizes translation: the fact that it must be perpetually redone. I feel it to be an image of Art itself, of theatrical Art, which is the art of infinite variety. Everything must be played again and again, everything must be taken up and retranslated.” An Interview with Antoine Vitez, “The Duty to Translate.” Since 1980, the theatre of the province of Quebec has been in thegrip of a passion for Shakespeare. During this period, Shakespeare’s texts have often been retranslated and have also been vehicles for radical challenges to theatrical conventions. Best known among these experiments internationally are the productions of director Robert Lepage, among them his Shakespeare cycle (Coriolan, Macbeth, La Tempête performed in Mauberge, France (1992, Japanese versions of Macbeth and The Tempest staged in Tokyo (1993, and, above all, his A Midsummer Night’s Dream (with its infamous ‘mudwrestling’ scenes

  3. Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for Quebec, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in Quebec. In contrast, a consumption-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods and services that are consumed in Quebec through household purchases, investment by firms and government spending. Trade flows refer to the movement of emissions that are produced in Quebec but which support consumption in a different province, territory or country (and vice versa. For example, emissions associated with the production of a Quebec manufactured good that is exported to Ontario for sale are recorded as a trade flow from Quebec to Ontario. Moving in the opposite direction, emissions associated with the production of motor gasoline in New Brunswick that is exported to Quebec for sale are recorded as a trade flow from New Brunswick to Quebec. For further details on these results in a national context, the methodology for generating them and their policy implications, please see the companion papers to this communiqué series: (1 Fellows and Dobson (2017; and (2 Dobson and Fellows (2017. Additionally, the consumption emissions and trade flow data for each of the provinces and territories are available at: http://www.policyschool.ca/embodied-emissions-inputs-outputs-datatables-2004-2011/.

  4. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.-F.

    1993-06-01

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Modeling Metropolitan Detroit transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    "The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...

  6. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  7. Tuberculosis in Quebec: a review of trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klotz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to conduct a thorough review on the literature of tuberculosis in Canada and the Province of Quebec. To achieve this aim, an exhaustive literature review of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec was undertaken. Data was collected with the goal of creating an epidemiological and public health evidence base to forecast the spread of tuberculosis. A keyword search strategy was used to find relevant articles from the peer-reviewed literature using the electronic search engine PubMed and a search of other relevant federal and provincial government databases. Twenty-nine peer-reviewed publications and twenty government reports containing information about the incidence or prevalence of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec were included in the analysis. An analysis of the data revealed that while tuberculosis rates have been decreasing in both Canada and Quebec with an overall incidence below 3 per 100,000 of population in 2007, among immigrants and the Inuit communities in Quebec, the incidence and prevalence of the disease still remains high and reached 18 per 100,000 and 100 per 100,000, respectively in 2007. In general, while tuberculosis does not pose a significant burden to the general population, it does continue to affect certain sub-groups disproportionately, including select immigrants and Inuit communities in Quebec. Efforts to ensure that cost-effective healthcare interventions are delivered in a timely fashion should be pursued to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec.

  8. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert...... stronger influences than neighborhood-scale built environment characteristics on the amount of car travel. In particular, the location of the residence relative to the main city center of the metropolitan region shows a strong effect. Some local scale variables often mentioned in the literature...

  9. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  10. Hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are evolving relentlessly in Metropolitan Mexico City infants, children and young adults. APOE4 carriers have higher suicide risk and higher odds of reaching NFT stage V at ≤ 40 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Mukherjee, Partha S; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Ávila-Ramírez, José; Villarreal-Ríos, Rodolfo

    2018-07-01

    Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ) above USEPA standards are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) residents have life time exposures to PM 2.5 and O 3 above USEPA standards. We investigated AD intra and extracellular protein aggregates and ultrastructural neurovascular pathology in 203 MMC residents age 25.36 ± 9.23 y. Immunohistochemical methods were used to identify AT8 hyperphosphorilated tau (Htau) and 4G8 (amyloid β 17-24). Primary outcomes: staging of Htau and amyloid, per decade and cumulative PM 2.5 (CPM 2.5 ) above standard. Apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), age and cause of death were secondary outcomes. Subcortical pretangle stage b was identified in an 11month old baby. Cortical tau pre-tangles, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) Stages I-II, amyloid phases 1-2, Htau in substantia nigrae, auditory, oculomotor, trigeminal and autonomic systems were identified by the 2nd decade. Progression to NFT stages III-V was present in 24.8% of 30-40 y old subjects. APOE4 carriers have 4.92 times higher suicide odds (p = 0.0006), and 23.6 times higher odds of NFT V (p < 0.0001) v APOE4 non-carriers having similar CPM 2.5 exposure and age. Age (p = 0.0062) and CPM 2.5 (p = 0.0178) were significant for developing NFT V. Combustion-derived nanoparticles were associated with early and progressive damage to the neurovascular unit. Alzheimer's disease starting in the brainstem of young children and affecting 99.5% of young urbanites is a serious health crisis. Air pollution control should be prioritised. Childhood relentless Htau makes a fundamental target for neuroprotective interventions and the first two decades are critical. We recommend the concept of preclinical AD be revised and emphasize the need to define paediatric environmental, nutritional, metabolic and genetic risk factor interactions of paramount importance to prevent AD. AD evolving from childhood is threating the

  11. Mergers and integrated care: the Quebec experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Louis

    2013-01-01

    As a researcher, I have studied the efforts to increase the integration of health and social services in Quebec, as well as the mergers in the Quebec healthcare system. These mergers have often been presented as a necessary transition to break down the silos that compartmentalize the services dispensed by various organisations. A review of the studies about mergers and integrated care projects in the Quebec healthcare system, since its inception, show that mergers cannot facilitate integrated care unless they are desired and represent for all of the actors involved an appropriate way to deal with service organisation problems. Otherwise, mergers impede integrated care by creating increased bureaucratisation and standardisation and by triggering conflicts and mistrust among the staff of the merged organisations. It is then preferable to let local actors select the most appropriate organisational integration model for their specific context and offer them resources and incentives to cooperate.

  12. Mergers and integrated care: the Quebec experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Demers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As a researcher, I have studied the efforts to increase the integration of health and social services in Quebec, as well as the mergers in the Quebec healthcare system. These mergers have often been presented as a necessary transition to break down the silos that compartmentalize the services dispensed by various organisations. A review of the studies about mergers and integrated care projects in the Quebec healthcare system, since its inception, show that mergers cannot facilitate integrated care unless they are desired and represent for all of the actors involved an appropriate way to deal with service organisation problems. Otherwise, mergers impede integrated care by creating increased bureaucratisation and standardisation and by triggering conflicts and mistrust among the staff of the merged organisations. It is then preferable to let local actors select the most appropriate organisational integration model for their specific context and offer them resources and incentives to cooperate.

  13. The 12th 735-kV transmission line project: Hydro-Quebec network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is proposing to construct a 735-kV transmission line from the Chissibi station near the LG3 hydroelectric power plant to the Jacques-Cartier station near Quebec City. The width of the right-of-way will generally be 90 m and it is intended to install the line in two stages. The Chissibi-Chibougamau section should enter service in 1993 and the Chibougamau-Cartier section in 1994. The cost of the line is estimated at $1.21 billion, of which $900 million is for line construction and $310 million for station equipment. Prospective corridors for the line route have been selected, portions of which enable twinning with Hydro-Quebec's existing 9th 735-kV line. A series of hearings on the environmental and other impacts of the power line project was held by the Bureau d'audiences publiques sur l'environnement and results are summarized along with the views of the Bureau. The summary describes the justification for the project, the choice of the transmission line route, the evaluation of the impacts of the project on the natural and human environments, health effects due to magnetic fields, and effects on the economic development of northern Quebec. Recommendations are given for mitigating the impacts of the project. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Tuberculosis in quebec: a review of trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Alexander; Harouna, Abdoulaye; Smith, Andrew F

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this research was to conduct a thorough review on the literature of tuberculosis in Canada and the Province of Quebec. To achieve this aim, an exhaustive literature review of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec was undertaken. Data was collected with the goal of creating an epidemiological and public health evidence base to forecast the spread of tuberculosis. A keyword search strategy was used to find relevant articles from the peer-reviewed literature using the electronic search engine PubMed and a search of other relevant federal and provincial government databases. Twenty-nine peer-reviewed publications and twenty government reports containing information about the incidence or prevalence of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec were included in the analysis. An analysis of the data revealed that while tuberculosis rates have been decreasing in both Canada and Quebec with an overall incidence below 3 per 100,000 of population in 2007, among immigrants and the Inuit communities in Quebec, the incidence and prevalence of the disease still remains high and reached 18 per 100,000 and 100 per 100,000, respectively in 2007. In general, while tuberculosis does not pose a significant burden to the general population, it does continue to affect certain sub-groups disproportionately, including select immigrants and Inuit communities in Quebec. Efforts to ensure that cost-effective healthcare interventions are delivered in a timely fashion should be pursued to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec. Funding for this research was provided to Medmetrics Inc., by McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Génome Québec and the Ministère de Développement Economique, Innovation et Exportation du Gouvernement du Québec. The authors also wish to thank Drs. John White and Marcel Behr, both of McGill University and Dr Suneil Malik of the Infectious Disease Program in the Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population

  15. Social relationships and depression among people 65 years and over living in rural and urban areas of Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Préville, Michel; Dubé, Micheline

    2009-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of depression within the elderly Quebec population residing in rural areas, urban areas and metropolitan Montreal, and to assess differences in the associations between social relationships and depression across these urban and rural settings. Data originate from the first wave of the ESA (Etude de Santé des Ainés) longitudinal study on mental health of community dwelling older persons aged over 65 (n = 2670). Depression, including major and minor depression, measured using a computer questionnaire; the ESA-Q developed by the research team and based on the DSM-IV criteria. Assessments of associations between depression and geographic area, informal social networks and community participation were estimated adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and health characteristics. The prevalence of depression was higher in rural (17%) and urban areas (15.1%) than in metropolitan Montreal (10.3%). The odds ratio of rural (OR = 2.01 95% CI 1.59-2.68) and urban (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.25-2.45) areas compared to the metropolitan area increased slightly after adjustment by all social and health covariates. Our study indicated that social support and the lack of conflict in intimate relationships were associated with lower prevalence of depression in all areas. Geographic differences in depression exist within the elderly population in Quebec that may generate significant impact on their health and functional abilities. Further research should be conducted to explain these differences. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Quebec Gentilly 2 nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.A.

    Modifications and commissioning of the Gentilly reactor are described. The Gentilly reactor is owned by AECL, not Quebec Hydro, and has served as a prototype reactor. The Gentilly-2 reactor is a 'packaged' 600 MWe PHW reactor similar to Pickering-1, etc. Interesting aspects of construction and purchasing of equipment are described. (E.C.B.)

  17. Sustainability and urban environment: the case of the metropolitan zone of Mexico city; Sustentabilidad y medio ambiente urbano: el caso de la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar Juarez, Elizabeth; Melgar Paniagua, Eva Margarita; Tavera Sanchez, Lina [Programa de Investigacion en Medio Ambiente y Seguridad, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In the next years, Mexico will face the following challenges: to maintain economic, social and urban rates of growth among others, higher than the demographic ones with the purpose of guaranteeing a better quality of life and mitigating gas discharges of green house effect without jeopardizing the development of the country. In an eminently urban country, these goals are made first in local form as it is the case of the metropolitan zone of the city of Mexico City (ZMCM), with different actions to mitigate the effects of the high development that this region has had. The objective is to try to modify the perception that one has had of it at the beginning of the 90's decade when it was denominated by Time magazine (January 1989) as the waiting room of an ecological Hiroshima and as urban gas chamber. The official answer conformed it: the creation of a Network of Atmospheric Monitoring, the implantation of programs like the Pro Air, the Today Does Not Circulate among others. Even with these actions in mind the objective does not glimpse clearly in the short term to reach a development with environmental sustainability. The work premise is to analyze different actions oriented to diminish in a 20% the emissions of polluting agents using clean and renewable energies such as natural gas and solar, among others, without trying to originate radical changes and that can be applied in other cities of the country. In parallel form one sets out to sustain these actions with the present environmental programs and to quantify the sustainability with three indicators (variation of polluting emissions, the level of fossil resources and costs to the health). The development of the investigation is based on the definition of a reference scenario (on the base of the present tendencies) and another alternative scenario having as analysis tool the computational platform denominated ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) developed by National Argonne National Laboratory

  18. Cystic fibrosis mutations in North American populations of French ancestry: Analysis of Quebec French-Canadian and Louisiana Acadian families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Rima; Schwartz, Robert H.; Hilman, Bettina C.; Stanislovitis, Pat; Horn, Glenn T.; Klinger, Katherine; Daigneault, Jocelyne; De Braekeleer, Marc; Kerem, Bat-sheva; Tsui, Lap-Chee; Fujiwara, T. Mary; Morgan, Kenneth

    1990-01-01

    A 3-bp deletion (ΔF508) in the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene is the mutation on the majority of CF chromosomes. We studied 112 CF families from North American populations of French ancestry: French-Canadian families referred from hospitals in three cities in Quebec and from the Saguenay-Lac St. Jean region of northeastern Quebec and Acadian families living in Louisiana. ΔF508 was present on 71%, 55%, and 70% of the CF chromosomes from the major-urban Quebec, Saguenay-Lac St. Jean, and Louisiana Acadian families, respectively. A weighted estimate of the proportion of ΔF508 in the French-Canadian patient population of Quebec was 70%. We found that 95% of the CF chromosomes with ΔF508 had D7S23 haplotype B, the most frequent haplotype on CF chromosomes. In the Saguenay-Lac St. Jean families, 86% of the CF chromosomes without ΔF508 had the B haplotype, compared with 31% for the major-urban Quebec and Louisiana Acadian families. The incidence of CF in the Saguenay-Lac St. Jean population was 1/895 live-born infants. PMID:2220803

  19. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  20. 735 kV air-blast circuit breakers for Hydro Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, I

    1966-01-01

    In 1962 the Quebec Hydro-Electric Commission started the development of aproject for utilizing water power in Manicouagan and Outardes, two rivers some 350 miles northeast of the city of Montreal on the left bank of the St. Lawrence estuary. The project involved the transmission of power at 735 kV ac from Manicouagan and Outardes to the heavy and growing load centers of Quebec and Montreal. The total amount of energy to be transmitted in the final stage is about 6,000 MW. The project involved the need of considerable quantities of apparatus for 735 kV, such as transformers, reactors, lightning arrestors, circuit-breakers, and disconnectors. Since the supply of the major part of the 735 kV circuit-breakers, altogether 14 three-pole units, was awarded to ASEA in Sweden, a short presentation of these airblast circuit-breakers is presented.

  1. Hydro-Quebec's Strategic Plan 2002-2006 : summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A corporate profile of Hydro-Quebec was presented and the strategy that the utility will adopt for the 2002-2006 period was summarized. The utility plans to maintain its service quality and sustain environmental quality while developing a world class enterprise. Quebec has adopted a heritage pool giving Quebec consumers access to a maximum of 165 TWh of electricity per year at an average commodity rate of 2.79 cents per kilowatt-hour, the lowest rate for such a large amount of energy in North America. Above that volume, supply for the Quebec market will be ensured through competitive bidding, leading to the signing of supply contracts based on market price. Hydro-Quebec's strategy reflects the business opportunities open to Hydro-Quebec given its traditional activities in the province, the restructuring of North American energy markets, and the emergence of Quebec as a major energy hub. The business opportunities come from the fact that demand for electricity in Quebec is growing and from the opening of markets close to Quebec. Investment outlook in hydroelectric generation and transmission also appears to be profitable. It is likely that investment will be needed to build infrastructure. Hydro-Quebec is also working with its qualified workforce to develop a world-class international activity base. tabs., figs

  2. Ilot de Chaleur a Quebec: Cas d'hiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Richard; Jacques, Ghislain; Ferland, Michel; Le Lièvre, Claude

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes the urban heat island in Quebec City on a typical clear winter night. This is a follow-up to a study made on a summer night in August 1980; the reader will find a detailed description of the region in Leduc et al. (1980). On February 25, 1980 at 21:30 EST, nearly 200 measurements of temperature were taken at preselected points by 17 mobile observers; a mini-sonde was launched near the Duberger meteorological tower while upper air data were obtained from a sonde launched at Valcartier CFB. Additional data were available from the five regular climatological stations in greater Quebec City and from 2 other thermographs in order to evaluate cooling rates. On the day of the 25th, a developing low pressure area over the eastern coast brought cold air from the northwest toward Quebec City. On that day, the maximum temperature was - 1 °C while the minimum on the following night dropped to - 19 °C. At the time of the experiment, the sky was clear and the winds were westerly at 1.5 m s-1 at the surface and northwesterly at 6 m s-1 at 122 m. A strong inversion was present in the lowest 200 m while upper inversions were noted on the upper air sounding. As noted in the summer experiment, cooling rates, according to the Oke et al. (1972) criteria, reflected a rural behaviour at all stations equipped with a thermograph. It is to be noted that no data on cooling rates are available for the highly urbanized sectors. One notes a relatively warm zone in the downtown area where temperature reached - 8 °C; there is also a cold zone, at the same location as during the summer experiment. The mean temperature gradient between the urban and rural sectors was 5 °C, which is comparable with that observed in August 1979 (6 °C). Thus, the urban heat island does not seem to be more intense in winter than in summer. Relatively large areas of uniform temperature were detected at places where the summer experiment indicated sharp spatial contrasts; this could be

  3. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  4. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco

    1967-01-01

    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  5. Hydro-Quebec looks to integrated development of Quebec and its regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissonnette, Lise

    1995-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec's telecommunication system, the largest private telecommunications network in Canada, was discussed. The network was set up to assure safety and efficiency of the power plants and energy transmission and distribution lines. By the year 2000 Hydro-Quebec will need electronic links with all its industrial, commercial and residential customers in order to guarantee competitive service and full customer satisfaction. Investments of about one half billion dollars have been earmarked to boost the capacity of their telecommunications grid and meet steadily growing needs. As a result of the very difficult negotiations to resolve the native land claims issue, Hydro-Quebec was forced to adapt a strict and far-reaching environmental policy, which is now beginning to pay off not only in environmental terms, but also in terms of goodwill among actual and prospective customers. As a result of these huge infrastructure projects Hydro Quebec will be in a position to guarantee people access to energy at a price that is among the lowest in the world. Although demand growth could slow, demand itself will not wane. As part of this overall strategy, Hydro-Quebec plans to defer large-scale projects, instead, for the foreseeable future it will concentrate on smaller power plants, some of which could be built on rivers that have already been tamed

  6. Blastomycosis in Quebec (1981–90: Report of 23 Cases and Review of Published Cases from Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G St-Germain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three cases of blastomycosis were reported in a survey conducted in the province of Quebec from 1981–90. Thirteen patients resided south of the St Lawrence River and the other 10, north. Two small geographical clusters were apparent in and around the cities of Sherbrooke and Quebec. The male to female ratio was 1.6:1 and the median age was 47 years (range 26 to 77. Lung involvement was observed in 19 cases and was the only site involved in 11. Cutaneous manifestations were reported in 11 cases while bone infection (three cases and central nervous system (CNS infections were also noted. Diagnosis was confirmed by culture in 21 cases and by histopathology in two cases. Of the 21 culture-positive cases, 12 strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis were isolated from lungs, nine from skin, and one each from bone and brain. Serodiagnostic tests by immunodiffusion or complement fixation were positive for only one of the 10 patients known to have been tested. Ten patients were treated with amphotericin B, 11 with ketoconazole, one with fluconazole and eight underwent surgery. While amphotericin B was used in eight of the 10 earliest treated cases, ketoconazole was administered in 10 of the 13 more recent cases. Of the patients for whom follow-up data have been obtained, 21 are reported cured (one of whom was not treated and one patient died of another cause. This survey confirms that blastomycosis is a rare disease in this endemic area and that patterns of therapy are changing.

  7. Hydro-Quebec annual report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An overview is presented of the activities of Hydro-Quebec for the year ended December 31, 1993, as well as its financial status. Export sales of electricity to other Canadian provinces and the USA are reported. Research programs and demonstration projects are described, as well as the utility's international activities. Environmental and economic considerations for the province are presented. Financial data includes total sales, sales by sector, export sales, and rate changes. A financial statement is included. In 1993, total sales volume was 152.1 TWh, or 7.5 TWh more than in 1992, for a total sales revenue of $7,004 million, an increase of 3.5% over 1992. Sales in Quebec increased 5 TWh, with nearly all of this increase coming from the industrial sector. Exports outside of Quebec totalled 15 TWh, or 20% more than in 1992. The largest increase in exports was in the form of short-term sales to the USA. Expenditures in 1993 were $3,761 million, only slightly more than in 1992. Facilities commissioned in 1993 included the Brisay power plant, two of six units at the Laforge-1 plant, and the north portion of the 12th transmission line from the LaGrande complex. Total installed capacity of the Hydro-Quebec system reached 29,131 MW, and total power produced was 131.6 TWh. Total length of transmission and distribution lines in 1993 reached 29,869 km and 100,908 km respectively. 9 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Industry reorganization in Quebec : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoue, R.

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the diversified markets in Quebec totaled 12.6 billion $CAN. This included electricity sales at 62.3 per cent, sales of natural gas at 8.8 per cent, and sales of electricity to the United States at 24.8 per cent. The paper included several view graphs depicting the average price of electricity by province and state, as well as regional transmission organizations. Tables outlining the restructuring and regulatory processes in Quebec from the fall of 1996 to 2000 were included along with an outline of the strategic plan and implications of Bill 116. A graph depicting Hydro-Quebec distribution and call for tenders for an additional 4100 MW from 2000 to 2016 was presented along with a list of accepted bids with the company name, location and type of power generation (hydraulic with reservoir, run-of-river, cogeneration-natural gas, or biomass). Other calls for tenders include an additional 1000 MW of renewable wind power. 3 tabs., 4 figs

  9. The gasoline retail market in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    1998-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the current status of the gasoline market in Quebec was presented. The study includes: (1) a review of the evolution of the retail market since the 1960s, (2) the development of a highly competitive sales environment, (3) a discussion of governmental interventions in the retail sales of gasoline, and (4) a discussion of the problems associated with the imposition of a minimum gasoline price. The low increase in demand for gasoline in Quebec since the 1980s has led to a considerable restructuring of the gasoline market. Consumers have little loyalty to specific brands but seek the lowest prices or prefer the outlets that offer the widest variety of associated services such as convenience stores, fast-food and car washes. Gasoline has clearly become a commodity in Quebec. An econometric model of gasoline price adjustments for the Montreal and Toronto urban areas and a summary of government interventions in the retail marketing of gasoline in Canada and the USA are included as appendices. tabs

  10. [Hospital pharmacists' perception of pharmacovigilance in Quebec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, L; Lebel, D; Bussières, J-F

    2016-03-01

    To assess the pharmacovigilance perception of Quebec's hospital pharmacists. Cross-sectional study. A questionnaire with 16 questions was developed in order to assess respondents' perception of their ability to practice pharmacovigilance, factors that can influence adverse drug reactions reporting and measures to increase reporting rate. The online questionnaire was sent to hospital pharmacist from Quebec in April 2014. The results were presented in the form of descriptive data. A total of 179/252 (71%) hospital pharmacists responded. More than 90% of respondents considered that they were able to practice all activities related to pharmacovigilance. During one year of practice, 98% of respondents faced at least one serious or unexpected adverse drug reaction and 77% notified at least one adverse drug reaction to Health Canada. The factors encouraging more than 89% of respondents to notify were: the severity, the rapidity of onset, the visibility of the reaction, the fact that the adverse drug reaction was unexpected or due to a recent marketed drug. More than 69% of respondents considered the overwork as the principal obstacle to the notification. The majority of respondents supported the implementation of 13/14 measures in order to increase reporting rate. Hospital pharmacists from Quebec presented a favorable ability to practice pharmacovigilance. Analysis of their perception of pharmacovigilance helped to identify improvements, such as the implementation of a pharmacovigilance coordinator in the health center. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Insight conference reports : Quebec energy forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this conference was placed on the state of the energy industry in Quebec. It provided an opportunity for speakers and participants to exchange their views on a variety of topics. The recent developments of the Regie de l'energie and other regulatory frameworks were reviewed, and comparisons established with the existing framework in other jurisdictions such as Ontario and Alberta. The next major theme discussed was electricity supply in Quebec, where the viewpoint of industrial consumers was presented, and energy efficiency as it relates to the supply of electricity was also on the agenda. Hydro-Quebec presented its perspectives concerning the production of electricity in the province, with emphasis placed on hydroelectric development in James Bay. The Inuit perspective on sustainable development of Nunavik, effective risk management and private electricity production were discussed. Administrative and judicial constraints applicable to the implementation of projects on linear energy transmission were reviewed, as were the effects of hydroelectricity on climate change and energy priorities in the Kyoto era. Wind energy was reviewed, followed by hydrogen energy. A total of nine presentations were included in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Insight conference reports : Quebec energy forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The focus of this conference was placed on the state of the energy industry in Quebec. It provided an opportunity for speakers and participants to exchange their views on a variety of topics. The recent developments of the Regie de l'energie and other regulatory frameworks were reviewed, and comparisons established with the existing framework in other jurisdictions such as Ontario and Alberta. The next major theme discussed was electricity supply in Quebec, where the viewpoint of industrial consumers was presented, and energy efficiency as it relates to the supply of electricity was also on the agenda. Hydro-Quebec presented its perspectives concerning the production of electricity in the province, with emphasis placed on hydroelectric development in James Bay. The Inuit perspective on sustainable development of Nunavik, effective risk management and private electricity production were discussed. Administrative and judicial constraints applicable to the implementation of projects on linear energy transmission were reviewed, as were the effects of hydroelectricity on climate change and energy priorities in the Kyoto era. Wind energy was reviewed, followed by hydrogen energy. A total of nine presentations were included in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  14. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  15. Hydro-Quebec : annual report 1998 : for today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is a publicly owned company with a single shareholder, the Quebec government. In 1998, the utility had over 31,400 MW in installed capacity, ranking it among North America's largest distributors of electrical energy. This report provides a review of progress and financial highlights including revenue, expenditure, financial expenses, net income, total assets, long term debt, shareholder's equity and the overall financial position of the utility. In 1998 sales totaled 161.4 TWh, with Quebec markets accounting for more than 88 percent and sales, outside Quebec accounting for 11.5 per cent. Three factors related to weather impacted the utility in 1998. The first was mild weather which brought down domestic and agricultural power consumption by 3 TWh compared with the average recorded in the past half-century. The second was low precipitation which caused Hydro-Quebec to turn to means other than hydroelectric generation to supply power to Quebec customers. These included start-up generation of the Tracy thermal generating station, reduction of sales on short-term markets outside Quebec, and electricity purchases on external markets. The third factor was the ice storm of January 1998, which caused significant damage to part of Hydro-Quebec's transmission and distribution systems. Throughout the year, Hydro-Quebec worked in reinforcing its power lines to prevent repetition of the devastation that occurred during the ice storm. In spite of the events of January 1998, the Utility remains committed to the growth and profitability orientations laid out in its Strategic Plan for 1998-2002. Significant progress was made in consolidating the Utility's position in international markets. Productive partnerships have been established with the Quebec Federation of Labour Solidarity Fund, and with Gaz de France. A network of international partners in a score of countries also has been developed. Hydro-Quebec has completed most of its preparations for Year 2000 readiness

  16. Origine et evolution du bilinguisme judiciaire au Quebec (Origin and Evolution of Judicial Bilingualism in Quebec).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent, Gilles

    The history and conditions of the use of English and French in the exercise of justice in Quebec are outlined in the context of the problems, sociopolitical realities, and procedural impact of language usage. The history is chronicled in six segments: 1760-1764, a period of British military government and political standoff between British and…

  17. Using energy to build the Quebec of tomorrow : Quebec energy strategy 2006-2015 : summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    A summary of Quebec's energy strategy was presented. The principal objective of the strategy is to strengthen energy supply security, while making better use of energy as a lever for economic development. The strategy prioritized the development of hydro-electricity, wind energy potential, hydrocarbon reserves, and the diversification of natural gas supplies. Greater communication between government agencies, local communities and First Nations groups was recommended. Energy efficiency measures were outlined. The strategy emphasized Quebec's future role as a leader in the sustainable development field. It was stated that electricity rates will be set at a level that promotes the interests of Quebec while ensuring proper management of resources, improved price signals and customer protection. Orientations and priority actions to achieve the strategy's objectives include: (1) resumption and acceleration of developing hydroelectric potential through a variety of new projects totalling 4500 MW within the next 5 years, (2) the exploitation of Quebec's estimated 4000 MW of potential wind power, (3) increasing the overall energy efficiency target by a factor of 8 compared to current targets to allow for $2.5 billion in annual savings for consumers, (4) supporting and promoting innovation financed through part of the levy garnered on all forms of energy with a particular priority on biomass energy development, (5) developing the oil and gas resources in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and estuary, and (6) responding more effectively to the predicament of low-income households.

  18. J'ai le gout du Quebec (I Am in the Mood for Quebec)!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetu de Labsade, Francoise

    1981-01-01

    Hails the vitality of the French language in the Quebec region as it manifests itself through advertisements, from political slogans to storefront signs. Discusses the relationship between the language of the Quebecois and their culture, and offers an effective visual commentary through numerous illustrations. (MES)

  19. LCA of road infrastructure in Mexico City.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosales Carreon, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major problem in metropolitan areas and Mexico City is no exception. Located in a pollutant-trapping valley, Mexico City (one of the largest cities in the world) is famous for its size, its history, and the warmth of its people. Nev

  20. Wind vision 2025 : a realistic goal for Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafrance, G.; Nolet, J.F.; Cote, G.

    2010-01-01

    The province of Quebec aims to have 4000 MW of wind energy interconnected to the electricity grid by 2015, and hopes to have 12,000 MW by 2025. This PowerPoint presentation explored some of the technical issues that may challenge the province's wind energy goals. The last decade has seen Quebec dominated by a tight supply and demand electricity market and a wholesale market dominated by short term contracts. Quebec aims to create surplus energy for exportation as well as to have 10 percent of the Hydro-Quebec power system supplied by wind resources. Electricity demand is expected to increase over the next decade. Quebec's wind resource development represents an alternative strategy to the development of hydro-electric resources. Strategic planning is needed to develop Quebec's integration potential. However, high standards are needed to ensure the reliability of the province's large electricity system, which is vulnerable to extreme weather events and technical failures. Various power contracts and agreements are being explored by Hydro-Quebec in order to supply power reliably during peak periods. Details of studies conducted to assess Quebec's wind power potential in relation to the electricity system were discussed, and the impact of wind power on the system was evaluated. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. MARKAL-QUEBEC dictionary and data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurie, A

    1985-07-01

    This two-part volume contains the data base of the MARKAL-QUEBEC energy modeling program. The first part, which constitutes the MARKAL dictionary, contains the list of all classes and their members. The second part contains the complete data set, presented as input tables to meet the requirements of the model. The tables are regrouped in sections in accordance with the class definition: in this way, one can find successively the tables SRC, CON, PRC, DMD, and ADRATIO (one table TCH is associated with each of the first four classes). At the beginning of each section, a brief description of the input data is given.

  2. Hydro-Quebec : positioning and strategic planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoue, R.

    1998-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec's corporate concerns for 1998-2002 were highlighted. The Corporation's strategic plan envisages that within the next decade, the utility will boost sales by 25 per cent with an investment of $13.2 billion in new generation projects. The electric utility plans to build on past experience and maintain its electricity rates and service quality. Sustaining environmental quality while developing into a world class enterprise remains a major objective of the utility. Research and development will also continue to be an integral part of the utility's operations. Tabs., figs

  3. Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and Environmental Load in ... 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... and the Lima Metropolitan Urban Plan will be updated in light of the results.

  4. Twin Cities Metro Hybrid Landcover 2000 (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Hybrid Landcover is an attempt to clean up the University of Minnesota Remote Sensing Lab's 2000 LandSat Land Cover for the Twin Cities 7-county metropolitan...

  5. Hydro-Quebec opens up, expects positive reaction from FERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1997-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec Energy Services US (HQUS), the marketing arm of Hydro-Quebec, amended its application for a power marketing licence with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), by offering to open up five per cent of the wholesale Quebec electricity market to competition. The Corporation hopes that its revised application will satisfy FERC to grant HQUS a power marketer licence, with the right to sell electricity in the US at market-based rates. Hydro-Quebec insiders believe that in addition to opening up the market to competition, thereby equalizing market conditions on both sides of the border, the Corporation's chances of receiving the licence also have been improved by the creation of the provincial energy board (Regie de l'energie) which in future will regulate electricity and gas transmission through Quebec, and establish transmission tariffs. FERC ruling is expected within 60 days of the March 7, 1997 amended application

  6. Disappearance of PAHs in a contaminated soil from Mascouche, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, R.N.; Tousignant, L.P.; Leduc, R.; Chan, E.C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Of the 365 sites classified by the Quebec Ministry of the Environment in 1984 and 1985 as contaminated, 62 are considered hazardous. This paper reports that the site chosen is one of these 62 sites and is located in the Mascouche municipality north of the city of Montreal. In 1969, permission was received to operate an incinerator for liquid wastes from the petroleum refineries. However, it was discovered that after a year of operation the incinerator did not perform well and spilled liquid wastes into the surrounding soil. In 1974, the incinerator was shut down and all operations ceased. In addition to the incinerator, two open-air storage basins and numerous solid waste deposits occupy the present site. These basins were fissured at several places and consequently leaked liquid petroleum wastes into the groundwater. In periods of heavy rain, the basins overflowed onto the surrounding soil terrain. In 1986, the liquid waste inside the basins was transferred into large metal containers and left on site, and the basins and the incinerator were then covered with sand. The site, which occupies an area of approximately 80 hectares, is mainly flat, with a few marshlike areas. The first 2 m of soil depth in this area consists of a sandy soil underlain by 12 to 15 m of clay

  7. The development of the wind power industry in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This analysis examined the current situation of wind power development in the province of Quebec and presented a qualitative assessment of the economic repercussions in terms of employment, investments and environmental and social impacts. The development of the wind power industry in Quebec gained momentum in 2003 when the provincial government expressed support for fast growth of wind power. In response, Hydro-Quebec launched an invitation to interested stakeholders to tender for 1000 MW of wind power projects to be installed between 2006 and 2012. The invitation was a great success, with more than 4000 MW of projects filed. The average price of the selected offers was 6.5 cents per kWh for 990 MW in 8 projects. The economic repercussions related to construction of wind farms in the Gaspe was discussed along with indirect and induced economic repercussions for suppliers and subcontractors in the entire province. It was noted that Quebec is already a leader in the field of electricity and wind energy consultation. Stimulated by these successes, the government of Quebec recently raised its target for wind power development to 2,500 MW. Therefore, taking into account the wind developments already supported by Hydro-Quebec, the installed wind capacity in Quebec is expected to reach more than 4000 MW by 2015, with an investment by the wind power industry of more than 5.8 billion dollars. The wind power industry is expected to generate 45,000 direct or indirect jobs for more than a 20 year period. Presently, the government of Quebec supports the establishment of a local wind market to promote free competition, energy diversity, and coexistence of key players. As its international support mechanism, Quebec chose to integrate regional economic development criteria with the price of electricity. In the long term, the wind industry could constitute a key element in Quebec's sustainable energy development plan. 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. Hydro-Quebec 2005 annual report : people with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec generates, transmits and distributes electricity mainly produced by renewable energy sources. Its sole shareholder is the Quebec government. This annual report reviewed the operations of Hydro-Quebec, and provided data on energy sales, production and details of the utility's environmental programs. Information on Hydro-Quebec subsidiaries in 2005 was presented in the following separate sections: Hydro-Quebec Production; Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie; Hydro-Quebec Distribution; Hydro-Quebec Equipement; and the Societe d'energie de la Baie James. In 2005, Hydro-Quebec Distribution signed contracts for an initial block of 990 MW of wind power and issued a tender call for an additional 2000 MW of wind power. A generator balancing service was created and authorized by the Regie de l'energie. Hydro-Quebec customers have achieved energy savings of nearly 450 GWh in 2005. The commissioning of Toulnustouc generating station was achieved 5 months ahead of schedule. The 526 MW facility will generate 2.7 TWh annually. Work at the Chute-Allard and Rapide-des-Coeurs sites has continued, as well as construction at Mercier and Peribonka and Eastmain-1. Income from continuing operations came to $2.25 billion, a $124 million increase that was attributed to a rise in domestic sales and net short-term exports. The income was offset by higher pension expenses, depreciation and amortization, as well as by cost of supply on external markets and financial expenses. All other operating expenses were lower than in 2004. Capital spending for the transmission system reached its highest level since 1997, with $793 million invested, including $336 million to meet growth. Data on the company's financial performance, executive changes and reorganization were provided. Financial statements included a review and analysis of financial transactions, an auditor's report, as well as customary notes to the consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets, liabilities and

  9. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  10. Ambient air quality in Lower Town Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebez, S.

    2007-01-01

    A municipal waste incinerator near Lower Town Quebec has been identified as a major source of air pollution, notably emissions of dioxins, furans, nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic matter (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Combustion fumes contain gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), as well as dusts, fly ash and particulate matter that is easily airborne. The risks associated with poor air quality have been evaluated along with the effects of pollutants on young children, pregnant women, senior citizens and those with cardiac problems. Some studies have reported that exposure to NOx may cause lung cancer and certain VOCs can irritate the respiratory tract system. Air quality tests have also revealed the presence of mercury. In combination, all these pollutants create smog. The concrete actions that have been taken to address smog issues were discussed. The distance between the incinerator and different residential areas within Lower Town Quebec have been measured along with air quality. Health risks were found to be higher in areas closer to the incinerator. Major modifications have been recommended in order to reduce pollution emissions from the incinerator. These include modernizing the equipment, installing proper scrubbers, and to ultimately the close the incinerator if it continues to underperform. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Quebec's new contaminated sites policy : special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Quebec's new contaminated site policy sets out a broad new set of requirements with which industry will have to comply. The new policy entitled 'Politique de protection des sols et de rehabilitation des terrains contamines' is much more comprehensive and detailed than its 1988 predecessor and contains many new elements. The policy seeks to maintain soil and groundwater quality criteria and focuses on the protection of clean commercial and industrial sites through pollution prevention actions. It also takes into account progress which has been made since the inventory of contaminated sites across Quebec. It considers the characteristics of each site and the problems posed by ongoing disposal of contaminated soils in landfills and advances in treatment technologies. The issue of who is responsible for contaminated sites is addressed and the requirements for responsible parties are described in detail. Risk assessment was also introduced as a tool for remediation planning in some cases. The new policy stresses prevention, and attempts to clearly outline site characterization and remediation duties for new and existing industries that pose potential risk of soil and groundwater contamination. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Hydro-Quebec annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Progress in providing services, in financial and human relations management aspects, and future outlook for Hydro-Quebec was summarized in the 1995 annual report. Environmental policy of the Corporation was updated to reflect international concepts of sustainable development and environment management. A program was launched to remove, recycle and eliminate contaminants. Although generating systems will not be expanded between 1997 and the year 2000, existing generating facilities will be revitalized to improve their capacity and performance. As part of aggressive marketing of surplus capacity abroad, the creation during the past year of the first U.S. subsidiary, HQ Energy Services, was announced. Net income for the year was reported at $390 million, decreased by $277 million since 1994, due to financial pressure created by the commissioning of installations, including those at Phase II of the La Grande complex, and the slowdown in electricity sales in Quebec. A net income of close to $500 million was forecast for 1996. To achieve this target the Corporation announced plans to reduce operating expenses, an exercise which will include staff reductions and a wage freeze. tabs., figs

  13. Hydro-Quebec and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    There is growing awareness that energy efficiency is both profitable and environmentally beneficial. In this year's Development Plan, Hydro-Quebec is proposing an Energy Efficiency Project made up of marketing programs designed for all markets throughout the final decade of the 20th century. This Project will have two aspects: energy efficiency and consumption management. Hydro-Quebec aims to reach an energy-efficiency level of 12.9 terawatt hours per year by 1999, fully 55% of its 23-terawatt hour potential. Over the next 10 years the utility intends to spend $1.8 billion for this purpose. Cumulative anticipated energy savings should be in the vicinity of 70 terawatt hours for the coming decade, and more than 130 terawatt hours for the first decade of the next century. Of the overall goal of 12.9 terawatt hours for Horizon 1999, energy savings of 9.0 terawatt hours should be the direct result of this year's proposed marketing programs, and will account for the bulk of anticipated investments. The remaining 3.9 terawatt hours will be gained as customers acquire better electrical appliance and accessory (household appliances, home insulation) buying habits

  14. On scaling of scientific knowledge production in U.S. metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen; Heimeriks, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000

  15. Perceptions of the Quebec population regarding the development of the electric power industry in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, M.; Deland, I.

    2000-04-01

    In March 2000 the Association de l'industrie electrique du Quebec hired the strategic marketing firm of Leger and Leger to conduct a survey of the Quebec population with the following three objectives in mind: (1) to evaluate the general opinion of the Quebec population regarding the development of new hydroelectric projects, (2) to determine the public opinion regarding the exportation of electricity, and (3) to evaluate the public opinion regarding certain hydroelectric projects that were already underway. 1000 adults were polled. It was determined that a large majority (84.2 per cent) of Quebecers are in favour of new hydroelectric development in the province as long as certain conditions are respected, such as maintaining jobs and not incurring an increase in the price of electricity. It was also determined that Quebecers are under the impression that the province exports much more electricity than it actually does. 66 per cent of the population believe that the province is exporting more than 20 per cent of its electric power production outside of the province. In reality, the province exports on average 10 per cent of its production. 71.5 per cent of Quebecers agree to new projects of exportation as long as the projects do not decrease the capacity for the province to fulfill its own power needs. In terms of environmental perceptions, hydroelectric power is considered to be the second least polluting source of energy both from an air pollution and visual pollution point of view. 72.6 per cent of the people said that hydro produces less greenhouse gases than electricity produced by natural gas or coal. Also 83.4 per cent recognized that hydro is a renewable resource. In general, the people surveyed were also in agreement with the development of new transmission lines. 86.8 per cent agreed with the construction of a transmission line between the Laurentians and the Outaouais. The polls are accurate to 3.1 per cent precision 19 times out of 20. tabs., figs

  16. Hydro-Quebec strategic plan 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec produces, transmits and distributes electricity through the use of renewable energy sources, particularly hydroelectricity. It also conducts research in energy related fields. This document listed the strategic plan for Hydro-Quebec's 4 main divisions: Hydro-Quebec Production, Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, Hydro-Quebec Distribution and Hydro-Quebec Energy Society of Bay James. The 2006 to 2010 strategic plan continues to focus on 3 main priorities: energy efficiency; complementary development of hydroelectricity and wind power; and, technological innovation. Hydro-Quebec's objectives also include strengthening the security of Quebec's energy supply and making use of energy as a lever for economic development. The plan for Hydro-Quebec Production calls for accelerating the development of major hydroelectric projects and promoting other renewable forms of energy such as wind power and ensuring the efficiency and reliability of the generating fleet. The utility's objective is to reach 4.7 TWh in energy savings by 2010 and to work toward a target of 8 TWh by 2015. The plan also involves a portfolio of hydroelectric projects totaling 5,400 MW. The plan includes complementary development and integration of 4,000 MW of windpower by 2015. The plan for Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie calls for system reliability and becoming a world benchmark for quality and reliability in wind power integration and deployment of new technologies to enhance performance. The plan for Hydro-Quebec Distribution calls for more efficient use of electricity, increase customer satisfaction and meet electricity needs through the use of renewable energy sources. The utility has made a commitment for 2006 to 2010 to a net income of $2.5 billion per year for a total of $12.5 billion, and a capital investment of 19.4 billion. This paper outlined the contribution of each division to net income and listed the economic benefits for the 2006 to 2010 period. In 2006, the Quebec Energy Board authorized

  17. Architecture at Hydro-Quebec. L'architecture a Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Architecture at Hydro-Quebec is concerned not only with combining function and aesthetics in designing buildings and other structures for an electrical utility, but also to satisfy technical and administrative needs and to help solve contemporary problems such as the rational use of energy. Examples are presented of Hydro-Quebec's architectural accomplishments in the design of hydroelectric power stations and their surrounding landscapes, thermal power stations, transmission substations, research and testing facilities, and administrative buildings. It is shown how some buildings are designed to adapt to local environments and to conserve energy. The utility's policy of conserving installations of historic value, such as certain pre-1930 power stations, is illustrated, and aspects of its general architectural policy are outlined. 20 figs.

  18. URBANIZATION AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN MONTERREY METROPOLITAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Acharya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explore the process of urbanization and spatial changes in demographic features in the Monterrey Metropolitan Region (MMR, Mexico. This city is the third largest urban sector in Mexico which has around 4 million population. It is also the industrial and economic capital of the country. The present study found that rapid urbanization in the metropolitan region has a close association with process of industrialization. In population distribution and composition, study found that the metropolitan region had its “demographic transition” during the years seventies and currently the region is taking advantages of demographic bonus cohort, i.e. a higher concentration of population in economic active groups compare to children and old age population. However, this paper indentified a higher imbalance in metropolitan demographic scenario. On the one hand, there is di-populization in the city center region and in other there is a steady increment of population in peri-urban region.

  19. Determination of particle size and content of metals in the atmosphere of ZMCM (Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City); Determinacion de tamano de particula y contenido de metales en la atmosfera de la ZMCM (Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F; Flores M, J; Diaz, R V; Garcia G, R [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    Inside the breathable fraction of the atmosphere of Mexico City, the presence of metals in suspended particles, is determined and quantified. The detection was carry out simultaneously in three places of the city, using collectors of the type stacking filter unit (SFU) which allow the separation of particles according to its size. The SFU detectors allow the separation in two size: `Gross` mass from 2.5 to 1.5 {mu}m and `fine` mass for particles smallest than 2.5 {mu}m. The analysis of the samples was fulfilled by means of PIXE method. Samples were irradiated with a proton beam, and based in the X-ray spectra the elements were identified and quantified, which allow to establish the temporal behavior of the concentrations per element for gross mass and fine mass in each one of the places of sampling. (Author).

  20. Clinical and economic burden of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarride JE

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Eric Tarride,1,2 Robert B Hopkins,1,2 Natasha Burke,1,2 Jason R Guertin,3,4 Daria O’Reilly,1,2 Charlene D Fell,5 Genevieve Dion,6 Martin Kolb7 1Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health (PATH, The Research Institute of St. Joe’s Hamilton, St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 4Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec – Université Laval, Axe Santé des Populations et Pratiques Optimales en Santé, Hôpital du St-Sacrement, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 5Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 6Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 7Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, although rare, is a severe and costly disease.Objective: To estimate the clinical and economic burden of IPF over multiple years before and after diagnosis using comprehensive administrative databases for the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods: Several administrative databases from Quebec, providing information on hospital care, community care, and pharmaceuticals, were linked over a 5-year period ending March 31, 2011, which was before approval of antifibrotic drugs in Canada. Prevalent and incident IPF cases were defined using International Classification Disease-10-CA codes and International Classification Disease-9-CM codes. We used a broad definition that excluded cases with subsequent diagnosis of other interstitial lung diseases and a narrow definition that required further diagnostic testing to confirm IPF diagnosis. Incident cases had an IPF code in a particular year without any IPF code in the 2 previous

  1. Las incubadoras de las empresas de Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Parra Restrepo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo contiene información de las incubadoras de empresas especialmente aquellas encontradas en Quebec. A través de los 80's, el concepto de incubadoras de empresas fue introducido en América por expertos en el desarrollo económico. Sus metas fueron el estudio de los efectos del desempleo resultante de la quiebra de plantas industriales o del uso del proceso de producción automático por parte de las grandes compañías. Además se esperaba crear empleo para los inmigrantes. El campo más prometedor de estas experiencias se encuentra en el desarrollo de alta tecnología industrial, especialmente en electrónica, microprocesadores y software para sistemas de computación. Esta área también cubre las industrias innovadoras.

  2. Electricity/natural gas competition in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of energy market shares (electricity, natural gas and oil products) in Quebec's residential and commercial sectors in the 1980s shows that energy source relative prices have influenced consumer behavior as expected. A set of comparisons from space and water heating markets in these sectors with regard to prices paid by consumers and costs incurred by society in general is presented. For the residential sector, it is seen that consumers pay only a fraction of the cost for electric space and water heating; the same service could be provided at smaller cost by natural gas. For the commercial sector, the electricity and natural gas tariffs convey the appropriate message with respect to the cost incurred in providing the service. 6 refs., 7 tabs

  3. Quebec firm develops satellite monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-09-01

    Satellite-based technology that gives project owners an affordable way to monitor and control wind turbine operation, even in remote sites, is announced. Called Satwind, the system can be adapted to any scale, ranging from simple, low-cost units for small wind turbines to advanced versions designed to handle more complex wind-diesel installations, as well as large turbines used in offshore projects. Current installations include a turbine in the Tunisian desert and two Quebec wind-diesel plants accessible only by helicopter. The system can be operated directly from a cell-phone, in a user-friendly Internet manner, without the need to be connected to a complex centralized wind farm monitoring system.

  4. Quebec residential electricity demand: a microeconometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.T.; Bolduc, D.; Belanger, D.

    1996-01-01

    An economic analysis of Quebec residential electricity demand was studied by micro-simulation models. These structural models describe all components which lead to decisions upon durable holdings and electric appliance usage. The demand for space and water heating systems was evaluated. Recent price change in favour of energy sources other than electricity were taken into account. Price and income elasticity ratios were found to be low, as expected when estimating short term use. The role played by socio-economic variables on the choice of space-water heating systems and electricity use was also examined. Recent conversions have indicated a trend toward preference by households in favour of natural gas or oil over electricity. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  6. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  7. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  8. Small suburban cities of Lille Metropolis for the well-being of metropolitan? / Les petites villes periurbaines de la metropole lilloise au service du bien-etre des metropolitains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurène Wiesztort

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cities, main biotope of the Man in the World, glean more and more agricultural lands and natural spaces beyond the distant peripheries. Historic processes such as the mass urbanization or the industrialization based on the exploitation of subsoil resources, have taken over many natural spaces that were destroyed or erased or exploited for economic purposes. The region Nord Pas-de-Calais (France has a rate of arti cialisation of the very high ground, it’s fragmented territory and upset by two world con icts and a intense mining period. So, today, meadows of three quarter of peoples of the region consider that there isn’t enough nature in the heart of their city. Within the framework of the métropolisation, this feeling is accentuated due to urban sprawl, which is more and more important. Since the 1990s, we speak about sustainable development as about a new philosophy that would lead us to a more balanced world between will economic, social, cultural and environmental policies. The region is very invested in the domain, because of the speci cities of its territory. The objective of this investigation was to account for forms that can take the environmental territorial policies and / or whose issues the welfare of citizens through new recreational spaces in nature. Are small towns “used” to ll the void nature of large cities ?. Methodologically, I have chosen to address this issue by studying the case of Lille Metropolis, relying on both eldwork four years during my thesis as well as on two inquiries which I led on the regional territory in 2006 and 2011. This research has helped to highlight the medium-sized cities, small towns and rural municipalities play a major role in territorial policies such as green and blue weft. They are the key to meet the demand of urban natural spaces. Taking this into consideration, the region will thinking about the nature of hearts with many vocations: ecological (biodiversity reserves, social (parks and

  9. Travel Models for Corridors of Metropolitan Areas Served by Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems.

  10. Financial profile of Hydro-Quebec : 1998-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec is a publicly owned company with a single shareholder, the Quebec government. It is ranked among North America's largest distributors of green energy. This report provides financial highlights including revenue, expenditure, net income, total assets, long term debt, shareholder's equity and the financial position of the utility. Operating statistics are also provided. This includes electricity sold both in and out of Quebec, total installed capacity, peak requirements for winter, total number of customer accounts, and the number of permanent employees. Because of the January ice storm, Hydro-Quebec's major priority in 1998 was to reinforce its transmission and distribution system to meet customer expectations. From February to December 1998, about 3,000 km of line were built, rebuilt or consolidated. By 2001, the utility will have looped several of its high-voltage transmission systems. Plans are also underway to build four new high-voltage lines and an interconnection with Ontario, using advanced technologies. tabs., figs

  11. Times are changing, Hydro-Quebec multiplies its assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, M.

    1997-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec''s advance into the North American and world multi-energy market began with the purchase of an interest in the natural gas holding company Noverco, a commercial partnership with Gaz de France, and marketing agreements with Enron and Trigen in the United States. Hydro-Quebec, the world''s sixth largest electric utility, aims to become a multi-energy enterprise selling not only electricity, but also natural gas, oil and certain renewable forms of energy. Currently, Hydro-Quebec is licensed to make border sales of electricity at regulated prices. Through the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Hydro-Quebec will be able also to sell electricity through wholesale spot contracts with electricity marketers such as Trigen and Enron

  12. The implications of the nuclear option in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Quebec depends on fossil fuels which come from outside Quebec for its energy supply. It has available significant hydraulic resources, but they should be totally harnessed within 30 years; therefore, other energy sources must be found. The nuclear route can provide a way for Quebec to meet its future needs. From the technical, economic, security of supply, and side benefit points of view, the recourse to nuclear seems reasonable and even advantageous. From a socio-political point of view, however, the risks inherent in the use of nuclear energy are extremely important and need well-informed public discussion. In the meantime Quebec ought to stress the other sources that are available (hydroelectricity) or likely to be available (Canadian gas) while these sources can still be used at a reasonable price [fr

  13. The secret of business success in Quebec : its transparency!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahey, R.

    2004-01-01

    The role of La Federation Canadienne de l'Entreprise Independante, a non-partisan, not public-funded organization was presented. Members of the Federation are from various economic sectors, covering all regions in Quebec. It participates in Quebec's La Regie de l'energie's review processes and activities, and raises questions as issues arise. Its role constitutes one of the better methods in supervising tender invitation process to ensure regulations are followed to achieve transparency. (author)

  14. Quebec-Vermont dispute may upset export plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1999-01-01

    A major trade dispute between Hydro-Quebec and a group of Vermont utilities arising out of Hydro-Quebec's inability to live up to its contractual obligations to supply electricity to the Vermont group during the January 1998 ice storm is discussed. The Vermont Group initiated legal action against Hydro-Quebec, claiming refund of $ 27 million and termination of the contract . The Vermont utilities claim that the storm has revealed the weakness of the design, construction, operation and maintenance of Hydro-Quebec's transmission system. In its defence, Hydro-Quebec asserts that its transmission system meets industry standards, considers the storm 'an act of God' and invoked 'force majeure' when it ceased supplying power to Vermont last year. Hydro-Quebec further alleges that the Vermont utilities are using the storm as a pretext to end or renegotiate the contract. Hydro-Quebec asked the Canadian government to intervene under NAFTA, alleging trade harassment by the Vermont Public Service Commission (VPSC) when it restricted Vermont utility rate increases. In a countermove, Vermont U.S. Senator Jim Jeffords threatened future power exports by Canada to the U.S. for pursuing a NAFTA complaint, thereby hoping to influence negotiations between Hydro-Quebec and the Vermont utilities. The latest development in this dispute, which potentially threatens the development of 4000 MW of new hydroelectric development at Churchill Falls, Labrador, is that the dispute may now be settled with an auctioning of the contract. If the U.S. were to block the import of new power from Churchill Falls, the project could be jeopardized. However, the contract auction may well avoid such major international ramifications and a full-fledged trade war between Canada and the United States

  15. The influence of population on the economic efficiency of the metropolitan governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose. In order to implement the optimal metropolitan governance model, it is important to understand the conditions under which this or that model is economically effective. There is a need to develop a quantitatively justified methodology for choosing the optimal metropolitan governance model for different types of metropolitan areas. It has been emphasized in some federal documents of Russia, for example, in the “Recommendations for the selection of pilot projects for approbation and improvement of mechanisms for managing the development of metropolitan areas in the Russian Federation”.Materials and methods. Domestic researchers (N. Zubarevich, K. Gonchar, etc. and foreign researchers (Glaeser Edward L., Nakamura, Ciccone A., Hall R., etc. carried out the study of quantitative relationships between the economic growth of cities and the characteristics of cities.However, for metropolitan areas, the analysis of the relationship has not yet been implemented between the outpacing economic growth of the metropolitan area relative to the average country values (labor productivity and GDP per capita, the institutional factor (the type of metropolitan governance model, andthe non-institutional factor (population size. To identify the dependencies we are interested in, we used the OECD statistical database and OECD researches to identify the metropolitan governance model in the sample of metropolitan areas in the world. The sample in this research was 87 metropolitan areas in Europe and was divided into groups, depending on the population and the introduced metropolitan governance model. For each group, a correlation-regression analysis was performed and a weighted average was calculated from the indexes of the economic growth. As the leading index of the economic growth, labor productivity was used, as the final - GDP per capita. Then a comparison was made between the real value of economic growth in each surveyed metropolitan area and

  16. Contribution to Quebec's economic development: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of Hydro-Quebec are analyzed from the standpoint of their contribution to economic development and their support of regional development. The structuring effects of Hydro-Quebec's electricity supply activities are described, specifically the utility's role as an employer and an important agent of economic development by virtue of its purchasing power. The role played by research and development activities in the technological development of Quebec is discussed along with the contribution of those activities to new industrial developments. Finally, the impacts of electricity use on industrial development are considered. An analysis is presented of Hydro-Quebec's marketing activities and the options they afford. These marketing activities are aimed mainly at supporting economic development. The availability of reasonably priced electricity enhances the competitiveness of all industrial sectors, especially those for which electricity is a factor in siting. Furthermore, Hydro-Quebec can use its marketing activities to reinforce this comparative advantage. Hydro-Quebec can also support regional development by decentralizing operations, standardizing rates, and extending its marketing activities to the regions. 2 tabs

  17. Hydro-Quebec International : taking up the challenges of globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    With the ever increasing demand for electricity, it is estimated that the world''s electrical generating capacity will grow by about 1,000,000 MW over the next eight years. This represents a 40 per cent increase over today''s capacity. Hydro-Quebec is determined to stake its place in international markets and to maximize the profits from the strong expertise gained during the construction of Quebec''s major electric facilities. The venture into international markets is primarily a commercial strategy. To that effect, Hydro-Quebec plans to invest up to $300 million in international projects around the world so that after five years it can have major interests and assets totaling $12 billion or more. China, North Africa and the Middle East are some of the market that Hydro-Quebec wishes to enter in the years ahead. The Eastern European and Southeast Asian markets are also worthy of interest. It was pointed out that Hydro-Quebec is not the only large electric utility turning to world market to pursue its growth. French, Spanish and American companies are also presently investing billions of dollars in the world market

  18. Hydro-Quebec International : taking up the challenges of globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    With the ever increasing demand for electricity, it is estimated that the world`s electrical generating capacity will grow by about 1,000,000 MW over the next eight years. This represents a 40 per cent increase over today`s capacity. Hydro-Quebec is determined to stake its place in international markets and to maximize the profits from the strong expertise gained during the construction of Quebec`s major electric facilities. The venture into international markets is primarily a commercial strategy. To that effect, Hydro-Quebec plans to invest up to $300 million in international projects around the world so that after five years it can have major interests and assets totaling $12 billion or more. China, North Africa and the Middle East are some of the market that Hydro-Quebec wishes to enter in the years ahead. The Eastern European and Southeast Asian markets are also worthy of interest. It was pointed out that Hydro-Quebec is not the only large electric utility turning to world market to pursue its growth. French, Spanish and American companies are also presently investing billions of dollars in the world market.

  19. Air quality in the Metropolitan zone of the Mexico City and recommendations to improve It considering basic concepts of environmental engineering; La calidad del aire en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico y recomendaciones para mejorarla considerando conceptos basicos de ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Hecheverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Jaimes Palomera, M. [Centro de ciencias de la atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ), was detected during the 1960's and presents nowadays considerable dimensions. The atmospheric pollution problem evolution in the MCMZ is presented in this paper, considering criteria pollutants as particles and ozone, and hazardous air pollutants as benzene. Successful an unsuccessful experiences looking for improve the air quality in the MCMZ are evaluated. These experiences should be account for in other Mexican cities, as well as in developing countries. The MCMZ air quality evolution is an important case where implemented strategies in order to reduce sulphur dioxide and lead, resulted an increase in levels, frequency and duration of ozone concentrations in the atmosphere. Basic concepts of environmental engineering: prevention, minimization and control, as well as pollution control in the source, must be considered. [Spanish] La contaminacion atmosferica en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico (ZMCM), se hizo evidente en la decada de los a s sesenta y, a la fecha, ha alcanzado dimensiones considerables. En este trabajo se presenta la evolucion del problema de contaminacion atmosferica en la ZMCM, enfocandolo a contaminantes criterio como particulas y ozono, y contaminantes toxicos como el benceno. Asimismo, se exponen experiencias exitosas y las que han fracasado en busca de una mejor calidad del aire para la ZMCM; es recomendable que dichas experiencias sean consideradas en otras ciudades de nuestro pais, asi como en otros paises en vias de desarrollo, ofreciendoles la importancia debida. Deben considerarse los conceptos basicos de la ingenieria ambiental como son la prevencion, la minimizacion y el control de la contaminacion en la fuente, ya que mandatos del ejecutivo tendientes a reducir niveles de bioxido de azufre y de plomo en la atmosfera metropolitana trajeron, por falta de la infraestructura necesaria, un drastico incremento en los niveles, frecuencia y duracion de

  20. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  1. Sosyal Belediyecilik Uygulamalarında Kent Bilgi Sistemlerinin Kullanımı: Konya Büyükşehir Belediyesi Örneği (The Use of City Information Systems In Social Municipality Services: The Case of Konya Metropolitan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail SEVİNÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Social policies, which have gained importance after Industrial Revolution have substantially changed in line with economic understanding. With global oil crisis in the 1970s, the process of transformation in which wealth state enter has also influenced wealth. This process of transformation which can be summarized as passage to free market economy by abandoning Keynesian economic policies, governments come to decentralize their non-fundamental duties to local administrations, private sector or non-governmental organizations. Together with social policy practices of central administrations, local administrations have come to the fore as fundamental social politic actors by moving with the times. The weight of local administrations in social policy systems can vary along countries and in recent years it is seen that municipalities in Turkey has started come to the fore with social policy practices. The concept of social policy is adopted in municipal work as social municipal work. In this context, with social data center project by the Konya Metropolitan Municipality a detailed investigation is carried out on the social fabric of the city. The project aims to inform every relief institution about any relief received in the system, to help those who are indeed need, to prevent repetitive aids and thus abuse, fairly distribute relief supplies, prevent waste of recourses by informing relief institutions to a maximum extend. In this study, the importance of data about social fabric needed to make optimal decisions in conduction of civic services and information obtained was analyzed.

  2. Hydro-Quebec annual report, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This annual report for the Quebec electric utility presents an overview of the year's activities and its financial status, including export sales of electricity to New Brunswick, Ontario, New York State, and the New England states. Research programs and demonstration projects are described, as well as the utility's activities in Africa and Asia. Environmental and economic considerations for the province are presented. Financial data includes total sales, sales by sector, export sales, and rate changes. A financial statement is included. In 1991, public controversy arose over electricity exports, risk-and-profit sharing contracts with some industrial customers, and the impacts of hydroelectric development. A net income of $760 million was achieved, representing an 88.1% increase over the previous year when exceptional measures were required to offset cumulative years of low runoff. These measures were suspended in late 1990 but low 1991 precipitation forced the continued purchase of backup electricity. Energy efficiency programs resulted in savings equivalent to energy consumed by a town of 13,000 people. Exports accounted for 7.2% of total sales in 1991. The first three generating units of LaGrande-2-A, totalling 999 MW, were commissioned. The groundwork has been laid for the vast corporate strategy of total customer satisfaction entitled Defi performance. In 1991, annual interruption time per customer dropped to 5.32 hours. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Earthquake-induced liquefaction in Ferland, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Seeber, L.

    1991-02-01

    Detailed geological investigations are under way at a number of liquefaction sites in the Ferland-Boilleau valley, Quebec, where sand boils, ground cracks and liquefaction-related damages to homes were documented immediately following the Ms=6.0, Mblg=6.5 Saguenay earthquake of November 25, 1988. To date, results obtained from these subsurface investigations of sand boils at two sites in Ferland, located about 26 km from the epicentre, indicate that: the Saguenay earthquake induced liquefaction in late-Pleistocene and Holocene sediments which was recorded as sand dikes, sills and vents in near-surface sediments and soils; earthquake-induced liquefaction and ground failure have occurred in this area at least three times in the past 10,000 years; and, the size and morphology of liquefaction features and the liquefaction susceptibility of source layers of the features may be indicative of the intensity of ground shaking. These preliminary results are very promising and suggest that with continued research liquefaction features will become a useful tool in glaciated terrains, such as northeastern North America, for determining not only the timing and location but also the size of past earthquakes

  4. Social acceptance and population confidence in telehealth in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Bellemare, Christian A; Bédard, Suzanne K; Lemieux, Renald

    2015-02-21

    Access to healthcare in remote areas is difficult and telehealth could be a promising avenue if accepted by the population. The aim of this study is to assess social acceptance and population confidence in telehealth in the Province of Quebec. We conducted a survey using a questionnaire assessing the social acceptance of and confidence level in telehealth. Two strategies were used: 1) paper questionnaires were sent to two hospitals in Quebec; and 2) online questionnaires were randomly sent by a firm specialized in online survey to a representative sample of the population of the Province of Quebec. Respondents were all residents of the Province of Quebec and 18 years and older. Questions were scored with a four-level Likert scale. A total of 1816 questionnaires were analyzed (229 written and 1,587 online questionnaires). The socio-demographic variables in our samples, especially the online questionnaires, were fairly representative of Quebec's population. Overall, social acceptance scored at 77.71% and confidence level at 65.76%. Both scores were higher in the case of treatment (3 scenarios were proposed) vs. diagnosis (p < 0.05). No difference was found when respondents were asked to respond for themselves and for a member of their family, which demonstrates a true interest in telehealth in Quebec. In addition, we found a significant difference (p < 0.05) between written and online questionnaires regarding social acceptance (80.75% vs. 77.33%) and confidence level (74.84% vs. 64.55%). These differences may be due to social desirability or avidity bias in the written questionnaires. Our results suggest that the population in Quebec encourages the development of telehealth for real time diagnosis and long distance treatment for regions deprived of healthcare professionals.

  5. Hydro-Quebec proudly celebrates 50 years of service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The history of the electric utility Hydro-Quebec is reviewed from its creation in 1944 as the Hydroelectric Commission of Quebec. The utility inherited an installed capacity of 696 MW and it first went about standardizing electricity supply conditions and establishing equal rates in the Montreal area. It began major construction projects in the mid-1950s with the Bersimis and Carillon hydroelectric plants. By 1962, installed capacity reached 3,657 MW. In 1963, Hydro-Quebec bought 10 private electricity distribution companies, 45 cooperatives, and a series of private or municipal systems. In 1965, the utility commissioned the world's first 735-kV transmission line. In 1967, Hydro-Quebec opened its research institute, and another laboratory specializing in electrotechnologies was opened in 1987. The 1970s were noted for the James Bay hydroelectric projects, the development of which was eventually governed by the landmark James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975. Electricity exports greatly expanded in the 1970s and early 1980s as larger hydroelectric projects came on stream. Challenges of the 1990s include service quality, environmental issues, energy efficiency, and conservation. Hydro-Quebec's Energy Efficiency Project has a target of annual savings of 9.3 TWh by the year 2000. Energy efficiency and power system upgrading are priorities for serving future customer needs. Hydro-Quebec continues to promote hydroelectric power as the cheapest, most environmentally benign form of energy and future generating stations in progress include phase II of the LaGrande complex (to be completed 1996). 2 figs

  6. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brown, Marilyn A.

    2010-01-01

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  7. Metropolitan siting: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, D.F.

    1978-09-01

    The paper discusses the development and implementation of the Reactor Site Criteria and particularly the evolving posture of the agency on the subject of metropolitan siting. The review actions on nine sites are described to illustrate the various issues and positions and to clarify at least some of the bases for current practices of the NRC staff

  8. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae asociadas con viviendas de la ciudad de México (Zona Metropolitana Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae associated with houses in México city (Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gabriel Durán-Barrón

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La ecología urbana es un área de investigación relativamente reciente. Los ecosistemas urbanos son aquellos definidos como ambientes dominados por el hombre. Con el proceso de urbanización, insectos y arácnidos silvestres aprovechan los nuevos microhábitats que las viviendas humanas ofrecen. Se revisaron arañas recolectadas dentro de 109 viviendas durante los años de 1985 a 1986, 1996 a 2001 y 2002 a 2003. Se cuantificaron 1 196 organismos , los cuales se determinaron hasta especie. Se obtuvo una lista de 25 familias, 52 géneros y 63 especies de arañas sinantrópicas. Se utilizaron 3 índices (ocupación, densidad y estacionalidad y un análisis de intervalos para sustentar la siguiente clasificación: accidentales (índice de densidad de 0-0.9, ocasionales (1-2.9, frecuentes (3.0-9.9 y comunes (10 en adelante. Se comparan las faunas de arañas sinantrópicas de 5 países del Nuevo Mundo.Urban ecology is a relatively new area of research, with urban ecosystems being defined as environments dominated by humans. Insects and arachnids are 2 groups that successfully exploit the habitats offered by human habitations. We analyzed the occurrence and densities of spiders found in houses in México City. We used material collected between 1985 and 2003. We recorded 1 196 spiders from 109 houses. The list includes 25 families, 52 genera and 63 species of synanthropic spiders. Indices of ocupation, density and seasonality, as well as rank analyses were used to make the following classification of synanthropism: accidental (density index 0-0.9, occasional (1-2.9, frequent (3.0-9.9 and common (10 or more. The synanthropic spider faunas of 5 New World countries are compared.

  9. Quebec energy development in a sustainable development context; Le developpement energetique du Quebec dans un contexte de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.

    2010-09-15

    Quebec is a net importer of oil and it is clear that the reduction of its dependence with regards to hydrocarbons must be a main preoccupation. Moreover, the energy consumption per habitant of Quebec is higher than that of the majority of the other developed countries. This analysis looks at the choice on offer to the society of the province of Quebec, in terms of energy resources and technologies of today and tomorrow, in a context of sustainable development. [French] Le Quebec est un importateur net de petrole et il est clair que la reduction de sa dependance a l'egard des hydrocarbures doit etre une preoccupation de premier plan. De plus, la consommation energetique par habitant du Quebec est plus elevee que celle de la majorite des autres pays developpes. La presente analyse adresse les choix qui s'offrent a la societe quebecoise, en matiere de ressources et de technologies de l'energie d'aujourd'hui et de demain, dans un contexte de developpement durable.

  10. Hydro-Quebec line crew returns home from Haiti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, D.

    2005-04-01

    This article recounted the experience of a 14-member Hydro-Quebec line crew and support group that travelled to Haiti in November 2004 to help re-establish essential electricity services. The work was conducted together with Electricite d'Haiti (EDH). The team installed 400 poles, 10 km of conductors and 85 transformers, restoring service to water pumps; La Providence and Raboteau hospitals; a centre housing Doctors without borders; a CARE distribution centre; and several convents and schools. The installation of street lights at strategic points allowed lighting to be restored in several districts of Gonaives. Hydro-Quebec was able to extend their mission to Haiti and purchase more poles and transformers with the help of a $500,000 contribution from the Canadian International Development Agency. Hydro-Quebec was the only company who came to the aid of EDH. The total budget for the project was $4 million. 2 figs.

  11. Reasons for discontinuation of implanon among users in Buffalo City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons for discontinuation of implanon among users in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa: a cross-sectional study. Khungelwa Patricia Mrwebi, Daniel Ter Goon, Eyitayo Omolara Owolabi, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Eunice Seekoe, Anthony Idowu Ajayi ...

  12. Invitations to tenders from Hydro-Quebec: many projects, little MW?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turmel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Topics discussed include the regulatory and jurisdictional framework governing the tendering process, and the difficulties involved in filing applications. The roles of Hydro-Quebec, the Quebec government, and the Quebec government's economic regulation agency, Regie de l'energie were covered

  13. The Practice of School Psychology in Quebec English Schools: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Cindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In Quebec, school psychology is alive and well. This article outlines current challenges and opportunities related to the practice of psychology in Quebec English schools. Changes to the practice of psychology in Quebec over the last decade have had an impact on the delivery of psychological services in schools. Modifications of the admission…

  14. Net greenhouse gas emissions at Eastmain-1 reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Alain; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Helie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves; Roulet, Nigel; Strachan, Ian; Teodoru, Cristian

    2010-09-15

    The growing concern regarding the long-term contribution of freshwater reservoirs to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), led Hydro-Quebec, to study net GHG emissions from Eastmain 1 reservoir, which are the emissions related to the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period. This large study was realized in collaboration with University du Quebec a Montreal, McGill University and Environnement IIlimite Inc. This is a world premiere and the net GHG emissions of EM-1 will be presented in details.

  15. Streptococcus suis Meningitis: First Case Reported in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Michaud

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Very few Streptococcus suis infections in humans have been reported in Canada, although the condition is frequent in pigs. Meningitis, often accompanied by severe hearing loss, is the most common clinical manifestation. The disease is an occupational illness affecting persons in contact with pigs and may be underdiagnosed because of misidentification of the responsible bacterium. Since Quebec is the leading province for swine production in Canada, physicians and microbiologists should be aware of this infection, especially when a streptococcal meningitis is diagnosed in swine workers. The first case of S suis type 2 meningitis reported in Quebec is described.

  16. Quebec industry and climatic changes : Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Global climatic change is a phenomenon greatly influenced by greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activity and the natural greenhouse effect necessary to sustain life on the planet. Carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere now exceed the levels prior to the industrial revolution by 31 per cent. Half of this increase occurred during the past 30 years, while the average temperature increased by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees C. By using climate change models, scientists have linked this increase to the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and predict that the average temperature will rise by 1 to 3.5 degrees C during the next century with increases of 5 to 10 degrees C being felt in certain parts of Canada. In an effort to curb the emissions of carbon dioxide, the Quebec Industry Working Group on Climatic Change was created to represent different sectors of the industry, including energy, metallurgy, aluminium, cement, environment, mines, plastics, petrochemicals, pulp and paper, and manufacturing. The group worked at meeting the following objectives: (1) to examine the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases emissions in the industrial sector, (2) to propose and evaluate measures and initiatives for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions including their cost, impact and potential timetable for implementation, (3) to identify new and promising technologies in the field of greenhouse gases reduction, (4) to identify business opportunities and risks for industry in Quebec, and (5) to recommend an implementation strategy for the Kyoto Protocol for each sector, in terms of reduction measures that would be economical and in agreement with the various plans in place at the federal, provincial and municipal levels. A total of 22 recommendations were proposed covering the entire spectrum of the mandate. 15 tabs, 2 appendices

  17. Óbitos perinatais evitáveis e ambiente externo ao sistema de assistência: estudo de caso em município da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro Avoidable perinatal deaths and the environment outside the health care system: a case study in a city in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. G. Rosa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa compreender a contribuição de fatores do ambiente externo ao sistema de assistência na ocorrência de óbitos perinatais em maternidades, que em 1994, compunham a rede de atendimento obstétrico em um município da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Dividiram-se os elementos em quatro grupos de variáveis, para entender a relação entre falhas no atendimento e deficiências no ambiente externo e institucionalizado: repasse de recursos para custeio, fatores geográficos e temporais, características organizacionais e administrativas e ação/participação de grupos de interesse. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas. Os resultados indicaram as seguintes falhas: repasses de recursos para custeio insuficientes para manter cuidados de qualidade, sobretudo nos casos das maternidades privadas; nenhuma regionalização ou hierarquização formal ou informal dos cuidados obstétricos no município; desconhecimento das normas do Ministério da Saúde nas maternidades estudadas e as adotadas em três das quatro maternidades não faziam referência nem aos procedimentos para a admissão, nem ao seguimento do trabalho de parto, nem ao seguimento fetal e o nível de participação não era o efetivamente implementado.This paper focuses on the role of environmental factors external to the health care system in the occurrence of perinatal deaths in maternity hospitals belonging to the local health system in a city in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro in 1994. Elements from the political and administrative context that contribute to an understanding of the relationship between failures in health care and structural deficiencies in these maternity hospitals were divided into four groups of variables: distribution of resources, spatial and temporal factors, organizational and managerial features, and action by interest groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The study concluded that poor performance in four groups

  18. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city L’agriculture urbaine dans la métropole de Mexico Agricultura urbana en el área metropolitana de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Losada

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production systems: the suburban, which uses the “chinampa” to produce mainly vegetable and flowers; and the periurban system, which has two sub-systems, the “terraces” producing nopal-vegetable and maize and the “Valleys” producing tuna (fruit and amaranth. The wastes of other systems (straw  and manure are used in these places. The production systems combine pre-hispanic and modern tools, such as the tractor and coa. The products of these sites are sold in tourist areas of ecological importance. These technologies are reproducible, socially inclusive and environmentally friendly, but government support is needed.developing countries, recycling, sub-urban, peri-urban, Opuntia, chinampaMexico et le reste du Mexique n’échappent pas aux inégalités sociales et économiques induites par le modèle économique qui prédomine actuellement dans le monde entier. L’agriculture est une activité traditionnelle au Mexique. Ce processus de production urbain présente des caractéristiques particulières : prédominance de petits lopins de terre, utilisation limitée de l’espace et utilisation de matériaux et de déchets organiques recyclés. La population engagée dans l’agriculture est hétérogène et comprend des femmes et des enfants. Deux systèmes de production cohabitent : le système suburbain qui utilise les « chinampa » pour produire essentiellement des légumes et des fleurs ; et le système périurbain qui comprend deux sous-systèmes : les

  19. The Changing Influence of Educational Policy and Race on Metropolitan Inequality, 1970-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Schools do not receive much recognition within urban sociological research for the role they perform in shaping the demographic, structural, and social features of neighborhoods, cities, and metropolitan areas. In contrast, this article links schools, and the racial avoidance that operates through educational policy, to the extreme economic…

  20. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  1. Global Cities and Liability of Foreignness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability...... indicate that MNEs have a stronger propensity to locate in global cities than in metropolitan or peripheral areas, and that these locational choices are affected by institutional distance and industrial characteristics. The results provide empirical support for our argument that locating in a global city...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation....

  2. Population deconcentration in metropolitan Manila in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, W F; Bacol-montilla, M

    1981-10-01

    "The present analysis is intended to delineate the extent of population deconcentration through an examination of changes in core-periphery growth and density patterns within the Metropolitan Manila complex. Specifically, [the authors] examine changes in absolute and relative population growth and density levels in the central city of Manila, the inner suburban ring, and the outer suburban ring from 1903 to 1975. [The authors] also present a preliminary assessment of the demographic processes underlying the post-World War II trends." Data are from the 1975 Philippine census. excerpt

  3. A Tale of Two Logics: Social Reproduction and Mobilisation in University Access in Quebec, 1945-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, Benoît; Doray, Pierre; Bastien, Nicolas; Chenard, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The 2012 Quebec students' protests against university tuition fees fostered a debate on access to higher education in Quebec, and specifically on the Quebec "educational lag". Using census data, we show that degree-holding is the same among Quebec French-speaking and Ontario English-speaking populations. Using event history analysis, we…

  4. Tri-Cities Index of Innovation and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Richard A.; Scott, Michael J.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2011-01-17

    In 2001 and 2004, the Economic Development Office of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory published companion reports to the Washington Technology Center Index studies that provided additional information on the Tri-Cities (Kennewick-Richland-Pasco) area of the state, its technology businesses, and important advantages that the Tri-Cities have as places to live and do business. These reports also compared the Tri-Cities area to other technology-based metropolitan areas in the Pacific Northwest and nation along critical dimensions known to be important to technology firms. This report updates the material in these earlier reports, and highlights a growing Tri-Cities metropolitan area.

  5. Two Related Occupational Cases of Legionella longbeachae Infection, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Élisabeth; Lord, Judith; Lalancette, Cindy; Marchand, Geneviève; Levac, Éric; Lemieux, Marc-André; Hudson, Patricia; Lajoie, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with no exposure to gardening compost had related Legionella longbeachae infections in Quebec, Canada. Epidemiologic investigation and laboratory results from patient and soil samples identified the patients’ workplace, a metal recycling plant, as the likely source of infection, indicating a need to suspect occupational exposure for L. longbeachae infections. PMID:27314946

  6. Proposed Hydro-Quebec development plan, 1993: Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Quebec government now requires Hydro-Quebec to submit a development plan every three years instead of annually, in order to permit more in-depth studies and a broader consultation with interested parties. In the first of such three-year plans, a series of plan proposals is presented which was developed after a year of consultation with various groups on four fundamental matters: energy efficiency, means of generation, electro-intensive industries, and electricity exports. Options for meeting future demand at Hydro-Quebec are assessed, including the construction of new generation and transmission facilities, rehabilitation of existing facilities, improving electrical energy efficiency, and conservation strategies. These options are considered while applying the principle of sustainable development that respects the environment. Hydroelectricity will continue to be emphasized as the main source of generation since hydroelectric facilities offer distinct advantages in terms of costs, environmental impacts, and economic spinoffs. The proposed plan also presents objectives and strategies for improving the quality of service and internal operations. Financial forecasts for Hydro-Quebec are proposed which take into account the forecast changes in the utility's cost and revenue factors and its self-financing requirements. 5 figs., 15 tabs

  7. An Asset Management System for School Buildings in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Dino; Marchand, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Presented here are the major reasons why an asset management system (AMS) is needed, a brief history of their evolution and a description of the initiative undertaken by Quebec to implement such a system. The appendix contains the recommended basic requirements for an asset management system. (Contains 1 figure and 4 footnotes.)

  8. Student Organizations in Canada and Quebec's "Maple Spring"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin-Caouette, Olivier; Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two major objectives: to describe the structure of the student movement in Canada and the formal role of students in higher education governance, and to describe and analyze the "Maple Spring," the dramatic mobilization of students in opposition to proposed tuition fee increases in Quebec that eventually led to a…

  9. Mandatory Driver Training and Road Safety: The Quebec Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Louise; And Others

    1988-01-01

    1983 legislation making driver training courses mandatory for any person in Quebec seeking a first driver's license had no effect on the risk of accident or the mortality/morbidity rate for newly licensed drivers over 18. However, since 1983 more women under 18 are becoming licensed, and their risks may be increased. (Author/BJV)

  10. Status of wind energy in Nordic communities in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumel, J.L. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Wind Energy Group

    2003-07-01

    Remote and nordic communities in Quebec include Inuit villages, the Lower North Coast, Anticosti Island, Magdalen Islands, and the James Bay region. Annual wind speed in each of these communities is more than 8.5 m/s which is ideal for wind power generation. However, wind energy projects that were underway have been abandoned for a variety of reasons. Hydro-Quebec has decided to invest in power lines to link villages in the Lower North coast. The electric utility is not interested in wind energy for the Magdalen Islands because of an existing large diesel power station. Likewise, Anticosti Island has a completely automated small diesel plant. Nordic Innu Villages are making money with fuel sales to Hydro-Quebec and have no economic interest in wind energy. Other barriers to development include a lack of government support and lack of interest in small wind projects. In addition, turbine manufacturers have not lobbied for wind energy development in Quebec's nordic communities. However, the potential exists for future development as innovations are rendering wind power more adaptable to community needs. Off-grid technology is also available. 2 figs.

  11. [An essay on Quebec's demographic development from 1534 to 2034].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, H

    1984-04-01

    A general review of the development of the population of Quebec since 1534 is presented in the form of separate summaries for each 50-year period. Topics discussed include sources of data, estimates of the North American Indian population, and estimates of immigration. Some consideration is given to projections to the year 2034. (summary in ENG, SPA)

  12. The potential for electricity market restructuring in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Leach, A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, electricity market liberalization has taken place or is currently underway. However, in Canada, the province of Quebec has undertaken limited restructuring measures. Considerable debate as to the potential for further market restructuring has been ongoing. This article discussed the potential for future electricity market restructuring in Quebec where competition in electricity supply has resulted in 3 categories of supply distribution, including a block of energy and power known as the heritage pool. This article considered the political economy of the abolishment if the heritage pool requirement, which caps wholesale prices. The article presented a statistical overview of Quebec's electricity market and discussed the regulatory environment. It also identified the potential for market restructuring and the establishment of a competitive wholesale market. It was concluded that Quebecers could significantly benefit from any restructuring initiative that involved the elimination of the Heritage Pool requirement if the extra rents were properly redistributed and that production sector restructuring would be difficult. 37 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  14. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  15. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Forecast electricity demand in Quebec: Development plan 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Demographic, economic, and energy prospects are the determining factors in estimating demand for electricity in Quebec. In average scenarios developed for 1992-2010, the Quebec population will grow 0.5%/y and the gross domestic product will increase 2.6%/y. Firm electricity sales by Hydro-Quebec will grow to 197.9 TWh by 2010, or 2.2%/y. Sales in the residential and farm sectors should grow 1.3%/y and sales in the general and institutional sectors should rise by 2.2%/y. Electricity demand in the industrial sector, rising at an estimated 2.9%/y in 1992-2010, is chiefly responsible for the anticipated growth in Hydro-Quebec's overall sales. The nonferrous smelting, refining, chemicals, and paper industries will account for ca 60% of this growth. In the municipal services and public transportation sectors, demand should grow 3.3%/y, and over half the growth forecast in this sector can be attributed to the impact that new uses of electricity are expected to have after 2005. High- and low-growth scenarios offer alternative visions of demand growth based on different but equally valid assumptions about demographic and economic growth. In terms of firm electricity sales, the high- and low-growth scenarios differ by 50 TWh in 2010. Hydro-Quebec has retained two strategic orientations that will influence growth in electricity sales: the development of industrial markets and extension of the energy-savings objective of 9.3 TWh forecast to the year 2000. Taking these two orientations into account, the growth rate for electricity sales in the average scenario would be 1.8%/y rather than 2.2%/y. 25 figs., 81 tabs

  17. The implications of the nuclear option in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, P.A.; Boivin, M.

    1979-10-01

    Problems concerning the nuclear option as a component of the energy balance of Quebec are presented. The demand for electrical energy for the periods 1977-1985 and 1985-2000, the energy resources of Quebec, and an analysis of nuclear fission energy are considered. In 1978 65.5 percent of Quebec's energy needs were supplied by imported petroleum, 7.1 percent by imported gas, and 1.4 percent by imported coal. Hydroelectricity supplied 21.9 percent of the energy budget in 1976. According to projections electricity's share will be around 41 percent in 1990 after conservation, and approximately 50 percent in 2000, while petroleum and gas will have 44 percent, new energies 5 percent, and coal 1 percent. The acceptability of nuclear power can be broken down into six factors, for each of which a decision criterion can be recognized: technical feasibility, economic feasibility, security of supply, side effects for Quebec, human and ecological risks, and socio-political factors. The first four criteria are acceptable and even in certain cases desirable. The acceptability of risks is subjective and should be a collective decision, and therefore is policitcal. Even if Quebec does not need nuclear at the present or in the next decade, it is still a form of energy which it will be necessary to come to terms with eventually. Thus it is important to maintain the capacity to have recourse to it, and to start a program of public dialogue by setting up a 'Permanent Council for Energy Forecasting'. The democratic participation of a well-informed population in a neutral and objective nuclear debate is thus essential. (LL)

  18. Marginal-cost pricing for Hydro-Quebec residential customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquin, C.

    1994-02-01

    An option available to governments and to utilities such as Hydro-Quebec for responding to objectives of energy efficiency is the adoption of marginal cost pricing. Compared to currently used price structures, marginal cost pricing will allow improvement of price signals and assure an optimal utilization of the resource. That type of pricing could be economically beneficial but may not be desirable from the point of view of revenue distribution. Taking account of Hydro-Quebec's cost structure, pure marginal cost pricing would generate an income that would be strongly contested on equity grounds. For example, it would raise prices 60% for residential customers. Faced with this possibility, an analysis is presented of the impact of a peak-offpeak pricing (or pure marginal cost pricing) on Hydro-Quebec's residential customer energy bills. The marginal costs of Hydro-Quebec are calculated by the method of Bernard and Chatel (1985) and analysis of the results is based on Friedman and Weare (1993). A sample of 28,417 residential customers from a 1989 Hydro-Quebec survey is used in the study. Two scenarios are analyzed; the first allowing comparison of the energy bill only on the basis of marginal costs and of average costs, and the second allowing comparison of the impact of marginal cost pricing on the total bill. In the first scenario, the impact translates into a 31% increase in energy bills for the entire customer class considered; in addition, this impact is inversely proportional to the revenue class. In the second scenario, the increase is 24%. 33 refs., 10 figs., 53 tabs

  19. Think-Tank: The Present and Future of University Adult Education Programs in Quebec. Proceedings = Journee d'etude: le present et l'avenior des programmes universitaires en andragogie au Quebec. Rapport (Montreal, Quebec, April 26, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Pierre; Heft, Riva

    These proceedings, presented in English and French, summarize a seminar on the present and future of adult education programs in Quebec. Six Quebec universities were represented. The conference was opened by Dr. Pierre Simon, who introduced the theme and rationale of the day-long workshop. Dr. Charles Bertrand welcomed the participants,…

  20. Social Studies in Quebec: How to Break the Chains of Oppression of Visible Minorities and of the Quebec Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Despite having multiculturalism as a core value, the province of Quebec has significant issues affecting the inclusion of visible minorities, such as positive discrimination, reasonable accommodation, and the fact of cultural divide. The presence of these minority groups brings out the tension between respecting differences and protecting…

  1. From smart city to smart destination. The case of three Canadian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bédard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several cities around the world are self-proclaimed "smart" by integrating, in varying degrees, new technologies in the different spheres of the city. Nevertheless, despite this effervescence around the smart city, the concept requires more conceptualization from the researchers. This is even more important when it comes time to distinguishing between smart city and smart destination. The relationship between these two concepts is blurred and the transition from the smart city to the smart destination is not automatic. This situation is explained by the fact that the intrinsic characteristics of their respective target populations, being the citizens and the tourists, are different. This article compares three Canadian cities in the province of Quebec with the aim of demonstrating that the realization of a smart destination project requires the adaptation of governance structure and the involvement of all the stakeholders and more particularly in tourism.

  2. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Metropolitan City of Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... traffic intersection where they were both poor and very poor (D-E). The results suggest that strict and appropriate vehicle emission management, industrial air pollution control coupled with close burning management of wastes should be considered in the study area to reduce the risks associated with these pollutants.

  3. Hydro-Quebec annual report, 1991. Hydro-Quebec rapport annuel, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This annual report for the Quebec electric utility presents an overview of the year's activities and its financial status, including export sales of electricity to New Brunswick, Ontario, New York State, and the New England states. Research programs and demonstration projects are described, as well as the utility's activities in Africa and Asia. Environmental and economic considerations for the province are presented. Financial data includes total sales, sales by sector, export sales, and rate changes. A financial statement is included. In 1991, public controversy arose over electricity exports, risk-and-profit sharing contracts with some industrial customers, and the impacts of hydroelectric development. A net income of $760 million was achieved, representing an 88.1% increase over the previous year when exceptional measures were required to offset cumulative years of low runoff. These measures were suspended in late 1990 but low 1991 precipitation forced the continued purchase of backup electricity. Energy efficiency programs resulted in savings equivalent to energy consumed by a town of 13,000 people. Exports accounted for 7.2% of total sales in 1991. The first three generating units of LaGrande-2-A, totalling 999 MW, were commissioned. The groundwork has been laid for the vast corporate strategy of total customer satisfaction entitled Defi performance. In 1991, annual interruption time per customer dropped to 5.32 hours. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Retrospective study (1991-2005, of canine babesiosis cases in Salvador city and Metropolitan Region, Bahia. Estudo retrospectivo dos casos de babesiose canina na cidade de Salvador e região metropolitana, Bahia, no período de 1991-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Maria Paraná da Silva Souza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the frequencies of dogs infected by Babesia spp, based on suspicious clinical cases of hemoparasitosis recorded by veterinary doctors in the city of Salvador and Metropolitan Region, Bahia, from September 1991 to February 2005. 7243 record files from suspicious cases were analyzed for hemoparasites on Giemsa-stained blood smears, 33.95% of that showed positive result for the presence of Babesia spp. Higher frequencies of infection were detected in Akita Inu 48.61%, Pitbull 46.91%, Rottweiler 42.23%, Cocker Spaniel 41.93%, not defined breed 41.60% and Boxer 40.47% breeds. The frequencies of Babesia spp. infected dogs by age groups were high for those under twelve months old (42.87%, followed by twelve to forty eight months old dogs (34,63% and over forty eight month old dogs (34.38%. The result confirmed that Canine Babesiosis is endemic in this area and more studies are necessary to understand the epidemiology and furthermore to optimize control strategies.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a freqüência de raça, sexo e idade de cães infectados por Babesia spp., baseado na casuística clínica (casos suspeitos de hemoparasitoses registrada por médicos veterinários, no período de setembro de 1991 a fevereiro de 2005, na cidade de Salvador e Região Metropolitana, Bahia. Foram analisadas 7.243 fichas de requisição para exame laboratorial de cães suspeitos de infecção por hemoparasitos, destas 33,95% possuíam o registro de resultado positivo quanto à presença de Babesia spp. em esfregaço sangüíneo e coloração pela técnica de Giemsa. Cães com idade de até 12 meses e da raça Poodle se destacam por apresentarem uma maior freqüência de positividade.

  5. Molecular Typing of Legionella pneumophila Isolates in the Province of Quebec from 2005 to 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lévesque

    Full Text Available Legionella is found in natural and man-made aquatic environments, such as cooling towers and hot water plumbing infrastructures. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1 is the most common etiological agent causing waterborne disease in the United States and Canada. This study reports the molecular characterization of Lp strains during a 10 year period. We conducted sequence-based typing (SBT analysis on a large set of Lp isolates (n = 284 to investigate the province of Quebec sequence types (STs distribution in order to identify dominant clusters. From 2005 to 2015, 181 clinical Lp isolates were typed by SBT (141 sporadic cases and 40 outbreak related cases. From the same period of time, 103 environmental isolates were also typed. Amongst the 108 sporadic cases of Lp1 typed, ST-62 was the most frequent (16.6%, followed by ST-213 (10.2%, ST-1 (8.3% and ST-37 (8.3%. Amongst other serogroups (SG, ST-1327 (SG5 (27.3% and ST-378 (SG10 (12.2% were the most frequent. From the environmental isolates, ST-1 represent the more frequent SBT type (26.5%. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram from the 108 sporadic cases of SG1 contains 4 major clusters (A to D of related STs. Cluster B contains the majority of the strains (n = 61 and the three most frequent STs in our database (ST-62, ST-213 and ST-1. During the study period, we observed an important increase in the incidence rate in Quebec. All the community associated outbreaks, potentially or confirmed to be associated with a cooling tower were caused by Lp1 strains, by opposition to hospital associated outbreaks that were caused by serogroups of Lp other than SG1. The recent major Quebec City outbreak caused by ST-62, and the fact that this genotype is the most common in the province supports whole genome sequencing characterization of this particular sequence type in order to understand its evolution and associated virulence factors.

  6. Liberalization of electricity markets in Quebec and France: crossed prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    This essay focuses on the liberalization of electricity markets in Quebec and France. As in most Western states, Quebec and France have undertaken reforms to liberalize their domestic electricity markets. Starting from a similar arrangement, namely occupied by a state monopoly, the French and Quebecois markets have evolved into a more or less liberalized model. What were the changes brought about by these reforms? What reasons have motivated them? What is the functioning of the model in place in both states? What are the prospects for these markets? To identify the issues of these reforms, this essay will be divided into four chapters. The first chapter will discuss the organization of markets in Quebec and French before the liberalizing reforms: in addition to the organization as such, this chapter will address the reasons why the two states have chosen a market controlled by the state. It emerges from this chapter that both states nationalized and regulated the electricity market to promote economic development and quality standards for a service considered public. The second chapter will examine the genesis of liberalization reforms, the different models of market organization and a summary of selected experiences of liberalization that took place both before those of Quebec and France ones. The diversity of market models and the pitfalls have lived through some states raised the fact that successful liberalization reforms is a complex process. The third chapter will analyse the reforms that changed markets in Quebec and France and more specifically, the organization of the market that has resulted. It is established that if the two markets have been forced to reform themselves by forces outside the two states, the paths that were taken differ greatly. Finally, the fourth chapter will conduct an initial assessment of the reforms and provide some forecast for the future. The reforms that have taken place in both states have produced satisfactory results taking

  7. The wind resource assessment program in Quebec Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahawita, R.; Bilodeau, L.; Gaudette, M.; Gratton, Y.; Noel, R.; Quach, T.T.

    1982-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the wind resource assessment programme undertaken by the provincial power utility Hydro-Quebec, in Quebec, Canada. The methodology used in different phases of the project is enunciated and explained and the results discussed. Supplementary studies of airflow over complex terrain using numerical modelling are described and the results evaluated. Since the program is still far from completion, conclusive statements cannot, at this time, be made about the viability of the wind energy resource. However, tentative conclusions are that wind energy as an alternate source of energy for the province is likely to be commerciaally viable since two of the most important requirements viz, the presence of a good wind regime and the availability of suitable land are satisfied in many regions.

  8. Biomass energy: status and future trends for Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissonnette, V.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of biomass energy in the Province of Quebec was reviewed. For electrical energy production uses, biomass combustibles include peat, forestry, agro-food and urban waste products. These materials are used directly as combustibles in the production of electricity, or are first processed through gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion or fermentation into combustible products. In Quebec, 176.2 MW of electricity is produced yearly from biomass materials, mostly waste products of the forestry industry. New biomass avenues are actively being explored, including bio- gases produced from municipal landfill sites, gasification of used automobile tires and combustion of demolition waste. Although their contribution is minimal, biomass materials can nevertheless contribute a few hundred megawatts of energy to the Province's overall energy budget. 2 figs

  9. Economic impact of Hydro-Quebec's nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emard, R.

    1994-01-01

    Gentilly 2 nuclear power plant has benefited the regions of Becancour and Trois Rivieres, with spin-off at the provincial level. Gentilly 2 is Hydro Quebec's only nuclear plant. Its 675 MW provide nearly 3% of Hydro Quebec's production. Over 664 permanent jobs were created, 70% of them highly specialized and multi-skilled. In 1993, out of C$99 spent, 57.3 were for wages, 16.3 for equipment and supplies (including fuel and heavy water), 18 for professional services provided by AECL and others, and the remainder included fees, permits, contract work, and miscellaneous. Gentilly 2 has fostered technological development and inventions which are used at other CANDU stations. 7 ills

  10. An environmental data base for all Hydro-Quebec reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has created two management positions specifically for reservoirs, namely Reservoir Ecology Advisor and Reservoir Management Advisor. To assist management decisions, a means was required of bringing together all existing environmental information for each reservoir operated by Hydro-Quebec, including storage reservoirs, auxiliary reservoirs and forebays. A relational database using Reflex software was developed on a network of Macintosh computers. The database contains five blocks of information: general information, and physical, physiochemical, biologic and socioeconomic characteristics for each reservoir. Data will be collected on over 100 sites, and the tool will form the basis for developing a medium-range study program on reservoir ecology. The program must take into account the physical, biological and socioeconomic aspects of the environment, as well as the concerns of management personnel operating the reservoirs, the local population, reservoir users, and various government departments. 2 figs

  11. The mining law in Canada and the situation in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daigneault, Robert

    2013-01-01

    As mining fields in Canada are various and numerous, the author proposes a presentation of the Canadian mining law. He first presents the administrative and legal organization of the Canadian territory with its Provinces, Territories, and sea beds. He briefly describes the distribution of constitutional competencies, outlines some geopolitical peculiarities (notably with respect to land tenure). He addressed the situation of the Quebec Province as far as the mining law is concerned. He notably comments cases which are a matter of public discussion: the acquisition of a mining permit (a claim) by a mining company in a residential area, the search for shale gas in the Saint-Laurent valley, the exploitation of oil sands, a project of pipeline. He comments the legal framework for a claim acquisition, the case of surface mineral substances, and the case of hydrocarbons. He presents and comments the legal regime of environmental authorizations in Quebec

  12. Internal migration effectiveness and income effectiveness in the most populous cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Parisi, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this study, migration data compiled by the Internal Revenue Serve (IRS) and the US Census Bureau for 2006-07 were used to analyse internal migration patterns using migration and income effectiveness for the counties containing the 25 most populous cities in the United States. The results indicated that both large metropolitan and rural counties have lost population and income due to migration. Small metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties closer to cities gained population and income. Counties in South Florida attracted a large number of higher-income migrants from the largest cities in the US. In the last 13 years, New York, Los Angeles and Chicago, the three most populous cities in the US, had negative migration effectiveness. Suburban areas and second-tier cities continued to attract people from large metropolitan areas.

  13. Strategies for the development of Quebec`s petrochemical industry: education and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, J.A. [Canadian Chemical Producer`s Association (Canada)

    1992-12-31

    One of the key challenges not only for the Quebec but for the Canadian petrochemical industry will be the challenge to increase the number of students pursuing science or engineering as fields of study. According to this author, there is a crisis in science and technology education in Canada. The ability of Canadian students to compete with their peers around the world is steadily diminishing as a result of the undue emphasis on student attitudes and self-esteem in Canadian schools, as opposed to European and Asian schools which focus on conveying specific skills. He advocates a shift in attitude away from simply more money spent on education towards concern with what and how well students are learning. It was suggested that the educational system must take into account the demands of the market place in fashioning the curricula. If students are to function in the real world where performance is evaluated, the educational system will have to change to reflect the fact that the market and society reward people in proportion to their contribution. The relationship between environmental concern and education was also explored, and the inclusion of environmental issues in the classroom curriculum was recommended. As a topic for curricula, the environment is subject to broad-ranging and often conflicting views regarding its problems and their causes, effects and remedies. Nevertheless, it is not a transient issue to be dismissed as a fad. Rather, it is an issue here to stay, hence it should play a more formalized role at all levels of the curriculum from primary schools to colleges and universities.

  14. Factors associated with HPV vaccination among adult women in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Marilou; Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Deceuninck, Genevieve; De Wals, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in North America and are associated with cervical cancer. A publicly-funded HPV immunization program was launched in the province of Quebec, Canada, in the fall of 2008. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with HPV immunization among young adult women not targeted by this program. A questionnaire was mailed to 2400 24-y-old women randomly selected from the Quebec provincial health insurance database and 56% responded. Factors associated with vaccination status were analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Few women had received at least one dose of HPV vaccine among the 1347 respondents. Age at first sexual intercourse ≥ 20 y, participating in cervical cancer screening, higher education level, being born in Quebec and some positive beliefs about HPV were associated with vaccination. The rate of immunization in women who had to pay for the HPV vaccine was very low and was associated with characteristics that are generally associated with a lower risk for HPV infection and cervical cancer. Efforts are needed to reach at-risk adult women.

  15. The petrochemical industry in Quebec : from yesterday to today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giard, P.

    1992-01-01

    A historical account of the development of the chemical industry in Quebec from the year 1800 to the present was presented. The emphasis was on the development of the petrochemical industry after 1945. The earliest signs of chemical manufacturing in Quebec appeared in 1800 with the opening of the Wadsworth and Lyman pharmaceutical laboratories followed by several manufacturers of soap, paint, sugar, rubber, cement and explosive products. In 1900 the acetylene-based carbon chemistry industry was established in the Shawinigan region. The petrochemical industry in Quebec was born in 1952 with the opening in Montreal of a cumene and phenol plant by Shawinigan Chemicals and British American Oil, peaking in 1976 with six producing refineries in east Montreal. At that time, Montreal represented the largest refining centre in Canada with a combined capacity of 600,000 barrels per year. Since then, four of these refineries have closed but the province remains an important centre particularly in the manufacturing of oil-derived plastic products. Tables and maps showing the development and distribution of petrochemical manufacturing and the location of oil pipelines in the Montreal area, at various times since 1946, are included. 11 figs

  16. Defense plan of Hydro-Quebec for extreme contingencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, Guilles; Bernard, Serge; Portales, Esteban

    2000-01-01

    In the last years, Hydro-Quebec it undertook an important program to improve the dependability of their net of energy transport. They concentrated the efforts on increasing the capacity of the net resist in the event of carries to an extreme contingency caused in general by multiple incidents or for successive disconnection of the lines of energy transport. To neutralize these contingencies, Hydro-Quebec it adopted a series of special measures that are contained under the general title of Plan of Defense for Extreme Contingencies. The objective of this plan is to detect the incidents that surpass the capacity of the net. It is completely automatic and it is based mainly in: A system of automatic disconnection of generation and tele-shot of loads; A system of automatic maneuver (opening and closing) of inductances shunt of 735 kw; A system of disconnection of loads for low voltage; A system of disconnection of loads for low frequency. The present document summarizes the orientations that there is taking Hydro-Quebec to protect its net in the event of extreme contingencies and it describes the different automatism that they are adopts, in particular the system automatic disconnection of generation and tele-shot of loads (RPTC) that is one of the main components of the defense plan. The system RPTC detects the simultaneous loss of several lines directly in 15 substations of 735 kw. It understands four places of automatic disconnection of generation and a centralized system of tele-shot of loads

  17. A hopeful Quebec gets ready to produce gaz naturel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.

    2010-01-01

    Quebec's natural gas industry is poised to expand as a result of a breakthrough well drilled in the Utica shale gas play in February 2010. The well has produced more than 12 million cubic feet per day. The Quebec Oil and Gas Association (QOGA) was formed in 2009, and has lobbied the provincial government to keep royalty rates at between 10 to 12.5 per cent. A task force has also been deployed to ensure the development of a prompt regulatory process. It is hoped that increased investment will encourage more drilling activity in the province. Quebec consumes approximately 200 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year. Increased sales are expected to come from new residential construction, where 1 in 5 homes are now being equipped with gas-fired heating. The QOGA is currently designing a training program for potential rig workers. Studies have indicated that gas royalties collected by the provincial government could exceed $1 billion per year in the future. 1 fig.

  18. Advisory panel on the proposed New Brunswick - Quebec electricity transaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    NB Power was faced with major financial and technical challenges in generation that would lead to significant rate increases over several years to come. In 2009, the governments of New Brunswick and Quebec proposed an agreement whereby Hydro-Quebec would acquire most of the assets of NB Power and provide a guaranteed electricity supply at a set price to the province. The proposal involved the sale of NB Power's hydro generation facilities, 2 diesel peaking plants and the Point Lepreau nuclear generating facility. It also included a guaranteed bulk electricity supply of 14 Terawatt-hours per year by Hydro-Quebec at a blended rate of 7.35 cents per kilowatt-hour. The new Brunswick government would retain ownership of the fossil-fuelled power plants, the NB Power transmission assets and the NB Power distribution assets and customer sales. A 6-person independent panel was asked to examine the proposal. This report addresses the proposed agreement as presented to the Panel up to January 26, 2010. The panel conducted an independent and objective examination of the financial implications; long-term effects on electricity rates; New Brunswick's control of energy policies; environmental impacts; short-and long-term risks and avoided risks; and benefits and costs to the provincial economy. The Panel drew its conclusions and recommendations on the basis of available information. The Panel concluded that the benefits to New Brunswick contribute to real and positive value to New Brunswick over business as usual. tabs., figs.

  19. The viewpoint of the big industrial consumers in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, L.

    2002-01-01

    The nature of the industrial market in Quebec was described along with a look at the competitive positioning of industrial electricity prices in the province. A discussion of the interventions made by the Association Quebecoise de Consommateurs Industriels d'Electricite (AQCIE) and the Association des Industries Forestieres du Quebec (AIFQ) for improving the competitiveness of industrial prices was provided. The plan designed to ensure the security of supply was reviewed, and advice was offered on ways to minimize the price increases, namely in the transmission, in the demand for review of transmission cost, and production. The author indicated that Hydro-Quebec was proposing the uniform cost structure without specific allocation of cost to the various functions of the network depending on the services offered. The proposed alternative is a grouped cost structure which would better reflect the costs incurred linked to the effective utilization of each of the major functions of the network. The author proposed an interim rebate of 25 per cent. Under the rebate policy, the author stated that the rebates must promote the optimum utilization of the network and the maximization of revenues rather than discouraging its use. tabs., figs

  20. Attack classification schema for smart city WSNs

    OpenAIRE

    García Font, Víctor; Garrigues Olivella, Carles; Rifà Pous, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Peer-reviewed Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many differe...

  1. Cape Town's central city development: A strategy of partnership and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Town's Central City (see Figures. 1 and 2), located between the city's harbour and the iconic slopes of Table. Mountain, has a vital role to play in transforming the wider metropolitan region into a more inclusive and opportunistic urban area. Stretching from Woodstock and Salt. River into the CBD and out into Green.

  2. Portrait of rural emergency departments in Quebec and utilisation of the Quebec Emergency Department Management Guide: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Archambault, Patrick; Légaré, France; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Ouimet, Mathieu; Dupuis, Gilles; Haggerty, Jeannie; Poitras, Julien; Tanguay, Alain; Simard-Racine, Geneviève; Gauthier, Josée

    2013-01-01

    Emergency departments are important safety nets for people who live in rural areas. Moreover, a serious problem in access to healthcare services has emerged in these regions. The challenges of providing access to quality rural emergency care include recruitment and retention issues, lack of advanced imagery technology, lack of specialist support and the heavy reliance on ambulance transport over great distances. The Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services published a new version of the Emergency Department Management Guide, a document designed to improve the emergency department management and to humanise emergency department care and services. In particular, the Guide recommends solutions to problems that plague rural emergency departments. Unfortunately, no studies have evaluated the implementation of the proposed recommendations. To develop a comprehensive portrait of all rural emergency departments in Quebec, data will be gathered from databases at the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services, the Quebec Trauma Registry and from emergency departments and ambulance services managers. Statistics Canada data will be used to describe populations and rural regions. To evaluate the use of the 2006 Emergency Department Management Guide and the implementation of its various recommendations, an online survey and a phone interview will be administered to emergency department managers. Two online surveys will evaluate quality of work life among physicians and nurses working at rural emergency departments. Quality-of-care indicators will be collected from databases and patient medical files. Data will be analysed using statistical (descriptive and inferential) procedures. This protocol has been approved by the CSSS Alphonse-Desjardins research ethics committee (Project MP-HDL-1213-011). The results will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and presented at one or more scientific conferences.

  3. Comparative Analysis of User-Generated Online Yelp Reviews for Periodontal Practices in Multiple Metropolitan Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan J

    2017-02-01

    Previously published research for a single metropolitan market (Austin, Texas) found that periodontists fare poorly on the Yelp website for nearly all measured metrics, including average star ratings, number of reviews, review removal rate, and evaluations by "elite" Yelp users. The purpose of the current study is to confirm or refute these findings by expanding datasets to additional metropolitan markets of various sizes and geographic locations. A total of 6,559 Yelp reviews were examined for general dentists, endodontists, pediatric dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, and periodontists in small (Austin, Texas), medium (Seattle, Washington), and large (New York City, New York) metropolitan markets. Numerous review characteristics were evaluated, including: 1) total number of reviews; 2) average star rating; 3) review filtering rate; and 4) number of reviews by Yelp members with elite status. Results were compared in multiple ways to determine whether statistically significant differences existed. In all metropolitan markets, periodontists were outperformed by all other dental specialties for all measured Yelp metrics in this study. Intermetropolitan comparisons of periodontal practices showed no statistically significant differences. Periodontists were outperformed consistently by all other dental specialties in every measured metric on the Yelp website. These results were consistent and repeated in all three metropolitan markets evaluated in this study. Poor performance of periodontists on Yelp may be related to the age profile of patients in the typical periodontal practice. This may result in inadvertently biased filtering of periodontal reviews and subsequently poor performance in multiple other categories.

  4. New Metropolitan Spaces and Metropolitan Strategies in the Face of Modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Salet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Au début du xxie siècle, les espaces urbains traversent une période de croissance et de transformation radicale. Les villes s’étendent de plus en plus. Leur configuration spatiale devient de plus en plus décentralisée et fragmentée. La dichotomie traditionnelle entre hiérarchie urbaine et périphérie est en train de disparaître. Les nouveaux espaces métropolitains sont caractérisés par des processus de segmentation et de spécialisation à distance ainsi que par des polarisations sociales qui structurent l’espace. Les tentatives de planification des villes-régions essaient de rééquilibrer ces processus qui font éclater la ville. Cet article explore brièvement les transformations métropolitaines actuelles en utilisant une approche générique. Il se focalise également sur les stratégies des métropoles pour affronter ces défis dans le cadre de situations institutionnelles variées, un peu partout en Europe. En troisième lieu, cet article interroge les effets potentiels des projets urbains sur un rééquilibrage des transformations urbaines. Comment les grands projets urbains sont-ils conceptuellement élaborés ? Comment les alliances d’acteurs qui les soutiennent se forgent-elles ? Comment les citoyens et les groupes sociaux sont-ils impliqués de manière à produire de nouveaux espaces plus intégrés ?At the beginning of the 21st century, urban spaces can be said to be in a stage of growth and radical transformation. Cities are highly expansive, both in scale and scope. The spatial configuration of urban spaces is, however, becoming more and more decentralised and fragmentary. The traditional dichotomy between urban hierarchy and periphery is disappearing. New metropolitan spaces are characterised by distance related processes of social and economic specialisation and segmentation, and often also by splitting social polarisation. The planning agendas in city regions are trying to make add more balance to the

  5. Recognition of management structure and spatial planning in Tehran metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Lalehpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan areas are concentrated and dense areas filled settlements and include a central urban region with its surrounding residences. Severity and complexity of issues in metropolitan areas along with intricacy and quantity of influential factors in these areas necessitate novel approaches and innovative solutions for comprehensive strategies and management coordination of land use in these regions. The present study has taken this approach to investigate management structure and spatial planning in Tehran metropolitan area. The study takes parameters like political and management decentralization, elements affecting urban management based on the sources of power and province and finally spatial domain of urban management into account. Findings revealed that decentralization in national management and political structure has limited tasks and authority of urban management. In this regard, a closer look at management structure and spatial planning of Tehran metropolitan are demonstrates that the government and its element dominate policy making, planning and spatial management of the city and inherent position of municipality and city council suffer weaknesses in their role as urban management. Results from investigating official tasks in urban management elements and their spatial domain reveals lack of coordination and Fragmentation in management structure and spatial planning in the region. The paper attempts to discuss these Fragmentation in the fields of management, function, politics and domains.

  6. Broadband availability in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years having a broadband connection has become essential for many Internet activities. As broadband increases in importance, it becomes imperative to assess how its use and availability may vary, especially in relation to issues such as geographic location. For rural areas in particular, the availability of broadband service is especially important. This research assesses broadband service availability in rural areas of Pennsylvania, USA. In particular, it examines the extent to which Digital Subscriber Line (DSL and broadband cable modem services are being deployed throughout rural Pennsylvania. It compares this deployment with the availability of such services in the state’s urban and metropolitan areas. The results of this research suggest that there is a “digital divide” in terms of broadband availability between rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. However, this “divide” is perhaps not as wide as might be expected. Thus, as broadband is becoming increasingly available in rural areas of the U.S. and throughout much of the rest of the world, this research concludes that while research must remain vigilant in terms of assessing advanced telecommunications availability in rural areas, future research should also be sure to focus on how such technologies can be used to promote economic and social concerns, including in relation to building online networks and diminishing social and professional isolation in rural areas.

  7. About the need of controlling the nitrogen oxides to reduce the formation of ozone in the metropolitan zone of Mexico city; Acerca de la necesidad de controlar las emisiones de oxidos de nitrogeno para reducir la formacion de ozono en la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torijano, E. F.; Vazquez, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The results obtained through the application of an air quality model: AQUAMI for the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, are presented. The model requires of a photochemical mechanism and the information regarding the total amount of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons emitted to the air during that time. In this way the maximum concentrations of ozone that can be reached for the possible ratios of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are obtained. The results are plotted and with them it can be determined that if the nitrogen oxide emission can be diminished, this will impact directly on the ozone emission. Furthermore, the evolution of another product derived of the presence of nitrogen oxides, the peroxiacil nitrate, which is irritant to the respiratory mucosa and to the eyes, is also presented. Through this simulation model the impact derived of the actions aimed at reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides and the release of hydrocarbons at the level of the formed ozone by the sunlight effect. With this basis the ecological impact of the actions such as the following, can be discussed: -improve the combustion process in all thermal equipment. -improve the quality of the fossil fuels utilized. -slightly modify the operational habits in the industrial sector trying that the intensive use of fuels be displaced towards the evening and night hours, when the sunlight incidence is less or null. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados obtenidos mediante la aplicacion de un modelo de calidad del aire: AQUAMI, para las condiciones de la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico. El modelo requiere de un mecanismo fotoquimico y de informacion concerniente a la cantidad total emitida de oxidos de nitrogeno e hidrocarburos, para un periodo especificado, asi como de la forma en que estos compuestos son emitidos a la atmosfera durante ese lapso. Se obtienen asi las concentraciones maximas que puede alcanzar el ozono para las posibles razones de hidrocarburos y oxidos de nitrogeno. Los

  8. About the need of controlling the nitrogen oxides to reduce the formation of ozone in the metropolitan zone of Mexico city; Acerca de la necesidad de controlar las emisiones de oxidos de nitrogeno para reducir la formacion de ozono en la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torijano, E F; Vazquez, A [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The results obtained through the application of an air quality model: AQUAMI for the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, are presented. The model requires of a photochemical mechanism and the information regarding the total amount of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons emitted to the air during that time. In this way the maximum concentrations of ozone that can be reached for the possible ratios of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are obtained. The results are plotted and with them it can be determined that if the nitrogen oxide emission can be diminished, this will impact directly on the ozone emission. Furthermore, the evolution of another product derived of the presence of nitrogen oxides, the peroxiacil nitrate, which is irritant to the respiratory mucosa and to the eyes, is also presented. Through this simulation model the impact derived of the actions aimed at reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides and the release of hydrocarbons at the level of the formed ozone by the sunlight effect. With this basis the ecological impact of the actions such as the following, can be discussed: -improve the combustion process in all thermal equipment. -improve the quality of the fossil fuels utilized. -slightly modify the operational habits in the industrial sector trying that the intensive use of fuels be displaced towards the evening and night hours, when the sunlight incidence is less or null. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados obtenidos mediante la aplicacion de un modelo de calidad del aire: AQUAMI, para las condiciones de la zona metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico. El modelo requiere de un mecanismo fotoquimico y de informacion concerniente a la cantidad total emitida de oxidos de nitrogeno e hidrocarburos, para un periodo especificado, asi como de la forma en que estos compuestos son emitidos a la atmosfera durante ese lapso. Se obtienen asi las concentraciones maximas que puede alcanzar el ozono para las posibles razones de hidrocarburos y oxidos de nitrogeno. Los

  9. Prevalência de sobrepeso e fatores associados em crianças ingressantes no ensino fundamental em um município da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise Mondini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a prevalência de sobrepeso e sua associação com fatores sócio-ambientais em crianças ingressantes na primeira série do ensino público fundamental do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2005. Sobrepeso foi definido pelo índice de massa corporal, segundo sexo e idade. As variáveis sócio-ambientais foram obtidas por meio de questionário aplicado junto às mães das crianças (58,6%. Associação entre sobrepeso e variáveis independentes foi verificada mediante técnica de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 17%. Obesidade materna (RP = 3,54; IC: 2,16-5,80, freqüência elevada de consumo de alimentos "não saudáveis" (RP = 2,12; IC: 1,30-3,45, assistir à televisão por mais de quatro horas/dia (RP = 2,08; IC: 1,03-4,20 e disponibilidade domiciliar per capita de óleo (cerca de três colheres sopa/dia (RP = 1,52; IC: 1,01-2,31 apresentaram-se como fatores independentes associados ao excesso de peso infantil. O ambiente familiar apresentou forte influência sobre a condição de sobrepeso em escolares ingressantes no ensino fundamental. Ações de prevenção e controle do sobrepeso deveriam envolver a instituição escolar e também os pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças.This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3

  10. Tendencia de los niveles de plomo en la atmósfera de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México: 1988-1998 Trends in atmospheric concentrations of lead in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City: 1988-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cortez-Lugo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las tendencias del plomo atmosférico asociadas a la eliminación paulatina del plomo de la gasolina y el uso de convertidores catalíticos en el auto transporte de la Ciudad de México, de 1988 a 1998. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de series de tiempo que incluye las mediciones atmosféricas de plomo que se obtuvieron, entre 1988 y 1998, de nueve estaciones de la red manual de monitoreo atmosférico de la Ciudad de México. Las intervenciones evaluadas fueron la introducción de gasolina Magnasin, el uso de convertidores catalíticos y el descenso en la concentración de plomo hasta su eliminación total de la gasolina utilizada en los auto transportes. Se describen las tendencias de plomo por monitor, por zona geográfica, utilizando un modelo de regresión que incorpora una estructura de auto-correlación. RESULTADOS: La introducción de gasolina sin plomo y de los convertidores catalíticos se asoció con un descenso en la concentración de plomo atmosférico en 23%, la reducción paulatina del plomo en la gasolina ocasionó una reducción acumulada de 89% en todas las zonas estudiadas. CONCLUSIONES: La introducción de la gasolina sin plomo ha logrado abatir las concentraciones ambientales de este contaminante de una manera importante.OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in airborne lead levels and their association with the control measures implemented from 1988 to 1998 to phase out lead from gasoline that included the introduction of a lead-free gasoline and the use of catalytic converters in automobiles in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data of atmospheric lead levels were obtained from the 9 field stations included in the local air quality monitoring network (RMMA. Trends for airborne lead are shown by monitor, monitoring area and for the entire metropolitan zone. Analysis of data was performed using linear regression models including autocorrelation analysis. The models were validated by standard diagnostic

  11. Metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    the boundaries of the city further out. With the opening of the suburban train lines in 1934, the until today known finger structure was consolidated. A regional strategy, the “Fingerplan”, incorporating this structure was elaborated in 1947, but individual motorisation eroded some of the principles. Still...... in Sweden, forming a cross-border region with around 3.5 mio. inhabitants....

  12. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.

    2011-12-01

    Salluit in Northern Québec (ca. 1300 inhabitants) faces difficult ground ice conditions for its development. The village is located in a U-shaped valley, along a fjord that was deglaciated around 8000 cal BP. The post-glacial marine limit is at the current elevation of 150 m ASL. Among the mapped surficial geology units, three contain particularly ice-rich permafrost: marine clays, till and silty colluviums. A diamond drill was used to extract 10 permafrost cores down to 23 m deep. In addition, 18 shallow cores (to 5 m deep) were extracted with a portable drill. All the frozen cores were shipped to Québec city where ground ice contents were measured and cryostructures were imaged by CT-Scanning. Water contents, grain-size and pore water salinity were measured. Refraction seismic profiles were run to measure the depth to bedrock. GPR and electrical resistivity surveys helped to map ice-rich areas. Three cone penetration tests (CPT) were run in the frozen clays to depths ranging from 8 to 21 m. Maximum clay thickness is ca. 50 m deep near the shoreline. The cone penetration tests and all the cores in clays revealed large amounts of both segregated and aggradational ice (volumetric contents up to 93% over thicknesses of one meter) to depths varying between 2.5 and 4 m, below which the ice content decreases and the salinity increases (values measured up to 42 gr/L between 4.5 and 6 m deep). Chunks of organic matter buried below the actual active layer base indicate past cryoturbations under a somewhat warmer climate, most probably associated with intense frost boil action, as widely observed today. The stony till has developed large quantities of segregation ice which can be seen in larger concentrations and as thicker lenses under boulders and in matrix rich (≥ 50% sand and silt) parts of the glacial sediment. As digging for a sewage pond was undertaken in winter 2008 by blasting, the clast-influenced cryostructure of the till could be observed in cuts and in

  13. Spaces of social with solidarity economy? The case of the Movement of the homeless Metropolitan and of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Zanca, Daniel; Jara Gómez, Kelly; Espinoza Malpartida, Giancarlos; Chirinos Quispe, Fredy; Méndez Leguía, Julio

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the existence of relations of social and solidarity economy within the Movement of the Homeless Metropolitan and Peru (MST-MP). This movement arises from the right to housing in the city of Lima and within the long historical process of land occupations occurred as part of the development of peripheral areas of various cities. The work analyzes four main themes: history and memory of the experience, organization and internal conflicts, relationship with actors of their en...

  14. Race and the Metropolitan Origins of Postsecondary Access to Four Year Colleges: The Case of Greater Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Smith, Suzanne M.; Coelen, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The inequities of residential segregation and their impact on educational opportunity are a national problem, but greater metropolitan Boston has a particularly problematic history in terms of the extent to which racial segregation has deeply divided the city into separate and unequal systems of opportunity. Despite decades of policy efforts to…

  15. Understanding heterogeneity in metropolitan India: the added value of remote sensing data for analyzing sub-standard residential areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.; Kuffer, M.; Pfeffer, K.; Sliuzas, R.; Karuppannan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the heterogeneity in metropolitan areas of India utilizing remote sensing data can help to identify more precise patterns of sub-standard residential areas. Earlier work analyzing inequalities in Indian cities employed a constructed index of multiple deprivations (IMDs) utilizing data from

  16. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1995 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project.......The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project....

  17. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1996 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC.......The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC....

  18. Evaluating the Impacts of Real-Time Information on Subway Ridership in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-21

    It is now common for transit operators to provide real-time information (RTI) to passengers about the location or predicted arrival times of transit vehicles. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) in New York City has recently made RTI avai...

  19. The Role of Small Cities in Shaping Youth Employment Outcomes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    economic development is not well understood. This research project will address this gap by exploring how small cities can shape employment outcomes for migrant youth, specifically for women and youth from non-metropolitan backgrounds.

  20. Budaya Konsumsi Remaja-Pelajar di Tiga Kota Metropolitan Pantai Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Mappiare

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to obtain a narrative description of students' thought patterns on their consumptive behaviors and the work ethos in self-management relating to their consumptive motives. The research was conducted using  focused ethnography on senior high school students in three Indonesian coastal metropolitan cities. Following, this research, a self-help book was constructed  increase students awareness of their"budgeting intelligence and their local wisdom.

  1. Assessing Tourist Resorts Surrounding Metropolitans Applying SWOT- AHP Models Case study: Malaga Resort

    OpenAIRE

    A. Movahed; S. Amanpoor; R. Zarei

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionToday, the urban concept is not understandable without resorts in different forms and the results of urban development and environmental problems have made the development ad existence of resorts unavoidable.Ahvaz is one of the metropolitan cities. For the reason of its pollution, oil-dependent industries, hot and humid weather, having a long hot and dusty season, the citizens have been encouraged to travel to other areas with better climate. Therefore, it is ne...

  2. A Quebec survey of issues in cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Neil; Ayoub, Joseph; Farley, Justine; Foucault, Claudette; Lesage, Pauline; Mayo, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of a cancer pain survey mailed to Quebec hematologist-oncologists and palliative care physicians in 1999. The survey was designed to sample views on the current status of pain management and on obstacles to the provision of adequate pain relief for patients. The survey, formulated by an ethics network centered at the Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, was distributed to all members of the Association of Hematologist-Oncologists of Quebec and to all physician members of the Quebec Palliative Care Association. Responses were obtained from 138 Palliative Care Association members (response rate 61%) and 76 hematologist-oncologists (response rate 45%). Major obstacles reported included inadequate assessment of both contributory psychosocial issues and severity of pain, patient reluctance to take opioids, and inadequate access to non-drug techniques for pain relief. Access to opioids was not regarded as a problem. Both groups felt generally competent in their ability to manage various aspects of cancer pain therapy. They gave little credit to their formal medical school or residency training. Fifty-six percent of the palliative care group and 57% of the hemato-oncologists rated their medical school experience as only "poor" or "fair" on a 4-point scale. Residency ratings were modestly better. We conclude that medical faculties should assign a high priority to teaching health professionals patient assessment techniques. Simple symptom assessment scales should be routinely used in oncology/palliative care practice. Medical school training in pain management is not highly regarded and should be enhanced. We also note that, based on response to the scenario of a patient presenting with severe pain, many physicians, while feeling competent in the use of opioids, may be overly conservative in their initial use.

  3. Hydro-Quebec 2004 annual report : growing strong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a consolidated review of the operations of Hydro-Quebec, with a focus on energy production, energy sales, and environmental commitment. Hydro-Quebec is a major producer, transmission provider and distributor of electricity, conducting research and promotional activities in energy and energy transformation and conservation. The Quebec government is its sole shareholder. The company is divided into six divisions and now competes freely with other power producers, while its transmission and distribution remain regulated. Sales totalled $10.7 billion, up 1.8 per cent over 2003. Net income rose to $2.4 billion, up $497 million over 2003, the increase being largely due to lower financial expenses and the disposal of interests in Noverco. Dividends declared amounted to $1.3 billion, or 55 per cent of net income. Cash from operations totaled $4.0 billion, Sources of revenue also included the sale of interests in Noverco, and investment in Meiya Power Company, with the consequent repayment of nearly $1 billion in debt. Major projects of 2004 included the start of operations at the Rocher-de-Grand-Mere generating station as well as work proceeding on Eastmain-1, Peribonka, Toulnustouc and Mercier. Other projects included a partnership with the Crees of Eeyou and the filing of the Energy Efficiency Plan 2005-2010. This annual report presented the company's financial performance, executive changes and reorganization. Financial statements included a review and analysis of financial transactions, the auditor's report as well as customary notes to the consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets, liabilities and capital. tabs., figs

  4. Spatial mismatch, wages and unemployment in metropolitan areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial mismatch hypothesis states that a lack of connection to job opportunities may affect an individual’s prospects in the labour market, especially for low-skilled workers. This phenomenon is especially observed in large urban areas, in which low-skilled minorities tend to live far away from jobs and face geographical barriers to finding and keeping jobs. This paper aims to investigate whether this negative relationship between spatial mismatch and labour market outcomes is valid in Brazil after controlling for individual characteristics. Our conclusions indicate that there is no clear relation between different measures of accessibility to jobs and the probability of being unemployed. However, for wages there is a clear correlation, which is stronger in larger metropolitan areas in the country. Given the exploratory nature of this work, our results still rely on strong identification hypotheses to avoid potential bias related to simultaneous location decisions of workers and firms within the city. Even if these conditions do not hold, the results are still meaningful as they provide a better understanding of the conditional distribution of wages and the unemployment rate in the biggest metropolitan areas of Brazil.

  5. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  6. Origine Historique de la Situation Linguistique Quebecoise (Historical Origins of the Language Situation in Quebec)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Jean Claude

    1976-01-01

    The language situation in Quebec is discussed from the point of view of the influence of the British conquest, the history of education in the province, the make-up of the working class, and the position of Quebec in the North American continent. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/CLK)

  7. CITTÀ METROPOLITANE E PROVINCE IN ITALIA: ORGANI, FUNZIONI FONDAMENTALI ED ESIGENZE DI RIDUZIONE DELLA SPESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cocozza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the problems derived from the metropolitan cities entities in Italy and the simultaneous reform of the provinces. These two issues are part of a broader and current Italian political debate related to targets for reduction of public spending and have to do with the achievement of a new order of local government different from that established in the Title V of the Italian Constitution after its 2001 reform. After an examination of previous attempts to regulate metropolitan cities entities, the article examines the aspects contained in decree law on spending review (d.l. n. 95/2012. In this way, the article aims to highlight both the difficulties and incoherencies of the identification of administrative functions and of the general structure to be assigned to the new level of government (the metropolitan city, provided in the Italian Constitution in 2001 but not yet established. Consequently, the article considers the effects that this new model has upon the other and already existing levels of government (such as municipalities, as provinces and as regions.

  8. Development of Quebec's energy in a sustainable development context : summary; Le developpement energetique du Quebec dans un contexte de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Lemieux, D.; Lambert, N.; Lachance, J.G. [Eco Ressources Consultants, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Bourque, F.; Benoit, P.A. [Reseau des ingenieurs du Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-04-30

    As a net energy importer, issues of energy security are becoming increasingly important in Quebec. Since Quebec's energy policy is largely based on the development of hydropower, its energy development has already been consistent with sustainable development. Industry remains the largest energy consumer in Quebec, followed by the transportation sector, and the residential, commercial and agricultural sectors. Total energy consumption in the province is expected to increase by 1.2 per cent annually between 2001-2016. Although competitive electricity prices in Quebec have contributed to strengthening the provincial economy, it has been argued that the low price of electricity does not promote energy efficiency nor the development of alternative energy sources. Quebec imports all of its crude oil and natural gas. Energy production in the province is currently confined to electricity generation and refining of petroleum products at 3 main refineries. In 2005, the installed electrical capacity was 92.2 per cent hydropower, 5.3 per cent thermal power, 1.5 per cent nuclear power, and 0.9 per cent wind power. The vast majority of this installed capacity (78 per cent) is owned by Hydro-Quebec. Wind capacity is expected to reach 3,500 MW by 2017, representing about 8 per cent of Quebec's total electrical capacity. Guidelines have been identified in Quebec's energy strategy for 2006-2015 to promote energy efficiency and innovation of new energy technologies covering all markets and all forms of energy, including geothermal energy, solar energy and ethanol produced from forest residues, agricultural wastes and municipal wastes. The government's overall goal is to generate both energy savings and a reduction in annual greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Analysis of the Hydro-Quebec development plan 1992-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.; Genest-Laplante, E.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1992, the Quebec provincial utility Hydro-Quebec presented its development plan for the 1992-2010 period and shortly thereafter introduced its 1993-1995 energy efficiency commitments. The plan is analyzed using a model that incorporates the main institutional features of electricity price setting. Two scenarios are constructed. The first incorporates Hydro-Quebec's electricity demand forecast and the second allows electricity demand to respond to its price. A comparative analysis shows that electricity demand in the province should increase faster than forecast by Hydro-Quebec until 2010. In fact, demand could exceed the predicted level by ca 16 TWh, or 8.6%. This larger increase is due to a fall in the real price of electricity, itself caused by a government imposed fall in the real unit cost of the utility's operation. This last constraint is the real challenge faced by Hydro-Quebec. 12 refs., 7 tabs

  10. CNS members promoting nuclear energy in public debate - an example from Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franta, J.; Sabourin, G.; Saint-Denis, M.

    2006-01-01

    For approximately two years, several members of the Quebec branch of the Canadian Nuclear Society have publicly expressed their views in favour of nuclear energy in Quebec. This paper summarizes their participation in the BAPE public hearings on the environment ('Bureau d'Audience Publique sur l'Environnement'), in the hearings of a Quebec Parliamentary Commission on economy and labour, and in the United Nations Conference on Climate Change in December 2005 in Montreal. The focus is mainly on a debate around the possible refurbishment of the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, the only operating nuclear plant in Quebec. Antinuclear groups are well organized and their message is transmitted loudly to the public by the mainstream media. Industry professionals must therefore express themselves publicly to counterbalance this biased message. In conclusion, we see a need for the formation of a coalition of all who support nuclear power in Quebec to support the refurbishment of Gentilly-2. (author)

  11. CNS members promoting nuclear energy in public debate - an example from Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, J.; Sabourin, G.; Saint-Denis, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    For approximately two years, several members of the Quebec branch of the Canadian Nuclear Society have publicly expressed their views in favour of nuclear energy in Quebec. This paper summarizes their participation in the BAPE public hearings on the environment ('Bureau d'Audience Publique sur l'Environnement'), in the hearings of a Quebec Parliamentary Commission on economy and labour, and in the United Nations Conference on Climate Change in December 2005 in Montreal. The focus is mainly on a debate around the possible refurbishment of the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, the only operating nuclear plant in Quebec. Antinuclear groups are well organized and their message is transmitted loudly to the public by the mainstream media. Industry professionals must therefore express themselves publicly to counterbalance this biased message. In conclusion, we see a need for the formation of a coalition of all who support nuclear power in Quebec to support the refurbishment of Gentilly-2. (author)

  12. Small-town migration to metropolitan centres: a case in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Boon Thong

    1979-12-01

    active migrants to the metropolitan areas was the production workers, comprising mostly laborers, building construction workers, and factory operators. 2 other important groups were sales workers and service workers. Rather than concentrating total emphasis on large urban centers, authorities should divert a portion of their developmental efforts to small towns as part of overall comprehensive urban planning. Economic revitalization of the small towns can take many forms, such as encouraging craft industries, investing labor intensive industries, or offering incentives to industries. Small towns should be given a unifying role within the city rural framework.

  13. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  14. Quebec's petrochemical industry: prospects and challenges: proceedings of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A review of the present status of Quebec's petrochemical industry was presented, including an historical perspective of the development of the industry. In terms of economic importance, the petrochemical industry in the province of Quebec occupies fifth place and is primarily concentrated in the Montreal region. The industry peaked in 1976 with six producing refineries in east Montreal. At that time, Montreal represented the largest refining centre in Canada with a combined capacity of 600,000 barrels per year. Although four of these refineries have closed, the province remains an important centre particularly in the manufacturing of oil-derived plastic products. The objective of this workshop was to throw light on the challenges and the strategic economic potential of the Montreal region, to obtain the views of experienced industry insiders regarding the extent of changes that globalization of the industry has produced and the kind of conditions that would have to be created to ensure that the Montreal region can continue to compete in the global market place. Recent initiatives and investments by the Canadian Government in the petrochemical sector were also summarized. tabs., figs

  15. El actor aglutinante: Nacionalismo y sociedad civil en Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Giori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reconstruct the history of civil society in Quebec (Canada to relate it with nationalism, the rise of the welfare state, trade unions, Catholic Church and civil society, the dynamic forces of society. Through in-depth interviews with key leaders, exploration of institutional archives and specific literature, we work with a particular case that, when compared to Catalonia, will allow us to evaluate the importance of civil society within nationalism. This actor is not usually considered as the central subject of researches and rarely token into account, unlike political parties, their leaders or intellectuals. Currently, in a context of crisis of the state and political parties, it has begun to be considered that civil society can be a key factor for its ability to produce alliances between sectors, build hegemony and dialogue directly with the population. The study is divided into four parts: 1 the development of the theoretical framework along with the construction of the object of study and the hypotheses; 2 an analysis about the importance of the involvement of civil society in the construction of the nationalist movement in Quebec; 3 a comparison with the Catalan case; and, 4 finally some conclusions.

  16. Rate proposal for 1993 and 1994 [Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In its development plan, Hydro-Quebec has the goal of aligning its average rate increases with the inflation rate over the period 1993-2000. The near- and long-term evolution of rates must also follow the evolution of the costs of supply and assure the financial stability of the utility. The average annual increase target prices for 1993-95 is 3.5%. In 1993, the increase in supply cost is attributable to startup of service from the LaGrande 2-A and Becancour stations, as well as to energy efficiency programs and improvements in quality of service. In 1994-95, supply cost increases are related mainly to the second phase of the LaGrande complex. The present rate proposal is for two years and assures that rates will not increase beyond the projected rates of inflation of 2.3% for 1993 and 2.7% for 1994. Hydro-Quebec also has a long-term objective of gradually reducing cross-subsidization that exists among different tariff categories. A slight differentiation of rate increases in the various categories is proposed to reduce this cross-subsidization. The proposed rate increases are expected to bring additional revenues of $152 million for 1993/94 and $186 million for 1994/95. 3 figs., 35 tabs

  17. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  18. Canadian federalism and the Canadian health care program: a comparison of Ontario and Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A

    1987-01-01

    The Quebec and Ontario health insurance and health service delivery systems, developed within the parameters of federal regulations and national financial subsidies, provide generally universal and comprehensive basic hospital and medical benefits and increasingly provide for the delivery of long-term care services. Within a framework of cooperative federalism, the health care systems of Ontario and Quebec have developed uniquely. In terms of vital statistics, the health of Ontario and Quebec residents generally is comparable. In viewing expenditures, Quebec has a more clearly articulated plan for providing accessible services to low-income persons and for integrating health and social services, although it has faced some difficulties in seeking to achieve the latter goal. Its plans for decentralized services are counter-balanced by a strong provincial role in health policy decision-making. Quebec's political culture also allows the province to play a stronger role in hospital planning and in the regulation of physician income than one finds in Ontario. These political dynamics allow Quebec an advantage in control of costs. In Ontario, in spite of some recent setbacks, physician interests and hospital sector interests play a more active role in health system bargaining and are usually able to influence remuneration and resource allocation decisions more than physician interests and hospital sector interests in Quebec.

  19. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius

    2016-01-01

    policies, and thus also to the instrumental orientation within planning. A challenge stemming from this comparison is to understand how similar policies are implemented at a strategic and metropolitan level. Within the institutional framework of Copenhagen, the problem with the Finger Plan directive might...... (Faludi & van der Valk, 1994), thus integrating the archetypal land-use character of municipal plans and the strategic and growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans. A number of questions may be deduced: How explicit is the metropolitan scale? How local and how regional is the knowledge basis? Within......Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...

  20. The Spatial Changes of Land Use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area 1970s – 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Simion

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explore the dimension of spatial changes of land use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area (BMA over the past forty years. Using GIS-based land use data sets of the years 1970, 1990 and 2000, combining with statistical data, we attempted to quantify the spatial pattern of land use changes in the BMA. Our findings indicate that most significantly changes occurred with arable lands that have been reduced from 77% of total metropolitan area in 1970 to 71.3% in 2000 and in same time the built up area increase from 6.2% in 1970 to 10.4% in 2000. Vineyards and orchards suffered a reduced of their spread. In the case of vineyards the percentage of total area decrease from 2.7% in 1970 to 0.8% and regarding orchards from 1.1% in 1970 to 0.6% in 2000. The growth of built up indicate the urban influence of Bucharest city on it the large metropolitan area. The decrease of vineyards and orchards can be correlated with agrarian reform passed after the fall of socialist economic system that generated many problems for the farmers that cannot continue to cultivate the land with these kinds of cultures. These findings have implication with the futures strategies on urban and metropolitan planning in this area.

  1. Polycentric Metropolitan Form: Application of a ‘Northern’ Concept in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Romein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 20th century, large urban areas in advanced economies have experienced a fundamental transformation from relatively compact monocentric cities towards more extended polycentric metropolitan areas. By now, it is being commented repeatedly, but not investigated systematically that the concept of polycentricity is also adequate to characterise recent metropolitan dynamics in Latin-America.This paper aims to present a few key-issues for a future research agenda into polycentricity in Latin-American metropolitan areas. These elements are identified from a review of existing literature. Since no clear-cut definition and operationalisation of polycentricity exist yet, we distinguish some key-elements of this phenomenon in North America as a frame of reference for this review. It reveals that ‘polycentricity U.S. style’ is at best dawning in Latin-America. In order to achieve a more appropriate picture of polycentricity of Latin American metropolitan areas, our ideas for a research agenda take into account these areas typical economic, social and spatial conditions.

  2. Impacts of and adaptation to GHG climate change on the ski and golf recreational activities and the tourism industry : a case study in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.; Bryant, C.; Andre, P.; Thouez, J.P.; Savoie, M.; Tapes, V.; Granjon, D.; Pecheux, I.; Davey, N. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-03-31

    The ski and golf industries in southern Quebec are 2 major sectors of the province's tourism industry and both are sensitive to climate change. The impacts that are attributable to future climate change can significantly affect the profitability and viability of these recreational activities in southern Quebec. This paper presented the results of detailed studies conducted in regions around Montreal, Quebec City and the Eastern Townships in which the diagnostic outputs of 2 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCM) were used to analyze the impact of climate change on the ski and golf industries. The models were used for 3 time periods: a control period from 1961 to 1990; a short term future period from 2010 to 2039; and a long-term future period from 2040-2069. The climate variables chosen for the impacts and adaptation studies included maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric humidity and wind speeds. Environment Canada provided the data for the control period, and the gaps for missing data were filled by regression analyses between neighbouring stations. The outputs of the 2 GCMs were used to determine the changes in the selected climate variables for the 2 future time periods. Irrigation requirements for the golfing season were calculated for each of the stations within the study area for the 3 time periods. The study showed that future climate change and variability will have significant impacts on these 2 key sectors in southern Quebec. The important changes in variety of key climate variables and parameters, mainly temperature and precipitation, will cause negative impacts, more so for the ski industry as opposed to the golf sector. There will be a significant reduction in the length of the ski season in the future, and snow-making may be the only possibility for some of the 84 ski centers in southern Quebec to continue to operate. However, less intense cold may favour the number of skiable days for certain centres

  3. Quebec petroleum regulations to be amended this spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Y.A.; Meighen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Amendments proposed by the Government of Quebec with respect to petroleum products regulations were described. The amending regulation provides a list of works which will no longer require ministerial authorization such as the removal of petroleum equipment, the installation of spill prevention systems, electrical works and repair of fueling areas, loading and unloading zones. An owner will not be required to remove an unused underground petroleum storage tank if it can be shown that it is impervious according to prescribed pressure tests, and that the period during which the equipment has been unused does not exceed five years. The draft regulations also provide precautionary measures that have to be taken prior to abandoning a tank

  4. Hydro-Quebec's survey on outage cost in industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naggar, R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 Hydro-Quebec completed a survey on the cost of power interruptions to its industrial customers. A total of 11,000 firms formed the base of the survey, which was reduced to 1,647 for analysis purposes. The questionnaire was designed around the concept of representation of knowledge. The costs of various situations were inferred for every enterprise on the basis of knowledge obtained through the surveys. The results of the survey describe the variation in costs of interruption as a function of time of occurrence, duration and advance notice. These costs are expressed in terms of a reference case by the equivalent hourly cost. The magnitude of the cost of the reference interruption is designated the reference cost of undelivered energy. This paper describes the methodology of the survey but does not include survey results. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Physical activity assessment and counseling in Quebec family medicine groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Paré, Alex; Poder, Thomas G; Brown, Christine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2018-05-01

    To determine how often primary health care providers (PHCPs) in family medicine groups (FMGs) assess physical activity (PA) levels, provide PA counseling (PAC), and refer patients to exercise professionals; to describe patients' PA levels, physical fitness, and satisfaction regarding their PA management in FMGs; to describe available PA materials in FMGs and PHCPs' PAC self-efficacy and PA knowledge; and to identify characteristics of patients and PHCPs that determine the assessment of PA and PAC provided by PHCPs. Cross-sectional study using questionnaires and a medical chart audit. Ten FMGs within the Integrated University Health Network of the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke in Quebec. Forty FPs, 24 nurses, and 439 patients. Assessment of PA level and PAC provided by PHCPs. Overall, 51.9% of the patients had had their PA level assessed during the past 18 months, but only 21.6% received PAC from at least 1 of the PHCPs. Similar percentages were found among the inactive (n = 244) and more active (n = 195) patients. The median PAC self-efficacy score of PHCPs was 70.2% (interquartile range 52.0% to 84.7%) and the median PA knowledge score was 45.8% (interquartile range 41.7% to 54.2%), with no significant differences between nurses and FPs. In multivariate analysis, 34% of the variance in PAC provided was explained by assessment of PA level, overweight or obese status, type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, less FP experience, lower patient annual family income, more nurse encounters, and a higher patient physical component summary of quality of life. The rates of assessment of PA and provision of PAC in Quebec FMGs were low, even though most of the patients were inactive. Initiatives to support PHCPs and more resources to assess PA levels and provide PAC should be implemented. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  7. Cooling effect of rivers on metropolitan Taipei using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-23

    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  8. Exploitation of geospatial techniques for monitoring metropolitan population growth and classification of landcover features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.S.; Rahim, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The present research relates to the exploitation of Remote Sensing and GIS techniques for studying the metropolitan expansion and land use/ landcover classification of Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan where urbanization is taking place at a striking rate with inadequate development of the requisite infrastructure. Such sprawl gives rise to the congestion, pollution and commuting time issues. The metropolitan expansion, based on growth direction and distance from the city centre, was observed for a period of about thirty years. The classification of the complex spatial assemblage of urban environment and its expanding precincts was done using the temporally spaced satellite images geo-referenced to a common coordinate system and census data. Spatial categorization of urban landscape involving densely populated residential areas, sparsely inhibited regions, bare soil patches, water bodies, vegetation, Parks, and mixed features was done with the help of satellite images. Resultantly, remote sensing and GIS techniques were found very efficient and effective for studying the metropolitan growth patterns along with the classification of urban features into prominent categories. In addition, census data augments the usefulness of spatial techniques for carrying out such studies. (author)

  9. Urban mobility, socioeconomic and urban transport variables in metropolitan areas in three continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de; Nassi, C.D.

    2016-07-01

    Transportation is the soul of urban cities. Find sustainable ways to keep people moving in our cities is more important than ever. Historically, cities have developed in different ways. Each has its own personality and complexity. But in all cases, transport and mobility have played a key role in city life. Due to the relevance of mobility this article tries to establish the relationship between some variables. The method was developed by collecting, analyzing and comparing data on metropolitan regions in North America, South America, Europe and Oceania through a mathematical model. From each selected location the following data were gathered: population, area (km²), demographic density (inhab/km²), socio-economic aspects (annual GDP per capita), transport system (subway extension), number of trips per person per day and modal split (% non-motorized, % public transport and % private transport). In this study we analyze some variables that influence the number of trips per person per day. Understanding the associations between all the variables that influence the number of trips per person per day contributes the planners to determine whether changes are needed to improve in the transport system in the metropolitan region. (Author)

  10. Comparison of electricity prices in major North American cities : rates effective May 1, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the major findings of a comparative evaluation of electricity prices in major North American cities, by customer category, based on rates in effect on May 1, 2001. Besides Hydro-Quebec, the comparison includes 21 utilities, of which 11 serve the major cities across Canada and 10 utilities located in 10 American states. Hydro-Quebec is one of the largest electric utilities in North America with one of the most extensive systems. Of the 190 billion kilowatt-hours delivered annually, 37 billion are exported to neighbouring provinces in Canada and to the United States. 93 per cent of the generating facilities are hydroelectric. The report covers consumption levels, taxes, optional programs, location, time-of-use rates, exchange rates, and other factors that affect electricity prices such as fuel adjustment clauses for utilities that produce electricity in thermal power plants. It was noted that Hydro-Quebec has frozen its rates until April 2002, keeping them at the same level as those set on May 1, 1998. The report showed that Hydro-Quebec has maintained a competitive position at a level similar to or better than previous years. Three of the 11 Canadian utilities implemented rate increases between May 1, 2000 and May 1, 2001, and 2 utilities reduced their rates. Two utilities modified their rate structure following deregulation. During the same time period, 3 of the 10 utilities in the United States increased their rates, and one reduced them. The rates in the United States varied regardless of increases or freezes because many utilities had incorporated adjustment clauses. Quebec residential consumers enjoy the second lowest rates in North America. Only Winnipeg ranked higher. Hydro-Quebec has also remained competitive when it comes to small, medium and large power customers. It ranked fifth for small power customers, third for medium power customers, and third for large power customers. tabs., figs., appendices

  11. Spatial variations in US poverty: beyond metropolitan and non-metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Kleit, Rachel Garshick; Cover, Jane; Fowler, Christopher S

    2012-01-01

    Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise. Given the number and concentration of poor people living in mixed-rural and rural counties in metropolitan regions, researchers and policy-makers need to pay more nuanced attention to the opportunities and constraints such individuals face. A cross-classification of the Office of Management and Budget’s metro system with a nuanced RUDC scheme is the most effective for revealing the geographical complexities of poverty within metropolitan areas.

  12. Lyme Disease: Knowledge and Practices of Family Practitioners in Southern Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Ferrouillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health authorities in Quebec have responded to the progressive emergence of Lyme disease (LD with surveillance activities and education for family physicians (FPs who are key actors in both vigilance and case management.

  13. Permafrost, palsas and frost-crack polygons, Salluit, Quebec, Canada, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset includes temperature conditions for ice-wedge cracking, Salluit, northern Quebec. Air temperature, soil temperature, wind speed and direction, July 1989...

  14. Memoir of the energy sector in Quebec : context, issues and questionings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a progress report on the directions and means taken by Hydro-Quebec to achieve its goals and fulfill its mission established in its strategic plan according to three areas of activities: distribution, transport and production of electricity. The document examines the safety and effectiveness of renewable energy sources such as hydroelectricity and wind. It discusses projects that are currently under development, advantages of the hydroelectricity, how to maintain the reliability of the grid system; how to ensure the availability and capacity of networks, and risk management connected to hydraulics. It examines Hydro-Quebec's contribution to economic development and creation of value for shareholders including its investment plan, partners and leadership efforts, the beneficial effects of purchasing wind power, safeguarding the competitive position of electricity, growing Quebec's exports of electricity, and how hydroelectricity provides important sources of value creation for shareholders and Hydro-Quebec. 2 figs., tabs., 5 appendices

  15. Management of New Symptoms of Dyspepsia in the Elderly in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques LeLorier

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To use the Régie de l'assurance-maladie du Québec (RAMQ database to study the clinical strategies used by Quebec physicians in the management of dyspepsia in the elderly.

  16. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  17. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Metropolitan Area of the Municipality of Bucharest. Present-Day Features Relating to Some Environmental Issues in an International Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INES GRIGORESCU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of metropolitan areas represents the main characteristic of today’s urban evolution trends. The first initiatives to delimitate and define metropolitan areas have been in the United States since 1910. In Europe, this concept was adopted at the beginning of the1990s when the United States had already had 250 metropolitan areas. Romania adopted the concept of metropolitan area in the late 1990s, namely in 1997 when a study on the Directions, Ways, and Intensities of Development in the Municipality of Bucharest and its Metropolitan Zone. Environmental protection politics appeared. This made public a point of view about the Bucharest metropolitan area, which was legally defined by Law no. 351 of July 6th 2001 regarding the National Territory Management Plan, Section IV – Settlements. But many other limits of this area were also taken into account. The uncontrolled evolution of the Bucharest Metropolitan Area as well as of many other European capital cities can be stopped or stabilized by developing green belts or green areas.

  19. Chalifoux Dairy and Hydro-Quebec, partners in innovation; Laiterie Chalifoux et Hydro-Quebec, partenaires dans l`innovation des entreprises quebecoises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-12-31

    Recently, Chalifoux Dairy of Sorel, Quebec, invested, with the help of Hydro-Quebec, in three new technologies to increase the energy efficiency of the production line. A summary of these technological improvements was presented. The three new technologies were induction heating pasteurization, ultraviolet sterilization and ultrafiltration. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) induction heating is now used to pasteurize cream and chocolate milk. This new pasteurization method has reduced product returns from 5 per cent to nil. UHT cream is packaged in small disposable containers that are previously sterilized by a radiant ultraviolet source. An ultrafiltration method also has been implemented for production of specialty cheese at the dairy. This process yields 20 per cent more production with 30 per cent less energy than traditional methods. Hydro-Quebec assisted Chalifoux Dairy with a subsidy of $596,000 for these energy-efficiency modifications.

  20. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  1. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  2. Seismic Microzonation of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Khan, M. Asif

    2018-01-01

    Microzonation deals with classifying seismic hazards in terms of ground motions resulting from amplification of seismic waves by nature of soil profiles underlying a site, town or city. This paper presents the results of microzonation study for Islamabad metropolitan, the capital of Pakistan. Cumulative SPT- N values from geophysical borehole and microtremor (Tromino Engy Plus) data were used to classify the soils into classes C (very dense soil profile and soft rock) and D (stiff soil profile) as devised by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). Soil response analyses were carried out based on scaled time histories of Kashmir earthquake (2005, 0.02 g), Mangla earthquake (2006, 0.031 g) and Haripur earthquake (2010, 0.13 g) corresponding to return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years. Spectral accelerations on the ground surface are calculated by two different approaches (1) soil response analysis performed using one dimensional shear wave propagation method (equivalent linear approach); and (2) NEHRP and Borcherdt amplification factors. Microzonation maps are produced with respect to ground shaking intensity for the return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years taking into account the variation of the spectral accelerations calculated based on these two procedures. The results show that the accelerations at the ground surface in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan are in the range of 0.40-0.48 g (for 150 years), 0.59-0.65 g (for 475 years), 0.71-0.77 g (for 975 years), and 0.92-0.94 g (for 2475 years). The amplification factors for these four hazard levels range from 0.96 to 1.38 (150 years), 0.90-1.14 (475 years), 0.85-1.04 (975 years) and 0.84-1.00 (2475 years).

  3. Flow-through shares to sustain petroleum and gas exploration in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On March 25, 1997, the Quebec government announced tax advantages related to petroleum and natural gas exploration expenditures incurred in Quebec. The government introduced flow-through shares which allow a tax deduction of up to 175 per cent. This incentive was created to promote investment in the province. This pamphlet summarizes the treatment of the capital gains and shows the tax deductions applicable for the 1998 taxation year

  4. Studying the cumulative environmental effects of Hydro-Quebec's installations plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeau, D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the cumulative environmental effects that have been integrated with technical and economic analyses include mercury, land use in the region (territory), natural landscapes, cultural heritages, forest dynamics, regional economies and ways of life. Requests and petitions from the public about Hydro-Quebec projects fall into four categories: welfare of communities, impact on the land, environmental responsibility and preservation of plant and animal species. The cooperation of all concerned is necessary for Hydro-Quebec's developments. (author)

  5. Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Thermal Environment and Air Quality in Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. Y.; Sun, C. H.; Jiang, J. A.; Wen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) caused by the regional-to-global environmental changes, dramatic urbanization, and shifting in land-use compositions has becoming an important environmental issue in recent years. In the past century, the coverage of urban area in Taipei Basin has dramatically increasing by ten folds. The strengthen of UHI effect significantly enhances the frequency of warm-night effect, and strongly influences the thermal environment of the residents in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan. In addition, the urban expansions due to dramatic increasing in urban populations and traffic loading significantly impacts the air quality and causes health issue in Taipei. In this study, the main objective is to quantify and characterize the temporal and spatial distributions of thermal environmental and air quality in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan Area by using monitoring data from Central Weather Bureau, Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, in this study, we conduct the analysis on the distribution of physiological equivalent temperature in the micro scale in the metropolitan area by using the observation data and quantitative simulation to investigate how the thermal environment is influenced under different conditions. Furthermore, we establish a real-time mobile monitoring system by using wireless sensor network to investigate the correlation between the thermal environment, air quality and other environmental factors, and propose to develop the early warning system for heat stress and air quality in the metropolitan area. The results from this study can be integrated into the management and planning system, and provide sufficient and important background information for the development of smart city in the metropolitan area in the future.

  6. Mutation profiles of phenylketonuria in Quebec populations: Evidence of stratification and novel mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozen, R.; Mascisch, A.; Scriver, C.R. (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)); Lambert, M. (Hopital Ste-Justine, Montreal (Canada)); Laframboise, R. (Centre Hospitalier Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada))

    1994-08-01

    Independent phenylketonuria (PKU) chromosomes (n=109) representing 80% of a proband cohort in Quebec province carry 18 different identified mutations in 20 different mutation/haplotype combinations. The study reported here, the third in a series on Quebec populations, was done in the Montreal region and predominantly on French Canadians. It has identified three novel mutations (A309D, D338Y, and 1054/1055delG [352fs]) and one unusual mutation/RFLP haplotype combination (E280K on Hp 2). The relative frequencies and distribution of PKU mutations were then compared in three regions and population subsets (eastern Quebec, French Canadian; western Quebec, French Canadian; and Montreal, non-French Canadian). The distributions of the prevalent and rare mutations are nonrandom and provide evidence for genetic stratification. The latter and the presence of eight unusual mutation/haplotype combinations in Quebec families with European ancestries (the aforementioned four and M1V, 165T, S349P, and R408W on Hp 1) corroborate demographic and anthropologic evidence, from elsewhere, for different origins of French Canadians in eastern and western Quebec. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Dynamics of Metropolitan Landscapes and Daily Mobility Flows in the Italian Context. An Analysis Based on the Theory of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Ganciu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of services across a territory generates daily commuting flows, which have a significant influence on the development of the territory and often causes congestion in large areas. This negatively affects the environmental, economic and social components of the metropolitan landscape. Using the graph theory, we constructed and analyzed various (in typologies of transportation and moving time flow networks in the two main Italian metropolitan areas: Rome (MCR and Milan (MCM. The analysis of these networks provided us with strategic information on the dynamics of the two urban macro-systems. In particular, the aim of our study was to: (i identify the characteristics, distribution and direction of the main attractive forces within the regional systems under study; (ii identify the main differences in size and structure of commuter networks between the two metropolitan areas and between the two regional systems that include the two mother cities; and, (iii identify the main differences in the size and structure of the two commuting networks by transport modes (private, public, non-motorized mobility and the travel time. The results highlighted significant differences between the two case studies regarding volume flows, complexity and structure networks, and the spatial extension of the territories that are governed by the two metropolitan areas. MCR is a strongly monocentric urban system with a regional influence centred on the mother city of Rome, while MCM is a diffused polycentric regional metropolitan system centred on multiple mother cities. The findings many have a role in urban planning choices and in the evaluation of policies aimed to favor sustainable mobility.

  8. Immigration and cultural policies: a bone of contention between the Province of Quebec and the Canadian federal government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, L

    1995-01-01

    "This article addresses the way in which the Province of Quebec has obtained increasing power in the area of immigration.... Data from interviews with key members of [the Ministry of Immigration] and from selected documents are drawn on to illustrate Quebec's cultural politics. The Quebec position on the question of immigration as it has evolved in the context of immigration policies defined by the federal government in Ottawa is examined.... In particular, the present article considers how attempts to construct a cultural identity and a nation-state in Quebec have had important consequences for immigration policy and for attitudes and policies concerning Quebec's cultural minorities. The emergence of the notion of 'cultural communities' as a result of the constitutional rivalry and the on-going struggle for legitimacy between Quebec and Ottawa is also explored." excerpt

  9. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  10. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m 3 in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for each

  11. Cities heading towards 100% renewable energy by controlling their consumption. Food for thought and action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringault, Anne; Eisermann, Miriam; Lacassagne, Sylvie; Fauchadour, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    This report provides guidance and solutions to cities and metropolitan areas anxious to embark on a 100% renewable energy path. It is based on the knowledge and experience of the authors' networks, as well as on around 30 interviews of councillors and city employees from about fifteen French local governments. It also features 5 European pioneers: Barcelona, Frankfurt, Frederikshavn, Geneva and Malmoe

  12. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Bunandar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss. Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  13. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  14. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Human Mobility in Manila Metropolitan Area with Person-Trip Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan area can be regarded as a multi-functional structure consisting of plural coordinated urban nucleuses. This study aims to clarify the characteristics of urban nucleuses and a spatiotemporal pattern of human mobility in the Manila metropolitan area. Hourly density of human mobility from 00:00 to 24:00 in the whole study area is quantitatively studied. Urban nucleuses with six types: central city, business city, commuter town, south suburb, north suburb, and subcenter city, are identified. Differences of human mobility owing to different human behaviors or properties are also analyzed in 10 typical areas with different urban functions. Results prove that pattern of human mobility in each area depends on its human social division, population composition, infrastructure condition, and functional structure. This study provides an effective thinking on handling geo-tagged big data supported by MATLAB programming and GIS technology. Moreover, spatiotemporal analysis of human mobility also possesses a meaningful academic value for transport geography.

  15. A tale of two scales: Evaluating the relationship among life satisfaction, social capital, income, and the natural environment at individual and neighborhood levels in metropolitan Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda W. Vemuri; J. Morgan Grove; Matthew A. Wilson; William R. Jr. Burch

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of cities worldwide, there is a need to better understand factors contributing to life satisfaction in urban environments. Using data from a long-term study of the Baltimore metropolitan region, we build on existing social scientific literature to examine a suite of theoretical factors that have been proposed to explain higher life satisfaction....

  16. Hydro-Quebec inspection robot RIT-LRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champagne, D.; Rinfret, F.; Bourgault, Y.G.

    2008-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's Research Centre (IREQ), has developed a variety of inspection tools over the years. The Metar bracelet for the feeder tubes, the REC robot for the heat exchanger and the RIT robot for the Delayed Neutron system just to name a few. This paper discusses with the successful deployment of the Camera Probe Positioning robot for Visual Inspection of the sample lines of the delayed neutron system of CANDU power plants. This RIT robot has three possible configurations (Face, Cabinet and LRG configurations) and has remained a prototype version although it has been used over the years in many outage inspection campaigns since 1997. The main advantages of using this robot are: the significant reduction in radiation exposure, the high quality of the data collected and the archiving of inspection data for further analysis and reports. In 2007, Gentilly-2 (G-2), decided to industrialize the LRG configuration of the RIT robot and to designate it the standard tool for the inspection of the Delayed Neutron System. An improved RIT-LRG robot, along with its control box and command station was developed. The software had to be rewritten requiring an ergonomics analysis of user tasks, work station and interface display. These issues included both physical and cognitive requirements aspects. The two principal topics of this paper will be on the Inspection Robot Technology developed and highlights of the 2008 outage inspection campaign. (author)

  17. Advocacy coalitions and wind power development: Insights from Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegen, Maya; Audet, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of wind energy acceptance in the Canadian province of Quebec and, in particular, the impact of different models of wind power development on the degree of social acceptance. We show that the dominant advocacy coalition, which favors a hard path energy development in general, enforces a large-scale development of wind energy. Two other coalitions - a soft path coalition and a nationalist coalition - oppose this development, but not wind energy per se. We argue that difference in belief systems explains their opposition rather than planning issues or NIMBY concerns. We also contend that, despite its predominance over (wind) energy policy, the hard path coalition is willing to learn and make concessions towards the soft path coalition, but not towards the nationalist coalition. - Highlights: → We address social acceptance of wind energy. → We illustrate the interaction of advocacy coalitions. → Different advocacy coalitions support different models of wind energy development. → Models of wind energy development influence the degree of social acceptance. → Opposition is not aimed at wind energy per se, but at the hard path model.

  18. Combining the Power of Wind and Water in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, D.

    2007-07-01

    Wind varies and is impossible to store, major factors that have curbed and continue to curb the development of wind power. Hydroelectric generating stations with reservoirs, on the other hand, are quite capable of adjusting their output and can thus buffer fluctuations in consumption or in the output of other generating facilities on the grid. Combining wind power and hydropower thus involves using hydroelectric generating stations to offset the intermittent nature of wind power. The consumer, however, does not automatically reap the benefits of this complementarity. To achieve this, Quebec has implemented a 1,000-MW balancing agreement between the hydropower producer and the electricity distributor, which has signed wind power purchase agreements. The balancing agreement establishes two charges: one based on firming capacity provided by the producer and another linked to errors in the forecast of wind power generation that the distributor makes each day. This structure compensates the producer for the reduced margin of flexibility it has to engage in energy trading. (auth)

  19. Hydro-Quebec inspection robot RIT-LRG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, D., E-mail: champagne.dominique@ireq.ca [Inst. de recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Rinfret, F.; Bourgault, Y.G., E-mail: rinfret.francois@hydro.qc.ca, E-mail: bourgault.yves.g@hydro.qc.ca [Hydro-Quebec, Becancour, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Hydro Quebec's Research Centre (IREQ), has developed a variety of inspection tools over the years. The Metar bracelet for the feeder tubes, the REC robot for the heat exchanger and the RIT robot for the Delayed Neutron system just to name a few. This paper discusses with the successful deployment of the Camera Probe Positioning robot for Visual Inspection of the sample lines of the delayed neutron system of CANDU power plants. This RIT robot has three possible configurations (Face, Cabinet and LRG configurations) and has remained a prototype version although it has been used over the years in many outage inspection campaigns since 1997. The main advantages of using this robot are: the significant reduction in radiation exposure, the high quality of the data collected and the archiving of inspection data for further analysis and reports. In 2007, Gentilly-2 (G-2), decided to industrialize the LRG configuration of the RIT robot and to designate it the standard tool for the inspection of the Delayed Neutron System. An improved RIT-LRG robot, along with its control box and command station was developed. The software had to be rewritten requiring an ergonomics analysis of user tasks, work station and interface display. These issues included both physical and cognitive requirements aspects. The two principal topics of this paper will be on the Inspection Robot Technology developed and highlights of the 2008 outage inspection campaign. (author)

  20. Section 2: Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruvada, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The results performed by the Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Quebec as part of the Canada-wide effort to characterize electric and magnetic field levels in different environments are reported. In addition to developing instrumentation for 24 hour recording of fields, measurements were carried out in domestic, light industrial, and agricultural environments as well as in generating stations, substations and under power transmission and distribution lines. Measurements in eighteen dwellings, ranging from single family houses to apartments, displayed average electric fields of less than 12 V/m, while average magnetic fields ranged between 0.04 and 9 milligauss. Magnetic fields measured in offices, light industrial and agricultural environments also fell in the same range. Highest magnetic fields were measured in generating stations, with levels up to 1,200 mG. Field levels up to 140 mG were measured in high voltage substations, while levels at the fenced boundary were below 6.2 mG. Magnetic fields under power transmission and distribution lines are reasonably symmetric and similar to theoretical profiles. 31 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Human papillomavirus variants among Inuit women in northern Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Barbara; Coutlée, Francois; Franco, Eduardo L; Brassard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Inuit communities in northern Quebec have high rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical cancer and cervical cancer-related mortality as compared to the Canadian population. HPV types can be further classified as intratypic variants based on the extent of homology in their nucleotide sequences. There is limited information on the distribution of intratypic variants in circumpolar areas. Our goal was to describe the HPV intratypic variants and associated baseline characteristics. We collected cervical cell samples in 2002-2006 from 676 Inuit women between the ages of 15 and 69 years in Nunavik. DNA isolates from high-risk HPVs were sequenced to determine the intratypic variant. There were 149 women that were positive for HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 56 or 58 during follow-up. There were 5 different HPV16 variants, all of European lineage, among the 57 women positive for this type. There were 8 different variants of HPV18 present and all were of European lineage (n=21). The majority of samples of HPV31 (n=52) were of lineage B. The number of isolates and diversity of the other HPV types was low. Age was the only covariate associated with HPV16 variant category. These frequencies are similar to what was seen in another circumpolar region of Canada, although there appears to be less diversity as only European variants were detected. This study shows that most variants were clustered in one lineage for each HPV type.

  2. Professional development in the context of Healthy Schools in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschesnes, Marthe; Tessier, Caroline; Couturier, Yves; Martin, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    This article reports preliminary research results on a professional development (PD) model as a mechanism for supporting absorption of the Healthy School (HS) approach into school functioning. The purpose of our study was to document the model implementation process and understand whether it influenced, or not, the accompanied actors' knowledge and practices about HS. The theoretical basis of the model and a description of its implementation, its appreciation by actors and its influence on their knowledge and confidence are presented. The research was conducted in three Quebec schools that had adopted this approach for at least 2 years. Multiple case study methodology, with pre- (T0) and post- (T1) intervention comparison, was adopted. The results disclose that the PD model implemented, which involves socio-constructivist accompaniment, has several assets that support the acquisition and application of new knowledge related to HS in order to promote its absorption within schools. Our findings indicate that PD likely reinforced the actors' knowledge and understanding as well as their confidence. The lessons drawn from the evaluation of this PD model could serve to enhance accompaniment methods implemented to promote the absorption of such initiatives in schools. Our data highlight the relevance and effectiveness of accompaniment anchored in action, calling for practice based on reflection and expert recommendations to meet the objectives of health and academic success. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A leitura das obras completas em contexto escolar no Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Dezutter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available No Quebec, as recentes reformas curriculares testemunham as elevadas exigências quanto ao número de obras completas a serem lidas no período de formação pré-universitária, e dedicam uma grande liberdade aos professores para a seleção dos títulos. Fundamentamo-nos aqui sobre os resultados de uma vasta pesquisa para estabelecer a situação das exigências dos professores em matéria de leitura das obras, das finalidades associadas a esta prática e do corpus escolhido. Os professores do primário e do secundário visam ao desenvolvimento do prazer da leitura; aqueles do colegial, à constituição de uma cultura literária de base: a primeira centra-se na literatura quebequense enquanto a segunda leva em consideração o patrimônio francês.

  4. L'evaluation de la competence linguistique des membres des ordres professionnels au Quebec (The Quebec Region Evaluation of Professional Personnel's Language Proficiency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, Claude

    1981-01-01

    Describes a testing program designed to assess the French language proficiency of professionals desiring to practice in the Quebec region. Discusses the criteria used for the construction, administration, and scoring of the tests in compliance with the 1977 French language legislation. (MES)

  5. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  6. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  7. Impact of a multipronged education strategy on antibiotic prescribing in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Karl; Blais, Régis; Fortin, Anne; Lantin, Sonia; Gaudet, Michel

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic overuse and resistance have become a major threat in the last 2 decades. Many programs tried to optimize antibiotic consumption in the inpatient setting, but the outpatient environment that represents the bulk of antibiotic use has been challenging. Following a significant rise of Clostridium difficile infections, all the health care stakeholders in the province of Quebec, Canada initiated a global education program targeting physicians and pharmacists. A bundle approach was used; 11 user-friendly guidelines were produced by a group of experts and sent to all physicians and pharmacists in Quebec in January 2005. Downloadable versions of guidelines were posted on a dedicated Web site. They were promoted by professional organizations, universities, and experts during educational events, and there was strong acceptance by the pharmaceutical industry with a willingness to follow the recommendations in their marketing. The Intercontinental Medical Statistics (IMS) database was used to analyze and compare Quebec's total outpatient prescriptions per 1000 inhabitants with those in the other Canadian provinces for 2 time periods: preintervention (January 2003 to December 2004), and postintervention (February 2005 to December 2007). In 2004, antibiotic consumption per capita was 23.3% higher in Canada generally than in Quebec. After the guidelines dissemination, the gap between Quebec and the other Canadian provinces increased by 4.1 prescriptions/1000 inhabitants (P = .0002), and the trend persisted 36 months later. Antibiotic costs fell $134.5/1000 inhabitants in Quebec compared with the rest of Canada (P = .054). The implementation of guidelines significantly reduced antibiotic prescriptions in Quebec compared with the rest of the country, and there was a strong trend toward significant cost reduction.

  8. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  9. High-capacity transport, floor area ratio and its relationship with urbanization of metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, B.L. de; Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de

    2016-07-01

    Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas (54%). Near 42% of the global urban population live in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, where problems associated with urban sprawl such as informal settlement, social-economic changes, environmental degradation and deficient high-capacity transport (HCT) systems are common. Meanwhile, urbanization and its associated transportation infrastructure define the relationship between city and countryside, between the city’s inner core and the periphery, between the citizen and his right to move. This article discusses and presents an overview about the relationship between the planning and extension of HCT systems and urban planning, (in the figure of the floor-area ratio - FAR- prescribed in regulations). The methodological approach consists of drawing a conceptual framework and studying 33 different cities of metropolitan areas on five continents. It’s noticed that areas in cities with a high construction potential but with an insufficient HCT negatively influence in urban mobility and hence the right to the city. We consider right to the city the various social and fundamental rights that, among others, includes the right to public transportation. Therefore there’s a real need of an integrated approach of community participation, FAR distribution, urban planning and transportation planning and so that urbanization, inevitable these days, takes place in a fair and harmonious way. (Author)

  10. Appreciation of housing policies in the Metropolitan Area of Londrina-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Roberta Zanon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the interpretation of partial search results on the "Right to Housing: applicability and effectiveness of legal instruments in the Metropolitan Area of Londrina-PR" since 2012 in the Universidade Estadual de Londrina. The context of social housing production in Londrina, from the years 1980 provides analysis allowance and reflection on the implementation of social housing policy in the city, especially in the 2000s programs, in particular with the implementation of the Residential Vista Bela by Minha Casa Minha Vida Program, one of the largest housing projects in Brazil, handed out the population in 2011 and 2012.

  11. Urban vegetation and income segregation in drylands: a synthesis of seven metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenerette, G Darrel; Buyantuev, Alexander; Miller, Greg; Pataki, Diane E; Gillespie, Thomas W; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across seven large metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States. We asked (1) how low density urban land cover differed from adjacent wildland grass, herb, and shrub land covers in both the amount of vegetation and the length of the growing season, (2) how neighborhood income affected patterns of vegetation within low density urban cover, and (3) how cities differed from one another in their vegetation patterns. We found that urbanization generally has a strong influence on vegetation compared to adjacent wildlands. In four of the metropolitan regions the cumulative enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and growing season length in low density developments were higher than grass, herb, and shrub land covers. Within all metropolitan regions, there was a significant socioeconomic effect where higher income areas had a higher cumulative EVI than lower income areas. The large differences in urban vegetation among cities were related to precipitation and total domestic water use. These findings help to identify how urbanization influences vegetation, with implications for the availability of ecosystem services and requirements for irrigation in hot dryland cities. (letter)

  12. Willingness to pay and the sensitivity of willingness to pay for interdisciplinary musculoskeletal clinics: a contingent valuation study in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Orthopedics is a discipline that requires a continuum of care in close collaboration with physicians, nurses, and healthcare professionals to ensure effective rehabilitation. In some cases, the wait time for a consultation may be very long, which can jeopardize the patient's rehabilitation and sometimes even cause complications that lead to a loss of autonomy. In Quebec, there is a severe shortage of healthcare professionals-and of orthopedic surgeons, in particular-specializing in musculoskeletal problems. To address this problem, public managers have decided to establish interdisciplinary musculoskeletal clinics in regions outside the two major cities of Montréal and Québec. The major benefits of these clinics are that they reduce the wait time for consultation and treatment while maintaining service quality. Although their benefits are certain, these clinics remain threatened by relatively high initial costs. This study's objective is to evaluate whether the population of Quebec has a quantifiable willingness to pay (WTP) to establish these clinics. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind either in the province of Quebec or elsewhere. We selected 3822 subjects randomly within the target population using Internet surveys, telephone surveys and self-administered paper surveys as our methods of recruitment. Three payment vehicles were used and each participant was randomly allocated among these: tax, donation or lump-sum fee. A contingent valuation question using a referendum format with the option "don't know" was used. Econometric estimates were performed using probit and Wang's models. Our results indicate that the population of Quebec may potentially have a mean WTP of 42.3 Canadian dollars per person for such clinics, which would enable a mean reduction from 12 to 4 months of wait time. However, the WTP is found to be very sensitive to the survey mode and the payment vehicle used: about 1.2-2 times more important in the tax and the lump-sum fee

  13. Canadá-Quebec: identidades problemáticas Canadá-Quebec: identidades problemáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurídice Figueiredo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente texto é tentar dimensionar uma velha dicotomia que consiste em conceber o Canadá como uma país bicéfalo:de um lado o “Canadá”, em que se fala inglês, de outro lado o Quebec, em que se fala francês. Esse dualismo simplista se acentuou após a chamada Revolução Tranqüila em 1960 quando a identidade do canadense francês, até então representado como um povo oprimido e humilhado pelo Outro, o inglês, minoria em seu próprio país, se transforma no quebequense moderno e ativo, maioria em seu “Estado”, que detém o poder para definir os rumos de seu destino. Não mais voltado para um passado de derrotas mas projetando-se para um futuro de sucesso. Assim nas duas campanhas para os referendos de 1980 e 1995, afirmava-se a reivindicação pela soberania, para, transnsformando-se em Estado-Nação, se desvencilhar deste Outro incômodo, que o impede de se gerir de forma autônoma.

  14. Cooperative strategies for forest science management and leadership in an increasingly complex and globalized world: Proceedings of a workshop; 23- 26 August 1998; Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane G. Eskew; David R. DeYoe; Denver P. Burns; Jean-Claude Mercier

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to develop organizational networks to help achieve best practices in management and leadership of forest research and foster continuous learning toward that goal through organizational benchmarking. The papers and notes herein document the presentations and discussions of the workshop.

  15. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  16. Higher profits, lower bills : a new electricity strategy for Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Quebec is the fourth largest producer of hydro-electricity in the world, and has among the lowest electricity rates in North America. In 2008, 89 percent of the electricity produced by Hydro-Quebec was sold in the province, and the remainder was exported. In 2009, the electric utility released its strategic plan for 2009 to 2013. Hydro-Quebec's net profits are forecast to decline by 24 percent by 2013 and electricity rates are forecast to rise by 8.5 percent. Since Hydro-Quebec has already developed all of the province's low-cost hydroelectric resources, it can no longer increase profits and lower rates by building new hydropower production stations. In order to continue to prosper, the utility will invest in energy efficiency and better coordination of its power system with Ontario's. Increased electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec will help both Ontario and the United States reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by displacing fossil power generation. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Opening new horizons, building new synergies : 1998 annual report of Hydro-Quebec International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec International (HQI) was established in 1978 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec. Its mission is to contribute to Hydro-Quebec's growth and profitability by investing in energy partnerships and by selling Hydro-Quebec expertise internationally. This annual report presents highlights of the company's operations, balance sheet, financial position, and investments. 1998 proved to be a year of market development and prospecting which yielded promising results. The expanded scope of the company that now includes investment and infrastructure construction was already generating $ 26 million in economic spinoff for Quebec. The report highlights HQI's involvement in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Great strides have been made also in ensuring the most rigorous practices possible to assess and manage risk and to bolster the company's ability to take unforeseen events in stride. On the investment side, in 1998, the first year of its involvement as an investor, HQI initiated investments amounting to $137 million. Plans are to double that figure in 1999. tabs., figs

  18. Evaluating the market transformation impacts of a DSM program in the Province of Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillargeon, P.; Michaud, N. [Econoler, 160 St-Paul Street, Quebec, QC, G1K 3W1 (Canada); Schmitt, B. [Hydro-Quebec, Complexe Desjardins, East Tower, C.P. 10000, Place Desjardins, Montreal, QC, H5B 1H7 (Canada); Megdal, L. [Megdal and Associates, 198 High Street, Acton, MA 01720 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    In 2006, Hydro-Quebec introduced a large DSM program on the market to promote the adoption of compact fluorescent lamps in Quebec households. After 3 years of program implementation, there was significant indication on the part of market actors that the promotional campaign component was quite effective in transforming the Quebec market. Hydro-Quebec therefore decided to modify its approach to program evaluation to include the quantification of market effects. Econoler led a team including American partners, Opinion Dynamics Inc. and Megdal and Associates to conduct an evaluation of program impacts on market transformation. An evaluation strategy was designed where different research tools would be integrated to determine market evolution over the two previous years. Each research method was used to determine an estimate of program impacts, then triangulated with other approaches to determine the most appropriate impact evaluation method regarding the Hydro-Quebec program. Research efforts included a non-participant survey, interviews at manufacturer headquarters across Canada, interviews with banner distributor representatives across Canada, the collection of sales and market share data from manufacturers and retailers as well as secondary research to identify other players that could influence the market. The evaluation revealed that savings of 168 GWh could be attributed to direct and indirect impacts of the program for the 2006-2007 period.

  19. Characterization of aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejias Perez, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present study, was to elaborate a profile of the contamination by private matter and to characterize the aerosols collected in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose (Costa Rica). For that, a campaign of sampling was carried out in three points of the city of San Jose, differentiated by there degree of activity: Center of San Jose (Central Station of Firemen), San Isidro of Coronado -Canton of Vasquez of Coronado- (Municipality) and Escazu (Municipality). Such campaign was carried out from April 4 to July 4, 1996 (transition summer-winter), and in two periods of time of 8 hours: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and of 8 p.m. to 4 a.m. The aerosols were collected utilizing Gent Pm-10 samplers, in filters of polycarbonate of 0,4 μm and 8 μm in cascade, with a flow average of 15 L/min., and it determined the composition average of the present aerosols. The concentration of the majority of the anions were obtained by means of ionic chromatography of high resolution, and the main cations by spectrophotometry of atomic absorption with electro thermic atomization. The space-temporary variations of the concentrations were evaluated and their correlation with the meteorologic variable. (S. Grainger) [es

  20. Evaluation of sludge management alternatives in Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, M; Erdim, E; Kinaci, C; Akca, L

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this paper was to predict the sludge quantities generated from 18 wastewater treatment plants, which were stated to be established in the "Istanbul Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage, Sewage Treatment and Disposal Master Plan", 10 of which are in operation at present. Besides this, obtaining the required data to compare various treatment schemes was another goal of the study. Especially, the estimation of the sludge quantity in the case of enhanced primary sedimentation was of importance. Wastewater sludge management strategies were discussed in order to develop suggestions for Istanbul Metropolitan city. Within this context, the wastewater treatment facilities, mentioned in the Master Plan that had been completed by 2000, were evaluated in terms of sludge production rates, locations and technical and management aspects. Disposal alternatives of the wastewater treatment sludge were also evaluated in this study. Using of the dewatered sludge as a landfill cover material seems the best alternative usage. Up to the year of 2040, the requirement of cover material for landfills in Istanbul will be met by the dewatered sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants in the region.

  1. Diabetes diagnosis and management among insured adults across metropolitan areas in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides diabetes-related metrics for the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the U.S. in 2012—including prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, insurance status of the population with diabetes, diabetes medication use, and prevalence of poorly controlled diabetes.Diabetes prevalence estimates were calculated using cross-sectional data combining the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, American Community Survey, National Nursing Home Survey, Census population files, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analysis of medical claims files (2012 de-identified Normative Health Information database, 2011 Medicare Standard Analytical Files, and 2008 Medicaid Analytic eXtract produced information on treatment and poorly controlled diabetes by geographic location, insurance type, sex, and age group.Among insured adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in 2012, the proportion receiving diabetes medications ranged from 83% in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, to 65% in West Palm Beach, Florida. The proportion of treated patients with medical claims indicating poorly controlled diabetes was lowest in Minneapolis, Minnesota (36% and highest in Texas metropolitan areas of Austin (51%, San Antonio (51%, and Houston (50%.Estimates of diabetes detection and management across metropolitan areas often differ from state and national estimates. Local metrics of diabetes management can be helpful for tracking improvements in communities over time. Keywords: Diabetes, Management

  2. Metropolitan governance and infrastructure in São Paulo: the challenge of mediating regional interests and local impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sacenco Asquino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the São Paulo metropolis is related to the historical process of building regional infrastructure as of the late 19th century, in connection with economic motivation and territorial influences. Since that time, São Paulo has played a key role in the network of cities that has been fundamental to its economic development and to its recognition as the most important city in Brazil. This article examines the importance of understanding the regional scale in relation to São Paulo's plans and projects, from Plano de Avenidas (Avenue Plan in the 1930s to the Rodoanel (ring road in the 1990s; the experience of planning and management of the metropolitan system in the 1970s and, in contrast, the environmental licensing process of these large projects after the 1990s. Discussing São Paulo's plans and projects is a complex task, because a project's local impact as well as regional interests must be considered. From different perspectives, the author reviewed the results of environmental licensing of Ampliação da Calha do Rio Tietê (deepening the bed of the Tietê river and Rodoanel Trecho Sul (south section of the ring road projects, and their actual role in the future arrangement and development of the São Paulo metropolis. Based on (a the results of the metropolitan planning experience in the 1970s, (b the updating of the metropolitan discussion in the 1990s from an economic globalization perspective, and (c the current experience of metropolitan systems in the state of São Paulo, it seems necessary to re-establish an effective metropolitan planning and management system in order to guarantee its legitimacy, commitment and governance.

  3. African urbanization in metropolitan South Africa--differential urbanization perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, H S

    1993-07-01

    "As a potentially important urban development policy consideration, attention is focused in this paper on differential urbanization trends in South Africa at the metropolitan level. Recent informal urban settlement patterns of the African population within the major metropolitan areas are contrasted against these differential urbanization trends to determine the implications of both for residential development in the metropolitan areas during the post-apartheid era." excerpt

  4. Hydro-Quebec: research and development highlights 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    1998 confirmed once again that any planning in R and D must take into consideration unforeseen events. Actions are measured against their profitability, and R and D must contribute to increasing a company's competitive edge by providing it with new sources of revenue, by ensuring that it benefits from real savings and coming up with the best possible solutions to its technological problems. Hydro-Quebec's results attest to the fact that R and D is an investment that contributes to the utility's profitability. Whether trying to reduce maintenance costs through robot systems or cameras, improving injection methods for repairing dams, developing monitoring systems or new devices aimed at increasing the availability of equipment or reducing the environmental impact of its installations, the company's R and D projects have helped maintain its position as a world leader in the generation and transmission of hydroelectric power. The company is counting on technological innovation to boost the revenues of th e utility's business units. Examples include the work done to optimize the management of energy reserves, increase the network's load-flow capacity and flexibility, generate an electrical supply that meets international standards, and offer alternative distribution system solutions. Other projects involve improving turbine efficiency by modelling fluid flow, devising methods for forecasting natural inflows, analyzing losses in saturation transformers, developing the intelligent power system, and studying transient stability in real time, load frequency control, and customized power quality. Further projects are aimed at developing technologies and services that increase client loyalty and expand the client base such as research into energy management for low income clients, use of geothermal energy, new applications for electrotechnologies, electromagnetic compatibility, drive power and applications of lignin

  5. Hydro-Quebec: research and development highlights 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    1998 confirmed once again that any planning in R and D must take into consideration unforeseen events. Actions are measured against their profitability, and R and D must contribute to increasing a company's competitive edge by providing it with new sources of revenue, by ensuring that it benefits from real savings and coming up with the best possible solutions to its technological problems. Hydro-Quebec's results attest to the fact that R and D is an investment that contributes to the utility's profitability. Whether trying to reduce maintenance costs through robot systems or cameras, improving injection methods for repairing dams, developing monitoring systems or new devices aimed at increasing the availability of equipment or reducing the environmental impact of its installations, the company's R and D projects have helped maintain its position as a world leader in the generation and transmission of hydroelectric power. The company is counting on technological innovation to boost the revenues of the utility's business units. Examples include the work done to optimize the management of energy reserves, increase the network's load-flow capacity and flexibility, generate an electrical supply that meets international standards, and offer alternative distribution system solutions. Other projects involve improving turbine efficiency by modelling fluid flow, devising methods for forecasting natural inflows, analyzing losses in saturation transformers, developing the intelligent power system, and studying transient stability in real time, load frequency control, and customized power quality. Further projects are aimed at developing technologies and services that increase client loyalty and expand the client base such as research into energy management for low income clients, use of geothermal energy, new applications for electrotechnologies, electromagnetic compatibility, drive power and applications of lignin.

  6. Coli see des Bois-Francs Victoriaville, Quebec : major retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This profile presented details of a major retrofit of the Colisee des Bois-Francs Ice Rink in Victoriaville, Quebec. The retrofit included the recovery of heat rejected from the refrigeration system; extensive integration of the refrigeration system with heating, ventilation, and dehumidification systems; short-term heat storage; and the installation of a variable condensing temperature and pressure system. Characteristics of the arena were presented, including details of annual energy consumption, energy costs, and the surface area of the building, which was built in 1978. Annual energy costs for the building were estimated at $90,000. The overall cost of the retrofit was $693,300, with technical support provided by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre. Two factory-built commercial refrigeration systems were installed using floating head pressure. Heat transfer fluid in the cold secondary loop was a mixture of water and methanol, while the warm secondary loop contained a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. Energy efficiency measures included using condensation heat rejected in the warm secondary loop and transferred through a coil in the ventilation duct. A simplified system schematic was presented. Building energy consumption savings were estimated at 14 per cent savings for 50 per cent greater cooling capacity compared with the previous system. The use of modular package refrigeration units confined the refrigerant in the mechanical room and reduced the amount of refrigerant required by 70 per cent. Potential refrigerant leaks were also reduced. With the older system, leaks accounted for 120 t equivalent of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released per year. Additional benefits of the new system include better quality ice, a more reliable system and greater comfort for spectators. 2 figs.

  7. Disease characterization of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, R; Bernatsky, S; Rahme, E

    2017-08-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by an array of organ manifestations that can appear during flares and disappear during remissions. The objectives of this study were: (i) to examine SLE manifestation groups longitudinally in an SLE cohort; and (ii) to assess the association between early antimalarial treatment and renal manifestations. Methods Seven SLE manifestation groups-cutaneous, hematologic, lung, musculoskeletal, neuropsychiatric, serositis, renal-were tracked using Kaplan-Meier survival curves in an incident SLE cohort from Quebec health administrative data ( n = 2010). A subgroup with provincial drug insurance coverage was followed over time to examine the association between early antimalarial treatment (within three months after SLE diagnosis) and renal manifestations using a Cox proportional hazards survival model. Results Cutaneous manifestations was the most common manifestation at SLE diagnosis (30.0%, 95% CI: 27.7-32.2%). About two-thirds (66.2%, 95% CI: 63.4-68.9%) of patients had evidence of at least one SLE manifestation at diagnosis, which increased to 87.2% (95% CI: 84.2-90.3%) by the end of follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, early concomitant systemic steroid therapy, Charlson comorbidity index, primary care visits in the year prior and other SLE manifestations at baseline, no statistically significant association was established between antimalarial therapy and renal manifestations. Conclusion This study provides insight regarding organ manifestations within a population-based sample. Most patients identified with SLE had other diagnostic evidence that supports an underlying diagnosis of SLE. No protective effects for antimalarial agents against renal manifestations could be established in this population-based cohort.

  8. Hydro-Quebec to complete series compensation protection by 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, L

    1991-09-01

    Hydro-Quebec's 735-kV transmission system is characterized by remote hydroelectric power plants located far north of main load centers, making it difficult to maintain dynamic stability of the system in the case of faults. The utility is planning to install series compensation on its 735-kV network from 1992 to 1995 in order to correct for the reactive impedance of the transmission lines, thereby removing load electrically closer to the points of generation. Series compensation in the form of capacitor banks with overvoltage protection will be installed at line ends and will replace large numbers of conventional electromagnetic or electronic distance relays currently used as line protection equipment. Three Manicouagan-Levis lines and the Micoua-Laurentides line will be center-compensated at 17%. A total of thirty-seven 735-kV lines will be series-compensated at ca 40%. Two separate sets of tests were conducted to select the new series compensation system. Following a market study, eight systems of line protection relays were selected as most likely to operate on a series compensated system. All were performance tested on a transient network analyzer in a simulation involving all components of the 735-kV system with some exceptions. Relays singled out in standard tests were put to a series of more specific tests on the Abitibi-LaVerendrye line, where the largest number of relay malfunctions had been recorded. A current differential relay and a superimposed directional relay were recommended as the two primary protective systems to be installed. Backup protection will be provided by using one of the distance relays with memory polarization. 3 figs.

  9. Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako

    2010-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...

  10. Labor Force Activity of Women in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David L.; O'Leary, Jeanne M.

    Between 1960 and 1970 economic opportunity and progress for women in American non-metropolitan areas was mixed. While women in metropolitan areas were more likely to be labor force members than were non-metropolitan women, the difference in metropolitan and non-metropolitan labor force participation rates narrowed during the period. For women…

  11. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (13th, Quebec, Canada, March 25-26, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Eric, Ed.

    Papers on language research in this volume include the following: Pour une comparaison des voyelles nasals du Quebec et du Haut-Jura: observations, methodologie et outils infomatiques (A Comparison of Quebec and Haut-Jura's Nasal Vowels: Observations, Methodologies, and Instrumentation) (Vincent Arnaud and Claude Paradis); Le negociation du sens…

  12. Psychopathology and Suicide among Quebec Physicians: A Nested Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gagné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a psychiatric profile and characteristics of physicians who killed themselves in Quebec between 1992 and 2009. Method. The cases of 36 physicians (7 females and 29 males and 36 nonphysicians who committed suicide were matched for age and gender and examined in a nested case control design. All subjects were judged as definite suicide by the Quebec Coroner Head Office. Consensus regarding DSM-IV diagnoses was established by two forensic psychiatrists. Results. Rates of all Axis I diagnoses were 83% for physicians and 91% for nonphysicians at the time of suicide. Major depressive disorders were the most frequently observed pathology in both groups (61% and 56%, resp.. Conclusions. Physicians and nonphysicians who committed suicide in Quebec suffered from the same type of psychiatric disorder at the time of killing themselves. The findings advocate strongly for more efficient suicide prevention measures including early detection and treatment of mood disorders for the physicians.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of Hydro-Quebec's energy conservation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, E.

    1993-09-01

    A cost-benefit analysis is presented of the energy conservation programs of Hydro-Quebec for 1991 to 2010. Three possible scenarios are simulated. In the first scenario, Hydro-Quebec data are used without modification. In the second, the simulation is carried out in the absence of the Hydro-Quebec programs, and in the third, it is assumed that any economies achieved are only for the short term. A comparison between these simulations allows determination of results concerning the advantages and the costs which the programs introduce for the three groups comprising society: the consumer, the producer, and the government. The results of these comparisons show that the consumer, the producer, and the whole society gain benefits from the energy conservation programs, while the government loses. 13 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs

  14. Public participation in strategic environmental assessment (SEA): Critical review and the Quebec (Canada) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Mario; Simard, Louis; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that public participation must be a part of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) procedures, and yet few studies have been conducted on the implementation of SEA public participation procedures. Accordingly, the theoretical and practical aspects of public participation in SEA remain research priorities for environmental policy-making. This paper presents a review of the Quebec (Canada) model of public participation in SEA through an evaluation of six public hearings on proposed directions and policies concerning, respectively, hazardous waste, forest protection, residual materials, energy, water management and pig farming. First, the authors examine the theoretical dimensions of SEA and public participation in the process. Second, they give a summary of the lessons that can be learned from the few Canadian and international experiences. Third, they outline the Quebec experience. Finally, they conclude by evaluating the opportunities and limitations of the Quebec experience and make some recommendations to improve its application.

  15. Proposed Hydro-Quebec development plan, 1990-1992: Horizon 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The supply and demand for electric power in Quebec are reviewed and forecasts of future demand are established, using various scenarios of demographic, economic, and energy development. Options for meeting future demand at Hydro-Quebec are assessed, including the construction of new generation and transmission facilities, rehabilitation of existing facilities, improving electrical energy efficiency, and conservation strategies. These options are considered while applying the principle of sustainable development that respects the environment. In addition, objectives and strategies are presented for improving the quality of service and internal operations. Financial forecasts for Hydro-Quebec are proposed which take into account the forecast changes in the utility's cost and revenue factors and its self-financing requirements. 36 figs., 54 tabs

  16. Natural resources: adjusting and innovating - Hydro-Quebec in the global age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellet, D.

    1995-01-01

    Although it is believed that the information economy is replacing the mass economy, many companies continue to grow on economies based on natural resources. Recent aggressive growth by Hydro-Quebec in the highly competitive market for energy products was singled out as one of the success stories. Among other things, Hydro-Quebec was reported to focus attention on the globalization of electricity products, particularly in Asia, Europe and Africa. The corporation was said to cooperate with other utilities companies such as Ontario Hydro and Power Asia Assets Corporation to diversify its markets abroad. Hydro-Quebec is also marketing new products, developed in its laboratories and by subsidiaries, such as power system simulators and power system planning and management systems, on a global scale

  17. Impact and management of dual relationships in metropolitan, regional and rural mental health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Ruth; Wood, Anita; Judd, Fiona; Hulbert, Carol; Thomas, Ben; Grigg, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    To explore the extent and impact of professional boundary crossings in metropolitan, regional and rural mental health practice in Victoria and identify strategies mental health clinicians use to manage dual relationships. Nine geographically located focus groups consisting of mental health clinicians: four focus groups in rural settings; three in a regional city and two in a metropolitan mental health service. A total of 52 participants were interviewed. Data revealed that professional boundaries were frequently breached in regional and rural settings and on occasions these breaches had a significantly negative impact. Factors influencing the impact were: longevity of the clinician's relationship with the community, expectations of the community, exposure to community 'gossip' and size of the community. Participants reported greater stress when the boundary crossing affected their partner and/or children. Clinicians used a range of proactive and reactive strategies, such as private telephone number, avoidance of social community activities, when faced with a potential boundary crossing. The feasibility of reactive strategies depended on the service configuration: availability of an alternative case manager, requirement for either patient or clinician to travel. The greater challenges faced by rural and regional clinicians were validated by metropolitan participants with rural experience and rural participants with metropolitan experience. No single strategy is used or appropriate for managing dual relationships in rural settings. Employers and professional bodies should provide clearer guidance for clinicians both in the management of dual relationships and the distinction between boundary crossings and boundary violation. Clinicians are clearly seeking to represent and protect the patients' interests; consideration should be given by consumer groups to steps that can be taken by patients to reciprocate.

  18. Model LPA Terpadu untuk Wilayah Surabaya Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimien Bt. M. Al Muhdhar a Henie Irawati

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to establish the integrated LPA model for Surabaya Metropolitan Area. The methods used are literature overviews, comparative studies to well-established areas, and expert assistantships through national seminars. The result shows that the integrated LPA has opportunity to combine some activities such as sorting and classifying, producing, wrapping and containing, selling the compost and decayed materials, and filling residual waste by landfill system. In 25 Ha land area, 14.10 Ha is allocated for waste management, and 10.90 Ha for sanitary landfill.

  19. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  20. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  1. POPULATION MOBILITY CHARACTERISTIC: NOTES FROM THE URBAN-URBAN INTERACTION IN SEMARANG METROPOLITAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDHOTILLAH Santi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of cities is characterized by the "pressure" in the form of increasingly dense urban areas, slums, traffic congestion, unemployment in the cities, and the number of illegal housing in the suburbs. This issue demonstrates the need for a balance between urban and rural areas. The balance is obtained through the interaction, and the interaction there is a process of "transfer" in the form of the human population, natural resources, and other supporting components. This view of the phenomenon makes many researchers conducting various studies in the context of the interaction between rural and urban. Furthermore, the study of the interaction of cities such as Salatiga and Semarang are in fact joined in the same region, KSN Kedungsepur. Semarang and surrounding developments as Semarang Metropolitan Region (SMR are the main attraction for the people who are around Semarang that caused an increase in the spatial interactions between Semarang and surrounding areas. From some areas belonging to KSN Kedungsepur, there are only two areas with the status of the city of Semarang city as a centre of KSN and Salatiga. This becomes interesting, unique conditions for studying the phenomenon under study is the interaction of the cities. The method used in this research was a quantitative method with descriptive analysis. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey technique primary by taking a random sample of migrants from Salatiga City and studied at the city of Semarang. The results of the study there were four mobility characteristics formed between Salatiga and Semarang, namely, commuting-boarding, boarding-commuting, boarding and boarding-permanent.

  2. Understanding Urban Communication in Information Era: Analyzing Development Progress of Coastal Territories in the Context of West Java’s Metropolitan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutriadi, Ridwan; Indriyani Kurniasari, Meta

    2017-07-01

    This paper explores a consequence of metropolitan and development centers policy to the development progress of coastal territories by analyzing municipal website base on urban communication functions of communicative city concept. In terms of coastal territories as a part of development center, efforts have to be made in enhancing the role and function of municipal website to show their development progress. Perceptual analysis is taken as a method to measure their position, especially kabupaten/kota as coastal territories in regional context (West Java Province). The results indicate that the availability of public information in coastal territories cities lower than other cities in metropolitan area. Innovation in specifying coastal features has to be promoted in illustrating development progress of coastal territories as a part of development centers in West Java Province.

  3. Radiological impact of diagnostic nuclear medicine technology on the Quebec population (patients and workers) in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, L.; Blanchette, J.

    1992-01-01

    Using the results of a six month survey on the doses received by non-monitored hospital workers from diagnostic nuclear medicine patients (DNMP) in three hospitals and published statistics on Quebec's workers and hospitals, an evaluation of the radiological impact of DNMP has been calculated on the Quebec's population. In 1989, diagnostic nuclear medicine gave an average of 6.4 mSv/act or a total of 2,800 sv-man. The diagnostic nuclear medicine technologists' community received 0.4 Sv-man and the non-monitored hospital workers 1.7 Sv-man from the DNMP in the same year. (author)

  4. Towards a Community-Based Dementia Care Strategy: A Perspective from Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard-Sebillotte, Claire; Vedel, Isabelle; Bergman, Howard

    Morton-Chang et al. highlighted in their article the key strategic pillars of a community-based dementia care strategy: put "people first," support informal caregiving and enable "ground up" innovation and change. In our commentary, we draw upon our experience as authors of the Quebec Alzheimer Plan and evaluators of its implementation by the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services (MSSS). To us, a sustainable dementia care strategy entails a patient-centred approach, grounded in primary care, caring for persons with dementia at every stage of the disease. Implementation of such a strategy requires an ongoing effort to allow innovation adoption by clinicians and organizations.

  5. Introduction of remote meter reading for Hydro-Quebec's residential customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hache, R.; Pouliot, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1986 Hydro-Quebec set a province-wide objective, under its program to improve the quality of customer service, to achieve 95% billing based on real readings. Using market studies, Hydro-Quebec was able to determine a population (approximately 10% of customers) of hard-to-access meters. To reach the objective, they examined the options of using additional human resources or using new technology. In 1988, they decided to adopt inbound technology (TELEREADER) and carry out a pilot project to validate certain aspects of the technology. This document gives an introduction to TELEREADER, along with its requirements, parameters and information on its installation.

  6. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  7. Envisioning a metropolitan foodshed: potential environmental consequences of increasing food-crop production around Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, E. E.; Martin, P. A.; Schuble, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Nationwide, cities are increasingly developing policies aimed at greater sustainability, particularly focusing on reducing environmental impact. Such policies commonly emphasize more efficiently using energy to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the city. However, most plans ignore the food system as a factor in regional energy use and GHG emissions. Yet, the food system in the United States accounts for ~20% of per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Local, sustainable food production is cited as one strategy for mitigating GHG emissions of large metropolitan areas. “Sustainable” for regional agriculture is often identified as small-scale, diversified food crop production using best practices management. Localized food production (termed “foodshed”) using sustainable agriculture could mitigate climate change in multiple ways: (1) energy and therefore CO2-intensive portions of the conventional food system might be replaced by local, lower-input food production resulting in carbon offsets; (2) increased regional carbon storage might result from well-managed food crop production vs. commodity crop production; and (3) averted N2O emissions might result from closing nutrient cycles on agricultural lands following changes in management practices. The broader implications for environmental impact of widespread conversion to sustainable food crop agriculture, however, remain largely unknown. We examine the Chicago metropolitan region to quantify the impact of increased local food production on regional energy efficiency and GHG emissions. Geospatial analysis is used to quantify the resource potential for establishing a Chicago metropolitan foodshed. A regional foodshed is defined by minimizing cost through transportation mode (road, rail, or water) and maximizing the production potential of different soil types. Simple biogeochemical modeling is used to predict changes in N2O emissions and nutrient flows following changes in land management practices

  8. Municipal Revenue Generation and Development in the Calgary and Edmonton Metropolitan Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Conger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal reliance on property taxes and the competing priorities of municipalities—in terms of where they plan and approve land development within their boundaries—in order to capture new property taxes, has led to political conflict between adjacent municipalities.1 Nowhere in Alberta is this more evident than in the Edmonton and Calgary metropolitan regions, where sustained high-levels of growth has led to the expansion of the core-cities, rapid residential development rates in peripheral urban centres and the rise urban-scale development in the rural municipal districts – spurring intrametropolitan competition, harsh words and hurt feelings amongst municipalities.2 In response to this ongoing conflict, the province and at times the municipalities themselves have developed successive regional planning frameworks over the past 60 years3 to guide development and encourage—and at times enforce—intermunicipal collaboration. In an exploration of the contemporary relationship between municipal finance and development patterns in the Calgary and Edmonton metropolitan regions, we use municipal property tax and building-permit data for new residential, commercial and industrial development to track the incidence of development since 1983 and the property tax rates for municipalities in both regions from 2001 to 2015. In looking at the tax data there is evidence of increasing competition among municipalities, in particular for non-residential development; however, the trends could also be consistent with collusion. In looking at the building permit data, although there has been a lot of development in the peripheral urban and rural municipalities, proportionately, growth and development has occurred overwhelmingly in the core-cities. Our findings point to a system where local development considerations in both metropolitan regions, and the municipal prerogative to set municipal tax rates to attract development, take precedence over the

  9. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Carretón, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-11-12

    The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish the seroprevalence of heartworm infection in cats, serological techniques for anti-D.immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibody detection were used while a commercial ELISA test kit was used to detect circulating D.immitis antigens. Of these samples, 11.47% were positive to D.immitis and Wolbachia surface protein antibodies and 0.26% were positive to D.immitis antigens. The higher antibody seroprevalences were found in the areas that follow the courses of the rivers Llobregat and Anoia (Baix Llobregat 11.5%, Vallés Occidental 13.2%; Barcelonés 11.7%) where humidity and vegetation favour the development of the mosquito vectors. High antibody seroprevalences were also found in the urban areas (Barcelona city 13.1%; Sabadell 15.5%), which demonstrates that city cats are also at risk from D.immitis infection. Generally, in Spain cats do not receive prophylactic treatment and therefore the risk of infection is higher in this species than in dogs. Adequate prophylactic plans should be implemented in the feline population. This is the first epidemiologic study on feline heartworm infection to be carried out in continental Spain.

  10. Economic within the City network. Nexans; Wirtschaftlich im City-Netz. Nexans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2015-07-01

    Within the project ''AmpaCity'' prove the partners Nexans Germany and RWE that superconducting cables are technically mature and have to offer economic advantages: By changing the distribution networks in metropolitan areas of high voltage copper cables to medium voltage superconductors could not not only be multiplied the ampacity and power losses minimized, but it could also make disappear substations in downtown and make valuable city land freely. [German] Im Rahmen des Projekts ''AmpaCity'' beweisen die Partner Nexans Deutschland und RWE, dass Supraleiterkabel technisch ausgereift sind und wirtschaftliche Vorteile zu bieten haben: Durch Umstellen der Verteilnetze in Ballungszentren von Hochspannungskupferkabeln auf Mittelspannungssupraleiter liessen sich nicht nur die Stromtragfaehigkeit (Englisch: ampacity) vervielfachen und Leistungsverluste minimieren, sondern es koennten auch Umspannstationen in der Innenstadt wegfallen und wertvolle City-Grundstuecke frei machen.

  11. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  12. Decomposition of Net CO2 Emission in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area of Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO2 sink on a city-level of the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area are calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Moreover, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI model was employed to decompose the net CO2 emission from 2001 to 2009. Results showed that (1 the largest amount of CO2 emission comes from energy while the largest amount CO2 sink comes from cropland; (2 economic level (S was the largest positive driving factor for net CO2 emission growth in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, population (P also played a positive driving role, but with very weak contribution; and as negative inhibiting factors, energy structure (E and energy efficiency (C significantly reduced the net CO2 emission.

  13. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  14. Exposure of children and adolescents to alcohol advertising on Australian metropolitan free-to-air television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Lynda; Donovan, Robert J; Ouschan, Robyn

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the exposure of underage youth to alcohol television advertising on metropolitan free-to-air television in the five mainland capital city markets of Australia. Exposure levels (target audience rating points; TARPs) were obtained for all alcohol advertisements screened from November 2005 to October 2006 in each capital city market for: children 0-12 years; underage teens 13-17 years; young adults 18-24 years; and mature adults 25+ years. The 30 most exposed advertisements across age groups were then content-analysed for elements appealing to children and underage youth. In each of the five metropolitan markets, mature adults were most exposed to alcohol advertising. Children were exposed to one-third the level of mature adults and underage teens to approximately the same level as young adults. However, there was considerable variation in media weight between markets, such that underage teens in two markets had higher advertising TARPs than young adults in other markets. All 30 highest exposed advertisements contained at least one element known to appeal to children and underage youth, with 23 containing two or more such elements. Fifteen of the 30 advertisements featured an animal. The self-regulation system in Australia does not protect children and youth from exposure to alcohol advertising, much of which contains elements appealing to these groups.

  15. Business profile of metropolitan Las Vegas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    This first report describes the present makeup of the Las Vegas metropolitan statistical area (MSA) economy and analyzes the climate for business expansion. The second report contains an assessment of the competitiveness of the area as a location for new or expanded facilities investment by companies in approximately 600 business groups. The third report projects Las Vegas' competitiveness at the start of the next century in the absence of a nuclear waste storage facility and then evaluates the potential impacts of siting that facility near Las Vegas on its ability to attract and retain business investment. The primary purpose of these reports is to contribute to the overall assessment of the environmental impact of the US Department of Energy's proposed action to build and operate an underground nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain. The first two reports also serve a second purpose -- they can be used by economic development organizations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area in their ongoing efforts to attract new business investment. Information contained in the business climate analysis found in this first report can be incorporated into marketing materials. The competitiveness assessment contained in the second report can be used by these organizations in identifying targets they wish to pursue

  16. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  17. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia-Font

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  18. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  19. Urban agriculture as a part of a sustainable metropolitan development program: A case study in Mexico City L’agriculture urbaine dans le cadre d’un programme de développement métropolitain durable : Etude de cas à Mexico La agricultura urbana como Parte de un Programa de Desarrollo Metropolitano Sostenible : Un Caso Práctico en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Torres-Lima

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning land use processes are indispensable for designing policies and activities in peri-urban areas, above all because of the impact of the conversion of agricultural land for urban purposes and the possibility of reducing poverty and assuring the food supply. In Latin America, there are a limited number of studies which discuss institutional involvement and proposals for participative and multi-sector planning with the aim of generating viable conditions for urban agriculture in megacities, within the framework of sustainable development. This article analyzes the principal components of a planning process which promotes the development of agricultural production zones in Xochimilco-Tlahuac, Mexico City. The experience was conceptualized in 2008 with the integration of data obtained through fieldwork, interviews, ethnographic techniques and geomatics, in order to intervene in policies and strategic activities. The positive aspect of this work includes promoting the idea that it is critical to support urban agriculture, by district or metropolitan authorities, in order to address various issues on the city’s development agenda, from the perspective of strategic planning and the practice of their implementation.  We conclude that it is also necessary to re-assess the aspect of socio-territorial organization in the study region, in order to achieve an integrated, habitable and sustainable city by organizing agricultural activities in the rural areas of Mexico City.Les processus d’aménagement du territoire sont indispensables pour élaborer des politiques et des activités dans les zones périurbaines, principalement en raison de l’impact de la conversion des terres agricoles à des fins de développement urbain, et de la possibilité de réduire la pauvreté et d’assurer l’approvisionnement alimentaire. En Amérique Latine, peu d’études ont été menées sur l’implication et les propositions des institutions en faveur de l

  20. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  1. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements of...

  2. Development of an integrated methodology for the energy needs of a major urban city: The case study of Athens, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2012-01-01

    /s to meet the (metropolitan) city's energy needs using Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and additionally implement a techno-economic analysis through a developed tool, in order to find which RES should participate in the city's energy system examining different scenarios focusing not only on the projects......' economical success but also on minimizing the cost for the society....

  3. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...

  4. Understanding the Difficulties Hindering Inter-Agency Collaboration for Students with Special Needs in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Sylvie; Patenaude, David; McLaughlin, Dayna; Freeman, Andrew; Gascon, Hubert; Beaupré, Pauline; Carrière, Monique; Deschênes, Pascale Marier

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the government of Quebec established the "Agreement for the Complementarity of Services Between the Health and Social Services Network and the Education Network" to define principles and obligations for inter-agency collaboration aimed at students with special needs and their families. This study documents the perspectives of…

  5. Quebec inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 and their evolution since 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, V.; Paradis, J.; Bougie, R.; Goulet, M.; Leclerc, N.; Nolet, E.

    2010-11-01

    This document presented an inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by human activity in Quebec between 1990 and 2008. In 2008, 82.7 Mt of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent were released in Quebec, which represents a 1.2 percent reduction from 1990 levels. Quebec had the second lowest GHG emissions per capita in 2008 and was 1 of only 3 only provinces in Canada to have a reduction in GHG emissions since 1990. This document also presented data regarding GHG emissions released by sector, notably from industrial combustion such as the TransCanada Energy cogeneration facilities; industrial processes; residential, commercial and institutional buildings; agriculture; sanitary landfills; and electric power production. Quebec's reduction in GHG emissions can be attributed primarily to advances in energy efficiency technology that have been adopted by the industrial sector. In addition, some industrial combustion facilities have been closed and landfill facilities have begun to use systems to capture methane gas. In contrast, automobile traffic increased over the study period, and was responsible for an important increase in GHG emissions since 1990. 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Participation and environment: The realization of environmental public audiences in the United States, Quebec and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer de Lemos, Chelen

    2001-01-01

    This article examines three experiences accomplishment of environmental public hearings as mechanisms of society participation in discussion and decision-making concerning the environmental problems: the United States experience, the Quebec experience and the Brazil experience. The analysis focuses the most significant aspects of the citizen participation for the state environment management and effective resolution of the environmental problems

  7. [To become a psychiatrist in Quebec in the 50s to 60s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The author is the witness of a historic period of the psychiatry in the province of Quebec in Canada, widely francophone. He describes the context, the training in psychiatry, and the care. In Quebec, in the 1950s, the psychiatry did not exist as such as speciality. There was however a discipline: the neuropsychiatry. It was managed by the neurologists who agreed to take care of cases of psychiatry, which few doctors wanted to treat at this moment. The religious and rural society in Quebec of the 1950s got ready for the "Revolution tranquille". The latter finally burst after 1960. But the artistic environment was already in full excitement, and from 1948, it showed its opposition to the values which were current with the publication of the Refus global. Among the signatories of the latter, we find Bruno Cormier as medical student who will become, after 1950, a psychiatrist and a psychoanalyst. To become a psychiatrist, it was necessary to be trained as an intern in a residency program in the USA, UK or in France. The residency in the United States in the 1950s represented a great adventure for the young doctors of Quebec, especially for the French speakers. At the end of 1950s, the pharmacology emerged. However, he described his own experience as an observer or an actor with ECT, Sakel cure and about the lobotomy.

  8. Applying the Quebec Task Force criteria as a frame of reference for studies of whiplash injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; van Es, FD; Kingma, J; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ

    Research prior to 1995 showed a diversity of either inclusion or exclusion criteria (or both) for diagnosing whiplash injury. As a consequence, the Quebec Task Force (QTF) developed expert-based criteria, which may be considered as a the 'new' gold standard. Here, we examined the inclusion criteria

  9. Energy efficiency at Hydro-Quebec: Why forget the substitution of electricity by natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.-T.

    1994-01-01

    Hydro-Quebec has launched an energy program which will cost $1.9 billion and which intends to save 9.3 TWh of electricity consumption by the year 2000, equivalent to 5.6% of the forecasted electricity consumption. The program only considers electricity and ignores other energy sources. An analysis is conducted to determine whether the subsidies that Hydro-Quebec is prepared to spend in each sector of the program would be sufficient to make up the difference between the cost of electricity and that of natural gas for the end-user. A positive response to this question will allow identification of a less costly way that Hydro-Quebec could realize its energy efficiency objectives. The analysis takes into account the marginal cost of electricity production, the average cost of energy efficiency measures, electricity prices, and the prices of natural gas and of gas-burning equipment. The results of a detailed analysis of four typical cases in the residential and commercial sectors indicate that market segments exist in which an energy efficiency program that includes substitution of other forms of energy for electricity would be preferable to a simple reduction in electricity consumption. However, the rationale for the Hydro-Quebec program is that electricity prices are based on historical average costs; as a result, electricity prices are lower than marginal costs. This problem should be addressed before considering expensive energy efficiency programs where the least-cost alternative is not even considered. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. The impact of the development of external markets for electricity on the domestic price in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Amour, Y.

    1990-03-01

    A study was conducted to establish the sensitivity of the average price of electricity in the domestic Quebec market with respect to the volume of electricity exported. Economic data are presented on electricity in relation to other forms of energy in the northwest North American continental framework. The state of electricity exports and the hydroelectric potential of Quebec with respect to the capacity of neighboring networks to utilize this potential are discussed. CANREM (Canadian Regionalized Electricity Model) is described and used to simulate the effect of electric power exports on the Quebec electricity price over a 23-year period starting in 1987. Three simulation scenarios are presented and analyzed. The results obtained indicate a significant increase in the domestic price during the time that generation and transmission installation is being carried out. In contrast, during the years when service is offered, the slowing of the increase in the price of electricity is the determining factor with regard to the net social gain which can be achieved over the long term for Quebec society. 75 refs., 10 figs., 18 tabs

  11. Variations in demand and provision for publicly funded outpatient musculoskeletal physiotherapy services across Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Simon; Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Laliberté, Maude; Lavoie, Amélie; Desmeules, François; Feldman, Debbie E; Perreault, Kadija

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders is high and expected to increase in the next decade. Persons suffering from musculoskeletal disorders benefit from early physiotherapy services. However, access to publicly funded physiotherapy services has been shown to be compromised by long waiting times and limited availability of resources in many countries around the world. Decisions on resource allocation may create geographic disparities in provision and access to services, which may result in inequity in access. This study aimed to assess variations in demand and provision of publicly funded outpatient physiotherapy services across the province of Quebec, Canada, as well as to assess the demand to provision relationship. We conducted a secondary analysis of data retrieved from the 2008 Quebec Health Survey and data obtained from a survey of hospitals in the province of Quebec in 2015. We used geographic information systems analyses and descriptive analyses to assess geographic variations and the relationship between demand and provision. Our results indicate substantial variations in the provision and demand for physiotherapy services in the province of Quebec. The variations in service provision did not follow the variations in demand. Long waiting times and insufficient provision of services were found in many regions. The variations in provision of physiotherapy services between regions reported in our study did not correspond to the variations in demand. Such geographic variations and demand to provision mismatches may create inequity in access to services, especially for those unable to afford private services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  13. Analyzing Constructions of Polytheistic and Monotheistic Religious Traditions: A Critical Multicultural Approach to Textbooks in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Ehaab D.; Chan, W. Y. Alice

    2017-01-01

    How are religious traditions and exchanges between them constructed in textbooks used in Quebec? Through a critical discourse analysis of History and Citizenship Education, and Ethics and Religious Culture textbooks, we find that the Abrahamic monotheistic tradition is valorized, while non-Abrahamic monotheistic traditions and polytheism are…

  14. Lambs to the Slaughter? Young Francophones and the Role of English in Quebec Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of fears concerning the status of English in Quebec. Unlike in the past, many now claim that it is francophones themselves who risk undermining the achievements of 30 years of successful status planning. The finger is pointed in particular at young francophones, accused of adopting an unfettered…

  15. Crossing the Line in Quebec and Catalonia: The Consequences of the Linguistically "Mixed" Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    The linguistically mixed marriage stands at he crossroads of important factors in the future of French in North American and Catalan in Europe: reversing language shift. While Quebec and Catalonia appear strikingly similar, strong evidence indicates that demographic, linguistic, socioeconomic, and even lifestyle factors may make linguistic exogamy…

  16. The take-over of Gaz Metropolitain by Hydro-Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J-T.

    1997-01-01

    The implications of a take-over of Gaz Metropolitain by Hydro-Quebec in early 1997 and the pricing of electricity and natural gas in Quebec were discussed. In January 1997, Hydro-Quebec purchased all the shares in Noverco that were formerly owned by SOQUIP. With this purchase, Hydro-Quebec became the major share holder in Noverco, the company that controls Gaz Metropolitain. This type of take-over, where an electrical utility purchases the interests in a natural gas distributor, has also been observed in the United States and is believed to be a consequence of the recent deregulation of the electricity market. In the near future, it is believed that consumers will probably pay for equivalent energy use (like heating or cooling) rather than separate tariffs for electricity or natural gas consumption. The recent popularity of gas-fueled electrical cogenerating stations is also believed to be an important factor in this take-over. 1 ref., 3 tabs

  17. The residential dual-energy program of Hydro-Quebec: An economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, C.; Bernard, J.-T.

    1991-01-01

    Higher than expected electricity consumption in recent years and increasing objections to capacity expansion on environmental grounds have led Quebec's government-owned electric utility, Hydro-Quebec, to launch an innovative program to reduce peak period residential electric heating demand. When the outside temperature drops below -12 degree C, customers who have opted for the program are charged 10 cents/kWh for their electricity (substantially above the 4.46 cents/kWh paid by normal residential customers) and they are automatically switched to a non-electric heating source, whereas above -12 degree C they pay 2.75 cents/kWh for all uses. A cost benefit analysis of this dual energy program finds that if, as Hydro-Quebec forecasts, 150,000 residential customers were to opt for this program, they would benefit by $19.0 million per year, while the utility and the government would lose $21.6 million and $1.6 million respectively, with a total net loss to Quebec society of $4.25 million a year. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  18. List of realizations of French and Quebec towns; Repertoires de realisations de villes francaises et quebecoises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The aims of this list is to offer to the local governments information on realizations concerning the energy efficiency, in order to allow the identification of operators and technical solutions and methodologies, in relation with the sites where they are implemented. It increases also the knowledge on experiments and allows the comparative evaluation between French and Quebec realizations. (A.L.B.)

  19. University Reform in Quebec: The Strike at Laval 1976. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    Quebec colleges remained firmly entrenched in the pure classicism of prerevolutionary France until well into the twentieth century. Formal Roman Catholic Church control of Laval University, a Jesuit university, ceased in 1965 at a time when the institution and its administration were expanding greatly, and the faculty quickly began to resent the…

  20. Shunning the Bird's Eye View: General Science in the Schools of Ontario and Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of general science particularly appealing to Ontario educationists. These developments included a new demand for vocational education, renewed reservations about pedagogical rationales based on transfer of training, and a growing professional divide between high school science teachers and university scientists. Around the same time, scientists in the Quebec's French-language universities were engaged in a concerted campaign to expand the place of science in the province's francophone secondary schools. The province's prestigious classical colleges, which were the scientists' principal target for reform, privileged an inductive view of science that had little in common with the applied, cross-disciplinary emphasis of the general science courses gaining support in English-speaking school systems. In 1934, however, a popular American general science textbook was adopted in a workers' cooperative devoted to adult education. Comparing the fate of general science within these two education systems draws attention to the fact that general science made inroads in francophone Quebec but had little influence in public and private schools. In light of the growing support general science enjoyed elsewhere, we are led to explore why general science met with little overt interest by Quebec scientists pushing for school science reform during the 1930s.