WorldWideScience

Sample records for quark energy loss

  1. Heavy quark energy loss in nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Benr-Wei; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2003-01-01

    Multiple scattering, modified fragmentation functions and radiative energy loss of a heavy quark propagating in a nuclear medium are investigated in perturbative QCD. Because of the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the medium size dependence of heavy quark energy loss is found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss is also significantly suppressed relative to a light quark due to the suppression of collinear gluon emission by a heavy quark

  2. An overview of heavy quark energy loss puzzle at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    We give a theoretical overview of the heavy quark tomography puzzle posed by recent non-photonic single electron data from central Au+Au collisions at √s = 200A GeV. We show that radiative energy loss mechanisms alone are not able to explain large single electron suppression data, as long as realistic parameter values are assumed. We argue that a combined collisional and radiative pQCD approach can solve a substantial part of the non-photonic single electron puzzle

  3. Far-from-equilibrium heavy quark energy loss at strong coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Chesler, Paul; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    We study the energy loss of a heavy quark propagating through the matter produced in the collision of two sheets of energy [1]. Even though this matter is initially far-from-equilibrium we find that, when written in terms of the energy density, the equilibrium expression for heavy quark energy loss describes most qualitative features of our results well. At later times, once a plasma described by viscous hydrodynamics has formed, the equilibrium expression describes the heavy quark energy loss quantitatively. In addition to the drag force that makes it lose energy, a quark moving through the out-of-equilibrium matter feels a force perpendicular to its velocity.

  4. Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: heavy quark energy loss and modified fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benwei; Wang, Enke; Wang Xinnian

    2005-01-01

    Multiple scattering, induced radiative energy loss and modified fragmentation functions of a heavy quark in nuclear matter are studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD. Modified heavy quark fragmentation functions and energy loss are derived in detail with illustration of the mass dependencies of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal interference effects and heavy quark energy loss. Due to the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the nuclear size dependencies of nuclear modification of the heavy quark fragmentation function and heavy quark energy loss are found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss of the heavy quark is also significantly suppressed due to limited cone of gluon radiation imposed by the mass. Medium modification of the heavy quark fragmentation functions is found to be limited to the large z region due to the form of heavy quark fragmentation functions in vacuum

  5. Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Po-Ju [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.

  6. Heavy quark energy loss far from equilibrium in a strongly coupled collision

    CERN Document Server

    Chesler, Paul M; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    We compute and study the drag force acting on a heavy quark propagating through the matter produced in the collision of two sheets of energy in a strongly coupled gauge theory that can be analyzed holographically. Although this matter is initially far from equilibrium, we find that the equilibrium expression for heavy quark energy loss in a homogeneous strongly coupled plasma with the same instantaneous energy density or pressure as that at the location of the quark describes many qualitative features of our results. One interesting exception is that there is a time delay after the initial collision before the heavy quark energy loss becomes significant. At later times, once a liquid plasma described by viscous hydrodynamics has formed, expressions based upon assuming instantaneous homogeneity and equilibrium provide a semi-quantitative description of our results - as long as the rapidity of the heavy quark is not too large. For a heavy quark with large rapidity, the gradients in the velocity of the hydrodyna...

  7. Production and energy loss of strange and heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Data taken over the last several years have demonstrated that RHIC has created a hot, dense medium with partonic degrees of freedom. Identified particle spectra at high transverse momentum (p T ) and heavy flavor that are thought to be well-calibrated probes thus serve as ideal tools to study the properties of the medium. We present p T distributions of particle ratios in p+p collisions from the STAR experiment to understand the particle production mechanisms. These measurements will also constrain fragmentation functions in hadron-hardon collisions. In heavy-ion collisions, we highlight (1) recent measurements of strange hadrons and heavy flavor decay electrons up to high p T to study jet interaction with the medium and explore partonic energy loss mechanisms, and (2) Υ and high p T J/ψ measurements to study the effect of color screening and other possible production mechanisms.

  8. Quark Energy Loss and Shadowing in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Chungui; Cui Shuwen; Yan Zhanyuan

    2005-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of three kinds of quark energy loss parameterizations given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections are analyzed for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866. It is shown that our results with considering the energy loss effect are much different from those of the FNAL E866, who analyzes the experimental data with the nuclear parton distribution functions obtained by using the deep inelastic lA collisions and pA nuclear Drell-Yan data. Considering the existence of energy loss effect in Drell-Yan lepton pairs production, we suggest that the extraction of nuclear parton distribution functions should not include Drell-Yan experimental data.

  9. Quark Energy Loss and Shadowing in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; CUI Shu-Wen; YAN Zhan-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of three kinds of quark energy loss parameterizations given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections are analyzed for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866. It is shown that our results with considering the energy loss effect are much different from those of the FNAL E866, who analyzes the experimental data with the nuclear parton distribution functions obtained by using the deep inelastic IA collisions and pA nuclear Drell-Yan data. Considering the existence of energy loss effect in Drell-Yan lepton pairs production, we suggest that the extraction of nuclear parton distribution functions should not include Drell-Yan experimental data.

  10. Energy loss, equilibration, and thermodynamics of a baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougemont, Romulo [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, Butantã, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ficnar, Andrej [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Finazzo, Stefano I. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, Butantã, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade do Estado de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, CEP 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Noronha, Jorge [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, Butantã, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Lattice data for the QCD equation of state and the baryon susceptibility near the crossover phase transition (at zero baryon density) are used to determine the input parameters of a 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model that provides a consistent holographic framework to study both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium properties of a hot and baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We compare our holographic equation of state computed at nonzero baryon chemical potential, μ{sub B}, with recent lattice calculations and find quantitative agreement for the pressure and the speed of sound for μ{sub B}≤400 MeV. This holographic model is used to obtain holographic predictions for the temperature and μ{sub B} dependence of the drag force and the Langevin diffusion coefficients associated with heavy quark jet propagation as well as the jet quenching parameter q̂ and the shooting string energy loss of light quarks in the baryon dense plasma. We find that the energy loss of heavy and light quarks generally displays a nontrivial, fast-varying behavior as a function of the temperature near the crossover. Moreover, energy loss is also found to generally increase due to nonzero baryon density effects even though this strongly coupled liquid cannot be described in terms of well defined quasiparticle excitations. Furthermore, to get a glimpse of how thermalization occurs in a hot and baryon dense QGP, we study how the lowest quasinormal mode of an external massless scalar disturbance in the bulk is affected by a nonzero baryon charge. We find that the equilibration time associated with the lowest quasinormal mode decreases in a dense medium.

  11. Energy loss of gluons, baryons and k-quarks in an N = 4 SYM plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Gueijosa, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    We consider different types of external color sources that move through a strongly-coupled thermal N = 4 super-Yang-Mills plasma, and calculate, via the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dissipative force (or equivalently, the rate of energy loss) they experience. A bound state of k quarks in the totally antisymmetric representation is found to feel a force with a nontrivial k-dependence. Our result for k=1 (or k = N-1) agrees at large N with the one obtained recently by Herzog et al. and Gubser, but contains in addition an infinite series of 1/N corrections. The baryon (k = N) is seen to experience no drag. Finally, a heavy gluon is found to be subject to a force which at large N is twice as large as the one experienced by a heavy quark, in accordance with gauge theory expectations

  12. Energy loss of gluons, baryons and k-quarks in an Script N = 4 SYM plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Güijosa, Alberto

    2007-02-01

    We consider different types of external color sources that move through a strongly-coupled thermal Script N = 4 super-Yang-Mills plasma, and calculate, via the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dissipative force (or equivalently, the rate of energy loss) they experience. A bound state of k quarks in the totally antisymmetric representation is found to feel a force with a nontrivial k-dependence. Our result for k=1 (or k = N-1) agrees at large N with the one obtained recently by Herzog et al. and Gubser, but contains in addition an infinite series of 1/N corrections. The baryon (k = N) is seen to experience no drag. Finally, a heavy gluon is found to be subject to a force which at large N is twice as large as the one experienced by a heavy quark, in accordance with gauge theory expectations.

  13. Energy Loss of Gluons, Baryons and k-Quarks in an N=4 SYM Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Guijosa, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    We consider different types of external color sources that move through a strongly-coupled thermal N=4 super-Yang-Mills plasma, and calculate, via the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dissipative force (or equivalently, the rate of energy loss) they experience. A bound state of k quarks in the totally antisymmetric representation is found to feel a force with a nontrivial k-dependence. Our result for k=1 (or k=N-1) agrees at large N with the one obtained recently by Herzog et al. and Gubser, but c...

  14. The influence of initial state fluctuations on heavy quark energy loss in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen A; Huang, Yajing; Qin, Guang-You

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of initial state fluctuations on the dynamical evolution of heavy quarks inside a quark–gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The evolution of heavy quarks in QGP matter is described utilizing a modified Langevin equation that incorporates the contributions from both collisional and radiative energy loss. The spacetime evolution of the fireball medium is simulated with a (2 + 1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic model. We find that when the medium traversed by the heavy quark contains a fixed amount of energy, heavy quarks tend to lose more energy for greater fluctuations of the medium density. This may result in a larger suppression of heavy flavor observables in a fluctuating QGP matter than in a smooth one. The possibility of using hard probes to infer the information of initial states of heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (paper)

  15. Jet energy loss in quark-gluon plasma. Kinetic theory with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collisional kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cheng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Jiang, Bing-feng [Hubei University for Nationalities, Center for Theoretical Physics and School of Sciences, Enshi, Hubei (China)

    2017-10-15

    The dielectric functions ε{sub L}, ε{sub T} of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are derived within the framework of the kinetic theory with BGK-type collisional kernel. The collision effect manifested by the collision rate is encoded in the dielectric functions. Based on the derived dielectric functions we study the collisional energy loss suffered by a fast parton traveling through the QGP. The numerical results show that the collision rate increases the energy loss. (orig.)

  16. Elliptic flow and energy loss of heavy quarks in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uphoff, Jan; Fochler, Oliver; Greiner, Carsten; Xu, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The space-time propagation of heavy quarks in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is studied within the partonic transport model Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings (BAMPS). In this model heavy quarks interact with the partonic medium via binary scatterings. The cross sections for these interactions are calculated with leading-order perturbative QCD, but feature a more precise Debye screening derived within the hard thermal loop approximation and obey the running of the coupling. Within this framework the elliptic flow and the nuclear modification factor of heavy quarks are computed for the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies and compared to available experimental data. It is found that binary scatterings alone cannot reproduce the data and therefore radiative corrections have to be taken into account.

  17. Exploring heavy-quark energy loss via b-tagging in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klay, Jennifer L

    2005-01-01

    A strategy to study flavour-dependent parton energy loss by tagging heavy quark jets in p+p, p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC is discussed. Estimates for production cross-sections and experimental techniques employed at collider detectors to search QQ-bar jets are presented and a brief evaluation of the capabilities of CMS, ALICE and ATLAS detectors are given

  18. Energy loss effects on heavy quark production in heavy-ion collisions at sq root s = 5.5 A TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Zi Wei

    1999-01-01

    We study the effect of energy loss on charm and bottom quarks in high-energy heavy-ion collisions including hadronization, longitudinal expansion and partial thermalization. We consider in detail the detector geometry and single lepton energy cuts of the ALICE and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to show the large suppression of high P sub T heavy quarks and the consequences on their semileptonic decays.

  19. Studies of the ionization energy loss in the DELPHI TPC and the identification of quark and gluon jets in hadronic events at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baerring, O.

    1992-09-01

    In this thesis a fast and accurate method for the calculations of the energy loss spectrum is presented. The algorithm, which is based on the Laplace transform method, differs from earlier approaches in that it makes use of fast fourier transform routines instead of numerical integration or series expansion. We present also a new type of jet classification, based on artificial neural network technique. The classification is proved to be insensitive to the jet energy, i.e. it exploits only the fragmentation differences between quarks and gluons. We apply this method in a measurement of the triple-gluon vertex in four-jet events at LEP. (au) (33 refs.)

  20. Spin effects in high energy quark-quark scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, S.V.; Selyugin, O.V.

    1993-01-01

    The spin amplitudes in high-energy quark-quark scattering at /t/>1 GeV 2 are analyzed. It is shown that the gluon contributions in the QCDα s 3 order lead to the spin-flip amplitude growing as s. This means the existence of the spin-flip part in pomeron exchange. The resulting T f is about few per cent of the spin-non-flip contribution. The factorization of the large-distance and high-energy effects in the spin-flip amplitude is obtained. 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.

  2. Energy change of a heavy quark in a viscous quark–gluon plasma with fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Bing-feng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong

    2016-01-01

    When a heavy quark travels through the quark–gluon plasma, the polarization and fluctuating chromoelectric fields will be produced simultaneously in the plasma. The drag force due to those fields exerting in return on the moving heavy quark will cause energy change to it. Based on the dielectric functions derived from the viscous chromohydrodynamics, we have studied the collisional energy change of a heavy quark traversing the viscous quark–gluon plasma including fluctuations of chromoelectric field. Numerical results indicate that the chromoelectric field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the moving heavy quark. Shear viscosity suppresses the fluctuation-induced energy gain and the viscous suppression effect for the charm quark is much more remarkable than that for the bottom quark. While, the fluctuation energy gain is much smaller than the polarization energy loss in magnitude and the net energy change for the heavy quark is at loss.

  3. Quark model and high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyiri, J.; Kobrinsky, M.N.

    1982-06-01

    The aim of the present review is to show that the additive quark model describes well not only the static features of hadrons but also the interaction processes at high energies. Considerations of the hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus interactions and of the hadron production in multiparticle production processes suggest serious arguments in favour of the nucleus-like hadron structure and show the possibility to apply the rules of quark statistics to the description of the secondary particle production. (author)

  4. Quarks in high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The great interest of the quark parton model is that is seems to provide a successful way of relating together a variety of apparently very different reactions. In these lectures the author reviews the principal applications of the model. The following reactions are discussed: 1) Deep inelastic scattering of electrons, muons and neutrinos, 2) Production of lepton pairs, J/psi and W in hadronic collisions, 3) Electron-positron annihilation, 4) Large transverse momentum hadronic processes. (Auth.)

  5. Why heavy and light quarks radiate energy with similar rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The dead-cone effect has been predicted to reduce the magnitude of energy loss and jet quenching for heavy flavors produced with large p T in heavy-ion collisions. On the contrary, data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider demonstrate a strong suppression of high-p T electrons from charm and bottom decays. We show that vacuum radiation of a highly virtual quark produced at high p T with a stripped-off color field develops a much wider dead cone, which screens the one related to the quark mass. Lacking the field, gluons cannot be radiated within this cone until the color field is regenerated and the quark virtuality cools down to the scale of the order of the quark mass. However, this takes longer than is essential for the observed jet quenching, leading to similar nuclear effects for the light and charm quark jets. Open beauty is expected to radiate much less within the p T range studied so far in heavy-ion collisions.

  6. Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmaei, Babak S.; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse-momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.

  7. Heavy quark free energies for three quark systems at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, Kay; Karsch, Frithjof; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Vogt, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We study the free energy of static three quark systems in singlet, octet, decuplet, and average color channels in the quenched approximation and in 2-flavor QCD at finite temperature. We show that in the high temperature phase singlet and decuplet free energies of three quark systems are well described by the sum of the free energies of three diquark systems plus self-energy contributions of the three quarks. In the confining low temperature phase we find evidence for a Y-shaped flux tube in SU(3) pure gauge theory, which is less evident in 2-flavor QCD due to the onset of string breaking. We also compare the short distance behavior of octet and decuplet free energies to the free energies of single static quarks in the corresponding color representations.

  8. Quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhter, V [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1981-04-01

    The history is described of the concept of quarks, ie., hypothetical particles of which,hadrons (strongly interacting particles) are believed to consist. The quark properties differ from those of known elementary particles. The electric charge of quarks is 1/3 and 2/3 of the electron charge and they obviously only exist inside hadrons. Quark existence is generally recognized because it has been confirmed by experimental verification of predictions made using a quark model.

  9. Energy losses in switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF 6 polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V peak I peak ) 1.1846 . When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset

  10. Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kai [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dai, Wei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Nu [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhuang, Pengfei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  11. Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kai; Dai, Wei; Xu, Nu; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  12. Quark model and high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Anisovich, V V; Nyíri, J; Shabelski, Yu M

    2004-01-01

    This is an updated version of the book published in 1985. QCD-motivated, it gives a detailed description of hadron structure and soft interactions in the additive quark model, where hadrons are regarded as composite systems of dressed quarks. In the past decade it has become clear that nonperturbative QCD, responsible for soft hadronic processes, may differ rather drastically from perturbative QCD. The understanding of nonperturbative QCD requires a detailed investigation of the experiments and the theoretical approaches. Bearing this in mind, the book has been rewritten paying special attenti

  13. Heavy-quark free energies, internal-energy and entropy contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczmarek, O.

    2009-01-01

    We present lattice QCD results on heavy-quark free energies, extract from its temperature dependence the entropy and internal-energy contributions, and discuss the onset of medium effects that lead to screening of static quark-antiquark sources in a thermal medium. The detailed analysis of the temperature and distance dependence of the different contributions indicate the complex non-perturbative nature of strongly interacting matter. We shall discuss the necessity to include those effects in studies on the behavior of heavy quarks, heavy-quark bound states and their dissociation in the quark-gluon plasma phase. (orig.)

  14. Acceleration and Energy Loss in N=4 SYM

    OpenAIRE

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Guijosa, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the results obtained in arXiv:0803.3070, concerning the rate of energy loss of an accelerating quark in strongly-coupled N=4 super-Yang-Mills, both at zero and finite temperature. For phenomenological purposes, our main result is that, when a quark is created within the plasma together with its corresponding antiquark, the quark starts feeling the plasma only after the q-\\bar{q} separation becomes larger than the (v-dependent) screening length, and from this point ...

  15. Searching for color sextet quarks at high energy hardon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantar, M.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the resonance and pair production of color sextet quarks and their decay modes at very high energy hadron colliders such as VHLC (Very Large Hadron Collider) with the energy of 28 TeV and SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) for two options with energies of 40 TeV and 100 TeV, respectively. The total cross sections of color sextet quark for three different machines are calculated and plotted versus its mass. The distributions of transverse momentum T p and invariant mass jj m of two final state jets are plotted for signals and backgrounds and analyzed the discovery limits of this resonance particle. The observation condition of color sextet quarks are performed by the number of signal events to the number of background events

  16. High energy cosmic ray signature of quark nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouze, J.; Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that dark matter in the Universe might consist of nuggets of quarks which populate the nuclear desert between nucleons and neutron star matter. It is further suggested that the Centauro events which could be the signature of particles with atomic mass A approx. 100 and energy E approx. 10 to 15th power eV might also be related to debris produced in the encounter of two neutron stars. A further consequence of the former proposal is examined, and it is shown that the production of relativistic quark nuggets is accompanied by a substantial flux of potentially observable high energy neutrinos.

  17. Quark model and high-energy nuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    1979-05-01

    Theoretical aspects of the measurements of production of low transverse momentum secondaries in high-energy hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Applications of the quark model to those processes are discussed in some detail. 58 references

  18. Quark model and high-energy nuclear experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialas, A.

    1979-05-01

    Theoretical aspects of the measurements of production of low transverse momentum secondaries in high-energy hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Applications of the quark model to those processes are discussed in some detail. 58 references.

  19. Acceleration and energy loss in N = 4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Gueijosa, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    This contribution is based on two talks given at the XIII Mexican School of Particles and Fields. We revisit some of the results presented in [19], concerning the rate of energy loss of an accelerating quark in strongly-coupled N = 4 super-Yang-Mills.

  20. Acceleration and energy loss in N = 4 SYM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Güijosa, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    This contribution is based on two talks given at the XIII Mexican School of Particles and Fields. We revisit some of the results presented in [19], concerning the rate of energy loss of an accelerating quark in strongly-coupled N = 4 super-Yang-Mills.

  1. Is quark-antiquark annihilation infrared safe at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, J.; Gatheral, J.G.M.; Taylor, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    In perturbative QCD, the Bloch-Nordsieck cross section for quark-antiquark annihilation is known, to order g 4 , to be infrared finite, except for terms which are power suppressed at high energies. A fairly simple explanation of this fact, using analyticity, unitarity and an analysis of mass-singularities in both Feynman and axial gauges, is given. The argument applies fairly easily to order g 6 . Assuming a generalized unitarity principle, the argument can be extended to all orders. (Author) [pt

  2. Color sextet quarks and new high-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.; Kang, Kyungsik

    1992-01-01

    We review the implications of adding a flavor doublet of color sextet quarks to QCD. Theoretical attractions include -- ''minimal'' dynamical symmetry breaking of the electroweak interaction, solution of the Strong CP problem via the ''heavy axion'' η 6 , and Critical Pomeron Scaling at asymptotic energies. Related experimental phenomena, which there may be evidence for, include -- production of the η 6 at LEP, large cross-sections for W + W - and Z o Z o pairs and very high energy jets in hadron colliders, and a hadronic threshold above which high-energy ''exotic'' diffractive processes appear in Cosmic Ray events

  3. Measuring top-quark polarization in top-pair + missing-energy events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-10-12

    The polarization of a top quark can be sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. Since the charged lepton from top-quark decay is maximally correlated with the top-quark spin, it is common to measure the polarization from the distribution in the angle between the charged lepton and the top-quark directions. We propose a novel method based on the charged lepton energy fraction and illustrate the method with a detailed simulation of top-quark pairs produced in supersymmetric top squark pair production. We show that the lepton energy ratio distribution that we define is very sensitive to the top-quark polarization but insensitive to the precise measurement of the top-quark energy.

  4. Very high energy probes of the quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.; Madansky, L.

    1984-01-01

    Among the penetrating probes of nuclear matter the most frequently discussed have been those which involve the detection of photons or leptons with m/sub T/ approx. = P/sub T/ < 3 GeV. This is the expected range of emission from a hot, thermalized plasma of quarks and gluons. The suggestion has been made that in very high energy collisions of nuclei the properties of high P/sub T/ jets may also reflect the characteristics of the nuclear medium through which the parent partons have propagated just after the collision. In this note we expand on the possible uses of such a probe

  5. Theoretical estimation of Photons flow rate Production in quark gluon interaction at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agealy, Hadi J. M.; Hamza Hussein, Hyder; Mustafa Hussein, Saba

    2018-05-01

    photons emitted from higher energetic collisions in quark-gluon system have been theoretical studied depending on color quantum theory. A simple model for photons emission at quark-gluon system have been investigated. In this model, we use a quantum consideration which enhances to describing the quark system. The photons current rate are estimation for two system at different fugacity coefficient. We discussion the behavior of photons rate and quark gluon system properties in different photons energies with Boltzmann model. The photons rate depending on anisotropic coefficient : strong constant, photons energy, color number, fugacity parameter, thermal energy and critical energy of system are also discussed.

  6. Probing quark mass effects in low-energy hadron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditsche, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Since quarks are confined inside hadrons, their properties as well as their contributions to hadronic observables can be assessed by indirect methods only. As the strength of the strong interaction increases with the spatial distance, the treatment of quantum chromodynamics at low energies in general requires non-perturbative methods like dispersion relations or lattice gauge theory. Based on the fact that the light quark masses are very small with respect to the typical hadronic mass scales for mesons and baryons, furthermore effective field theories can be constructed to describe low-energy properties and dynamics of hadrons perturbatively. The present work is concerned with two particularly interesting hadronic processes that are closely related to the light quark masses. Although distinct theoretical frameworks utilizing different calculational techniques are applied, in both cases the investigations at hand are prerequisites for high-precision analyses of the respective quark-mass effects. In the first part of this thesis, we investigate higher-order isospin-breaking effects in η→3π decays, namely η→π 0 π + π - and η→3π 0 , in chiral perturbation theory. By evaluating the second-order mixed strong and electromagnetic isospin-breaking corrections, we confirm the picture that the electromagnetic contributions are small. Therefore, η→3π is perfectly suited to extract isospin-breaking ratios of light quark masses via comparing theoretical predictions with experimental results. Since for an accurate determination a detailed description of the Dalitz plot distributions is necessary, we study the different effects of higher-order isospin breaking in η→3π on a more general basis. In particular, we investigate corrections to isospin relations between both decay channels at the level of Dalitz plot parameters, showing that the branching ratio of the two partial decay widths entails sizeable uncertainties. In the second part, we develop a dispersive

  7. Quark condensate contributions to the gluon self-energy and the ρ meson sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    The operator-product expansion will be employed to obtain the lowest-order, quark condensate component of both the gluon self-energy and the ρ meson correlation function to all orders in the quark mass parameter. Field-theoretic aspects of the self-energy and correlation function will be considered, and physical effects to the quark condensate upon gluon mass generation will be examined. (orig.)

  8. Loss of energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Russian PM Vladimir Putin, euphoric about the signing of the 25-year contract for the use of Ukrainian seaports by the Russian Navy, announced several new strategic bilateral projects. The new partnership between the two countries might be a disappointment for those who were hoping for new Slovak energy business development in cooperation with Moscow. Representatives of the Russian company TVEL frequently visited the Slovak Ministry of Economy last year, discussing the idea of a nuclear fuel production plant in Slovakia. The factory was supposed to make fuel for the growing number of Russian reactors throughout Europe and utilize the recently discovered uranium deposits near Kosice. However, since Mr. Putin unveiled the idea of creating a Russian-Ukrainian nuclear holding at the site of the Khmelnitskaya Nuclear Power Plant, Slovakia will probably not become the gate to the EU for Russia's atomic business. Owners of the Slovak uranium deposit site are losing business too. And not only does the Slovak-Russian nuclear cooperation seem to be completely lost, but the gas transfer business is unclear too. Last week, the Russian gas company Gazprom showed that its selling prices are a matter of political bargaining rather than fair market value. Similar to low prices for the extremely friendly Belarus, Ukraine earned a $100 discount and in exchange for the Black Sea deal it will be paying only $236 per thousand cubic meters of the commodity. Russia thus gave up roughly $3 billion this year. Slovakia has nothing to offer in exchange for such a deal. Not only price creation but also the construction of gas pipelines through Europe remains a political issue for Russians. With plans to bypass Ukraine and Slovakia, the only safe future for the local transit system can be the result of an idea to pool Gazprom and Ukrainian Naftohaz transit assets together with a stock swap. (author)

  9. Quark and gluon fragmentation in high energy e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1986-07-01

    The paper on quark and gluon fragmentation in high energy e + e - annihilation is based on lectures given at the International School of High Energy Physics, Yugoslavia, 1986. Fragmentation Models, charged particle multiplicity, Bose-Einstein correlations, single particle inclusive distributions, hadrons in jets, leading particle effects, baryon production, comparison of quark and gluon jets, and the string effect, are all discussed. (UK)

  10. Quark self-energy beyond the mean field at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, an effective low-energy model of QCD, is extended to the next to the leading order in the 1/N c expansion at finite temperature and density. The contributions to the quark self-energy and the constituent quark mass from the meson dressing are considered in a perturbative approach about the mean field. In particular, the temperature dependence of the quark mass is shown numerically at zero chemical potential. The correction to the quark mass from the meson dressing amounts to 20% compared to the result of the leading order at low temperature, and rapidly approaches zero at high temperature

  11. Energy losses on tokamak startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.; Rothe, K.E.; Bronner, G.

    1983-01-01

    During the startup of a tokamak reactor using poloidal field (PF) coils to induce plasma currents, the conducting structures carry induced currents. The associated energy losses in the circuits must be provided by the startup coils and the PF system. This paper provides quantitative and comparitive values for the energies required as a function of the thickness or resistivity of the torus shells

  12. World offshore energy loss statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970-2004. The impact of the 2004-2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized

  13. Hadron energy spectrum in polarized top-quark decays considering the effects of hadron and bottom quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, S.M.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O.Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Balali, Mahboobe [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    We present the analytical expressions for the next-to-leading order corrections to the partial decay width t(↑) → bW{sup +}, followed by b @→ H{sub b}X, for nonzero b-quark mass (m{sub b} ≠ 0) in the fixed-flavor-number scheme (FFNs). To make the predictions for the energy distribution of outgoing hadrons H{sub b}, as a function of the normalized H{sub b}-energy fraction x{sub H}, we apply the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme (GM-VFNs) in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization of top quark is evaluated relative to the b-quark momentum. We also study the effects of gluon fragmentation and finite hadron mass on the hadron energy spectrum so that hadron masses are responsible for the low x{sub H} threshold. In order to describe both the b-quark and the gluon hadronizations in top decays we apply realistic and nonperturbative fragmentation functions extracted through a global fit to the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC by relying on their universality and scaling violations. (orig.)

  14. A candidate for production of a top quark pair in CMS, where both top quarks decay into a W and a b quark, and both W particles decay into a muon and neutrino. This results in 2 muons (red tracks), 2 jets tagged as b-quark jets and missing energy (from the escaping neutrinos).

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A candidate for production of a top quark pair in CMS, where both top quarks decay into a W and a b quark, and both W particles decay into a muon and neutrino. This results in 2 muons (red tracks), 2 jets tagged as b-quark jets and missing energy (from the escaping neutrinos).

  15. Loss energy states of nonstationary quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of loss energy states is introduced. The loss energy states of the quantum harmonic damping oscillator are considered in detail. The method of constructing the loss energy states for general multidimensional quadratic nonstationary quantum systems is briefly discussed

  16. High-energy manifestations of heavy quarks in axial-vector neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizukuri, Y.; Ohba, I.; Okano, K.; Yamanaka, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A recent work by Collins, Wilczek, and Zee has attempted to manifest the incompleteness of the decoupling theorem in the axial-vector neutral currents at low energies. In the spirit of their work, we calculate corrections of the axial-vector neutral currents by virtual-heavy-quark exchange in the high-energy e + e - processes and estimate some observable quantities sensitive to virtual-heavy-quark masses which may be compared with experimental data at LEP energies

  17. Soft Gluon Radiation off Heavy Quarks beyond Eikonal Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, Surasree; Bhattacharyya, Trambak; Abir, Raktim

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the soft gluon radiation spectrum off heavy quarks (HQs) interacting with light quarks (LQs) beyond small angle scattering (eikonality) approximation and thus generalize the dead-cone formula of heavy quarks extensively used in the literatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) phenomenology to the large scattering angle regime which may be important in the energy loss of energetic heavy quarks in the deconfined Quark-Gluon Plasma medium. In the proper limits, we reproduce all the relevant existing formulae for the gluon radiation distribution off energetic quarks, heavy or light, used in the QGP phenomenology.

  18. electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerton, R.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a commemorative series of articles to mark the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the electron, this article describes the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The physical and chemical properties of materials can be studied by considering the energy that electrons use as they travel through a solid, often in conjunction with other analytical techniques. The technique is often combined with electron diffraction and high-resolution imaging and can be used to provide elemental identification down to the atomic scale. 6 figs

  19. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerton, R.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the commemorative series of articles to mark the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the electron, this article discusses electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The physical and chemical properties of materials can be studied by considering the energy that electrons use as they travel through a solid, often in conjunction with other analytical techniques. The technique is often combined with electron diffraction and high-resolution imaging and can be used to provide elemental identification down to the atomic scale. (UK)

  20. Search for Quarks in High-Energy Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a search for quarks produced in high energy neutrino interactions. Neutrino interactions take place in a 23-ton lead target and are recognized by one or more particles crossing the counter hodoscopes S1 and S2, together with the absence of an incident particle signal in the initial veto counter V^0.\\\\ \\\\ The lead is viewed by an avalanche chamber to measure the specific ionization of the charged secondaries produced in the @n-interaction with high accuracy even in jet-like events, and by a series of two pairs of scintillation counter hodoscopes (ST1, ST2). The latter provide time-of-flight measurements and dE/dx measurements for a fast analysis in low and medium multiplicity provide a trigger for the chamber. \\\\ \\\\ In order to reduce the background in the set-up, very low momentum particles (mainly due to cascading processes in the target) are separated out by a @= 1 T.m magnet placed behind the target. \\\\ \\\\ A system of wire chambers W1, W2, which register both the position and the time at...

  1. Energy dependence of the differences between the quark and gluon jet fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Pindo, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G; Charpentier, Ph; Gavillet, Ph; Jarlskog, Ch; Papadopoulou, Th D

    1996-01-01

    Three jet events arising from decays of the Z boson, collected by the DELPHI detector, were used to measure differences in quark and gluon fragmentation. Gluon jets were anti-tagged by identifying b quark jets. Unbiased quark jets came from events with two jets plus one photon. Quark and gluon jet properties in different energy ranges were compared for the first time within the same detector. Quark and gluon jets of nearly the same energy in symmetric three jet event topologies were also compared. Using three independent methods, the average value of the ratio of the mean charged multiplicities of gluon and quark jets is \\[ =1.241\\pm 0.015\\ (stat.) \\pm 0.025\\ (syst.). \\] Gluon jets are broader and produce fragments with a softer energy spectrum than quark jets of equivalent energy. The string effect has been observed in fully symmetric three jet events. The measured ratio R_{\\gamma} of the charged particle flow in the q\\overline{q} inter-jet region of the q\\bar{q}g and q\\bar{q}\\gamma samples agrees with the p...

  2. The self-energy of a heavy quark in the gluonic vacuum and the effective mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, W.; Kikuchi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We calculate, be use of the multipole expansion, the self-energy of the heavy quark in the gluonic vacuum from which the momentum dependent effective mass is derived. A phenomenological consequence is discussed also. (orig.)

  3. Particle production in high energy collisions and the non-relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.; Nyiri, J.

    1981-07-01

    The present review deals with multiparticle production processes at high energies using ideas which originate in the non-relativistic quark model. Consequences of the approach are considered and they are compared with experimental data. (author)

  4. CMB bounds on dark matter annihilation: Nucleon energy losses after recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weniger, C.; Serpico, P.D.; Iocco, F.; Bertone, G.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the propagation and energy losses of protons and antiprotons produced by dark matter annihilation at redshifts 100quarks, gluons and weak gauge bosons, protons and antiprotons carry about 20% of the energy injected into e± and γ’s,

  5. Holographic lessons for quark dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; García, J. Antonio; Güijosa, Alberto; Pedraza, Juan F.

    2012-05-01

    We give a brief overview of recent results obtained through the gauge/gravity correspondence, concerning the propagation of a heavy quark in strongly coupled conformal field theories (such as {N}=4 super-Yang-Mills), both at zero and finite temperature. In the vacuum, we discuss energy loss, radiation damping, signal propagation and radiation-induced fluctuations. In the presence of a thermal plasma, our emphasis is on early-time energy loss, screening and quark-antiquark evolution after pair creation. Throughout, quark dynamics is seen to be efficiently encapsulated in the usual string worldsheet dynamics.

  6. Acceleration, energy loss and screening in strongly-coupled gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Güijosa, Alberto

    2008-06-01

    We explore various aspects of the motion of heavy quarks in strongly-coupled gauge theories, employing the AdS/CFT correspondence. Building on earlier work by Mikhailov, we study the dispersion relation and energy loss of an accelerating finite-mass quark in Script N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, both in vacuum and in the presence of a thermal plasma. In the former case, we notice that the application of an external force modifies the dispersion relation. In the latter case, we find in particular that when a static heavy quark is accelerated by an external force, its rate of energy loss is initially insensitive to the plasma, and there is a delay before this rate approaches the value derived previously from the analysis of stationary or late-time configurations. Following up on work by Herzog et al., we also consider the evolution of a quark and antiquark as they separate from one another after formation, learning how the AdS/CFT setup distinguishes between the singlet and adjoint configurations, and locating the transition to the stage where the deceleration of each particle is properly accounted for by a constant friction coefficient. Additionally, we examine the way in which the energy of a quark-antiquark pair moving jointly through the plasma scales with the quark mass. We find that the velocity-dependence of the screening length is drastically modified in the ultra-relativistic region, and is comparable with that of the transition distance mentioned above.

  7. Acceleration, energy loss and screening in strongly-coupled gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Gueijosa, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    We explore various aspects of the motion of heavy quarks in strongly-coupled gauge theories, employing the AdS/CFT correspondence. Building on earlier work by Mikhailov, we study the dispersion relation and energy loss of an accelerating finite-mass quark in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills, both in vacuum and in the presence of a thermal plasma. In the former case, we notice that the application of an external force modifies the dispersion relation. In the latter case, we find in particular that when a static heavy quark is accelerated by an external force, its rate of energy loss is initially insensitive to the plasma, and there is a delay before this rate approaches the value derived previously from the analysis of stationary or late-time configurations. Following up on work by Herzog et al., we also consider the evolution of a quark and antiquark as they separate from one another after formation, learning how the AdS/CFT setup distinguishes between the singlet and adjoint configurations, and locating the transition to the stage where the deceleration of each particle is properly accounted for by a constant friction coefficient. Additionally, we examine the way in which the energy of a quark-antiquark pair moving jointly through the plasma scales with the quark mass. We find that the velocity-dependence of the screening length is drastically modified in the ultra-relativistic region, and is comparable with that of the transition distance mentioned above.

  8. Quark and Gluon Degrees of Freedom in High-Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2008-06-01

    I discuss some recent progress in our understanding of high energy nuclear collisions. I will focus on two topics which I was lucky to co-pioneer in the recent past. One is recombination of quarks and its interpretation as a signal for deconfinement, the second is electromagnetic radiation from jets passing through a quark gluon plasma. This talk was given during the award ceremony for the 2007 IUPAP Young Scientist Award.

  9. Divergence of the quark self-energy in the second quantized chiral bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.

    1983-01-01

    When summing over the intermediate quark states of a spherical cavity, the quark self-energy of the chiral bag model, in lowest order of the pion coupling, is shown to generate a series of terms, each one growing linearly with the angular variable kappa. However, there is a cancellation between terms for different kappa, which finally leads to an overall linearly divergent series. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of the top-quark mass from the b jet energy spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The top-quark mass is measured using the peak position of the energy distribution of b jets produced from top-quark decays. The analysis is based on a recent theoretical proposal. The measurement is carried out selecting $\\mathrm{t\\overline{t}}$ events with one electron and one muon in the final state in proton-proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\mathrm{TeV}$, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7$~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. The fitted peak position of the observed energy distribution is calibrated using simulated events and translated to a top-quark mass measurement using relativistic kinematics, with the result $m_{\\mathrm{t}}=172.29\\pm1.17\\,(\\mathrm{stat.})\\pm2.66\\,(\\mathrm{syst.})~\\mathrm{GeV}$.

  11. Acceleration, Energy Loss and Screening in Strongly-Coupled Gauge Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Guijosa, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    We explore various aspects of the motion of heavy quarks in strongly-coupled gauge theories, employing the AdS/CFT correspondence. Building on earlier work by Mikhailov, we study the dispersion relation and energy loss of an accelerating finite-mass quark in N=4 super-Yang-Mills, both in vacuum and in the presence of a thermal plasma. In the former case, we notice that the application of an external force modifies the dispersion relation. In the latter case, we find in particular that when a ...

  12. Low-energy moments of non-diagonal quark current correlators at four loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, A.

    2015-06-01

    We complete the leading four physical terms in the low-energy expansions of heavy-light quark current correlators at four-loop order. As a by-product we reproduce the corresponding top-induced non-singlet correction to the electroweak ρ parameter.

  13. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies : distributions, polarization, tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Venugopalan, R.; Vogelsang, W.; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Li, Y.; Marciano, W. J.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; Yuan, F.; Abeyratne, S.; Ahmed, S.; Aidala, C.; Alekhin, S.; Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Bacchetta, A.; Bartels, J.; H., BC; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Beuf, G.; Blumlein, J.; Blaskiewicz, M .; Bogacz, A.; Brodsky, S. J.; Burton, T.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Chevtsov, P.; Chirilli, G. A.; Atti, C. Ciofi degli; Cloet, I. C.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Debbe, R.; Derbenev, Ya; Deshpande, A.; Dominguez, F.; Dumitru, A.; Dupre, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Faroughy, C.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Forshaw, J. R.; Geraud, R.; Gallmeister, K.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, J. -H.; Gassner, D.; Gelis, F.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Goldstein, G.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Goncalves, V. P.; Gonderinger, M.; Guzzi, M.; Hagler, P.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; He, P.; Horn, T.; Horowitz, W. A.; Huang, M.; Hutton, A.; Jager, B.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E. C.; Kang, Z. -B.; Kaptari, L. P.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Koike, Y.; Kondratenko, A.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Kovchegov, Y. V.; Krafft, G.; Kroll, P.; Kumano, S.; Kumericki, K.; Lappi, T.; Lautenschlager, T.; Li, R.; Liang, Z. -T.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Liuti, S.; Luo, Y.; Muller, D.; Mahler, G.; Majumder, A.; Manikonda, S.; Marhauser, F.; McIntyre, G.; Meskauskas, M.; Meng, W.; Metz, A.; Mezzetti, C. B.; Miller, G. A.; Minty, M.; Moch, S. -O.; Morozov, V.; Mosel, U.; Motyka, L.; Moutarde, H.; Mulders, P. J.; Musch, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nadolsky, P.; Olness, F.; Ostrumov, P. N.; Parker, B.; Pasquini, B.; Passek-Kumericki, K.; Pikin, A.; Pilat, F.; Pire, B.; Pirner, H.; Pisano, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Prokudin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Qian, X.; Qiu, J. -W.; Radici, M.; Radyushkin, A.; Rao, T.; Rimmer, R.; Ringer, F.; Riordan, S.; Rogers, T.; Rojo, J.; Roser, T.; Sandapen, R.; Sassot, R.; Satogata, T.; Sayed, H.; Schafer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schweitzer, P.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Soyez, G.; Spata, M.; Spiesberger, H.; Stasto, A. M.; Stefanis, N. G.; Strikman, M.; Sullivan, M.; Szymanowski, L.; Tanaka, K.; Taneja, S.; Tepikian, S.; Terzic, B.; Than, Y.; Toll, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsentalovich, E.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuchin, K.; Tuozzolo, J.; Ullrich, T.; Vossen, A.; Wallon, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, X. -N.; Webb, S.; Weiss, C.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B. -W.; Xu, W.; Yunn, B.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Zurita, P.

    2011-01-01

    This report is based on a ten-week program on "Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies", which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that

  14. Open charm production at high energies and the quark Reggeization hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Shipilova, A.V.

    2008-12-01

    We study open charm production at high energies in the framework of the quasi-multi-Regge-kinematics approach applying the quark-Reggeization hypothesis implemented with Reggeon-Reggeon-particle and Reggeon-particle-particle effective vertices. Adopting the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin unintegrated quark and gluon distribution functions of the proton and photon, we thus nicely describe the proton structure function F 2,c measured at DESY HERA as well as the transverse-momentum distributions of D mesons created by photoproduction at HERA and by hadroproduction at the Fermilab Tevatron. (orig.)

  15. Quark-exchange effects in a deuteron breakup at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobushkin, A.P.; Syamtomov, A.I.; Glozman, L.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    Microscopical approach to a deuteron breakup at high and intermediate energies is proposed. We show that the quark exchange effects, resulting from the full asymmetry of the 6q-deuteron wave function with respect to the pair permutations of quark variables, strongly affect the proton momentum distribution in the deuteron, as well as the polarization observables of inclusive deuteron breakup, when the '' internal momentum '' in the deuteron is of order of a few hundreds MeV/c. 25 refs., 2 tab., 9 figs

  16. Quark-exchange effects in a deuteron breakup at intermediate energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobushkin, A P; Syamtomov, A I; Glozman, L Ya

    1996-12-31

    Microscopical approach to a deuteron breakup at high and intermediate energies is proposed. We show that the quark exchange effects, resulting from the full asymmetry of the 6q-deuteron wave function with respect to the pair permutations of quark variables, strongly affect the proton momentum distribution in the deuteron, as well as the polarization observables of inclusive deuteron breakup, when the `` internal momentum `` in the deuteron is of order of a few hundreds MeV/c. 25 refs., 2 tab., 9 figs.

  17. Mass effects in the emission of gluons from heavy quarks at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster, J A; Tortosa, P

    2001-01-01

    The effects in the emission of gluons due to the mass of the heavy quarks have clearly been observed by the experiments at LEP and SLC. The analyses of the data using theoretical corrections computed at Next-to-Leading Order have allowed to either test the flavour independence of the strong coupling constant with very high precision (~1%) or measure the b-quark mass at high energy, square root s~M/sub Z/. The results obtained by the various experiments, ALEPH, DELPHI, OPAL and SLD, agree well within errors. The systematic uncertainties limit present determinations though new methods and strategies are being developed to overcome the present bounds. (15 refs).

  18. Born term for high-energy meson-hadron collisions from QCD and chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, W.; Shimada, T.

    1988-01-01

    Various experimental observations reveal a sizeable hard component in the high-energy 'soft' hadronic collisions. For primary meson beams we propose a QCD Born term which describes the dissociation of the primary meson into a quark-antiquark pair in the gluon field of the target. A pointlike effective pion-quark coupling is assumed as in the chiral quark model by Manohar and Georgi. We derive the total cross sections which for pion beams, for example, are given in terms of f π -2 and some properties of the hadronic final states. In particular, we stress the importance of studying three-jet events in meson-nucleon scattering and discuss the seagull effect. (orig.)

  19. Exploring the Invisible Renormalon Renormalization of the Heavy-Quark Kinetic Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, M

    1997-01-01

    Using the virial theorem of the heavy-quark effective theory, we show that the mixing of the operator for the heavy-quark kinetic energy with the identity operator is forbidden at the one-loop order by Lorentz invariance. This explains why such a mixing was not observed in several one-loop calculations using regularization schemes with a Lorentz-invariant UV regulator, and why no UV renormalon singularity was found in the matrix elements of the kinetic operator in the bubble approximation (the ``invisible renormalon''). On the other hand, we show that the mixing is not protected in general by any symmetry, and it indeed occurs at the two-loop order. This implies that the parameter $\\lambda_1^H$ of the heavy-quark effective theory is not directly a physical quantity, but requires a non-perturbative subtraction.

  20. Multiple production of hadrons at high energies in the model of quark-gluon strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Multiple production of hadrons at high energies is considered in the framework of the approach based on a picture of formation and subsequent fission of the quark-gluon strings, corresponding to the Pomeron with αsub(P)(0) > 1. The topological (1/nsub(f))-expansion and the colour-tube model is used. Inclusive cross-sections are expressed in therms of the structure functions and fragmentation functions of quarks and their limiting values are in an agreement with the results of the reggeon theory. It is pointed out that an account of rapidity fluctuations of the ends of the quark-gluon strings, connected to valence or sea quarks, allows one to explain a number of characteristic features of the multiple production of hadrons. In particular the model, which takes into account multipomeron configurations, reproduces the experimentally observed rise of inclusive spectra in a central region and well describes both rapidity and multiplicity distributions of charged particles up to energies of the SPS-collider. It is shown that in this approach the KNO-scaling is only approximately satisfied and the pattern of its violation at energies √ s approximately 10 3 GeV is predicted. Inclusive spectra are investigated in the whole region 0 or approximately 0.1) Feynman scaling is violated only logarithmically and deviations from it are very rsmall at s 3 +10 4 GeV

  1. [Search for strange quark matter and antimatter produced in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the development and progress of our group's research program in high energy heavy ion physics. We are a subset of the Yale experimental high energy physics effort (YAUG group) who became interested in the physics of high energy heavy ions in 1988. Our interest began with the possibility of performing significant searches for strange quark matter. As we learned more about the subject and as we gained experimental experience through our participation in AGS experiment 814, our interests have broadened. Our program has focused on the study of new particles, including (but not exclusively) strange quark matter, and the high sensitivity measurement of other composite nuclear systems such as antinuclei and various light nuclei. The importance of measurements of the known, but rare, nuclear systems lies in the study of production mechanisms. A good understanding of the physics and phenomenology of rare composite particle production in essential for the interpretation of limits to strange quark matter searches. We believe that such studies will also be useful in probing the mechanisms involved in the collision process itself. We have been involved in the running and data analysis for AGS E814. We have also worked on the R ampersand D for AGS E864, which is an approved experiment designed to reach sensitivities where there will be a good chance of discovering strangelets or of setting significant limits on the parameters of strange quark matter

  2. Equilibration Influence on Jet Energy Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Luan; Wang Enke

    2010-01-01

    With the initial conditions in the chemical non-equilibrated medium and Bjorken expanding medium at RHIC, we investigate the consequence for parton evolution. With considering the parton equilibration, we obtain the time dependence of the opacity when the jet propagates through the QGP medium. The parton equilibration affect the jet energy loss with detailed balance evidently. Both parton energy loss from stimulated emission in the chemical non-equilibrated expanding medium and in Bjorken expanding medium are linear dependent on the propagating distance rather than square dependent in the static medium. This will increase the energy and propagating distance dependence of the parton energy loss.

  3. Bifurcation of the Quark Self-Energy: Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Cut-Offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P. W.

    1987-01-01

    The quark self-energy in massless QCD is studied in the approximation that both the quark-gluon vertex and the gluon propagator remain bare. It is shown that chiral invariance is not spontaneously broken at a critical coupling λc>0, unless both infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs are introduced.

  4. The energy cost of quantum information losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Alejandro; de Lima Marquezino, Franklin; Portugal, Renato; Donangelo, Raul

    2018-05-01

    We explore the energy cost of the information loss resulting from the passage of an initial density operator to a reduced one. We use the concept of entanglement temperature in order to obtain a lower bound for the energy change associated with this operation. We determine the minimal energy required for the case of the information losses associated with the trace over the space coordinates of a two-dimensional quantum walk.

  5. Elastic energy loss and longitudinal straggling of a hard jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, A.

    2009-01-01

    The elastic energy loss encountered by jets produced in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) off a large nucleus is studied in the collinear limit. In close analogy to the case of (nonradiative) transverse momentum broadening, which is dependent on the medium transport coefficient q, a class of medium enhanced higher twist operators which contribute to the nonradiative loss of the forward light-cone momentum of the jet (q - ) are identified and the leading correction in the limit of asymptotically high q - is isolated. Based on these operator products, a new transport coefficient e is motivated which quantifies the energy loss per unit length encountered by the hard jet. These operator products are then computed, explicitly, in the case of a similar hard jet traversing a deconfined quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in the hard-thermal-loop (HTL) approximation. This is followed by an evaluation of subleading contributions which are suppressed by the inverse light-cone momentum q - , which yields the longitudinal 'straggling', i.e., a slight change in light cone momentum due to the Brownian propagation through a medium with a fluctuating color field.

  6. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2002-01-01

    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...... velocity c/n, where n is the complex index of refraction. The angle-resolved energy-loss spectrum of a Drude conductor is analyzed in detail and it is shown that the low-energy peak due to Ohmic losses is enhanced compared to the classical approximation....

  7. Deterministic models for energy-loss straggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinja, A.K.; Gleicher, F.; Dunham, G.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Inelastic ion interactions with target electrons are dominated by extremely small energy transfers that are difficult to resolve numerically. The continuous-slowing-down (CSD) approximation is then commonly employed, which, however, only preserves the mean energy loss per collision through the stopping power, S(E) = ∫ 0 ∞ dEprime (E minus Eprime) σ s (E → Eprime). To accommodate energy loss straggling, a Gaussian distribution with the correct mean-squared energy loss (akin to a Fokker-Planck approximation in energy) is commonly used in continuous-energy Monte Carlo codes. Although this model has the unphysical feature that ions can be upscattered, it nevertheless yields accurate results. A multigroup model for energy loss straggling was recently presented for use in multigroup Monte Carlo codes or in deterministic codes that use multigroup data. The method has the advantage that the mean and mean-squared energy loss are preserved without unphysical upscatter and hence is computationally efficient. Results for energy spectra compared extremely well with Gaussian distributions under the idealized conditions for which the Gaussian may be considered to be exact. Here, the authors present more consistent comparisons by extending the method to accommodate upscatter and, further, compare both methods with exact solutions obtained from an analog Monte Carlo simulation, for a straight-ahead transport problem

  8. Energy Lossand Flow of Heavy Quarks in Au+Au Collisions at root-s=200GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltz, R; Klay, J; Enokizono, A; Newby, J; Heffner, M; Hartouni, E

    2007-02-26

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has measured electrons with 0.3 < p{sub rmT} < 9 GeV/c at midrapidity (|y| < 0.35) from heavy flavor (charm and bottom) decays in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} relative to p+p collisions shows a strong suppression in central Au+Au collisions, indicating substantial energy loss of heavy quarks in the medium produced at RHIC energies. A large azimuthal anisotropy, v{sub 2}, with respect to the reaction plane is observed for 0.5 < p{sub rmT} < 5 GeV/c indicating non-zero heavy flavor elliptic flow. A simultaneous description of R{sub AA}(p{sub rmT}) and v{sub 2}(p{sub rmT}) constrains the existing models of heavy-quark rescattering in strongly interacting matter and provides information on the transport properties of the produced medium. In particular, a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound, i.e. near a perfect fluid, is suggested.

  9. The energy of a moving quark-antiquark pair in an Script N = 4 SYM plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; García, J. Antonio; Güijosa, Alberto

    2006-09-01

    We make use of the AdS/CFT correspondence to determine the energy of an external quark-antiquark pair that moves through strongly-coupled thermal Script N = 4 super-Yang-Mills plasma, both in the rest frame of the plasma and in the rest frame of the pair. It is found that the pair feels no drag force, has an energy that reproduces the expected 1/L (or γ/L) behavior at small quark-antiquark separations, and becomes unbound beyond a certain screening length whose velocity-dependence we determine. We discuss the relation between the high-velocity limit of our results and the lightlike Wilson loop proposed recently as a definition of the jet-quenching parameter.

  10. Heavy quark production in photon-Pomeron interactions at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, M. M. [Instituto Federal de Ciencia, Educacao e Tecnologia Farroupilha, Campus Sao Borja, Rua Otaviano Castilho Mendes, 355, CEP 97670-000, Sao Borja, RS (Brazil); Goncalves, V. P. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica - IFM, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, CEP 96010-900, RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    The diffractive heavy quark cross sections are estimated considering photon-Pomeron interactions in hadron - hadron at RHIC, Tevatron, and CERN LHC energies. We assume the validity of the hard diffractive factorization and calculate the charm and bottom total cross sections and rapidity distributions using the diffractive parton distribution functions of the Pomeron obtained by the H1 Collaboration at DESY-HERA. Such processes are sensitive to the gluon content of the Pomeron at high energies and are a good place to constrain the behavior of this distribution. We also compare our predictions with those obtained using the dipole model, and verify that these processes are a good test of the different mechanisms for heavy quarks diffractive production at hadron colliders.

  11. Comparing energy loss and pperpendicular -broadening in perturbative QCD with strong coupling N=4 SYM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, Fabio; Marquet, C.; Mueller, A.H.; Wu Bin; Xiao, Bo-Wen

    2008-01-01

    We compare medium induced energy loss and p perpendicular -broadening in perturbative QCD with that of the trailing string picture of SYM theory. We consider finite and infinite extent matter as well as relativistic heavy quarks which correspond to those being produced in the medium or external to it. When expressed in terms of the appropriate saturation momentum, we find identical parametric forms for energy loss in perturbative QCD and SYM theory. We find simple correspondences between p perpendicular -broadening in QCD and in SYM theory although p perpendicular -broadening is radiation dominated in SYM theory and multiple scattering dominated in perturbative QCD

  12. Applications of energy loss contrast STIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bench, G.; Saint, A.; Legge, G.J.F.; Cholewa, M.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) with energy loss contrast is a quantitative imaging technique. A focussed MeV ion microbeam is scanned over the sample and measured energy losses of residual ions at each beam location are used to provide the contrast in the image. The technique is highly efficient as almost every ion carries useful information from which quantitative data can be obtained. The high efficiency of data collection at present necessitates the use of small beam currents. Therefore small apertures can be used and fine spatial resolution can be achieved. High efficiency also makes it possible to collect large data sets for high definition imaging with a small radiation dose. Owing to the simple relationship between energy loss and areal density, STIM with energy loss contrast can provide a quantitative image that can be used to obtain areal density information on the sample. These areal density maps can be used not only to provide a high resolution image of the sample but also to normalise Particle Induced Xray Emission (PIXE) data. The small radiation dose required to form these areal density maps also allows one to use STIM with energy loss contrast to quantitatively monitor ion beam induced specimen changes caused by higher doses and dose rates used in other microanalytical techniques. STIM with energy loss contrast also provides the possibility of stereo imaging and ion microtomography. STIM has also been used in conjunction with channeling to explore transmission channeling in thin crystals. This paper will discuss these applications of STIM with energy loss contrast and look at further developments from them

  13. Quark-Gluon Plasma Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Ramona

    1998-01-01

    Aspects of quark-gluon plasma signatures that can be measured by CMS are discussed. First the initial conditions of the system from minijet production are introduced, including shadowing effects. Color screening of the Upsilon family is then presented, followed by energy loss effects on charm and bottom hadrons, high Pt jets and global observables.

  14. Two-Loop Quark Self-Energy in a New Formalism; 2, Renormalization of the Quark Propagator in the Light-Cone Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Leibbrandt, George; Leibbrandt, George; Williams, Jimmy D.

    2000-01-01

    The complete two-loop correction to the quark propagator, consisting of the spider, rainbow, gluon bubble and quark bubble diagrams, is evaluated in the noncovariant light-cone gauge (lcg). (The overlapping self-energy diagram had already been computed.) The chief technical tools include the powerful matrix integration technique, the n^*-prescription for the spurious poles of 1/qn, and the detailed analysis of the boundary singularities in five- and six-dimensional parameter space. It is shown that the total divergent contribution to the two-loop correction Sigma_2 contains both covariant and noncovariant components, and is a local function of the external momentum p, even off the mass-shell, as all nonlocal divergent terms cancel exactly. Consequently, both the quark mass and field renormalizations are local. The structure of Sigma_2 implies a quark mass counterterm of the form $\\delta m (lcg) = m\\tilde\\alpha_s C_F(3+\\tilde\\alpha_sW) + {\\rm O} (\\tilde\\alpha_s^3)$, the dimensional regulator epsilon, and on th...

  15. Two-loop quark self-energy in a new formalism; 2, Renormalization of the quark propagator in the light-cone gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Leibbrandt, G

    2000-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.440, p.537-602, 1995. The complete two-loop correction to the quark propagator, consisting of the spider, rainbow, gluon bubble and quark bubble diagrams, is evaluated in the non-covariant light-cone gauge (LCG), n.A/sup a/(x)=0, n/sup 2/=0. (The overlapping self-energy diagram had already been computed.) The chief technical tools include the powerful matrix integration technique, the n*/sub mu /-prescription for the spurious poles of (q.n)/sup -1/, and the detailed analysis of the boundary singularities in five- and six-dimensional parameter space. It is shown that the total divergent contribution to the two-loop correction Sigma /sub 2/ contains both covariant and non-covariant components, and is a local function of the external momentum p, even off the mass-shell, as all non-local divergent terms cancel exactly. Consequently, both the quark mass and field renormalizations are local. The structure of Sigma /sub 2/ implies a quark mass counterterm of the form delta m(LCG)=m alpha /sub...

  16. Studies for a top quark mass measurement and development of a jet energy calibration with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of a new jet energy calibration method as well as studies for a top quark mass measurement with the ATLAS detector are presented. The new calibration method considers jet shape variables in order to improve the linearity and resolution of the jet energy response. Promising results are shown for jet events from Monte Carlo simulation as well as from first √(s)=900 GeV proton-proton collision data of the Large Hadron Collider. In addition, Monte Carlo studies for a top quark mass measurement in the lepton plus jets decay channel of top quark pair events are performed. Several top quark reconstruction methods are investigated in pseudo-experiments which are equivalent to an integrated luminosity of L=200 pb -1 at √(s)=10 TeV. Assuming a generated top quark mass of m t gen =172.5 GeV, the most promising result is achieved with the Max-p T reconstruction method which returns a top quark mass of m Max-p T t,el-channel =170.4±2.2 vertical stroke stat. ± 8.8 vertical stroke syst. GeV in the electron plus jets decay channel including a bias correction of +5.2 GeV for the central top quark mass value.

  17. Studies for a top quark mass measurement and development of a jet energy calibration with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsch, Andreas

    2012-06-11

    In this thesis, the development of a new jet energy calibration method as well as studies for a top quark mass measurement with the ATLAS detector are presented. The new calibration method considers jet shape variables in order to improve the linearity and resolution of the jet energy response. Promising results are shown for jet events from Monte Carlo simulation as well as from first {radical}(s)=900 GeV proton-proton collision data of the Large Hadron Collider. In addition, Monte Carlo studies for a top quark mass measurement in the lepton plus jets decay channel of top quark pair events are performed. Several top quark reconstruction methods are investigated in pseudo-experiments which are equivalent to an integrated luminosity of L=200 pb{sup -1} at {radical}(s)=10 TeV. Assuming a generated top quark mass of m{sub t}{sup gen}=172.5 GeV, the most promising result is achieved with the Max-p{sub T} reconstruction method which returns a top quark mass of m{sup Max-p{sub Tt,el-channel}}=170.4{+-}2.2 vertical stroke {sub stat.}{+-} 8.8 vertical stroke {sub syst.} GeV in the electron plus jets decay channel including a bias correction of +5.2 GeV for the central top quark mass value.

  18. Energy loss and (de)coherence effects beyond eikonal approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The parton branching process is known to be modified in the presence of a medium. Colour decoherence processes are known to determine the process of energy loss when the density of the medium is large enough to break the correlations between partons emitted from the same parent. In order to improve existing calculations that consider eikonal trajectories for both the emitter and the hardest emitted parton, we provide in this work, the calculation of all finite energy corrections for the gluon radiation off a quark in a QCD medium that exist in the small angle approximation and for static scattering centres. Using the path integral formalism, all particles are allowed to undergo Brownian motion in the transverse plane and the offspring allowed to carry an arbitrary fraction of the initial energy. The result is a general expression that contains both coherence and decoherence regimes that are controlled by the density of the medium and by the amount of broadening that each parton acquires independently.

  19. Gluons and the Quark Sea at High Energies: Distributions, Polarization, Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Daniel; /Groningen U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Milner, Richard; /MIT; Venugopalan, Raju; /Brookhaven; Vogelsang, Werner; /Tubingen U.; Kaplan, David; /Washington U., Seattle; Montgomery, Hugh; /Jefferson Lab; Vigdor, Steven; /Brookhaven; Accardi, A.; /Jefferson Lab; Aschenauer, E.C.; /Brookhaven; Burkardt, M.; /New Mexico State U.; Ent, R.; /Jefferson Lab; Guzey, V.; /Jefferson Lab; Hasch, D.; /Frascati; Kumar, K.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Lamont, M.A.C.; /Brookhaven; Li, Ying-chuan; /Brookhaven; Marciano, W.; /Brookhaven; Marquet, C.; /CERN; Sabatie, F.; /IRFU, SPhN, Saclay; Stratmann, M.; /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Buenos Aires U. /Antwerp U. /Pelotas U. /Moncton U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /CCTVal, Valparaiso /Hefei, CUST /Shandong U., Weihai /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Zagreb U., Phys. Dept. /Jyvaskyla U. /Orsay, LPT /Paris U., VI-VII /Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT /IRFU, SPhN, Saclay /Saclay, SPhT /Ruhr U., Bochum /Giessen U. /DESY /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Heidelberg U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Regensburg U. /Tubingen U. /Wuppertal U. /DESY /Cagliari U. /INFN, Cagliari /Frascati /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-06-07

    This report on the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is the result of a ten-week program at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle (from September 13-November 19, 2010), motivated by the need to develop a strong case for the continued study of the QCD description of hadron structure in the coming decades. Hadron structure in the valence quark region will be studied extensively with the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV science program, the subject of an INT program the previous year. The focus of the INT program was on understanding the role of gluons and sea quarks, the important dynamical degrees of freedom describing hadron structure at high energies. Experimentally, the most direct and precise way to access the dynamical structure of hadrons and nuclei at high energies is with a high luminosity lepton probe in collider mode. An EIC with optimized detectors offers enormous potential as the next generation accelerator to address many of the most important, open questions about the fundamental structure of matter. The goal of the INT program, as captured in the writeups in this report, was to articulate these questions and to identify golden experiments that have the greatest potential to provide definitive answers to these questions. At resolution scales where quarks and gluons become manifest as degrees of freedom, the structure of the nucleon and of nuclei is intimately connected with unique features of QCD dynamics, such as confinement and the self-coupling of gluons. Information on hadron sub-structure in DIS is obtained in the form of 'snapshots' by the 'lepton microscope' of the dynamical many-body hadron system, over different momentum resolutions and energy scales. These femtoscopic snapshots, at the simplest level, provide distribution functions which are extracted over the largest accessible kinematic range to assemble fundamental dynamical insight into hadron and nuclear sub-structure. For the proton, the EIC would be

  20. Quark-gluon structure of the pomeron and the rise of inclusive spectra at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The topological expansion and the nodel of a colour tube are used for the calculation of inclusive hadronic spectra in the central region. The higher-order terms of the 1/Nsub(f)-expansion, which correspond to the contribution of the poliperipheral diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the intrinsic motion of quarks inside colliding hadrons leads to the rise of inclusive spectra with energy in the central region. The model gives a good quantitative description of the effects observed recently at the CERN SPS Collider

  1. Quark contribution to the gluon Regge trajectory at NLO from the high energy effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chachamis, G.; Hentschinski, M.; Madrigal Martínez, J.D.; Sabio Vera, A.

    2012-01-01

    The two loop (NLO) diagrams with quark content contributing to the gluon Regge trajectory are computed within the framework of Lipatov's effective action for QCD, using the regularization procedure for longitudinal divergencies recently proposed by two of us in (M. Hentschinski and A. Sabio Vera, 2011). Perfect agreement with previous results in the literature is found, providing a robust check of the regularization prescription and showing that the high energy effective action is a very useful computational tool in the quasi-multi-Regge limit.

  2. Microgrids: Energy management by loss minimization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, A.K. [Electrical Engineering Dept., Jadavpur University & 20/2, Khanpur Road, Kolkata 700047 (India); Chowdhury, S.; Chowdhury, S.P. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Cape Town & Private Bag X3, Menzies Building, Room-517, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701 (India)

    2011-07-01

    Energy management is a techno-economic issue, which dictates, in the context of microgrids, how optimal investment in technology front could bring optimal power quality and reliability (PQR) of supply to the consumers. Investment in distributed energy resources (DERs), with their connection to the utility grid at optimal locations and with optimal sizes, saves energy in the form of line loss reduction. Line loss reduction is the indirect benefit to the microgrid owner who may recover it as an incentive from utility. The present paper focuses on planning of optimal siting and sizing of DERs based on minimization of line loss. Optimal siting is done, here, on the loss sensitivity index (LSI) method and optimal sizing by differential evolution (DE) algorithms, which is, again, compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. Studies are conducted on 6-bus and 14-bus radial networks under islanded mode of operation with electric demand profile. Islanding helps planning of DER capacity of microgrid, which is self-sufficient to cater its own consumers without utility's support.

  3. CONFERENCE: Quark matter 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    The 'Quark Matter' Conference caters for physicists studying nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The hope is that relativistic (high energy) heavy ion collisions allow formation of the long-awaited quark-gluon plasma, where the inter-quark 'colour' force is no longer confined inside nucleon-like dimensions

  4. Turbulent energy losses during orchard heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Two rapid-response drag anemometers and low time constant thermocouples, all at 4 m above a heated orchard floor, sampled wind component in the vertical direction and temperature at 30 Hz. The turbulent heat flux calculated revealed not more than 10% of the heat lost from the orchard was via turbulent transort. The observations failed to support previous estimates that at least a third of the energy applied was lost through turbulent transport. Underestimation of heat loss due to mean flow and a newly revealed flux due to spatial variations in the mean flow may explain the unaccounted for loss.

  5. Jet suppression and the flavor dependence of partonic energy loss with ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosek, Tomas

    2016-12-15

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. One manifestation of the energy loss of jets propagating through the medium is a lower yield of jets and hadrons emerging from this medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Therefore modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. In this publication, the latest ATLAS results on single hadron suppression along with the complementary measurements of single jet suppression are presented. Rapidity dependence, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets, is discussed. Finally, a new measurement of jet fragmentation functions is presented.

  6. Top quark pair production and calorimeter energy resolution studies at a future collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Katja

    2012-03-27

    This thesis is focused on detector concepts and analyses investigated at a future linear electron positron collider. For precision measurements at such a collider, the CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters, which are characterized by a fine granularity. CALICE has constructed prototypes of several design options for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test beam programs at DESY, CERN and Fermilab. To improve the hadronic energy reconstruction and energy resolution of a hadron calorimeter prototype with analog readout three software compensation techniques are presented in this thesis, of which one is a local and two are global software compensation approaches. One method is based on a neural network to optimize the energy reconstruction, while two are energy weighting techniques, depending on the energy density. Weight factors are extracted from and applied to simulated and test beam data and result in an average energy resolution improvement of 15 - 25% compared to a reconstruction without software compensation. Whether such software compensation techniques are also applicable to a detector concept for a future linear electron positron collider is studied in the second part of this thesis. Simulated data, two different hadronic detector models and a local software compensation technique are used for this study. The energy resolutions for single hadrons and for jets are presented with and without software compensation. In the third part of this thesis, a study on top quark pair production at a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV at the proposed electron positron collider CLIC is presented. The analysis is based on full detector simulations, including realistic background contributions dominated by two photon processes. The mass and width of the top quark are studied in fully-hadronic and semi-leptonic decays of top quark pairs using event samples of signal and Standard Model background

  7. Top quark pair production and calorimeter energy resolution studies at a future collider experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Katja

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on detector concepts and analyses investigated at a future linear electron positron collider. For precision measurements at such a collider, the CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters, which are characterized by a fine granularity. CALICE has constructed prototypes of several design options for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test beam programs at DESY, CERN and Fermilab. To improve the hadronic energy reconstruction and energy resolution of a hadron calorimeter prototype with analog readout three software compensation techniques are presented in this thesis, of which one is a local and two are global software compensation approaches. One method is based on a neural network to optimize the energy reconstruction, while two are energy weighting techniques, depending on the energy density. Weight factors are extracted from and applied to simulated and test beam data and result in an average energy resolution improvement of 15 - 25% compared to a reconstruction without software compensation. Whether such software compensation techniques are also applicable to a detector concept for a future linear electron positron collider is studied in the second part of this thesis. Simulated data, two different hadronic detector models and a local software compensation technique are used for this study. The energy resolutions for single hadrons and for jets are presented with and without software compensation. In the third part of this thesis, a study on top quark pair production at a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV at the proposed electron positron collider CLIC is presented. The analysis is based on full detector simulations, including realistic background contributions dominated by two photon processes. The mass and width of the top quark are studied in fully-hadronic and semi-leptonic decays of top quark pairs using event samples of signal and Standard Model background

  8. Estimation of fluctuation in restricted energy loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, T.; Hayashi, T.; Nagata, K.

    1983-01-01

    Restricted Energy Loss (REL) is defined as an energy loss [(dE/dX)/sub E//sub delta/<ν/] that produced the delta-rays of energies less than some specified energy ν and is often used as a simple measure of track structure. For example, REL is a measure of track formation threshold in plastic track detector and the growth rate of track in chemical etching solution is considered to depend only on REL given along the track. Using a stack of elastic sheets, recently, it became possible to identify isotopes of incident particles. In that case, the limit of mass resolution is determined by fluctuation of REL in the length of etch pit produced along the path of particle. A computer program was developed to calculate the probability distribution for energy deposition in absorber allowing for electron escape. In this calculation, it is assumed that all electrons with energies greater than a certain value epsilon/sub d/ escape. This means that this calculation directly gives the fluctuation of REL. Therefore, we tried to use the computer program to estimate the ultimate mass resolution in plastic detector. In this paper, we show firstly the comparison of ASB's calculation with the experimental results obtained by a gas counter and next the results of estimation of ultimate mass resolution in plastic detectors

  9. Depth sectioning using electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alfonso, A J; Findlay, S D; Allen, L J; Cosgriff, E C; Kirkland, A I; Nellist, P D; Oxley, M P

    2008-01-01

    The continued development of electron probe aberration correctors for scanning transmission electron microscopy has enabled finer electron probes, allowing atomic resolution column-by-column electron energy loss spectroscopy. Finer electron probes have also led to a decrease in the probe depth of focus, facilitating optical slicing or depth sectioning of samples. The inclusion of post specimen aberration corrected image forming lenses allows for scanning confocal electron microscopy with further improved depth resolution and selectivity. We show that in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning confocal electron microscopy geometries, by performing a three dimensional raster scan through a specimen and detecting electrons scattered with a characteristic energy loss, it will be possible to determine the location of isolated impurities embedded within the bulk.

  10. Coherence in electron energy loss spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schattschneider, P.; Werner, W.S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence effects in electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) and in energy filtering are largely neglected although they occur frequently due to Bragg scattering in crystals. We discuss how coherence in the inelastically scattered wave field can be described by the mixed dynamic form factor (MDFF), and how it relates to the density matrix of the scattered electrons. Among the many aspects of 'inelastic coherence' are filtered high-resolution images, dipole-forbidden transitions, coherence in plasma excitations, errors in chemical microanalysis, coherent double plasmons, and circular dichroism

  11. A study of top-quark mass measurement using the lepton energy distribution at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong [Hanyang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kawabata, Sayaka [Seoul National Universiy of Science and Technology, Institute of Convergence Fundamental Studies, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-12-15

    We present a feasibility study of top-quark mass measurement using the lepton energy distribution in the top-quark decay t → bW → blν at the LHC. The method used in this study requires only the lepton energy distribution at parton level. The analysis is performed in the lepton + jets final state by using fast simulation data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 20 fb{sup -1} at √(s) = 14 TeV. Events with exactly one lepton, at least four jets and two b jets are selected. The lepton energy distribution at parton level is obtained by applying the bin-by-bin unfolding technique. The study shows that the pole mass of the top quark can be measured with an uncertainty of the order of 1 GeV. (orig.)

  12. The average kinetic energy of the heavy quark in Λb in the Bethe-Salpeter equation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X.-H.; Wu, H.-K.

    2007-01-01

    In the previous paper, based on the SU(2) f xSU(2) s heavy quark symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian in the heavy quark limit, the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the heavy baryon Λ b was established with the picture that Λ b is composed of a heavy quark and a scalar light diquark. In the present work, we apply this model to calculate μ π 2 for Λ b , the average kinetic energy of the heavy quark inside Λ b . This quantity is particularly interesting since it can be measured in experiments and since it contributes to the inclusive semileptonic decays of Λ b when contributions from higher order terms in 1/M b expansions are taken into account and consequently influences the determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements V ub and V cb . We find that μ π 2 for Λ b is 0.25GeV 2 ∼0.95GeV 2 , depending on the parameters in the model including the light diquark mass and the interaction strength between the heavy quark and the light diquark in the kernel of the BS equation. We also find that this result is consistent with the value of μ π 2 for Λ b which is derived from the experimental value of μ π 2 for the B meson with the aid of the heavy quark effective theory

  13. Study the Structure of Hadrons and Quark-hadron duality with electrons up to 6 GeV energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, Hamlet

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental nature of matter in terms of elementary particles and their interactions is the central topic in subatomic physics. From the nuclear physics perspective, the atom consists of a cloud of electrons surrounding a positively charged nucleus, which contain protons and neutrons. Our understanding of the substructure of the matter has evolved considerably over the last hundred years. Scattering experiments beginning with Reserford, have provided invaluable insight into the fundamental building block of matter. Hadrons, i.e., nucleons or pions, are not elementary particles themselves but instead exhibit a substructure based on more fundamental particles. The incremental improvements in experimental design, coupled with progressively more sophisticated theoretical formalisms have led to our present-day understanding that all matter is constructed from combination of six quarks and six leptons. The familiar protons and neutrons which compose most matter are referred to as baryons and contain three quarks. Mesons are those particles containing a combination of a quark and anti-quark. Quark are bound together by gluons, the gauge-bosons of the strong interaction described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The electromagnetic interaction has proved very successful in probing the structure of the nucleon in a quest to understand the strong interactions between quarks and the gluons that bind them. In general, electron scattering experiments can be classified into elastic, inelastic and deep-inelastic scattering. Elastic scattering is characterized by the absorption of the transfered energy and three-momentum by the target without excitation.

  14. Constituent quark model for nuclear stopping in high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, T.K.; Maruyama, M.; Takagi, F.

    1997-01-01

    We study nuclear stopping in high energy nuclear collisions using the constituent quark model. It is assumed that wounded nucleons with a different number of interacted quarks hadronize in different ways. The probabilities of having such wounded nucleons are evaluated for proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. After examining our model in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions and fixing the hadronization functions, it is extended to nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is used to calculate the rapidity distribution and the rapidity shift of final-state protons in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data on 32 S+ 32 S at E lab =200A GeV and 208 Pb+ 208 Pb at E lab =160A GeV. Theoretical predictions are also given for proton rapidity distribution in 197 Au+ 197 Au at √(s)=200A GeV (BNL-RHIC). We predict that the nearly baryon-free region will appear in the midrapidity region and the rapidity shift is left-angle Δy right-angle=2.24

  15. Energy-loss return gate via liquid dielectric polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehun; Yong, Hyungseok; Kim, Banseok; Kim, Dongseob; Choi, Dukhyun; Park, Yong Tae; Lee, Sangmin

    2018-04-12

    There has been much research on renewable energy-harvesting techniques. However, owing to increasing energy demands, significant energy-related issues remain to be solved. Efforts aimed at reducing the amount of energy loss in electric/electronic systems are essential for reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. Here, we design an energy-loss return gate system that reduces energy loss from electric/electronic systems by utilizing the polarization of liquid dielectrics. The use of a liquid dielectric material in the energy-loss return gate generates electrostatic potential energy while reducing the dielectric loss of the electric/electronic system. Hence, an energy-loss return gate can make breakthrough impacts possible by amplifying energy-harvesting efficiency, lowering the power consumption of electronics, and storing the returned energy. Our study indicates the potential for enhancing energy-harvesting technologies for electric/electronics systems, while increasing the widespread development of these systems.

  16. Quark-quark interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter discusses interactions only at the constituent level, as observed in hadron-hadron collisions. It defines quarks and gluons as constituents of the colliding hadrons, reviews some applications of perturbative OCD, discussing in turn lepton pair production, which in lowest order approximation corresponds to the Drell-Yan process. It investigates whether quark-quark interactions could not lead to some new color structure different from those prevalent for known baryons and mesons, which could be created in hadron interactions, and whether color objects (not specifically quarks or gluons) could not appear as free particles. Discussed is perturbative QCD in hadron collisions; the quark approach to soft processes; and new color structures. It points out that perturbative QCD has been at the origin of much progress in the understanding of hadron interactions at the constituent level

  17. On-shell gauge-parameter independence of contributions to electroweak quark self-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmady, M.R.; Elias, V.; Mendel, R.R.; Scadron, M.D.; Steele, T.

    1989-01-01

    We allow an external condensate to enter standard SU(2) x U(1) electroweak theory via the vacuum expectation value , as in QCD sum-rule applications. For a given flavor, we then find that any gauge-parameter dependence of quark self-energies on the ''mass shell'' is eliminated provided that the mass shell is made to coincide with both the expansion-parameter mass occurring in the operator-product expansion of and the standard electroweak mass acquired via the Yukawa coupling to the usual scalar vacuum expectation value of spontaneous symmetry breaking. This result indicates that if the QCD-generated order parameter and associated dynamical mass(es) m/sub q//sup dyn/ are utilized as external input parameters in electroweak calculations involving hadrons, then new corrections must be introduced into the q-barqW and q-barqZ vertices in order to preserve SU(2) x U(1) Ward identities

  18. Heavy quark free energy in QCD and in gauge theories with gravity duals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Jorge

    2010-09-01

    Recent lattice results in pure glue SU(3) theory at high temperatures have shown that the expectation value of the renormalized Polyakov loop approaches its asymptotic limit at high temperatures from above. We show that this implies that the “heavy quark free energy” obtained from the renormalized loop computed on the lattice does not behave like a true thermodynamic free energy. While this should be expected to occur in asymptotically free gauge theories such as QCD, we use the gauge/string duality to show that in a large class of strongly coupled gauge theories with nontrivial UV fixed points the Polyakov loop reaches its asymptotic value from above only if the dimension of the relevant operator used to deform the conformal field theory is greater than or equal to 3.

  19. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  20. Hadronic energy spectra from nuclear collisions: Effects from collective transverse flow and the phase transition to quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1988-11-01

    I give an overview of the processes determining the shape of energy spectra of hadrons emitted in relativistic nuclear collisions, and discuss how one can extract from them information on the presence of collective transverse flow and on the transition to quark-gluon matter in such collisions. 6 refs., 3 figs

  1. Energy dependence of the multiplicity analysis of quark-diquark jets

    CERN Document Server

    Biswal, K; Panda, A R; Parida, B K

    1980-01-01

    Under the assumption of hard scattering, multiplicity analysis of quark-diquark jets is made in a model analogous to the quark-cascade- jet production model developed earlier. In the present approach the diquark is treated as a coherent object consisting of the two quarks which remain after the hard scattering. This is assumed to produce a baryon and an antiquark in the first stage of its fragmentation. The resulting quark-antiquark pair then hadronises as per the cascade model. This picture of quark-diquark fragmentation is adequately supported by the observations made in recent ISR experiments at CERN. The above technique is applied to weak, electromagnetic and strong processes involving quark-diquark hadronisation in a unified manner and with fair agreement with the experimental results. (0 refs).

  2. Gauge-invariant screening masses and static quark free energies in Nf=2 +1 QCD at nonzero baryon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Michele; Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco; Rucci, Andrea; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the extension of gauge-invariant electric and magnetic screening masses in the quark-gluon plasma to the case of a finite baryon density, defining them in terms of a matrix of Polyakov loop correlators. We present lattice results for Nf=2 +1 QCD with physical quark masses, obtained using the imaginary chemical potential approach, which indicate that the screening masses increase as a function of μB. A separate analysis is carried out for the theoretically interesting case μB/T =3 i π , where charge conjugation is not explicitly broken and the usual definition of the screening masses can be used for temperatures below the Roberge-Weiss transition. Finally, we investigate the dependence of the static quark free energy on the baryon chemical potential, showing that it is a decreasing function of μB, which displays a peculiar behavior as the pseudocritical transition temperature at μB=0 is approached.

  3. Optimal Allocation of Renewable Energy Sources for Energy Loss Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiju Kalkhambkar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal allocation of renewable distributed generation (RDG, i.e., solar and the wind in a distribution system becomes challenging due to intermittent generation and uncertainty of loads. This paper proposes an optimal allocation methodology for single and hybrid RDGs for energy loss minimization. The deterministic generation-load model integrated with optimal power flow provides optimal solutions for single and hybrid RDG. Considering the complexity of the proposed nonlinear, constrained optimization problem, it is solved by a robust and high performance meta-heuristic, Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS algorithm. Results obtained from SOS algorithm offer optimal solutions than Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Firefly Algorithm (FFA. Economic analysis is carried out to quantify the economic benefits of energy loss minimization over the life span of RDGs.

  4. Energy Loss of Coasting Gold Ions and Deuterons in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, N P; Brown, K; Burkhardt, H; Butler, J; Fischer, W; Harvey, M; Tepikian, S

    2008-01-01

    The total energy loss of coasting gold ion beams at two different energies and deuterons at one energy were measured at RHIC, corresponding to a gamma of 75.2, 107.4 and 108.7 respectively. We describe the experiment and observations and compare the measured total energy loss with expectations from ionization losses at the residual gas, the energy loss due to impedance and synchrotron radiation. We find that the measured energy losses are below what is expected from free space synchrotron radiation. We believe that this shows evidence for suppression of synchrotron radiation which is cut off at long wavelength by the presence of the conducting beam pipe.

  5. Hadron production at RHIC: recombination of quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We discuss quark recombination applied to the hadronization of a quark gluon plasma. It has been shown that the quark recombination model can explain essential features of hadron production measured in high energy heavy ion collisions.

  6. Energy loss spectroscopy applied to surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecante, J.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of energy losses suffered by slow electrons (5eV to 300eV) back-scattered by single crystal surfaces appears to be a powerful method for surfaces studies. The inelastic scattering of these slow electrons limits their escape depth to the surface region. After a review of the basic excitation processes due to the interaction between electrons and surfaces (phonons, plasmons and electronic transitions) a brief discussion is given about the instruments needed for this electrons spectroscopy. Finally some experimental results are listed and it is shown that the comparison of the results given by ELS with other surface sensitive methods such as UPS is very fruitful and new information can be obtained. The improvement of theoretical studies on surface excitations due to slow electrons will provide in the next future the possibility of analysing in a more quantitative way the results given by ELS [fr

  7. Energy loss spectroscopy applied to surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecante, J.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of energy losses suffered by slow electrons (5 eV to 300 eV) back-scattered by single crystal surfaces appears to be a powerful method for surfaces studies. The inelastic scattering of these slow electrons limits their escape depth to the surface region which is defined here. After a review of the basic excitation processes due to the interaction between electrons and surfaces (phonons, plasmons and electronic transitions) a brief discussion is given about the instruments needed for this electron spectroscopy. Finally some experimental results are listed and it is shown that the comparison of the results given by ELS with other surface sensitive methods such as UPS is very fruitful and new information can be obtained [fr

  8. How does the Quark-Gluon Plasma know the collision energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Brett

    2018-02-01

    Heavy ion collisions at the LHC facility generate a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) which, for central collisions, has a higher energy density and temperature than the plasma generated in central collisions at the RHIC. But sufficiently peripheral LHC collisions give rise to plasmas which have the same energy density and temperature as the "central" RHIC plasmas. One might assume that the two versions of the QGP would have very similar properties (for example, with regard to jet quenching), but recent investigations have suggested that they do not: the plasma "knows" that the overall collision energy is different in the two cases. We argue, using a gauge-gravity analysis, that the strong magnetic fields arising in one case (peripheral collisions), but not the other, may be relevant here. If the residual magnetic field in peripheral LHC plasmas is of the order of at least eB ≈ 5mπ2, then the model predicts modifications of the relevant quenching parameter which approach those recently reported.

  9. Implementing tactical plans to improve water-energy loss management

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, D.; Alegre, H.; Silva, M. S.; Ribeiro, R.; Mamade, A.; Poças, A.

    2015-01-01

    Water utilities are aware of the water-energy loss relevance in supply systems. However, they still mainly focus on daily water loss control (real and apparent losses), without considering the impact on embedded energy. Moreover, they are mostly concerned with the economic dimension and, in most cases, tend to disregard the impact that water-energy loss may have on the quality of service, communication with the customers, social awareness, water quality and environment. This paper focuses on ...

  10. Surface energy loss processes in XPS studied by absolute reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the inelastic interaction of 300-3000 eV electrons with the Ni and Au surfaces by the analysis of absolute reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectra were described. The present analysis enables the inelastic mean free path (IMFP), surface excitation parameter (SEP) and differential SEP (DSEP) to be obtained simultaneously from an absolute REELS spectrum. The obtained IMFPs for Ni and Au showed a good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M predictive equation. The present SEPs determined for Ni and Au were fitted to the Chen's formula describing the dependence of the SEP on the electron energy, and material parameters for Ni and Au in Chen's formula were proposed. The present DESPs were compared with the theoretical results, and a reasonable agreement between the experimentally determined DSEPs and theoretical results was confirmed. The MC modeling of calculating the REELS spectrum, in which energy loss processes due to surface excitations are taken into account, was also described. The IMFP, SEP and DSEP determined by the present absolute REELS analysis were employed to describe energy loss processes by inelastic scattering in the proposed MC simulation. The simulated REELS spectra were found to be in a good agreement with the experimental spectra for both Ni and Au.

  11. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, D.; Venugopalan, R.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Vogelsang, W.; et al.

    2011-09-30

    This report is based on a ten-week program on Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies, which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This report is organized around the following four major themes: (i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, (ii) three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, (iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and (iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific opportunities presented by an EIC.

  12. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, D; Milner, Richard; Venugopalan, Raju; Vogelsang, Werner; Kaplan, David; Montgomery, Hugh; Vigdor, Steven; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Li, Ying-chuan; Marciano, W.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; Yuan, F.; Sassot, R.; Zurita, P.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Goncalves, V.P.; Sandapen, R.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Gao, J.-H.; Liang, Z.-T.; Passek-Kumericki, K.; Kumericki, K.; Lappi, T.; Wallon, S.; Pire, B.; Geraud, R.; Moutarde, H.; Gelis, F.; Soyez, G.; Meskauskas, M.; Mueller, Dieter; Stefanis, N.G.; Gallmeister, K.; Mosel, U.; Diehl, M.; Bartels, J.; Pirner, H.J.; Hagler, P.; Jager, B.; Spiesberger, H.; Lautenschlager, T.; Schafer, A.; Ringer, F.; Vogelsang, W.; Kroll, P.; Alekhin, S.; Blumlein, J; Moch, S.-O.; Pisano, C.; Rojo, J.; Bacchetta, A.; Pasquini, B.; Radici, M.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Mezzetti, C.B.; Kaptari, L.P.; Anselmino, M.; Tanaka, K.; Koike, Y.; Kumano, S.; Motyka, L.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Stasto, A.M.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Szymanowski, L.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Kaptari, L.P.; Radyushkin, A.; Alekhin, S.; Kondratenko, A.; Horowitz, W.A.; Schnell, G.; Chevtsov, P.; Mulders, P.J.; Rogers, T.C.; Boer, D.; Forshaw, J.R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Chirilli, G.A.; Muller, D.; Wang, X.-N.; Yuan, F.; Qian, X.; Brodsky, S.J.; Schweitzer, P.; Horn, T.; Tuchin, K.; Dupre, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Manikonda, S.; Ostrumov, P.N.; Abeyratne, S.; Erdelyi, B.; Vossen, A.; Riordan, S.; Tsentalovich, E.; Goldstein, G.R.; Pozdeyev, E.; Huang, M.; Aidala, C.; Dumitru, A.; Dominguez, F.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Deshpande, A.; Faroughy, C.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Johnson, E.C.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Taneja, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Webb, S.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Fedotov, A.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; He, P.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E.C.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Parker, B.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Webb, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Zelenski, A.; Beuf, G.; Burton, T.; Debbe, R.; Fazio, S.; Marciano, W.J.; Qiu, J.-W.; Toll, T.; Ullrich, T.; Deshpande, A.; Dumitru, A.; Kang, Z.-B.; Stasto, A.M.; Yuan, F.; Kovchegov, Y.V.; Majumder, A; Metz, A.; Zhou, J.; Gamberg, L.; Stasto, A.M.; Strikman, M.; Xiao, B.-W.; Guzzi, M.; Nadolsky, P.; Olness, F.; BC, H.; Liuti, S.; Ahmed, S.; Bogacz, A.; Derbenev, Ya.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Marhauser, F.; Morozov, V.; Pilat, F.; Rimmer, R.; Satogata, T.; Sullivan, M.; Spata, M.; Terzic, B.; Wang, H.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Avakian, H.; Musch, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Prokudin, A.; Radyushkin, A.; Weiss, C.; Krafft, G.; Radyushkin, A.; Sayed, H.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Cloet, I.C.; Miller, G.; Gonderinger, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report is based on a ten-week program on "Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies", which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics. This report is organized around four major themes: i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, ii) three-dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific op...

  13. Energy-loss measurements with heavy ions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, B.; Gaimard, J.J.; Geissel, H.; Muenzenberg, G.; Schmidt, K.H.; Stelzer, H.; Suemmerer; Clerc, H.G.; Hanelt, E.; Steiner, M.; Voss, B.

    1990-03-01

    Using the magnetic spectrometer SPES I at SATURNE, energy-loss measurements have been performed for projectiles of 40 Ar (401 MeV/u), 36 P (362 MeV/u), 15 N (149 MeV/u), 11 Li (131 MeV/u) and 8 Li, 9 Li (130 MeV/u) in carbon, aluminum and lead targets. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on a modified relativistic Bethe formula and to a semi-empirical formula using a Z 2 scaling law for the stopping power and an effective charge parametrization for the heavy ions. (orig.)

  14. Low energy constituent quark and pion effective couplings in a weak external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2018-03-01

    An effective model with pions and constituent quarks in the presence of a weak external background electromagnetic field is derived by starting from a dressed one gluon exchange quark-quark interaction. By applying the auxiliary field and background field methods, the structureless pion limit is considered to extract effective pion and constituent quark couplings in the presence of a weak magnetic field. The leading terms of a large quark and gluon masses expansion are obtained by resolving effective coupling constants which turn out to depend on a weak magnetic field. Two pion field definitions are considered for that. Several relations between the effective coupling constants and parameters can be derived exactly or in the limit of very large quark mass at zero and weak constant magnetic field. Among these ratios, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner and the quark level Goldberger-Treiman relations are obtained. In addition to that, in the pion sector, the leading terms of Chiral Perturbation Theory coupled to the electromagnetic field are recovered. Some numerical estimates are provided for the effective coupling constants and parameters.

  15. An introduction to quark-gluon plasma and high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    1987-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma, and how it might be produced in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions is reviewed. I briefly introduce the quark-gluon plasma, and what we might learn from studying it. I then discuss what has been learned from the recent results from the CERN oxygen run. I then attempt to address the issue of whether A = 16 and E = 200 GeV are sufficient to make a quark-gluon plasma. I discuss strangeness and charm production as well as electromagnetic probes of the plasma

  16. Probing the six - quark bag in the low - energy np→Dγ capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1985-01-01

    The circular polarization P γ of γ-quanta radiated in the capture of polarized thermal neutrons by protons is discussed. The contributions to P γ coming form radiation of nucleons, meson-exchange currents and quarks in a six-quark bag are calculated. The value of P γ proves to be rapidly varying function of the radius r 0 of the six-quark bag. Comparison to the experimental value of P γ yields r 0 ≅ 1.0+1.3 F

  17. Chemical Potentials of Quarks Extracted from Particle Transverse Momentum Distributions in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hong; Liu, Fu-Hu

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of a multisource thermal model, the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (A-A) and deuteron-nucleus (d-A) collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) energies are investigated by a two-component revised Boltzmann distribution. The calculated results are in agreement with the PHENIX experimental data. It is found that the source temperature increases obviously with increase of the particle mass and incident energy, but it does not show an obvious change with the collision centrality. Then, the values of chemical potentials for up, down, and strange quarks can be obtained from the antiparticle to particle yield ratios in a wide transverse momentum range. The relationship between the chemical potentials of quarks and the transverse momentum with different centralities is investigated, too

  18. Perturbative expansions from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling: Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, H. D.; Shakespeare, N. H.; Lepage, G. P.; MacKenzie, P. B.

    2002-05-01

    Perturbative coefficients for Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling. The lattice volumes and couplings are chosen to ensure that the lattice momenta are all perturbative. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of lattice zero modes and to suppress nonperturbative finite-volume effects due to Z(3) phases. Simulations of the Wilson gluon action are done with both periodic and twisted boundary conditions, and over a wide range of lattice volumes (from 34 to 164) and couplings (from β~9 to β~60). A high precision comparison is made between the simulation data and results from finite-volume lattice perturbation theory. The Monte Carlo results are shown to be in excellent agreement with perturbation theory through second order. New results for third-order coefficients for a number of Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are reported.

  19. High-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks and other rare phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumalat, J.; Butler, J.; Gaines, I.

    1981-01-01

    We propose to study the photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks, charm and beauty, using a multiparticle spectrometer at the Tevatron. The apparatus is similar to that used in E87 and E401, but is upgraded to have a much larger acceptance, better γ and π 0 reconstruction capabilities, and a prompt decay vertex detector. To achieve high sensitivity to low cross sections, the experiment must run in a wide band photon beam, preferably the new beam proposed for the Proton East area. The experiment has two phases. Phase 1 is a 500 hour run with a thick target (1 interaction length) and a beam dump. This phase will produce a large sample of dimuon decays of T's and J/PSI's with energies up to 450 GeV and will measure the size of beauty photoproduction through the detection of multimuon final states. Phase 2 is a 1500 hour run with an open geometry and a 10% interaction length target. We will collect very large samples (> 10 6 ) of charm particle events and will search for specific B-meson and B-baryon final states. The power of the spectrometer and the flexibility of the trigger scheme we employ enables us to do sensitive searches for completely new phenomena with less bias than other experiments

  20. The t quark production at the UNK collider energies general characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Likhoded, A.K.; Petrov, V.A.; Slabospitsky, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The cross sections and inclusive spectra for t quarks in pp-bar collisions at √s=6 TeV (in the UNK collider operational mode) have been calculated as well as different kinematic characteristics of the t-decay products. It is shown that at identical integrated luminosity the region of the maximum t quark masses that can be reached at the UNK collider is considerably beyond the t quark mass limit for the Tevatron (750-800 GeV for UNK and 400-450 GeV for the Tevatron). The role of some background processes to the t quark production reaction has also been treated. 9 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Heavy-Quark Production

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We review the present theoretical and experimental status of heavy quark production in high-energy collisions. In particular, we cover hadro- and photoproduction at fixed target experiments, at HERA and at the hadron colliders, as well as aspects of heavy quark production in e+e- collisions at the Z0 peak.

  2. Quark radiation from LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Like any other electrically charged particles, quarks should give out electromagnetic radiation (photons) when they vibrate. One of the physics results from CERN's LEP collider is the first clear observation of this quark radiation from electron-positron collisions. At lower energies this radiation could only be inferred

  3. Quark radiation from LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Susan

    1992-04-15

    Like any other electrically charged particles, quarks should give out electromagnetic radiation (photons) when they vibrate. One of the physics results from CERN's LEP collider is the first clear observation of this quark radiation from electron-positron collisions. At lower energies this radiation could only be inferred.

  4. Flavors in the Soup: An Overview of Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Kurt E. Jung PhD, Purdue University, May 2016. Flavors in the Soup: An Overviewof Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS. Major Professor: Wei Xie.The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavorof the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function offlavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport propertiesof the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factorsof the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb andpPb collisions can quantify such energy loss e↵ects. Specifically, pPb measurementsprovide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter e↵ect, whichis required to fully understand the hot and dense medium e↵ects on jets in PbPbcollisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb atppsN N = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sN N = 5.02 TeV, along with the first everpmeasurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at sN N = 5.0...

  5. Quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerman, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    This short talk gives some very general comments on what I see as the impact on nuclear physics of the last ten years' developments in the picture of the nucleon and the hadron. On the other hand there may also be some nuclear physics lessons - lessons we've learned by trying to deal with the multi-fermion system over a long period - and I will discuss what those lessons might be for the problem at hand, hadron phy-physics up to 31 GeV. After that I will discuss a number of implications of quarks for low energy physics

  6. Search for pair production of scalar top quarks in jets and missing transverse energy channel with the D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Mansoora [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation describes a search for the pair production of scalar top quarks, $\\tilde{t}$1, using a luminosity of 995 pb-1 of data collected in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Both scalar top quarks are assumed to decay into a charm quark and a neutralino, $\\tilde{X}$10, where $\\tilde{X}$10 is the lightest supersymmetric particle. This leads to a final state with two acoplanar charm jets and missing transverse energy. The yield of such events in data is found to be consistent with the expectations from known standard model processes. Sets of $\\tilde{X}$1 and $\\tilde{X}$10 masses are excluded at the 95% confidence level that substantially extend the domain excluded by previous searches. With the theoretical uncertainty on the $\\tilde{t}$1 pair production cross section taken into account, the largest limit for m$\\tilde{t}$1 is m$\\tilde{t}$1 > 150 GeV, for m$\\tilde{X}$10 = 65 GeV.

  7. Search for pair production of scalar top quarks in jets and missing transverse energy channel with the D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Mansoora; Kansas State U

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation describes a search for the pair production of scalar top quarks, (tilde t) 1 , using a luminosity of 995 pb -1 of data collected in p(bar p) collisions with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Both scalar top quarks are assumed to decay into a charm quark and a neutralino, (tilde χ) 1 0 , where (tilde χ) 1 0 is the lightest supersymmetric particle. This leads to a final state with two acoplanar charm jets and missing transverse energy. The yield of such events in data is found to be consistent with the expectations from known standard model processes. Sets of (tilde t) 1 and (tilde χ) 1 0 masses are excluded at the 95% confidence level that substantially extend the domain excluded by previous searches. With the theoretical uncertainty on the (tilde t) 1 pair production cross section taken into account, the largest limit for m # tilde t# # sub 1# is m # tilde t# # sub 1# > 150 GeV, for m # tilde χ)# sub 1# # sup 0# = 65 GeV

  8. Observational constraints on the unified dark matter and dark energy model based on the quark bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, Ariadna, E-mail: amontiel@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 México DF (Mexico); Salzano, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.salzano@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Lazkoz, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.lazkoz@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-06-02

    In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in [1], is characterized by two main parameters: β, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and γ, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, β cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) γ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with ≈78% to the energy–matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.

  9. Observational constraints on the unified dark matter and dark energy model based on the quark bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel, Ariadna; Salzano, Vincenzo; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in [1], is characterized by two main parameters: β, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and γ, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, β cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) γ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with ≈78% to the energy–matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.

  10. Search for Dark Matter In events with heavy quarks and missing transverse energy with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Afik, Yoav; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A wide search program is being carried at the LHC under the hypothesis that Dark Matter (DM) consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Final states with heavy flavour quarks and large momentum imbalance represent an interesting discovery signature which allows to probe models with scalar or pseudo-scalar interactions between the Standard Model and the dark sector under the assumption of Minimal Flavour Violation. We present the most recent results of searches for DM produced in association with a pair of heavy flavour quarks (DM+HF) in ATLAS [1-2] based on 36.1 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV.

  11. Local energy losses at positive and negative steps in subcritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local energy losses occur when there is a transition in open channel flow. Even though local losses in subcritical open channel flow due to changes in channel width have been studied, to date no studies have been reported for losses due to changes in bed elevations. Steps are commonly used in engineering applications ...

  12. Analysis of possible free quarks production process at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, E.E.; Ermolov, P.F.; Golubkov, Yu.A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors regard the process of free b-quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at energies of new colliders. It is suggested to use the pair of unlike sign with transverse momenta in the range p tr >5 GeV/c to trigger this process. Additionally it is suggested to measure a weak ionization signal from free s-quark from b-quark decay. The calculations of free bb-quarks production cross-sections have been made taking into account their energy losses in strong colour field. It is shown that the most effective range of lepton transverse momenta for observation of the process does not depend on threshold energy and is approximately equal to one for usual b mesons. 16 refs.; 10 figs

  13. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown...

  14. Heavy-quark production as a sensitive test for an improved description of high-energy hadron collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Hagler, P; Schäfer, A; Szymanowski, L; Teryaev, O V

    2000-01-01

    QCD dynamics at small quark and gluon momentum fractions or large total energy, which plays a major role for DESY HERA, the Fermilab Tevatron, BNL RHIC and CERN LHC physics, is still poorly understood. For one of the simplest processes, namely bb production, next-to- leading-order perturbation theory fails. We show that the combination of two recently developed theoretical concepts, the k/sub perpendicular to / factorization and the next-to-leading-logarithmic- approximation Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov vertex, gives perfect agreement with data. One can therefore hope that these concepts provide a valuable foundation for the description of other high energy processes. (18 refs).

  15. Energy-dependent losses in pulsed-feedback preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1978-11-01

    Energy dependent counting losses occur in most pulsed-feedback preamplifiers due to the loss of those pulses which activate the recharge system. A pulsed-feedback system that overcomes this inefficiency is described. Pulsed-light feedback as used with germanium gamma-ray spectrometers is discussed as used at high energies and high rates where those losses become significant. Experimental results are presented

  16. Simultaneous measurement of top quark mass and jet energy scale using template fits at the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann-Emme, Sebastian

    2011-07-15

    In this thesis, pairs of top quarks produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and decaying in the muon+jets channel t anti t {yields} (b{mu}{nu})(bqq{sup '}) are analyzed using data that were recorded by the CMS detector in the year 2010 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 pb{sup -1}. A sample of 78 events is selected by requiring exactly one isolated muon and at least four jets, two of them being identified as jets from the decay of b quarks. Given these selection criteria, the expected fraction of t anti t events is 94%. The trijet mass, M3, and the dijet mass, M2, are reconstructed, taking into account the b-tagging information. M3 and M2 are estimators of the masses of hadronically decaying top quarks and the corresponding W bosons, respectively. Templates for M2 and for the event-wise mass difference {delta}M{sub 32}=M3-M2 are parametrized as linear functions of the top quark mass, m{sub t}, and the jet energy scale (JES). Based on the precise knowledge of the W boson mass, M2 provides a strong handle on the energy scale of jets from light quarks. The reconstructed M2 and {delta}M{sub 32} in data are compared to the template functions from simulation in a combined likelihood fit. The overall JES in the selected sample is found to be 1.048{+-}0.040(stat){+-}0.015(syst) relative to the simulated JES and the measured m{sub t} is 167.8{+-}7.1(stat+JES){+-}3.1(syst) GeV. This is one of the first measurements of m{sub t} at the Large Hadron Collider. Furthermore, the JES measurement is an important input for the commissioning of the CMS experiment for the upcoming measurements with more data in the near future. (orig.)

  17. Simultaneous measurement of top quark mass and jet energy scale using template fits at the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann-Emme, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    In this thesis, pairs of top quarks produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and decaying in the muon+jets channel t anti t → (bμν)(bqq ' ) are analyzed using data that were recorded by the CMS detector in the year 2010 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 pb -1 . A sample of 78 events is selected by requiring exactly one isolated muon and at least four jets, two of them being identified as jets from the decay of b quarks. Given these selection criteria, the expected fraction of t anti t events is 94%. The trijet mass, M3, and the dijet mass, M2, are reconstructed, taking into account the b-tagging information. M3 and M2 are estimators of the masses of hadronically decaying top quarks and the corresponding W bosons, respectively. Templates for M2 and for the event-wise mass difference ΔM 32 =M3-M2 are parametrized as linear functions of the top quark mass, m t , and the jet energy scale (JES). Based on the precise knowledge of the W boson mass, M2 provides a strong handle on the energy scale of jets from light quarks. The reconstructed M2 and ΔM 32 in data are compared to the template functions from simulation in a combined likelihood fit. The overall JES in the selected sample is found to be 1.048±0.040(stat)±0.015(syst) relative to the simulated JES and the measured m t is 167.8±7.1(stat+JES)±3.1(syst) GeV. This is one of the first measurements of m t at the Large Hadron Collider. Furthermore, the JES measurement is an important input for the commissioning of the CMS experiment for the upcoming measurements with more data in the near future. (orig.)

  18. Method of taking into account meson and quark-gluon degrees of freedom in hadron-hadron interactions at low and intermediate energies. Application to NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    A system of nonsingular integral equations is formulated for the calculation of hadron-hadron partial amplitudes in the low-and intermediate-energy range taking into account meson and quark-gluon degrees of freedom. The quark-gluon degrees of freedom are included in the framework of the composite-quark-bag model, and the meson degrees of freedom are treated by the methods of the relativistic quantum field theory. It is shown that including the quark-gluon degrees of freedom leads to suppression of meson exchange effects, mostly of heavy meson (rho, ω) exchanges. The method has been applied to the calculation of the 3 S 1 , 1 S 0 , 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 , and 1 P 1 phase shifts for the nucleon-nucleon scattering at the incident nucleon energies T=0-1050 MeV, as well as to the S-wave scattering lengths and effective radii

  19. Electron energy-loss spectra in molecular fluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, H.; Cartwright, D. C.; Trajmar, S.

    1979-01-01

    Electron energy-loss spectra in molecular fluorine, for energy losses from 0 to 17.0 eV, have been taken at incident electron energies of 30, 50, and 90 eV and scattering angles from 5 to 140 deg. Features in the spectra above 11.5 eV energy loss agree well with the assignments recently made from optical spectroscopy. Excitations of many of the eleven repulsive valence excited electronic states are observed and their location correlates reasonably well with recent theoretical results. Several of these excitations have been observed for the first time and four features, for which there are no identifications, appear in the spectra.

  20. Elucidating Jet Energy Loss Using Jets Prospects from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, N

    2009-01-01

    Jets at the LHC are expected to provide the testing ground for studying QCD energy loss. In this contribution, we briefly outline the strategy that will be used to measure jets in ATLAS and how we will go about studying energy loss. We describe the utility of measuring the jet $R_{AA}$, the fragmentation function, and heavy flavor jets. Utilizing the collision energy provided by the LHC and the nearly hermetic and highly segmented calorimeter, ATLAS is expected to make important contributions to the understanding of parton energy loss using fully reconstructed jets.

  1. Elucidating Jet Energy Loss Using Jets: Prospects from ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, N.

    2009-01-01

    Jets at the LHC are expected to provide the testing ground for studying QCD energy loss. In this contribution, we briefly outline the strategy that will be used to measure jets in ATLAS and how we will go about studying energy loss. We describe the utility of measuring the jet R AA , the fragmentation function, and heavy flavor jets. Utilizing the collision energy provided by the LHC and the nearly hermetic and highly segmented calorimeter, ATLAS is expected to make important contributions to the understanding of parton energy loss using fully reconstructed jets.

  2. Energy loss of charged particles to molecular gas targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1976-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of fast charged particles penetrating a dilute molecular gas target has been analysed theoretically, with a homogeneous gas mixture in the state of complete dissociation as a reference standard. It is shown that the geometrical structure of molecules causes the energy-loss straggling and higher moments over the energy-loss spectrum to be greater than the corresponding quantities for a completely dissociated gas of equal composition. Such deviations from additivity are shown to be most pronounced at energies around the stopping-power maximum. There is found supporting evidence in the experimental literature. (Auth.)

  3. The low-energy effective theory of QCD at small quark masses in a finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Christoph

    2010-01-15

    At low energies the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) can be described effectively in terms of the lightest particles of the theory, the pions. This approximation is valid for temperatures well below the mass difference of the pions to the next heavier particles. We study the low-energy effective theory at very small quark masses in a finite volume V. The corresponding perturbative expansion in 1/{radical}(V) is called {epsilon} expansion. At each order of this expansion a finite number of low-energy constants completely determine the effective theory. These low-energy constants are of great phenomenological importance. In the leading order of the {epsilon} expansion, called {epsilon} regime, the theory becomes zero-dimensional and is therefore described by random matrix theory (RMT). The dimensionless quantities of RMT are mapped to dimensionful quantities of the low-energy effective theory using the leading-order lowenergy constants {sigma} and F. In this way {sigma} and F can be obtained from lattice QCD simulations in the '' regime by a fit to RMT predictions. For typical volumes of state-of-the-art lattice QCD simulations, finite-volume corrections to the RMT prediction cannot be neglected. These corrections can be calculated in higher orders of the {epsilon} expansion. We calculate the finite-volume corrections to {sigma} and F at next-to-next-to-leading order in the {epsilon} expansion. We also discuss non-universal modifications of the theory due to the finite volume. These results are then applied to lattice QCD simulations, and we extract {sigma} and F from eigenvalue correlation functions of the Dirac operator. As a side result, we provide a proof of equivalence between the parametrization of the partially quenched low-energy effective theory without singlet particle and that of the super-Riemannian manifold used earlier in the literature. Furthermore, we calculate a special version of the massless sunset diagram at finite volume without

  4. Quark matter formation in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions - predictions and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1983-01-01

    In this talk I give a short summary of the recent discussion around predictions and possible observations of quark-gluon plasma and fireballs in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. In particular this talk is focused on heavy ion reactions at 200 A GeV. (orig./HSI)

  5. Energy loss in grazing proton-surface collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juaristi, J I [Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia de Abajo, F J [Dept. Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain)

    1994-05-01

    The energy loss of fast protons, with energy E > 100 keV, specularly reflected on a solid surface with glancing angle of incidence of the order of a mrad is analysed on theoretical grounds. Two different contributions can be distinguished: (i) energy losses originating from the interaction with the valence band, accounted for through an induced force, and (ii) the excitation of electron bound states of the target atoms. The results are compared with available experimental data. (orig.)

  6. Performance of the electron energy-loss spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Huebner, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the electron energy-loss spectrometer incorporating a new high-resolution hemispherical monochromator are reported. The apparatus achieved an energy-resolution of 25 meV in the elastic scattering mode, and angular distributions of elastically scattered electrons were in excellent agreement with previous workers. Preliminary energy-loss spectra for several atmospheric gases demonstrate the excellent versatility and stable operation of the improved system. 12 references

  7. Energy loss in grazing proton-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaristi, J.I.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy loss of fast protons, with energy E > 100 keV, specularly reflected on a solid surface with glancing angle of incidence of the order of a mrad is analysed on theoretical grounds. Two different contributions can be distinguished: i) energy losses originating from the interaction with the valence band, accounted for through an induced force, and ii) the excitation of electron bound states of the target atoms. The results are compared with available experimental data. (orig.)

  8. Jet energy scale corrections and their impact on measurements of the top-quark mass at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschenmann, Henning

    2014-10-01

    The final state of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is dominated by jets, the experimental signature of quarks and gluons. The precise measurement of jets is a prerequisite to understand these processes. In this thesis, the determination of jet-energy corrections at CMS using dijet events is described, and the investigation of a correction specifically tailored to improve the reconstruction of b-jets in top-quark mass measurements is presented. Dijet events are used to determine the response relative to the central detector region in data and simulation as a function of the pseudorapidity η. Two complementary response estimators are introduced and detailed supplementary studies, e.g. of the time stability of the response, are performed. For the 2011 data-taking period, the MC/Data differences are found to be below 5% in the tracker-covered detector region with systematic uncertainties of less than 1%. Furthermore, a study of b-jet properties in 2012 data is presented. The correlation of various such observables with the response is exploited to improve the jet-energy measurement of b-jets. A resolution improvement of about 10% can be achieved, and the evaluation of b-jet specific jet-energy scale uncertainties (b-JES) indicates improvements of about 30%. This additional correction is applied to an existing measurement of the top-quark mass in the muon+jets channel. It leads to a statistical sensitivity improvement of about 10% and a reduction of systematic uncertainties related to the b-JES from 0.6 GeV to 0.3 GeV.

  9. Proton energy loss in multilayer graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Juan D.; Mery, Mario; Fierro, Bernardo; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Valdés, Jorge E.; Esaulov, Vladimir A.

    2018-02-01

    Results of a study of electronic energy loss of low keV protons interacting with multilayer graphene targets are presented. Proton energy loss shows an unexpectedly high value as compared with measurements in amorphous carbon and carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, we observe a classical linear behavior of the energy loss with the ion velocity but with an apparent velocity threshold around 0.1 a.u., which is not observed in other carbon allotropes. This suggests low dimensionality effects which can be due to the extraordinary graphene properties.

  10. Hadronic accompaniment of free quarks creation in E+E--collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubkov, Yu.A.

    1991-01-01

    The process of free b-quarks quarks creation in e + e - -annihilation at the Z 0 -peak is regarded. The hadronic accompaniment due to bremsstrahlung of such a process is analysed. The calculations for free bb-bar-pair production are made taking into account the energy losses on colour field. The distributions of leptons and free light quarks from weak decays of b-quark are shown. The probability to overlap of ionization signals of free light quark and charge hadron is estimated. The comparison with LEP experimental data allows to get a conclusion, that the existing experimental accuracy does not exclude the creation of free b-quarks in the Z 0 -decays. 17 refs.; 6 figs

  11. The Generalized Multipole Technique for the Simulation of Low-Loss Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiewidt, Lars; Karamehmedovic, Mirza

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the use of a Generalized Multipole Technique (GMT) to simulate low-loss Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) spectra of isolated spheriodal nanoparticles. The GMT provides certain properties, such as semi-analytical description of the electromagnetic fields...

  12. Search for the supersymmetric partner of bottom quark at DO at Tevatron. Studies on missing transverse energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, S.

    2007-09-01

    Supersymmetry, the extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, is searched for, by trying to observe the supersymmetric partner of the bottom quark (b-bar). This search is performed by using events with a final state comprising 2 coplanar b-quark jets and missing transverse energy and coming from a sample of 992 pb -1 of data collected by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, the Fermilab pp-bar collider. The absence of an excess of events in comparison to Standard Model expectations leads to exclude sb masses up to 201 GeV and neutralino masses up to 94 GeV. The missing transverse energy has been studied carefully under 2 points of view, because of its fundamental role in this search. First, at the level of the trigger system which allows the online selection candidate events, and then during the process Z → νν + jets that is an important background noise and in which the transverse momentum of Z turns into missing energy because of the no-detection of the neutrinos. (author)

  13. Measurements of energy losses, distributions of energy loss and additivity of energy losses for 50 to 150 keV protons in hydrogen and nine hydrocarbon gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.H.

    1976-05-01

    Measurements of energy-loss distributions were made for 51, 102, and 153 keV protons traversing hydrogen, methane, ethyne (acetylene), ethene (ethylene), ethane, propyne (methyl acetylene), propadiene (allene), propene (propylene), cyclopropane and propane. The objectives were to test the theories of energy-loss distribution in this energy range and to see if the type of carbon bonding in a hydrocarbon molecule affects the shape of the distribution. Stopping powers and stopping cross sections were also measured at these energies and at 76.5 and 127.5 keV to determine effects of chemical binding. All of the measurements were made at the gas density required to give a 4 percent energy loss. The mean energy, second central moment (a measure of the width of the distribution), and the third central moment (a measure of the skew) were calculated from the measured energy-loss distributions. Stopping power values, calculated using the mean energy, compared reasonably well with those calculated from the Bethe stopping power theory. For the second and third central moments, the best agreement between measurement and theory was when the classical scattering probability was used for the calculations, but even these did not agree well. In all cases, variations were found in the data that could be correlated to the type of carbon binding in the molecule. The differences were statistically significant at a 99 percent confidence interval for the stopping powers and second central moments measured with 51 keV protons. Similar trends were noted at other energies and for the third central moment, but the differences were not statistically significant at the 99 percent confidence interval

  14. Holographic energy loss in non-relativistic backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atashi, Mahdi; Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Farahbodnia, Mitra [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department, P.O. Box 3619995161, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    In this paper, we study some aspects of energy loss in non-relativistic theories from holography. We analyze the energy lost by a rotating heavy point particle along a circle of radius l with angular velocity ω in theories with general dynamical exponent z and hyperscaling violation exponent θ. It is shown that this problem provides a novel perspective on the energy loss in such theories. A general computation at zero and finite temperature is done and it is shown how the total energy loss rate depends non-trivially on two characteristic exponents (z,θ). We find that at zero temperature there is a special radius l{sub c} where the energy loss is independent of different values of (θ,z). Also at zero temperature, there is a crossover between a regime in which the energy loss is dominated by the linear drag force and by the radiation because of the acceleration of the rotating particle. We find that the energy loss of the particle decreases by increasing θ and z. We note that, unlike in the zero temperature, there is no special radius l{sub c} at finite temperature case. (orig.)

  15. Strong-coupling jet energy loss from AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, R.; Horowitz, W. A.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel definition of a holographic light hadron jet and consider the phenomenological consequences, including the very first fully self-consistent, completely strong-coupling calculation of the jet nuclear modification factor R AA, which we find compares surprisingly well with recent preliminary data from LHC. We show that the thermalization distance for light parton jets is an extremely sensitive function of the a priori unspecified string initial conditions and that worldsheets corresponding to non-asymptotic energy jets are not well approximated by a collection of null geodesics. Our new string jet prescription, which is defined by a separation of scales from plasma to jet, leads to the re-emergence of the late-time Bragg peak in the instantaneous jet energy loss rate; unlike heavy quarks, the energy loss rate is unusually sensitive to the very definition of the string theory object itself. A straightforward application of the new jet definition leads to significant jet quenching, even in the absence of plasma. By renormalizing the in-medium suppression by that in the vacuum we find qualitative agreement with preliminary CMS RAAjet >( p T) data in our simple plasma brick model. We close with comments on our results and an outlook on future work.

  16. Kramers-Kronig transform for the surface energy loss function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, G.L.; DeNoyer, L.K.; French, R.H.; Guittet, M.J.; Gautier-Soyer, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new pair of Kramers-Kronig (KK) dispersion relationships for the transformation of surface energy loss function Im[-1/(ε + 1)] has been proposed. The validity of the new surface KK transform is confirmed, using both a Lorentz oscillator model and the surface energy loss functions determined from the experimental complex dielectric function of SrTiO 3 and tungsten metal. The interband transition strength spectra (J cv ) have been derived either directly from the original complex dielectric function or from the derived dielectric function obtained from the KK transform of the surface energy loss function. The original J cv trace and post-J cv trace overlapped together for the three modes, indicating that the new surface Kramers-Kronig dispersion relationship is valid for the surface energy loss function

  17. Quark-gluon plasmas and collective features of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasmas which may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. A space-time description of the central rapidity region is presented. It is shown that the hydrodynamical flow induces correlations between particle transverse momenta and multiplicities. One discusses to which extent these correlations could signal the occurrence of a phase transition in heavy ion collisions

  18. Local energy losses at positive and negative steps in subcritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-22

    Apr 22, 2010 ... channel flow due to changes in channel width have been studied, to date no studies have been reported for losses due to changes in bed elevations. .... of these studies report on numerical modelling of flow over transitions. ... that the frictional losses are negligible, the energy equation between Sections (1) ...

  19. Quark parton model with logarithmic scaling violation and high energy neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.; Kovalenko, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of the proposed earlier quark parton model with logarithmic scaling violation the cross sections of deep inelastic ν(anti ν)N interactions are calculated, the contribution of the charmed particle production are evaluated. The kinematical mass corrections to scaling violations and threshold effects are taken into account. Joint analysis of the experimental data on deep inelastic ep, ed scattering and charged current neutrino interaction are performed by using the unique set of free parameters of the model. Evaluations of the c-quark and W-boson masses are obtained. Neutral current data as well are analysed. The analysis is performed with taken into account scaling violation effects. The obtained estimations of the charmed quark mass Msub(c)=3.0+-1.2 GeV. W-boson mass Mw=50+-10 GeV, and the Weinberg angle SINsup(2)THETAsub(w)=0.26+-0.04 are within errors in agreement with the generally accepted ones

  20. Model calculation for energy loss in ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraglia, J.E.; Gravielle, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The so-called local plasma approximation is generalized to deal with projectiles colliding with surfaces of amorphous solids and with a specific crystalline structure (plannar channeling). Energy loss of protons grazingly colliding with aluminum, SnTe alloy, and LiF surfaces is investigated. The calculations agree quite well with previous theoretical results and explain the experimental findings of energy loss for aluminum and SnTe alloy, but they fall short to explain the data for LiF surfaces

  1. Quark effects in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    A phenomenological approach which enables the size of quark effects in various nuclear processes is discussed. The principle of conservation of probability provides significant constraints on six quark wave functions. Using this approach, it is found that the low-energy proton-proton weak interaction can be explained in terms of W and Z boson exchanges between quarks. That the value of the asymptotic ratio of D to S state wave functions is influenced (at the 5% level) by quark effects, is another result of our approach. We have not discovered a nuclear effect that can be uniquely explained by quark-quark interactions. However it does seem that quark physics is very relevant for nuclear physics. 52 references

  2. Radiative energy loss of neighboring subjets arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    We compute the in-medium energy loss probability distribution of two neighboring subjets at leading order, in the large-$N_c$ approximation. Our result exhibits a gradual onset of color decoherence of the system and accounts for two expected limiting cases. When the angular separation is smaller than the characteristic angle for medium-induced radiation, the two-pronged substructure lose energy coherently as a single color charge, namely that of the parent parton. At large angular separation the two subjets lose energy independently. Our result is a first step towards quantifying effects of energy loss as a result of the fluctuation of the multi-parton jet substructure and therefore goes beyond the standard approach to jet quenching based on single parton energy loss. We briefly discuss applications to jet observables in heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Perturbative expansions from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling: Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottier, H.D.; Shakespeare, N.H.; Lepage, G.P.; Mackenzie, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    Perturbative coefficients for Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling. The lattice volumes and couplings are chosen to ensure that the lattice momenta are all perturbative. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of lattice zero modes and to suppress nonperturbative finite-volume effects due to Z(3) phases. Simulations of the Wilson gluon action are done with both periodic and twisted boundary conditions, and over a wide range of lattice volumes (from 3 4 to 16 4 ) and couplings (from β≅9 to β≅60). A high precision comparison is made between the simulation data and results from finite-volume lattice perturbation theory. The Monte Carlo results are shown to be in excellent agreement with perturbation theory through second order. New results for third-order coefficients for a number of Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are reported

  4. Top-quark production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David; Paukkunen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Single and pair top-quark production in proton-lead (p-Pb) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and future circular collider (FCC) energies, are studied with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations including nuclear parton distribution functions. At the LHC, the pair-production cross sections amount to sigma(t-tbar) = 3.4 mub in Pb-Pb at sqrt(s) = 5.5 TeV, and sigma(t-tbar) = 60 nb in p-Pb at sqrt(s) = 8.8 TeV. At the FCC energies of sqrt(s) = 39 and 63 TeV, the same cross sections are factors of 90 and 55 times larger respectively. In the leptonic final-state t-tbar --> W+b W-bbar --> b bbar l+l- nu+nu-, after typical acceptance and efficiency cuts, one expects about 90 and 300 top-quarks per nominal LHC-year and 4.7 10^4 and 10^5 per FCC-year in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions respectively. The total t-tbar cross sections, dominated by gluon fusion processes, are enhanced by 3--8% in nuclear compared to p-p collisions due to an overall net gluon antishadowing, altho...

  5. Quarks for hadrons and leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The simplest, naive, model for a unified description of leptons and hadrons consists in postulating, besides the usual quarks p, n, lambda a fourth quark, with very heavy mass and very high binding to pairs like anti p n and anti p lambda. In a SU(4) scheme the fourth quark has a quantum number charm which may be taken as proportional to the lepton number. Muons would be distinguished from electrons by the occurence of a lambda-quark instead of a n-quark in their structure. The forces among these quarks would have to be such as to give leptons an almost point-like structure at the experimentally known energies as well as absence of strong interactions at these energies. However, one would expect the display of strong interactions by leptons at extremely high energies [pt

  6. Do Quarks Propagate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Taylor, John C.

    1984-01-01

    Processes with coloured particles in the initial state are generally infrared divergent. We investigate the effect of this on processes with colourless particles in the initial state, when the amplitude is near an intermediate quark pole. The result is a characteristic logarithmic depedence...... on the 'binding energy'(even though spectator interactions are taken into account), and the result is gauge-invariant. Summed to all orders the logarithms could perhaps suppress the quark pole....

  7. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vtb| in events with one charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and jets at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Song, H; Sorin, V; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2014-12-31

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t→Wb→ℓνb by requiring the presence of an electron or muon, a large imbalance of transverse momentum indicating the presence of a neutrino, and two or three jets including at least one originating from a bottom quark. An artificial neural network is used to discriminate the signal from backgrounds. We measure a single top quark production cross section of 3.04(-0.53)(+0.57)  pb and set a lower limit on the magnitude of the coupling between the top quark and bottom quark |Vtb|>0.78 at the 95% credibility level.

  8. Comments on GUT monopole energy loss and ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrom, R.

    1982-01-01

    A few comments about the likely behavior of the electromagnetic energy loss and ionization rates of super-slowly moving magnetic monopoles are presented. The questions of energy loss rates and ionization rates for super-low monopoles passing through matter are considered, concentrating on aspects of these issues which affect practical detection techniques. It is worthwhile here to emphasize that there is a potentially great distinction between energy loss rates and ionization rates and that the magnitude of this distinction is really the great issue which must be settled in order to understand the significance of experimental results from present and proposed investigations of the slow monopole question. Energy loss here means the total dE/dX of the projectile due to interactions with the electrons of the slowing medium. To the extent that nuclear collisions can be neglected, this so-called electronic energy loss is the relevant quantity in questions about whether monopoles stop within the earth's crust, whether they are slowed by interstellar plasmas, or the signal in a truly calorimetric measurement (measuring temperature rises along the trajectory), etc. Most of our successful detection techniques depend upon the promotion of ground state electrons into states which lie above some energy gap in the material of the detector: electrons must be knocked completely free from the gas atoms in a proportional chamber gas, electrons must be promoted to a higher band in solid scintillator plastics. These processes are generically identified as ionization

  9. Construction of energy loss function for low-energy electrons in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayashankar, [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1976-02-01

    The energy loss function for electrons in the energy range from 50 eV to 1 keV in helium gas has been constructed by considering separately the energy loss in overcoming the ionization threshold, the loss manifested as kinetic energy of secondary electrons and the loss in the discrete state excitations. This has been done by utilizing recent measurements of Opal et al. on the energy spectrum of secondary electrons and incorporating the experimental data on cross sections for twenty-four excited states. The present results of the energy loss function are in good agreement with the Bethe formula for energies above 500 eV. For lower energies, where the Bethe formula is not applicable, the present results should be particularly useful.

  10. Quark confinement and the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuti, J.

    1977-01-01

    The CERN-JINR School of Physics is meant to give young experimental physicists and introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. The purpose of the lectures contained in this paper is to discuss recent work on the quark model and its applications to hadron spectroscopy and some high-energy phenomena. (Auth.)

  11. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Knoepfel, I. [Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  12. Energy loss and thermalization of low-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVerne, J.A.; Mozumder, A.; Notre Dame Univ., IN

    1984-01-01

    Various processes involved in the moderation of low-energy electrons (< 10 keV in energy) have been delineated in gaseous and liquid media. The discussion proceeds in two stages. The first stage ends and the second stage begins when the electron energy equals the first excitation potential of the medium. The second stage ends with thermalization. Cross sections for electronic excitation and for the excitation (and de-excitation) of sub-electronic processes have been evaluated and incorporated in suitable stopping power and transport theories. Comparison between experiment and theory and intercomparisons between theories and experiments have been provided where possible. (author)

  13. Search for supersymmetric partner of bottom quark at d0 at Tevatron. Studies on missing transverse energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, Samuel Pierre; Marseille, CPPM

    2007-01-01

    Supersymmetry, extension of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM), is searched for by trying to observe the supersymmetric partner of bottom quark ((tilde b)). This search is performed using events with a final state comprising two acoplanar b-quark jets and missing transverse energy (MET) and coming from a sample of 992 pb -1 of data collected by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, the Fermilab p(bar p) collider. The absence of an excess of events in comparison to MS expectations leads to exclude sb masses up to 201 GeV, neutralino masses up to 94 GeV. The MET has been studied under two points of view, because of its fundamental role in this search. First, at the level of the trigger system which allows the online selection candidate events, and then, within the framework of the ALPGEN generator, the simulation of the Z boson transverse momentum which appears as MET when the Z boson decays into neutrino

  14. Search for supersymmetric partner of bottom quark at d0 at Tevatron. Studies on missing transverse energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, Samuel Pierre [Univ. of the Mediterranean, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-21

    Supersymmetry, extension of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM), is searched for by trying to observe the supersymmetric partner of bottom quark ($\\tilde{b}$). This search is performed using events with a final state comprising two acoplanar b-quark jets and missing transverse energy (MET) and coming from a sample of 992 pb-1 of data collected by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, the Fermilab p$\\bar{p}$ collider. The absence of an excess of events in comparison to MS expectations leads to exclude sb masses up to 201 GeV, neutralino masses up to 94 GeV. The MET has been studied under two points of view, because of its fundamental role in this search. First, at the level of the trigger system which allows the online selection candidate events, and then, within the framework of the ALPGEN generator, the simulation of the Z boson transverse momentum which appears as MET when the Z boson decays into neutrino.

  15. A matter of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Quarks are understood to interact through the 'colour' force, carried by gluons. Under normal conditions these quarks are confined - frozen together in 'colourless' states such as protons, neutrons and other strongly interacting particles. However if the quarks are compressed tightly together and/or are 'heated' by increasing their energy, they should eventually break loose from their colour bonds to form a new kind of matter – the so-called quark-gluon plasma. Although QGP has not yet been synthesized in the Laboratory, it was most likely the stuff of the Universe 10 -5 second after the Big Bang. Thus the search for this 'new' matter is attracting a growing number of physicists, theorists and experimenters from both the particle physics and nuclear physics fields

  16. The impact of cell culture equipment on energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lleucu B; Kiernan, Michael N; Bishop, Joanna C; Thornton, Catherine A; Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Light energy of discrete wavelengths supplied via lasers and broadband intense pulsed light have been used therapeutically for many years. In vitro models complement clinical studies, especially for the elucidation of underlying mechanisms of action. Clarification that light energy reaches the cells is necessary when developing protocols for the treatment of cells using in vitro models. Few studies report on energy loss in cell culture equipment. The ability of energy from light with therapeutic potential to reach cells in culture needs to be determined; this includes determining the proportion of light energy lost within standard cell culture media and cell culture vessels. The energy absorption of cell culture media, with/without the pH indicator dye phenol red, and the loss of energy within different plastics and glassware used typically for in vitro cell culture were investigated using intense pulsed light and a yellow pulsed dye laser. Media containing phenol red have a distinctive absorption peak (560 nm) absent in phenol red-free media and restored by the addition of phenol red. For both light sources, energy loss was lowest in standard polystyrene tissue culture flasks or multi-well plates and highest in polypropylene vessels or glass tubes. The effects of phenol red-free media on the absorption of energy varied with the light source used. Phenol red-free media are the media of choice; polystyrene vessels with flat surfaces such as culture flasks or multi-well plates should be used in preference to polypropylene or glass vessels.

  17. Uncertainty, loss aversion, and markets for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing energy efficiency is critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, reducing oil dependence, and achieving a sustainable global energy system. The tendency of markets to neglect apparently cost-effective energy efficiency options has been called the 'efficiency gap' or 'energy paradox.' The market for energy efficiency in new, energy-using durable goods, however, appears to have a bias that leads to undervaluation of future energy savings relative to their expected value. This paper argues that the bias is chiefly produced by the combination of substantial uncertainty about the net value of future fuel savings and the loss aversion of typical consumers. This framework relies on the theory of context-dependent preferences. The uncertainty-loss aversion bias against energy efficiency is quantifiable, making it potentially correctible by policy measures. The welfare economics of such policies remains unresolved. Data on the costs of increased fuel economy of new passenger cars, taken from a National Research Council study, illustrate how an apparently cost-effective increase in energy efficiency would be uninteresting to loss-averse consumers.

  18. Quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, H.

    1976-07-01

    The main topics of these lectures are: phenomenological approach to quark confinement, standard Lagrangian of hadrondynamics, Lagrangian field theory and quark confinement, classical soliton solutions in a simple model, quantization of extended systems, colour charge screening and quantization on a lattice and remarks on applications. A survey of the scientific publications listed according to the topics until 26 March 1976 is supplemented. (BJ) [de

  19. FY07 LDRD Final Report Heavy Quark Jet Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltz, R.; Newby, J.; Glenn, A.; Klay, J.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and develop a new signature, the measurement of hadron-electron correlations to measure energy loss of heavy quarks in the quark-gluon plasma. This measurements will be used in future analyses to quantify the energy densities created in collisions of heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In addition we develop and implement a computing model that will leverage LLNL expertise in cost-effective high performance computing to perform data analyses and simulations for the ALICE experiment at CERN

  20. Data Acquisition System for Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Yu Xiaoqi; Yang Tao

    2005-01-01

    A Data Acquisition System (DAQ) for electron energy loss coincident spectrometers (EELCS) has been developed. The system is composed of a Multiplex Time-Digital Converter (TDC) that measures the flying time of positive and negative ions and a one-dimension position-sensitive detector that records the energy loss of scattering electrons. The experimental data are buffered in a first-in-first-out (FIFO) memory module, then transferred from the FIFO memory to PC by the USB interface. The DAQ system can record the flying time of several ions in one collision, and allows of different data collection modes. The system has been demonstrated at the Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers at the Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics, USTC. A detail description of the whole system is given and experimental results shown

  1. Daily pattern of energy distribution and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Li, Fan; Cardoso, Chelsi

    2018-08-01

    Timing of energy intake, a temporal dietary pattern, may enhance health. Eating a greater amount of energy earlier and a smaller amount of energy later in the day, a behavioral circadian rhythm, may assist with chronoenhancement. Chronoenhancement seeks to enhance entrainment (synchronization) of biological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In humans, research reports that eating a greater amount of energy early and a smaller amount of energy later in the day increases dietary induced thermogenesis, improves cardiometabolic outcomes, and enhances weight loss. However, little human research has examined if this eating pattern enhances regularity of biological circadian rhythm. In a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study, the influence of energy distribution timing on weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times (marker for biological circadian rhythm) was examined. Within an hypocaloric, three-meal prescription, participants (n = 8) were assigned to either: 1) Morning: 50%, 30%, and 20% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively; or 2) Evening: 20%, 30%, and 50% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Percent weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times were significantly (p energy distribution timing on health, longer studies conducted in free-living participants, with dietary intake assessed using time-stamped methods, that include measures of the circadian timing system are needed. This small review is based upon a symposium presentation at the Society of the Study of Ingestive Behavior in 2017. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quark-diquark approximation of the three-quark structure of baryons in the quark confinement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    Octet (1 + /2) and decuplet (3 + /2) of baryons as relativistic three-quark states are investigated in the quark confinement model (QCM), the relativistic quark model, based on some assumptions about hadronization and quark confinement. The quark-diquark approximation of the three-quark structure of baryons is proposed. In the framework of this approach the description of the main low-energy characteristics of baryons as magnetic moments, electromagnetic radii and form factors, ratio of axial and vector constants in semileptonic baryon octet decays, strong form factors and decay widths is given. The obtained results are in agreement with experimental data. 31 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Stress-energy tensor of a quark moving through a strongly-coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma: Comparing hydrodynamics and AdS/CFT duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesler, Paul M.; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2008-01-01

    The stress-energy tensor of a quark moving through a strongly-coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma, at large N c , is evaluated using gauge/string duality. The accuracy with which the resulting wake, in position space, is reproduced by hydrodynamics is examined. Remarkable agreement is found between hydrodynamics and the complete result down to distances less than 2/T away from the quark. In performing the gravitational analysis, we use a relatively simple formulation of the bulk to boundary problem in which the linearized Einstein field equations are fully decoupled. Our analysis easily generalizes to other sources in the bulk.

  4. Search for single top quark production in pbar p collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV in the missing transverse energy plus jets topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2010-01-01

    We report a search for single top quark production with the CDF II detector using 2.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The data selected consist of events characterized by large energy imbalance in the transverse plane and hadronic jets, and no identified electrons and muons, so the sample is enriched in W {yields} {tau}{nu} decays. In order to suppress backgrounds, additional kinematic and topological requirements are imposed through a neural network, and at least one of the jets must be identified as a b quark jet. We measure an excess of signal-like events in agreement with the standard model prediction, but inconsistent with a model without single top quark production by 2.1 standard deviations ({sigma}), with a median expected sensitivity of 1.4 {sigma}. Assuming a top quark mass of 175 GeV/c{sup 2} and ascribing the excess to single top quark production, the cross section is measured to be 4.9{sub -2.2}{sup +2.5} (stat+syst) pb, consistent with measurements performed in independent datasets and with the standard model prediction.

  5. Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandweiss, J.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.

  6. Beam energy loss to parasitic modes in SPEAR II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Paterson, J.M.; Rees, J.R.; Wilson, P.B.

    1975-01-01

    The energy loss due to the excitation of parasitic modes in the SPEAR II rf cavities and vacuum chamber components was measured by observing the shift in synchronous phase angle as a function of circulating beam current and accelerating cavity voltage. The resulting parasitic mode loss resistance is 5 M OMEGA at a bunch length of 6.5 cm. The loss resistance varies with bunch length sigma/sub z/ approximately as exp(-0.3 sigma/sub z/). If the measured result is compared with reasonable theoretical predictions, it may be inferred that the major portion of the parasitic loss takes place in ring vacuum components rather than in the rf cavities. (auth)

  7. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  8. Rotating gravity currents. Part 1. Energy loss theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. R.; Lane-Serff, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive energy loss theory for gravity currents in rotating rectangular channels is presented. The model is an extension of the non-rotating energy loss theory of Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 31, 1968, p. 209) and the steady-state dissipationless theory of rotating gravity currents of Hacker (PhD thesis, 1996). The theory assumes the fluid is inviscid, there is no shear within the current, and the Boussinesq approximation is made. Dissipation is introduced using a simple method. A head loss term is introduced into the Bernoulli equation and it is assumed that the energy loss is uniform across the stream. Conservation of momentum, volume flux and potential vorticity between upstream and downstream locations is then considered. By allowing for energy dissipation, results are obtained for channels of arbitrary depth and width (relative to the current). The results match those from earlier workers in the two limits of (i) zero rotation (but including dissipation) and (ii) zero dissipation (but including rotation). Three types of flow are identified as the effect of rotation increases, characterized in terms of the location of the outcropping interface between the gravity current and the ambient fluid on the channel boundaries. The parameters for transitions between these cases are quantified, as is the detailed behaviour of the flow in all cases. In particular, the speed of the current can be predicted for any given channel depth and width. As the channel depth increases, the predicted Froude number tends to surd 2, as for non-rotating flows.

  9. Hadron interactions in quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narodetskij, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    Some recent developments on the study of quark degrees of freedom in hadron scattering at intermediate energy are reviewed. Physical foundations of the P-matrix approach and the Quark Compound Bag method are discussed including applications to pion-pion, pion-nucleon, nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon systems

  10. Energy loss of muons in the energy range 1-10000 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, W.; Kopp, R.; Voss, R.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is given of the most recent formulae for the cross-sections contributing to the energy loss of muons in matter, notably due to electro-magnetic interactions (ionization, bremsstrahlung and electron-pair production) and nuclear interactions. Computed energy losses dE/dx are tabulated for muons with energy between 1 GeV and 10,000 GeV in a number of materials commonly used in high-energy physics experiments. In comparison with earlier tables, these show deviations that grow with energy and amount to several per cent at 200 GeV muon energy. (orig.)

  11. Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang-Seong [INFN, Pisa

    2016-06-02

    We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying into $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $t\\bar t$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.

  12. Prediction of new Quarks, Generations & low Mass Quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Theodore

    2003-04-01

    The CBM (model) of the nucleus has resulted in the prediction of two new quarks, an "up" quark of mass 237.31 MeV/c2 and a "dn" quark of mass 42.392 MeV/c2. These two new predicted quarks helped to determine that the masses of the quarks and leptons are all related by a geometric progression relationship. The mass of each quark or lepton is just the "geometric mean" of two related elementary particles, either in the same generation or in the same family. This numerology predicts the following masses for the electron family: 0.511000 (electron), 7.74 (predicted), 117.3, 1778.4 (tau), 26950.1 MeV. The geometric ratio of this progression is 15.154 (e to the power e). The mass of the tau in this theory agrees very well with accepted values. This theory suggests that all the "dn like" quarks have a mass of just 10X multiples of 4.24 MeV (the mass of the "d" quark). The first 3 "up like" quark masses are 38, 237.31 and 1500 MeV. This theory also predicts a new heavy generation with a lepton mass of 27 GeV, a "dn like" quark of 42.4 GeV, and an "up like" quark of 65 GeV. Significant evidence already exists for the existence of these new quarks, and lepton. Ref. Masses of the Sub-Nuclear Particles, nucl-th/ 0008026, @ http://xxx.lanl.gov. Infinite Energy, Vol 5, issue 30.

  13. Flavors in the soup: An overview of heavy-flavored jet energy loss at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kurt E.

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb at √sNN = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV, along with the first ever measurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at √s NN =5.02 TeV and in pp collisions at √s = 2.76 TeV. Measurements of b-jet and c-jet spectra are compared to pp data at √s = 2.76 TeV and to PYTHIA predictions at both 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. We observe a centrality-dependent suppression for b-jets in PbPb and a result that is consistent with PYTHIA for both charm and bottom jets in pPb collisions.

  14. A rationale for long-lived quarks and leptons at the LHC: low energy flavour theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éboli, O. J. P.; Savoy, C. A.; Funchal, R. Zukanovich

    2012-02-01

    In the framework of gauged flavour symmetries, new fermions in parity symmetric representations of the standard model are generically needed for the compensation of mixed anomalies. The key point is that their masses are also protected by flavour symmetries and some of them are expected to lie way below the flavour symmetry breaking scale(s), which has to occur many orders of magnitude above the electroweak scale to be compatible with the available data from flavour changing neutral currents and CP violation experiments. We argue that, actually, some of these fermions would plausibly get masses within the LHC range. If they are taken to be heavy quarks and leptons, in (bi)-fundamental representations of the standard model symmetries, their mixings with the light ones are strongly constrained to be very small by electroweak precision data. The alternative chosen here is to exactly forbid such mixings by breaking of flavour symmetries into an exact discrete symmetry, the so-called proton-hexality, primarily suggested to avoid proton decay. As a consequence of the large value needed for the flavour breaking scale, those heavy particles are long-lived and rather appropriate for the current and future searches at the LHC for quasi-stable hadrons and leptons. In fact, the LHC experiments have already started to look for them.

  15. Quark fragmentation function and the nonlinear chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.K.

    1993-01-01

    The scaling law of the fragmentation function has been proved in this paper. With that, we show that low-P T quark fragmentation function can be studied as a low energy physocs in the light-cone coordinate frame. We therefore use the nonlinear chiral quark model which is able to study the low energy physics under scale Λ CSB to study such a function. Meanwhile the formalism for studying the quark fragmentation function has been established. The nonlinear chiral quark model is quantized on the light-front. We then use old-fashioned perturbation theory to study the quark fragmentation function. Our first order result for such a function shows in agreement with the phenomenological model study of e + e - jet. The probability for u,d pair formation in the e + e - jet from our calculation is also in agreement with the phenomenological model results

  16. Energy loss to parasitic modes of accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, M.

    1974-01-01

    At the maximum stored current, each circulating beam in PEP will consist of three bunches, each about 10 cm long containing 1.5 /times/ 10 12 particles. The large electric charge carried by such a bunch (2.5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ coulomb) will, because of its short length, give rise to a large transient excitation of hundreds of parasitic modes in the accelerating cavities. The energy loss of the stored beam to the cavities from this process may be comparable to the loss to synchrotron radiation, and may, therefore, require a significant increase in power from the accelerating rf system. In this note I considered three aspects of this effect. First, an attempt is made to estimate the magnitude of the energy loss of a bunch in a single passage through the accelerating cavities. Then, I consider the effects of the periodic passages of the bunches in a single stored beam. And finally, I look at the consequences of storing two counter-rotating beams. The general conclusions are that the magnitude energy loss to the parasitic modes is serious, though probably not disastrous; and that, in general, the separate stored bunches will act incoherently. 2 refs., 7 figs

  17. New theoretical results in heavy quark hadroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nason, P.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the status of the heavy quark hadroproduction theory. In particular, we discuss recent developments on production of heavy quarks in the high energy limit, and the results of a new calculation to next-to-leading accuracy of the fully exclusive parton cross section for heavy quark production. (orig.)

  18. Charm-quarks and new elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    This is the first part of an extensive paper which discusses: the Nobel prize in physics 1976; discovery of the J/psi-particle; elementary particles and elementary building blocks; the four reciprocal effects; gauge theories; quark-antiquark reciprocal effects; the high-energy approximation; a simple quark-antiquark potential; and quark diagrams and the Zweig rule. (Auth.)

  19. Photoelectron Energy Loss in Al(002) Revisited: Retrieval of the Single Plasmon Loss Energy Distribution by a Fourier Transform Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor Mancir da Silva; David, Denis; de Almeida, Jailton Souza; Godet, Christian

    2018-06-01

    A Fourier transform (FT) algorithm is proposed to retrieve the energy loss function (ELF) of solid surfaces from experimental X-ray photoelectron spectra. The intensity measured over a broad energy range towards lower kinetic energies results from convolution of four spectral distributions: photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss probability, X-ray source line structure and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer. The FT of the measured XPS spectrum, including the zero-loss peak and all inelastic scattering mechanisms, being a mathematical function of the respective FT of X-ray source, photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss function, and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer, the proposed algorithm gives straightforward access to the bulk ELF and effective dielectric function of the solid, assuming identical ELF for intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitations. This method is applied to aluminum single crystal Al(002) where the photoemission line shape has been computed accurately beyond the Doniach-Sunjic approximation using the Mahan-Wertheim-Citrin approach which takes into account the density of states near the Fermi level; the only adjustable parameters are the singularity index and the broadening energy D (inverse hole lifetime). After correction for surface plasmon excitations, the q-averaged bulk loss function, q , of Al(002) differs from the optical value Im[- 1 / ɛ( E, q = 0)] and is well described by the Lindhard-Mermin dispersion relation. A quality criterion of the inversion algorithm is given by the capability of observing weak interband transitions close to the zero-loss peak, namely at 0.65 and 1.65 eV in ɛ( E, q) as found in optical spectra and ab initio calculations of aluminum.

  20. Photoelectron Energy Loss in Al(002) Revisited: Retrieval of the Single Plasmon Loss Energy Distribution by a Fourier Transform Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Victor Mancir da Silva; David, Denis; de Almeida, Jailton Souza; Godet, Christian

    2018-04-01

    A Fourier transform (FT) algorithm is proposed to retrieve the energy loss function (ELF) of solid surfaces from experimental X-ray photoelectron spectra. The intensity measured over a broad energy range towards lower kinetic energies results from convolution of four spectral distributions: photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss probability, X-ray source line structure and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer. The FT of the measured XPS spectrum, including the zero-loss peak and all inelastic scattering mechanisms, being a mathematical function of the respective FT of X-ray source, photoemission line shape, multiple plasmon loss function, and Gaussian broadening of the photoelectron analyzer, the proposed algorithm gives straightforward access to the bulk ELF and effective dielectric function of the solid, assuming identical ELF for intrinsic and extrinsic plasmon excitations. This method is applied to aluminum single crystal Al(002) where the photoemission line shape has been computed accurately beyond the Doniach-Sunjic approximation using the Mahan-Wertheim-Citrin approach which takes into account the density of states near the Fermi level; the only adjustable parameters are the singularity index and the broadening energy D (inverse hole lifetime). After correction for surface plasmon excitations, the q-averaged bulk loss function, q , of Al(002) differs from the optical value Im[- 1 / ɛ(E, q = 0)] and is well described by the Lindhard-Mermin dispersion relation. A quality criterion of the inversion algorithm is given by the capability of observing weak interband transitions close to the zero-loss peak, namely at 0.65 and 1.65 eV in ɛ(E, q) as found in optical spectra and ab initio calculations of aluminum.

  1. Is It Hard Yet? The Qualitative Agreement of pQCD Energy Loss with RHIC and LHC Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, W A

    2013-01-01

    Heavy flavor research is a vigorous and active topic in high-energy QCD physics. Comparing theoretical predictions to data as a function of flavor provides a unique opportunity to tease out properties of quark-gluon plasma. We explicitly demonstrate this utility with energy loss predictions based on the assumption of 1) a weakly-coupled plasma weakly coupled to a high-p T probe using pQCD and 2) a strongly-coupled plasma strongly coupled to a high-p T probe using AdS/CFT; we find that while the former enjoys broad qualitative agreement with data, it is difficult to reconcile the latter with experimental measurements

  2. Top quark production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnes, Erich W.; /Arizona U.

    2010-09-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron has, until recently, been the only accelerator with sufficient energy to produce top quarks. The CDF and D0 experiments have collected large samples of top quarks. We report on recent top quark production measurements of the single top and t{bar t} production cross sections, as well as studies of the t{bar t} invariant mass distribution and a search for highly boosted top quarks.

  3. Method of taking into account the meson and quark-gluon degrees of freedom in hadron-hadron interactions at low and intermediate energies. Application to NN scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    A system of nonsingular integral equations is formulated for calculation of the partial-wave amplitudes of hadron-hadron scattering in the region of low and intermediate energies with allowance for the meson and quark-gluon degrees of freedom. The quark-gluon degrees of freedom are taken into account in the framework of the model of composite quark bags, and the meson degrees of freedom by the methods of relativistic quantum field theory. It is shown that inclusion of the quark-gluon degrees of freedom leads to suppression of meson exchange effects, for the most part exchanges of heavy mesons (rho,ω). The method is applied to the calculation of the 3 S 1 , 1 S 0 , 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 , and 1 P 1 phase shifts of nucleon-nucleon scattering in the range of incident-nucleon energies T = 0--1050 MeV, as well as the S-wave scattering lengths and effective ranges

  4. Neutrino energy loss rate in a stellar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, S.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Picardi, I.; Pisanti, O.

    2003-01-01

    We review the purely leptonic neutrino emission processes, contributing to the energy loss rate of the stellar plasma. We perform a complete analysis up to the first order in the electromagnetic coupling constant. In particular the radiative electromagnetic corrections, at order α, to the process e + e - →νν-bar at finite density and temperature have been computed. This process gives one of the main contributions to the cooling of stellar interior in the late stages of star evolution. As a result of the analysis we find that the corrections affect the energy loss rate, computed at tree level, by a factor (-4-1)% in the temperature and density region where the pair annihilation is the most efficient cooling mechanism

  5. Search for Supersymmetry in 8 TeV Proton-Proton Collision Events with Bottom-Quark Jets and Missing Transverse Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kreis, Benjamin

    A search for supersymmetry in a sample of proton-proton collision events with a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. The sample, collected with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb$^{−1}$. Events are required to have large missing transverse energy, at least three jets, and at least one identified bottom-quark jet. Numbers of events in exclusive bins of the scalar sum of jet transverse momentum values, missing transverse energy, and bottom-quark jet multiplicity are found to be consistent with the standard model expectations. The results are interpreted as 95$\\%$ confidence level upper limits on simplified supersymmetric models approximating gluino mediated bottom- and top-squark production.

  6. Quarks and partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1976-08-01

    The quark parton model describes the inclusive electro- and neutrino production data if a clear distinction is made between reactions which take place at high and at low energies. For the low energy region the classical view of six structure functions of the proton is still adequate. For the high energy region models can be constructed which are consistent with the experimental data. (BJ) [de

  7. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering. [Quark-parton model, 225 GeV, structure functions, particle ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10/sup 10/ muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s//sup 0/ and ..lambda../sup 0/ decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering is determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the framework of the quark-parton model. 29 references.

  8. Limiting energy loss distributions for multiphoton channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenco, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Recent results in the theory of multiphoton spectra for coherent radiation sources are overviewed, with the emphasis on channeling radiation. For the latter case, the importance of the order of resummation and averaging is emphasized. Limiting shapes of multiphoton spectra at high intensity are discussed for different channeling regimes. In some spectral regions, there emerges a correspondence between the radiative energy loss and the electron integrals of motion

  9. Probing hot dense matter with jet energy loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, P.; Barnafoeldi, G.G.; Gyulassy, M.; Vitev, I.; Fai, G.; Zhang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    We study, in a pQCD calculation augmented by nuclear effects, the jet energy loss needed to reproduce the π 0 spectra in Au+Au collisions at large p T , measured by PHENIX at RHIC. The transverse width of the parton momentum distributions (intrinsic k T ) is used phenomenologically to obtain a reliable baseline pp result. Jet quenching is applied to the nuclear spectra (including shadowing and multiscattering) to fit the data. Latest results on fluctuating gluon radiation are considered to measure the opacity of the produced hot dense matter at RHIC energy. (orig.)

  10. Top quark theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-04

    Oct 4, 2012 ... The theoretical aspects of a number of top quark properties such as ... to the quadratic divergences of the Higgs self-energy, while yet, ..... given in the literature, each with the aim of recovering a well-behaved expansion in αs.

  11. Top quark properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eter for the tests of the electroweak theory, since radiative corrections to many ... The uncertainty due to jet energy scale (JES) is the dominating systematic .... In the Standard Model, the charge of the top quark is predicted to be that of a normal up- ..... non-negative and f+ + f0 < 1, and the star marks the expectation from the ...

  12. Heavy quarks photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, M.

    1996-08-01

    The state of the art of the theoretical calculations for heavy quarks photoproduction is reviewed. The full next-to-leading order calculation and two possible resummations, the high energy one for total cross sections and the large p T one for differential cross sections, are described. (orig.)

  13. Top quark pair production and calorimeter energy resolution studies at a future collider experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Katja

    This thesis is focused on detector concepts and analyses investigated at a future linear electron positron collider. For precision measurements at such a collider, the CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters, which are characterized by a fine granularity. CALICE has constructed prototypes of several design options for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test beam programs at DESY, CERN and Fermilab. To improve the hadronic energy reconstruction and energy resolution of a hadron calorimeter prototype with analog readout three software compensation techniques are presented in this thesis, of which one is a local and two are global software compensation approaches. One method is based on a neural network to optimize the energy reconstruction, while two are energy weighting techniques, depending on the energy density. Weight factors are extracted from and applied to simulated and test beam data and result in an average energy resolutio...

  14. Power Loss Analysis and Comparison of Segmented and Unsegmented Energy Coupling Coils for Wireless Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sai Chun; McDannold, Nathan J

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigated the power losses of unsegmented and segmented energy coupling coils for wireless energy transfer. Four 30-cm energy coupling coils with different winding separations, conductor cross-sectional areas, and number of turns were developed. The four coils were tested in both unsegmented and segmented configurations. The winding conduction and intrawinding dielectric losses of the coils were evaluated individually based on a well-established lumped circuit model. We found that the intrawinding dielectric loss can be as much as seven times higher than the winding conduction loss at 6.78 MHz when the unsegmented coil is tightly wound. The dielectric loss of an unsegmented coil can be reduced by increasing the winding separation or reducing the number of turns, but the power transfer capability is reduced because of the reduced magnetomotive force. Coil segmentation using resonant capacitors has recently been proposed to significantly reduce the operating voltage of a coil to a safe level in wireless energy transfer for medical implants. Here, we found that it can naturally eliminate the dielectric loss. The coil segmentation method and the power loss analysis used in this paper could be applied to the transmitting, receiving, and resonant coils in two- and four-coil energy transfer systems.

  15. Inelastic collisions of medium energy atomic elements. Qualitative model of energy losses during collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to the theoretical description of energy losses of atomic particle of medium energy during their interaction with the substance is proposed. The corner-stone of this approach is the supposition that all of the collision processes have inelastic nature during particle movement through the substance, while the calculation of the atomic particles braking is based on the law of their dispersion and the laws of energy and momentum conservation at the inelastic collisions. It is shown that inelastic atomic collision there are three dispersion zones for the only potential interaction with different laws, which characterize energy losses. The application conditions of this approach are determined [ru

  16. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  17. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeJarnette, Drew; Roper, D. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Plasmon excitation decay by absorption, scattering, and hot electron transfer has been distinguished from effects induced by incident photons for gold nanoparticles on graphene monolayer using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Gold nano-ellipses were evaporated onto lithographed graphene, which was transferred onto a silicon nitride transmission electron microscopy grid. Plasmon decay from lithographed nanoparticles measured with EELS was compared in the absence and presence of the graphene monolayer. Measured decay values compared favorably with estimated radiative and non-radiative contributions to decay in the absence of graphene. Graphene significantly enhanced low-energy plasmon decay, increasing mode width 38%, but did not affect higher energy plasmon or dark mode decay. This decay beyond expected radiative and non-radiative mechanisms was attributed to hot electron transfer, and had quantum efficiency of 20%, consistent with previous reports

  18. Characteristic losses of electrons energy under reflection from leadsilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusarov, A.I.; Mashkov, V.A.; Pronin, V.P.; Tyutikov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The spectra of characteristic losses of energy (CLE) for the case of electron reflection from the surface of leadsilicate glasses of the composition xPbOx(1-x)SiO 2 , depending on molar concentration of lead oxide x, has been calculated for the first time. It is shown that the given model of glass energy structure permits to describe correctly general behaviour of CLE spectrum. However, the energy of plasma maximum measured experimentally remains approximately constant. The behaviour can be conditioned by ω 0 dependence on x[4], which has not been taken into account, and (or) by a slower change in ΔE, than it has been assumed. Further refining of theory and experiment is required to solve the problem

  19. Search for supersymmetry in events with b-quark jets and missing transverse energy in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; De Remigis, Paolo; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from a search for physics beyond the standard model based on events with large missing transverse energy, at least three jets, and at least one, two, or three b-quark jets. The study is performed using a sample of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2011, with the missing transverse energy distribution as the principal search variable. The integrated luminosity of the sample is 4.98 inverse femtobarns. The observed number of events is found to be consistent with the standard model expectation, which is evaluated using control samples in the data. The results are used to constrain cross sections for the production of supersymmetric particles decaying to b-quark-enriched final states in the context of simplified model spectra.

  20. High Q diamond hemispherical resonators: fabrication and energy loss mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, Jonathan J; Bancu, Mirela G; Bauer, Joseph M; Cook, Eugene H; Kumar, Parshant; Nyinjee, Tenzin; Perlin, Gayatri E; Ricker, Joseph A; Teynor, William A; Weinberg, Marc S; Newton, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated polycrystalline diamond hemispheres by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD) in spherical cavities wet-etched into a high temperature glass substrate CTE matched to silicon. Hemispherical resonators 1.4 mm in diameter have a Q of up to 143 000 in the fundamental wineglass mode, for a ringdown time of 2.4 s. Without trimming, resonators have the two degenerate wineglass modes frequency matched as close as 2 Hz, or 0.013% of the resonant frequency (∼16 kHz). Laser trimming was used to match resonant modes on hemispheres to 0.3 Hz. Experimental and FEA energy loss studies on cantilevers and hemispheres examine various energy loss mechanisms, showing that surface related losses are dominant. Diamond cantilevers with a Q of 400 000 and a ringdown time of 15.4 s were measured, showing the potential of polycrystalline diamond films for high Q resonators. These resonators show great promise for use as hemispherical resonant gyroscopes (HRGs) on a chip. (paper)

  1. QCD Sum-Rule Calculation of the Kinetic Energy and Chromo-Interaction of Heavy Quarks Inside Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, M

    1996-01-01

    We present a QCD sum-rule determination of the heavy-quark kinetic energy inside a heavy meson, $-\\lambda_1/2 m_Q$, which is consistent with the field-theory analog of the virial theorem. We obtain $-\\lambda_1\\approx (0.10\\pm 0.05)~\\mbox{GeV}^2$, significantly smaller than a previous sum-rule result, but in good agreement with recent determinations from the analysis of inclusive decays. We also present a new determination of the chromo-magnetic interaction, yielding $\\lambda_2(m_b)=(0.15\\pm 0.03)~\\mbox{GeV}^2$. This implies $m_{B^*}^2-m_B^2=(0.60\\pm 0.12)~\\mbox{GeV}^2$, in good agreement with experiment. As a by-product of our analysis, we derive the QCD sum rules for the three form factors describing the meson matrix element of a velocity-changing current operator containing the gluon field-strength tensor.

  2. Search for supersymmetry in final states with a single lepton, B-quark jets, and missing transverse energy at the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Niklas

    2014-09-15

    Supersymmetry constitutes an attractive extension of the Standard Model of particle physics. It provides a natural Dark Matter candidate and is able to resolve the hierarchy problem. If Supersymmetry is a natural solution of the hierarchy problem, the supersymmetric partner particles of the top and the bottom quark may be copiously produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, resulting in final states with isolated leptons, jets, some of which originate from a bottom quark, and missing transverse energy. In this thesis, the first search for Supersymmetry in events with a single lepton, bottom quark-jets, and missing transverse energy at the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is presented. This search is one of the worldwide first analyses that directly probe natural Supersymmetry. The search is performed with proton-proton collision data recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV during 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98 fb{sup -1}. To minimize the systematic uncertainties of the measurement, the expected background from Standard Model processes is modeled with a data-driven method. No significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction is observed. Therefore, the results are interpreted as exclusion limits upon the parameters of the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and a simplified model with four top quarks in the final state. In preparation of the next data-taking periods, where proton-proton collisions at envisaged center-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV will open up new kinematic regions with a large discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model, prospects of measuring dijet-mass endpoints resulting from gluino decays are investigated.

  3. Search for supersymmetry in final states with a single lepton, B-quark jets, and missing transverse energy at the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, Niklas

    2014-09-01

    Supersymmetry constitutes an attractive extension of the Standard Model of particle physics. It provides a natural Dark Matter candidate and is able to resolve the hierarchy problem. If Supersymmetry is a natural solution of the hierarchy problem, the supersymmetric partner particles of the top and the bottom quark may be copiously produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, resulting in final states with isolated leptons, jets, some of which originate from a bottom quark, and missing transverse energy. In this thesis, the first search for Supersymmetry in events with a single lepton, bottom quark-jets, and missing transverse energy at the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is presented. This search is one of the worldwide first analyses that directly probe natural Supersymmetry. The search is performed with proton-proton collision data recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV during 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98 fb -1 . To minimize the systematic uncertainties of the measurement, the expected background from Standard Model processes is modeled with a data-driven method. No significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction is observed. Therefore, the results are interpreted as exclusion limits upon the parameters of the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and a simplified model with four top quarks in the final state. In preparation of the next data-taking periods, where proton-proton collisions at envisaged center-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV will open up new kinematic regions with a large discovery potential for physics beyond the Standard Model, prospects of measuring dijet-mass endpoints resulting from gluino decays are investigated.

  4. Photo nuclear energy loss term for muon-nucleus interactions based on xi scaling model of QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, R.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive air showers (EMC) experiments discovered a significant deviation of the ratio of structure functions of iron and deuteron from unity. It was established that the quark parton distribution in nuclei are different from the corresponding distribution in the nucleus. It was examined whether these results have an effect on the calculation of photo nucleus energy loss term for muon-nucleus nuclear interaction. Though the EMC and SLAC data were restricted to rather large q sq region it is expected that the derivation would persist even in the low q sq domain. For the ratio of iron and deuteron structure function a rather naive least square fit of the form R(x) = a + bx was taken and it is assumed that the formula is valid for the whole q sq region the absence of any knowledge of R(x) for small q sq.

  5. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  6. Heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoze, V.A.

    1983-10-01

    We discuss the results accumulated during the last five years in heavy quark physics and try to draw a simple general picture of the present situation. The survey is based on a unified point of view resulting from quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)

  7. Next-to-leading order corrections to the spin-dependent energy spectrum of hadrons from polarized top quark decay in the general two Higgs doublet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Moosavi Nejad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, searches for the light and heavy charged Higgs bosons have been done by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC in proton–proton collision. Nevertheless, a definitive search is a program that still has to be carried out at the LHC. The experimental observation of charged Higgs bosons would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. In the present work, we study the scaled-energy distribution of bottom-flavored mesons (B inclusively produced in polarized top quark decays into a light charged Higgs boson and a massless bottom quark at next-to-leading order in the two-Higgs-doublet model; t(↑→bH+→BH++X. This spin-dependent energy distribution is studied in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization vector of the top quark is measured with respect to the direction of the Higgs momentum. The study of these energy distributions could be considered as a new channel to search for the charged Higgs bosons at the LHC. For our numerical analysis and phenomenological predictions, we restrict ourselves to the unexcluded regions of the MSSM mH+−tan⁡β parameter space determined by the recent results of the CMS [13] and ATLAS [14] collaborations.

  8. Quark effects in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, O.

    1990-01-01

    The magnitude of the quark effect for low-energy nuclear physics is investigated. Coulomb energy is studied in the A=3 system in order to determine the effect of the composite structure of the nucleon. In the actual calculations a non-relativistic quark-cluster model description has been used. A nucleon size b=0.617 fm, the width of the relative wave function Φ of the quarks in the nucleon, has been assumed. It is concluded that the contribution to Coulomb energies due to quark effects are significant compared to the observed Nolen-Schiffer anomaly. However these do not provide the long searched for 'smoking gun'. When the free parameters that appear in the calculation are adjusted to reproduce the same charge form factor, the calculated anomalies are not significantly different. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs.2

  9. Probing Plasmonic Nanostructures with Electron Energy - Loss Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren

    for nonlocal response. The experimental work comprises the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to excite and study both localized and propagating surface plasmons in metal structures. Following a short introduction, we present the theoretical foundation to describe nonlocal response in Maxwell......, dimer with nanometer-sized gaps, core-shell nanowire with ultrathin metal shell, and a thin metal film. In all cases we compare the nonlocal models with the local-response approximation. Below the plasma frequency, we find that the distance between the induced positive and negative surface charges...

  10. EELOSS: the program for calculation of electron energy loss data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1980-10-01

    A computer code EELOSS has been developed to obtain the electron energy loss data required for shielding and dosimetry of beta- and gamma-rays in nuclear plants. With this code, the following data are obtainable for any energy from 0.01 to 15 MeV in any medium (metal, insulator, gas, compound, or mixture) composed of any choice of 69 elements with atomic number 1 -- 94: a) Collision stopping power, b) Restricted collision stopping power, c) Radiative stopping power, and d) Bremsstrahlung production cross section. The availability of bremsstrahlung production cross section data obtained by the EELOSS code is demonstrated by the comparison of calculated gamma-ray spectrum with measured one in Pb layer, where electron-photon cascade is included implicitly. As a result, it is concluded that the uncertainty in the bremsstrahlung production cross sections is negligible in the practical shielding calculations of gamma rays of energy less than 15 MeV, since the bremsstrahlung production cross sections increase with the gamma-ray energy and the uncertainty for them decreases with increasing the gamma-ray energy. Furthermore, the accuracy of output data of the EELOSS code is evaluated in comparison with experimental data, and satisfactory agreements are observed concerning the stopping power. (J.P.N.)

  11. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-07-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example.

  12. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krüger, T P J; Van Grondelle, R

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example. (topical review)

  13. Energy loss effect in high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, C.G.; Song, L.H.; Huo, L.J.; Li, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter, which is a nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effect on the parton distribution as in deep-inelastic scattering process, can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of the nuclear parton distribution studied only with lepton deep-inelastic scattering experimental data, the measured Drell-Yan production cross sections for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets are analyzed within the Glauber framework which takes into account the energy loss of the beam proton. It is shown that the theoretical results with considering the energy loss effect are in good agreement with the FNAL E866 data. (orig.)

  14. New leptons, quarks and leptoquarks in high energy e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.

    1992-01-01

    Extensions of the standard model predict new spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles which may be colour singlets or colour triplets. We study pair production and single production of these particles in e + e - annihilation at 500 GeV center-of-mass energy. With the projected NLC luminosity, in most cases the production of new particles with masses close to the kinematical limit will be possible. We also discuss properties of final states resulting from heavy neutrino decays. (orig.)

  15. Loss of Energy Concentration in Nonlinear Evolution Beam Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrione, Maurizio; Gazzola, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the oscillations that were seen at the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, we introduce the notion of solutions with a prevailing mode for the nonlinear evolution beam equation u_{tt} + u_{xxxx} + f(u)= g(x, t) in bounded space-time intervals. We give a new definition of instability for these particular solutions, based on the loss of energy concentration on their prevailing mode. We distinguish between two different forms of energy transfer, one physiological (unavoidable and depending on the nonlinearity) and one due to the insurgence of instability. We then prove a theoretical result allowing to reduce the study of this kind of infinite-dimensional stability to that of a finite-dimensional approximation. With this background, we study the occurrence of instability for three different kinds of nonlinearities f and for some forcing terms g, highlighting some of their structural properties and performing some numerical simulations.

  16. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  17. Nonequilibrium electron energy-loss kinetics in metal clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Guillon, C; Fatti, N D; Vallee, F

    2003-01-01

    Ultrafast energy exchanges of a non-Fermi electron gas with the lattice are investigated in silver clusters with sizes ranging from 4 to 26 nm using a femtosecond pump-probe technique. The results yield evidence for a cluster-size-dependent slowing down of the short-time energy losses of the electron gas when it is strongly athermal. A constant rate is eventually reached after a few hundred femtoseconds, consistent with the electron gas internal thermalization kinetics, this behaviour reflecting evolution from an individual to a collective electron-lattice type of coupling. The timescale of this transient regime is reduced in small nanoparticles, in agreement with speeding up of the electron-electron interactions with size reduction. The experimental results are in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations of the electron kinetics.

  18. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  19. A diquark model for baryons containing one heavy quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Feldmann, T.; Kettner, C.; Reinhardt, H.

    1995-06-01

    We present a phenomenological ansatz for coupling a heavy quark with two light quarks to form a heavy baryon. The heavy quark is treated in the heavy mass limit, and the light quark dynamics is approximated by propagating scalar and axial vector 'diquarks'. The resulting effective lagrangian, which incorporates heavy quark and chiral symmetry, describes interactions of heavy baryons with Goldstone bosons in the low energy region. As an application, the Isgur-Wise formfactors are estimated. (orig.)

  20. A top quark pair production event from proton-proton collisions recorded by ATLAS with LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a candidate boosted top quark pair production event from proton-proton collisions recorded by ATLAS with LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. The red line shows the path of a muon with transverse momentum around 50 GeV through the detector. The dashed line shows the direction of the missing transverse momentum, which has a magnitude of about 470 GeV. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters, from these deposits 4 small-radius (R=0.4) jets are identified with transverse momenta between 70 and 300 GeV. Three of these small-radius jets are re-clustered into the leading large-radius (R=1.0) jet (not shown explicitly) with a transverse momentum of about 600 GeV and a jet mass of about 180 GeV, near the top quark mass. One of these three jets in addition to the fourth jet above 70 GeV are identified as having originated from b-quarks. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in th...

  1. A quark is born: discovery and theory development in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, D.O.

    1979-04-01

    The aim was to gather empirical data on the social construction of the technical core of scientific culture and to contribute to sociological theory through an analysis of these data. The development of high energy physics between 1974 and 1977, specifically the production of experimental and theoretical knowledge on a family of 'new particles', was studied. By the end of this period theoretical consensus on the nature of these particles had been achieved. Methods of investigation included a literature survey and the collection of archival material and of opinions and recollections of important personalities involved. The work of R.K. Merton and his followers was used as a basis for investigating the sociology of scientific communities; also the work of T.S. Kuhn. A brief summary of the sociological analysis of the empirical data is given. (author)

  2. Top quark mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Tuula; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Helsinki U. of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parameterized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parameterized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector

  3. Measurement of the top-quark pair production cross section in the dilepton channel at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, Till; Aldaya, Maria; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Grohsjean, Alexander; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Kieseler, Jan; Meyer, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Savitskyi, Mykola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of the top quark in 1995 at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, the top-quark pair production cross section has been measured with ever higher precision. Until now, no deviation from the standard model prediction has been found. However, the t anti t cross section remains one of the most important parameters to be measured in top physics. We present results for the top-quark pair production cross section at a center of mass energy of √(s)=13 TeV using data taken by the CMS detector in 2015. Special attention is given to the discussion of experimental uncertainties.

  4. Calculated and experimental low-loss electron energy loss spectra of dislocations in diamond and GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, R; Gutiérrez-Sosa, A; Bangert, U; Heggie, M I; Blumenau, A T; Frauenheim, T; Briddon, P R

    2002-01-01

    First-principles calculations of electron energy loss (EEL) spectra for bulk GaN and diamond are compared with experimental spectra acquired with a scanning tunnelling electron microscope offering ultra-high-energy resolution in low-loss energy spectroscopy. The theoretical bulk low-loss EEL spectra, in the E sub g to 10 eV range, are in good agreement with experimental data. Spatially resolved spectra from dislocated regions in both materials are distinct from bulk spectra. The main effects are, however, confined to energy losses lying above the band edge. The calculated spectra for low-energy dislocations in diamond are consistent with the experimental observations, but difficulties remain in understanding the spectra of threading dislocations in GaN.

  5. LRSPC, Proton High-Energy Loss in Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The LRSPC program is designed to estimate the energy loss, due to ionization and excitation, and the range of charged particles passing through matter. The code treats protons in elements or mixtures composed of elements with atomic numbers ranging from 1 to 100. The results for protons are generally valid from 1 MeV to 100 GeV. The code may be extended to treat other charged particles such as muons, pions, hyperons, deuterons, tritons and alphas by changing the particle mass, charge and range at 2 MeV. 2 - Method of solution: Stopping power is calculated from the Bethe-Bloch equation with shell and density corrections included. Range is calculated by integrating the reciprocal of the stopping power from an initial value at 2 MeV. The K-shell correction is taken from Walske's data. The L-shell and higher shell corrections are adjusted to fit low energy measurements fro 30 elements. The density correction is calculated by a method similar to that of Sternheimer, differing chiefly in the large number of electron shells considered. LRSPC computes improved proton range and stopping power data for use in the proton penetration code, LPPC (CCC-0051). It is packages separately and may be requested independently. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of elements in mixture ≤ 10, Atomic number of element ≤ 100, Number of energy points ≤ 500

  6. Qualitative quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared limit in asymptotically free non-abelian gauge theories using recently developed non-perturbative methods which allow derivation of zero momentum theorems for Green's functions and vertices is described. These low-energy theorems are compared to the infrared behavior predicted from the renormalization group equation when the existence of an infrared fixed point is assumed. A set of objects is exhibited whose low energy theorems violate the scaling behavior predicted by the renormalization group. This shows that the assumed fixed point cannot exist and that in the Landau gauge the effective charge becomes infinite in the infrared. Qualitatively this implies that as an attempt is made to separate elementary quanta the interaction between the quanta becomes arbitrarily strong. This indicates at least that the theories studied are capable of color confinement. Results are true only for theories with large numbers of quarks. This opens the possibility that large numbers of quarks are actually necessary for confinement

  7. Energy loss of heavy ion beams in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, T; Hotta, T [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1997-12-31

    The energy loss of heavy-ion beams (HIB) is studied by means of Vlasov theory and Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations in a plasma. The interaction of HIB with a plasma is of central importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A number of studies on the HIB interaction with target plasma have been published. It is important for heavy-ion stopping that the effects of the non-linear interaction of HIB within the Vlasov theory are included. Reported are results of a numerical study of nonlinear effects to the stopping power for HIB in plasma. It is shown that the PIC simulations of collective effects of the stopping power are in a good agreement with the Vlasov theory. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig., 5 refs.

  8. Searching for the quarks and gluons plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerschel, C.; Kluberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Some investigations involving quark matter, at CERN, are discussed. The CERN available oxygen and sulfur beams, with energy about 200 GeV/nuclei, allow the obtention of high energy densities, never reached before. The possibilities of investigating (at CERN) the quarks and gluons plasma are considered. The first and unexpected results obtained from the NA38 experiment are overviewed [fr

  9. Very high energy nuclear collisions: the asymptotic hadron spectrum, anti-nuclei, hyper-nuclei, and quark phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of hadron production are considered. Included are hadrons never to be discovered, relevance of the study, means of production, thermodynamics of hadronic matter, three examples of hadronic spectra, the temperature, composition of the initial fireball, expansion of the fireball, pre-freeze-out radiation, antinuclei, hypernuclei, and the quark phase. 17 references

  10. Quark matter and quark stars at finite temperature in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Bin; Dong, Yu-Min; Jia, Yu-Yue; Wang, Shu-Mei; Ma, Hong-Yang [Qingdao Technological University, School of Science, Qingdao (China); Li, Xiao-Hua [University of South China, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Hengyang (China); University of South China, Cooperative Innovation Center for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology and Equipment, Hengyang (China)

    2017-08-15

    We extend the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to include two types of vector interaction. Using these two types of vector interaction in NJL model, we study the quark symmetry free energy in asymmetric quark matter, the constituent quark mass, the quark fraction, the equation of state (EOS) for β-equilibrium quark matter, the maximum mass of QSs at finite temperature, the maximum mass of proto-quark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution, and the effects of the vector interaction on the QCD phase diagram. We find that comparing zero temperature case, the values of quark matter symmetry free energy get larger with temperature increasing, which will reduce the difference between the fraction of u, d and s quarks and stiffen the EoS for β-equilibrium quark matter. In particular, our results indicate that the maximum masses of the quark stars increase with temperature because of the effects of the quark matter symmetry free energy, and we find that the heating(cooling) process for PQSs will increase (decrease) the maximum mass within NJL model. (orig.)

  11. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for

  12. Structural Variations to a Donor Polymer with Low Energy Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Bazan, Guillermo C

    2017-08-01

    Two regioregular narrow band gap conjugated polymers with a D’-A-D-A repeat unit architecture, namely PIFCF and PSFCF, were designed and synthesized. Both polymers contain strictly organized fluorobenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (FBT) orientations and different solubilizing side chains for solution processing. Compared to the previously reported asymmetric pyridyl-[2,1,3]thiadiazole (PT) based regioregular polymer, namely PIPCP, PIFCF and PSFCF exhibit wider band gaps, tighter π-π stacking, and improved hole mobilities. When incorporated into solar cells with fullerene acceptors, the Eloss = Eg - eVoc values of PIFCF and PSFCF devices are increased compared to solar cells based on PIPCP. Determination of Ect in these solar cells reveals that, relative to PIPCP, PIFCF solar cells lose more energy from Eg - Ect, and PSFCF solar cells lose more energy from both Eg - Ect and Ect - eVoc. The close structural relationship between PIPCP and PIFCF provides an excellent framework to establish molecular features that impact the relationship between Eg and Ect. Theoretical calculations predict that Eloss of PIFCF:PC61BM would be higher than in the case of PIPCP:PC61BM, due to greater Eg - Ect. These findings provide insight into the design of high performance, low voltage loss photovoltaic polymeric materials with desirable optoelectronic properties.

  13. Confinement of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, J.

    1978-01-01

    Three quark models of hadron structure, which suggest an explanation of quarks confinement mechanism in hadrons are considered. Quark classifications, quark flawors and colours, symmetry model of hadron structure based on the colour theory of strong interaction are discussed. Diagrams of colour combinations of quarks and antiquarks, exchange of gluons, binding quarks in hadron. Quark confinement models based on the field theory, string model rotating and bag model are discussed. Diagrams of the colour charge distribution explaining the phenomena of infrared ''slavery'' and ultraviolet ''freedom'' are given. The models considered explain but some quark properties, creating prerequisites for the development of the consequent theory of hadron structure

  14. Energy loss and charge exchange processes of high energy heavy ions channeled in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poizat, J.C.; Andriamonje, S.; Anne, R.; Faria, N.V.d.C.; Chevallier, M.; Cohen, C.; Dural, J.; Farizon-Mazuy, B.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Hage-Ali, M.; Kirsch, R.; L'hoir, A.; Mory, J.; Moulin, J.; Quere, Y.; Remillieux, J.; Schmaus, D.; Toulemonde, M.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of moving ions with single crystals is very sensitive to the orientation of the incident beam with respect to the crystalline directions of the target. Our experiments show that high energy heavy ion channeling deeply modifies their slowing down and charge exchange processes. This is due to the fact that channeled ions interact only with outershell target electrons, which means that the electron density they experience is very low and that the binding energy, and then the momentum distribution of these electrons, are quite different from the corresponding average values associated to random incidence. The two experimental studies presented here show the reduction of the energy loss rate for fast channeled heavy ions and illustrate the two aspects of channeling effects on charge exchange, the reduction of electron loss on one hand, and of electron capture on the other hand

  15. The Fracture Influence on the Energy Loss of Compressed Air Energy Storage in Hard Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled nonisothermal gas flow and geomechanical numerical modeling is conducted to study the influence of fractures (joints on the complex thermohydromechanical (THM performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES in hard rock caverns. The air-filled chamber is modeled as porous media with high porosity, high permeability, and high thermal conductivity. The present analysis focuses on the CAES in hard rock caverns at relatively shallow depth, that is, ≤100 m, and the pressure in carven is significantly higher than ambient pore pressure. The influence of one discrete crack and multiple crackson energy loss analysis of cavern in hard rock media are carried out. Two conditions are considered during each storage and release cycle, namely, gas injection and production mass being equal and additional gas injection supplemented after each cycle. The influence of the crack location, the crack length, and the crack open width on the energy loss is studied.

  16. Quark mass effects in quark number susceptibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Thorben; Petreczky, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The quark degrees of freedom of the QGP with special focus on mass effects are investigated. A next-to-leading-order perturbation theory approach with quark mass dependence is applied and compared to lattice QCD results. (paper)

  17. Top Quark Production at Hadron Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaf, Lukas Kaj [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-03-01

    This thesis describes both theoretical and experimental research into top quark production. The theoretical part contains a calculation of the single-top quark production cross section at hadron colliders, at Next to Leading Order (NLO) accuracy. The experimental part describes a measurement of the top quark pair production cross section in proton-antiproton collisions, at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV.

  18. The Skyrmions and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1984-08-01

    It is proposed that the quark-bag description and the Skyrmion description of baryons are related to each other by quantized parameters. Topology (through a chiral anomaly) plays an important role in bridging the fundamental theory of the strong interactions (QCD) to effective theories. Some consequences on the efforts to see quark degrees of freedom in nuclear matter are discussed. It is suggested that at low energies there will be no ''smoking gun'' evidences for quark presence in nuclei

  19. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  20. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  1. Properties of the Top Quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  2. Properties of the Top Quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  3. Inelastic collisions of atomic particles at mean energies. Pt.1. Qualitative model of energy losses during a collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for description of the energy losses of mean-energy atomic particles during their interactions with atomic particles of solids. It is shown that all these interactions are inelastic ones and are determined by different scattering zones with different laws of energy loss dependences [ru

  4. Atomic column resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duscher, G.; Pennycook, S.J.; Browning, N.D.

    1998-01-01

    Spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is rapidly developing into a unique and powerful tool to characterize internal interfaces. Because atomic column resolved Z-contrast imaging can be performed simultaneously with EELS in the scanning transmission electron microscope, this combination allows the atomic structure to be correlated with the electronic structure, and thus the local properties of interfaces or defects can be determined directly. However, the ability to characterize interfaces and defects at that level requires not only high spatial resolution but also the exact knowledge of the beam location, from where the spectrum is obtained. Here we discuss several examples progressing from cases where the limitation in spatial resolution is given by the microscopes or the nature of the sample, to one example of impurity atoms at a grain boundary, which show intensity and fine structure changes from atomic column to atomic column. Such data can be interpreted as changes in valence of the impurity, depending on its exact site in the boundary plane. Analysis ofthis nature is a valuable first step in understanding the microscopic structural, optical and electronic properties of materials. (orig.)

  5. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  6. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-01

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  7. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on fullerenes and fullerene compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, J.

    1996-03-01

    A few years ago, a new form of pure carbon, the fullerenes, has been discovered, which shows many fascinating properties. Within this work the spatial and electronic structure of some selected fullerene compounds have been investigated by electron-energy-loss spectroscopy in transmission. Phase pure samples of alkali intercalated fullerides A x C 60 (A=Na, K, Cs) have been prepared using vacuum distillation. Measruements of K 3 C 60 show a dispersion of the charge carrier plasmon close to zero. This can be explained by calculations, which take into account both band structure and local-field (inhomogeneity) effects. The importance of the molecular structure can also be seen from the A 4 C 60 compounds, where the non-metallic properties are explained by a splitting of the t 1u and t 1g derived bands that is caused by electron-correlation and Jahn-Teller effects. First measurements of the electronic structure of Na x C 60 (x>6) are presented and reveal a complete transfer from the sodium atoms but an incomplete transfer onto the C 60 molecules. This behaviour can be explained by taking into account additional electronic states that are situated between the sodium atoms in the octahedral sites and are predicted by calculations using local density approximation. The crystal structure of the higher fullerenes C 76 and C 84 is found to be face-centered cubic

  8. Electronic energy loss of fast molecules in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbeck, J.

    1975-06-01

    In high velocity collisions of molecular ions the correlated motion influence of the ion cores on the electronic energy loss is investigated. The stopping power in first Born approximation for a random arrangement of target atoms can be formulated in terms of the inelastic electronic structure factor. In treating the target atoms in Hartree-Fock approximation each electron can be regarded as stopping the ion independent of all other electrons without restriction by the Pauli principle. A second equivalent formulation of the stopping power leads to the dielectric function of the target. The results are applied to the stopping of H 2 + -ions. For vanishing distance between the two protons the stopping power per particle is twice that for single proton collisions. For distances in the order of the Bohr radius the correlated stopping power may even be smaller than for uncorrelated protons. With increasing distances the correlation influence vanishes. The stopping of H 2 + -ions in C, Si and Ge is discussed using Clementi wave functions for the core electrons and a free electron approximation with Lindhard's dielectric function for the valence electrons. The comparison with the only experimental result available for H 2 + in C at 300 keV yields qualitative agreement. (orig.) [de

  9. Signatures of a new state of the nuclear matter: 'nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons' in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis for the 'Accreditation to lead research' diploma consists of six chapters. Chapter I provides an overview of my scientific career, including a summary of my research tasks, professional experiences, and scientific output, list of my oral presentations at international conferences and my publications history. Chapter II introduces the background and goals of research in relativistic heavy ion physics, the main axis of research at the RHIC collider facility. Chapter III describes the context of Quarks-Gluon Plasma (QGP) physics including theoretical aspects, experimental aspects, the signatures of deconfinement and the evolution of QGP physics from fixed-target (SPS) to collider (RHIC) beam energies. Chapter IV details my personal contribution to the construction, assembly, installation, operation, evaluation of the signals and the maintenance of (i) the silicon pixel detectors used for the measurements of the charged particles multiplicity in PHOBOS experiment, and also (ii) the silicon vertex tracker (VTX) in PHENIX, with the main goal being to differentiate measurements of the heavy quarks charm and beauty. Chapter V presents my analysis work using the 'hit-counting' method which allows the measurement of the pseudorapidity density distributions of charged particles in PHOBOS at several RHIC energies. This chapter also illustrates my predictions for the LHC as well my publications as principal author and my responsibilities as 'Co-convenor' of the multiplicity group in PHOBOS. Finally, chapter VI presents the highlights of the RHIC results: 'Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons'. This chapter illustrates a great wealth of scientific discoveries, and some great surprises encountered in the RHIC era which provided new perspectives in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. At the end of this chapter, I concluded while answering the question about what we have learnt and where we are. (author)

  10. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  11. Two-Quark Condensate Changes with Quark Current Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Changfang; Lue Xiaofu; Wu Xiaohua; Zhan Yongxin

    2009-01-01

    Using the Schwinger-Dyson equation and perturbation theory, we calculate the two-quark condensates for the light quarks u, d, strange quark s and a heavy quark c with their current masses respectively. The results show that the two-quark condensate will decrease when the quark mass increases, which hints the chiral symmetry may be restored for the heavy quarks.

  12. Single top quark production with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccolo Davide

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of single top quark production performed using the CMS experiment [1] data collected in 2011 at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and in 2012 at 8 TeV, are presented. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production are also presented. The results include the measurement of the charge ratio in the single top t-channel.

  13. Highlights of top quark cross-section measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Bielski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive and differential top-quark production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements of top quark pair and single top quark production reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of top quark events are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime.

  14. In search of the quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, Y.; Delagrange, H.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes in a very pedagogical manner the ultimate state of matter when quarks are no longer confined in hadrons. This state is called quark and gluon plasma, its existence is suspected through 4 facts: 1) a quark and gluon plasma that has just been created from a high energy ion-collision is mainly made up of light quarks (up and down), then this plasma should evolve towards other quarks (particularly strange quarks) because of the Pauli exclusion principle. This fact has been experimentally confirmed: at the CERN accelerator physicists have detected a higher production of strange hadrons when the energy of the collision increases; 2) some particles like ρ 0 mesons, that are made up of 2 quarks, are massively produced in ion collisions, their mass has been measured at the moment of the collision and later in the quark and gluon plasma, 2 different values have been found so it confirms the theory that predicts that free quarks have a mass that decreases as energy increases; 3) J/Ψ mesons are made up of a charmed quark combined with its anti-quark, physicists have noticed that less J/Ψ mesons are detected when the energy of the collision rises, this result agrees with the fact that in quark gluon plasma where quarks are free and of different colours and flavors, it is highly unlikely that a charmed quark combines with its anti-quark to form a J/Ψ meson; and 4) the theory of the formation of quark gluon plasma predicts that its electromagnetic radiation has a thermal radiation specificity, physicists have studied the radiation spectra emitted in the core of a ion collision, they have shown that it is a thermal radiation and that the temperature of the emitter corresponds to the temperature of a quark gluon plasma. (A.C.)

  15. Search for Scalar Bottom Quarks from Gluino Decays in Proton - Anti-proton Collisions at a Center-of-Mass Energy of 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rott, Carsten [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The authors have performed a search for the scalar bottom quark ($\\tilde{b}$1) from gluino ($\\tilde{g}$) decays in an R-parity conserving SUSY scenario with m$\\tilde{g}$ > m$\\tilde{b}1$, by investigating a final state of large missing transverse energy, with three or more jets, and some of them from the hadronization of b-quarks. A data sample of 156 pb-1 collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV was used. For the final selection, jets containing secondary displaced vertices were required. This analysis has been performed ''blind'', in that the inspection of the signal region was only made after the Standard Model prediction was finalized. Comparing data with SUSY predictions, they can exclude masses of the gluino and sbottom of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c2 respectively.

  16. Study of high energy ion loss during hydrogen minority heating in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1994-03-01

    High energy ion loss during hydrogen minority ICRF heating is measured and compared with the loss of the D-D fusion products. During H minority heating a relatively large loss of high energy ions is observed at 45 degrees below the outer midplane, with or without simultaneous NBI heating. This increase is most likely due to a loss of the minority tail protons, a possible model for this process is described

  17. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers.

  18. Quark interchange model of baryon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslow, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    The strong interactions at low energy are traditionally described by meson field theories treating hadrons as point-like particles. Here a mesonic quark interchange model (QIM) is presented which takes into account the finite size of the baryons and the internal quark structure of hadrons. The model incorporates the basic quark-gluon coupling of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the MIT bag model for color confinement. Because the quark-gluon coupling constant is large and it is assumed that confinement excludes overlap of hadronic quark bags except at high momenta, a non-perturbative method of nuclear interactions is presented. The QIM allows for exchange of quark quantum numbers at the bag boundary between colliding hadrons mediated at short distances by a gluon exchange between two quarks within the hadronic interior. This generates, via a Fierz transformation, an effective space-like t channel exchange of color singlet (q anti-q) states that can be identified with the low lying meson multiplets. Thus, a one boson exchange (OBE) model is obtained that allows for comparison with traditional phenomenological models of nuclear scattering. Inclusion of strange quarks enables calculation of YN scattering. The NN and YN coupling constants and the nucleon form factors show good agreement with experimental values as do the deuteron low energy data and the NN low energy phase shifts. Thus, the QIM provides a simple model of strong interactions that is chirally invariant, includes confinement and allows for an OBE form of hadronic interaction at low energies and momentum transfers

  19. On the properties of strange quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Leming; Peng Guangxiong; Ning Pingzhi

    1999-01-01

    According to authors' recent studies, the authors derive a new mass formula for strange quarks at zero temperature. The authors apply it to investigating the properties of strange quark matter and obtain similar results to those in the MIT bag model. A different point in authors' results is that the variation of sound velocity with energy density becomes a little slower

  20. Cascade-probabilistic function with taking unto account energy losses of ions. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Mathematical simulation of cascade-probabilistic functions (CPF) for ions with taking into account of energy losses is carried out. Recommendations for CPF calculation on computer are given. Influence of both the interaction number on CPF domain and the interaction depth on CPF domain are determined. Contribution of energy losses into simplest CPF is estimated. Algorithm of radiation defects concentration calculation under ion irradiation with taking into consideration energy losses is cited

  1. Acute visual loss and intraretinal hemorrhages associated to energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Christina W; Wu, Max; Wu, Lihteh

    2017-12-01

    To report the association of acute visual loss secondary to intraretinal hemorrhages and energy drink consumption. Case report and literature review. A 48-year-old hypertensive man developed an elevation in systemic blood pressure, tachycardia, and acute visual loss secondary to intraretinal hemorrhages shortly after drinking several cans of energy drinks. High consumption of energy drinks may lead to intraretinal hemorrhages and acute visual loss.

  2. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality is demonst......This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...

  3. High resolution spectroscopy of H+ energy loss in thin carbon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Noriaki; Kitoh, Kenshin

    1991-05-01

    The energy loss of ∼100 keV H + transmitted through thin carbon film of ∼7 nm has been measured with the resolution of ∼20 eV. We have observed new energy loss peaks around 210 and 400 eV in addition to the normal energy loss peak around 1 keV. We find that the experimental artifacts, ionization of C K-(290 eV) and impurity inner-shells, extreme non-uniformity of films, events associated with elastic scattering are not responsible for these peaks. The origin of these low energy loss peaks will be discussed. (author)

  4. Transmitted ion energy loss distributions to detect cluster formation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selen, L.J.M.; Loon, A. van; IJzendoorn, L.J. van; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    2002-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of ions transmitted through a 5.7±0.2 μm thick Si crystal was measured and simulated with the Monte Carlo channeling simulation code FLUX. A general resemblance between the measured and simulated energy loss distributions was obtained after incorporation of an energy dependent energy loss in the simulation program. The energy loss calculations are used to investigate the feasibility to detect the presence of light element dopant clusters in a host crystal from the shape of the energy loss distribution, with transmission ion channeling. A curved crystal structure is used as a model for a region in the host crystal with clusters. The presence of the curvature does have a large influence on the transmitted energy distribution, which offers the possibility to determine the presence of dopant clusters in a host crystal with transmission ion channeling

  5. Mass-shell properties of the dynamical quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, L.J.; Stam, K.

    1986-07-01

    We discuss the running dynamical quark mass in the framework of the operator product expansion. It is shown that for vertical strokep 2 vertical stroke>m 2 the quark-condensate part of the quark self energy has no contributions of order m 2 or higher, and is frozen to its mass-shell value for smaller vertical strokep 2 vertical stroke. (orig.)

  6. Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The synergy between highly energy efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Distribution heat losses represent a key factor in the design o...

  7. Direct photon production and jet energy-loss in small systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chun; Park, Chanwook [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Paquet, Jean-François [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics & Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11733 (United States); Denicol, Gabriel S. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Two types of penetrating probes, direct photon and QCD jets, are investigated in the background of a small and rapidly expanding droplet of quark-gluon plasma. The additional thermal electromagnetic radiation results in a ∼50% enhancement of the direct photons. In high multiplicity p+Pb collisions, jets can lose a sizeable fraction of their initial energy, leading to a charged hadron R{sub pA} of ∼0.8 at a transverse momentum around 10 GeV. Those two proposed measurements can help understand the apparent collective behaviour observed in small collision systems.

  8. Jet energy loss in Boson-jet events in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Ran

    2017-01-01

    A typical approach to study the medium produced in heavy ion collisions is to understand the passage of elementary particles through it. As Z bosons and photons do not participate in the strong interaction, their correlation with jets within the same event is a clean probe of the medium-induced energy loss of (predominantly) quark jets. In this analysis, Z+jet and photon+jet correlations are studied using the high statistics PbPb and pp data taken at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector. The evolution of azimuthal angular distributions and average momentum imbalance between the jet and Z or photon as a function of transverse momentum of the color neutral probe will be presented. In addition the jet $I_{AA}$, as a function of photon $p_{T}$ and collision centrality is studied.

  9. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  10. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  11. The quark model and asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The authors stress that it is not their task to provide a detailed account of the quark model (this is given in many monographs and reviews). This chapter is merely a prolog to the complex contemporary problems of high-energy physics which form the main subject of the present monograph. The quark model is based on the idea that there exist hypothetical fundamental particles - quarks, which they shall denote by q-bar/sub i/ (the index i characterizes the type of quark). From these particles and their antiparticles one constructs bound states, which are identified with the known hadrons. It turns out that all the observed mesons can be constructed from a quark q/sub i/ and an antiquark q-bar/sub i/, while the baryons (antibaryons) can be constructed from three quarks (antiquarks). To make it possible to build up all the observed hadrons and their characteristics, the authors must postulate that the quarks (antiquarks) possess the following properties: 1) spin 1/2; 2) isospin. It is necessary to introduce isospin 1/2 for the construction of the nonstrange hadrons. It has been proposed to denote the quark with isospin projection tau/sub 3/ = 1/2 by the symbol u (from the English ''up'') and the quark with isospin projection tau/sub 3/ = -1/2 by the symbol d (from the English ''down'')

  12. Exploring energy loss by vector flow mapping in children with ventricular septal defect: Pathophysiologic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takashi; Itatani, Keiichi; Takanashi, Manabu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Ando, Hisashi; Kimura, Sumito; Oka, Norihiko; Miyaji, Kagami; Ishii, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Vector flow mapping is a novel echocardiographic flow visualization method, and it has enabled us to quantitatively evaluate the energy loss in the left ventricle (intraventricular energy loss). Although intraventricular energy loss is assumed to be a part of left ventricular workload itself, it is unclear what this parameter actually represents. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss. We enrolled 26 consecutive children with ventricular septal defect (VSD). On echocardiography vector flow mapping, intraventricular energy loss was measured in the apical 3-chamber view. We measured peak energy loss and averaged energy loss in the diastolic and systolic phases, and subsequently compared these parameters with catheterization parameters and serum brain natrium peptide (BNP) level. Diastolic, peak, and systolic energy loss were strongly and positively correlated with right ventricular systolic pressure (r=0.76, 0.68, and 0.56, p<0.0001, = 0.0001, and 0.0029, respectively) and right ventricular end diastolic pressure (r=0.55, 0.49, and 0.49, p=0.0038, 0.0120, and 0.0111, respectively). In addition, diastolic, peak, and systolic energy loss were significantly correlated with BNP (r=0.75, 0.69 and 0.49, p<0.0001, < 0.0001, and=0.0116, respectively). In children with VSD, elevated right ventricular pressure is one of the factors that increase energy loss in the left ventricle. The results of the present study encourage further studies in other study populations to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss for its possible clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Trajectory-dependent energy loss for swift He atoms axially scattered off a silver surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos Rubiano, C.A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Ató mica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Gravielle, M.S., E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    Angle- and energy-loss-resolved distributions of helium atoms grazingly scattered from a Ag(110) surface along low indexed crystallographic directions are investigated considering impact energies in the few keV range. Final projectile distributions are evaluated within a semi-classical formalism that includes dissipative effects due to electron–hole excitations through a friction force. For mono-energetic beams impinging along the [11{sup ¯}0],[11{sup ¯}2] and [001] directions, the model predicts the presence of multiple peak structures in energy-loss spectra. Such structures provide detailed information about the trajectory-dependent energy loss. However, when the experimental dispersion of the incident beam is taken into account, these energy-loss peaks are completely washed out, giving rise to a smooth energy-loss distribution, in fairly good agreement with available experimental data.

  14. Subjet double-b quark tagging performance in 5 TeV pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Nearly collinear pairs of partons are sensitive to potential novel coherence effects in the parton energy loss process, which can be observed through measurements of jet substructure. This analysis presents a new measurement of jets containing a gluon that splits into a heavy quark pair, i.e., a heavy-quark antenna. Such jets are identified by analyzing the groomed substructure of double b-tagged jets. The grooming procedure allows the identification of the hardest splitting process within the parton shower and is sensitive to the virtuality evolution of the parton. Detector performance studies are shown for 5.02 TeV simulations.

  15. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.

    1995-01-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model's phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density

  16. Energy Losses through Unharnessed Biomass in South- Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    energy and which can be made available to both the rural and urban areas of the ... when burnt, it produces carbon (iv) oxide, which results in the ... attitude of exploiting the much available and cleaner alternative energy ... human wastes.

  17. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  18. Observations of discrete energy loss effects in spectra of positrons reflected from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Hulett, L.D.; Pendyala, S.

    1980-01-01

    Surfaces of tungsten and silicon have been bombarded with monoenergetic beams of positrons and electrons. Spectra of reflected particles show energy loss tails with discrete peaks at kinetic energies about 15 eV lower than that of the elastic peaks. In the higher energy loss range for tungsten, positron spectra show fine structure that is not apparent in the electron spectra. This suggests that the positrons are losing energy through mechanisms different from that of the electrons

  19. Electron energy-loss spectrometry at the frontier of spatial and energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, F.; Grogger, W.; Kothleitner, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is now used routinely as a means of measuring chemical and structural properties of very small regions of a thin specimen. The power of this technique depends significantly on two parameters: its spatial resolution and the energy resolution available in the spectrum and in the energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) image. The cold field emission source and the Schottky emitter have made an energy resolution below 1 eV possible and it is now feasible to obtain data with a spatial resolution close to atomic dimensions, given the right instrumentation and specimen. EFTEM allows to record elemental maps at sub-nanometre resolution, being mainly limited by chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens and by delocalization of inelastic scattering. Recently the possibility of correcting spherical and even chromatic aberrations of electron lenses has become a practical reality thus improving the point resolution of the TEM to below 0.1 nm. The other limiting factor for EFTEM resolution is delocalization. However, recent measurements show that resolution values in the range of 1 nm and below can be achieved, even for energy-losses of only a few eV. In terms of energy-resolution, EELS and EFTEM compare less favourably with other spectroscopies. For common TEMs, the overall energy-resolution is mainly determined by the energy width of the electron source, typically between 0.5 and 1.5 eV. For comparison, synchrotron x-ray sources and beam line spectrometers, provide a resolution well below 0.1 eV for absorption spectroscopy. During the early sixties, the energy spread of an electron beam could be reduced by incorporating an energy-filter into the illumination system, but the system lacked spatial resolution. Later developments combined high energy resolution in the range of 0.1 eV with improved spatial resolution. Recently, FEI introduced a new high resolution EELS system based

  20. Physics of the Quark Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)

  1. Improving a radiative plus collisional energy loss model for application to RHIC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, Simon; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2007-01-01

    With the QGP opacity computed perturbatively and with the global entropy constraints imposed by the observed dN ch /dy ∼ 1000, radiative energy loss alone cannot account for the observed suppression of single non-photonic electrons. Collisional energy loss is comparable in magnitude to radiative loss for both light and heavy jets. Two aspects that significantly affect the collisional energy loss are examined: the role of fluctuations and the effect of introducing a running QCD coupling as opposed to the fixed α s = 0.3 used previously

  2. Electromagnetic therapeutic coils design to reduce energy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrek Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of power loss reduction in applicators used in magnetotherapy. To generate magnetic field whose distribution is optimal and to reduce the power loss, the authors establish a set of parameters to evaluate the model of device. Results make it possible to infer that the real power input necessary to operate the magnetic field generator properly may vary significantly depending on construction and localization. The issues raised in this paper should be treated as a basis for further discussion on the construction of applicators used, e.g., in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

  3. Fecal energy losses in enterally fed intensive care patients: An explorative study using bomb calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M.; Wierdsma, N.J.; van Heijningen, E.M.B.; Weijs, P.J.M.; de Groot, S.D.W.; Girbes, A.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background & Aims: Early enteral nutrition and tailored supply of nutrients have become standard in most of the intensive care units (ICU). So far little attention has been given to losses of energy in the stools. The purpose of this explorative study was to evaluate the energy losses of patients

  4. REFINED ALGORITHMS OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY LOSSES CALCULATION IN 0,38 KV NETWORKS IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnyk A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach for closer definition of electrical energy losses size in air lines due to the accounting of environment temperature influence and flowing current size on the wire resistance is offered. Multifunctional microprocessor devices for energy losses calculation are elaborated.

  5. Quark exchange and nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniz, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a qualitative understanding of hadronic phenomena in terms of quark degrees of freedom. The basic model which incorporates saturating confining interactions and the study of hadron-hadron scattering has been carried through in collaboration with F. Lenz, J.T. Londergan, R. Rosenfelder, M. Stingl and K. Yazaki. It is shown that minimal confining dynamics together with exchange symmetry indeed leads to a remarkable range of phenomena at both the nuclear and particle energy scales. Most observables are well described by an effective hadron theory, the quark momentum distribution being the major exception. These features emerge even in the simplest model, namely, U(1) color and hadrons composed of two quarks (anti qq or qq). The author concentrates here on this model. In the concluding section, he remarks on the SU(N) results, particularly on the extent to which the color-hidden dynamics are constrained by examining the systematics of nuclear and hadronic phenomena. (Auth.)

  6. Waves in magnetized quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogaça, D. A.; Sanches, S. M.; Navarra, F. S.

    2018-05-01

    We study wave propagation in a non-relativistic cold quark-gluon plasma immersed in a constant magnetic field. Starting from the Euler equation we derive linear wave equations and investigate their stability and causality. We use a generic form for the equation of state, the EOS derived from the MIT bag model and also a variant of the this model which includes gluon degrees of freedom. The results of this analysis may be relevant for perturbations propagating through the quark matter phase in the core of compact stars and also for perturbations propagating in the low temperature quark-gluon plasma formed in low energy heavy ion collisions, to be carried out at FAIR and NICA.

  7. Quark motional effects on the interquark potential in baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Suganuma, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    We study the heavy-heavy-light quark (QQq) system in a nonrelativistic potential model, and investigate the quark motional effect on the inter-two-quark potential in baryons. We adopt the Hamiltonian with the static three-quark potential which is obtained by the first-principle calculation of lattice QCD, rather than the two-body force in ordinary quark models. Using the renormalization-group inspired variational method in discretized space, we calculate the ground-state energy of QQq systems and the light-quark spatial distribution. We find that the effective string tension between the two heavy quarks is reduced compared to the static three-quark case. This reduction of the effective string tension originates from the geometrical difference between the interquark distance and the flux-tube length, and is conjectured to be a general property for baryons

  8. Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Young, Kathleen M; Coit, Carissa; Clayton, Anna Marie; Spencer, Alexis; Wagner, Marissa

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that specific eating patterns (e.g., eating breakfast) may be related to favorable weight status. This investigation examined the relationship between eating patterns (i.e., skipping meals; consuming alcohol) and weight loss treatment outcomes (weight loss, energy intake, energy expenditure, and duration of exercise). Fifty-four overweight or obese adults (BMI> or =27 kg/m(2)) participated in a self-help or therapist-assisted weight loss program. Daily energy intake from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and alcoholic beverages, total daily energy intake, total daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weekly weight loss were assessed. On days that breakfast or dinner was skipped, or alcoholic beverages were not consumed, less total daily energy was consumed compared to days that breakfast, dinner, or alcoholic beverages were consumed. On days that breakfast or alcohol was consumed, daily energy expenditure (breakfast only) and duration of exercise were higher compared to days that breakfast or alcohol was not consumed. Individuals who skipped dinner or lunch more often had lower energy expenditure and exercise duration than individuals who skipped dinner or lunch less often. Individuals who consumed alcohol more often had high daily energy expenditure than individuals who consumed alcohol less often. Skipping meals or consuming alcoholic beverages was not associated with weekly weight loss. In this investigation, weight loss program participants may have compensated for excess energy intake from alcoholic beverages and meals with greater daily energy expenditure and longer exercise duration.

  9. Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Janine A

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has prompted researchers to find effective weight-loss and maintenance tools. Weight loss and subsequent maintenance are reliant on energy balance--the net difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Negative energy balance, lower intake than expenditure, results in weight loss whereas positive energy balance, greater intake than expenditure, results in weight gain. Resistant starch has many attributes, which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance including reduced postprandial insulinemia, increased release of gut satiety peptides, increased fat oxidation, lower fat storage in adipocytes, and preservation of lean body mass. Retention of lean body mass during weight loss or maintenance would prevent the decrease in basal metabolic rate and, therefore, the decrease in total energy expenditure, that occurs with weight loss. In addition, the fiber-like properties of resistant starch may increase the thermic effect of food, thereby increasing total energy expenditure. Due to its ability to increase fat oxidation and reduce fat storage in adipocytes, resistant starch has recently been promoted in the popular press as a "weight loss wonder food". This review focuses on data describing the effects of resistant starch on body weight, energy intake, energy expenditure, and body composition to determine if there is sufficient evidence to warrant these claims.

  10. Signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in high energy heavy-ion collisions: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, S.A.; Gyulassy, M.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1999-01-01

    A critical review on signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formation is given and the current (1998) experimental status is discussed. After giving an introduction to the properties of QCD matter in both, equilibrium and non-equilibrium theories, we focus on observables which may yield experimental evidence for QGP formation. For each individual observable the discussion is divided into three sections: first the connection between the respective observable and QGP formation in terms of the underlying theoretical concepts is given, then the relevant experimental results are reviewed and finally the current status concerning the interpretation of both, theory and experiment, is discussed. A comprehensive summary including an outlook towards RHIC is given in the final section. (author)

  11. Basic features of proton-proton interactions at ultra-relativistic energies and RFT-based quark-gluon string model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrodin E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton-proton collisions at energies from √s = 200 GeV up to √s = 14 TeV are studied within the microscopic quark-gluon string model. The model is based on Gribov’s Reggeon Field Theory accomplished by string phenomenology. Comparison with experimental data shows that QGSM describes well particle yields, rapidity - and transverse momentum spectra, rise of mean 〈 pT 〉 and forward-backward multiplicity correlations. The latter arise in QGSM because of the addition of various processes with different mean multiplicities. The model also indicates fulfillment of extended longitudinal scaling and violation of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling at LHC. The origin of both features is traced to short-range particle correlations in the strings. Predictions are made for √s = 14 TeV.

  12. Energy Density and Weight Loss: Feel Full on Fewer Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Behavior. 2009;97:609. Rouhani MH, et al. Associations between dietary energy density and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrition. 2016;32:1037. Stelmach-Mardas M, et al. Link between food energy density and body weight changes in obese ...

  13. Confinement and quark structure of light hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    We present a quark confinement model (QCM) for the description of the low-energy physics of light hadrons (mesons and baryons). The model is based on two hypotheses. First, the quark confinement is realized as averaging over vacuum gluon fields which are believed to provide the confinement of any colour objects. Second, hadrons are treated as collective colourless excitations of quark-gluon interactions. The description of strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions of mesons and baryons at the low energy is given from a unique point of view

  14. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vt b| in 1.96 TeV p p ¯ collisions with missing transverse energy and jets and final CDF combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    An updated measurement of the single top quark production cross section is presented using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), corresponding to 9.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity from proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. The events selected contain an imbalance in the total transverse momentum, jets identified as containing b quarks, and no identified leptons. The sum of the s - and t -channel single top quark cross sections is measured to be 3.5 3-1.16+1.25 pb and a lower limit on the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling, |Vt b| of 0.63, is obtained at the 95% credibility level. These measurements are combined with previously reported CDF results obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse momentum, jets identified as originating from b quarks, and one identified lepton. The combined cross section is measured to be 3.0 2-0.48+0.49 pb and a lower limit on |Vt b| of 0.84 is obtained at the 95% credibility level.

  15. Observation of top quarks and first measurement of the t anti t production cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruschke, Jasmin

    2011-01-01

    lightest quarks, the up and down quarks, the four heavier quark flavours only appear in collisions of high-energy particles. Therefore, their production under laboratory conditions requires modern particleaccelerator and collider facilities. Until last year, only the Fermilab Tevatron collider near Chicago, USA, provided sufficient centre-of-mass energy for the production of top quarks and thus paved the way for its discovery about sixteen years ago. Since the Tevatron was built, substantial technological progress in the intervening years has enabled the design and construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland. Extensively using superconducting magnets, the LHC provides hitherto unachievable centre-of-mass energies for the production of heavy particles in proton-proton collisions. After long design and construction phases, the first pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of @√(s)=7 TeV were achieved on March 30th 2010, turning the LHC to the most powerful collider ever operated. Given this huge centre-of-mass energy and instantaneous luminosity, the LHC can be considered a top quark factory and will thus facilitate scrutiny of top quark properties and interactions. The two general-purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS have been built to detect and analyse pp collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider. Driven by the intention to exploit the full discovery potential of the LHC, the designs of ATLAS and CMS concentrated on the discovery of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson, which constitutes the last particle predicted by the Standard Model, and on the search for experimental evidences of phenomena predicted by extensions of the Standard Model. The CMS apparatus is located near Cessy, France, in an underground cavern about 100 m below surface. Since the first pp collision event recorded by the CMS apparatus, a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of L=(36.1@±4.0) pb"-"1 was

  16. Quark Matter May Not Be Strange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Chen

    2018-06-01

    If quark matter is energetically favored over nuclear matter at zero temperature and pressure, then it has long been expected to take the form of strange quark matter (SQM), with comparable amounts of u, d, and s quarks. The possibility of quark matter with only u and d quarks (udQM) is usually dismissed because of the observed stability of ordinary nuclei. However, we find that udQM generally has lower bulk energy per baryon than normal nuclei and SQM. This emerges in a phenomenological model that describes the spectra of the lightest pseudoscalar and scalar meson nonets. Taking into account the finite size effects, udQM can be the ground state of baryonic matter only for baryon number A>A_{min} with A_{min}≳300. This ensures the stability of ordinary nuclei and points to a new form of stable matter just beyond the periodic table.

  17. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... potential mu or increasing M_s, there is a quantum phase transition from the CFL phase to a new ``gapless CFL phase'' in which only seven quasiparticles have a gap. The transition occurs where M_s^2/mu is approximately equal to 2*Delta, with Delta the gap parameter. Gapless CFL, like CFL, leaves unbroken...... a linear combination Qtilde of electric and color charges, but it is a Qtilde-conductor with a nonzero electron density. These electrons and the gapless quark quasiparticles make the low energy effective theory of the gapless CFL phase and, consequently, its astrophysical properties are qualitatively...

  18. Energy losses in magnetically insulated transmission lines due to microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.W.; Stinnett, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the effects of high-velocity and hypervelocity microparticles in the magnetically insulated transmission lines of multiterawatt accelerators used for particle beam fusion and radiation effects simulation. These microparticles may be a possible source for plasma production near the anode and cathode in early stages of the voltage pulse, and current carriers during and after the power pulse, resulting in power flow losses. Losses in the current pulse, due to microparticles, are estimated to be approximately 12 mA/cm 2 (0.3 kA) as a lower limit, and --0.3 A/cm 2 (7.2 kA) for microparticle initiated, anode plasma positive ion transport. We have calculated the velocities reached by these microparticles and the effects on them of Van der Waals forces. Field emission from the particles and their effects on cathode and anode plasma formation have been examined. Particle collision with the electrodes is also examined in terms of plasma production, as in the electron deposition in the particles in transit across the anode-cathode gap. Blistering of the electrode surface, thought to be due to H - bombardment was also observed and appears to be consistent with losses due to negative ions previously reported by J. P. VanDevender, R. W. Stinnett, and R. J. Anderson [App. Phys. Lett. 38, 229 (1981)

  19. Observability of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    Even if stable hadrons with fractional charge do not exist, most of the criteria of observability used for ordinary elementary particles apply in principle to quarks as well. This is especially true in a simplified world containing only hadrons made of top quarks and gluons. In the real world containing light quarks, essential complications do occur, but most of the conclusions survive

  20. Energy loss and straggling of MeV ions through biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lei; Wang Yugang; Xue Jianming; Chen Qizhong; Zhang Weiming; Zhang Yanwen

    2007-01-01

    Energy loss and energy straggling of energetic ions through natural dehydrated biological samples were investigated using transmission technique. Biological samples (onion membrane, egg coat, and tomato coat) with different mass thickness were studied, together with Mylar for comparison. The energy loss and energy straggling of MeV H and He ions after penetrating the biological and Mylar samples were measured. The experimental results show that the average energy losses of MeV ions through the biological samples are consistent with SRIM predictions; however, large deviation in energy straggling is observed between the measured results and the SRIM predictions. Taking into account inhomogeneity in mass density and structure of the biological sample, an energy straggling formula is suggested, and the experimental energy straggling values are well predicted by the proposed formula

  1. Search for the supersymmetric partner of bottom quark at DO at Tevatron. Studies on missing transverse energy; Recherche du partenaire supersymetrique du quark bottom au sein de l'experience DO aupres du TeVatron. Etudes sur l'energie transverse manquante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, S

    2007-09-15

    Supersymmetry, the extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, is searched for, by trying to observe the supersymmetric partner of the bottom quark (b-bar). This search is performed by using events with a final state comprising 2 coplanar b-quark jets and missing transverse energy and coming from a sample of 992 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, the Fermilab pp-bar collider. The absence of an excess of events in comparison to Standard Model expectations leads to exclude sb masses up to 201 GeV and neutralino masses up to 94 GeV. The missing transverse energy has been studied carefully under 2 points of view, because of its fundamental role in this search. First, at the level of the trigger system which allows the online selection candidate events, and then during the process Z {yields} {nu}{nu} + jets that is an important background noise and in which the transverse momentum of Z turns into missing energy because of the no-detection of the neutrinos. (author)

  2. Search for the supersymmetric partner of bottom quark at DO at Tevatron. Studies on missing transverse energy; Recherche du partenaire supersymetrique du quark bottom au sein de l'experience DO aupres du TeVatron. Etudes sur l'energie transverse manquante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, S

    2007-09-15

    Supersymmetry, the extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, is searched for, by trying to observe the supersymmetric partner of the bottom quark (b-bar). This search is performed by using events with a final state comprising 2 coplanar b-quark jets and missing transverse energy and coming from a sample of 992 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, the Fermilab pp-bar collider. The absence of an excess of events in comparison to Standard Model expectations leads to exclude sb masses up to 201 GeV and neutralino masses up to 94 GeV. The missing transverse energy has been studied carefully under 2 points of view, because of its fundamental role in this search. First, at the level of the trigger system which allows the online selection candidate events, and then during the process Z {yields} {nu}{nu} + jets that is an important background noise and in which the transverse momentum of Z turns into missing energy because of the no-detection of the neutrinos. (author)

  3. Energy loss mechanism for suspended micro- and nanoresonators due to the Casimir force

    OpenAIRE

    Gusso, André

    2011-01-01

    A so far not considered energy loss mechanism in suspended micro- and nanoresonators due to noncontact acoustical energy loss is investigated theoretically. The mechanism consists on the conversion of the mechanical energy from the vibratory motion of the resonator into acoustic waves on large nearby structures, such as the substrate, due to the coupling between the resonator and those structures resulting from the Casimir force acting over the separation gaps. Analytical expressions for the ...

  4. Electrical energy prices and losses respect to Turkish social-economic situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berktay, Ali; Demirbas, Ayhan; Kocak, Saim; Nas, Bilgehan

    2004-01-01

    Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of the most widely used forms of energy. Electricity, which is a secondary energy source, can be generated from the conversion of other sources of energy, such as coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and renewable resources. Electricity prices have a deep impact on the competitiveness of a country's industry. Some electricity losses may occur during the process of transmission and distribution from generators to consumers. Generally there are two types of losses, one is technical losses which cover transmission losses and the other is non-technical losses including distribution losses and the incidence of illegal usage. The aim of this paper is to present the electricity usage and prices and is also to focus on the electricity losses occur both technical and non-technical means. An 'electricity losses map' was produced to illustrate the electricity losses. For this purpose, a vector based Geographic Information System (GIS) software package Arc GIS 8.3 was employed to map the data. The rate of losses within the electricity provided to the national network was about 19% in Turkey. The incidence of illegal usage and hence the rate of non-technical losses could be reduced dramatically through establishing regular action. (Author)

  5. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  6. Quark matter 93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterlund, Ingvar; Ruuskanen, Vesa

    1993-12-15

    In his welcome address to the 10th International Conference on Ultra- Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter '93), held in Borlange, Sweden, from 20-24 June, Hans-Ake Gustafsson was puzzled why this year's conference was billed as the tenth in the series. He had tried to count but could only find eight forerunners - Bielefeld (1982), Brookhaven (1983), Helsinki (1984), Asilomar (1986), Nordkirchen (1987), Lenox (1988), Menton (1990), Gatlinburg (1991), making this year's meeting at Borlange the ninth. The answer was given by Helmut Satz in his introductory talk, pointing out that at the time of the Bielefeld meeting, a few conferences dealing with similar topics had already been held. The Bielefeld organizers thus did not consider their conference the first. Whatever its pedigree, the Borlange meeting covered particle production in highly excited and compressed nuclear matter, fluctuations and correlations, quark phenomena (quantum chromodynamics - QCD) in nuclear collisions, probes and signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), future collider experiments and instrumentation. The theoretical talks were split between the fundamental properties of the hot and dense matter at or near equilibrium, and the interface between theory and experiment. The phenomenological modelling of heavy ion collisions seems to reproduce at least all the main features of the data with hadrons, resonances and strings as the degrees of freedom. However secondary interactions among the produced hadrons or strings need to be added. Hydrodynamic calculations lead to results which reproduce the main features of the collisions. With increasing collision energy, the parton degrees of freedom become more important. Klaus Geiger described an ambitious scheme treating the whole nucleus-nucleus collision in terms of a kinetic parton (quark/gluon) cascade. The initial parton distribution at the beginning of the collision is determined from the quark-gluon nuclear structure and the

  7. Quark matter 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, Ingvar; Ruuskanen, Vesa

    1993-01-01

    In his welcome address to the 10th International Conference on Ultra- Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter '93), held in Borlange, Sweden, from 20-24 June, Hans-Ake Gustafsson was puzzled why this year's conference was billed as the tenth in the series. He had tried to count but could only find eight forerunners - Bielefeld (1982), Brookhaven (1983), Helsinki (1984), Asilomar (1986), Nordkirchen (1987), Lenox (1988), Menton (1990), Gatlinburg (1991), making this year's meeting at Borlange the ninth. The answer was given by Helmut Satz in his introductory talk, pointing out that at the time of the Bielefeld meeting, a few conferences dealing with similar topics had already been held. The Bielefeld organizers thus did not consider their conference the first. Whatever its pedigree, the Borlange meeting covered particle production in highly excited and compressed nuclear matter, fluctuations and correlations, quark phenomena (quantum chromodynamics - QCD) in nuclear collisions, probes and signatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), future collider experiments and instrumentation. The theoretical talks were split between the fundamental properties of the hot and dense matter at or near equilibrium, and the interface between theory and experiment. The phenomenological modelling of heavy ion collisions seems to reproduce at least all the main features of the data with hadrons, resonances and strings as the degrees of freedom. However secondary interactions among the produced hadrons or strings need to be added. Hydrodynamic calculations lead to results which reproduce the main features of the collisions. With increasing collision energy, the parton degrees of freedom become more important. Klaus Geiger described an ambitious scheme treating the whole nucleus-nucleus collision in terms of a kinetic parton (quark/gluon) cascade. The initial parton distribution at the beginning of the collision is determined from the quark-gluon nuclear structure

  8. Hadron spectra and quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiorowicz, S.; Rosner, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The quark model began as little more than a quantum-number counting device. After a brief period during which quarks only played a symmetry role, serious interest in quark dynamics developed. The marriage of the principle of local gauge invariance and quarks has been astonishingly productive. Although many questions still need to be be answered, there is little doubt that the strong, weak and electroweak interactions of matter are described by gauge theories of interactions of the quarks. This review is focussed on the successes

  9. Quarks and mesons in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is believed to be candidate theory for the strong interactions and contains as its ingredients spinor quark fields and vector gluons, none of which can perhaps be ever liberated and detected in laboratories. A nucleus consists of nucleons bound by nuclear force which are however separately observable and which seem to preserve their identities even under extreme conditions. An intriguing question is: when compressed to high densities or heated to high temperature, at what point does a nuclear matter cease to be describable in terms of nucleon and meson degrees of freedom, but become a plasma of quarks and gluons; and how does this transition occur. This is not an idle question. If quarks and gluons are never to be observed isolated, then it may be that at low energies (or at low densities) they are not the right variables to do physics with. Instead hadrons must be. On the other hand, asymptotic freedom - the unique property of non-abelian gauge theories to which QCD belongs that quark-gluon and gluon-gluon interactions get weaker at short distances - tells us that at some large matter density the matter must necessarily be in the form of quark gas interacting only weakly. This means that a change in degrees of freedom must take place. We would like to know where this occurs and how. In this talk, I would like to address to this question by discussing first the large success we have had in understanding the role that mesons play in finite nuclei and nuclear matter and then attempting to correlate nucleon and meson degrees of freedom to quark-gluon degrees of freedom. In my opinion we are now at a stage where we feel fairly confident in our understanding of nucleon-meson structure of nuclei and nuclear matter and any further progress in deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics - and strong interactions - must come from QCD or its effective version, bags or strings. (orig.)

  10. Microanalysis by spectroscopy of transmitted electron energy losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colliex, C.; Trebbia, P.

    1978-01-01

    Among the various signals which, in a transmission electron microscope, result from the interactions between the primary beam of well defined energy E 0 and the sample, the spectrum of the energy distribution of the electrons transmitted contains useful informations on the chemical and physical properties of the sample. Consequently the adaptation of an energy dispersive system on an electron microscope enables new fields of research to be investigated, particularly a localised chemical analysis technique with a space resolution scale equal to that of the electron microscope. It is this second aspect that we suggest describing in particular here. Already, this technique appears to be indispensable in the problems arising from the analysis of very small quantities of matter: detection limits in the order of 10 -19 to 10 -20 g (around 100 to 1000 atoms) would seem to be resonably possible [fr

  11. Addressing student models of energy loss in quantum tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, Michael C; Morgan, Jeffrey T; Bao Lei

    2005-01-01

    We report on a multi-year, multi-institution study to investigate students' reasoning about energy in the context of quantum tunnelling. We use ungraded surveys, graded examination questions, individual clinical interviews and multiple-choice exams to build a picture of the types of responses that students typically give. We find that two descriptions of tunnelling through a square barrier are particularly common. Students often state that tunnelling particles lose energy while tunnelling. When sketching wavefunctions, students also show a shift in the axis of oscillation, as if the height of the axis of oscillation indicated the energy of the particle. We find inconsistencies between students' conceptual, mathematical and graphical models of quantum tunnelling. As part of a curriculum in quantum physics, we have developed instructional materials designed to help students develop a more robust and less inconsistent picture of tunnelling, and present data suggesting that we have succeeded in doing so

  12. Testing the rationality of DOE's energy price forecasts under asymmetric loss preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatzakis, E.; Koutsomanoli-Filippaki, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the rationality of the price forecasts for energy commodities of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE), departing from the common assumption in the literature that DOE's forecasts are based on a symmetric underlying loss function with respect to positive vs. negative forecast errors. Instead, we opt for the methodology of Elliott et al. (2005) that allows testing the joint hypothesis of an asymmetric loss function and rationality and reveals the underlying preferences of the forecaster. Results indicate the existence of asymmetries in the shape of the loss function for most energy categories with preferences leaning towards optimism. Moreover, we also examine whether there is a structural break in those preferences over the examined period, 1997–2012. - Highlights: • Examine the rationality of DOE energy forecasts. • Departing from a symmetric underlying loss function. • Asymmetries exist in most energy prices. • Preferences lean towards optimism. • Examine structural breaks in those preferences

  13. Energy flow models for the estimation of technical losses in distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Mau Teng; Tan, Chin Hooi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy flow models developed to estimate technical losses in distribution network. Energy flow models applied in this paper is based on input energy and peak demand of distribution network, feeder length and peak demand, transformer loading capacity, and load factor. Two case studies, an urban distribution network and a rural distribution network are used to illustrate application of the energy flow models. Results on technical losses obtained for the two distribution networks are consistent and comparable to network of similar types and characteristics. Hence, the energy flow models are suitable for practical application.

  14. Confinement and deconfinement of quarks in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baym, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear matter at high baryon density or excitation energy is expected to undergo a transition to deconfined quark matter, a new state of matter, whose production and detection would be an exciting and basic advance in nuclear physics. These lectures summarize current understanding of quark matter and the deconfinement transition. Beginning with a review of elementary models of confinement, the basic properties of quark matter are described, estimates of the transition from hadronic to quark matter are made, and various ways one might see quark matter experimentally by production in nuclear collisions or in the form of metastable exotic nuclear objects are discussed. (author)

  15. Privacy-preserving smart meter control strategy including energy storage losses

    OpenAIRE

    Avula, Chinni Venkata Ramana R.; Oechtering, Tobias J.; Månsson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Privacy-preserving smart meter control strategies proposed in the literature so far make some ideal assumptions such as instantaneous control without delay, lossless energy storage systems etc. In this paper, we present a one-step-ahead predictive control strategy using Bayesian risk to measure and control privacy leakage with an energy storage system. The controller estimates energy state using a three-circuit energy storage model to account for steady-state energy losses. With numerical exp...

  16. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Marmitt, G. G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Finkelstein, Y. [Nuclear Research Center — Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Moreh, R. [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  17. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO 3 , Li 2 CO 3 , and SiO 2 ) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO 2 , good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E gap ) 1.5 . For CaCO 3 , the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li 2 CO 3 (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate

  18. Tackling Energy Loss for High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells with Integrated Multiple Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lijian; Shi, Xueliang; Jo, Sae Byeok; Liu, Yun; Lin, Fracis; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2018-04-01

    Limited by the various inherent energy losses from multiple channels, organic solar cells show inferior device performance compared to traditional inorganic photovoltaic techniques, such as silicon and CuInGaSe. To alleviate these fundamental limitations, an integrated multiple strategy is implemented including molecular design, interfacial engineering, optical manipulation, and tandem device construction into one cell. Considering the close correlation among these loss channels, a sophisticated quantification of energy-loss reduction is tracked along with each strategy in a perspective to reach rational overall optimum. A novel nonfullerene acceptor, 6TBA, is synthesized to resolve the thermalization and V OC loss, and another small bandgap nonfullerene acceptor, 4TIC, is used in the back sub-cell to alleviate transmission loss. Tandem architecture design significantly reduces the light absorption loss, and compensates carrier dynamics and thermalization loss. Interfacial engineering further reduces energy loss from carrier dynamics in the tandem architecture. As a result of this concerted effort, a very high power conversion efficiency (13.20%) is obtained. A detailed quantitative analysis on the energy losses confirms that the improved device performance stems from these multiple strategies. The results provide a rational way to explore the ultimate device performance through molecular design and device engineering. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The cascade probabilistic functions with taking into account energy losses for ions. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Chapter 3 the cascade probabilistic functions mathematical simulation with taking into account energy losses for ions are considered. The calculation of the CPF on the computer is carried out. The influence of both the interaction number and the penetration depth on the CPF determination field for ions are revealed. The estimation of energy losses contribution in the simplest CPF is made. Calculation algorithm for radiation defects concentration at ion irradiation with use of the CPF with taking into account of energy losses is given

  20. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic

  1. Energy and Economic Losses Due to Constant Power Outages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the economic implication of electricity self-generation in Nigeria. In this regard, energy and exergetic utilization efficiencies of 19 representative generators and gas turbines from Afam power station were assessed based on real data obtained through survey of companies, oral interview, individuals and ...

  2. Search for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2002-01-01

    Searches for a scalar top quark and a scalar bottom quark have been performed using a data sample of 438 pb-1 at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 192 - 209 GeV collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. No evidence for a signal was found. The 95% confidence level lower limit on the scalar top quark mass is 97.6 GeV if the mixing angle between the supersymmetric partners of the left- and right-handed states of the top quark is zero. When the scalar top quark decouples from the Z0 boson, the lower limit is 95.7 GeV. These limits were obtained assuming that the scalar top quark decays into a charm quark and the lightest neutralino, and that the mass difference between the scalar top quark and the lightest neutralino is larger than 10 GeV. The complementary decay mode of the scalar top quark decaying into a bottom quark, a charged lepton and a scalar neutrino has also been studied. The lower limit on the scalar top quark mass is 93.0 GeV for this decay mode, if the mass difference between the scalar top quark a...

  3. The energy-deposition model. Electron loss of heavy ions in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevelko, V.P.; Litsarev, M.S.; Kato, D.; Tawara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Single- and multiple-electron loss processes in collisions of heavy many-electron ions (positive and negative) in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies are considered using the energy-deposition model. The DEPOSIT computer code, created earlier to calculate electron-loss cross sections at high projectile energies, is extended for low and intermediate energies. A description of a new version of DEPOSIT code is given, and the limits of validity for collision velocity in the model are discussed. Calculated electron-loss cross sections for heavy ions and atoms (N + , Ar + , Xe + , U + , U 28+ , W, W + , Ge - , Au - ), colliding with neutral atoms (He, Ne, Ar, W) are compared with available experimental and theoretical data at energies E > 10 keV/u. It is found that in most cases the agreement between experimental data and the present model is within a factor of 2. Combining results obtained by the DEPOSIT code at low and intermediate energies with those by the LOSS-R code at high energies (relativistic Born approximation), recommended electron-loss cross sections in a wide range of collision energy are presented. (author)

  4. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  5. Case Library Construction Technology of Energy Loss in Distribution Networks Considering Regional Differentiation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The grid structures, load levels, and running states of distribution networks in different supply regions are known as the influencing factors of energy loss. In this paper, the case library of energy loss is constructed to differentiate the crucial factors of energy loss in the different supply regions. First of all, the characteristic state values are selected as the representation of the cases based on the analysis of energy loss under various voltage classes and in different types of regions. Then, the methods of Grey Relational Analysis and the K-Nearest Neighbor are utilized to implement the critical technologies of case library construction, including case representation, processing, analysis, and retrieval. Moreover, the analysis software of the case library is designed based on the case library construction technology. Some case studies show that there are many differences and similarities concerning the factors that influence the energy loss in different types of regions. In addition, the most relevant sample case can be retrieved from the case library. Compared with the traditional techniques, constructing a case library provides a new way to find out the characteristics of energy loss in different supply regions and constitutes differentiated loss-reducing programs.

  6. Program NICOLET to integrate energy loss in superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.F.

    1978-08-01

    A voltage pickup coil, inductively coupled to the magnetic field of the superconducting coil under test, is connected so its output may be compared with the terminal voltage of the coil under test. The integrated voltage difference is indicative of the resistive volt-seconds. When multiplied with the main coil current, the volt-seconds yield the loss. In other words, a hysteresis loop is obtained if the integrated voltage difference phi = ∫ΔVdt is plotted as a function of the coil current, i. First, time functions of the two signals phi(t) and i(t) are recorded on a dual-trace digital oscilloscope, and these signals are then recorded on magnetic tape. On a CDC-6600, the recorded information is decoded and plotted, and the hysteresis loops are integrated by the set of FORTRAN programs NICOLET described in this report. 4 figures

  7. Pion radiation by hot quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.; Danos, M.; Universitaet Frankfurt, Germany; National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC)

    1983-01-01

    We consider here an approximately spherical region of the perturbative QCD vacuum, filled with quarks, antiquarks and gluons. For an impenetrable surface between the perturbative and true vacuum states, the inside thermal and degeneracy pressure would lead to an expansion until either pressure equilibrium or a phase transition into individual hadrons is reached. However, if the surface is penetrable, i.e., if it allows transmission of momentum and energy (but not colour) from the inside, then this can lead to a substantial internal energy and pressure loss by radiation - the pressure acting on the surface is reduced, as not all the momentum impinging on the surface has to be reflected. On first thought, the microscopic mechanism for this transmission arises in the following manner: when a fast quark or antiquark hits the boundary, a jet-like structure filled with colour field flux, i.e., a fluxtube might be formed. For sufficiently high quark momentum, this tube, instead of retracting, splits by q anti q pair creation. The leading particle associates with the antiparticle of the pair to form a meson, while the remaining pair particle may retract into the plasma. Difficulties with this model are discussed

  8. Nonlinear energy loss of highly charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.Guenter.

    2000-01-01

    For slow, highly charged heavy ions strong coupling effects in the energy transfer from the projectile-ion to an electron target plasma become important. A theoretical description of this nonlinear ion stopping has to go beyond the standard approaches like the dielectric linear response or the binary collision model which are strictly valid only at weak ion-target coupling. Here we outline an improved treatment which is based on a suitable combination of binary collision and linear response contributions. As has been verified for isotropic, nonmagnetized electron plasmas by comparison with simulations, this approach well reproduces the essential features of nonlinear stopping up to moderate coupling strength. Its extension to anisotropic, magnetized electron plasmas basically involves the fully numerical determination of the momentum and energy transfer in binary ion-electron collisions in the presence of a magnetic field. First results of such calculations are presented and discussed

  9. Constructing quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, A.

    1984-01-01

    The book is a history of the post-war development of high energy physics, from a sociological perspective. The formulation and elaboration of scientific knowledge is interpreted in terms of what the scientists actually do, in the day-to-day practice of the scientific community. (U.K.)

  10. Limits for Recombination in a Low Energy Loss Organic Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew; Sadhanala, Aditya; Nikolka, Mark; Ran, Niva A.; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Stern, Hannah L.; Wang, Ming; Sirringhaus, Henning; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Friend, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Donor-acceptor organic solar cells often show high quantum yields for charge collection, but relatively low open-circuit voltages (VOC) limit power conversion efficiencies to around 12%. We report here the behavior of a system, PIPCP:PC61BM, that exhibits very low electronic disorder (Urbach energy less than 27 meV), very high carrier mobilities in the blend (field-effect mobility for holes >10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1), and a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (50 meV). These characteristics should give excellent performance, and indeed, the VOC is high relative to the donor energy gap. However, we find the overall performance is limited by recombination, with formation of lower-lying triplet excitons on the donor accounting for 90% of the recombination. We find this is a bimolecular process that happens on time scales as short as 100 ps. Thus, although the absence of disorder and the associated high carrier mobility speeds up charge diffusion and extraction at the electrodes, which we measure as early as 1 ns, this also speeds up the recombination channel, giving overall a modest quantum yield of around 60%. We discuss strategies to remove the triplet exciton recombination channel.

  11. Limits for Recombination in a Low Energy Loss Organic Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew

    2016-11-03

    Donor-acceptor organic solar cells often show high quantum yields for charge collection, but relatively low open-circuit voltages (VOC) limit power conversion efficiencies to around 12%. We report here the behavior of a system, PIPCP:PC61BM, that exhibits very low electronic disorder (Urbach energy less than 27 meV), very high carrier mobilities in the blend (field-effect mobility for holes >10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1), and a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (50 meV). These characteristics should give excellent performance, and indeed, the VOC is high relative to the donor energy gap. However, we find the overall performance is limited by recombination, with formation of lower-lying triplet excitons on the donor accounting for 90% of the recombination. We find this is a bimolecular process that happens on time scales as short as 100 ps. Thus, although the absence of disorder and the associated high carrier mobility speeds up charge diffusion and extraction at the electrodes, which we measure as early as 1 ns, this also speeds up the recombination channel, giving overall a modest quantum yield of around 60%. We discuss strategies to remove the triplet exciton recombination channel.

  12. Energy loss of particles in dense matter - calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the last decade, a class of detectors gradually have become more and more important in experimental particle physics. They are called calorimeters, or total absorption detectors. Basically a calorimeter is a block of matter, in which the particle to be measured interacts, and deposits all its energy in the form of a shower of decreasingly lower-energy particles. The block is made such that certain (usually small and hopefully constant) fraction of the initial particle energy is transformed in a measurable signal (light, electrical charge). This lecture mainly deals with sampling calorimeters but in section 2 also fully sensitive devices are briefly treated. In this section calorimeters for detecting electromagnetic showers are discussed. The physics processes relevant to em shower development are examined, and the factors that limit the performance of em calorimeters. Section 3 is devoted to readout techniques for sampling calorimeters. In sections 4-7 hadron calorimeters are discussed. The physics processes relevant to hadron shower development, their consequences for the calorimeter signals and the possibility for optimizing the performance of hadron calorimeters are examined. In section 8 an outlook for future development is given. 31 refs.; 48 figs

  13. Space-Time Geometry of Quark and Strange Quark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We study quark and strange quark matter in the context of general relativity. For this purpose, we solve Einstein's field equations for quark and strange quark matter in spherical symmetric space-times. We analyze strange quark matter for the different equations of state (EOS) in the spherical symmetric space-times, thus we are able to obtain the space-time geometries of quark and strange quark matter. Also, we discuss die features of the obtained solutions. The obtained solutions are consistent with the results of Brookhaven Laboratory, i.e. the quark-gluon plasma has a vanishing shear (i.e. quark-gluon plasma is perfect).

  14. Search for exotic light-flavor quark partners in pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsem, Gerrit van [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Vector-like quarks appear in many new-physics models extending the standard model. We search for vector-like quarks coupling to first-generation quarks using 8 TeV pp collision data collected by the CMS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The exotic quarks are assumed to be produced both singly and in pairs, and to decay via a W, Z or Higgs boson. We have defined various sets of selections on the reconstructed physics objects, subdividing the data set in different event categories, considering final states with at least one muon or electron. No significant excess over standard model expectations has been found, and exclusion limits on the mass of the exotic quarks are set.

  15. Quark matter in astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinto, A.V.

    1987-10-01

    We dicuss the role of quark matter in astrophysics and cosmology. The implications of the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition in the early universe for the element abundances from big bang nucleosynthesis and the composition of the dark matter in the universe are addressed. We discuss the possibility of deciding on an equation of state for high density matter by observing the cooling of a neutron star remnant of SN1987A. Quark matter models for the Centauros events, Cygnus X-3 cosmic ray events, high energy gamma-ray bursts and the solar neutrino problem are described. 25 refs., 3 figs

  16. Color oscillations and measuring the quark charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Color oscillations analogous to neutrino oscillations but with very high frequency are shown to be present in hadron states below color threshold. Experiments to distinguish between fractionally charged and integrally charged quark models both below and above color threshold are discussed. The instantaneous quark charge is shown to be measurable only in very fast processes determined by the high energy behavior of transition amplitudes well above color threshold. Results from the naive parton model for deep inelastic processes which indicate that real charges of quarks and gluons can be measured are shown to be in error because of neglect of color oscillations and interference terms. (author)

  17. Bremsstrahlung spectra from thick-target electron beams with noncollisional energy losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.C.; MacKinnon, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    We consider what can be learned from the bremsstrahlung radiation of fast electrons in a thick target, generalized to include electron energy losses additional to collisions. We show that the observed photon spectrum can, in principle, be inverted to yield an integral functional of the electron spectrum and the effective energy loss rate. In the light of this result, there seems no reason to suppose, in the absence of a priori information to the contrary, that the photon spectrum is symptomatic more of the fast electron distribution than of the energy loss processes. In cases where the electron injection spectrum is known on independent observational or theoretical grounds, it is possible to infer an effective, ''phenomenological'' energy loss function. In the more general case, however, fullest possible modeling of the physical situation and comparison of the resulting spectrum with observations is all that can be attempted

  18. Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping

    In supermarkets, control strategies determine both the energy consumption of refrigeration systems and the quality loss of refrigerated foodstuffs. The question is, what can be done to optimize the balance between quality loss and energy consumption? This thesis tries to answer this question...... by applying two main optimization strategies to traditional refrigeration systems. The first strategy is a new defrost-on-demand scheme, which based on an objective function between quality loss and energy consumption, continuously seeks an optimal time interval for defrosting in dynamic situation. The second...... strategy is through utilization of the thermal mass of the refrigerated foodstuffs, the day-night temperature variation and the capacity control of the compressor, to realize a trade-off between system energy consumption and food quality loss....

  19. Characteristic electron energy loss in lanthanum films adsorbed on tungsten (110) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Gorchinskij, A.D.; Kobylyanskij, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The spectrum of electron energy loss (ELS) in a wide range of energy loss 0-150 eV has been studied for La films adsorbed on W(110) single crystal with the coverage Θ from submonolayer to a few monolayers. The concentration dependence of loss energy peaks amplitude of different nature has been studied for the adsorption of rare earth element on refractory substrate. It has been shown that the essential information for the interpretation of the energy loss nature may be obtained by the investigation of such dependences for La adsorption on W(110). It is found that the surface and bulk plasmons peaks appear in ELS of La-W(110) system before the completion of the physical monolayer. Thus, the collectivization of valence electrons in the rare earth element film at the transition metal surface ensues for the submonolayer coverage like in the case of collective processes in alkali and alkaline earth element films

  20. An investigation of standby energy losses in residential sector: Solutions and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [G. Narayanamma Institute of Technology and Science (for Women), Hyderabad (India); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the standby power losses of household appliances and determines these losses by field measurements and bottom-up approaches. It is revealed that average standby power losses of e-appliances at household in Oman is 103.4 Watts and could further increase if other miscellaneous appliances are also taken into account. Calculations show that TV sets alone are responsible to consume 1.89 MW standby powers across the country. The paper considers various technological and socio-economic options to diminish the standby power consumption and signify that 42.72% of energy consumed by appliances can be saved by end-users implementing suitable measures. Energy management programmes like energy efficiency standards, labelling and policy instruments to tackle the standby power losses are also discussed. Finally, paper looks into the barriers and their way-outs to implement the energy efficiency standards and labelling.

  1. Understanding energy loss in parallelly connected microbial fuel cells: Non-Faradaic current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Junyeong; Sim, Junyoung; Feng, Yujie; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the mechanisms of energy loss in parallel connection of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is explored using two MFC units producing different open circuit voltage (OCV) and current. In open circuit mode, non-Faradaic current flows in low OCV unit, implying energy loss caused by different OCVs in parallelly stacked MFCs. In a stacked MFC in parallel under close circuit mode, it is confirmed that energy loss occurs until the working voltage in high OCV unit becomes identical to the other unit having low OCV. This result indicates that different voltage between individual MFC units can cause energy loss due to both non-Faradic and Faradaic current that flow from high voltage unit to low voltage unit even in parallelly stacked MFCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Incorporation of Finite Element Analysis into Annual Energy Loss Estimation for Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    Several methods of estimating the annual energy losses for wind turbine generators are investigated in this paper. Utilizing a high amount of transient simulations with motion is first demonstrated. Usage of a space-time transformation for prediction of iron losses is also explored. The methods, ...

  3. The sub-bandgap energy loss satellites in the RIXS spectra of beryllium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusik, I.; Kaeaembre, T.; Kooser, K.; Pustovarov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Kukk, E.; Kikas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Be 1s RIXS spectra have been measured in Be containing crystals phenakite and chrysoberyl. → A strong energy loss sideband to the elastic scattering peak similar to BeO is found in both minerals. → Additionally the Si 2p RIXS spectra of phenakite also show a strong energy loss sideband to the elastic scattering peak. → The energy loss shoulder appears to result from lattice relaxation in the absorption site. - Abstract: Resonant X-ray inelastic scattering spectra have been measured in BeO, phenakite (Be 2 SiO 4 ) and chrysoberyl (BeAl 2 O 4 ) with the excitation energy near the beryllium K edge. The RIXS spectra excited in the vicinity of the Be 1s core resonance show two principal features: the scattering on a valence excitation (which at higher excitation energies verges into the characteristic K α emission), and a remarkably strong energy loss sideband to the elastic scattering peak. The energy loss shoulder appears to result from lattice relaxation in the absorption site. The comparison of the RIXS spectra of phenakite, chrysoberyl and BeO shows that the strength of the low energy sideband differs greatly; it is strongest in BeO and weakest in phenakite. The Si 2p RIXS spectra of phenakite also display a similar strong sub-bandgap energy loss tail. To gain further insight to this process, transitions in a system with a single vibrational mode have been modelled. The phonon relaxation has been simulated empirically by 'smearing' the photoabsortion-populated vibrational levels with lower levels. This simple model is able to qualitatively explain this wide energy loss shoulder.

  4. The sub-bandgap energy loss satellites in the RIXS spectra of beryllium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuusik, I., E-mail: ivar@fi.tartu.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kaeaembre, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kooser, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Pustovarov, V.; Ivanov, V. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kukk, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Kikas, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Be 1s RIXS spectra have been measured in Be containing crystals phenakite and chrysoberyl. {yields} A strong energy loss sideband to the elastic scattering peak similar to BeO is found in both minerals. {yields} Additionally the Si 2p RIXS spectra of phenakite also show a strong energy loss sideband to the elastic scattering peak. {yields} The energy loss shoulder appears to result from lattice relaxation in the absorption site. - Abstract: Resonant X-ray inelastic scattering spectra have been measured in BeO, phenakite (Be{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and chrysoberyl (BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) with the excitation energy near the beryllium K edge. The RIXS spectra excited in the vicinity of the Be 1s core resonance show two principal features: the scattering on a valence excitation (which at higher excitation energies verges into the characteristic K{sub {alpha}} emission), and a remarkably strong energy loss sideband to the elastic scattering peak. The energy loss shoulder appears to result from lattice relaxation in the absorption site. The comparison of the RIXS spectra of phenakite, chrysoberyl and BeO shows that the strength of the low energy sideband differs greatly; it is strongest in BeO and weakest in phenakite. The Si 2p RIXS spectra of phenakite also display a similar strong sub-bandgap energy loss tail. To gain further insight to this process, transitions in a system with a single vibrational mode have been modelled. The phonon relaxation has been simulated empirically by 'smearing' the photoabsortion-populated vibrational levels with lower levels. This simple model is able to qualitatively explain this wide energy loss shoulder.

  5. Hydrodynamic evolution and jet energy loss in Cu + Cu collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenke, Bjoern; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a hybrid description of Cu + Cu collisions using (3 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamics (music) for the bulk evolution and a Monte Carlo simulation (martini) for the evolution of high-momentum partons in the hydrodynamical background. We explore the limits of this description by going to small system sizes and determine the dependence on different fractions of wounded nucleon and binary collisions scaling of the initial energy density. We find that Cu + Cu collisions are well described by the hybrid description at least up to 20% central collisions.

  6. Mott mechanism and the hadronic to quark matter phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, D.; Reinholz, F.

    1984-01-01

    A unified description of both the hadronic and quark matter can be found using the technique of thermodynamic Green functions. The destruction of bound states (quark deconfinement) is related microscopically to the Mott mechanism which leads to a different behaviour of free particle energies and bound state energies if the particle density is increasing. A simple model calculation is performed to obtain a rough estimate for the critical temperature of the hadronic-quark matter phase transition

  7. Energy losses in mixed matrix superconducting wires under fast pulsed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollan, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Energy losses have been measured on a set of mixed matrix (CuNi, Cu, NbTi) superconducting wires at B's up to 1.5 x 10 7 G/s. The losses have been measured as a function of wire diameter, twist pitch, maximum applied field, and B. Both static and dynamic losses were measured for a field applied perpendicularly to the wire axis. The dynamic losses were measured by slowly applying an external field to a sample and then causing the field to decay exponentially in roughly 1 ms to 10 ms. Under low B (9 kG) and B (10 6 G/s) conditions the hysteretic loss dominated. At high B (21 kG) and B (1.5 x 10 7 G/s) the matrix losses became dominant. The systematic variation of the losses with the mentioned parameters will be presented and will be compared to theoretical predictions

  8. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  9. Energy loss of ions by electric-field fluctuations in a magnetized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B; Deutsch, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the energy loss of charged particles in a magnetized classical plasma due to the electric-field fluctuations are reported. The energy loss for a test particle is calculated through the linear-response theory. At vanishing magnetic field, the electric-field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the charged particle for all velocities. It has been shown that in the presence of strong magnetic field, this effect occurs only at low velocities. In the case of high velocities, the test particle systematically loses its energy due to the interaction with a stochastic electric field. The net effect of the fluctuations is the systematic reduction of the total energy loss (i.e., the sum of the polarization and stochastic energy losses) at vanishing magnetic field and reduction or enhancement at strong field, depending on the velocity of the particle. It is found that the energy loss of the slow heavy ion contains an anomalous term that depends logarithmically on the projectile mass. The physical origin of this anomalous term is the coupling between the cyclotron motion of the plasma electrons and the long-wavelength, low-frequency fluctuations produced by the projectile ion. This effect may strongly enhance the stochastic energy gain of the particle.

  10. Depth-selective X-ray absorption spectroscopy by detection of energy-loss Auger electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isomura, Noritake, E-mail: isomura@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Soejima, Narumasa; Iwasaki, Shiro [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Nomoto, Toyokazu; Murai, Takaaki [Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center (AichiSR), 250-3 Minamiyamaguchi-cho, Seto, Aichi 489-0965 (Japan); Kimoto, Yasuji [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A unique XAS method is proposed for depth profiling of chemical states. • PEY mode detecting energy-loss electrons enables a variation in the probe depth. • Si K-edge XAS spectra of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Si multilayer films have been investigated. • Deeper information was obtained in the spectra measured at larger energy loss. • Probe depth could be changed by the selection of the energy of detected electrons. - Abstract: A unique X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) method is proposed for depth profiling of chemical states in material surfaces. Partial electron yield mode detecting energy-loss Auger electrons, called the inelastic electron yield (IEY) mode, enables a variation in the probe depth. As an example, Si K-edge XAS spectra for a well-defined multilayer sample (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Si) have been investigated using this method at various kinetic energies. We found that the peaks assigned to the layers from the top layer to the substrate appeared in the spectra in the order of increasing energy loss relative to the Auger electrons. Thus, the probe depth can be changed by the selection of the kinetic energy of the energy loss electrons in IEY-XAS.

  11. Depth-selective X-ray absorption spectroscopy by detection of energy-loss Auger electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isomura, Noritake; Soejima, Narumasa; Iwasaki, Shiro; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Murai, Takaaki; Kimoto, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A unique XAS method is proposed for depth profiling of chemical states. • PEY mode detecting energy-loss electrons enables a variation in the probe depth. • Si K-edge XAS spectra of the Si_3N_4/SiO_2/Si multilayer films have been investigated. • Deeper information was obtained in the spectra measured at larger energy loss. • Probe depth could be changed by the selection of the energy of detected electrons. - Abstract: A unique X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) method is proposed for depth profiling of chemical states in material surfaces. Partial electron yield mode detecting energy-loss Auger electrons, called the inelastic electron yield (IEY) mode, enables a variation in the probe depth. As an example, Si K-edge XAS spectra for a well-defined multilayer sample (Si_3N_4/SiO_2/Si) have been investigated using this method at various kinetic energies. We found that the peaks assigned to the layers from the top layer to the substrate appeared in the spectra in the order of increasing energy loss relative to the Auger electrons. Thus, the probe depth can be changed by the selection of the kinetic energy of the energy loss electrons in IEY-XAS.

  12. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei; Cheng, Bin; Liu, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Lin; He, Jr-Hau; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  13. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  14. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  15. Quarks and partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of inelastic electron scattering at SLAC and of neutrino scattering at CERN have been widely interpreted as giving support to the idea that the nucleon is built from elementary constituents, called partons, and that these partons have the same quantum numbers as the quarks that are familiar in spectroscopy. In particular, a very simple regularity in the data, known as scale invariance or just 'scaling' was seen at least at moderate energies (2 2 > approximately 1 GeV) which is natural in the parton model. The data on e + e - annihilation also appear to be consistent with scaling when Esub(cm) approximately 5 GeV. These lectures are concerned with the scaling phenomena. One may expect the new hadronic degree of freedom to generate scaling violations in inelastic electron and neutrino scattering. These are mentioned briefly in these lectures. (Auth.)

  16. Experimental investigation of energy loss and end loss physics in a linear theta pinch. Scientific report 81-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of particle and thermal loss processes from a 50-cm long theta pinch are presented. The plasma was generated with a 40-mTorr fill of deuterium in a 3.81 cm radius discharge tube; 67% Z-preionization was followed by a main current discharge that produced a 23-kG peak magnetic field in 4.75 μsec. The electron density and temperature in the plasma column at the end of dynamic implosion were characterized by 1.0 x 10 16 cm -3 and 20 eV, respectively. This was followed by adiabatic compression which occurred with the particle and energy loss of interest. The diagnostics employed in this experiment were Thomson scattering, continuum radiation spectroscopy, local magnetic-field probes, local pressure probes, and diamagnetic loops. Axial temperature and density profiles were mapped from the coil into the end region

  17. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan-e~Alam; Subhasis~Chattopadhyay; Tapan~Nayak

    2008-10-01

    Institute (Kolkata) Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton) Danfysik, Department of Science and Technology (New Delhi) Elsevier B V (Amsterdam) Government of Rajasthan European Organization for Nuclear Research (Geneva) Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt) Hewlett-Packard Indian Institute of Astrophysics (Bangalore) Institute of Physics (Bhubaneswar) IOP Publishing (Bristol) Merint Infrastructure Ltd. Rajasthan Travel service (Jaipur) RIKEN-BNL Research Centre (Upton) Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kolkata) Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (Mumbai) The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Chennai) Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (Kolkata) Without the generous support of these organizations it would not have been possible to organize the conference successfully. Jaipur is a city of valour, of battles won and lost, of the vanquished and the victors; Jaipur is a city of legends and romance. Now Jaipur is also a city of carnival; carnival in the world of quarks and gluons with the beautiful maiden ALICE gracing the quarkland.

  18. Elastic and radiative heavy quark interactions in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uphoff, Jan; Fochler, Oliver; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Elastic and radiative heavy quark interactions with light partons are studied with the partonic transport model named the Boltzmann approach to multiparton scatterings (BAMPSs). After calculating the cross section of radiative processes for finite masses in the improved Gunion–Bertsch approximation and verifying this calculation by comparing to the exact result, we study elastic and radiative heavy quark energy loss in a static medium of quarks and gluons. Furthermore, the full 3 + 1D space–time evolution of gluons, light quarks, and heavy quarks in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are calculated with BAMPS including elastic and radiative heavy flavor interactions. Treating light and heavy particles on the same footing in the same framework, we find that the experimentally measured nuclear modification factor of charged hadrons and D mesons at the LHC can be simultaneously described. In addition, we calculate the heavy flavor evolution with an improved screening procedure from hard-thermal-loop calculations and confront the results with experimental data of the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow of heavy flavor particles at the RHIC and the LHC. (paper)

  19. Discovery of single top quark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillberg, Dag [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb-1 of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element Vtb, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f1L| = 1.05 -0.12+0.13, where f1L is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5

  20. Energy loss and straggling of MeV Si ions in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vockenhuber, C., E-mail: vockenhuber@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Arstila, K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Jensen, J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Julin, J.; Kettunen, H.; Laitinen, M.; Rossi, M.; Sajavaara, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Thöni, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Whitlow, H.J. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    We present measurements of energy loss and straggling of Si ions in gases. An energy range from 0.5 to 12 MeV/u was covered using the 6 MV EN tandem accelerator at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and the K130 cyclotron accelerator facility at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Our energy-loss data compare well with calculation based on the SRIM and PASS code. The new straggling measurements support a pronounced peak in He gas at around 4 MeV/u predicted by recent theoretical calculations. The straggling curve structure in the other gases (N{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr) is relatively flat in the covered energy range. Although there is a general agreement between the straggling data and the theoretical calculations, the experimental uncertainties are too large to confirm or exclude the predicted weak multi-peak structure in the energy-loss straggling.

  1. Electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions in high energy collisions with molecular oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, P; Nielsen, SB; Sørensen, M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions Lys-Hn(n)+ (n = 7 - 17) and the concomitant formation of Lys-Hn(n+1)+. in high-energy collisions with molecular oxygen (laboratory kinetic energy = 50 x n keV). The cross section for electron loss increases with the charge state...... of the precursor from n = 7 to n = 11 and then remains constant when n increases further. The absolute size of the cross section ranges from 100 to 200 A2. The electron loss is modeled as an electron transfer process between lysozyme cations and molecular oxygen....

  2. Physics of the quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonyi, J.; Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules; Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest

    1995-01-01

    Some features of the high temperature gluonic matter, such as the breakdown of the fundamental group symmetry by the kinetic energy, the screening of test quarks by some unusual gluon states and the explanation of the absence of isolated quarks in the vacuum without the help of infinities are presented in this talk. Special attention is paid to separate the dynamical input inferred from the numerical results of lattice gauge theory from the kinematics. (author)

  3. Hadron production from a boiling quark soup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, H.; Nielsen, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    A thermodynamical quark model is presented which can predict cross sections for particle production in hadronic interactions at high energies. In this model a hadronic collision gives rise to a soup of quarks and antiquarks at some temperature kT approximately 170 MeV. Results for inclusive meson production cross sections look promising in comparison with experiments. A formula for the inclusive cross section is given. (Auth.)

  4. Duality and quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.; Pashnev, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    As it has shown, the study of vacuum transitions in dual models makes it possible to establish certain relations between duality, on the one hand, and the quark structure of resonances and the internal symmetries, on the other. In the case of Veneziano model the corresponding quark structure of resonances is determined by the infinity number of quarks of increasing mass. The intercents of the main trajectory and all adopted trajectories are additive with respect to squares of mass-forming quarks. The latter circumstance results in a number of important consequences: the presence of quadratic mass formulas for resonance states; the exact SU(infinity)-symmetry for the three-resonance coupling constants; the validity of Adler's self-consistency principle for external particles composed of different quarks and anti-quarks, etc

  5. Pore size determination from charged particle energy loss measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Armitage, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new method aimed at measuring porosity and mean pore size in materials has been developed at Harwell. The energy width or variance of a transmitted or backscattered charged particle beam is measured and related to the mean pore size via the assumption that the variance in total path length in the porous material is given by (Δx 2 )=na 2 , where n is the mean number of pores and a the mean pore size. It is shown on the basis of a general and rigorous theory of total path length distribution that this approximation can give rise to large errors in the mean pore size determination particularly in the case of large porosities (epsilon>0.5). In practice it is found that it is not easy to utilize fully the general theory because accurate measurements of the first four moments are required to determine the means and variances of the pore and inter-pore length distributions. Several models for these distributions are proposed. When these are incorporated in the general theory the determinations of mean pore size from experimental measurements on powder samples are in good agreement with values determined by other methods. (Auth.)

  6. Study of hadronization using energy flow from e+e- annihilation into quarks and gluons at √s of 29 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.J.

    1985-11-01

    We have made a high statistics study of QCD jets produced in e + e - annihilations at √s of 29 GeV and observed in the MAC detector located at the PEP storage ring at SLAC. The MAC detector uses calorimetry and provides a homogeneous response over much of its 98% . 4π sr instrumented solid angle. A data sample of well reconstructed hadronic events was selected by requiring that E/sub vis/ in the calorimeters be near √s, and almost all the energy be deposited in the central calorimeters. Fits of the jet transverse energy flow are made to the data using String (STR) model and several types of Independent Jet (IJM) model hypotheses, where α/sub s/, the strong coupling constant, and sigma/sub q/, the width of the secondary quark P/sub perpendicular/ distribution, are free parameters. The fits to O(α/sub s/ 2 using MS-bar renormalization yield α/sub s/ approx.0.17 with the STR hypothesis, and α/sub s/ approx.0.12 with the various IJM hypotheses. The correlations between α/sub s/ and sigma/sub q/ are examined. Detailed comparisons were made with other experimental results. The energy flow projected onto the event plane of 3-jet events selected from the above data sample was studied. The data shows an asymmetric energy flow around the thin jet. Such an asymmetry was predicted by the STR model, and a cluster model (Webber) incorporating soft gluon interference. The various IJM models show no such asymmetry. We associate this asymmetry with coherence effects during hadronization. 106 refs., 58 figs., 18 tabs

  7. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  8. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Cross Section in the Lepton Plus Jets Final State in Proton-Antiproton Collisions at a Center of Mass Energy of 1.96 TeV Using the CDF II Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhenbin [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of the single top quark cross section in the lepton plus jets final state using an integrated luminosity corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of p\\bar p collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The single top candidate events are identified by the signature of a charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and two or three jets with at least one of them identified as originating from a bottom quark. A new Monte Carlo generator POWHEG is used to model the single top quark production processes, which include s-channel, t-channel, and Wt-channel. A neural network multivariate method is exploited to discriminate the single top quark signal from the comparatively large backgrounds. We measure a single top production cross section of $3.04^{+0.57}_{-0.53} (\\mathrm{stat.~+~syst.})$ pb assuming $m_{\\rm top}=172.5$~GeV/$c^2$. In addition, we extract the CKM matrix element value $|V_{tb}|=0.96\\pm 0.09~(\\mathrm{stat.~+~syst.})\\ ± 0.05~(\\mathrm{theory})$ and set a lower limit of $|V_{tb}|>0.78$ at the 95% credibility level.

  9. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass in the All-Hadronic Top-Antitop Decay Channel Using Proton-Proton Collision Data from the ATLAS Experiment at a Centre-of-Mass Energy of 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220136

    A measurement of the top quark mass ($m_{top}$) is presented using top quark candidates reconstructed from the jets in all-hadronic $t\\bar{t}$ decays. The analysis makes use of the full ATLAS dataset collected over the 2012 period at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV and with a total integrated luminosity of $\\int Ldt=20.6$ fb$^{-1}$. A five-jet trigger, together with an offline cut requiring five central jets with a transverse momentum of at least 60 GeV, was used to pre-select candidate signal events. A series of selection cuts are subsequently employed to increase the signal fraction in data events, motivated by both measured data and simulation. These cuts, as well the analytic $\\chi^2$ reconstruction algorithm to designate which jets are to be used to reconstruct the top quarks, aim to select those events and candidate top quarks deemed most consistent with an all-hadronic $t\\bar{t}$ decay topology. The most discriminating cut involves the output of a b-tagging algorithm employed to ident...

  10. Quark diquark symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.M. de

    1980-01-01

    Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt

  11. Space station as quark matter factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1984-11-01

    We review the theoretical arguments indicating that hadronic matter dissolves into a quark gluon plasma at energy densities only one order of magnitude above the energy density in nuclei and point out that such energy densities can be achieved in nuclear collisions at 10 to 1000 AGeV. 17 references

  12. Surface plasmon modes of a single silver nanorod: An electron energy loss study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Olivia; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2011-01-01

    We present an electron energy loss study using energy filtered TEM of spatially resolved surface plasmon excitations on a silver nanorod of aspect ratio 14.2 resting on a 30 nm thick silicon nitride membrane. Our results show that the excitation is quantized as resonant modes whose intensity maxima...

  13. Soil fertility and soil loss constraints on crop residue removal for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, S.

    1979-07-01

    A summary of the methodologies used to estimate the soil fertility and soil loss constraints on crop residue removal for energy production is presented. Estimates of excess residue are developed for wheat in north-central Oklahoma and for corn and soybeans in central Iowa. These sample farming situations are analyzed in other research in the Analysis Division of the Solar Energy Research Institute.

  14. Structure of Nonlocal quark vacuum condensate in non-perturbative QCD vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Qianfei; Ma Weixing; Zhou Lijuan; Jiang Weizhou

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger Equations (DSEs) with the rainbow truncation, and Operator Product Expansion, the structure of nonlocal quark vacuum condensate in QCD, described by quark self-energy functions A_f and B_f given usually by the solutions of the DSEs of quark propagator, is predicted numerically. We also calculate the local quark vacuum condensate, quark-gluon mixed local vacuum condensate, and quark virtuality. The self-energy functions A_f and B_f are given by the parameterized quark propagator functions σ_v"f (p"2) and σ_s"f (p"2) of Roberts and Williams, instead of the numerical solutions of the DSEs. Our calculated results are in reasonable agreement with those of QCD sum rules, Lattice QCD calculations, and instanton model predictions, although the resulting local quark vacuum condensate for light quarks, u, d, s, are a little bit larger than those of the above theoretical predictions. We think the differences are caused by model dependence. The larger of strange quark vacuum condensate than u, d quark is due to the s quark mass which is more larger than u, d quark masses. Of course, the Roberts-Williams parameterized quark propagator is an empirical formulism, which approximately describes quark propagation. (authors)

  15. The Quark - A Decade Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, James T.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews theoretical principles underlying the quark model. Indicates that the agreement with experimental results and the understanding of the quark-quark force are two hurdles for the model to survive in the future. (CC)

  16. Distributions of energy losses of electrons and pions in the CBM TRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishina, E.P.; Akishina, T.P.; Ivanov, V.V.; Denisova, O.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    The distributions of energy losses of electrons and pions in the TRD detector of the CBM experiment are considered. We analyze the measurements of the energy deposits in one-layer TRD prototype obtained during the test beam (GSI, Darmstadt, February 2006) and Monte Carlo simulations for the n-layered TRD realized with the help of GEANT in frames of the CBM ROOT. We show that 1) energy losses both for real measurements and GEANT simulations are approximated with a high accuracy by a log-normal distribution for π and a weighted sum of two log-normal distributions for e; 2) GEANT simulations noticeably differ from real measurements and, as a result, we have a significant loss in the efficiency of the e/π identification. A procedure to control and correct the process of the energy deposit of electrons in the TRD is developed

  17. Search for supersymmetry in final states with a single lepton, b-quark jets, and missing transverse energy in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Pazzini, Jacopo; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; 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Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-03-05

    A search motivated by supersymmetric models with light top squarks is presented using proton-proton collision data recorded with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV during 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98 inverse femtobarns. The analysis is based on final states with a single lepton, b-quark jets, and missing transverse energy. Standard model yields are predicted from data using two different approaches. The observed event numbers are found to be compatible with these predictions. Results are interpreted in the context of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model and of a simplified model with four top quarks in the final state.

  18. Electronic energy loss of low velocity H+ beams in Al, Ag, Sb, Au and Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, J.E.; Martinez Tamayo, G.; Lantschner, G.H.; Eckardt, J.C.; Arista, N.R.

    1993-01-01

    The energy loss of H + ions in thin polycrystalline Al, Sb, Ag, Au and Bi films has been determined in the energy range below 10 keV. This low-energy range is of special interest to fill a lack of low-energy experimental data and test various theoretical predictions and semiempirical formulas. We find that the general theoretical prediction of a velocity-proportional dependence of energy loss does not hold for all targets studied in this work. The velocity-proportionality is better satisfied for Al, Sb and Bi, whereas a departure from such dependence is observed at lower energies for Ag and Au targets. The results obtained here are in good general agreement with nonlinear stopping power calculations based on density functional theory. Comparison with semiempirical predictions, and other experimental results are also done. (orig.)

  19. Reaction rate and energy-loss rate for photopair production by relativistic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Michal J.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Sikora, Marek

    1992-01-01

    The process of e(+/-) pair production by relativistic nuclei on ambient photons is considered. The process is important for cosmic-ray nuclei in interstellar and intergalactic space as well as in galactic and extragalactic compact objects. The rate of this process is given by an integral of the cross section over the photon angular and energy distribution. In the case of isotropic photons, the angular integration is performed to provide an expression for the rate at given photon energy in the nucleus rest frame. The total rate then becomes a single integral of that rate over the photon energy distribution. Formulas are also given for the fractional energy loss of a relativistic nucleus colliding with a photon of a given energy in the rest frame. The nucleus energy-loss rate is integrated over the photon angular distribution in the case of isotropic photons, and simple fits are provided.

  20. Effect of energetic ion loss on ICRF heating efficiency and energy confinement time in heliotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.; Nuehrenberg, J.

    1999-06-01

    ICRF heating efficiency and the global energy confinement time during ICRF heating are investigated including the effect of energetic ion loss in heliotrons. The approximate formula of ICRF heating efficiency is derived using the results based on Monte Carlo simulations. The global energy confinement time including energetic ion effect can be expressed in terms of ICRF heating power, plasma density, and magnetic field strength in heliotrons. Our results in the CHS plasma show the systematic decrement of the global energy confinement time due to the energetic ion loss from the assumed energy confinement scaling law, which is consistent with the experimental observations. Also we apply our model to the ICRF minority heating in the LHD plasma in two cases of typical magnetic configurations. The clear increment of the global energy confinement time due to the stored energy of energetic tail ions is obtained in the 'orbit improved' configuration, while the decrement is observed in the 'standard' configuration. (author)

  1. Search for Dark Matter in Missing-Energy Final States with an Energetic Jet or Top Quarks with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00245767

    The overwhelming astrophysical evidence for Dark Matter is an important motivation to search for new physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the Standard Model of particle physics is able to predict measurements and observations to an astounding precision, it does not provide a candidate particle for Dark Matter. If possibly produced in high-energy proton-proton collisions, such particles would traverse the detectors without leaving a signal. Hence, searches rely on the resulting momentum imbalance in the transverse plane. One particular extension of the Standard Model that allows for a Dark Matter candidate is Supersymmetry. Since the supersymmetric partner of the top quark is expected to be relatively light it could be in reach of LHC experiments and possibly detected. This thesis presents a study of the validity of commonly-used effective field theory models of Dark Matter production at the LHC. It shows that in a significant fraction of events the assumptions of an effective field theory...

  2. Low-maintenance energy requirements of obese dogs after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Mather, Nicola J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.

  3. Energy loss straggling in Aluminium foils for Li and C ions in fractional energy loss limits (ΔE/E) ∼10-60%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, P. K.; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Shyam; Sharma, V.; Khan, S. A.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    The energy loss straggling of Li and C ions in Al foils of various thicknesses has been measured, within the fractional energy loss limit (∆E/E) ∼ 10-60%. These measurements have been performed using the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility available at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The measured straggling values have been compared with the corresponding predicted values adopting popularly used collisional straggling formulations viz Bohr, Lindhard and Scharff, Bethe-Livingston, Titeica. In addition, the experimental data has been compared to the Yang et al. empirical formula and Close Form Model, recently proposed by Montanari et al. The straggling values derived by Titeica theory were found to be in better agreement with the measured values as compared to other straggling formulations. The charge-exchange straggling component has been estimated from the measured data based on Titeica's theory. Finally, a function of the ion effective charge and the energy loss fraction within the target has been fitted to the latter straggling component.

  4. Measurements of the top-quark properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The top-quark discovered in 1995 is the third-generation up-type quark of the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Precise measurements of the top-quark properties at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies are of great interest, providing an opportunity to test the SM and to search for new physics in the top-quark sector. This review covers recent results from the ATLAS experiment on measurements of top-quark mass, polarization, spin correlations between top-quark and antitop-quark, $t\\bar{t}\\gamma$ cross section, $W$-boson polarization in top-quark decays and searches for new physics in events with top-quarks in the final state. Measurements have been performed on data collected by the ATLAS detector corresponding up to 5 $fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity at centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV.

  5. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinov'ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  6. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov’ev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble

  7. Quark ensembles with the infinite correlation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinov’ev, G. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Bogoliubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (Ukraine); Molodtsov, S. V., E-mail: molodtsov@itep.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    A number of exactly integrable (quark) models of quantum field theory with the infinite correlation length have been considered. It has been shown that the standard vacuum quark ensemble—Dirac sea (in the case of the space-time dimension higher than three)—is unstable because of the strong degeneracy of a state, which is due to the character of the energy distribution. When the momentum cutoff parameter tends to infinity, the distribution becomes infinitely narrow, leading to large (unlimited) fluctuations. Various vacuum ensembles—Dirac sea, neutral ensemble, color superconductor, and BCS state—have been compared. In the case of the color interaction between quarks, the BCS state has been certainly chosen as the ground state of the quark ensemble.

  8. Top quark mass measurements with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, Nataliia

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the top quark mass are presented, obtained from CMS data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV. The mass of the top quark is measured using several methods and channels, including the reconstructed invariant mass distribution of the top quark, an analysis of endpoint spectra as well as measurements from shapes of top quark decay distributions. The dependence of the mass measurement on the kinematic phase space is investigated. The results of the various channels are combined and compared to the world average. The top mass and also $\\alpha_{\\textnormal S}$ are extracted from the top pair cross section measured at CMS.

  9. Heavy quark production by neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.; Tanaka, K.

    1979-01-01

    The rate for producing t- and b-quarks in, respectively, neutrino and antineutrino interactions with nucleons are estimated. Experimental quark parton distribution functions, SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) gauge group mixing angles, and threshold suppression through rescaling are used in the calculation. The ratios to total cross sections of b-quark production by anti nu, R/sub b//sup anti nu/, and t-quark production by ν, R/sub t//sup nu/, are, respectively, R/sub b//sup anti nu/ approximately equal to 10 -4 and R/sub t//sup nu/ approximately equal to 10 -5 for an incident energy of 200 GeV. 13 references

  10. Quark bag coupling to finite size pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kam, J.; Pirner, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    A standard approximation in theories of quark bags coupled to a pion field is to treat the pion as an elementary field ignoring its substructure and finite size. A difficulty associated with these treatments in the lack of stability of the quark bag due to the rapid increase of the pion pressure on the bad as the bag size diminishes. We investigate the effects of the finite size of the qanti q pion on the pion quark bag coupling by means of a simple nonlocal pion quark interaction. With this amendment the pion pressure on the bag vanishes if the bag size goes to zero. No stability problems are encountered in this description. Furthermore, for extended pions, no longer a maximum is set to the bag parameter B. Therefore 'little bag' solutions may be found provided that B is large enough. We also discuss the possibility of a second minimum in the bag energy function. (orig.)

  11. High-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jessica A; Scheltens, Frank J; Drummy, Lawrence F; Durstock, Michael F; Hage, Fredrik S; Ramasse, Quentin M; McComb, David W

    2017-09-01

    Advances in electron monochromator technology are providing opportunities for high energy resolution (10 - 200meV) electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to be performed in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The energy-loss near-edge structure in core-loss spectroscopy is often limited by core-hole lifetimes rather than the energy spread of the incident illumination. However, in the valence-loss region, the reduced width of the zero loss peak makes it possible to resolve clearly and unambiguously spectral features at very low energy-losses (photovoltaics (OPVs): poly(3-hexlythiophene) (P3HT), [6,6] phenyl-C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and fullerene (C 60 ). Data was collected on two different monochromated instruments - a Nion UltraSTEM 100 MC 'HERMES' and a FEI Titan 3 60-300 Image-Corrected S/TEM - using energy resolutions (as defined by the zero loss peak full-width at half-maximum) of 35meV and 175meV, respectively. The data was acquired to allow deconvolution of plural scattering, and Kramers-Kronig analysis was utilized to extract the complex dielectric functions. The real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric functions obtained from the two instruments were compared to evaluate if the enhanced resolution in the Nion provides new opto-electronic information for these organic materials. The differences between the spectra are discussed, and the implications for STEM-EELS studies of advanced materials are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Two-loop hard-thermal-loop thermodynamics with quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Petitgirard, Emmanuel; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the quark contribution to the free energy of a hot quark-gluon plasma to two-loop order using hard-thermal-loop (HTL) perturbation theory. All ultraviolet divergences can be absorbed into renormalizations of the vacuum energy and the HTL quark and gluon mass parameters. The quark and gluon HTL mass parameters are determined self-consistently by a variational prescription. Combining the quark contribution with the two-loop HTL perturbation theory free energy for pure glue we obtain the total two-loop QCD free energy. Comparisons are made with lattice estimates of the free energy for N f =2 and with exact numerical results obtained in the large-N f limit

  13. Energy Deficit Required for Rapid Weight Loss in Elite Collegiate Wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Emi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Shiose, Keisuke; Osawa, Takuya; Motonaga, Keiko; Ouchi, Shiori; Kamei, Akiko; Nakajima, Kohei; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Okamura, Koji

    2018-04-26

    To determine energy density for rapid weight loss (RWL) of weight-classified sports, eight male elite wrestlers were instructed to lose 6% of body mass (BM) within 53 h. Energy deficit during the RWL was calculated by subtracting total energy expenditure (TEE) determined using the doubly labeled water method (DLW) from energy intake (EI) assessed with diet records. It was also estimated from body composition change estimated with the four-component model (4C) and other conventional methods. BM decreased significantly by 4.7 ± 0.5 kg (6.4 ± 0.5%). Total body water loss was the major component of the BM loss (71.0 ± 7.6%). TEE was 9446 ± 1422 kcal, and EI was 2366 ± 1184 kcal during the RWL of 53-h; therefore, the energy deficit was 7080 ± 1525 kcal. Thus, energy density was 1507 ± 279 kcal/kg ∆BM during the RWL, comparable with values obtained using the 4C, three-component model, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and stable isotope dilution. Energy density for RWL of wrestlers is lower than that commonly used (7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM). Although RWL is not recommended, we propose that commonly practiced extreme energy restriction such as 7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM during RWL appears to be meaningless.

  14. Energy Deficit Required for Rapid Weight Loss in Elite Collegiate Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Kondo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine energy density for rapid weight loss (RWL of weight-classified sports, eight male elite wrestlers were instructed to lose 6% of body mass (BM within 53 h. Energy deficit during the RWL was calculated by subtracting total energy expenditure (TEE determined using the doubly labeled water method (DLW from energy intake (EI assessed with diet records. It was also estimated from body composition change estimated with the four-component model (4C and other conventional methods. BM decreased significantly by 4.7 ± 0.5 kg (6.4 ± 0.5%. Total body water loss was the major component of the BM loss (71.0 ± 7.6%. TEE was 9446 ± 1422 kcal, and EI was 2366 ± 1184 kcal during the RWL of 53-h; therefore, the energy deficit was 7080 ± 1525 kcal. Thus, energy density was 1507 ± 279 kcal/kg ∆BM during the RWL, comparable with values obtained using the 4C, three-component model, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and stable isotope dilution. Energy density for RWL of wrestlers is lower than that commonly used (7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM. Although RWL is not recommended, we propose that commonly practiced extreme energy restriction such as 7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM during RWL appears to be meaningless.

  15. Angle-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy in hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossard, Frédéric; Sponza, Lorenzo; Schué, Léonard; Attaccalite, Claudio; Ducastelle, François; Barjon, Julien; Loiseau, Annick

    2017-09-01

    Electron energy loss spectra were measured on hexagonal boron nitride single crystals employing an electron energy loss spectroscopic setup composed of an electron microscope equipped with a monochromator and an in-column filter. This setup provides high-quality energy-loss spectra and allows also for the imaging of energy-filtered diffraction patterns. These two acquisition modes provide complementary pieces of information, offering a global view of excitations in reciprocal space. As an example of the capabilities of the method we show how easily the core loss spectra at the K edges of boron and nitrogen can be measured and imaged. Low losses associated with interband and/or plasmon excitations are also measured. This energy range allows us to illustrate that our method provides results whose quality is comparable to that obtained from nonresonant x-ray inelastic scattering but with advantageous specificities such as an enhanced sensitivity at low q and a much greater simplicity and versatility that make it well adapted to the study of two-dimensional materials and related heterostructures. Finally, by comparing theoretical calculations to our measures, we are able to relate the range of applicability of ab initio calculations to the anisotropy of the sample and assess the level of approximation required for a proper simulation of our acquisition method.

  16. Loss experience from natural phenomena hazards in the Department of Energy (50 years of natural phenomena hazard losses)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a historical prespective on losses due to natural hazard incidents (1943-1993) at Department of Energy (DOE) and predecessor agencies including the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA). This paper also demonstrates how an existing DOE resource can be used to gain valuable insight into injury or property damage incidents. That resource is the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) module of DOE's Safety Performance Measurement System. CAIRS data selected the 1981-1991 DOE injury/illness reports, from all the accident reports of the AEC that cited a natural phenomena hazard as either the direct or indirect cause of the injury/property damage. Specifically, injury or property damage reports were selected for analysis if they had a causal factor link to severe weather or natural phenomena hazard categories. Natural phenomena hazard categories are injury/property damage caused by hurricane/tornado, earthquake, lightning, or flood. Severe weather categories are injury/property damage associated with other than normal weather conditions. The lessons learned, as a result of reviewing case histories, are presented, as are suggestions on how to reduce the likelihood of future injuries/property damage as a result of similar events. A significant finding, is that most injuries and property damage were the result of an indirect causal link to a natural phenomena hazard and thus, may be more preventable than previously thought possible. The primary message, however, is that CAIRS and other incident data bases are valuable resources and should be considered for use by those interested in identifying new ways of protecting the health and safety of the worker and for reducing building losses due to the effects of natural phenomena hazards

  17. Systematics of quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.; Jarlskog, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the quark mass matrices in the Standard Electroweak Model satisfy the empirical relation M = M 1 + Ψ(Λ 2 ), where M(M sp (')) refers to the mass matrix of the charge 2/3(-1/3) quarks normalized to the largest eigenvalue, m sub (t)(m sub (b)), and Λ = V sub (us) = 0.22

  18. Colourless confinement for quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The enigma of quarks is that they are there, hidden deep inside nucleons and other strongly interacting particles, but refuse to come out. The tighter the quark bonds are stretched, the more difficult they are to break. This dogma has been accepted for some thirty years but has never been mathematically proved

  19. Top Quark Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larios, F.

    2006-01-01

    We give an overview of the physics of the Top quark, from the experimental discovery to the studies of its properties. We review some of the work done on the Electroweak and Flavor Changing couplings associated with the Top quark in the Standard Model and beyond. We will focus on the specific contribution of phycisits working in Mexico and Mexican physicists working abroad

  20. Top quark theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laenen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of a number of top quark properties such as its mass and its couplings are reviewed. Essential aspects in the theoretical description of top quark production, singly, in pairs and in association, as well as its decay related to spin and angular correlations are discussed.

  1. Heavy quarks and leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimov, Ya.I.; Khoze, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results which proved the reality of quarks are reviewed along with further experiments broadening the representation of quarks and leptons and providing the basis to develop the theory of elementary particles. The discovery of the J/psi particle is noted to give rise to the discovery of c-quark, the existance of which is confirmed by the discovery of charmed hadrons. The main aspects of quantum chromodynamics explaining the mechanism of strong interaction of quarks are considered along with those of the Weinberg-Salam theory proposed to describe weak and electromagnetic interactions of quarks and leptons. Experimental data testifying to the existance of heavy tausup(+-) leptons are presented. The history of discovery of γ mesons and of a new heavier b-quark is described. Perspectives for studying elementary particles are discussed. Further studies of γ mesons, discovery and investigation of charmed particles are noted to be immediate tasks along with the search for manifestation of t-quark considered to be a partner of b-quark from the viewpoint of the Weinberg-Salam model

  2. Quark masses: An environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Robert L.; Jenkins, Alejandro; Kimchi, Itamar

    2009-01-01

    We investigate worlds that lie on a slice through the parameter space of the standard model over which quark masses vary. We allow as many as three quarks to participate in nuclei, while fixing the mass of the electron and the average mass of the lightest baryon flavor multiplet. We classify as congenial worlds that satisfy the environmental constraint that the quark masses allow for stable nuclei with charge one, six, and eight, making organic chemistry possible. Whether a congenial world actually produces observers capable of measuring those quark masses depends on a multitude of historical contingencies, beginning with primordial nucleosynthesis and including other astrophysical processes, which we do not explore. Such constraints may be independently superimposed on our results. Environmental constraints such as the ones we study may be combined with information about the a priori distribution of quark masses over the landscape of possible universes to determine whether the measured values of the quark masses are determined environmentally, but our analysis is independent of such an anthropic approach. We estimate baryon masses as functions of quark masses via first-order perturbation theory in flavor SU(3) breaking. We estimate nuclear masses as functions of the baryon masses using two separate tools: for a nucleus made of two baryon species, when possible we consider its analog in our world, a nucleus with a similar binding energy, up to Coulomb contributions. For heavy nuclei or nuclei made of more than two baryons, we develop a generalized Weizsaecker semiempirical mass formula, in which strong kinematic flavor symmetry violation is modeled by a degenerate Fermi gas . We check for the stability of nuclei against fission, strong particle emission (analogous to α decay), and weak nucleon emission. For two light quarks with charges 2/3 and -1/3 , we find a band of congeniality roughly 29 MeV wide in their mass difference, with our own world lying comfortably

  3. Heavy quark condensates from dynamically borken flavour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T.; King, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    We study the dynamics of top quark condensation induced by gauge interactions resulting from a broken flavour symmetry. The gap equation in dressed ladder approximation is solved numerically to obtain directly the top quark mass. The new high energy dynamics reduces the prediction of m t somewhat, but the usual problems of m t being too large and fine tuning remain. In order to solve these problems we extend our discussion to include fourth generation quark condensates. (orig.)

  4. Allotropic effects on the energy loss of swift H+ and He+ ion beams through thin foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; Heredia-Avalos, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a theoretical treatment and a simulation code to study the energy loss of swift H + and He + ion beams interacting with thin foils of different carbon allotropes. The former is based on the dielectric formalism, and the latter combines Monte Carlo with the numerical solution of the motion equation for each projectile to describe its trajectory and interactions through the target. The capabilities of both methods are assessed by the reasonably good agreement between their predictions and the experimental results, for a wide range of projectile energies and target characteristics. Firstly, we apply the theoretical procedure to calculate the stopping cross sections for H + and He + beams in foils of different allotropic forms of carbon (such as diamond, graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon and C 60 -fullerite), as a function of the projectile energy. We take into account the electronic structure of the projectile, as well as the different charge states it can acquire, the energy loss associated to the electronic capture and loss processes, the polarization of the projectile, and a realistic description of the target. On the other hand, the simulation code is used to evaluate the energy distributions of swift H + and He + ion beams when traversing several foils of the above mentioned allotropic forms of carbon, in order to analyze the influence of the chemical and physical state of the target in the projectile energy loss. These allotropic effects are found to become more important around the maximum of the stopping cross-section

  5. Understanding Energy Loss in Organic Solar Cells: Toward a New Efficiency Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew; Ran, Niva A.; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Friend, Richard H.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing energy and voltage loss is an imperative area of improvement for the design of organic solar cells (OSCs). Both in the context of charge generation and charge recombination, significant amounts of energy are lost even in state-of-the-art OSCs compared with their inorganic counterparts. Through a set of recent examples, however, we show that (1) charge generation can proceed with high quantum efficiency even in the absence of an offset energy at the donor-acceptor interface and (2) non-radiative charge recombination may be mitigated by considering systems with distinct properties of the interfacial charge-transfer state. To capitalize on these recent advances in understanding, we provide three actionable paths forward that aim to better identify, process, and characterize low energy loss systems: incorporating consistent and accurate measurements for energy levels, moving away from photoluminescence quenching, and exploring blends with reduced miscibility.

  6. Understanding Energy Loss in Organic Solar Cells: Toward a New Efficiency Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew

    2017-10-19

    Reducing energy and voltage loss is an imperative area of improvement for the design of organic solar cells (OSCs). Both in the context of charge generation and charge recombination, significant amounts of energy are lost even in state-of-the-art OSCs compared with their inorganic counterparts. Through a set of recent examples, however, we show that (1) charge generation can proceed with high quantum efficiency even in the absence of an offset energy at the donor-acceptor interface and (2) non-radiative charge recombination may be mitigated by considering systems with distinct properties of the interfacial charge-transfer state. To capitalize on these recent advances in understanding, we provide three actionable paths forward that aim to better identify, process, and characterize low energy loss systems: incorporating consistent and accurate measurements for energy levels, moving away from photoluminescence quenching, and exploring blends with reduced miscibility.

  7. Low-energy electron energy losses and inelastic mean free paths in zinc, selenium, and zinc selenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, J.D.; Chantler, C.T., E-mail: chantler@unimelb.edu.au

    2014-10-15

    We compute low-energy optical energy loss spectra for the elemental solids zinc and selenium, and for the binary compound zinc selenide. The optical data are transformed via a constrained partial-pole algorithm to produce momentum-dependent electron energy loss spectra and electron inelastic mean free paths. This enables a comparison between the electron scattering behaviour in a compound solid and its constituent elements. Results cannot be explained by aggregation methods or commonly used universal curves, and prove that new approaches are required. Our work demonstrates new capabilities for the determination of fundamental material properties for a range of structures previously inaccessible to established theoretical models, and at energy levels inaccessible to most experimental techniques.

  8. Low-energy electron energy losses and inelastic mean free paths in zinc, selenium, and zinc selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, J.D.; Chantler, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    We compute low-energy optical energy loss spectra for the elemental solids zinc and selenium, and for the binary compound zinc selenide. The optical data are transformed via a constrained partial-pole algorithm to produce momentum-dependent electron energy loss spectra and electron inelastic mean free paths. This enables a comparison between the electron scattering behaviour in a compound solid and its constituent elements. Results cannot be explained by aggregation methods or commonly used universal curves, and prove that new approaches are required. Our work demonstrates new capabilities for the determination of fundamental material properties for a range of structures previously inaccessible to established theoretical models, and at energy levels inaccessible to most experimental techniques

  9. How strongly does appetite counter weight loss? Quantification of the feedback control of human energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David; Sanghvi, Arjun; Seeley, Randy; Hall, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the feedback control of energy intake in response to long-term covert manipulation of energy balance in free-living humans. Methods We used a validated mathematical method to calculate energy intake changes during a 52 week placebo-controlled trial in 153 patients treated with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitor that increases urinary glucose excretion thereby resulting in weight loss without patients being directly aware of the energy deficit. We analyzed the relationship between the body weight time course and the calculated energy intake changes using principles from engineering control theory. Results We discovered that weight loss leads to a proportional increase in appetite resulting in eating above baseline by ~100 kcal/day per kg of lost weight – an amount more than 3-fold larger than the corresponding energy expenditure adaptations. Conclusions While energy expenditure adaptations are often thought to be the main reason for slowing of weight loss and subsequent regain, feedback control of energy intake plays an even larger role and helps explain why long-term maintenance of a reduced body weight is so difficult. PMID:27804272

  10. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaristi, J.I.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Echenique, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Prediction of transmission loss through an aircraft sidewall using statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ruisen; Sun, Jincai

    1989-06-01

    The transmission loss of randomly incident sound through an aircraft sidewall is investigated using statistical energy analysis. Formulas are also obtained for the simple calculation of sound transmission loss through single- and double-leaf panels. Both resonant and nonresonant sound transmissions can be easily calculated using the formulas. The formulas are used to predict sound transmission losses through a Y-7 propeller airplane panel. The panel measures 2.56 m x 1.38 m and has two windows. The agreement between predicted and measured values through most of the frequency ranges tested is quite good.

  12. Energy Level Tuning of Poly(phenylene-alt-dithienobenzothiadiazole)s for Low Photon Energy Loss Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvel, Ruurd; van Franeker, Jacobus J; Janssen, René A J

    2017-03-01

    Six poly(phenylene- alt -dithienobenzothiadiazole)-based polymers have been synthesized for application in polymer-fullerene solar cells. Hydrogen, fluorine, or nitrile substitution on benzo-thiadiazole and alkoxy or ester substitution on the phenylene moiety are investigated to reduce the energy loss per converted photon. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 6.6% have been obtained. The best performance is found for the polymer-fullerene combination with distinct phase separation and crystalline domains. This improves the maximum external quantum efficiency for charge formation and collection to 66%. The resulting higher photocurrent compensates for the relatively large energy loss per photon ( E loss = 0.97 eV) in achieving a high PCE. By contrast, the poly-mer that provides a reduced energy loss ( E loss = 0.49 eV) gives a lower photocurrent and a reduced PCE of 1.8% because the external quantum efficiency of 17% is limited by a suboptimal morphology and a reduced driving force for charge transfer.

  13. Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production

    OpenAIRE

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Journal of High Energy Physics 2016.4 (2016): 073 reproduced by permission of Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA) Artículo escrito por un elevado número de autores, sólo se referencian el que aparece en primer lugar, el nombre del grupo de colaboración, si le hubiera, y los autores pertenecientes a la UAM A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in t-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based o...

  14. Laser field effects on the transport phenomena: Energy loss and stopping power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Silva, H.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    The energy loss method has been applied to a large variety of transport problems in optics, solid-state and fusion research. In these papers, however, the transport equations were linearized, so there are no multiphoton interaction. On the other hand, Bivona et al. (1982) [2] have shown that, for a one-component plasma, the strong field effects would be only of academic interest. On the basis of the center of mass approach [3], a generalization of the energy loss rate which is in accordance with the recent results of Arista et al. (1989) [4] is obtained. (Author)

  15. Vacuum ultra-violet and electron energy loss spectroscopy of gaseous and solid organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.; Otto, A.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental arrangements used by the authors for the study of optical vacuum ultra-violet and electron energy loss spectra of organic compounds are described and some theoretical aspects of studies of higher excited states are considered. Results for alkanes, benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and some more complex hydrocarbons are reviewed. Recent results obtained by reflection and electron energy loss spectroscopy for single crystals of anthracene are included and their relevance for gas phase work as well as for the understanding of exciton effects in organic solids is described. (author)

  16. Modelling of prompt losses of high energy charged particles in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillner, Oe.; Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1990-01-01

    A simple analytical expression for the total prompt loss fraction of high energy charged particles in an axisymmetric Tokamak is derived. The results are compared with predictions obtained from numerical simulations and show good agreement. An application is made to sawtooth induced changes in the losses of fusion generated high energy charged particles. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of sawtooth induced profile changes of the background ion densities and temperature as well as to redistribution of particles which have accumulated during the sawtooth rise but are being lost by redistribution at the sawtooth crash. (au)

  17. Characteristic electron energy losses in monoatomic antimony films on (110) and (112) tungsten faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskij, D.A.; Gorchinskij, A.D.; Shevlyakov, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Complex investigations of antimony condensation on a monoatomical clean surface of tungsten monocrystals are carried out. The completion of a physical antimony monolayer has been controlled by the methods of Auger-electron spectroscopy and slow electron diffraction. It is shown that at submonolayer coatings a collectivization of valent electrons occurs leading to appearance of peaks of surface and volumetric plasmons in the energy losses spectrum. The anomalous cencentrational dependence of antimony ionization peak intensity has been found. The origin of previously unexplored peaks in the energy losses spectrum is discussed [ru

  18. First-Principles Vibrational Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of β -Guanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, G.; Taverna, D.; Lazzeri, M.; Balan, E.

    2017-07-01

    A general approach to model vibrational electron energy loss spectra obtained using an electron beam positioned away from the specimen is presented. The energy-loss probability of the fast electron is evaluated using first-principles quantum mechanical calculations (density functional theory) of the dielectric response of the specimen. The validity of the method is assessed using recently measured anhydrous β -guanine, an important molecular solid used by animals to produce structural colors. The good agreement between theory and experiments lays the basis for a quantitative interpretation of this spectroscopy in complex systems.

  19. More than 30 per cent energy savings possible with LEDs in gerbera : substantial energy savings and little loss in production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, van der F.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    By installing LED-lighting and limiting it to 80 instead of 100 μmol gerbera growers can save 30 per cent on energy without any great loss in production, according to research. Light integration and interlighting don’t yet deliver any savings.

  20. Quark mass effects in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper recent studies of invariant QCD coupling anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with account of fermionic mass effects are summarized. The main results are: An explicit expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) in the 2-loop approximation with accurate account of heavy quark masses. A quantitative analysis on the basis of the above-mentioned expression for anti asub(s)(Qsup(2)) of the energy dependence of the scale QCD parameter ν and the conclusion about its inadequacy in the modern energy range

  1. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  2. Energy-loss of He ions in carbon allotropes studied by elastic resonance in backscattering spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaki, Mitsuo, E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Rauhala, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    Backscattering spectra for {sup 4}He ions incident on carbon allotropes have been measured in the energy range from 4.30 to 4.95 MeV in steps of 50–100 keV at scattering angles of 106° and 170°. We used three carbon allotropes: graphite, diamond and amorphous carbon. For all these allotropes, we can observe the sharp ({sup 4}He, {sup 12}C) elastic nuclear resonance at the He ion energy of 4.265 MeV in the backscattering spectra. By varying the incident He energy, we have systematically analyzed the profiles of the resonance peaks to study the energy-loss processes: stopping cross-sections and energy-loss straggling around the interesting region of the stopping maximum at about 500 keV. We focus on the resonance profiles and investigate an allotropic effect concerning the energy-loss. Furthermore, an energy bunching effect on the straggling is presented and the mechanism is discussed.

  3. Thermal energy storage and losses in a room-Trombe wall system located in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-López, I.; Xamán, J.; Chávez, Y.; Hernández-Pérez, I.; Alvarado-Juárez, R.

    2016-01-01

    A thermal evaluation of a R-TW system (room with a Trombe wall) is presented. Hourly climatic data of the coldest and the warmest days of 2014 was used to assess the behavior of the R-TW in two cities of Mexico with cold climate (Huitzilac and Toluca). The simulations were done with an in-house code based on the Finite Volume Method. It was found that thermal energy losses through the semitransparent wall are about 60% of the solar radiation incident on the system (G_s_o_l). Despite of the thermal losses, the system gets enough energy to keep the air inside the room with a temperature above 35 °C. For both cities during the coldest day, the maximum energy stored is about 109 MJ and during the warmest day is about 70 MJ. This energy is supplied from the storage wall to the air inside the room during periods without insolation. - Highlights: • Thermal performance of a Room-Trombe Wall system was evaluated under two cold cities. • Thermal energy losses through the semitransparent wall were about 60% of the solar radiation incident of the system. • The maximum energy stored by the Trombe Wall was 109 MJ during the coldest day. • The maximum energy stored by the Trombe Wall was 70 MJ during the warmest day.

  4. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation of electron energy loss spectra of nanomaterials with linear-scaling density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, E W; Payne, M C; Ratcliff, L E; Haynes, P D; Hine, N D M

    2016-01-01

    Experimental techniques for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combine high energy resolution with high spatial resolution. They are therefore powerful tools for investigating the local electronic structure of complex systems such as nanostructures, interfaces and even individual defects. Interpretation of experimental electron energy loss spectra is often challenging and can require theoretical modelling of candidate structures, which themselves may be large and complex, beyond the capabilities of traditional cubic-scaling density functional theory. In this work, we present functionality to compute electron energy loss spectra within the onetep linear-scaling density functional theory code. We first demonstrate that simulated spectra agree with those computed using conventional plane wave pseudopotential methods to a high degree of precision. The ability of onetep to tackle large problems is then exploited to investigate convergence of spectra with respect to supercell size. Finally, we apply the novel functionality to a study of the electron energy loss spectra of defects on the (1 0 1) surface of an anatase slab and determine concentrations of defects which might be experimentally detectable. (paper)

  6. Search for s-channel single-top-quark production in events with missing energy plus jets in pp collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez, M; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Ranjan, N; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Song, H; Sorin, V; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Vázquez, F; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2014-06-13

    The first search for single-top-quark production from the exchange of an s-channel virtual W boson using events with an imbalance in the total transverse energy, b-tagged jets, and no identified leptons is presented. Assuming the electroweak production of top quarks of mass 172.5 GeV/c(2) in the s channel, a cross section of 1.12(-0.57)(+0.61) (stat+syst) pb with a significance of 1.9 standard deviations is measured. This measurement is combined with the result obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse momentum, b-tagged jets, and exactly one identified lepton, yielding a cross section of 1.36(-0.32)(+0.37) (stat+syst) pb, with a significance of 4.2 standard deviations.

  7. Mesure de la section efficace de production de paires de quarks top dans le canal μ + jets + τ + b-jet(s) + Energie transverse manquante auprès de l'expérience DØ du Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, Jerome [Blaise Pascal Univ., Aubiere (France)

    2011-09-09

    The purpose of high energy physics is to improve our knowledge about the fundamental structure of matter, in particular about particles that constitute the world. One of these is the top quark, that was discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron protons-antiprotons collider. One of the primary aim of the Tevatron has been then the fine study of the top quark properties, in particular the top-antitop production cross section. Different analysis have been performed in the leptons (μ,e,τ) + jets, dileptons, and all hadronic channels to determine accurately the values of these parameters, and thus to test the validity of the Standard Model. The main goal of this thesis is to verify one of the theoretical predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics, the top-antitop production cross section, at the Tevatron collider.

  8. Energy reduction in buildings in temperate and tropic regions utilizing a heat loss measuring device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2012-01-01

    There exist two ordinary ways to obtain global energy efficiency. One way is to make improvements on the energy production and supply side, and the other way is, in general, to reduce the consume of energy in the society. This paper has focus on the latter and especially the consume of energy...... for heating up, and cooling down our houses. There is a huge energy saving potential on this area reducing both the World climate problems and economy challenges as well. Heating of buildings in Denmark counts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consume. Of this reason a reduction of heat...... losses from building envelopes are of great impor­tance in order to reach the Bologna CO2-emission reduction goals. Energy renovation of buildings is a topic of huge focus around the world these years. Not only expenses for heating in the tempered and arctic regions are of importance, but also expenses...

  9. A chiral quark model of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, M.; Yoshiki, H.

    1991-01-01

    The baryon-number-one extended solution of a chiral quark lagrangian is obtained in the stationary-phase approximation with full inclusion of the sea-quark degrees of freedom. The collective quantization method is then applied to this static solution to obtain the nucleon (and Δ) state with the definite spin and isospin. A fundamental quantity appearing in this quantization procedure is the moment of inertia of the soliton system. We evaluate this quantity without recourse to the derivative expansion, by performing the necessary double sum over all the positive- and negative-energy quark orbitals in the mean field potential. Closed formulas are-derived for the nucleon (and Δ) matrix elements of arbitrary quark bilinear operators. These formulas are then used for calculating various nucleon observables in a nonperturbative manner with inclusion of the sea-quark effects. An especially interesting observable is the spin expectation value of the proton related to the recent EMC experiment. We derive the proton spin sum rule, and then explicitly evaluate the detailed contents of this sum rule. The proton spin analysis is shown to be particularly useful for clarifying the underlying dynamical content of the Skyrme model at quark level, thereby providing us with valuable information about its utility and limitation. (orig.)

  10. Top Quark Mass Measurement in Dilepton Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysak, Roman [Inst. of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovak Republic)

    2007-06-01

    We present a measurement of the top quark mass from events produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We identify t$\\bar{t}$ candidates where both W bosons from the top quarks decay into leptons (eν, µν, τν) from a data sample of 340 pb-1. The top quark mass is reconstructed in each event separately by the method which draw upon simulated distribution of t$\\bar{t}$ longitudinal momentum in order to extract probability distribution for the top quark mass. Representative distributions, or templates, are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. A likelihood fit incorporating these parametrized templates is then performed on the data sample masses in order to derive a final top quark mass. Measured top quark mass is Mtop = 169.5$+7.7\\atop{-7.2}$(stat.) ± 4.0(syst.) GeV/c2.

  11. Precise measurements of energy loss straggling for swift heavy ions in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Bindu; Neetu; Sharma, Kalpana; Diwan, P. K.; Kumar, Shyam

    2016-11-01

    The energy loss straggling measurements for heavy ions with Z = 3-22 (∼0.2-2.5 MeV/u) in PEN (C7H5O2) and PET (C10H8O4) polymers have been carried out utilizing the swift heavy ion beam facility from 15UD Pelletron accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The recorded spectra are analyzed in such a way that the Straggling associated with energy loss process could be measured in a systematic manner at any selected value of energy, in terms of per unit thickness of the absorber, at any desired energy intervals. The measured values have been compared with the calculated values obtained from the most commonly used Bethe-Livingston formulations applicable for collisional straggling. The results are tried to be understood in terms of the effective charge on the impinging ion within the absorber. Some interesting trends are observed.

  12. Energy loss distributions of 7 TeV protons channeled in a bent silicon crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Nace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled through the bent Si crystals, with the constant curvature radius, R = 50 m, are studied here. The proton energy is 7 TeV and the thickness of the crystal is varied from 1 mm to 5 mm, which corresponds to the reduced crystal thickness, L, from 2.1 to 10.6, respectively. The proton energy was chosen in accordance with the large hadron collider project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated by the computer simulation method using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane. Dispersion of the proton scattering angle caused by its collisions with the crystal’s electrons was taken into account. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45006

  13. Direct observation and theory of trajectory-dependent electronic energy losses in medium-energy ion scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, A; Parkinson, G S; Quinn, P D; Muñoz-Márquez, M A; Woodruff, D P; Grande, P L; Schiwietz, G; Bailey, P; Noakes, T C Q

    2009-03-06

    The energy spectrum associated with scattering of 100 keV H+ ions from the outermost few atomic layers of Cu(111) in different scattering geometries provides direct evidence of trajectory-dependent electronic energy loss. Theoretical simulations, combining standard Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic scattering trajectories with coupled-channel calculations to describe inner-shell ionization and excitation as a function of impact parameter, reproduce the effects well and provide a means for far more complete analysis of medium-energy ion scattering data.

  14. Unintegrated sea quark at small x and vector boson production

    CERN Document Server

    Hautmann, F; Jung, H

    2012-01-01

    Parton-shower event generators that go beyond the collinear-ordering approximation at small x have so far included only gluon and valence quark channels at transverse momentum dependent level. In this contribution we provide a denition of a transverse momentum depend (TMD) sea quark distribution valid in the small x region, which is based on the TMD gluon-to-quark splitting function. As an example process we consider vector boson production in the forward direction of one of the protons. The qq ! Z matrix element (with one o-shell quark) is calculated in an explicit gauge invariant way, making use of high energy factorization.

  15. arXiv Top quark measurements in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00102167

    2017-01-01

    Experimental results on top-quark physics obtained at the CMS experiment are reported based on the data recorded at centre-of-mass energy up to 13 TeV. Inclusive and differential cross sections for both top-quark pair and single top-quark production are presented, as well as measurements of top-quark properties in production and decay, and searches for anomalous couplings. The presented measurements test theoretical predictions, including recent perturbative QCD calculations, provide constraints of fundamental standard model parameters, and set limits on physics beyond the standard model.

  16. Effect of soft mode on shear viscosity of quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutome, Takahiko; Iwasaki, Masaharu

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity of quark matter at finite temperature and density. If we assume that the quark interacts with the soft mode, which is a collective mode of a quark-antiquark pair, the self-energy of the quark is calculated by quasi-particle random phase approximation. It is shown that its imaginary part is large and its mean free path is short. With the use of the Kubo formula, the shear viscosity of quark matter decreases. The Reynolds number of quark matter is estimated to be about 10. As temperature increases, shear viscosity increases gradually for T>200 MeV. Moreover it is shown that the shear viscosity also increases with the chemical potential for μ>200 MeV. (author)

  17. Measurement of the band gap by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.vos@anu.edu.au [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); King, Sean W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); French, Benjamin L. [Ocotillo Materials Laboratory, Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ 85248 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Semiconductors are measured (without surface preparation) using REELS. • At low beam energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to surface impurities. • At very high energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to recoil effect. • At intermediate energies (around 5 keV) one obtains a good estimate of the band gap. - Abstract: We investigate the possibilities of measuring the band gap of a variety of semiconductors and insulators by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy without additional surface preparation. The band gap is a bulk property, whereas reflection energy loss spectroscopy is generally considered a surface sensitive technique. By changing the energy of the incoming electrons, the degree of surface sensitivity can be varied. Here, we present case studies to determine the optimum condition for the determination of the band gap. At very large incoming electron energies recoil effects interfere with the band gap determination, whereas at very low energies surface effects are obscuring the band gap without surface preparation. Using an incoming energy of 5 keV a reasonable estimate of the band gap is obtained in most cases.

  18. Measurement of the band gap by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, Maarten; King, Sean W.; French, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Semiconductors are measured (without surface preparation) using REELS. • At low beam energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to surface impurities. • At very high energies it is difficult to measure band gap due to recoil effect. • At intermediate energies (around 5 keV) one obtains a good estimate of the band gap. - Abstract: We investigate the possibilities of measuring the band gap of a variety of semiconductors and insulators by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy without additional surface preparation. The band gap is a bulk property, whereas reflection energy loss spectroscopy is generally considered a surface sensitive technique. By changing the energy of the incoming electrons, the degree of surface sensitivity can be varied. Here, we present case studies to determine the optimum condition for the determination of the band gap. At very large incoming electron energies recoil effects interfere with the band gap determination, whereas at very low energies surface effects are obscuring the band gap without surface preparation. Using an incoming energy of 5 keV a reasonable estimate of the band gap is obtained in most cases.

  19. Quark i mattoni del mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1983-01-01

    Quark rossi, verdi e blu ; quark dotati di stranezza e di incanto ; quark 'su' e 'giù' : sembra che i fisici delle particelle giochino a confondere la curiosità del profano, con queste denominazioni fantasiose. Che cosa significano ? e, soprattutto, i quark sono i costituenti davvero elementari della materia ?

  20. Top Quark Properties at Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysák, Roman [Prague, Inst. Phys.

    2017-11-27

    The latest CDF and D0 experiment measurements of the top quark properties except the top quark mass are presented. The final combination of the CDF and D0 forward-backward asymmetry measurements is shown together with the D0 measurements of the inclusive top quark pair cross-section as well as the top quark polarization.

  1. A precise measurement of 180 GeV muon energy losses in iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amaral, P.; Amorim, A.; Davídek, T.; Krivková, P.; Leitner, R.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav; Suk, M.; Valkar, S.; Zaitsev, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2001), s. 487-495 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : energy loss spectrum * muons * hadron Tile calorimeter * CERN SPS * production of electron-positron pairs * energetic knock-on elecktrons * ion elastic form factor correction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.194, year: 2001

  2. Energy losses (gains) of massive coloured particles in stochastic colour medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidov, A.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    The propagation of massive coloured particles in stochastic background chromoelectric field is studied using the semiclassical equations of motion. Depending on the nature of the stochastic background we obtain the formulae for the energy losses of heavy coloured projectile in nonperturbative hadronic medium and for the energy gains in the stochastic field present, e.g., in the turbulent plasma. The result appears to be significantly dependent on the form of the correlation function of stochastic external field. (orig.)

  3. Electron-energy-loss spectral library and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1983-09-01

    An electron energy loss spectral library can be an invaluable tool in materials research from a fundamental as well as a practical standpoint. Although it will not alleviate all the complications associated with quantification, this type of library can help to elucidate details of spectral profiles previously found intractable. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy. The author also wishes to express his gratitude to the organizing committee for partial financial support provided to attend this meeting.

  4. Fusion-product energy loss in inertial confinement fusion plasmas with applications to target burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Miley, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been proposed as a competitor to magnetic fusion in the drive towards energy production, but ICF target performance still contains many uncertainties. One such area is the energy-loss rate of fusion products. This situation is due in part to the unique plasma parameters encountered in ICF plasmas which are compressed to more than one-thousand times solid density. The work presented here investigates three aspects of this uncertainty

  5. Mode and climatic factors effect on energy losses in transient heat modes of transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigun, A. Ya; Sidorov, O. A.; Osipov, D. S.; Girshin, S. S.; Goryunov, V. N.; Petrova, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    Electrical energy losses increase in modern grids. The losses are connected with an increase in consumption. Existing models of electric power losses estimation considering climatic factors do not allow estimating the cable temperature in real time. Considering weather and mode factors in real time allows to meet effectively and safely the consumer’s needs to minimize energy losses during transmission, to use electric power equipment effectively. These factors increase an interest in the evaluation of the dynamic thermal mode of overhead transmission lines conductors. The article discusses an approximate analytic solution of the heat balance equation in the transient operation mode of overhead lines based on the least squares method. The accuracy of the results obtained is comparable with the results of solving the heat balance equation of transient thermal mode with the Runge-Kutt method. The analysis of mode and climatic factors effect on the cable temperature in a dynamic thermal mode is presented. The calculation of the maximum permissible current for variation of weather conditions is made. The average electric energy losses during the transient process are calculated with the change of wind, air temperature and solar radiation. The parameters having the greatest effect on the transmission capacity are identified.

  6. A proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karl; Murphy, Shane; Palmer, Richard E.

    2017-03-01

    A compact proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy measurements is described. Using the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as a field emission (FE) electron source in conjunction with this analyzer, which is placed at a glancing angle to the surface plane, FE sample current and electron reflectivity imaging may be performed simultaneously. This is demonstrated in measurements of Ag nanostructures prepared on graphite by electron-beam lithography, where a material contrast of 13% is observed, with a lateral resolution of 25 nm, between the silver and graphite in electron reflectivity images. Topological contrast mechanisms such as edge enhancement and shadowing are also observed, giving rise to additional features in the electron reflectivity images. The same instrument configuration has been used to measure electron energy loss spectra on bare graphite, where the zero loss peak, π band plasmon loss peak and secondary electron peaks are observed. Using this simple and compact analyzer an STM, with sufficient open access to the tip-sample junction, may easily be augmented to provide simultaneous elemental and topographic mapping, supplementing STM image measurements with FE sample current and electron reflectivity images, as well as electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements, in the same instrument.

  7. Extended defect related energy loss in CVD diamond revealed by spectrum imaging in a dedicated STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangert, U.; Harvey, A.J.; Schreck, M.; Hoermann, F.

    2005-01-01

    This article aims at investigations of the low EEL region in the wide band gap system diamond. The advent of the UHV Enfina electron energy loss spectrometer combined with Digital Micrograph acquisition and processing software has made reliable detection of absorption losses below 10 eV possible. Incorporated into a dedicated STEM this instrumentation allows the acquisition of spectral information via spectrum maps (spectrum imaging) of sample areas hundreds of nanometers across, with nanometers pixel sizes, adequate spectrum statistics and 0.3 eV energy resolution, in direct correlation with microstructural features in the mapping area. We aim at discerning defect related losses at band gap energies, and discuss different routes to simultaneously process and analyse the spectra in a map. This involves extracting the zero loss peak from each spectrum and constructing ratio maps from the intensities in two energy windows, one defect related and one at a higher, crystal bandstructure dominated energy. This was applied to the residual spectrum maps and their first derivatives. Secondly, guided by theoretical EEL spectra calculations, the low loss spectra were fitted by a series of gaussian distributions. Pixel maps were constructed from amplitude ratios of gaussians, situated in the defect and the unaffected energy regime. The results demonstrate the existence of sp 2 -bonded carbon in the vicinity of stacking faults and partial dislocations in CVD diamond as well as additional states below conduction band, tailing deep into the band gap, at a node in a perfect dislocation. Calculated EEL spectra of shuffle dislocations give similar absorption features at 5-8 eV, and it is thought that this common feature is due to sp 2 -type bonding

  8. Gluon and quark jets in a recursive model motivated by quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhatme, U.P.

    1979-01-01

    We compute observable quantities like the multiplicity and momentum distributions of hadrons in gluon and quark jets in the framework of a recursive cascade model, which is strongly motivated by the fundamental interactions of QCD. Fragmentation occurs via 3 types of breakups: quark → meson + quark, gluon → meson + gluon, gluon → quark + antiquark. In our model gluon jets are softer than quark jets. The ratio of gluon jet to quark jet multiplicity is found to be 2 asymptotically, but much less at lower energies. Some phenomenological consequences for γ decay are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Top quark mass measurement in dilepton channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysak, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we measured the top quark mass in tt'-' events produced in pp'-' interactions at the center-of-mass energy 1.96 TeV using CDF detector. We used dilepton in tt'-' events where both W bosons from top quarks are decaying into leptons. The data sample corresponds to 340 pb -1 . We found there 33 tt'-' candidates while expecting 10.5 ± 1.9 background events. In the measurement, we reconstruct one, representative mass for each event using the assumption about longitudinal momentum of in tt'-' system, in order to be able to kinematically solve the under-constrained system. The mass distributions (templates) are created for simulated signal and background events. Templates are parametrized in order to obtain smooth probability density functions. Likelihood maximization which includes these parametrized templates is then performed on reconstructed masses obtained from data sample in order to obtain final top quark mass estimate. The result of applying this procedure on data events is top quark mass estimate 169.5 +7. 7 - 7.2 (stat.) ± 4.0(syst.) GeV/c 2 for 30 out of 33 candidates, where the solution for top quark mass was found. This measurement was a part of first top quark mass measurement in dilepton channel at CDF in Run II. The top quark mass measured here is consistent with the CDF measurement in dilepton channel from Run I M top = 167.4 ± 10.3(stat.) ± 4.8(syst.) GeV/c 2 . Moreover, the combined result of four top quark mass measurements in dilepton channel from Run II (one of these four measurements is our measurement) M top = 167.9 ± 5.2(stat.) ± 3.7(syst.) GeV/c 2 significantly (by ∼ 40%) improved the precision of top quark mass determination from Run I. It should be also noted, that this combined result is consistent with measurement obtained in 'lepton+jets' channel at CDF in Run II (M top = 173.5 +3.9 -3.8 GeV/c 2 ). So, we don't have yet any indication about new physics beyond the Standard Model. My main contribution in this analysis was

  10. Quark model and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.

    1989-06-01

    Using the language of the quarks and gluons for description of the soft hadron physics it is necessary to take into account two characteristic phenomena which prevent one from usage of QCD Lagrangian in the straightforward way, chiral symmetry breaking, and confinement of colour particles. The topics discussed in this context are: QCD in the domain of soft processes, phenomenological Lagrangian for soft processes and exotic mesons, spectroscopy of low-lying hadrons (mesons, baryons and mesons with heavy quarks - c,b -), confinement forces, spectral integration over quark masses. (author) 3 refs.; 19 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Quest for quark soup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, J.

    1986-11-13

    The paper concerns the experimental search for quark-gluon plasma. The theory of a quark-gluon plasma is first given. Then the method which researchers hope will create the quark-gluon plasma is described; the idea is to use heavy ion beams in, the CERN SPS. The CERN 'heavy-ion programme' involves research groups mainly from CERN, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Gellsellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung. The experiments in the research programme are outlined, together with the detector equipment employed in the experiments.

  12. Making quark matter at brook haven's new collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.

    2002-01-01

    Quarks are believed to come in 6 flavours, only the lightest of which, the up and down quarks, are found in protons and neutrons. Isolated quarks have never been observed. As quarks are brought closer together, the force between them decreases dramatically, vanishing as the separation becomes very small. This suggests that quarks may become unbound if the density of quarks could be increased by squeezing a nucleus. The nucleus would have melted their constituent quarks, now free to roam the extended volume of the compressed nucleus. This situation would make a significant change in the structure of matter corresponding to a change of phase, rather like the transition from solid to liquid, but in this case from quark confined matter, to a quark gluon plasma (QGP). This new state of matter is thought to have been the natural phase of matter until 10 micro-seconds after the big-bang, and also to exist today in the core of neutron stars. Calculations show that the energy density needed to observe the phase transition is around 1 GeV/fm 3 , approximately 8 times that of normal nuclear matter. Attempts to recreate QGP have been underway at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and at the CERN by colliding heavy-ion beams at the maximal energy possible. Between 4000 and 5000 charged particles are produced in the most violent events. The experimental challenge is to establish the existence of QGP from all this wealth of data. (A.C.)

  13. Medium effects in strange quark matter and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schertler, K.; Greiner, C.; Thoma, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the properties of strange quark matter at zero temperature including medium effects. The quarks are considered as quasiparticles which acquire an effective mass generated by the interaction with the other quarks of the dense system. The effective quark masses are derived from the zero momentum limit of the dispersion relations following from an effective quark propagator obtained from resumming one-loop self-energy diagrams in the hard dense loop approximation. This leads to a thermodynamic self-consistent description of strange quark matter as an ideal Fermi gas of quasiparticles. Within this approach we find that medium effects reduce the overall binding energy with respect to 56 Fe of strange quark matter. For typical values of the strong coupling constant (α s >or∼1) strange quark matter is not absolutely stable. The application to pure strange quark matter stars shows that medium effects have, nevertheless, no impact on the mass-radius relation of the stars. However, a phase transition to hadronic matter at the surface of the stars becomes more likely. (orig.)

  14. Top quark measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Grancagnolo, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  15. Top quark measurements at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00041686; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, it allows us to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. Highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data will be presented: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside measurements of top-quark properties, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top-quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top-quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  16. A second order QCD effect. quark-quark bremsstrahlung contribution to transverse momentum of lepton pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichian, M.; Hayashi, M.; Honkaranta, T.

    1980-01-01

    We consider in QCD the second order, in gluon-quark coupling constant, contribution of the quark-quark scatte-ring (bremsstrahlung) to the transverse momentum distribution of muon pairs produced in proton-proton collisions. In certain kinematical regions accesible to experimental tests, this contribution is quite large in comparison with the first order calculations. This happens for a specific choice of scale violating structure functions which fit the deep inelastic data. Thus the first order QCD calcula-tion alone is not conclusive in trying to fit the data -one must necessarily check the effect of the second order quark-quark scattering as compared with the first order quark-gluon and the quark-antiquark scattering. This remark concerns also the case when in the first order diagrams the effect of primordial transverse momentum of partons is included as well as the case when the first order is replaced by DDT type of formulae. Mass regularization and different prescriptions for the constant term in q → g + q vertex are considered. Results are presented for the energies √s=6.5, 27, 63, 800 GeV and are compared with experiment. Implications of these results for the detection of W +- -mesons via psub(T) distribution of their decay products μ +- in proton-proton collisions are mentioned. (author)

  17. Energy Deposition in Adjacent LHC Superconducting Magnets from Beam Loss at LHC Transfer Line Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Beavan, S; Kain, V

    2006-01-01

    Injection intensities for the LHC are over an order of magnitude above the damage threshold. The collimation system in the two transfer lines is designed to dilute the beam sufficiently to avoid damage in case of accidental beam loss or mis-steered beam. To maximise the protection for the LHC most of the collimators are located in the last 300 m upstream of the injection point where the transfer lines approach the LHC machine. To study the issue of possible quenches following beam loss at the collimators part of the collimation section in one of the lines, TI 8, together with the adjacent part of the LHC has been modeled in FLUKA. The simulated energy deposition in the LHC for worst-case accidental losses and as well as for losses expected during a normal filling is presented.

  18. Polarization correction in the theory of energy losses by charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, D. N., E-mail: makarovd0608@yandex.ru; Matveev, V. I. [Lomonosov Northern (Arctic) Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    A method for finding the polarization (Barkas) correction in the theory of energy losses by charged particles in collisions with multielectron atoms is proposed. The Barkas correction is presented in a simple analytical form. We make comparisons with experimental data and show that applying the Barkas correction improves the agreement between theory and experiment.

  19. Model for Calculating Electrolytic Shunt Path Losses in Large Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1976-01-01

    Generalized analysis and solution techniques were developed to evaluate the shunt power losses in electrochemical systems designed with a common or circulating electrolyte supply. Sample data are presented for a hypothetical bulk energy storage redox system, and the general applicability of the analysis technique is discussed.

  20. Two types of charge transfer excitations in low dimensional cuprates: an electron energy-loss study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knupfer, M.; Fink, J.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Hayn, R.; Málek, Jiří; Moskvin, A.S.

    137-140, - (2004), s. 469-473 ISSN 0368-2048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : cuprates * electronic excitations * electron energy-loss spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.069, year: 2004