WorldWideScience

Sample records for quark energy loss

  1. Collisional Energy Loss of a Heavy Quark in an Anisotropic Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We compute the leading-order collisional energy loss of a heavy quark propagating through a quark-gluon plasma in which the quark and gluon distributions are anisotropic in momentum space. Following the calculation outlined for QED in an earlier work we indicate the differences encountered in QCD and their effect on the collisional energy loss results. For a 20 GeV bottom quark we show that momentum space anisotropies can result in the collisional heavy quark energy loss varying with the angle of propagation by up to 50%. For low velocity quarks we show that anisotropies result in energy gain instead of energy loss with the energy gain focused in such a way as to accelerate particles along the anisotropy direction thereby reducing the momentum-space anisotropy. The origin of this negative energy loss is explicitly identified as being related to the presence of plasma instabilities in the system.

  2. Energy loss of fast quarks in nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M B; Kopeliovich, B Z; Potashnikova, I K; McGaughey, P L; Moss, J M; Peng, J C; Garvey, G T; Leitch, M J; Adams, M R; Alde, D M; Baer, H W; Barlett, M L; Brown, C N; Cooper, W E; Carey, T A; Danner, G; Hoffmann, G W; Hsiung, Y B; Kaplan, D M; Klein, A; Lee, C; Lillberg, J W; McCarthy, R L; Mishra, C S; Wang, M J

    2001-05-14

    We report an analysis of the nuclear dependence of the yield of Drell-Yan dimuons from the 800 GeV/c proton bombardment of 2H, C, Ca, Fe, and W targets. Employing a new formulation of the Drell-Yan process in the rest frame of the nucleus, this analysis examines the effect of initial-state energy loss and shadowing on the nuclear-dependence ratios versus the incident proton's momentum fraction and dimuon effective mass. The resulting energy loss per unit path length is -dE/dz = 2.32+/-0.52+/-0.5 GeV/fm. This is the first observation of a nonzero energy loss of partons traveling in a nuclear environment.

  3. Energy loss of fast quarks in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, M B; Potashnikova, I K; McGaughey, P L; Moss, J M; Peng, J C; Garvey, G T; Leitch, M J; Adams, M R; Alde, D M; Baer, Howard W; Barlett, M L; Brown, C N; Cooper, W E; Carey, T A; Danner, G; Hoffmann, G W; Hsiung, Y B; Kaplan, D M; Klein, A; Lee, C; Lillberg, J W; McCarthy, R L; Mishra, C S; Wang, M J

    2001-01-01

    We report an analysis of the nuclear dependence of the yield of Drell-Yan dimuons from the 800 GeV/c proton bombardment of $^2H$, C, Ca, Fe, and W targets. Employing a new formulation of the Drell-Yan process in the rest frame of the nucleus, this analysis examines the effect of initial-state energy loss and shadowing on the nuclear-dependence ratios versus the incident proton's momentum fraction and dimuon effective mass. The resulting energy loss per unit path length is $-dE/dz = 2.32 \\pm 0.52\\pm 0.5$ GeV/fm. This is the first observation of a nonzero energy loss of partons traveling in nuclear environment.

  4. Energy loss of fast quarks in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, J M; Johnson, M B; Leitch, M J; McGaughey, P L; Kopeliovich, B Z; Potashnikova, I K; Peng, J C

    2001-01-01

    We report an analysis of the nuclear dependence of the yield of Drell-Yan (DY) dimuons from the 800 GeV/c proton bombardment of $^2H$, C, Ca, Fe, and W targets. A light-cone formulation of the DY process is employed in the rest frame of the nucleus. In this frame, for $x_2\\ll x_1$, DY production appears as bremsstrahlung of a virtual photon followed by decay into dileptons. We treat the two sources of nuclear suppression, energy loss and shadowing, in a consistent formulation. Shadowing, involving no free parameters, is calculated within the light-cone dipole formalism. Initial-state energy loss, the only unknown in the problem, is determined from a fit to the nuclear-dependence ratio versus $x_1$. With the assumption of constant energy loss per unit path length, we find $-dE/dz = 2.32 \\pm 0.52\\pm 0.5$ GeV/fm. This is the first observation of a nonzero energy loss of partons traveling in nuclear environment.

  5. Energy loss for heavy quarks in relation to light partons: is radiative energy loss for heavy quarks anomalous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Roy A; Wei, R; Ajitanand, N N; Alexander, J M; Gong, X; Jia, J; Mawi, A; Mohapatra, S; Reynolds, D; Salnikov, S; Taranenko, A

    2009-10-01

    The scaling properties of jet-suppression measurements are compared for nonphotonic electrons (e+/-) and neutral pions (pi(0)) in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[S(NN)]=200 GeV. For a broad range of transverse momenta and collision centralities, the comparison is consistent with jet quenching dominated by radiative energy loss for both heavy and light partons. Less quenching is indicated for heavy quarks via e+/-; this gives an independent estimate of the transport coefficient q that agrees with its magnitude obtained from quenching of light partons via pi(0)'s.

  6. Influence of quark energy loss on extracting nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; LIU Na

    2009-01-01

    By means of two typical kinds of quark energy loss parametrization and the nuclear parton distribu-tions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order analysis is performed on the proton-induced Drell-Yau differential cross section ratios of tungsten versus deuterium as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei. It is found that the theoretical results with quark energy loss are in good agreement with the experimental data. The quark energy loss effect produces approximately 3% to 11% suppression on the Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios RW/D in the range 0.05 ≤ x2≤ 0.3. The application of nuclear Drell-Yan data with heavy targets is remarkably subject to difficulty in the constraint of the nuclear sea quark distribution.

  7. Radiative Energy Loss of Heavy Quark and Dead Cone Effect in Ultra-relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Wen-Chang; DING Heng-Tong; ZHOU Dai-Cui

    2005-01-01

    @@ The lowest-order heavy quark radiative energy loss has been analysed to quantify the dead cone effect. The medium-induced gluon radiation is found to fill the dead cone, it is reduced at large gluon energies compared to the radiation of light quarks. We calculate the radiative energy loss of heavy quarks in the condition of dead cone effect. It is found that the radiative energy loss with dead cone effect is smaller than that without the dead cone effect.

  8. Measurement of Quark Energy Loss in Cold Nuclear Matter at Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Po-Ju [Colorado U.

    2017-01-01

    Parton energy loss is a process within QCD that draws considerable interest. The measurement of parton energy loss can provide valuable information for other hard-scattering processes in nuclei, and also serves as an important tool for exploring the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Quantifying the energy loss in cold nuclear matter will help to set a baseline relative to energy loss in the QGP. With the Drell-Yan process, the energy loss of incoming quarks in cold nuclear matter can be ideally investigated since the final state interaction is expected to be minimal. E906/SeaQuest is a fixed-target experiment using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Fermilab Main Injector and has been collecting data from p+p, p+d, p+C, p+Fe, and p+W collisions. Within the E906 kinematic coverage of Drell-Yan production via the dimuon channel, the quark energy loss can be measured in a regime where other nuclear effects are expected to be small. In this thesis, the study of quark ener gy loss from different cold nuclear targets is presented.

  9. Quark energy loss in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Li-Hua; 10.1103/Phys.RevC.81.035207

    2011-01-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering on nuclear targets is an ideal tool to study the energy loss effect of an outgoing quark in a nuclear medium. By means of the short hadron formation time, the experimental data with quark hadronization occurring outside the nucleus are picked out. A leading-order analysis is performed for the hadron multiplicity ratios as a function of the energy fraction on helium, neon, and copper nuclei relative to deuteron for the various identified hadrons. It is shown that the nuclear effects on parton distribution functions can be neglected. It is found that the theoretical results considering the nuclear modification of fragmentation functions due to quark energy loss are in good agreement with the experimental data. Whether the quark energy loss is linear or quadratic with the path length is not determined. The obtained energy loss per unit length is 0.38 \\pm 0.03 GeV/fm for an outgoing quark by the global fit.

  10. Energy Loss of Fast Quarks in Nuclear Drell-Yan Dimuon Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; CUI Shu-Wen; SHEN Peng-Nian; LI Guang-Lie

    2004-01-01

    @@ The energy loss effect in nuclear matter, which is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in the deep inelastic scattering process, can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of the quark energy loss parametrization given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections are analysed for 800-GeV protons incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866.

  11. Quark Energy Loss and Shadowing in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; CUI Shu-Wen; YAN Zhan-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of three kinds of quark energy loss parameterizations given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections are analyzed for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866. It is shown that our results with considering the energy loss effect are much different from those of the FNAL E866, who analyzes the experimental data with the nuclear parton distribution functions obtained by using the deep inelastic IA collisions and pA nuclear Drell-Yan data. Considering the existence of energy loss effect in Drell-Yan lepton pairs production, we suggest that the extraction of nuclear parton distribution functions should not include Drell-Yan experimental data.

  12. Quark Energy Loss and Shadowing in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANChun-Gui; CUIShu-Wen; YANZhan-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Dre11-Yan process. By means of three kinds of quark energy loss parameterizations given in literature and the nuclear parton distribution extracted only with lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Dre11-Yan production cross sections are analyzed for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets from FNAL E866. It is shown that our results with considering the energy loss effect are much different from those of the FNAL E866, who analyzes the experimental data with the nuclear parton distribution functions obtained by using the deep inelastic IA collisions and pA nuclear Drell-Yan data. Considering the existence of energy loss effect in Drell-Yan lepton pairs production, we suggest that the extraction of nuclear parton distribution functions shoul""""d not include Dre11-Yan experimental data.

  13. Energy loss, equilibration, and thermodynamics of a baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Rougemont, Romulo; Finazzo, Stefano; Noronha, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Lattice data for the QCD equation of state and the baryon susceptibility near the crossover phase transition (at zero baryon density) are used to determine the input parameters of a 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model that provides a consistent holographic framework to study both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium properties of a hot and {\\it baryon rich} strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We compare our holographic equation of state computed at nonzero baryon chemical potential, $\\mu_B$, with recent lattice calculations and find quantitative agreement for the pressure and the speed of sound for $\\mu_B \\leq 400$ MeV. This holographic model is used to obtain holographic predictions for the temperature and $\\mu_B$ dependence of the drag force and the Langevin diffusion coefficients associated with heavy quark jet propagation as well as the jet quenching parameter $\\hat{q}$ and the shooting string energy loss of light quarks in the dense plasma. We find that the energy loss of heavy ...

  14. Heavy Quark Tomography of A+A Including Elastic and Inelastic Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Wicks, S; Gyulassy, M; Horowitz, W; Djordjevic, Magdalena; Gyulassy, Miklos; Horowitz, William; Wicks, Simon

    2005-01-01

    We propose a possible perturbative QCD solution to the heavy quark tomography problem posed by recent non-photonic single electron data from central Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ AGeV. Jet quenching theory is extended to include (1) elastic as well as (2) inelastic parton energy losses and (3) jet path length fluctuations. The three effects combine to reduce the discrepancy between theory and the data without violating the global entropy bounds from multiplicity and elliptic flow data. We also check for consistency with the pion suppression data out to 20 GeV. Fluctuations of the geometric jet path lengths and the difference between the widths of fluctuations of elastic and inelastic energy loss play essential roles in the proposed solution.

  15. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark-Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, whic...

  16. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark-Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive) dataset.

  17. Energy Loss of a Non-Accelerating Quark Moving in a Strongly Coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM Vacuum or Quark-Gluon Plasma in Strong Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mamo, Kiminad A

    2016-01-01

    We show that a massless quark moving at the speed of light $v=1$, in arbitrary direction, in a strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills (SYM) vacuum in the presence of strong magnetic field $\\mathcal{B}$, losses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on $\\mathcal{B}$, i.e., $\\frac{dE}{dt}=-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}$. In addition, we show that a heavy quark of mass $M$ moving at near the speed of light $v^2=v_{*}^2=1-\\frac{4\\pi^2 T^2}{\\mathcal{B}}\\simeq1$, in arbitrary direction, in a strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature $T$, in the presence of strong magnetic field $\\mathcal{B}\\gg T^2$, losses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on $\\mathcal{B}$, i.e., $\\frac{dE}{dt}=-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}v_{*}^2\\simeq-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}$.

  18. Constraining in-medium heavy-quark energy-loss mechanisms via angular correlations between heavy and light mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmoser, M.; Gossiaux, P.-B.; Gousset, T.; Aichelin, J.

    2017-01-01

    Two-particle correlations obtained from parton showers that pass the hot and dense medium of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) can be used as an alternative observable, in addition to the combination of the nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow v 2, to study the mechanisms of in-medium heavy quark energy-loss. In particular, angular correlations represent a promising tool to distinguish between energy loss due to collisional and radiative interactions of jet and medium particles. To this end, parton cascades were created in Monte-Carlo simulations, where individual particles can undergo both parton splitting as well as an effective jet-medium interaction. A first model simulates the effects of induced radiations on parton cascades. Its consequences on angular correlations of partons within jets were studied in detail, with particular focus on angular broadening. The results can be compared to a second model that effectively describes elastic scatterings of jet and medium particles.

  19. Constraining in-medium heavy-quark energy-loss mechanisms via angular correlations between heavy and light mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Rohrmoser, Martin; Gousset, Thierry; Aichelin, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Two-particle correlations obtained from parton showers that pass the hot and dense medium of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) can be used as an alternative observable, in addition to the combination of the nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$ and the elliptic flow $v_2$, to study the mechanisms of in-medium heavy quark energy-loss. In particular, angular correlations represent a promising tool to distinguish between energy loss due to collisional and radiative interactions of jet and medium particles. To this end, parton cascades were created in Monte-Carlo simulations, where individual particles can undergo both parton splitting as well as an effective jet-medium interaction. A first model simulates the effects of induced radiations on parton cascades. Its consequences on angular correlations of partons within jets were studied in detail, with particular focus on angular broadening. The results can be compared to a second model that effectively describes elastic scatterings of jet and medium particles.

  20. Energy Loss of Charm Quark Observed via Dimuon Production in Pb-Pb Collisions at √snn= 5.5 TeV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Heng-Tong; ZHOU Dai-Cui; YIN Zhong-Bao

    2006-01-01

    @@ Based on the HVQMNR model of heavy flavour production and the BDMPS approach on parton energy loss, we have investigated the energy loss effect of charm quark on (di)muon spectra in forward rapidity region covered by ALICE forward muon spectrometer in Pb+Pb collisions at c.m. energy √snn = 5.5 TeV. Results show that(di)muon spectra are very sensitive to the charm quark energy loss and can provide valuable information on the energy loss of heavy flavours.

  1. pQCD versus AdS/CFT tested by heavy quark energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, W. A.

    2008-04-01

    We predict the charm and bottom quark nuclear modification factors using weakly coupled perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) and strongly coupled AdS/CFT drag methods. The log(pT/MQ)/pT dependence of pQCD loss and the momentum independence of drag loss lead to different momentum dependences for the RAA predictions. This difference is enhanced by examining a new experimental observable, the double ratio of charm to bottom nuclear modification factors, Rcb = RcAA/RbAA. At LHC the weakly coupled theory predicts Rcb → 1, whereas the strongly coupled theory predicts Rcb ~ 0.2 independent of pT. At RHIC the differences are less dramatic, as the production spectra are harder, but the drag formula is applicable to higher momenta, due to the lower medium temperature.

  2. Transverse momentum broadening of heavy quark and gluon energy loss in Sakai-Sugimoto model

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Yi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the transverse momentum diffusion coefficient kappa_T of heavy quark and gluon penetration length in the deconfinement phase of Sakai-Sugimoto model, which is known as a holographic dual of large N_c QCD. We find that for the heavy quark moving through the thermal plasma with a constant velocity v<1, the transverse momentum diffusion coefficient kappa_T is proportional to lamda*gamma^{{1/3}}*T^4/T_d, and the gluon penetration length delta x is proportional to E^{{2/5}}, these results are different from those calculated in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in which kappa_T is proportional to lambda*gamma^{{1/2}}*T^3 and delta x is proportional to E^{{1/3}}, respectively. In the high energy limit, the difference between the two pairs of results should be evident, so we expect that the future LHC experiments can tell us which model is more closely related to the realistic strongly coupled QCD at finite temperature.

  3. Dynamical collisional energy loss and transport properties of on- and off-shell heavy quarks in vacuum and in the Quark Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Berrehrah, Hamza; Aichelin, Jörg; Cassing, Wolfgang; Bratkovskaya, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the dynamical collisional energy loss of heavy quarks, their interaction rate as well as the different transport coefficients (drag and diffusion coefficients, $\\hat{q}$, etc). We calculate these different quantities for i) perturbative partons (on-shell particles in the vacuum with fixed and running coupling) and ii) for dynamical quasi-particles (off-shell particles in the QGP medium at finite temperature $T$ with a running coupling in temperature as described by the dynamical quasi-particles model). We use the perturbative elastic $(q(g) Q \\rightarrow q (g) Q)$ cross section for the first case, and the Infrared Enhanced Hard Thermal Loop cross sections for the second. The results obtained in this work demonstrate the effects of a finite parton mass and width on the heavy quark transport properties and provide the basic ingredients for an explicit study of the microscopic dynamics of heavy flavors in the QGP - as formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions - within transport approa...

  4. Dynamical energy loss as a novel Quark-Gluon Plasma tomographic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    High momentum suppression of light and heavy flavor observables is considered to be an excellent probe of jet-medium interactions in QCD matter created at RHIC and LHC. Utilizing this tool requires accurate suppression predictions for different experiments, probes and experimental conditions, and their unbiased comparison with experimental data. With this goal, we developed the dynamical energy loss formalism towards generating predictions for non-central collisions; the formalism takes into account both radiative and collisional energy loss computed within the same theoretical framework, dynamical (as opposed to static) scattering centers, finite magnetic mass, running coupling and uses no free parameters in comparison with experimental data. Within this formalism, we provided predictions, and a systematic comparison with experimental data, for a diverse set of suppression data: all available light and heavy flavor probes, lower and high momentum ranges, various centrality ranges and various collision energies at RHIC and LHC. We here also provide clear qualitative and quantitative predictions for soon to become available LHC experimental data. Comprehensive agreement between our predictions and experimental results provides a good deal of confidence that our dynamical energy loss formalism can well explain the jet-medium interactions in QGP, which will be further tested by the obtained predictions for the upcoming data. Application of this model, as a novel high-precision tomographic tool of QGP medium, are also discussed.

  5. Testing AdS/CFT drag and pQCD heavy quark energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, W. A.; Gyulassy, M.

    2008-10-01

    We present charm and bottom nuclear modification factors for RHIC and LHC using standard model perturbative QCD and recent AdS/CFT string drag energy loss models. We find that extreme extrapolations to LHC mask potential experimentally determinable differences in the individual RAAs but that their ratio, RcAA/RbAA, as a function of transverse momentum is a remarkably robust observable for finding deviations from either theoretical framework.

  6. Short path length pQCD corrections to energy loss in the quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbe, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Recent surprising discoveries of collective behaviour of low-$p_T$ particles in $pA$ collisions at LHC hint at the creation of a hot, fluid-like QGP medium. The seemingly conflicting measurements of non-zero particle correlations and $R_{pA}$ that appears to be consistent with unity demand a more careful analysis of the mechanisms at work in such ostensibly minuscule systems. We study the way in which energy is dissipated in the QGP created in $pA$ collisions by calculating, in pQCD, the short separation distance corrections to the well-known DGLV energy loss formulae that have produced excellent predictions for $AA$ collisions. We find that, shockingly, due to the large formation time (compared to the $1/\\mu$ Debye screening length) assumption that was used in the original DGLV calculation, a highly non-trivial cancellation of correction terms results in a null short path length correction to the DGLV energy loss formula. We investigate the effect of relaxing the large formation time assumption in the final ...

  7. Parton energy loss in hot and dense QCD medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jie; MAO Yaxian; XIANG Wenchang; ZHOU Daicui

    2006-01-01

    Induced gluon radiation and energy loss of heavy quark in hot and dense QCD media are discussed. Using the light-cone path integral approach, an analytical formula of the energy loss of heavy quark is derived. The results show that the quark energy loss obviously depends on the mass of quark, i. e. a remarkable suppression occurs in the case of heavy quark comparing to a light one. The radiative energy loss of energetic quark is proportional to L2, where L is the length of the medium. The dependence of energy loss on L2 turns to L with decreasing quark energy.

  8. Nuclear Modification of Electron Spectra and Implications for Heavy Quark Energy Loss in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Yu A; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S R; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; D'Enterria, D G; Dávid, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Yu V; Egdemir, J; El-Chenawi, K F; Enokizono, A; Enyo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L A; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E P; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Bösing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V P; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A G; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Martínez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E A; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Muhlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V A; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sørensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarjan, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszpremi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E A; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L

    2006-01-01

    The PHENIX experiment has measured mid-rapidity transverse momentum spectra (0.4 < p_T < 5.0 GeV/c) of electrons as a function of centrality in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV. Contributions from photon conversions and from light hadron decays, mainly Dalitz decays of pi^0 and eta mesons, were removed. The resulting non-photonic electron spectra are primarily due to the semi-leptonic decays of hadrons carrying heavy quarks. Nuclear modification factors were determined by comparison to non-photonic electrons in p+p collisions. A significant suppression of electrons at high p_T is observed in central Au+Au collisions, indicating substantial energy loss of heavy quarks.

  9. Heavy Quark Production in p+p and Energy Loss and Flow of Heavy Quarks in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Al-Jamel, A.; Aoki, K.; Aphecetche, L.; Armendariz, R. (R.); Aronson, S H; Asai, J.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.

    2010-01-01

    Transverse momentum (p^e_T) spectra of electrons from semileptonic weak decays of heavy flavor mesons in the range of 0.3 < p^e_T < 9.0 GeV/c have been measured at mid-rapidity (|eta| < 0.35) by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV. The nuclear modification factor R_AA with respect to p+p collisions indicates substantial energy loss of heavy quarks in the produced medium. In addition, the azimuthal anisotropy parameter ...

  10. Energy Density in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马忠彪; 苗洪; 高崇寿

    2003-01-01

    We study the energy density in quark-gluon plasma. At the very high temperature, the quark matter is a hot and dense matter in the colour deconfinement condition, and quarks can coalescent diquarks. Energy density of this system is worked out and compared with the energy density in the other two kinds of situations. Possible energy density is about eo ≈ 2.4 GeV/fm3 according to our estimation for quark matter including diquarks,

  11. Interactions of quarks and gluons with nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Some processes involving the interaction of medium energy quarks and gluons with nuclear matter are described. Possible mechanisms for the A-dependence of the energy loss of leading protons produced in proton-nucleus collisions are given, and an experiment which may help to distinguish these mechanisms is described. A possible color transparency experiment at CEBAF is described. Experiments to measure energy loss of quarks in nuclear matter and the formation time of hadrons are discussed along with the possibilities of measuring {sigma}{sub J}/{psi} and {sigma}{sub {psi}{prime}} at CEBAF.

  12. Energy change of a heavy quark in a viscous quark–gluon plasma with fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bing-feng, E-mail: jiangbf@mails.ccnu.edu.cn [Center for Theoretical Physics and School of Sciences, Hubei University for Nationalities, Enshi, Hubei 445000 (China); Hou, De-fu, E-mail: houdf@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China); Li, Jia-rong, E-mail: ljr@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079 (China)

    2016-09-15

    When a heavy quark travels through the quark–gluon plasma, the polarization and fluctuating chromoelectric fields will be produced simultaneously in the plasma. The drag force due to those fields exerting in return on the moving heavy quark will cause energy change to it. Based on the dielectric functions derived from the viscous chromohydrodynamics, we have studied the collisional energy change of a heavy quark traversing the viscous quark–gluon plasma including fluctuations of chromoelectric field. Numerical results indicate that the chromoelectric field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the moving heavy quark. Shear viscosity suppresses the fluctuation-induced energy gain and the viscous suppression effect for the charm quark is much more remarkable than that for the bottom quark. While, the fluctuation energy gain is much smaller than the polarization energy loss in magnitude and the net energy change for the heavy quark is at loss.

  13. Relationship between quark-antiquark potential and quark-antiquark free energy in hadronic matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhen-Yu; XU Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In high-temperature quark-gluon plasma and its subsequent hadronic matter created in a high-energy nucleus-nucleus collision,the quark-antiquark potential depends on the temperature.The temperature-dependent potential is expected to be derived from the free energy obtained in lattice gauge theory calculations.This requires one to study the relationship between the quark-antiquark potential and the quark-antiquark free energy.When the system's temperature is above the critical temperature,the potential of a heavy quark and a heavy antiquark almost equals the free energy,but the potential of a light quark and a light antiquark,of a heavy quark and a light antiquark and of a light quark and a heavy antiquark is substantially larger than the free energy.When the system's temperature is below the critical temperature,the quark-antiquark free energy can be taken as the quark-antiquark potential.This allows one to apply the quark-antiquark free energy to study hadron properties and hadron-hadron reactions in hadronic matter.

  14. Mass Hierarchy of Collisional Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Collisional parton energy loss is revisited within a simple model assuming incoherent elastic scattering of on-shell projectile partons on partonic constituents of the QGP with HTL screening. The thermal motion of plasma particles is carefully taken into account. Results on $dE/dx$ are found to be consistent with other authors. There is a significant discrepancy in the energy loss pattern for the cases with thermal motion on and off, which illustrates the importance of taking the kinematics into account exactly. The dependence on the mass of the partons forming the plasma is included in the calculations and its influence on the collisional energy loss is studied. The mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss is found to have a strong dependence on the mass introduced for plasma particles. Due to difference in the mass hierarchy with radiative energy loss, the collisional one when included increases the relative suppression of heavy quarks compared to light quarks.

  15. Parton energy loss in a classical strongly coupled QGP

    OpenAIRE

    Dusling, Kevin; Zahed, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the energy loss of heavy quarks in the gas, liquid and solid phase of a classical quark-gluon plasma (cQGP) using molecular dynamics simulations. The model consists of massive quarks and gluons interacting as a classical non-relativistic colored Coulomb gas. We show that the electric force decorrelates on a short time scale causing the energy loss to be mostly diffusive and langevin-like in the cQGP. We find that the drag coefficient changes with the heavy quark mass, while the...

  16. Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kasmaei, Babak S; Strickland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.

  17. Heavy quark free energies for three quark systems at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Hübner, K; Kaczmarek, O; Vogt, O

    2007-01-01

    We study the free energy of static three quark systems in singlet, octet, decuplet and average color channels in the quenched approximation and in 2-flavor QCD at finite temperature. We show that in the high temperature phase singlet and decuplet free energies of three quark systems are well described by the sum of the free energies of three diquark systems plus self energy contributions of the three quarks. In the confining low temperature phase we find evidence for a Y-shaped flux tube in SU(3) pure gauge theory, which is less evident in 2-flavor QCD due to the onset of string breaking. We also compare the short distance behavior of octet and decuplet free energies to the free energies of single static quarks in the corresponding color representations.

  18. a Cosmological Lower Limit for Quark Compositeness Energy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Somenath; Datta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Bikash

    Baryon number density inhomogeneity in the very early universe, due to an assumed first order preon-to-quark phase transition, at or around the electroweak symmetry breaking energy is discussed. Conformity with primordial nucleosynthesis suggests that quark compositeness energy scale must be higher than 500 GeV.

  19. A cosmological lower limit for quark compositeness energy scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, S.; Sinha, B. (Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, 1/af Bidham Nagar, Calcutta 700064 (India)); Datta, B. (Indian Inst. of Astrophysics, Bangalore (India))

    1992-08-30

    In this paper baryon number density inhomogeneity in the very early universe, due to an assumed first order preon-to-quark phase transition, at or around the electroweak symmetry breaking energy is discussed. Conformity with primordial nucleosynthesis suggests that quark compositeness energy scale must be higher than 500 GeV.

  20. Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kai [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dai, Wei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Nu [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhuang, Pengfei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-12-15

    The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  1. Energy losses in switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-07-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF{sub 6} polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V{sub peak}I{sub peak}){sup 1.1846}. When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset.

  2. Quark model and high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Anisovich, V V; Nyíri, J; Shabelski, Yu M

    2004-01-01

    This is an updated version of the book published in 1985. QCD-motivated, it gives a detailed description of hadron structure and soft interactions in the additive quark model, where hadrons are regarded as composite systems of dressed quarks. In the past decade it has become clear that nonperturbative QCD, responsible for soft hadronic processes, may differ rather drastically from perturbative QCD. The understanding of nonperturbative QCD requires a detailed investigation of the experiments and the theoretical approaches. Bearing this in mind, the book has been rewritten paying special attenti

  3. Effects of heavy sea quarks at low energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Knechtli, Francesco; Leder, Björn; Sommer, Rainer

    2015-03-13

    We present a factorization formula for the dependence of light hadron masses and low energy hadronic scales on the mass M of a heavy quark: apart from an overall mass-independent factor Q, ratios such as r_{0}(M)/r_{0}(0) are computable in perturbation theory at large M. The perturbation theory part is stable concerning different loop orders. Our nonperturbative Monte Carlo results obtained in a model calculation, where a doublet of heavy quarks is decoupled, match quantitatively to the perturbative prediction. Upon taking ratios of different hadronic scales at the same mass, the perturbative function drops out and the ratios are given by the decoupled theory up to M^{-2} corrections. We verify-in the continuum limit-that the sea quark effects of quarks with masses around the charm mass are very small in such ratios.

  4. Collisional Energy Loss of Non Asymptotic Jets in a QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Adil, A; Horowitz, W A; Wicks, S

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the collisional energy loss suffered by a heavy (charm) quark created at a finite time within a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) in the classical linear response formalism. We pay close attention to the problem of formulating a conserved current and accounting for binding and radiative energy loss effects. We find that the finite time correction is on the order of a Debye length as expected and the overall energy loss is similar in magnitude to the energy loss suffered by a charge created in the asymptotic past. This result has significant implications for the relative contribution to energy loss from collisional and radiative sources and will have ramifications for the ``single electron puzzle'' at RHIC as well as other experimental observables.

  5. High energy cosmic ray signature of quark nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouze, J.; Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that dark matter in the Universe might consist of nuggets of quarks which populate the nuclear desert between nucleons and neutron star matter. It is further suggested that the Centauro events which could be the signature of particles with atomic mass A approx. 100 and energy E approx. 10 to 15th power eV might also be related to debris produced in the encounter of two neutron stars. A further consequence of the former proposal is examined, and it is shown that the production of relativistic quark nuggets is accompanied by a substantial flux of potentially observable high energy neutrinos.

  6. Quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell-Mann, M.

    In these lectures I want to speak about at least two interpretations of the concept of quarks for hadrons and the possible relations between them. First I want to talk about quarks as "constituent quarks". These were used especially by G. Zweig (1964) who referred to them as aces. One has a sort of a simple model by which one gets elementary results about the low-lying bound and resonant states of mesons and baryons, and certain crude symmetry properties of these states, by saying that the hadrons act as if they were made up of subunits, the constituent quarks q. These quarks are arranged in an isotopic spin doublet u, d and an isotopic spin singlet s, which has the same charge as d and acts as if it had a slightly higher mass…

  7. Nuclear symmetry energy in a modified quark meson coupling model

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, R N; Panda, P K; Barik, N; Frederico, T

    2015-01-01

    We study nuclear symmetry energy and the thermodynamic instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark-meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically averaged potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to $\\sigma$, $\\omega$, and $\\rho$ mesons through mean-field approximations. We find an analytic expression for the symmetry energy ${\\cal E}_{sym}$ as a function of its slope $L$. Our result establishes a linear correlation between $L$ and ${\\cal E}_{sym}$. We also analyze the constraint on neutron star radii in $(pn)$ matter with $\\beta$ equilibrium.

  8. How do quarks and gluons lose energy in the QGP?

    CERN Document Server

    Tannenbaum, M J

    2014-01-01

    At RHIC, a suppression, $R_{AA}\\approx 0.2$ relative to binary-scaling, for $\\pi^0$ with $5\\leq p_T\\leq 20$ GeV/c was discovered in central Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV, and surprisingly also for single-electrons from the decay of heavy quarks. Both these results have been confirmed in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV. In this $p_T$ range, the LHC results for pions nearly overlap the RHIC results but the flatter spectrum at LHC implies that the energy loss in the medium must be $\\sim 40$% larger than at RHIC. At LHC, the unique and beautiful measurement of the fractional transverse momentum imbalance $1-\\langle{\\hat{p}_{T_2}/\\hat{p}_{T_1}}\\rangle$ of di-jets in Pb+Pb collisions relative to p-p collisions, shows $\\approx 15\\%$ for jets with $120\\leq\\hat{p}_{T_1}\\leq 360$ GeV/c. This is a much smaller fractional jet imbalance than the $\\approx 45\\%$ derived from two-particle correlations of di-jet fragments at RHIC corresponding to jet $\\hat{p}_T\\approx 10-20$ GeV/c. This p...

  9. Midrapidity inclusive densities in high energy pp collisions in additive quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelski, Yu. M.; Shuvaev, A. G.

    2016-08-01

    High energy (CERN SPS and LHC) inelastic pp (pbar{p}) scattering is treated in the framework of the additive quark model together with Pomeron exchange theory. We extract the midrapidity inclusive density of the charged secondaries produced in a single quark-quark collision and investigate its energy dependence. Predictions for the π p collisions are presented.

  10. On the effects of heavy sea quarks at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia; Knechtli, Francesco; Leder, Bjoern; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We present a factorisation formula for the dependence of light hadron masses and low energy hadronic scales on the mass $M$ of a heavy quark: apart from an overall factor $Q$, ratios such as $r_0(M)/r_0(0)$ are computable in perturbation theory at large $M$. The mass-independent factor $Q$ is obtained from the theory in the limit $M\\to0$ and the decoupled theory with the heavy quark removed. The perturbation theory part is stable concerning different loop orders and our non-perturbative results match on quantitatively to the perturbative prediction. Upon taking ratios of different hadronic scales at the same mass, the perturbative function drops out and the ratios are given by the decoupled theory up to $M^{-2}$ corrections. Our present numerical results are obtained in a model calculation where there are no light quarks and a heavy doublet of quarks is decoupled. They are limited to masses a factor two below the charm. This is not large enough to see the $M^{-2}$ scaling predicted by the theory, but it is su...

  11. Energy profile of b-jet for boosted top quarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitadono Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the semileptonic decay of a polarised top-quark with a large velocity based on the perturbative QCD factorisation framework. Thanks to the factorisation and the spin decomposition, the production part and the decay part can be factorised and the spin dependence is introduced in the decay part. The decay part is converted to the top-jet function which describes the distribution of jet observables and the spin is translated to the helicity of the boosted top. Using this top-jet function, the energy profile of b-jet is investigated and it is turned out that the sub-jet energy for the helicity-minus top is accumulated faster than that for the helicity-plus top. This behaviour for the boosted top can be understood with the negative spin-analysing-power of b-quark in the polarised-top decay.

  12. Parton energy loss in glasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurenche, P. [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, BP 110, F-74941, Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Zakharov, B.G. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, GSP-1, 117940, Kosygina Str. 2, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-08

    We study the synchrotron-like gluon emission in AA-collisions from fast partons due to interaction with the coherent glasma color fields. Our results show that for RHIC and LHC conditions the contribution of this mechanism to parton energy loss is much smaller than the radiative energy loss in the plasma phase.

  13. Heavy Quark Photoproduction in Coherent Interactions at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, V P; Meneses, A R

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the inclusive and diffractive photoproduction of heavy quarks in proton-proton collisions at Tevatron and LHC energies, where the photon reaches energies larger than those ones accessible at DESY-HERA. The integrated cross section and the rapidity distributions for charm and bottom production are computed within the color dipole picture employing three phenomenological saturation models based on the Color Glass Condensate formalism. Our results demonstrate that the experimental analyzes of these reactions is feasible and that the cross sections are sensitive to the underlying parton dynamics.

  14. Measuring top-quark polarization in top-pair + missing-energy events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Edmond L; Cao, Qing-Hong; Yu, Jiang-Hao; Zhang, Hao

    2012-10-12

    The polarization of a top quark can be sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model. Since the charged lepton from top-quark decay is maximally correlated with the top-quark spin, it is common to measure the polarization from the distribution in the angle between the charged lepton and the top-quark directions. We propose a novel method based on the charged lepton energy fraction and illustrate the method with a detailed simulation of top-quark pairs produced in supersymmetric top squark pair production. We show that the lepton energy ratio distribution that we define is very sensitive to the top-quark polarization but insensitive to the precise measurement of the top-quark energy.

  15. Energy losses in photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Nour, M. Abdulsadek

    1994-10-01

    The maximum power generated by photovoltaic (PV) arrays is not fully used. During summer, the main cause for the energy loss is the system design that necessitates an oversizing of the PV array to supply the load during the winter season when the solar energy is limited. Other reasons that cause energy loss are: the mismatch between the array and the load or battery, the loss in the batteries, and the loss due to the PV array disconnect. The array disconnect loss takes place during summer season when the battery is fully charged. To avoid the disconnect loss, a novel battery voltage regulator (BVR) is used. This supplies the load directly from the array when the battery is fully charged. Energy losses have been analyzed and divided into fundamental (unavoidable) and non-fundamental losses. Both conventional (using a conventional BVR) and new (using a novel BVR) PV systems are studied. A load that consumes constant power for 24 h a day through the year is considered. The climatic condition of Cairo city is taken as the test case.

  16. High energy pA collisions in the color glass condensate approach II. Quark production

    CERN Document Server

    Blaizot, J P; Venugopalan, R

    2004-01-01

    We compute the production of quark-antiquark pairs in high energy collisions between a small and a large projectile, as in proton-nucleus collisions, in the framework of the Color Glass Condensate. We derive a general expression for quark pair-production, which is not k_t-factorizable. However, k_t-factorization is recovered in the limit of large mass pairs or large quark--anti-quark momenta. Our results are amenable to a simple interpretation and suggest how multi-parton correlations at small x can be quantified in high-energy proton/deuteron-nucleus collisions.

  17. Hadron energy spectrum in polarized top-quark decays considering the effects of hadron and bottom quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, S.M.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O.Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Balali, Mahboobe [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    We present the analytical expressions for the next-to-leading order corrections to the partial decay width t(↑) → bW{sup +}, followed by b @→ H{sub b}X, for nonzero b-quark mass (m{sub b} ≠ 0) in the fixed-flavor-number scheme (FFNs). To make the predictions for the energy distribution of outgoing hadrons H{sub b}, as a function of the normalized H{sub b}-energy fraction x{sub H}, we apply the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme (GM-VFNs) in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization of top quark is evaluated relative to the b-quark momentum. We also study the effects of gluon fragmentation and finite hadron mass on the hadron energy spectrum so that hadron masses are responsible for the low x{sub H} threshold. In order to describe both the b-quark and the gluon hadronizations in top decays we apply realistic and nonperturbative fragmentation functions extracted through a global fit to the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC by relying on their universality and scaling violations. (orig.)

  18. A candidate for production of a top quark pair in CMS, where both top quarks decay into a W and a b quark, and both W particles decay into a muon and neutrino. This results in 2 muons (red tracks), 2 jets tagged as b-quark jets and missing energy (from the escaping neutrinos).

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A candidate for production of a top quark pair in CMS, where both top quarks decay into a W and a b quark, and both W particles decay into a muon and neutrino. This results in 2 muons (red tracks), 2 jets tagged as b-quark jets and missing energy (from the escaping neutrinos).

  19. Quantitative study of the violation of kperpendicular factorization in hadroproduction of quarks at collider energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hirotsugu; Gelis, François; Venugopalan, Raju

    2005-10-14

    We demonstrate the violation of kperpendicular factorization for quark production in high energy hadronic collisions. This violation is quantified in the color glass condensate framework and studied as a function of the quark mass, the quark transverse momentum, and the saturation scale Q(s), which is a measure of large parton densities. At x values where parton densities are large but leading twist shadowing effects are still small, violations of kperpendicularkfactorization can be significant--especially for lighter quarks. At very small x, where leading twist shadowing is large, we show that violations of kperpendicular factorization are relatively weaker.

  20. Dynamical Effects on Jet Energy Loss in QCD Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Computation of radiative energy loss in a finite size dynamically screened QCD medium is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We develop a theory which allows calculating, to first order in the number of scattering centers, the energy loss of a heavy quark traveling through a finite size dynamical QCD medium. We show that the result for a dynamical medium is significantly larger compared to a medium consisting of randomly distributed static scattering centers. Therefore, a quantitative description of jet suppression at RHIC and LHC experiments must correctly account for the dynamics of the medium's constituents. Furthermore, qualitative predictions that come from this energy loss formalism are also presented.

  1. Relevance of the quark component in prompt photon and electroweak gauge boson production at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). D.V. Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2009-04-15

    In the framework of the k{sub T}-factorization approach, we study the production of prompt photons and electroweak gauge bosons in high energy proton-(anti)proton collisions at modern colliders. Our consideration is based on the amplitude for the production of a single photon or W{sup {+-}}/Z{sup 0} boson associated with a quark pair in the fusion of two off-shell gluons. The quark component is taken into account separately using the quark-gluon scattering and quark-antiquark annihilation QCD subprocesses. Special attention is put on the contributions from the quarks involved into the earlier steps of the evolution cascade. Using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin formalism, we simulate this component and demonstrate that it plays an important role at both the Tevatron and LHC energies. Our theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data taken by the D diameter and CDF collaborations at the Tevatron. (orig.)

  2. CMB bounds on dark matter annihilation: Nucleon energy losses after recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weniger, C.; Serpico, P.D.; Iocco, F.; Bertone, G.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the propagation and energy losses of protons and antiprotons produced by dark matter annihilation at redshifts 100quarks, gluons and weak gauge bosons, protons and antiprotons carry about 20% of the energy injected into e± and γ’s, b

  3. Search for Quarks in High-Energy Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a search for quarks produced in high energy neutrino interactions. Neutrino interactions take place in a 23-ton lead target and are recognized by one or more particles crossing the counter hodoscopes S1 and S2, together with the absence of an incident particle signal in the initial veto counter V^0.\\\\ \\\\ The lead is viewed by an avalanche chamber to measure the specific ionization of the charged secondaries produced in the @n-interaction with high accuracy even in jet-like events, and by a series of two pairs of scintillation counter hodoscopes (ST1, ST2). The latter provide time-of-flight measurements and dE/dx measurements for a fast analysis in low and medium multiplicity provide a trigger for the chamber. \\\\ \\\\ In order to reduce the background in the set-up, very low momentum particles (mainly due to cascading processes in the target) are separated out by a @= 1 T.m magnet placed behind the target. \\\\ \\\\ A system of wire chambers W1, W2, which register both the position and the time at...

  4. Associated photon and heavy quark production at high energy within k_T-factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Zotov, N P; Malyshev, M A

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the k_T-factorization approach, the production of prompt photons in association with a heavy (charm or beauty) quarks at high energies is studied. The consideration is based on the O(\\alpha \\alpha_s^2) off-shell amplitudes of gluon-gluon fusion and quark-(anti)quark interaction subprocesses. The unintegrated parton densities in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Our numerical predictions are compared with the D0 and CDF experimental data. Also we extend our results to LHC energies.

  5. Soft Gluon Radiation off Heavy Quarks beyond Eikonal Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trambak Bhattacharyya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the soft gluon radiation spectrum off heavy quarks (HQs interacting with light quarks (LQs beyond small angle scattering (eikonality approximation and thus generalize the dead-cone formula of heavy quarks extensively used in the literatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP phenomenology to the large scattering angle regime which may be important in the energy loss of energetic heavy quarks in the deconfined Quark-Gluon Plasma medium. In the proper limits, we reproduce all the relevant existing formulae for the gluon radiation distribution off energetic quarks, heavy or light, used in the QGP phenomenology.

  6. Heavy quark colorimetry of QCD matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dokshitzer, Yu L; Dokshitzer, Yu.L.

    2001-01-01

    We consider propagation of heavy quarks in QCD matter. Because of large quark mass, the radiative quark energy loss appears to be qualitatively different from that of light quarks at all energies of practical importance. Finite quark mass effects lead to an in-medium enhancement of the heavy-to-light D/\\pi ratio at moderately large (5--10 GeV) transverse momenta. For hot QCD matter a large enhancement is expected, whose magnitude and shape are exponentially sensitive to the density of colour charges in the medium.

  7. Free energy of static quarks and Debye screening mass in 2+1-flavor lattice QCD with Wilson quark action based on fixed-scale approach

    CERN Document Server

    Maezawa, Y; Aoki, S; Ejiri, S; Hatsuda, T; Kanaya, K; Ohno, H

    2011-01-01

    Free energies between static quarks and Debye screening masses in the quark-gluon plasma are studied on the basis of Polyakov-line correlations in lattice simulations of 2+1 flavors QCD with the renormalization-group improved gluon action and the $O(a)$-improved Wilson quark action. We perform simulations at $m_{\\rm PS}/m_{\\rm V} = 0.63$ (0.74) for light (strange) flavors with lattice sizes of $32^3 \\times N_t$ with $N_t=4$--12. We adopt the fixed-scale approach, where temperature can be varied without changing the spatial volume and renormalization factor. We find that, at short distance, the free energies of static quarks in color-singlet channel converge to the static-quark potential evaluated from the Wilson-loop at zero-temperature, in accordance with the expected insensitivity of short distance physics to the temperature. At long distance, the free energies of static quarks approach to twice the single-quark free energies, implying that the interaction between static quarks is fully screened. The screen...

  8. Jet energy loss and bulk parton collectivity in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huan-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC produce high temperature and high energy density matter which exhibits paxtonic degrees of freedom. We will discuss measurements of nuclear modification factors for light hadrons and non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays, which reflect the flavor dependence of energy loss of high momentum partons traversing the dense QCD medium. The dense QCD medium responds to energy loss of high momentum patrons in a pattern consistent with that expected from a hydrodynamic fluid. The hadronization of bulk partonic matter exhibits collectivity with effective partonic degrees of freedom. Nuclear collisions at RHIC provide an intriguing environment, where many constituent quark ingredients are readily available for possible formation of exotic particles through quark coalescence or recombinations.

  9. Exact results for the entanglement entropy and the energy radiated by a quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewkowycz, Aitor [Jadwin Hall, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    We consider a spherical region with a heavy quark in the middle. We compute the extra entanglement entropy due to the presence of a heavy quark both in N=4 Super Yang Mills and in the N=6 Chern-Simons matter theory (ABJM). This is done by relating the computation to the expectation value of a circular Wilson loop and a stress tensor insertion. We also give an exact expression for the Bremsstrahlung function that determines the energy radiated by a quark in the ABJM theory.

  10. Jet energy loss in heavy ion collisions from RHIC to LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Levai, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The suppression of hadron production originated from the induced jet energy loss is one of the most accepted and well understood phenomena in heavy ion collisions, which indicates the formation of color deconfined matter consists of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. This phenomena has been seen at RHIC energies and now the first LHC results display a very similar effect. In fact, the suppression is so close to each other at 200 AGeV and 2.76 ATeV, that it is interesting to investigate if such a suppression pattern can exist at all. We use the Gyulassy-Levai-Vitev description of induced jet energy loss combined with different nuclear shadowing functions and describe the experimental data. We claim that a consistent picture can be obtained for the produced hot matter with a weak nuclear shadowing. The interplay between nuclear shadowing and jet energy loss playes a crucial role in the understanding of the experimental data.

  11. Top-Quark Initiated Processes at High-Energy Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Tao; Westhoff, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In hadronic collisions at high energies, the top-quark may be treated as a parton inside a hadron. Top-quark initiated processes become increasingly important since the top-quark luminosity can reach a few percent of the bottom-quark luminosity. In the production of a heavy particle $H$ with mass $m_H > m_t$, treating the top-quark as a parton allows us to resum large logarithms $\\log(m_{H}^{2}/m_{t}^{2}$) arising from collinear splitting in the initial state. We quantify the effect of collinear resummation at the 14-TeV LHC and a future 100-TeV hadron collider, focusing on the top-quark open-flavor process $gg\\to t\\bar t H$ in comparison with $t\\bar t \\to H$ and $tg\\rightarrow tH$ at the leading order (LO) in QCD. We employ top-quark parton distribution functions with appropriate collinear subtraction and power counting. We find that (1) Collinear resummation enhances the inclusive production of a heavy particle with $m_H\\approx$ 5 TeV (0.5 TeV) by more than a factor of two compared to the open-flavor proces...

  12. Energy loss in unstable QGP - problem of the upper cut-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrington Margaret E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss of a highly energetic parton in a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma is studied as an initial value problem. An extremely prolate plasma, where the momentum distribution is infinitely elongated along one direction, is considered. The energy loss is strongly time and direction dependent and its magnitude can much exceed the equilibrium value. It is logarithmically ultraviolet divergent. We argue that a good approximation to the energy loss can be obtained if this divergence is cut off with the parton energy.

  13. Energy-loss distributions of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, N.N.; Nakhutin, I.E.; Shatunov, V.G.

    1976-03-05

    The f-f coincidence method was used to investigate the change in the form of the energy-loss distributions of Cf/sup 252/ fission fragments in air, down to fragment energies approx.0.8 MeV. A theoretical model is considered for the estimate of the mean-squared deviations of the fragment energy-loss distributions. (AIP)

  14. Quark-Novae Ia in the Hubble diagram: Implications For Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyed, Rachid; Leahy, Denis; Staff, Jan E; Cassidy, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    The accelerated expansion of the Universe was proposed through the use of Type-Ia SNe as standard candles. The standardization depends on an empirical correlation between the stretch/color and peak luminosity of the light curves. The use of Type Ia SN as standard candles rests on the assumption that their properties (and this correlation) do not vary with red-shift. We consider the possibility that the majority of Type-Ia SNe are in fact caused by a Quark-Nova detonation in a tight neutron-star-CO-white-dwarf binary system; a Quark-Nova Ia. The spin-down energy injected by the Quark Nova remnant (the quark star) contributes to the post-peak light curve and neatly explains the observed correlation between peak luminosity and light curve shape. We demonstrate that the parameters describing Quark-Novae Ia are NOT constant in red-shift. Simulated Quark-Nova Ia light curves provide a test of the stretch/color correlation by comparing the true distance modulus with that determined using SN light curve fitters. We d...

  15. Nuclear symmetry energy in a modified quark-meson coupling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R. N.; Sahoo, H. S.; Panda, P. K.; Barik, N.; Frederico, T.

    2015-10-01

    We study nuclear symmetry energy and the thermodynamic instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter in a self-consistent manner by using a modified quark-meson coupling model where the confining interaction for quarks inside a nucleon is represented by a phenomenologically averaged potential in an equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear matter is then realized by introducing additional quark couplings to σ ,ω , and ρ mesons through mean-field approximations. We find an analytic expression for the symmetry energy Esym as a function of its slope L . Our result establishes a linear correlation between L and Esym. We also analyze the constraint on neutron star radii in (p n ) matter with β equilibrium.

  16. Quark, Gluon, Odderon Contributions to Total Cross Section of Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jia-Jin; LU Juan; CHENG Yan; ZHOU Li-Huan; ZHU Wen-Jun; MA Wei-Xing; GOU Qing-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the quark-gluon structure of nucleon and the existence of Odderon in nucleon via gluon self-interaction, the elastic scattering of pp at high energies is studied. Our theoretical predictions reproduce experimental data perfectly. The contributions from individual terms of quark-quark, gluon-gluon interactions, quark-gluon interfer-ence and the Odderon terms to total cross section are analyzed. In addition to the leading quark-quark contribution, the Odderon contribution is quite important. In particular, the Odderon plays an essential role in fitting to data. Therefore, We may claim that the high energy lap and pp elastic scattering may be good processes to search for the Odderon, the three Reggeized gluon bound states.

  17. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies : distributions, polarization, tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Venugopalan, R.; Vogelsang, W.; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Li, Y.; Marciano, W. J.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; Yuan, F.; Abeyratne, S.; Ahmed, S.; Aidala, C.; Alekhin, S.; Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Bacchetta, A.; Bartels, J.; H., BC; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Beuf, G.; Blumlein, J.; Blaskiewicz, M .; Bogacz, A.; Brodsky, S. J.; Burton, T.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Chevtsov, P.; Chirilli, G. A.; Atti, C. Ciofi degli; Cloet, I. C.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Debbe, R.; Derbenev, Ya; Deshpande, A.; Dominguez, F.; Dumitru, A.; Dupre, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Faroughy, C.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Forshaw, J. R.; Geraud, R.; Gallmeister, K.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, J. -H.; Gassner, D.; Gelis, F.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Goldstein, G.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Goncalves, V. P.; Gonderinger, M.; Guzzi, M.; Hagler, P.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; He, P.; Horn, T.; Horowitz, W. A.; Huang, M.; Hutton, A.; Jager, B.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E. C.; Kang, Z. -B.; Kaptari, L. P.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Koike, Y.; Kondratenko, A.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Kovchegov, Y. V.; Krafft, G.; Kroll, P.; Kumano, S.; Kumericki, K.; Lappi, T.; Lautenschlager, T.; Li, R.; Liang, Z. -T.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Liuti, S.; Luo, Y.; Muller, D.; Mahler, G.; Majumder, A.; Manikonda, S.; Marhauser, F.; McIntyre, G.; Meskauskas, M.; Meng, W.; Metz, A.; Mezzetti, C. B.; Miller, G. A.; Minty, M.; Moch, S. -O.; Morozov, V.; Mosel, U.; Motyka, L.; Moutarde, H.; Mulders, P. J.; Musch, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nadolsky, P.; Olness, F.; Ostrumov, P. N.; Parker, B.; Pasquini, B.; Passek-Kumericki, K.; Pikin, A.; Pilat, F.; Pire, B.; Pirner, H.; Pisano, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Prokudin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Qian, X.; Qiu, J. -W.; Radici, M.; Radyushkin, A.; Rao, T.; Rimmer, R.; Ringer, F.; Riordan, S.; Rogers, T.; Rojo, J.; Roser, T.; Sandapen, R.; Sassot, R.; Satogata, T.; Sayed, H.; Schafer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schweitzer, P.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Soyez, G.; Spata, M.; Spiesberger, H.; Stasto, A. M.; Stefanis, N. G.; Strikman, M.; Sullivan, M.; Szymanowski, L.; Tanaka, K.; Taneja, S.; Tepikian, S.; Terzic, B.; Than, Y.; Toll, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsentalovich, E.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuchin, K.; Tuozzolo, J.; Ullrich, T.; Vossen, A.; Wallon, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, X. -N.; Webb, S.; Weiss, C.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B. -W.; Xu, W.; Yunn, B.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Zurita, P.

    2011-01-01

    This report is based on a ten-week program on "Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies", which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that wi

  18. Quark-diquark model for p(\\bar p)-p elastic scattering at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Grichine, V M; Zotov, N P

    2012-01-01

    A model for elastic scattering of protons at high energies based on the quark-diquark representation of the proton is discussed. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data for the differential elastic cross-sections from available databases

  19. Quark-diquark model for p(anti p) -p elastic scattering at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grichine, V.M.; Starkov, N.I. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotov, N.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    A model for elastic scattering of protons at high energies based on the quark-diquark representation of the proton is discussed. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data for the differential elastic cross-sections from available databases. (orig.)

  20. Precise predictions for top-quark-plus-missing-energy signatures at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughezal, Radja; Schulze, Markus

    2013-05-10

    We study the pair production of scalar top-quark partners decaying to a top-quark pair plus large missing energy at the LHC, a signature which appears in numerous models that address outstanding problems at the TeV scale. The severe experimental search cuts require a description which combines higher-order corrections to both production and decay dynamics for a realistic final state. We do this at next-to-leading order in QCD. We find large, kinematic-dependent QCD corrections that differ dramatically depending upon the observable under consideration, potentially impacting the search for and interpretation of these states.

  1. Mass effects in the emission of gluons from heavy quarks at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster, J A; Tortosa, P

    2001-01-01

    The effects in the emission of gluons due to the mass of the heavy quarks have clearly been observed by the experiments at LEP and SLC. The analyses of the data using theoretical corrections computed at Next-to-Leading Order have allowed to either test the flavour independence of the strong coupling constant with very high precision (~1%) or measure the b-quark mass at high energy, square root s~M/sub Z/. The results obtained by the various experiments, ALEPH, DELPHI, OPAL and SLD, agree well within errors. The systematic uncertainties limit present determinations though new methods and strategies are being developed to overcome the present bounds. (15 refs).

  2. Pion Structure at High and Low Energies in Chiral Quark Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Arriola, E

    2002-01-01

    Low and high energy properties of the pion are reviewed in the framework of chiral quark models. Particular emphasis is put on the simplest version of the SU(2) NJL model as prototype. The role of gauge invariance in this kind of calculations is stressed. The results are used as initial conditions for perturbative QCD evolution equations. At leading order the quark model scale is $\\mu_0 \\sim 320 {\\rm MeV} $ as determined from the pion distribution functions and the pion distribution amplitudes.

  3. Jet suppression and the flavor dependence of partonic energy loss with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kosek, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. One manifestation of the energy loss of jets propagating through the medium is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than 
expected in the absence of medium effects. Therefore modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different 
flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. Parton showers initiated by quarks tend to have fewer fragments carrying a larger fraction of 
the total jet energy than those resulting from gluons. Jets containing heavy quarks may lose less energy as the large quark mass suppresses the amount of medium-induced 
radiation. This would lead to different relative contributions of inelastic and elastic energy loss. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression will 
be presented. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor, RAA, for fully reconstr...

  4. Scaling and low energy constants in lattice QCD with N_f=2 maximally twisted Wilson quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P; Herdoiza, G; Urbach, C; Wenger, U

    2007-01-01

    We report on the scaling of basic hadronic observables in lattice QCD with N_f=2 maximally twisted Wilson dynamical quarks. We give preliminary results for some of the Gasser-Leutwyler low energy constants, the chiral condensate and the average mass of u and d quarks.

  5. Top quark mass determination from the energy peaks of b-jets and B-hadrons at NLO QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, Kaustubh [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Franceschini, Roberto; Schulze, Markus [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Kim, Doojin [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Florida, Department of Physics, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We analyze the energy spectra of single b-jets and B-hadrons resulting from the production and decay of top quarks within the SM at the LHC at the NLO QCD. For both hadrons and jets, we calculate the correlation of the peak of the spectrum with the top quark mass, considering the ''energy peak'' as an observable to determine the top quark mass. Such a method is motivated by our previous work where we argued that this approach can have reduced sensitivity to the details of the production mechanism of the top quark, whether it concerns higher-order QCD effects or new physics contributions. For a 1% jet energy scale uncertainty, the top quark mass can then be extracted using the energy peak of b-jets with an error ± (1.2(exp) + 0.6(th)) GeV. In view of the dominant jet energy scale uncertainty in the measurement using b-jets, we also investigate the extraction of the top quark mass from the energy peak of the corresponding B-hadrons which, in principle, can be measured without this uncertainty. The calculation of the B-hadron energy spectrum is carried out using fragmentation functions at NLO. The dependence on the fragmentation scale turns out to be the largest theoretical uncertainty in this extraction of top quark mass. (orig.)

  6. Quark confinement potential examined by excitation energy of the Lambda_c and Lambda_b baryons in a quark-diquark model

    CERN Document Server

    Jido, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to have diquark configuration in heavy baryons, such as Lambda_c and Lambda_b, is examined by a nonrelativistic potential model with a heavy quark and a light scalar diquark. Assuming that the Lambda_c and Lambda_b baryons are composed of the heavy quark and the scalar-isoscalar ud diquark, we solve the two-body Schrodinger equation with the Coulomb plus linear potential and obtain the energy spectra for the heavy baryons. Contrary to our expectation, it is found that the potential determined by the quarkonium spectra fails to reproduce the excitation spectra of the Lambda_c and Lambda_b in the quark-diquark picture, while the Lambda_c and Lambda_b spectra is reproduced with a half strength of the confinement string tension than for the quarkonium. The Xi_c excitation energy is also calculated and is found to be smaller than Lambda_c in the quark-diquark model. This is not consistent with the experimental observation. These puzzles should be solved when one takes the quark-diquark picture for ...

  7. Quark-Novae Ia in the Hubble diagram: implications for dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyed, Rachid; Koning, Nico; Leahy, Denis; Staff, Jan E.; Cassidy, Daniel T.

    2014-05-01

    The accelerated expansion of the Universe was proposed through the use of Type-Ia supernovae (SNe) as standard candles. The standardization depends on an empirical correlation between the stretch/color and peak luminosity of the light curves. The use of Type-Ia SNe as standard candles rests on the assumption that their properties (and this correlation) do not vary with redshift. We consider the possibility that the majority of Type-Ia SNe are in fact caused by a Quark-Nova detonation in a tight neutron-star-CO-white-dwarf binary system, which forms a Quark-Nova Ia (QN-Ia). The spin-down energy injected by the Quark-Nova remnant (the quark star) contributes to the post-peak light curve and neatly explains the observed correlation between peak luminosity and light curve shape. We demonstrate that the parameters describing QN-Ia are NOT constant in redshift. Simulated QN-Ia light curves provide a test of the stretch/color correlation by comparing the true distance modulus with that determined using SN light curve fitters. We determine a correction between the true and fitted distance moduli, which when applied to Type-Ia SNe in the Hubble diagram recovers the ΩM = 1 cosmology. We conclude that Type-Ia SNe observations do not necessitate the need for an accelerating expansion of the Universe (if the observed SNe Ia are dominated by QNe Ia) and by association the need for dark energy.

  8. Energy Loss of Proton in Extraction Window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Bao-jie; ZENG; Zi-qiang

    2015-01-01

    The particle is transported in vacuum in accelerator,and is exported through extraction windows.The Kapton foil is used in a 3 MeV proton accelerator.The energy loss of 3 MeV proton is calculated when it comes through Kapton foil of different thicknesses with Monte Carlo method.The energy loss of 3 MeV proton in

  9. Energy loss, hadronization and hadronic interactions of heavy flavors in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen A

    2015-01-01

    We construct a theoretical framework to describe the evolution of heavy flavors produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is described using our modified Langevin equation that incorporates both quasi-elastic scatterings and the medium-induced gluon radiation. The space-time profiles of the fireball is described by a (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics simulation. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is utilized for heavy quark hadronization, after which the produced heavy mesons together with the soft hadrons produced from the bulk QGP are fed into the hadron cascade UrQMD model to simulate the subsequent hadronic interactions. We find that the medium-induced gluon radiation contributes significantly to heavy quark energy loss at high $p_\\mathrm{T}$; heavy-light quark coalescence enhances heavy meson production at intermediate $p_\\mathrm{T}$; and scatterings inside the hadron gas further suppress the $D$ meson $R_\\mathrm{AA}$ at large $p_\\mathrm{T}$ and e...

  10. The energy loss effect of incoming gluon from $J/\\psi$ production in p-A collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Li-Hua; Duan, Chun-Gui

    2016-01-01

    The energy loss effect of incoming gluon from $J/\\psi$ production in p-A (or d-A) collisions is investigated by means of the E866, RHIC and LHC experimental data. The gluon mean energy loss per unit path length $dE/dL = 2.18\\pm0.14$ GeV/fm is extracted by fitting the E866 experimental data for $J/\\psi$ production cross section ratios $R_{W(Fe)/Be}(x_{F})$. The obtained result indicates that the incoming gluons lose more energy than the incident quarks. By comparing the theoretical results with E866, RHIC, and LHC experimental data, it is found that the nuclear suppression due to the incident gluon (quark) energy loss reduces (increases) with the increase of the kinematic variable $x_{F}$ (or $y$). The energy loss effect of incoming gluon plays an important role on the suppression of $J/\\psi$ production in a wide energy range from $\\sqrt{s}=38.7$ GeV to $\\sqrt{s}=5.0$ TeV, and the influence of incident quark energy loss can be ignored for high energy(such as at RHIC and LHC energy).

  11. Top-quark mass measurement using events with missing transverse energy and jets at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sissakian, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Tu, Y; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2011-12-02

    We present a measurement of the top-quark mass using a sample of t ̄t events in 5.7 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity from p ̄p collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron with √s=1.96 TeV and collected by the CDF II Detector. We select events having large missing transverse energy, and four, five, or six jets with at least one jet tagged as coming from a b quark, and reject events with identified charged leptons. This analysis considers events from the semileptonic t ̄t decay channel, including events that contain tau leptons. The measurement is based on a multidimensional template method. We fit the data to signal templates of varying top-quark masses and background templates, and measure a top-quark mass of M(top)=172.32±2.4(stat)±1.0(syst)  GeV/c(2). © 2011 American Physical Society

  12. Heavy quark production in photon-Pomeron interactions at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, M. M. [Instituto Federal de Ciencia, Educacao e Tecnologia Farroupilha, Campus Sao Borja, Rua Otaviano Castilho Mendes, 355, CEP 97670-000, Sao Borja, RS (Brazil); Goncalves, V. P. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica - IFM, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, CEP 96010-900, RS (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    The diffractive heavy quark cross sections are estimated considering photon-Pomeron interactions in hadron - hadron at RHIC, Tevatron, and CERN LHC energies. We assume the validity of the hard diffractive factorization and calculate the charm and bottom total cross sections and rapidity distributions using the diffractive parton distribution functions of the Pomeron obtained by the H1 Collaboration at DESY-HERA. Such processes are sensitive to the gluon content of the Pomeron at high energies and are a good place to constrain the behavior of this distribution. We also compare our predictions with those obtained using the dipole model, and verify that these processes are a good test of the different mechanisms for heavy quarks diffractive production at hadron colliders.

  13. On Extraction of Chemical Potentials of Quarks from Particle Transverse Momentum Spectra in High Energy Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two methods to extract the chemical potentials of quarks in high energy collisions. The first method is based on the ratios of negatively/positively charged particles, and the temperatures extracted from the transverse momentum spectra of related hadrons are needed. The second method is based on the chemical potentials of some particles, and we also need the transverse momentum spectra of related hadrons. To extract the quark chemical potentials, we would like to propose experimental collaborations to measure simultaneously not only the transverse momentum spectra of p-, p, K-, K+, π-, and π+, but also those of D-, D+, B-, and B+ (even those of Δ++, Δ-, and Ω- in high energy nuclear collisions.

  14. How to measure kinetic energy of the heavy quark inside B mesons?

    CERN Document Server

    Bigi, Ikaros I; Shifman, M; Uraltsev, N; Vainshtein, A I

    1994-01-01

    We discuss how one can determine the average kinetic energy of the heavy quark inside heavy mesons from differential distributions in B decays. A new, so-called third, sum rule for the b\\rightarrow c transition is derived in the small velocity (SV) limit. Using this sum rule and the existing data on the momentum dependence in the B\\rightarrow D^* transition (the slope of the Isgur-Wise function) we obtain a new lower bound on the parameter \\mu_\\pi^2 = (2M_B)^{-1}\\langle B |\\bar b (i\\vec{D})^2 b |B\\rangle proportional to the average kinetic energy of b quark inside B meson. The existing data suggest \\mu_\\pi^2 > 0.4~GeV^2 and (from the ``optical'' sum rule) \\overline{\\Lambda} > 500 MeV, albeit with some numerical uncertainties.

  15. Top quark mass determination from the energy peaks of b-jets and B-hadrons at NLO QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Schulze, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the energy spectra of $single$ b-jets and B-hadrons resulting from the production and decay of top quarks within the SM at the LHC at the NLO QCD. For both hadrons and jets, we calculate the correlation of the peak of the spectrum with the top quark mass, considering the "energy-peak" as an observable to determine the top quark mass. Such a method is motivated by our previous work where we argued that this approach can have reduced sensitivity to the details of the production mechanism of the top quark, whether it is higher-order QCD effects or new physics contributions. As part of the NLO improvement over the original proposal, we assess the residual sensitivity of the extracted top quark mass to perturbative effects both in top quark production and decay. For a 1% jet energy scale uncertainty (and assuming negligible statistical error), the top quark mass can then be extracted using the energy-peak of b-jets with an error +- (1.2 (exp) + 0.6(th)) GeV. We note that recently the CMS collaboration r...

  16. Quark confinement potential examined by excitation energy of the Λc and Λb baryons in a quark-diquark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jido, Daisuke; Sakashita, Minori

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of having a diquark configuration in heavy baryons, such as Λ and Λ, is examined by a nonrelativistic potential model with a heavy quark and a light scalar diquark. Assuming that the Λ and Λ baryons are composed of the heavy quark and the point-like scalar-isoscalar ud diquark, we solve the two-body Schrödinger equation with the Coulomb plus linear potential and obtain the energy spectra for the heavy baryons. Contrary to our expectation, it is found that the potential determined by the quarkonium spectra fails to reproduce the excitation spectra of the Λ and Λ in the quark-diquark picture, while the Λ and Λ spectra are reproduced with half the strength of the confinement string tension than for the quarkonium. The finite size effect of the diquark is also examined and it is found that the introduction of a finite size diquark would resolve the failure of the spectrum reproduction. The Ξ excitation energy is also calculated and is found to be smaller than Λ in the quark-diquark model. This is not consistent with experimental observations.

  17. Thermalization of Quark Matter Produced at the Highest Energy of a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ Thermalization of quark matter is studied via a transport equation, which includes triple-quark elastic scattering amplitudes calculated in perturbative QCD. The triple-quark scatterings are demonstrated to be important for an anisotropic initial quark distribution produced in central Au-Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. By examining momentum isotropy to which the transport equation leads, we can determine a thermalization time of 2.2fm/c for quark matter itself to thermalize by the two-quark and the triple-quark elastic scatterings. Meanwhile, an initial thermal quark distribution function is obtained.

  18. Energy loss and (de)coherence effects beyond eikonal approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apolinário, Liliana, E-mail: lilianamarisa.cunha@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, Néstor [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Milhano, Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Salgado, Carlos A. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    The parton branching process is known to be modified in the presence of a medium. Colour decoherence processes are known to determine the process of energy loss when the density of the medium is large enough to break the correlations between partons emitted from the same parent. In order to improve existing calculations that consider eikonal trajectories for both the emitter and the hardest emitted parton, we provide in this work the calculation of all finite energy corrections for the gluon radiation off a quark in a QCD medium that exist in the small angle approximation and for static scattering centres. Using the path integral formalism, all particles are allowed to undergo Brownian motion in the transverse plane and the offspring is allowed to carry an arbitrary fraction of the initial energy. The result is a general expression that contains both coherence and decoherence regimes that are controlled by the density of the medium and by the amount of broadening that each parton acquires independently.

  19. Energy loss and (de)coherence effects beyond eikonal approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The parton branching process is known to be modified in the presence of a medium. Colour decoherence processes are known to determine the process of energy loss when the density of the medium is large enough to break the correlations between partons emitted from the same parent. In order to improve existing calculations that consider eikonal trajectories for both the emitter and the hardest emitted parton, we provide in this work, the calculation of all finite energy corrections for the gluon radiation off a quark in a QCD medium that exist in the small angle approximation and for static scattering centres. Using the path integral formalism, all particles are allowed to undergo Brownian motion in the transverse plane and the offspring allowed to carry an arbitrary fraction of the initial energy. The result is a general expression that contains both coherence and decoherence regimes that are controlled by the density of the medium and by the amount of broadening that each parton acquires independently.

  20. Energy loss and (de)coherence effects beyond eikonal approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, Liliana; Armesto, Néstor; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A.

    2014-11-01

    The parton branching process is known to be modified in the presence of a medium. Colour decoherence processes are known to determine the process of energy loss when the density of the medium is large enough to break the correlations between partons emitted from the same parent. In order to improve existing calculations that consider eikonal trajectories for both the emitter and the hardest emitted parton, we provide in this work the calculation of all finite energy corrections for the gluon radiation off a quark in a QCD medium that exist in the small angle approximation and for static scattering centres. Using the path integral formalism, all particles are allowed to undergo Brownian motion in the transverse plane and the offspring is allowed to carry an arbitrary fraction of the initial energy. The result is a general expression that contains both coherence and decoherence regimes that are controlled by the density of the medium and by the amount of broadening that each parton acquires independently.

  1. Measurement of the top-quark mass from the b jet energy spectrum with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero Ibarra, Daniel Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A first measurement of the top-quark mass is presented based on the peak position of the energy spectrum of b jets produced from top-quark decays. This novel technique follows a recent theoretical proposal aiming to minimize systematic uncertainties related to the modeling of top quark production. The analysis is performed selecting top-antitop events with electron-muon final states in proton-proton collision data at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV with the CMS detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The energy peak position is obtained by fitting the observed energy spectrum, and is translated to a top-quark mass estimation using relativistic kinematics, calibrated with Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Comparison of quark jets and gluon jets produced in high energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Zomorrodian, M E

    2001-01-01

    We report on an experimental comparison of the characteristics of quark induced and gluon induced jets based on an analysis of jet events selected from hadronic events observed at c.m energy of 60 GeV in electron-positron annihilation. The mean transverse momentum (P /sub T/) with respect to the jet axis is larger for three jet events than the corresponding value for the two jet events. This is in qualitative agreement with the QCD which predicts a more chance of gluon radiation in three jet events. Furthermore, the particles in the gluon enriched sample have a higher multiplicity than its counterpart in quark jet sample. The ratio of the two multiplicities is 1.3+-0.02. This numerical value is in good quantitative agreement with the OPAL experiment. Possible explanation for all these features has been presented in this paper. (13 refs).

  3. Initial energy density of quark-gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the central rapidity region of highly relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Such an interest stems from the possibility of creating hadron matter of high energy density which may exceed the critical energy density for a phase transition between ordinary confined matter and the unconfined quark-gluon plasma. The experimental searches and identification of the quark-gluon plasma may provide a new insight into the question of quark confinement. The estimate of the initial energy density is quite uncertain. The initial energy density is nonetheless an important physical quantity. It is one of the factors which determines whether the produced matter can undergo phase transition or not. The energy density has been estimated previously by using the color neutralization model of Brodsky et al. However, the color neutralization model gives a central rapidity multiplicity in heavy-ion collision too low by a factor of two. For this reason, we wish to obtain a better estimate of the energy density (in the central rapidity region). As is well known, a simple Glauber-type multiple collision model can reproduce the total multiplicity and multiplicity plateau near the central rapidity region to within 30%. The simple multiple collision model has an approximate validity as a gross description of the reaction process. We shall adopt a semiempirical approach. Using the multiple collision model and the thickness function of Glauber, we obtain analytical functional form for all the quantities in question. A single parameter, r/sub rms/, is adjusted to fit the experimental central rapidity multiplicity data. The semi-empirical results provide a useful tool to extrapolate to the unknown central rapidity region of heavy-ion collisions.

  4. Quark-Quark Forces in Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipov, A A

    2014-01-01

    By single-time reduction technique of Bethe-Salpeter formalism for two-fermion systems analytical expressions for the quasipotential of quark-quark interactions in QCD have been obtained in one-gluon exchange approximation. The influence of infrared singularities of gluon Green`s functions on the character of quark-quark forces in QCD has been investigated. The way the asymptotic freedom manifests itself in terms of two-quark interaction quasipotential in quantum chromodynamics is shown. Consistent relativistic consideration of quark interaction problem by single-time reduction technique in QFT allows one to establish a nontrivial energy dependence of the two-quark interaction quasipotential. As a result of the energy dependence of the interaction quasipotential, the character of the forces changes qualitatively during the transition from the discrete spectrum (the region of the negative values of the binding energy) to the continuous spectrum (that of the positive values of the binding energy): the smooth be...

  5. Studies for a top quark mass measurement and development of a jet energy calibration with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantsch, Andreas

    2012-06-11

    In this thesis, the development of a new jet energy calibration method as well as studies for a top quark mass measurement with the ATLAS detector are presented. The new calibration method considers jet shape variables in order to improve the linearity and resolution of the jet energy response. Promising results are shown for jet events from Monte Carlo simulation as well as from first {radical}(s)=900 GeV proton-proton collision data of the Large Hadron Collider. In addition, Monte Carlo studies for a top quark mass measurement in the lepton plus jets decay channel of top quark pair events are performed. Several top quark reconstruction methods are investigated in pseudo-experiments which are equivalent to an integrated luminosity of L=200 pb{sup -1} at {radical}(s)=10 TeV. Assuming a generated top quark mass of m{sub t}{sup gen}=172.5 GeV, the most promising result is achieved with the Max-p{sub T} reconstruction method which returns a top quark mass of m{sup Max-p{sub Tt,el-channel}}=170.4{+-}2.2 vertical stroke {sub stat.}{+-} 8.8 vertical stroke {sub syst.} GeV in the electron plus jets decay channel including a bias correction of +5.2 GeV for the central top quark mass value.

  6. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2002-01-01

    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...

  7. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2002-01-01

    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...

  8. Two-Loop Quark Self-Energy in a New Formalism; 2, Renormalization of the Quark Propagator in the Light-Cone Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Leibbrandt, George; Leibbrandt, George; Williams, Jimmy D.

    2000-01-01

    The complete two-loop correction to the quark propagator, consisting of the spider, rainbow, gluon bubble and quark bubble diagrams, is evaluated in the noncovariant light-cone gauge (lcg). (The overlapping self-energy diagram had already been computed.) The chief technical tools include the powerful matrix integration technique, the n^*-prescription for the spurious poles of 1/qn, and the detailed analysis of the boundary singularities in five- and six-dimensional parameter space. It is shown that the total divergent contribution to the two-loop correction Sigma_2 contains both covariant and noncovariant components, and is a local function of the external momentum p, even off the mass-shell, as all nonlocal divergent terms cancel exactly. Consequently, both the quark mass and field renormalizations are local. The structure of Sigma_2 implies a quark mass counterterm of the form $\\delta m (lcg) = m\\tilde\\alpha_s C_F(3+\\tilde\\alpha_sW) + {\\rm O} (\\tilde\\alpha_s^3)$, the dimensional regulator epsilon, and on th...

  9. Two-loop quark self-energy in a new formalism; 2, Renormalization of the quark propagator in the light-cone gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Leibbrandt, G

    2000-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.440, p.537-602, 1995. The complete two-loop correction to the quark propagator, consisting of the spider, rainbow, gluon bubble and quark bubble diagrams, is evaluated in the non-covariant light-cone gauge (LCG), n.A/sup a/(x)=0, n/sup 2/=0. (The overlapping self-energy diagram had already been computed.) The chief technical tools include the powerful matrix integration technique, the n*/sub mu /-prescription for the spurious poles of (q.n)/sup -1/, and the detailed analysis of the boundary singularities in five- and six-dimensional parameter space. It is shown that the total divergent contribution to the two-loop correction Sigma /sub 2/ contains both covariant and non-covariant components, and is a local function of the external momentum p, even off the mass-shell, as all non-local divergent terms cancel exactly. Consequently, both the quark mass and field renormalizations are local. The structure of Sigma /sub 2/ implies a quark mass counterterm of the form delta m(LCG)=m alpha /sub...

  10. Measurement of mean excitation energy by energy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuChang-Shi

    1997-01-01

    The mean excitation energy(MEE) for Al,Ti,Fe,Cu and Ta has been determined experimentally by the Landan equation,which describes the most probable energy loss of electrons in the incidence direction,and the results are consistent with the values given in the literature,THese provide a quick,easy and accurate evaluation method for the experimental MEE.

  11. Hadron energy spectrum in polarized top quark decays considering the effects of hadron and bottom quark masses

    CERN Document Server

    Nejad, S Mohammad Moosavi

    2016-01-01

    We present the analytical expressions for the next-to-leading order corrections to the partial decay width $t(\\uparrow) \\rightarrow bW^+$, followed by $b\\rightarrow H_bX$, for nonzero b-quark mass ($m_b\

  12. On energy-momentum and spin/helicity of quark and gluon fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hehl, Friedrich W

    2014-01-01

    In special relativity, quantum matter can be classified according to mass-energy and spin. The corresponding field-theoretical notions are the energy-momentum-stress tensor T and the spin angular momentum tensor S. Since each object in physics carries energy and, if fermionic, also spin, the notions of T and S can be spotted in all domains of physics. We discuss the T and S currents in Special Relativity (SR), in General Relativity (GR), and in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravity (EC). We collect our results in 4 theses: (i) The quark energy-momentum and the quark spin are described correctly by the canonical (Noether) currents T and S, respectively. (ii) The gluon energy-momentum current is described correctly by the (symmetric and gauge invariant) Minkowski type current. Its (Lorentz) spin current vanishes, S = 0. However, it carries helicity of plus or minus one. (iii) GR contradicts thesis (i), but is compatible with thesis (ii). (iv) Within the viable EC-theory, our theses (i) and (ii) are fulfilled an...

  13. Microgrids: Energy management by loss minimization technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Basu, S. Chowdhury, S.P. Chowdhury

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy management is a techno-economic issue, which dictates, in the context of microgrids, how optimal investment in technology front could bring optimal power quality and reliability (PQR of supply to the consumers. Investment in distributed energy resources (DERs, with their connection to the utility grid at optimal locations and with optimal sizes, saves energy in the form of line loss reduction. Line loss reduction is the indirect benefit to the microgrid owner who may recover it as an incentive from utility. The present paper focuses on planning of optimal siting and sizing of DERs based on minimization of line loss. Optimal siting is done, here, on the loss sensitivity index (LSI method and optimal sizing by differential evolution (DE algorithms, which is, again, compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. Studies are conducted on 6-bus and 14-bus radial networks under islanded mode of operation with electric demand profile. Islanding helps planning of DER capacity of microgrid, which is self-sufficient to cater its own consumers without utility’s support.

  14. Gluons and the Quark Sea at High Energies: Distributions, Polarization, Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Daniel; /Groningen U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Milner, Richard; /MIT; Venugopalan, Raju; /Brookhaven; Vogelsang, Werner; /Tubingen U.; Kaplan, David; /Washington U., Seattle; Montgomery, Hugh; /Jefferson Lab; Vigdor, Steven; /Brookhaven; Accardi, A.; /Jefferson Lab; Aschenauer, E.C.; /Brookhaven; Burkardt, M.; /New Mexico State U.; Ent, R.; /Jefferson Lab; Guzey, V.; /Jefferson Lab; Hasch, D.; /Frascati; Kumar, K.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Lamont, M.A.C.; /Brookhaven; Li, Ying-chuan; /Brookhaven; Marciano, W.; /Brookhaven; Marquet, C.; /CERN; Sabatie, F.; /IRFU, SPhN, Saclay; Stratmann, M.; /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Buenos Aires U. /Antwerp U. /Pelotas U. /Moncton U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /CCTVal, Valparaiso /Hefei, CUST /Shandong U., Weihai /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Zagreb U., Phys. Dept. /Jyvaskyla U. /Orsay, LPT /Paris U., VI-VII /Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT /IRFU, SPhN, Saclay /Saclay, SPhT /Ruhr U., Bochum /Giessen U. /DESY /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Heidelberg U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Regensburg U. /Tubingen U. /Wuppertal U. /DESY /Cagliari U. /INFN, Cagliari /Frascati /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-06-07

    This report on the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is the result of a ten-week program at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle (from September 13-November 19, 2010), motivated by the need to develop a strong case for the continued study of the QCD description of hadron structure in the coming decades. Hadron structure in the valence quark region will be studied extensively with the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV science program, the subject of an INT program the previous year. The focus of the INT program was on understanding the role of gluons and sea quarks, the important dynamical degrees of freedom describing hadron structure at high energies. Experimentally, the most direct and precise way to access the dynamical structure of hadrons and nuclei at high energies is with a high luminosity lepton probe in collider mode. An EIC with optimized detectors offers enormous potential as the next generation accelerator to address many of the most important, open questions about the fundamental structure of matter. The goal of the INT program, as captured in the writeups in this report, was to articulate these questions and to identify golden experiments that have the greatest potential to provide definitive answers to these questions. At resolution scales where quarks and gluons become manifest as degrees of freedom, the structure of the nucleon and of nuclei is intimately connected with unique features of QCD dynamics, such as confinement and the self-coupling of gluons. Information on hadron sub-structure in DIS is obtained in the form of 'snapshots' by the 'lepton microscope' of the dynamical many-body hadron system, over different momentum resolutions and energy scales. These femtoscopic snapshots, at the simplest level, provide distribution functions which are extracted over the largest accessible kinematic range to assemble fundamental dynamical insight into hadron and nuclear sub-structure. For the proton, the EIC would be

  15. Impact of temperature dependence of the energy loss on jet quenching observables

    CERN Document Server

    Scardina, F; Greco, V

    2011-01-01

    The quenching of jets (particles with $p_T>>T, \\Lambda_{QCD}$) in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions has been one of the main prediction and discovery at RHIC. We have studied, by a simple jet quenching modeling, the correlation between different observables like the nuclear modification factor $\\Rapt$, the elliptic flow $v_2$ and the ratio of quark to gluon suppression $R_{AA}(quark)/R_{AA}(gluon)$. We show that the relation among these observables is strongly affected by the temperature dependence of the energy loss. In particular the large $v_2$ and and the nearly equal $\\Rapt$ of quarks and gluons can be accounted for only if the energy loss occurs mainly around the temperature $T_c$ and the flavour conversion is significant.Finally we point out that the efficency in the conversion of the space eccentricity into the momentum one ($v_2$) results to be quite smaller respect to the one coming from elastic scatterings in a fluid with a viscosity to entropy density ratio $4\\pi\\eta/s=1$.

  16. Jet suppression and the flavor dependence of partonic energy loss with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00364770; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. One manifestation of the energy loss of jets propagating through the medium is a lower yield of jets and hadrons emerging from this medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Therefore modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. In this publication, the latest ATLAS results on single hadron suppression along with the complementary measurements of single jet suppression are presented. Rapidity dependence, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets, is discussed. Finally, a new measurement of jet fragmentation functions is presented.

  17. Jet suppression and the flavor dependence of partonic energy loss with ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced. One manifestation of the energy loss of jets propagating through the medium is a lower yield of jets and hadrons emerging from this medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Therefore modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. In this publication, the latest ATLAS results on single hadron suppression along with the complementary measurements of single jet suppression are presented. Rapidity dependence, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets, is discussed. Finally, a new measurement of jet fragmentation functions is presented.

  18. Energy loss rate in disordered quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, P.; Ashraf, S. S. Z. [Centre of Excellence in Nanomaterials, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Hasan, S. T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Sharma, A. C. [Physics Department, Sibli National College, Azamgarh-276128 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of dynamically screened deformation potential on the electron energy loss rate in disordered semiconductor quantum well. Interaction of confined electrons with bulk acoustic phonons has been considered in the deformation coupling. The study concludes that the dynamically screened deformation potential coupling plays a significant role as it substantially affects the power dependency of electron relaxation on temperature and mean free path.

  19. Quark Models and Quark Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1997-01-01

    Overwhelming experimental evidence for quarks as real physical constituents of hadrons along with the QCD analogs of the Balmer Formula, Bohr Atom and Schroedinger Equation already existed in 1966. A model of colored quarks interacting with a one-gluon-exchange potential explained the systematics of the meson and baryon spectrum and gave a hadron mass formula in surprising agreement with experiment. The simple quark model dismissed as heresy and witchcraft by the establishment predicted quantum numbers of an enormous number of hadronic states as well as relations between masses, reaction cross sections and electromagnetic properties, all unexplained by other approaches. Further developments leading to QCD included confinement in the large $N_c$ limit, duality, dual resonance and string models, high energy scattering systematics, unified treatment of mesons and baryons, no exotics and no free quarks.

  20. Top quark pair production and calorimeter energy resolution studies at a future collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Katja

    2012-03-27

    This thesis is focused on detector concepts and analyses investigated at a future linear electron positron collider. For precision measurements at such a collider, the CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters, which are characterized by a fine granularity. CALICE has constructed prototypes of several design options for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test beam programs at DESY, CERN and Fermilab. To improve the hadronic energy reconstruction and energy resolution of a hadron calorimeter prototype with analog readout three software compensation techniques are presented in this thesis, of which one is a local and two are global software compensation approaches. One method is based on a neural network to optimize the energy reconstruction, while two are energy weighting techniques, depending on the energy density. Weight factors are extracted from and applied to simulated and test beam data and result in an average energy resolution improvement of 15 - 25% compared to a reconstruction without software compensation. Whether such software compensation techniques are also applicable to a detector concept for a future linear electron positron collider is studied in the second part of this thesis. Simulated data, two different hadronic detector models and a local software compensation technique are used for this study. The energy resolutions for single hadrons and for jets are presented with and without software compensation. In the third part of this thesis, a study on top quark pair production at a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV at the proposed electron positron collider CLIC is presented. The analysis is based on full detector simulations, including realistic background contributions dominated by two photon processes. The mass and width of the top quark are studied in fully-hadronic and semi-leptonic decays of top quark pairs using event samples of signal and Standard Model background

  1. ENERGY-LOSS FUNCTIONS DERIVED FROM REELS SPECTRA FOR ALUMINUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M. Zhang; Z.J. Ding; H.M. Li; K. Salma; X. Sun; R. Shimizu; T. Koshikawa; K. Goto

    2005-01-01

    The effective energy loss functions for Al have been derived from differential inverse inelastic mean free path based on the extended Landau approach. It has been revealed that the effective energy loss function is very close in value to the theoretical surface energy loss function in the lower energy loss region but gradually approaches the theoretical bulk energy loss function in the higher energy loss region. Moreover, the intensity corresponding to surface excitation in effective energy loss functions decreases with the increase of primary electron energy. These facts show that the present effective energy loss function describes not only surface excitation but also bulk excitation. At last, REELS spectra simulated by Monte Carlo method based on use of the effective energy loss functions has reproduced the experimental REELS spectra with considerable success.

  2. Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.; Scardina, F.; Plumari, S.; Greco, V.

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow v 2 is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible for addressing a large part of such a puzzle along with the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quarks in the medium. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which induces a sizable heavy quark directed flow, v 1(y), that can be measurable at LHC.

  3. Heavy quark dynamics in QCD matter

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Santosh K; Plumari, Salvatore; Greco, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous description of heavy quark nuclear suppression factor $R_{AA}$ and the elliptic flow $v_2$ is a top challenge for all the existing models. We highlight how the temperature dependence of the energy loss/transport coefficients is responsible to address a large part of such a puzzle along with the the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the momentum evolution of heavy quark. We consider four different models to evaluate the temperature dependence of drag coefficients of the heavy quark in the QGP. We have also highlighted the heavy quark dynamics in the presence of an external electromagnetic field which develops a sizable heavy quark directed flow, $v_1(y)$, can be measurable at LHC.

  4. Low-Energy Kπ Phase Shifts in Chiral SU(3) Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Fei; ZHANG Zong-Ye; YU You-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The low-energy region kaon-pion S- and P-wave phase shifts with isospin I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 are dynamically studied in the chiral SU(3) quark model by solving a resonating group method equation. The model parameters are taken to be the values fitted by the energies of the baryon ground states and the kaon-nucleon elastic scattering phase shifts of different partial waves. As a preliminary study the s-channel q(-q) annihilation interactions are not included since they only act in the very short range and are subsequently assumed to be unimportant in the low-energy domain. The numerical results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Heavy quark pair production in high energy pA collisions: Quarkonium

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Hirotsugu

    2013-01-01

    Quarkonium production in high-energy proton (deuteron)-nucleus collisions is investigated in the color glass condensate framework. We employ the color evaporation model assuming that the quark pair produced from dense small-x gluons in the nuclear target bounds into a quarkonium outside the target. The unintegrated gluon distribution at small Bjorken x in the nuclear target is treated with the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling corrections. For the gluons in the proton, we examine two possible descriptions, unintegrated gluon distribution and ordinary collinear gluon distribution. We present the transverse momentum spectrum and nuclear modification factor for J/psi production at RHIC and LHC energies, and those for Upsilon(1S) at LHC energy, and discuss the nuclear modification factor and the momentum broadening by changing the rapidity and the initial saturation scale.

  6. OZI violation in low energy omega and phi production in the pp system in a quark-gluon model

    CERN Document Server

    Dillig, M

    2006-01-01

    We investigate OZI violation in near-threshold omega and phi production in the pp system. Assuming ideal omega/phi mixing (corrections are estimated), the energy dependence of the ratio R(omega/phi) is analyzed in a perturbative quark-gluon exchange model up to the third other in the strong coupling constant alpha(s) with the proton represented as a quark - scalar diquark system. We give a very natural explanation of the violation of the OZI rule in omega/phi production and its energy dependence near the production thresholds.

  7. Energy losses in mechanically modified bacterial magnetosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molcan, Matus; Gojzewski, Hubert; Skumiel, Andrzej; Dutz, Silvio; Kovac, Jozef; Kubovcikova, Martina; Kopcansky, Peter; Vekas, Ladislau; Timko, Milan

    2016-09-01

    Magnetosomes are isolated from the Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 bacteria. Two samples are compared: magnetosomes normally prepared of a ‘standard’ length and magnetosomes of a short length. Chains of magnetosomes are shortened by mechanical modification (cleavage) by means of sonication treatment. They represent a new geometry of magnetosomes that have not been investigated before. The effect of the sonication is analysed using transmission and electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Scanning imaging reveals three types of shortening effect in a sample of shortened magnetosomes, namely, membrane collapse, membrane destruction, and magnetosome cleavage. Dynamic light scattering shows a reduction of hydrodynamic diameter in a sample of shortened magnetosomes. The magnetic properties of magnetosomes are analysed and compared in DC and AC magnetic fields based on the evaluation of quasi-static hysteresis loops (energy losses) and calorimetric hyperthermia measurements (specific absorption rate), respectively. A sample of shortened magnetosomes behaves magnetically in a different manner, showing that both the energy loss and the specific absorption rate are reduced, and thereby indicates a variation in the heating process. The magnetic properties of magnetosomes, together with the new and stable geometry, are balanced, which opens the way for a better adaptation of the magnetic field parameters for particular applications.

  8. New approach to energy loss measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzaska, W H; Alanko, T; Mutterer, M; Raeisaenen, J; Tjurin, G; Wojdyr, M

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to energy loss measurements is proposed. In the same experiment electronic stopping force (power) in gold, nickel, carbon, polycarbonate and Havar for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions in the energy range 0.12-11 MeV/u has been measured. In this paper we give the full results for gold, nickel, and carbon and for sup 4 sup 0 Ar, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 4 He and sup 1 H ions. Good agreement of the measured stopping force values for light ions with literature data is interpreted as the positive test of the experimental technique. The same technique used with heavy ions yields agreement with the published data only for energies above 1 MeV/u. At lower energies we observe progressively increasing discrepancy. This discrepancy is removed completely as soon as we neglect pulse height defect compensation. This observation makes us believe that the majority of the published results as well as semi-empirical calculations based on them (like the popular SRIM) may be in er...

  9. Heavy-to-Light Form Factors in the Final Hadron Large Energy Limit Covariant Quark Model Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, J; Oliver, L; Pène, O; Raynal, J C

    1999-01-01

    We prove the full covariance of the heavy-to-light weak current matrix elements based on the Bakamjian-Thomas construction of relativistic quark models, in the heavy mass limit for the parent hadron and the large energy limit for the daughter one. Moreover, this quark model representation of the heavy-to-light form factors fulfills the general relations that were recently argued to hold in the corresponding limit of QCD, namely that there are only three independent form factors describing the B -> pi (rho) matrix elements, as well as the factorized scaling law sqrt(M)z(E) of the form factors with respect to the heavy mass M and large energy E. These results constitute another good property of the quark models à la Bakamjian-Thomas, which were previously shown to exhibit covariance and Isgur-Wise scaling in the heavy-to-heavy case.

  10. Multiple scattering and energy loss in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic eA scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the multiple scattering effect on single hadron production in semi-inclusive lepton-nucleus deeply inelastic scattering. We show that the quantum interference of multiple scattering amplitudes leads to suppression in hadron productions. At the leading power in medium length, the suppression can be approximately expressed in terms of a shift in $z$ of the fragmentation function $D(z)$, and could be therefore interpreted as the collisional energy loss. We compare our calculation with existing experimental data. We also discuss the effect of quark mass on the suppression. Our approach can be extended to other observables in hadronic collisions.

  11. Top-quark mass measurement in events with jets and missing transverse energy using the full CDF data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; De Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; d'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucà, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; Stancari, M.; Denis, R. St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C., III; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-07-01

    We present a measurement of the top-quark mass using the full data set of Tevatron s=1.96TeV proton-antiproton collisions recorded by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7fb-1. The analysis uses events with one semileptonic t or t¯ decay, but without detection of the electron or muon. We select events with significant missing transverse energy and multiple jets. We veto events containing identified electrons or muons. We obtain distributions of the top-quark masses and the invariant mass of the two jets from W-boson decays from data and compare these to templates derived from signal and background samples to extract the top-quark mass and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets with in situ calibration. A likelihood fit of the templates from signal and background events to the data yields the top-quark mass, Mtop=173.93±1.64(stat)±0.87(syst)GeV/c2. This result is the most precise measurement to date of the mass of the top quark in this event topology.

  12. Top-quark mass measurement in events with jets and missing transverse energy using the full CDF data set

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K.R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H.S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y.C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Ciocci, M.A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M.E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C.A.; Cox, D.J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; d'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J.R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernandez Ramos, J.P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R.C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S.R.; Han, J.Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R.F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R.E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E.J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K.K.; Jun, S.Y.; Junk, T.R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D.J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A.T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J.D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Luca, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martinez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M.E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C.S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S.Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S.H.; Oh, Y.D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T.J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernandez, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E.E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S.Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P.F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J.R.; Snider, F.D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P.K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vazquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W.C., III; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A.B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H.H.; Wilson, J.S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B.L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.C.; Yao, W.M.; Yeh, G.P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G.B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-07-01

    We present a measurement of the top-quark mass using the full data set of Tevatron $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV proton-antiproton collisions recorded by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of \\invfb{8.7}. The analysis uses events with one semileptonic $t$ or $\\bar{t}$ decay, but without detection of the electron or muon. We select events with significant missing transverse energy and multiple jets. We veto events containing identified electrons or muons. We obtain distributions of the top-quark masses and the invariant mass of the two jets from $W$-boson decays from data and compare these to templates derived from signal and background samples to extract the top-quark mass and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets with {\\it in situ} calibration. A likelihood fit of the templates from signal and background events to the data yields the top-quark mass, $\\mtop = \\gevcc{\\measStatSyst{173.93}{1.64}{0.87}}$. This result is the most precise measurement to date of the mass of the top quark in t...

  13. Free Energy of a Heavy Quark-Antiquark Pair in a Thermal Medium from AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Ewerz, Carlo; Samberg, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We study the free energy of a heavy quark-antiquark pair in a thermal medium using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We point out that a commonly used prescription for calculating this quantity leads to a temperature dependence in conflict with general properties of the free energy. The problem originates from a particular way of subtracting divergences. We argue that the commonly used prescription gives rise to the binding energy rather than the free energy. We consider a different subtraction procedure and show that the resulting free energy is well-behaved and in qualitative agreement with results from lattice QCD. The free energy and the binding energy of the quark pair are computed for N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and several non-conformal theories. We also calculate the entropy and the internal energy of the pair in these theories. Using the consistent subtraction, we further study the free energy, entropy, and internal energy of a single heavy quark in the thermal medium for various theories. Also ...

  14. The static quark self-energy at O($\\alpha^{20}$) in perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Gunnar S; Pineda, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In Refs. [1,2] we determined the infinite volume coefficients of the perturbative expansions of the self-energies of static sources in the fundamental and adjoint representations in SU(3) gluodynamics to order $\\alpha^{20}$. We used numerical stochastic perturbation theory [3], where we employed a new second order integrator and twisted boundary conditions. The expansions were obtained in lattice regularization with the Wilson action and two different discretizations of the covariant time derivative within the Polyakov loop. Overall, we obtained four different perturbative series. For all of them the high order coefficients displayed the factorial growth predicted by the conjectured renormalon picture, based on the operator product expansion. This enabled us to determine the normalization constants of the leading infrared renormalons of heavy quark and heavy gluino pole masses. Here we present improved determinations of the normalization constants and the perturbative coefficients by incorporating the four-lo...

  15. Heavy quark quenching from RHIC to LHC and the consequences of gluon damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossiaux, P. B.; Nahrgang, M.; Bluhm, M.; Gousset, Th.; Aichelin, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this contribution to the Quark Matter 2012 conference, we study whether energy loss models established for RHIC energies to describe the quenching of heavy quarks can be applied at LHC with the same success. We also benefit from the larger pT-range accessible at this accelerator to test the impact of gluon damping on observables such as the nuclear modification factor.

  16. Heavy quark quenching from RHIC to LHC and the consequences of gluon damping

    OpenAIRE

    Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Nahrgang, Marlene; Bluhm, Marcus; Gousset, Thierry; Aichelin, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution to the Quark Matter 2012 conference, we study whether energy loss models established for RHIC energies to describe the quenching of heavy quarks can be applied at LHC with the same success. We also benefit from the larger $p_T$-range accessible at this accelerator to test the impact of gluon damping on observables such as the nuclear modification factor.

  17. Hadronic rapidity spectra in heavy ion collisions at SPS and AGS energies in a quark combination model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Le-Xue; WANG Rui-Qin; SONG Jun; SHAO Feng-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The quark combination mechanism of hadron production is applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).The rapidity spectra of identified hadrons and their spectrum widths are studied.The data of π-,K±,φ,A,(A),Ξ- and Ξ+ at 80 and 40 A GeV,and in particular at 30 and 20 A GeV where the onset of deconfinement is suggested to happen,are consistently described by the quark combination model.However,at AGS 11.6 A GeV below the onset,the π±,K± and A spectra cannot be simultaneously explained,indicating the disappearance of the intrinsic correlation of their production in the constituent quark level.The collision-energy dependence of the rapidity spectrum widths of the constituent quarks,and the strangeness of the hot and dense quark matter produced in heavy ion collisions,are obtained and discussed.

  18. Memory effects in radiative jet energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    Michler, Frank; Greiner, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions the created quark-gluon plasma forms a quickly evolving background, leading to a time dependent radiative behavior of high momentum partons traversing the medium. We use the Schwinger Keldysh formalism to describe the jet evolution as a non-equilibrium process including the Landau-Pomeranschuk-Migdal effect. Concentrating on photon emission, a comparison of our results to a quasistatic calculation shows good agreement, leading to the conclusion that the radiative behavior follows the changes in the medium almost instantaneously.

  19. Charm-quark mass from weighted finite energy QCD sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Bodenstein, S; Dominguez, C A; Peñarrocha, J; Schilcher, K

    2010-01-01

    The running charm-quark mass in the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme is determined from weighted finite energy QCD sum rules (FESR) involving the vector current correlator. Only the short distance expansion of this correlator is used, together with integration kernels (weights) involving positive powers of $s$, the squared energy. The optimal kernels are found to be a simple {\\it pinched} kernel, and polynomials of the Legendre type. The former kernel reduces potential duality violations near the real axis in the complex s-plane, and the latter allows to extend the analysis to energy regions beyond the end point of the data. These kernels, together with the high energy expansion of the correlator, weigh the experimental and theoretical information differently from e.g. inverse moments FESR. Current, state of the art results for the vector correlator up to four-loop order in perturbative QCD are used in the FESR, together with the latest experimental data. The integration in the complex s-plane is performed using three diffe...

  20. Real-Time Thermal Schwinger-Dyson Equation for Quark Self-energy in Landau Gauge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    By means of a formal expression of Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective potential for quark propagator at finite temperatures and finite quark chemical potentials, we derive the real-time thermal Schwinger-Dyson equation for quark propagator in Landau gauge. Denote the inverse quark propagator by A(p2)p - B(p2), we argue that, when temperature T is lower than the given infrared momentum cutoff pc, A(p2) = 1 is a feasible approximation and can be assumed in discussions of chiral symmetry phase transition problem in QCD.

  1. Chemical Equilibration and Dilepton Production of Quark-Gluon Plasma at RHIC Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙家丽; 贺泽君; 马国亮; 马余刚; 刘波

    2004-01-01

    An evolution model of the chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma system has been established based on the Jiittner distribution function of partons. By studying the dilepton production of the system, we find that due to high initial temperature, large gluon density of the system as well as large gluon fusion gg → c(c-) cross section in the intermediate mass region, a dominant contribution to dileptons with intermediate masses is provided by quark-antiquark annihilation qq → l(l-) and, especially, thermal charmed quarks from the gluon fusion gg → c(c-) and quark-antiquark annihilation qq → c(c-).

  2. Parton energy loss at strong coupling and the universal bound

    CERN Document Server

    Kharzeev, D E

    2008-01-01

    The apparent universality of jet quenching observed in heavy ion collisions at RHIC for light and heavy quarks, as well as for quarks and gluons, is very puzzling and calls for a theoretical explanation. Recently it has been proposed that the synchrotron--like radiation at strong coupling gives rise to a universal bound on the energy of a parton escaping from the medium. Since this bound appears quite low, almost all of the observed particles at high transverse momentum have to originate from the surface of the hot fireball. Here I make a first attempt of checking this scenario against the RHIC data and formulate a "Universal Bound Model" of jet quenching that can be further tested at RHIC and LHC.

  3. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass with In Situ Jet Energy Scale Calibration Using Hadronic W Boson Decays at CDF-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguin, Jean-Francois [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    We report a measurement of the top quark mass with the upgraded collider detector at Fermilab (CDF-II). The top quarks are produced in pairs (tt) in proton-antiproton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV.

  4. Partonic Energy Loss and the Drell-Yan Process

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We examine the current status of the extraction of the rate of partonic energy loss in nuclei from A dependent data. The advantages and difficulties of using the Drell-Yan process to measure the energy loss of a parton traversing a cold nuclear medium are discussed. The prospects of using relatively low energy proton beams for a definitive measurement of partonic energy loss are presented.

  5. Static quark-antiquark pair free energy and screening masses: continuum results at the QCD physical point

    CERN Document Server

    Borsanyi, Szabolcs; Katz, Sandor D; Szabo, Kalman K; Pasztor, Attila; Torok, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    We study the correlators of Polyakov loops, and the corresponding gauge invariant free energy of a static quark-antiquark pair in 2+1 flavor QCD at finite temperature. Our simulations were carried out on $N_t$ = 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 lattices using a Symanzik improved gauge action and a stout improved staggered action with physical quark masses. The free energies calculated from the Polyakov loop correlators are extrapolated to the continuum limit. For the free energies we use a two step renormalization procedure that only uses data at finite temperature. We also measure correlators with definite Euclidean time reversal and charge conjugation symmetry to extract two different screening masses, one in the magnetic, and one in the electric sector, to distinguish two different correlation lengths in the full Polyakov loop correlator. This conference contribution is based on the paper: JHEP 1504 (2015) 138

  6. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, D; Milner, Richard; Venugopalan, Raju; Vogelsang, Werner; Kaplan, David; Montgomery, Hugh; Vigdor, Steven; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Li, Ying-chuan; Marciano, W.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; Yuan, F.; Sassot, R.; Zurita, P.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Goncalves, V.P.; Sandapen, R.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Gao, J.-H.; Liang, Z.-T.; Passek-Kumericki, K.; Kumericki, K.; Lappi, T.; Wallon, S.; Pire, B.; Geraud, R.; Moutarde, H.; Gelis, F.; Soyez, G.; Meskauskas, M.; Mueller, Dieter; Stefanis, N.G.; Gallmeister, K.; Mosel, U.; Diehl, M.; Bartels, J.; Pirner, H.J.; Hagler, P.; Jager, B.; Spiesberger, H.; Lautenschlager, T.; Schafer, A.; Ringer, F.; Vogelsang, W.; Kroll, P.; Alekhin, S.; Blumlein, J; Moch, S.-O.; Pisano, C.; Rojo, J.; Bacchetta, A.; Pasquini, B.; Radici, M.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Mezzetti, C.B.; Kaptari, L.P.; Anselmino, M.; Tanaka, K.; Koike, Y.; Kumano, S.; Motyka, L.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Stasto, A.M.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Szymanowski, L.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Kaptari, L.P.; Radyushkin, A.; Alekhin, S.; Kondratenko, A.; Horowitz, W.A.; Schnell, G.; Chevtsov, P.; Mulders, P.J.; Rogers, T.C.; Boer, D.; Forshaw, J.R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Chirilli, G.A.; Muller, D.; Wang, X.-N.; Yuan, F.; Qian, X.; Brodsky, S.J.; Schweitzer, P.; Horn, T.; Tuchin, K.; Dupre, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Manikonda, S.; Ostrumov, P.N.; Abeyratne, S.; Erdelyi, B.; Vossen, A.; Riordan, S.; Tsentalovich, E.; Goldstein, G.R.; Pozdeyev, E.; Huang, M.; Aidala, C.; Dumitru, A.; Dominguez, F.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Deshpande, A.; Faroughy, C.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Johnson, E.C.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Taneja, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Webb, S.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Fedotov, A.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; He, P.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E.C.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Parker, B.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Webb, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Zelenski, A.; Beuf, G.; Burton, T.; Debbe, R.; Fazio, S.; Marciano, W.J.; Qiu, J.-W.; Toll, T.; Ullrich, T.; Deshpande, A.; Dumitru, A.; Kang, Z.-B.; Stasto, A.M.; Yuan, F.; Kovchegov, Y.V.; Majumder, A; Metz, A.; Zhou, J.; Gamberg, L.; Stasto, A.M.; Strikman, M.; Xiao, B.-W.; Guzzi, M.; Nadolsky, P.; Olness, F.; BC, H.; Liuti, S.; Ahmed, S.; Bogacz, A.; Derbenev, Ya.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Marhauser, F.; Morozov, V.; Pilat, F.; Rimmer, R.; Satogata, T.; Sullivan, M.; Spata, M.; Terzic, B.; Wang, H.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Avakian, H.; Musch, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Prokudin, A.; Radyushkin, A.; Weiss, C.; Krafft, G.; Radyushkin, A.; Sayed, H.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Cloet, I.C.; Miller, G.; Gonderinger, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report is based on a ten-week program on "Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies", which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics. This report is organized around four major themes: i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, ii) three-dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific op...

  7. Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, D.; Venugopalan, R.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Vogelsang, W.; et al.

    2011-09-30

    This report is based on a ten-week program on Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies, which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This report is organized around the following four major themes: (i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, (ii) three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, (iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and (iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific opportunities presented by an EIC.

  8. Degrees of Freedom of the Quark Gluon Plasma, tested by Heavy Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Berrehrah, H; Song, T; Ozvenchuck, V; Gossiaux, P B; Werner, K; Bratkovskaya, E; Aichelin, J

    2016-01-01

    Heavy quarks (charm and bottoms) are one of the few probes which are sensitive to the degrees of freedom of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), which cannot be revealed by lattice gauge calculations in equilibrium. Due to the rapid expansion of the QGP energetic heavy quarks do not come to an equilibrium with the QGP. Their energy loss during the propagation through the QGP medium depends strongly on the modelling of the interaction of the heavy quarks with the QGP quarks and gluons, i.e. on the assuption of the degrees of freedom of the plasma. Here we compare the results of different models, the pQCD based Monte-Carlo (MC@sHQ), the Dynamical Quasi Particle Model (DQPM) and the effective mass approach, for the drag force in a thermalized QGP and discuss the sensitivity of heavy quark energy loss on the properties of the QGP as well as on non-equilibrium dynamics

  9. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown...... that the thermal insulation and cooling machine efficiency are the most important loss element in a superconducting cable system...

  10. Low-loss energy storage flywheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H. E.; Studer, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetically-levitated, ironless-armature spokeless rotor is used. Ironless armature construction eliminates core losses due to hysteresis and eddy currents. Device combines features of homopolar salient poles and stationary ironless electronically commutated armature.

  11. Flavors in the Soup: An Overview of Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Kurt E. Jung PhD, Purdue University, May 2016. Flavors in the Soup: An Overviewof Heavy-Flavored Jet Energy Loss at CMS. Major Professor: Wei Xie.The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavorof the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function offlavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport propertiesof the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factorsof the heavy flavor tagged jets from charm and bottom quarks in both PbPb andpPb collisions can quantify such energy loss e↵ects. Specifically, pPb measurementsprovide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter e↵ect, whichis required to fully understand the hot and dense medium e↵ects on jets in PbPbcollisions. This dissertation presents the energy modification of b-jets in PbPb atppsN N = 2.76 TeV and pPb collisions at sN N = 5.02 TeV, along with the first everpmeasurements of charm jets in pPb collisions at sN N = 5.0...

  12. Energy loss correction for a crystal calorimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Miao; LI Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Dong; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ya-Jun; MAO Ze-Pu; MO Xiao-Hu; QIU Jin-Fa; WANG Yi-Fang; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Yong-Zhao; WANG Ji-Ke; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; XIE Yu-Guang; YANG Ming; YOU Zheng-Yun; YU Guo-Wei; BIAN Jian-Ming; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZANG Shi-Lei; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Ling; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Zhi-Peng; ZHU Yong-Sheng; CAO Guo-Fu; ZOU Jia-Heng; DENG Zi-Yan; HE Kang-Lin; HUANG Bin; JI Xiao-Bin; LI Gang

    2008-01-01

    Material effect of inner-detectors on the performances of the BESⅢ Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC)is investigated.The BESⅢ Time-Of-Flight counters(TOF)have been utilized to improve the energy resolution and detection efficiency for photons after a careful energy calibration.A matching algorithm between TOF and EMC energy deposits is developed,and the effects of beam-related background are discussed.The energy resolution is improved and the photon detection efficiency can be increased by the combined measurement of EMC and TOF detectors.

  13. Time-ordering of quark multi-scattering processes in hadron-proton scattering at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, M A; El-Din, I M A T

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of non-relativistic Glauber theory with the quark model, the time-ordering of quark multi-scattering processes in hadron-proton elastic scattering at FNAL and CERN-ISR ranges of energy is considered. The time-ordering effect in the Glauber approximation with the geometrical scaling property of hadron reactions is presented. The phase variation effect, as suggested by Franco, is also discussed. A cloud effect is taken into account to obtain a good fit with the experimental data of elastic scattering differential cross section in the forward direction. The results obtained for proton-proton scattering at 200, 290, 500, 1070 and 1500 GeV/c lead us to neglect the phase variation effect in this range of energy. At the same time, the time-ordering of quark multi-scattering processes plays an important role in obtaining a good fit in the range of momentum transferred squared where q/sup 2/ > 3.5 (GeV/c) /sup 2/. In the case of pi-proton elastic scattering at 200 GeV/c, where the phase variation lead...

  14. Search for pair production of scalar top quarks in jets and missing transverse energy channel with the D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Mansoora [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation describes a search for the pair production of scalar top quarks, $\\tilde{t}$1, using a luminosity of 995 pb-1 of data collected in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Both scalar top quarks are assumed to decay into a charm quark and a neutralino, $\\tilde{X}$10, where $\\tilde{X}$10 is the lightest supersymmetric particle. This leads to a final state with two acoplanar charm jets and missing transverse energy. The yield of such events in data is found to be consistent with the expectations from known standard model processes. Sets of $\\tilde{X}$1 and $\\tilde{X}$10 masses are excluded at the 95% confidence level that substantially extend the domain excluded by previous searches. With the theoretical uncertainty on the $\\tilde{t}$1 pair production cross section taken into account, the largest limit for m$\\tilde{t}$1 is m$\\tilde{t}$1 > 150 GeV, for m$\\tilde{X}$10 = 65 GeV.

  15. Observational constraints on the unified dark matter and dark energy model based on the quark bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, Ariadna, E-mail: amontiel@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 México DF (Mexico); Salzano, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.salzano@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Lazkoz, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.lazkoz@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-06-02

    In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in [1], is characterized by two main parameters: β, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and γ, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, β cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) γ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with ≈78% to the energy–matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.

  16. Insight from elliptic flow of open charm mesons using quark coalescence model at RHIC and LHC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esha, Roli; Nasim, Md.; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    A study of elliptic flow of open charm mesons, D 0 and using quark coalescence as the mechanism of hadronization of heavy quarks will be presented. The coalescing partons are taken from a multi-phase transport model. The transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow parameter at mid-rapidity (|y| = 200 GeV (RHIC) and Pb+Pb collisions = 2.76 TeV (LHC) for different values of partonic interaction cross-section and QCD coupling constant will be discussed. We have compared our calculations with the experimentally measured data at the LHC energy. We will also present the effect of specific viscosity on elliptic flow of open charm mesons within the transport model approach. Our study indicates that the elliptic flow of open charmed mesons is more sensitive to viscous properties of QGP medium compared to light hadrons.

  17. The electron energy loss rate due to radiative recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junjie; Kaastra, Jelle; Badnell, N. R.

    2017-02-01

    Context. For photoionized plasmas, electron energy loss rates due to radiative recombination (RR) are required for thermal equilibrium calculations, which assume a local balance between the energy gain and loss. While many calculations of total and/or partial RR rates are available from the literature, specific calculations of associated RR electron energy loss rates are lacking. Aims: Here we focus on electron energy loss rates due to radiative recombination of H-like to Ne-like ions for all the elements up to and including zinc (Z = 30), over a wide temperature range. Methods: We used the AUTOSTRUCTURE code to calculate the level-resolved photoionization cross section and modify the ADASRR code so that we can simultaneously obtain level-resolved RR rate coefficients and associated RR electron energy loss rate coefficients. We compared the total RR rates and electron energy loss rates of H i and He i with those found in the literature. Furthermore, we utilized and parameterized the weighted electron energy loss factors (dimensionless) to characterize total electron energy loss rates due to RR. Results: The RR electron energy loss data are archived according to the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) data class adf48. The RR electron energy loss data are also incorporated into the SPEX code for detailed modeling of photoionized plamsas. Full Tables 1 and 2 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A10

  18. Measurement of TeV muon energy loss in iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakumoto, W.K.; de Barbaro, P.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; Kim, B.J. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)); Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schellman, H.; Schumm, B.A. (Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)); Bachmann, K.T.; Blair, R.E.; Foudas, C.; King, B.J.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H. (Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)); Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.O.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.; Rapidis, P.A.; Yovanovitch, D. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)); Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States))

    1992-05-01

    We measure the energy loss of high-energy muons (up to 1 TeV) from cosmic-ray muons incident on the iron-scintillator calorimeter of the Chicago-Columbia-Fermilab-Rochester Collaboration (Lab E) neutrino detector at Fermilab. Measurements of the differential energy loss spectra in Fe and the average {ital dE}/{ital dx} energy loss in Fe are presented as functions of muon energy and are compared against calculations. There is reasonable agreement between the measurements and calculations except in the region of small energy losses (under a few GeV) for 1-TeV muons, where the measurement is about 30% lower than the calculation. This level of agreement with theory implies that reliable simulations of the performance of muon detectors for future TeV colliders can be done.

  19. Muon Energy Loss Upsteam of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolopoulos, K; Kourkoumelis, C; Poppleton, A

    2006-01-01

    A method for the estimation of the muon energy loss downstream of the Muons Spectrometer is presented. The method provides an improved and updated parametrization of the muon energy loss in ATLAS, along with an estimation based on the actual energy deposition in the calorimeters. The latter aims to account, on an event-by-event basis, for the statistical fluctuations of the energy loss. The final implementation of the presented method combines both the energy loss parametrization and the calorimeter information. This hybrid method provides on average a 5% improvement on the muon stand-alone momentum resolution, reaching 10% for , and reduces the non-gaussian tails. The method is implemented inside the ATHENA framework, in the MuidCaloEnergyTools package.

  20. Energy loss in grazing proton-surface collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juaristi, J.I. (Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain)); Garcia de Abajo, F.J. (Dept. Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain))

    1994-05-01

    The energy loss of fast protons, with energy E > 100 keV, specularly reflected on a solid surface with glancing angle of incidence of the order of a mrad is analysed on theoretical grounds. Two different contributions can be distinguished: (i) energy losses originating from the interaction with the valence band, accounted for through an induced force, and (ii) the excitation of electron bound states of the target atoms. The results are compared with available experimental data. (orig.)

  1. Addendum: Triton and hypertriton binding energies calculated from SU_6 quark-model baryon-baryon interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M; Miyagawa, K

    2007-01-01

    Previously we calculated the binding energies of the triton and hypertriton, using an SU_6 quark-model interaction derived from a resonating-group method of two baryon clusters. In contrast to the previous calculations employing the energy-dependent interaction kernel, we present new results using a renormalized interaction, which is now energy independent and reserves all the two-baryon data. The new binding energies are slightly smaller than the previous values. In particular the triton binding energy turns out to be 8.14 MeV with a charge-dependence correction of the two-nucleon force, 190 keV, being included. This indicates that about 350 keV is left for the energy which is to be accounted for by three-body forces.

  2. Torque model of hydro turbine with inner energy loss characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the result and analysis of the composition of energy loss occurring in the hydro turbine. Two new types of energy losses,namely the hydraulic loss in the flow channel and the impact loss,are defined. All losses within the hydro turbine are divided into four types and the loss coefficients are defined accordingly. Expressions or characteristic descriptions of these losses as well as the calibration method of the loss coefficients are presented. Furthermore,the torque model of the hydro turbine where the inner energy loss takes place is established. The developed model has been used to calculate the power loss due to the mechanical friction generated by the units’ rotation to solve the difficulty of measurements of the mechanical friction loss in the hydro turbine. The definition of the impact loss explains the phenomenon that the loss of no-load is greater than that of the rated operation. A set of conversion coefficients are defined using the characteristic parameters at the rated operation,which are used to transform the parameters in the torque model into those that are easily measured. Therefore,the expression of the hydro turbine power is converted into a function that has the main servomotor displacement as its single variable. This makes the proposed model be convenient to use. Finally,the proposed model and methods are calibrated and verified using the measured data of a hydropower plant. Good agreement between the modeled results and the measurements indicates that the proposed model can represent the inner energy loss characteristics of the hydro turbine.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of top quark mass and jet energy scale using template fits at the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann-Emme, Sebastian

    2011-07-15

    In this thesis, pairs of top quarks produced in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and decaying in the muon+jets channel t anti t {yields} (b{mu}{nu})(bqq{sup '}) are analyzed using data that were recorded by the CMS detector in the year 2010 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 pb{sup -1}. A sample of 78 events is selected by requiring exactly one isolated muon and at least four jets, two of them being identified as jets from the decay of b quarks. Given these selection criteria, the expected fraction of t anti t events is 94%. The trijet mass, M3, and the dijet mass, M2, are reconstructed, taking into account the b-tagging information. M3 and M2 are estimators of the masses of hadronically decaying top quarks and the corresponding W bosons, respectively. Templates for M2 and for the event-wise mass difference {delta}M{sub 32}=M3-M2 are parametrized as linear functions of the top quark mass, m{sub t}, and the jet energy scale (JES). Based on the precise knowledge of the W boson mass, M2 provides a strong handle on the energy scale of jets from light quarks. The reconstructed M2 and {delta}M{sub 32} in data are compared to the template functions from simulation in a combined likelihood fit. The overall JES in the selected sample is found to be 1.048{+-}0.040(stat){+-}0.015(syst) relative to the simulated JES and the measured m{sub t} is 167.8{+-}7.1(stat+JES){+-}3.1(syst) GeV. This is one of the first measurements of m{sub t} at the Large Hadron Collider. Furthermore, the JES measurement is an important input for the commissioning of the CMS experiment for the upcoming measurements with more data in the near future. (orig.)

  4. Characteristic energy losses of electrons in organic NTCDA-films

    CERN Document Server

    Komolov, S A; Sidorenko, A G; Alyaev, Y G; Novolodskij, V A

    2001-01-01

    The studies on the characteristic energy losses of slow electrons in the NTCDA thin film on the ZnO (0001) surface are presented. It is shown, that the spectrum of the energy losses (E sub p =4.0; 5.6; 12.5 and 14.5 eV) in the area of low energies (< 60 eV) reflects the structure of transitions between the valency zone and the conductivity zone. The energy losses on the plasma oscillations excitation the excitation of pi-plasmon with the energy of 6.5 eV and excitation of the pi-sigma plasmon with the energy of 25 eV become prevailing with the growth of the initial electrons energy

  5. Parton energy loss and momentum broadening at NLO in high temperature QCD plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ghiglieri, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a perturbative-kinetic approach to jet propagation, energy loss, and momentum broadening in a high temperature quark-gluon plasma. The leading-order kinetic equations describe the interactions between energetic jet-particles and a non-abelian plasma, consisting of on-shell thermal excitations and soft gluonic fields. These interactions include 22 scatterings, collinear bremsstrahlung, and drag and momentum diffusion. We show how the contribution from the soft gluonic fields can be factorized into a set of Wilson line correlators on the light cone. We review recent field-theoretical developments, rooted in the causal properties of these correlators, which simplify the calculation of the appropriate Wilson lines in thermal field theory. With these simplifications lattice measurements of transverse momentum broadening have become possible, and the kinetic equations describing parton transport have been extended to next-to-leading order in the coupling g.

  6. Searching for onset of quark deconfinement and critical point of QGP phase transition from rapidity distribution in high energy collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results of the rapidity distributions of negatively charged pions produced in proton-proton (p-p) and beryllium-beryllium (Be-Be) collisions at different beam momentums, measured by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration at the super proton synchrotron (SPS), are described by a revised (three-source) Landau hydrodynamic model. The squared speed-of-sound parameter c^2_s is then extracted from the width of rapidity distribution. There is a knee point appearing at about 40A GeV/c (or 8.8 GeV) in the dependence of c^2_s on incident beam momentum (or center-of-mass energy). This knee point can be possibly regarded as the onset of deconfinement of the quarks and gluons in proton-proton collisions, and the critical point of phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is possible that the quark deconfinement and QGP phase transition happen initially in collisions at 8.8 GeV.

  7. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and |Vtb| in Events with One Charged Lepton, Large Missing Transverse Energy, and Jets at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, Silvia; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi Marchese; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t \\to Wb \\to l{\

  8. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vtb| in events with one charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and jets at CDF

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; A. Anastassov; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t \\to Wb \\to l{\

  9. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and |Vtb| in Events with One Charged Lepton, Large Missing Transverse Energy, and Jets at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2014-12-31

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{s} = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t \\to Wb \\to l{\

  10. The low-energy effective theory of QCD at small quark masses in a finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Christoph

    2010-01-15

    At low energies the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) can be described effectively in terms of the lightest particles of the theory, the pions. This approximation is valid for temperatures well below the mass difference of the pions to the next heavier particles. We study the low-energy effective theory at very small quark masses in a finite volume V. The corresponding perturbative expansion in 1/{radical}(V) is called {epsilon} expansion. At each order of this expansion a finite number of low-energy constants completely determine the effective theory. These low-energy constants are of great phenomenological importance. In the leading order of the {epsilon} expansion, called {epsilon} regime, the theory becomes zero-dimensional and is therefore described by random matrix theory (RMT). The dimensionless quantities of RMT are mapped to dimensionful quantities of the low-energy effective theory using the leading-order lowenergy constants {sigma} and F. In this way {sigma} and F can be obtained from lattice QCD simulations in the '' regime by a fit to RMT predictions. For typical volumes of state-of-the-art lattice QCD simulations, finite-volume corrections to the RMT prediction cannot be neglected. These corrections can be calculated in higher orders of the {epsilon} expansion. We calculate the finite-volume corrections to {sigma} and F at next-to-next-to-leading order in the {epsilon} expansion. We also discuss non-universal modifications of the theory due to the finite volume. These results are then applied to lattice QCD simulations, and we extract {sigma} and F from eigenvalue correlation functions of the Dirac operator. As a side result, we provide a proof of equivalence between the parametrization of the partially quenched low-energy effective theory without singlet particle and that of the super-Riemannian manifold used earlier in the literature. Furthermore, we calculate a special version of the massless sunset diagram at finite volume without

  11. Strangeness production as a signal for quark-gluon plasma formation in high energy particle collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redlich, K.

    1985-04-01

    Strangeness production in hot nuclear matter in the non-interacting gas approximation with an Usub(B)(1)xUsub(S)(1) internal symmetry group is discussed. It is argued that the stangeness abundancy ratio in the quark-gluon plasma as compared to the hadron gas strongly depends on under which thermodynamical circumstances it has been computed.

  12. Energy Loss in Pulse Detonation Engine due to Fuel Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid viscosity is a significant factor resulting in the energy loss in most fluid dynamical systems. To analyze the energy loss in the pulse detonation engine (PDE due to the viscosity of the fuel, the energy loss in the Burgers model excited by periodic impulses is investigated based on the generalized multisymplectic method in this paper. Firstly, the single detonation energy is simplified as an impulse; thus the complex detonation process is simplified. And then, the symmetry of the Burgers model excited by periodic impulses is studied in the generalized multisymplectic framework and the energy loss expression is obtained. Finally, the energy loss in the Burgers model is investigated numerically. The results in this paper can be used to explain the difference between the theoretical performance and the experimental performance of the PDE partly. In addition, the analytical approach of this paper can be extended to the analysis of the energy loss in other fluid dynamic systems due to the fluid viscosity.

  13. Bremsstrahlung Energy Losses for Cosmic Ray Electrons and Positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, R

    2015-01-01

    Recently cosmic ray electrons and positrons, i.e. cosmic ray charged leptons, have been observed. To understand the distances from our solar system to the sources of such lepton cosmic rays, it is important to understand energy losses from cosmic electrodynamic fields. Energy losses for ultra-relativistic electrons and/or positrons due to classical electrodynamic bremsstrahlung are computed. The energy losses considered are (i) due to Thompson scattering from fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the background cosmic thermal black body radiation and (ii) due to the synchrotron radiation losses from quasi-static domains of cosmic magnetic fields. For distances to sources of galactic length proportions, the lepton cosmic ray energy must be lass than about a TeV.

  14. Single-atom electron energy loss spectroscopy of light elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senga, Ryosuke; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-01-01

    ... scattering power and higher knock-on probability. Here we propose a concept for detecting light atoms encaged in a nanospace by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy using inelastically scattered electrons...

  15. Strong-coupling Jet Energy Loss from AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Morad, R

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel definition of a holographic light hadron jet and consider the phenomenological consequences, including the very first fully self-consistent, completely strong-coupling calculation of the jet nuclear modification factor $R_{AA}$, which we find compares surprisingly well with recent preliminary data from LHC. We show that the thermalization distance for light parton jets is an extremely sensitive function of the \\emph{a priori} unspecified string initial conditions and that worldsheets corresponding to non-asymptotic energy jets are not well approximated by a collection of null geodesics. Our new string jet prescription, which is defined by a separation of scales from plasma to jet, leads to the re-emergence of the late-time Bragg peak in the instantaneous jet energy loss rate; unlike heavy quarks, the energy loss rate is unusually sensitive to the very definition of the string theory object itself. A straightforward application of the new jet definition leads to significant jet quenching, ev...

  16. Littlest Higgs Model and Higgs Boson Associated Production with Top Quark Pair at High Energy Linear e+e- Collider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the parameter space allowed by the electroweak precision measurement data, we consider the contributions of the new particles predicted by the littlest Higgs model to the Higgs boson associated production with top quark pair in the future high energy linear e+ e- collider (ILC). We find that the contributions mainly come from the new gauge bosons ZH and BH. For reasonable values of the free parameters, the absolute value of the relative correction parameter δσ/σSM can be significanly large, which might be observed in the future ILC experiment with √S = 800 GeV.

  17. Radiative energy loss of neighboring subjets arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    We compute the in-medium energy loss probability distribution of two neighboring subjets at leading order, in the large-$N_c$ approximation. Our result exhibits a gradual onset of color decoherence of the system and accounts for two expected limiting cases. When the angular separation is smaller than the characteristic angle for medium-induced radiation, the two-pronged substructure lose energy coherently as a single color charge, namely that of the parent parton. At large angular separation the two subjets lose energy independently. Our result is a first step towards quantifying effects of energy loss as a result of the fluctuation of the multi-parton jet substructure and therefore goes beyond the standard approach to jet quenching based on single parton energy loss. We briefly discuss applications to jet observables in heavy-ion collisions.

  18. Study of quark mass dependence of binding energy for light nuclei in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kuramashi, Yoshinobu; Ukawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the formation of light nuclei with the nuclear mass number less than or equal to four in 2+1 flavor QCD using a non-perturbative improved Wilson quark and Iwasaki gauge actions. The quark mass is decreased from our previous work to the one corresponding to the pion mass of 0.30 GeV. In each multi-nucleon channel, the energy shift of the ground state relative to the assembly of free nucleons is calculated on two volumes, whose spatial extents are 4.3 fm and 5.8 fm. From the volume dependence of the energy shift, we distinguish a bound state of multi nucleons from an attractive scattering state. We find that all the ground states measured in this calculation are bound states. As in the previous studies at larger $m_\\pi$, our result indicates that at $m_\\pi = 0.30$ GeV the effective interaction between nucleons in the light nuclei is relatively stronger than the one in nature, since the results for the binding energies are larger than the experimental values and a bound state appears in the dineut...

  19. Search for Anomalous Production of Events with a Photon, Jet, b-quark Jet, and Missing Transverse Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration, The CDF

    2009-05-01

    We present a signature-based search for anomalous production of events containing a photon, two jets, of which at least one is identified as originating from a b quark, and missing transverse energy (/E{sub T}). The search uses data corresponding to 2.0 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity from p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. From 6,697,466 events with a photon candidate with transverse energy ET > 25 GeV, we find 617 events with /E{sub T} > 25 GeV and two or more jets with E{sub T} > 15 GeV, at least one identified as originating from a b quark, versus an expectation of 607 {+-} 113 events. Increasing the requirement on /E{sub T} to 50 GeV, we find 28 events versus an expectation of 30 {+-} 11 events. We find no indications of non-standard-model phenomena.

  20. Tailoring the energy distribution and loss of 2D plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Xiao; López, Josué J; Kaminer, Ido; Chen, Hongsheng; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to tailor the energy distribution of plasmons at the nanoscale has many applications in nanophotonics, such as designing plasmon lasers, spasers, and quantum emitters. To this end, we analytically study the energy distribution and the proper field quantization of 2D plasmons with specific examples for graphene plasmons. We find that the portion of the plasmon energy contained inside graphene (energy confinement factor) can exceed 50%, despite graphene being infinitely thin. In fact, this very high energy confinement can make it challenging to tailor the energy distribution of graphene plasmons just by modifying the surrounding dielectric environment or the geometry, such as changing the separation distance between two coupled graphene layers. However, by adopting concepts of parity-time symmetry breaking, we show that tuning the loss in one of the two coupled graphene layers can simultaneously tailor the energy confinement factor and propagation characteristics, causing the phenomenon of loss-indu...

  1. Tailoring the energy distribution and loss of 2D plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Rivera, Nicholas; López, Josué J.; Kaminer, Ido; Chen, Hongsheng; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-10-01

    The ability to tailor the energy distribution of plasmons at the nanoscale has many applications in nanophotonics, such as designing plasmon lasers, spasers, and quantum emitters. To this end, we analytically study the energy distribution and the proper field quantization of 2D plasmons with specific examples for graphene plasmons. We find that the portion of the plasmon energy contained inside graphene (energy confinement factor) can exceed 50%, despite graphene being infinitely thin. In fact, this very high energy confinement can make it challenging to tailor the energy distribution of graphene plasmons just by modifying the surrounding dielectric environment or the geometry, such as changing the separation distance between two coupled graphene layers. However, by adopting concepts of parity-time symmetry breaking, we show that tuning the loss in one of the two coupled graphene layers can simultaneously tailor the energy confinement factor and propagation characteristics, causing the phenomenon of loss-induced plasmonic transparency.

  2. Heat Loss Experiments: Teach Energy Savings with Cardboard "House"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using two cardboard boxes, a light bulb socket, light bulbs of varying wattage, a thermometer, and some insulation, students can learn some interesting lessons about how heat loss occurs in homes. This article describes practical experiments that work well on units related to energy, sustainable energy, renewables, engineering, and construction.…

  3. The energy loss of medium-energy He+ ions backscattered from a Cu(100) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, P.F.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Weg, W.F. van der

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented for the shape of the surface peak in the energy spectrum of backscattered ions in a channeling and blocking experiment. The elastic energy loss distribution of the ions is calculated by use of Monte Carlo simulation. The inelastic energy loss distribution is calculated by use of

  4. On magnetization of quark-gluon plasma at the LHC experiment energies

    CERN Document Server

    Skalozub, V

    2016-01-01

    Large scale chromomagnetic, B_3, B_8, and usual magnetic,H, fields have to be generated in QCD after the deconfinement phase transition (DPT) at temperatures T larger than deconfinement temperature T_d. The two former fields are created spontaneously due to asymptotic freedom of gluon intaractions. Whereas H is produced due to either the feature of quarks to possess both electric and color charges or a vacuum polarization in this case. At the polarization, the vacuum quark loops mix the external fields. As a result, B_3, B_8 become the sources generating H. The latter field appears at $T$ much lower than the electroweak phase transition temperature T_ew. This mechanism should exhibit itself at the LHC experiments on heavy ion collisions. It operates at the one-loop diagram level for an effective potential. The created fields are temperature dependent and occupying the macroscopic volume of quark-gluon plasma. The magnetization influences different processes and may serve as a signal for the DPT.

  5. Holographic energy loss in non-relativistic backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Atashi, Mahdi; Farahbodnia, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study some aspects of energy loss in non-relativistic theories from holography. We analyze the energy lost by a rotating heavy point particle along a circle of radius $l$ with angular velocity $\\omega$ in theories with general dynamical exponent $z$ and hyperscaling violation exponent $\\theta$. It is shown that this problem provides a novel perspective on the energy loss in such theories. A general computation at zero and finite temperature is done and it is shown that how the total energy loss rate depends non-trivially on two characteristic exponents $(z,\\theta)$. We find that at zero temperature there is a special radius $l_c$ where the energy loss is independent of different values of $(z,\\theta)$. Also, there is a crossover between a regime in which the energy loss is dominated by the linear drag force and by the radiation because of the acceleration of the rotating particle. We discover different behaviors at finite temperature case.

  6. Measurement Of The Top Quark Production Cross Section In Proton- Antiproton Collisions At 1.8 Tev Center Of Mass Energy (quark Production, Reaction Cross Section)

    CERN Document Server

    Tamburello, P D

    1998-01-01

    A measurement of the production cross section for tt¯ quark pairs in pp¯ collisions at s=1.8 TeV is reported. The data were taken with the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron during the 1992– 6 collider runs and constitute 108.3 pb– 1 of integrated luminosity. The decay signature studied is tt¯ → e + jets with b-quark jets tagged by the presence of a muon. Five candidate events were found with an estimated background of about one event. Based on this signature the cross section σ tt¯ is measured to be 6.4+4.5-2.9 (stat.) ± 1.2 (sys.) pb assuming a top quark mass of 170 GeV/ c2.

  7. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  8. Top-quark production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David; Paukkunen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Single and pair top-quark production in proton-lead (p-Pb) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and future circular collider (FCC) energies, are studied with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations including nuclear parton distribution functions. At the LHC, the pair-production cross sections amount to sigma(t-tbar) = 3.4 mub in Pb-Pb at sqrt(s) = 5.5 TeV, and sigma(t-tbar) = 60 nb in p-Pb at sqrt(s) = 8.8 TeV. At the FCC energies of sqrt(s) = 39 and 63 TeV, the same cross sections are factors of 90 and 55 times larger respectively. In the leptonic final-state t-tbar --> W+b W-bbar --> b bbar l+l- nu+nu-, after typical acceptance and efficiency cuts, one expects about 90 and 300 top-quarks per nominal LHC-year and 4.7 10^4 and 10^5 per FCC-year in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions respectively. The total t-tbar cross sections, dominated by gluon fusion processes, are enhanced by 3--8% in nuclear compared to p-p collisions due to an overall net gluon antishadowing, altho...

  9. Observational constraints on the unified dark matter and dark energy model based on the quark bag model

    CERN Document Server

    Montiel, Ariadna; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate if a small fraction of quarks and gluons, which escaped hadronization and survived as a uniformly spread perfect fluid, can play the role of both dark matter and dark energy. This fluid, as developed in \\citep{Brilenkov}, is characterized by two main parameters: $\\beta$, related to the amount of quarks and gluons which act as dark matter; and $\\gamma$, acting as the cosmological constant. We explore the feasibility of this model at cosmological scales using data from type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa), Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (LGRB) and direct observational Hubble data. We find that: (i) in general, $\\beta$ cannot be constrained by SNeIa data nor by LGRB or H(z) data; (ii) $\\gamma$ can be constrained quite well by all three data sets, contributing with $\\approx78\\%$ to the energy-matter content; (iii) when a strong prior on (only) baryonic matter is assumed, the two parameters of the model are constrained successfully.

  10. Perturbative expansions from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy

    CERN Document Server

    Trottier, H D; Lepage, G P; MacKenzie, P B

    2002-01-01

    Perturbative coefficients for Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling. The lattice volumes and couplings are chosen to ensure that the lattice momenta are all perturbative. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of lattice zero modes and to suppress nonperturbative finite-volume effects due to Z(3) phases. Simulations of the Wilson gluon action are done with both periodic and twisted boundary conditions, and over a wide range of lattice volumes (from $3^4$ to $16^4$) and couplings (from $\\beta \\approx 9$ to $\\beta \\approx 60$). A high precision comparison is made between the simulation data and results from finite-volume lattice perturbation theory. The Monte Carlo results are shown to be in excellent agreement with perturbation theory through second order. New results for third-order coefficients for a number of Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are reported.

  11. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Knoepfel, I. [Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  12. Energy loss of low energy ion N+q grazing on the Al(111) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Bi-Tao; Chen Chun-Hua; Song Yu-Shou; Gu Jian-Gang

    2007-01-01

    The total energy loss of N+q ions (for v < Bohr velocity) grazing on the Al(111) has been simulated without any 'fit' parameter and compared with the experimental data. The energy loss due to the charge exchange, happening before the N+q hits the Al(111) surface, is studied. The present simulation shows that the energy loss strongly depends on the charge state of the projectile and the lattice orientation of Al(111) surface. The calculated total energy loss agrees with experimental data very well.

  13. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vtb| in events with one charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and jets at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Song, H; Sorin, V; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2014-12-31

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=1.96  TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t→Wb→ℓνb by requiring the presence of an electron or muon, a large imbalance of transverse momentum indicating the presence of a neutrino, and two or three jets including at least one originating from a bottom quark. An artificial neural network is used to discriminate the signal from backgrounds. We measure a single top quark production cross section of 3.04(-0.53)(+0.57)  pb and set a lower limit on the magnitude of the coupling between the top quark and bottom quark |Vtb|>0.78 at the 95% credibility level.

  14. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and |Vt b| in Events with One Charged Lepton, Large Missing Transverse Energy, and Jets at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    We report a measurement of single top quark production in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √{s }=1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We select events consistent with the single top quark decay process t →W b →ℓν b by requiring the presence of an electron or muon, a large imbalance of transverse momentum indicating the presence of a neutrino, and two or three jets including at least one originating from a bottom quark. An artificial neural network is used to discriminate the signal from backgrounds. We measure a single top quark production cross section of 3.0 4-0.53+0.57 pb and set a lower limit on the magnitude of the coupling between the top quark and bottom quark |Vt b|>0.78 at the 95% credibility level.

  15. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.-B.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 × 10^{53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars.

  16. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; Schulze, H -J

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9--11 km. We obtain an energy release as large as $3.6 \\times 10^{53}\\,\\text{erg}$ from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars.

  17. Strange quark matter and quark stars with the Dyson-Schwinger quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Wei, J.B. [China University of Geosciences, School of Mathematics and Physics, Wuhan (China); Schulze, H.J. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    We calculate the equation of state of strange quark matter and the interior structure of strange quark stars in a Dyson-Schwinger quark model within rainbow or Ball-Chiu vertex approximation. We emphasize constraints on the parameter space of the model due to stability conditions of ordinary nuclear matter. Respecting these constraints, we find that the maximum mass of strange quark stars is about 1.9 solar masses, and typical radii are 9-11 km. We obtain an energy release as large as 3.6 x 10{sup 53} erg from conversion of neutron stars into strange quark stars. (orig.)

  18. Limits on Quark Compositeness from High Energy Jets in $P\\overline{P}$ Collisions at 1.8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B; Abramov, V; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Akimov, V E; Alves, G A; Amos, N; Anderson, E W; Baarmand, M M; Babintsev, V V; Babukhadia, L R; Baden, A; Baldin, B Yu; Banerjee, S; Bantly, J; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bean, A; Belyaev, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bertram, I; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Blazey, G C; Blessing, S; Böhnlein, A; Bozhko, N; Borcherding, F; Brandt, A; Breedon, R; Briskin, G M; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burtovoi, V S; Butler, J M; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W S; Casey, D; Casilum, Z; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chekulaev, S V; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Chopra, S; Choudhary, B C; Christenson, J H; Chung, M; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Cochran, J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Cullen-Vidal, D E; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Dahl, O I; Davis, K; De, K; Del Signore, K; Demarteau, M; Denisov, D S; Denisov, S P; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; DiLoreto, G; Doulas, S; Draper, P; Ducros, Y; Dudko, L V; Dugad, S R; Dyshkant, A; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Engelmann, R; Eno, S; Eppley, G; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J K; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fahland, T; Fehér, S; Fein, D; Ferbel, T; Fisk, H E; Fisyak, Yu; Flattum, E M; Fleuret, F; Fortner, M R; Frame, K C; Fuess, S; Gallas, E J; Galjaev, A N; Gartung, P E; Gavrilov, V; Genik, R J; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gibbard, B; Gilmartin, R; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Goncharov, P I; González-Solis, J L; Gordon, H; Goss, L T; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graf, N; Grannis, P D; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Grinstein, S; Grudberg, P M; Grünendahl, S; Guglielmo, G; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hagopian, V; Hahn, K S; Hall, R E; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Hauptman, J M; Hays, C; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Heuring, T C; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoftun, J S; Ito, A S; Jerger, S A; Jesik, R; Joffe-Minor, T M; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A M; Jones, M; Jöstlein, H; Juste, A; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D E; Karmgard, D J; Kehoe, R; Kim, S K; Klima, B; Klopfenstein, C; Knuteson, B; Ko, W; Kohli, J M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kotwal, A V; Kozelov, A V; Kozlovskii, E A; Krane, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kunori, S; Landsberg, G L; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Lu, J G; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L H; Lundstedt, C; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Manankov, V; Mani, S; Mao, H S; Marshall, T; Martin, M I; Martin, R D; Mauritz, K M; May, B; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McDonald, J; McMahon, T; Melanson, H L; Meng, X C; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W B; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mincer, A; Mishra, C S; Mokhov, N V; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Mostafa, M A; Da Motta, H; Nagy, E; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Negroni, S; Norman, D; Oesch, L H; Oguri, V; Olivier, B; Oshima, N; Padley, P; Pan, L J; Para, A; Parashar, N; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Paterno, M; Patwa, A; Pawlik, B; Perkins, J; Peters, M; Piegaia, R; Piekarz, H; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quintas, P Z; Raja, R; Rajagopalan, S; Reay, N W; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Rockwell, T; Roco, M T; Rubinov, P M; Ruchti, R C; Santoro, A F S; Sawyer, L; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Schwartzman, A; Scully, J R; Sen, N; Shabalina, E; Shankar, H C; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M A; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Singh, H; Singh, J B; Sirotenko, V I; Slattery, P F; Smith, E; Smith, R P; Snihur, R; Snow, G A; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Solomon, J; Song, X F; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Sotnikova, N; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Stanton, N R; Steinbruck, G; Stephens, R W; Stevenson, M L; Stichelbaut, F; Stoker, D; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Streets, K; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sznajder, A; Taylor, W; Tentindo-Repond, S; Thomas, T L T; Thompson, J; Toback, D; Trippe, T G; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Van Gemmeren, P; Vaniev, V; Van Kooten, R; Varelas, N; Volkov, A A; Vorobev, A P; Wahl, H D; Wang, H; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weerts, H; White, A; White, J T; Whiteson, D; Wightman, J A; Willis, S; Wimpenny, S J; Wirjawan, J V D; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Yamada, R; Yamin, P; Yasuda, T; Yip, K; Youssef, S; Yu, J; Yu, Z; Zanabria, M E; Zheng, H; Zhou, Z; Zhu, Z H; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

    2000-01-01

    Events in PbarP collisions at sqrt(s)=1.8 TeV with total transverse energy exceeding 500 GeV are used to set limits on quark substructure. The data are consistent with next-to-leading order QCD calculations. We set a lower limit of 2.0 TeV at 95% confidence on the energy scale Lambda_LL for compositeness in quarks, assuming a model with a left-left isoscalar contact interaction term. The limits on Lambda_LL are found to be insensitive to the sign of the interference term in the Lagrangian.

  19. Limits on quark compositeness from high energy jets in p¯p collisions at 1.8 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Akimov, V.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bean, A.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Doulas, S.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gilmartin, R.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Ito, A. S.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Juste, A.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lu, J. G.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lundstedt, C.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Meng, X. C.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Nagy, E.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Negroni, S.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Olivier, B.; Oshima, N.; Padley, P.; Pan, L. J.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Patwa, A.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schwartzman, A.; Sculli, J.; Sen, N.; Shabalina, E.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Slattery, P.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Song, X. F.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sznajder, A.; Taylor, W.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Trippe, T. G.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniev, V.; van Kooten, R.; Varelas, N.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, H.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Whiteson, D.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yip, K.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Z.; Zanabria, M.; Zheng, H.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zutshi, V.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    2000-08-01

    Events in p¯p collisions at s=1.8 TeV with total transverse energy exceeding 500 GeV are used to set limits on quark substructure. The data are consistent with next-to-leading order QCD calculations. We set a lower limit of 2.0 TeV at 95% confidence on the energy scale ΛLL for compositeness in quarks, assuming a model with a left-left isoscalar contact interaction term. The limits on ΛLL are found to be insensitive to the sign of the interference term in the Lagrangian.

  20. Dependence of bunch energy loss in cavities on beam velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    1999-03-01

    Beam energy loss in a cavity can be easily computed for a relativistic bunch using time-domain codes like MAFIA or ABCI. However, for nonrelativistic beams the problem is more complicated because of difficulties with its numerical formulation in the time domain. We calculate the cavity loss factors for a bunch in frequency domain as a function of its velocity and compare results with the relativistic case.

  1. Data Acquisition System for Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chi; Yu Xiaoqi; Yang Tao

    2005-01-01

    A Data Acquisition System (DAQ) for electron energy loss coincident spectrometers (EELCS) has been developed. The system is composed of a Multiplex Time-Digital Converter (TDC) that measures the flying time of positive and negative ions and a one-dimension positionsensitive detector that records the energy loss of scattering electrons. The experimental data are buffered in a first-in-first-out(FIFO) memory module, then transferred from the FIFO memory to PC by the USB interface. The DAQ system can record the flying time of several ions in one collision, and allows of different data collection modes. The system has been demonstrated at the Electron Energy Loss Coincident Spectrometers at the Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics, USTC. A detail description of the whole system is given and experimental results shown.

  2. Computation of electron energy loss spectra by an iterative method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval, Peter [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM-MPC, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Ljungberg, Mathias Per [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Foerster, Dietrich [LOMA, Université de Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Sánchez-Portal, Daniel [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM-MPC, Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    A method is presented to compute the dielectric function for extended systems using linear response time-dependent density functional theory. Localized basis functions with finite support are used to expand both eigenstates and response functions. The electron-energy loss function is directly obtained by an iterative Krylov-subspace method. We apply our method to graphene and silicon and compare it to plane-wave based approaches. Finally, we compute electron-energy loss spectrum of C{sub 60} crystal to demonstrate the merits of the method for molecular crystals, where it will be most competitive.

  3. Search for supersymmetric partner of bottom quark at d0 at Tevatron. Studies on missing transverse energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, Samuel Pierre [Univ. of the Mediterranean, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-21

    Supersymmetry, extension of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM), is searched for by trying to observe the supersymmetric partner of bottom quark ($\\tilde{b}$). This search is performed using events with a final state comprising two acoplanar b-quark jets and missing transverse energy (MET) and coming from a sample of 992 pb-1 of data collected by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, the Fermilab p$\\bar{p}$ collider. The absence of an excess of events in comparison to MS expectations leads to exclude sb masses up to 201 GeV, neutralino masses up to 94 GeV. The MET has been studied under two points of view, because of its fundamental role in this search. First, at the level of the trigger system which allows the online selection candidate events, and then, within the framework of the ALPGEN generator, the simulation of the Z boson transverse momentum which appears as MET when the Z boson decays into neutrino.

  4. Do Quarks Propagate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Taylor, John C.

    1984-01-01

    Processes with coloured particles in the initial state are generally infrared divergent. We investigate the effect of this on processes with colourless particles in the initial state, when the amplitude is near an intermediate quark pole. The result is a characteristic logarithmic depedence...... on the 'binding energy'(even though spectator interactions are taken into account), and the result is gauge-invariant. Summed to all orders the logarithms could perhaps suppress the quark pole....

  5. Search for neutral strange quark matter in high energy heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cataldo, G.; Giglietto, N.; Raino, A.; Spinelli, P. [University of Bari/INFN, Bari (Italy); Huang, H.Z. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Barish, K. [University of California at Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Hill, J.C.; Hoversten, R.A.; Lajoie, J.G.; Libby, B.; Wohn, F.K. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Rabin, M.S. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Haridas, P.; Pless, I.A.; Van Buren, G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Armstrong, T.A.; Lewis, R.A.; Reid, J.D.; Smith, G.A.; Toothacker, W.S. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Davies, R.; Hirsch, A.S.; Porile, N.T.; Rimai, A.; Scharenberg, R.; Tincknell, M.L. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Lainus, T. [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996 (United States); Greene, S.V.; Maguire, C.F. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennesee 37235 (United States); Bennett, S.J.; Cormier, T.M.; Dee, P.R.; Fachini, P.; Kim, B.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Munhoz, M.G.; Pruneau, C.A.; Zhao, K. [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Chikanian, A.; Coe, S.D.; Diebold, G.E.; Finch, L.E.; George, N.K.; Kumar, B.S.; Majka, R.D.; Nagle, J.L.; Pope, J.K.; Rotondo, F.S.; Sandweiss, J.; Slaughter, A.J. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We present results of a search for neutral strange quark matter (strangelets) in 11.6A GeV/c Au+Pb reactions from the 1995 run of experiment E864 at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. We have sampled approximately 1.3 billion 10{percent} most central Au+Pb interactions and have observed no statistically significant signal for neutral strangelet states with baryon number in the range 6{lt}A{lt}100. We set upper limits on the production of these exotic states at the level of 8{times}10{sup {minus}8} per central collision for mass {gt}20 GeV/c{sup 2}. These limits are the first limits reported on the production of heavy neutral strangelets. They complement searches for positively and negatively charged strangelets also conducted by our collaboration. We discuss the implications of these results on strangelet production mechanisms and the stability of strange quark matter. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Varying and inverting the mass hierarchy in collisional energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the LHC give access to the medium-induced suppression patterns of heavy-flavored single inclusive hadron spectra at high transverse momentum. This opens novel opportunities for a detailed characterization of the medium produced in the collision. In this note, we point out that the capacity of a QCD medium to absorb the recoil of a partonic projectile is an independent signature, which may differ for different media at the same density. In particular, while the mass hierarchy (i.e., the projectile mass dependence) of radiative energy loss depends solely on a property of the projectile, the mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss depends significantly on properties of the medium. By varying these properties in a class of models, we find that the mass hierarchy of collisional parton energy loss can be modified considerably and can even be inverted, compared to that of radiative parton energy loss. This may help to disentangle the relative strengths of radiative and collision...

  7. Probing Plasmonic Nanostructures with Electron Energy - Loss Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren

    for nonlocal response. The experimental work comprises the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to excite and study both localized and propagating surface plasmons in metal structures. Following a short introduction, we present the theoretical foundation to describe nonlocal response in Maxwell...

  8. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  9. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  10. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale...... microscope combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we experimentally show the propagation, bending and splitting of slot gap plasmons....

  11. Elucidating Jet Energy Loss Using Jets: Prospects from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, N

    2009-01-01

    The details of jet energy loss, as measured at RHIC with single particles and mu lti-particle correlations, are unresolved, and new experimental measurements are necessary in order to shed light on the mechanism and behavior of energy loss. Utilizing the ATLAS electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, full jet reconstru ction in a heavy ion environment will be performed over a wide range of $p_T$ an d rapidity. With fully reconstructed jets, new and more sensitive probes are ava ilable to test models of energy loss. In this talk, we present a series of obser vables such as the jet $R_{AA}$, the transverse momentum, $j_T$, spectrum of fra gments, the fragmentation function $D(z)$, jet shapes, and di-jet correlations, that aresensitive to perturbative and non-perturbative energy loss. We also disc uss the current level of sensitivity to expected modifications using several dif ferent jet algorithms, the cone, $k_T$, and anti-$k_T$ algorithms.

  12. Insight from elliptic flow of open charm mesons using quark coalescence model at RHIC and LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Esha, Roli; Huang, Huan Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A study of elliptic flow of open charm mesons, $D^0$ and $D_S ^\\pm$ using quark coalescence as a mechanism of hadronization within the framework of a multi-phase transport model has been presented. We have studied the transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow parameter at mid-rapidity ($|y|$ $<$ 1.0) for minimum bias Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV (RHIC) and Pb+Pb collisions $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76$ TeV (LHC) for different values of partonic interaction cross-section and QCD coupling constant. We have compared our calculations with the experimentally measured data at the LHC energy. We have also studied the effect of specific viscosity on elliptic flow of open charm mesons within the transport model approach. Our study indicates that the elliptic flow of open charmed mesons is more sensitive to viscous properties of QGP medium compared to light hadrons.

  13. Top-quark production in proton–nucleus and nucleus–nucleus collisions at LHC energies and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David d'Enterria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single and pair top-quark production in proton–lead (p–Pb and lead–lead (Pb–Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC and Future Circular Collider (FCC energies, are studied with next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculations including nuclear parton distribution functions. At the LHC, the pair-production cross sections amount to σtt¯=3.4 μb in Pb–Pb at sNN=5.5 TeV, and σtt¯=60 nb in p–Pb at sNN=8.8 TeV. At the FCC energies of sNN=39 and 63 TeV, the same cross sections are factors of 90 and 55 times larger respectively. In the leptonic final-state tt¯→W+bW−b¯→bb¯ℓℓνν with ℓ=e±,μ±, after typical acceptance and efficiency cuts, one expects about 90 and 300 top-quarks per nominal LHC-year and 4.7⋅104 and 105 per FCC-year in Pb–Pb and p–Pb collisions respectively. The total tt¯ cross sections, dominated by gluon fusion processes, are enhanced by 3–8% in nuclear compared to p–p collisions due to an overall net gluon antishadowing, although different regions of their differential distributions are depleted due to shadowing or EMC-effect corrections. The rapidity distributions of the decay leptons in tt¯ processes can be used to reduce the uncertainty on the Pb gluon density at high virtualities by up to 30% at the LHC (full heavy-ion programme, and by 70% per FCC-year. The cross sections for single-top production in electroweak processes are also computed, yielding about a factor of 30 smaller number of measurable top-quarks after cuts, per system and per year.

  14. The pion mass dependence of the nucleon form-factors of the energy momentum tensor in the chiral quark-soliton model

    CERN Document Server

    Göke, K; Ossmann, J; Schweitzer, P; Silva, A; Urbano, D

    2007-01-01

    The nucleon form factors of the energy-momentum tensor are studied in the large-Nc limit in the framework of the chiral quark-soliton model for model parameters that simulate physical situations in which pions are heavy. This allows for a direct comparison to lattice QCD results.

  15. The Body Center Cubic Quark Lattice Model (A Modification and Further Development of the Quark Model)

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, J L

    2002-01-01

    We assume that the u quarks and the d quarks constitute a body center cubic quark lattice in the vacuum. Using energy band theory, we deduce an excited quark spectrum (from the quark lattice). Using the accompanying excitation concept, we deduce a baryon spectrum (including S, C, b, I, Q, and mass) from the quark spectrum. With a phenomenological binding energy formula, we deduce a meson spectrum (including S, C, b, I, Q, and mass) from the quark spectrum. The baryon and meson spectra agree well with experimental results. The BCC Quark Model predicts many new quarks (u'(3), d'(6)), baryons ($\\Lambda^0(4280)$, $\\Lambda_{C}^{+}(6600)$, $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}(9960))$, and mesons (K(3597), D(5996), B(9504), $\\eta(5926)$, $\\Upsilon(17805)$, T(1603) with I=2). The quarks u'(3) and d'(6) and the meson T(1603) have already been discovered.

  16. Flow effects on jet energy loss with detailed balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Luan; LIU Jia; WANG EnKe

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential.The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD.It turns out,considering the collective flow with velocity vz along the jet direction,the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium.The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium.The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption,however,decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation,which is (1-vz) times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity.In the presence of collective flow,the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order.So that the total effective energy loss is decreased.The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high PT hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter v2 in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  17. Energy current loss instability model on a computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edighoffer, John A.

    1995-04-01

    The computer program called Energy Stability in a Recirculating Accelerator (ESRA) Free Electron Laser (FEL) has been written to model bunches of particles in longitudinal phase space transversing a recirculating accelerator and the associated rf changes and aperture current losses. This energy-current loss instability was first seen by Los Alamos's FEL group in their energy recovery experiments. This code addresses these stability issues and determines the transport, noise, feedback and other parameters for which these FEL systems are stable or unstable. Two representative systems are modeled, one for the Novosibirisk high power FEL racetrack microtron for photochemical research, the other is the CEBAF proposed UV FEL system. Both of these systems are stable with prudent choices of parameters.

  18. General relativistic ray-tracing algorithm for the determination of the electron-positron energy deposition rate from neutrino pair annihilation around rotating neutron and quark stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Z.; Harko, T.

    2011-11-01

    We present a full general relativistic numerical code for estimating the energy-momentum deposition rate (EMDR) from neutrino pair annihilation (?). The source of the neutrinos is assumed to be a neutrino-cooled accretion disc around neutron and quark stars. We calculate the neutrino trajectories by using a ray-tracing algorithm with the general relativistic Hamilton's equations for neutrinos and derive the spatial distribution of the EMDR due to the annihilations of neutrinos and antineutrinos around rotating neutron and quark stars. We obtain the EMDR for several classes of rotating neutron stars, described by different equations of state of the neutron matter, and for quark stars, described by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model equation of state and in the colour-flavour-locked (CFL) phase. The distribution of the total annihilation rate of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs around rotating neutron and quark stars is studied for isothermal discs and accretion discs in thermodynamical equilibrium. We demonstrate both the differences in the equations of state for neutron and quark matter and rotation with the general relativistic effects significantly modify the EMDR of the electrons and positrons generated by the neutrino-antineutrino pair annihilation around compact stellar objects, as measured at infinity.

  19. Search for single top quark production in pbar p collisions at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV in the missing transverse energy plus jets topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2010-01-01

    We report a search for single top quark production with the CDF II detector using 2.1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The data selected consist of events characterized by large energy imbalance in the transverse plane and hadronic jets, and no identified electrons and muons, so the sample is enriched in W {yields} {tau}{nu} decays. In order to suppress backgrounds, additional kinematic and topological requirements are imposed through a neural network, and at least one of the jets must be identified as a b quark jet. We measure an excess of signal-like events in agreement with the standard model prediction, but inconsistent with a model without single top quark production by 2.1 standard deviations ({sigma}), with a median expected sensitivity of 1.4 {sigma}. Assuming a top quark mass of 175 GeV/c{sup 2} and ascribing the excess to single top quark production, the cross section is measured to be 4.9{sub -2.2}{sup +2.5} (stat+syst) pb, consistent with measurements performed in independent datasets and with the standard model prediction.

  20. Theoretical study of core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy at graphene nanoribbon edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, N.; Hasnip, P. J.; Probert, M. I. J.; Yuan, J.

    2015-08-01

    A systematic study of simulated atomic-resolution electronic energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) for different graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is presented. The results of ab initio studies of carbon 1s core-loss EELS on GNRs with different ribbon edge structures and different hydrogen terminations show that theoretical core-loss EELS can distinguish key structural features at the atomic scale. In addition, the combination of polarized core-loss EELS with symmetry resolved electronic partial density of states calculations can be used to identify the origins of all the primary features in the spectra. For example, the nature of the GNR edge structure (armchair, zigzag, etc) can be identified, along with the degree of hydrogenation. Hence it is possible to use the combination of ab initio calculations with high resolution, high energy transmission core-loss EELS experiments to determine the local atomic arrangement and chemical bonding states (i.e. a structural fingerprint) in GNRs, which is essential for future practical applications of graphene.

  1. Theoretical study of core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy at graphene nanoribbon edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, N; Hasnip, P J; Probert, M I J; Yuan, J

    2015-08-01

    A systematic study of simulated atomic-resolution electronic energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) for different graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is presented. The results of ab initio studies of carbon [Formula: see text] core-loss EELS on GNRs with different ribbon edge structures and different hydrogen terminations show that theoretical core-loss EELS can distinguish key structural features at the atomic scale. In addition, the combination of polarized core-loss EELS with symmetry resolved electronic partial density of states calculations can be used to identify the origins of all the primary features in the spectra. For example, the nature of the GNR edge structure (armchair, zigzag, etc) can be identified, along with the degree of hydrogenation. Hence it is possible to use the combination of ab initio calculations with high resolution, high energy transmission core-loss EELS experiments to determine the local atomic arrangement and chemical bonding states (i.e. a structural fingerprint) in GNRs, which is essential for future practical applications of graphene.

  2. Entropy production in chemically non-equilibrium quark-gluon plasma created in central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Vovchenko, V; Satarov, L M; Mishustin, I N; Csernai, L P; Kisel, I; Stoecker, H

    2016-01-01

    We study the possibility that partonic matter produced at early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is out of chemical equilibrium. It is assumed that initially this matter is mostly composed of gluons, but quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. The dynamical evolution of partonic system is described by the Bjorken-like ideal hydrodynamics with a time dependent quark fugacity. The results of this model are compared with those obtained by assuming the complete chemical equilibrium of partons already at the initial stage. It is shown that in a chemically non-equilibrium scenario the entropy gradually increases, and about 25% of the total final entropy is generated during the hydrodynamic evolution of deconfined matter. We argue that the (anti)quark suppression included in this approach may be responsible for reduced (anti)baryon to meson ratios observed in heavy-ion collisions at LHC energies.

  3. Deconvolution of the energy loss function of the KATRIN experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannen, V.; Heese, I.; Weinheimer, C.; Sejersen Riis, A.; Valerius, K.

    2017-03-01

    The KATRIN experiment aims at a direct and model independent determination of the neutrino mass with 0.2 eV/c2 sensitivity (at 90% C.L.) via a measurement of the endpoint region of the tritium beta-decay spectrum. The main components of the experiment are a windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS), differential and cryogenic pumping sections and a tandem of a pre- and a main-spectrometer, applying the concept of magnetic adiabatic collimation with an electrostatic retardation potential to analyze the energy of beta decay electrons and to guide electrons passing the filter onto a segmented silicon PIN detector. One of the important systematic uncertainties of such an experiment are due to energy losses of β-decay electrons by elastic and inelastic scattering off tritium molecules within the source volume which alter the shape of the measured spectrum. To correct for these effects an independent measurement of the corresponding energy loss function is required. In this work we describe a deconvolution method to extract the energy loss function from measurements of the response function of the experiment at different column densities of the WGTS using a monoenergetic electron source.

  4. Did high energy astrophysical sources contribute to Martian atmospheric loss?

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Mars is believed to have had a substantial atmosphere in the past. Atmospheric loss led to depressurization and cooling, and is thought to be the primary driving force responsible for the loss of liquid water from its surface. Recently, MAVEN observations have provided new insight into the physics of atmospheric loss induced by ICMEs and solar wind interacting with the Martian atmosphere. In addition to solar radiation, it is likely that its atmosphere has been exposed to radiation bursts from high-energy astrophysical sources which become highly probable on timescales of ~Gy and beyond. These sources are capable of significantly enhancing the rates of photoionization and charged particle-induced ionization in the upper atmosphere. Here, we explore the possibility of damage from Galactic Gamma Ray Bursts, nearby supernovae, encounter with dense interstellar clouds and extreme solar events. We use Monte Carlo simulations to model the interaction of charged particles and photons from astrophysical sources in th...

  5. Aromatic Polyurea Possessing High Electrical Energy Density and Low Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Yash; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-10-01

    We report the development of a dielectric polymer, poly (ether methyl ether urea) (PEMEU), which possesses a dielectric constant of 4 and is thermally stable up to 150°C. The experimental results show that the ether units are effective in softening the rigid polymer and making it thermally processable, while the high dipole moment of urea units and glass structure of the polymer leads to a low dielectric loss and low conduction loss. As a result, PEMEU high quality thin films can be fabricated which exhibit exceptionally high breakdown field of >1.5 GV/m, and a low conduction loss at fields up to the breakdown. Consequently, the PEMEU films exhibit a high charge-discharge efficiency of 90% and a high discharged energy density of 36 J/cm3.

  6. Quark-resonance model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallante, E.; Petronzio, R.

    1995-01-01

    We construct an effective Lagrangian for low energy hadronic interactions through an infinite expansion in inverse powers of the low energy cutoff Λχ of all possible chiral invariant non-renormalizable interactions between quarks and mesons degrees of freedom arising from the bosonization of a gen

  7. Anisotropic plasmons, excitons, and electron energy loss spectroscopy of phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Barun; Kumar, Piyush; Thakur, Anmol; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh; Bhowmick, Somnath; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we explore the anisotropic electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) in monolayer phosphorene based on ab initio time-dependent density-functional-theory calculations. Similarly to black phosphorus, the EELS of undoped monolayer phosphorene is characterized by anisotropic excitonic peaks for energies in the vicinity of the band gap and by interband plasmon peaks for higher energies. On doping, an additional intraband plasmon peak also appears for energies within the band gap. Similarly to other two-dimensional systems, the intraband plasmon peak disperses as ωpl∝√{q } in both the zigzag and armchair directions in the long-wavelength limit and deviates for larger wave vectors. The anisotropy of the long-wavelength plasmon intraband dispersion is found to be inversely proportional to the square root of the ratio of the effective masses: ωpl(q y ̂) /ωpl(q x ̂) =√{mx/my } .

  8. In Situ Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy in Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Holtz, Megan E; Gao, Jie; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

    2012-01-01

    In situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) through liquids is a promising approach for exploring biological and materials processes. However, options for in situ chemical identification are limited: X-ray analysis is precluded because the holder shadows the detector, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is degraded by multiple scattering events in thick layers. Here, we explore the limits of EELS for studying chemical reactions in their native environments in real time and on the nanometer scale. The determination of the local electron density, optical gap and thickness of the liquid layer by valence EELS is demonstrated for liquids. By comparing theoretical and experimental plasmon energies, we find that liquids appear to follow the free-electron model that has been previously established for solids. Signals at energies below the optical gap and plasmon energy of the liquid provide a high signal-to-background ratio as demonstrated for LiFePO4 in aqueous solution. The potential for using...

  9. Strange Quark Matter Status and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandweiss, J.

    2004-01-01

    The existence of quark states with more than three quarks is allowed in QCD. The stability of such quark matter states has been studied with lattice QCD and phenomenological bag models, but is not well constrained by theory. The addition of strange quarks to the system allows the quarks to be in lower energy states despite the additional mass penalty. There is additional stability from reduced Coulomb repulsion. SQM is expected to have a low Z/A. Stable or metastable massive multiquark states contain u, d, and s quarks.

  10. Selected top quark mass measurements at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bouvier, Elvire

    2016-01-01

    Selected measurements of the top quark mass are presented, obtained from CMS data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at center-of-mass energies of 7, 8, and 13 TeV. ``Standard'' techniques are employed in each decay channel of top quark pair events and their results are combined. The mass of the top quark is also measured using several ``alternative'' methods, including measurements from shapes of top quark decay distributions in single top quark and top quark pair events as well as pole mass measurements.

  11. Processes of heavy quark pair (lepton pair) and two gluon (two photon) production in the high energy quark (electron) proton peripheral collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadov, Azad I., E-mail: ahmadov@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Kuraev, Eduard A., E-mail: kuraev@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    We considered the three jet production processes in the region of the incident lepton, photon, quark or gluon fragmentation. The fourth jet is created by the recoil proton. The kinematics of jet production is discussed in jets production in the fragmentation region. The non-trivial relation between the momenta of the recoil proton and the polar angle of its emission was derived. Based on this formalism the differential cross sections of QCD processes gp→(ggg)p; qp→(qQ{sup ¯}Q)p; gp→(gQQ{sup ¯})p were obtained, including the distribution on transverse momentum component of jets fragments. It was shown that the role of the contribution of “non-Abelian” nature may become dominant in a particular kinematics of the final particles. The kinematics, in which the initial particle changes the direction of movement to the opposite one, was considered in the case of heavy quark–antiquark pair production. Different distributions, including spectral, azimuthal and polar angle distribution on the fragments of jets can be arranged using our results. We present besides the behavior of the ratio of non-Abelian contribution to the cross section to the total contribution. We show that it dominates for large values of the transverse momenta of jets component (gluons or quarks). Some historical introduction to the cross-sections of peripheral processes, including 2γ creation mechanism production, including the result Brodsky–Kinoshita–Terazawa, is given.

  12. Power Loss Analysis and Comparison of Segmented and Unsegmented Energy Coupling Coils for Wireless Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sai Chun; McDannold, Nathan J

    2015-03-01

    This paper investigated the power losses of unsegmented and segmented energy coupling coils for wireless energy transfer. Four 30-cm energy coupling coils with different winding separations, conductor cross-sectional areas, and number of turns were developed. The four coils were tested in both unsegmented and segmented configurations. The winding conduction and intrawinding dielectric losses of the coils were evaluated individually based on a well-established lumped circuit model. We found that the intrawinding dielectric loss can be as much as seven times higher than the winding conduction loss at 6.78 MHz when the unsegmented coil is tightly wound. The dielectric loss of an unsegmented coil can be reduced by increasing the winding separation or reducing the number of turns, but the power transfer capability is reduced because of the reduced magnetomotive force. Coil segmentation using resonant capacitors has recently been proposed to significantly reduce the operating voltage of a coil to a safe level in wireless energy transfer for medical implants. Here, we found that it can naturally eliminate the dielectric loss. The coil segmentation method and the power loss analysis used in this paper could be applied to the transmitting, receiving, and resonant coils in two- and four-coil energy transfer systems.

  13. Research of the temperature measurement of high-energy laser energy meter and energy loss compensation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Wang, Hui; Wu, Ji'an; Wang, Fang; Li, Qian

    2009-11-01

    The energy measurement of high energy laser is converts incident laser energy into heat energy, calculates energy utilizing absorber temperature rise, thus the energy value can be gained. Temperature measurement of high-energy laser energy meter and energy loss compensation during the course of the measurement were studied here. Firstly, temperature-resistance characteristics of resistance wire was analyzed, which was winded on exterior surface of the absorbing cavity of high-energy laser energy meter and used in temperature measurement. Least square method was used to process experiment data and a compensation model was established to calibrate the relationship of temperature vs. resistance. Experiment proved that, error between resistance wire and Pt100 is less than 0.01Ω and temperature error is less than 0.02°C. This greatly improves accuracy of the high energy meter measurement result. Secondly, aimed to the compensation of laser energy loss caused by absorbing cavity's heat exchange, the heat energy loss of absorbing cavity, resulted from thermal radiation, heat convection and heat conduction was analyzed based on heat transfer theory. Its mathematics model was established. Least square method was used to fit a curve of experiment data in order to compensate energy loss. Repetitiveness of measurement is 0.7%, which is highly improved.

  14. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  15. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  16. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  17. LATTICE QCD THERMODYNAMICS WITH WILSON QUARKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EJIRI,S.

    2007-11-20

    We review studies of QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with dynamical Wilson quarks. After explaining the basic properties of QCD with Wilson quarks at finite temperature including the phase structure and the scaling properties around the chiral phase transition, we discuss the critical temperature, the equation of state and heavy-quark free energies.

  18. Fragmentation Of Quark And Gluon Jets In Proton- Antiproton Collisions At Center Of Mass Energies = 1.8 Tev

    CERN Document Server

    Pronko, A P

    2005-01-01

    We report the first model independent measurement of charged particle multiplicities in quark and gluon jets, Nq and Ng, produced at the Tevatron in pp¯ collisions with center-of-mass energy 1.8 TeV and recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermi-lab. The measurements are made for jets with average energies 41 and 53 GeV by counting charged particle tracks in cones with opening angle of &thetas;c = 0.28, 0.36, and 0.47 rad around the jet axis. The corresponding jet hardness Q = Ejet&thetas;c varies in the range from 12 GeV to 25 GeV. At Q = 19.2 GeV, the ratio of multiplicities r = Ng/Nq is found to be 1.64 ± 0.17, where statistical and systematic uncertainties are added in quadrature. The results are in agreement with re-summed perturbative QCD calculations and are consistent with recent e +e− measurements.

  19. Study of weak corrections to Drell-Yan, top-quark pair, and dijet production at high energies with MCFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John M.; Wackeroth, Doreen; Zhou, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Electroweak (EW) corrections can be enhanced at high energies due to the soft or collinear radiation of virtual and real W and Z bosons that result in Sudakov-like corrections of the form αWllogn(Q2/MW,Z 2) , where αW=α /(4 π sin2θW) and n ≤2 l -1 . The inclusion of EW corrections in predictions for hadron colliders is, therefore, especially important when searching for signals of possible new physics in distributions probing the kinematic regime Q2≫MV2. Next-to-leading order (NLO) EW corrections should also be taken into account when their size [O (α )] is comparable to that of QCD corrections at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) [O (αs2)]. To this end, we have implemented the NLO weak corrections to the neutral-current Drell-Yan process, top-quark pair production and dijet production in the parton-level Monte Carlo program MCFM. This enables a combined study with the corresponding QCD corrections at NLO and NNLO. We provide both the full NLO weak corrections and their Sudakov approximation since the latter is often used for a fast evaluation of weak effects at high energies and can be extended to higher orders. With both the exact and approximate results at hand, the validity of the Sudakov approximation can be readily quantified.

  20. Top quark pair production and top quark properties at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang-Seong [INFN, Pisa

    2016-06-02

    We present the most recent measurements of top quark pairs production and top quark properties in proton-antiproton collisions with center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV using CDF II detector at the Tevatron. The combination of top pair production cross section measurements and the direct measurement of top quark width are reported. The test of Standard Model predictions for top quark decaying into $b$-quarks, performed by measuring the ratio $R$ between the top quark branching fraction to $b$-quark and the branching fraction to any type of down quark is shown. The extraction of the CKM matrix element $|V_{tb}|$ from the ratio $R$ is discussed. We also present the latest measurements on the forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$) in top anti-top quark production. With the full CDF Run II data set, the measurements are performed in top anti-top decaying to final states that contain one or two charged leptons (electrons or muons). In addition, we combine the results of the leptonic forward-backward asymmetry in $t\\bar t$ system between the two final states. All the results show deviations from the next-to-leading order (NLO) standard model (SM) calculation.

  1. Top quark pair production and calorimeter energy resolution studies at a future collider experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Katja

    This thesis is focused on detector concepts and analyses investigated at a future linear electron positron collider. For precision measurements at such a collider, the CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters, which are characterized by a fine granularity. CALICE has constructed prototypes of several design options for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test beam programs at DESY, CERN and Fermilab. To improve the hadronic energy reconstruction and energy resolution of a hadron calorimeter prototype with analog readout three software compensation techniques are presented in this thesis, of which one is a local and two are global software compensation approaches. One method is based on a neural network to optimize the energy reconstruction, while two are energy weighting techniques, depending on the energy density. Weight factors are extracted from and applied to simulated and test beam data and result in an average energy resolutio...

  2. Very Low Energy Supernovae from Neutrino Mass Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Lovegrove, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The continuing difficulty of achieving a reliable explosion in simulations of core-collapse supernovae, especially for more massive stars, has led to speculation concerning the observable transients that might be produced if such a supernova fails. Even if a prompt outgoing shock fails to form in a collapsing presupernova star, one must still consider the hydrodynamic response of the star to the abrupt loss of mass via neutrinos as the core forms a protoneutron star. Following a suggestion by Nadezhin (1980), we calculate the hydrodynamical responses of typical supernova progenitor stars to the rapid loss of approximately 0.2 to 0.5 M_sun of gravitational mass from their centers. In a red supergiant star, a very weak supernova with total kinetic energy ~ 10^47 erg results. The binding energy of a large fraction of the hydrogen envelope before the explosion is of the same order and, depending upon assumptions regarding the neutrino loss rates, most of it is ejected. Ejection speeds are ~ 100 km/s and luminosit...

  3. Measurements Of The Top Quark-anti-top Quark Production Cross Section At Center Of Mass Energy = Tev And Top Mass In The Dielectron Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Kozminski, J

    2005-01-01

    The first measurement of the top-antitop production cross section in proton-antiproton collisions at s = 1.96 TeV using 243 pb−1 of data collected with the DØ detector at Fermilab is presented. In this analysis, only the dielectron final state is considered. Five events are observed, and 0.93 background events are expected. The measured cross section, after accounting for the expected branching ratio to the dielectron channel, is: stt&d1;=14.9 +9.4-1.8st at+2.5-1.8 syst±1.0 lumi pb, which agrees with the predicted cross section for top quarks with a mass of 175 GeV. In addition, a first-pass at a measurement of the top mass using the neutrino-weighting method is presented. This measurement is also performed in the dielectron channel using the five events observed in the cross section measurement.

  4. Multiple scattering of low energy ions in matter: Influence of energy loss and interaction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhtiche, A. [Laboratoire SNIRM, Faculté de Physique, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Faculté des Sciences et de la Technologie, Université Yahia Farès de Médéa (Algeria); Khalal-Kouache, K., E-mail: kkouache@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire SNIRM, Faculté de Physique, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene (USTHB), BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of inelastic energy loss and interaction potential on transmitted ions at low energy is studied. For this purpose, angular distributions of slow He{sup +} ions transmitted through thin Ag films are calculated using the theory of multiple scattering. Thin films (20–50 Å at 2 keV and 50–200 Å at 10 keV) are considered so that the total path length of transmitted ions can be approximated by the value of the target thickness in this calculation. The corresponding values of the relative energy loss ΔE/E are comprised between 0.04 and 0.17. We show that even if low values of the thickness are considered, the total energy loss of ions in the target should be included in the calculation. These calculated angular distributions are also influenced by the potential used to describe the interaction between the incident ion and the target atom.

  5. Photo nuclear energy loss term for muon-nucleus interactions based on xi scaling model of QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, R.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive air showers (EMC) experiments discovered a significant deviation of the ratio of structure functions of iron and deuteron from unity. It was established that the quark parton distribution in nuclei are different from the corresponding distribution in the nucleus. It was examined whether these results have an effect on the calculation of photo nucleus energy loss term for muon-nucleus nuclear interaction. Though the EMC and SLAC data were restricted to rather large q sq region it is expected that the derivation would persist even in the low q sq domain. For the ratio of iron and deuteron structure function a rather naive least square fit of the form R(x) = a + bx was taken and it is assumed that the formula is valid for the whole q sq region the absence of any knowledge of R(x) for small q sq.

  6. The role of energy losses in photosynthetic light harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T. P. J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2017-07-01

    Photosynthesis operates at the bottom of the food chain to convert the energy of light into carbohydrates at a remarkable global rate of about 130 TW. Nonetheless, the overall photosynthetic process has a conversion efficiency of a few percent at best, significantly less than bottom-up photovoltaic cells. The primary photosynthetic steps, consisting of light harvesting and charge separation, are often presented as having near-unity quantum efficiency but this holds only true under ideal conditions. In this review, we discuss the importance of energy loss mechanisms to establish robustness in photosynthetic light harvesting. Thermal energy dissipation of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in different environments is investigated and the relationships and contrasts between concentration quenching of high pigment concentrations, photoprotection (non-photochemical quenching), quenching due to protein aggregation, and fluorescence blinking are discussed. The role of charge-transfer states in light harvesting and energy dissipation is highlighted and the importance of controlled protein structural disorder to switch the light-harvesting antennae between effective light harvesters and efficient energy quenchers is underscored. The main LHC of plants, LHCII, is used as a prime example.

  7. Simulating electron energy loss spectroscopy with the MNPBEM toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenester, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    Within the MNPBEM toolbox, we show how to simulate electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of plasmonic nanoparticles using a boundary element method approach. The methodology underlying our approach closely follows the concepts developed by García de Abajo and coworkers (Garcia de Abajo, 2010). We introduce two classes eelsret and eelsstat that allow in combination with our recently developed MNPBEM toolbox for a simple, robust, and efficient computation of EEL spectra and maps. The classes are accompanied by a number of demo programs for EELS simulation of metallic nanospheres, nanodisks, and nanotriangles, and for electron trajectories passing by or penetrating through the metallic nanoparticles. We also discuss how to compute electric fields induced by the electron beam and cathodoluminescence. Catalogue identifier: AEKJ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKJ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 38886 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1222650 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab 7.11.0 (R2010b). Computer: Any which supports Matlab 7.11.0 (R2010b). Operating system: Any which supports Matlab 7.11.0 (R2010b). RAM:≥1 GB Classification: 18. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKJ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 370 External routines: MESH2D available at www.mathworks.com Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Simulation of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for plasmonic nanoparticles. Solution method: Boundary element method using electromagnetic potentials. Reasons for new version: The new version of the toolbox includes two additional classes for the simulation of electron energy

  8. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, N.A.; Fisher, R.F.; Asher, S.E.; Kazmerski, L.L.

    1987-07-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy is used to study hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Core-level and plasma excitations were examined as a function of hydrogen content. This technique and its interpretation reveals a consistent picture of the electron excitations within this important material. The a-Si:H thin films were fabricated by rf sputtering. Their hydrogen concentrations ranged from 0% to 15%. Hydrogen content was determined by infrared spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inspection of the silicon Auger-KLL peak confirmed the silicon core levels.

  9. Probing Battery Chemistry with Liquid Cell Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren L.

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate the ability to apply electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to follow the chemistry and oxidation states of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 battery electrodes within a battery solvent. The use and importance of in situ electrochemical cells coupled with a scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) has expanded and been applied to follow changes in battery chemistry during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, we discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity and provide a framework to apply this important analytical method to future in situ electrochemical studies.

  10. Search for supersymmetry in events with b-quark jets and missing transverse energy in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from a search for physics beyond the standard model based on events with large missing transverse energy, at least three jets, and at least one, two, or three b-quark jets. The study is performed using a sample of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2011, with the missing transverse energy distribution as the principal search variable. The integrated luminosity of the sample is 4.98 inverse femtobarns. The observed number of events is found to be consistent with the standard model expectation, which is evaluated using control samples in the data. The results are used to constrain cross sections for the production of supersymmetric particles decaying to b-quark-enriched final states in the context of simplified model spectra.

  11. Next-to-leading order corrections to the hadron energy distribution from polarized top quark decay in the general two Higgs doublet model

    CERN Document Server

    Nejad, S Mohammad Moosavi

    2016-01-01

    We study the scaled-energy ( x_B) distribution of bottom-flavored mesons (B) inclusively produced in polarized top quark decays at next-to-leading order in the two-Higgs-doublet model. To study the energy spectrum of B-mesons we present, for the first time, an analytical expression for the NLO corrections to the partial decay width t(\\uparrow)-> H^+b taking the H^+ boson to be stable. Specifically, we study the effect of gluon fragmentation which leads to an appreciable reduction in the partial decay width at low values of x_B. To describe both the b-quark and the gluon hadronization we apply fragmentation functions extracted through a global fit to e^+e^- data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC exploiting their universality and scaling violations.

  12. Nonequilibrium electron energy-loss kinetics in metal clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Guillon, C; Fatti, N D; Vallee, F

    2003-01-01

    Ultrafast energy exchanges of a non-Fermi electron gas with the lattice are investigated in silver clusters with sizes ranging from 4 to 26 nm using a femtosecond pump-probe technique. The results yield evidence for a cluster-size-dependent slowing down of the short-time energy losses of the electron gas when it is strongly athermal. A constant rate is eventually reached after a few hundred femtoseconds, consistent with the electron gas internal thermalization kinetics, this behaviour reflecting evolution from an individual to a collective electron-lattice type of coupling. The timescale of this transient regime is reduced in small nanoparticles, in agreement with speeding up of the electron-electron interactions with size reduction. The experimental results are in quantitative agreement with numerical simulations of the electron kinetics.

  13. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  14. Unified description of charmonium suppression in a quark-gluon plasma medium at RHIC and LHC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R., Captain; Srivastava, P. K.; Ganesh, S.; Mishra, M.

    2015-09-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the quarkonium suppression in a thermal QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions is a complex interplay of various physical processes. In this article we put together most of these processes in a unified way to calculate the charmonium survival probability (nuclear modification factor) at energies available at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. We include shadowing as the dominant cold-nuclear-matter effect. Further, gluonic dissociation and collision damping are included, which provide width to the spectral function of charmonia in a thermal medium and cause the dissociation of charmonium along with the usual color screening. We include color screening by using our recently proposed modified Chu-Matsui model. Furthermore, we incorporate the recombination of uncorrelated charm and anticharm quarks for the regeneration of charmonium over the entire temporal evolution of the QGP medium. Finally, we do a feed-down correction from the excited states to calculate the survival probability of charmonium. We find that our unified model suitably and simultaneously describes the experimental nuclear modification data of J /ψ at RHIC and LHC.

  15. Pion Production Via Resonance Decay in a Non-extensive Quark-Gluon Medium with Non-additive Energy Composition Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaföldi G.G.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resonance production and decay into pion pairs is simulated in a non-extensive quark matter with multi-particle interactions. Final state pion spectra are found to take the form of the Tsallis distribution, in accordance with measurements. It has also been shown that, if a large number of particles with these multi-particle interactions are constrained to a constant energy hyper-surface in phase space, the one-particle distribution is the Tsallis distribution.

  16. Updated Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and $V{tb}$ in the Missing Transverse Energy Plus Jets Topology in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    OpenAIRE

    CDF Collaboration; Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; A. Anastassov; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A

    2014-01-01

    An updated measurement of the single top quark production cross section is presented using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and corresponding to 9.5 fb${}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity from proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. The events selected contain an imbalance in the total transverse energy, jets identified as originating from $b$ quarks, and no identified leptons. The sum of the $s$- and $t$-channel single top quark cro...

  17. Constraints on dark energy with the LOSS SN Ia sample

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2013-01-01

    We present a cosmological analysis of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) photometry sample introduced by Ganeshalingam et al. (2010). These SNe provide an effective anchor point to estimate cosmological parameters when combined with datasets at higher redshift. The data presented by Ganeshalingam et al. (2010) have been rereduced in the natural system of the KAIT and Nickel telescopes to minimise systematic uncertainties. We have run the light-curve-fitting software SALT2 on our natural-system light curves to measure light-curve parameters for LOSS light curves and available SN Ia datasets in the literature. We present a Hubble diagram of 586 SNe in the redshift range z=0.01-1.4 with a residual scatter of 0.176 mag. Of the 226 low-z objects in our sample, 91 objects are from LOSS, including 45 SNe without previously published distances. Assuming a flat Universe, we find that the best fit for the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w = -0.86^+0.13_-0.16 (stat) +- 0.11 (s...

  18. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2007-07-30

    Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models), but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie"). Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1) dietary carbohydrate, via its effect on hormone levels

  19. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  20. Next-to-leading order corrections to the spin-dependent energy spectrum of hadrons from polarized top quark decay in the general two Higgs doublet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Moosavi Nejad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, searches for the light and heavy charged Higgs bosons have been done by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC in proton–proton collision. Nevertheless, a definitive search is a program that still has to be carried out at the LHC. The experimental observation of charged Higgs bosons would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. In the present work, we study the scaled-energy distribution of bottom-flavored mesons (B inclusively produced in polarized top quark decays into a light charged Higgs boson and a massless bottom quark at next-to-leading order in the two-Higgs-doublet model; t(↑→bH+→BH++X. This spin-dependent energy distribution is studied in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization vector of the top quark is measured with respect to the direction of the Higgs momentum. The study of these energy distributions could be considered as a new channel to search for the charged Higgs bosons at the LHC. For our numerical analysis and phenomenological predictions, we restrict ourselves to the unexcluded regions of the MSSM mH+−tan⁡β parameter space determined by the recent results of the CMS [13] and ATLAS [14] collaborations.

  1. Next-to-leading order corrections to the spin-dependent energy spectrum of hadrons from polarized top quark decay in the general two Higgs doublet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Nejad, S. Mohammad; Abbaspour, S.

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, searches for the light and heavy charged Higgs bosons have been done by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in proton-proton collision. Nevertheless, a definitive search is a program that still has to be carried out at the LHC. The experimental observation of charged Higgs bosons would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. In the present work, we study the scaled-energy distribution of bottom-flavored mesons (B) inclusively produced in polarized top quark decays into a light charged Higgs boson and a massless bottom quark at next-to-leading order in the two-Higgs-doublet model; t (↑) → bH+ → BH+ + X. This spin-dependent energy distribution is studied in a specific helicity coordinate system where the polarization vector of the top quark is measured with respect to the direction of the Higgs momentum. The study of these energy distributions could be considered as a new channel to search for the charged Higgs bosons at the LHC. For our numerical analysis and phenomenological predictions, we restrict ourselves to the unexcluded regions of the MSSM mH+ - tan ⁡ β parameter space determined by the recent results of the CMS [13] and ATLAS [14] collaborations.

  2. Using heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons to determine QCD parameters and test heavy quark symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the use of heavy quark fragmentation into heavy hadrons for testing the heavy quark effective theory through comparison of the measured fragmentation parameters of the c and b quarks. Our analysis is entirely model independent. We interpret the known perturbative evolution in a way useful for exploiting heavy quark symmetry at low energy. We first show consistency with perturbative QCD scaling for measurements done solely with c quarks. We then apply the perturbative analysis and the heavy quark expansion to relate measurements from ARGUS and LEP. We place bounds on a nonperturbative quark mass suppressed parameter, and compare the values for the b and c quarks. We find consistency with the heavy quark expansion but fairly sizable QCD uncertainties. We also suggest that one might reduce the systematic uncertainty in the result by not extrapolating to low z.

  3. Elastic deformation and energy loss of flapping fly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Gorb, Stanislav; Nasir, Nazri; Schützner, Peter

    2011-09-01

    During flight, the wings of many insects undergo considerable shape changes in spanwise and chordwise directions. We determined the origin of spanwise wing deformation by combining measurements on segmental wing stiffness of the blowfly Calliphora vicina in the ventral and dorsal directions with numerical modelling of instantaneous aerodynamic and inertial forces within the stroke cycle using a two-dimensional unsteady blade elementary approach. We completed this approach by an experimental study on the wing's rotational axis during stroke reversal. The wing's local flexural stiffness ranges from 30 to 40 nN m(2) near the root, whereas the distal wing parts are highly compliant (0.6 to 2.2 nN m(2)). Local bending moments during wing flapping peak near the wing root at the beginning of each half stroke due to both aerodynamic and inertial forces, producing a maximum wing tip deflection of up to 46 deg. Blowfly wings store up to 2.30 μJ elastic potential energy that converts into a mean wing deformation power of 27.3 μW. This value equates to approximately 5.9 and 2.3% of the inertial and aerodynamic power requirements for flight in this animal, respectively. Wing elasticity measurements suggest that approximately 20% or 0.46 μJ of elastic potential energy cannot be recovered within each half stroke. Local strain energy increases from tip to root, matching the distribution of the wing's elastic protein resilin, whereas local strain energy density varies little in the spanwise direction. This study demonstrates a source of mechanical energy loss in fly flight owing to spanwise wing bending at the stroke reversals, even in cases in which aerodynamic power exceeds inertial power. Despite lower stiffness estimates, our findings are widely consistent with previous stiffness measurements on insect wings but highlight the relationship between local flexural stiffness, wing deformation power and energy expenditure in flapping insect wings.

  4. Unified Description of Charmonium Suppression in Quark-Gluon Plasma Medium at RHIC and LHC Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Captain R.; Srivastava, P. K.; Ganesh, S; Mishra, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the quarkonia suppression in a thermal QCD medium created at heavy ion collisions is a complex interplay of various physical processes. In this article we put together most of these processes in a unified way to calculate the charmonium survival probability (nuclear modification factor) at energies available at relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. We have included shadowing as the dominant ...

  5. Nicotinamide prevents ultraviolet radiation-induced cellular energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohong; Halliday, Gary M; Surjana, Devita; Damian, Diona L

    2010-01-01

    UV radiation is carcinogenic by causing mutations in the skin and also by suppressing cutaneous antitumor immunity. We previously found nicotinamide (vitamin B3) to be highly effective at reducing UV-induced immunosuppression in human volunteers, with microarray studies on in vivo irradiated human skin suggesting that nicotinamide normalizes subsets of apoptosis, immune function and energy metabolism-related genes that are downregulated by UV exposure. Using human adult low calcium temperature keratinocytes, we further investigated nicotinamide's effects on cellular energy metabolism. We found that nicotinamide prevented UV-induced cellular ATP loss and protected against UV-induced glycolytic blockade. To determine whether nicotinamide alters the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress posttranslationally, we also measured UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nicotinamide had no effect on ROS formation, and at the low UV doses used in these studies, equivalent to ambient daily sun exposure, there was no evidence of apoptosis. Hence, nicotinamide appears to exert its UV protective effects on the skin via its role in cellular energy pathways.

  6. State of matter for quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, X Y

    2009-01-01

    It depends on the state of matter at supra-nuclear density to model pulsar's structure, which is unfortunately not certain due to the difficulties in physics. In cold quark matter at realistic baryon densities of compact stars (with an average value of $\\sim 2-3\\rho_0$), the interaction between quarks is so strong that they would condensate in position space to form quark-clusters. We argue that quarks in quark stars are grouped in clusters, then we apply two phenomenological models for quark stars, the polytropic model and Lennard-Jones model. Both of the two models have stiffer EoS, and larger maximum mass for quark stars (larger than 2 $M_\\odot$). The gravitational energy releases during the AIQ process could explain the observed energy of three supergiant flares from soft gamma-ray repeaters ($\\sim 10^{47}$ ergs).

  7. A top quark pair production event from proton-proton collisions recorded by ATLAS with LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Display of a candidate boosted top quark pair production event from proton-proton collisions recorded by ATLAS with LHC stable beams at a collision energy of 13 TeV. The red line shows the path of a muon with transverse momentum around 50 GeV through the detector. The dashed line shows the direction of the missing transverse momentum, which has a magnitude of about 470 GeV. The green and yellow bars indicate energy deposits in the liquid argon and scintillating-tile calorimeters, from these deposits 4 small-radius (R=0.4) jets are identified with transverse momenta between 70 and 300 GeV. Three of these small-radius jets are re-clustered into the leading large-radius (R=1.0) jet (not shown explicitly) with a transverse momentum of about 600 GeV and a jet mass of about 180 GeV, near the top quark mass. One of these three jets in addition to the fourth jet above 70 GeV are identified as having originated from b-quarks. Tracks reconstructed from hits in the inner tracking detector are shown as arcs curving in th...

  8. Search for supersymmetry in events with b-quark jets and missing transverse energy in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M., Junior; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L., Júnior; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.

    2012-10-01

    Results are presented from a search for physics beyond the standard model based on events with large missing transverse energy, at least three jets, and at least one, two, or three b-quark jets. The study is performed using a sample of proton-proton collision data collected at s=7TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2011. The integrated luminosity of the sample is 4.98fb-1. The observed number of events is found to be consistent with the standard model expectation, which is evaluated using control samples in the data. The results are used to constrain cross sections for the production of supersymmetric particles decaying to b-quark-enriched final states in the context of simplified model spectra.

  9. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhu, Linfan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808 (United States); Guo, Jiandong, E-mail: jdguo@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  10. ANALYSIS OF STORAGE SYSYTEM INFLUENCE ON ENERGY LOSSES IN POWER SYSTEM (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golubev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology  for evaluation of storage  system influence on energy losses. The methodology makes it possible to investigate  influence of some operational modes of devices on energy losses for a wide range of variants pertaining to reset conditions. The paper provides mathematical dependences that determine criteria for maximization of energy loss reduction.

  11. Quark sea asymmetry of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mírez, Carlos; Tomio, Lauro; Trevisan, L. A.; Frederico, T.

    2010-02-01

    The light anti-quark and quark distribution in the proton, as well as the neutron to proton ratio of the structure functions, extracted from experimental data, are well fitted by a statistical model of linear-confined quarks. The parameters of the model are given by a temperature, which is adjusted by the Gottfried sum-rule violation, and two chemical potentials given by the corresponding up ( u) and down ( d) quark normalizations in the nucleon. The quark energy levels are generated by a relativistic linear-confined scalar plus vector potential.

  12. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen; Mortensen, N. Asger; Brongersma, Mark L.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-12-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale, enabling the potential interface to electronic circuits. In particular, gap surface plasmons propagating in an air gap sandwiched between metal layers have shown extraordinary mode confinement with significant propagation length. In this work, we unveil the optical properties of gap surface plasmons in silver nanoslot structures with widths of only 25 nm. We fabricate linear, branched and cross-shaped nanoslot waveguide components, which all support resonances due to interference of counter-propagating gap plasmons. By exploiting the superior spatial resolution of a scanning transmission electron microscope combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we experimentally show the propagation, bending and splitting of slot gap plasmons.

  13. Single-atom electron energy loss spectroscopy of light elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Ryosuke; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-01-01

    Light elements such as alkali metal (lithium, sodium) or halogen (fluorine, chlorine) are present in various substances and indeed play significant roles in our life. Although atomic behaviours of these elements are often a key to resolve chemical or biological activities, they are hardly visible in transmission electron microscope because of their smaller scattering power and higher knock-on probability. Here we propose a concept for detecting light atoms encaged in a nanospace by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy using inelastically scattered electrons. In this method, we demonstrate the single-atom detection of lithium, fluorine, sodium and chlorine with near-atomic precision, which is limited by the incident probe size, signal delocalization and atomic movement in nanospace. Moreover, chemical shifts of lithium K-edge have been successfully identified with various atomic configurations in one-dimensional lithium compounds. PMID:26228378

  14. Single-atom electron energy loss spectroscopy of light elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Ryosuke; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-07-31

    Light elements such as alkali metal (lithium, sodium) or halogen (fluorine, chlorine) are present in various substances and indeed play significant roles in our life. Although atomic behaviours of these elements are often a key to resolve chemical or biological activities, they are hardly visible in transmission electron microscope because of their smaller scattering power and higher knock-on probability. Here we propose a concept for detecting light atoms encaged in a nanospace by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy using inelastically scattered electrons. In this method, we demonstrate the single-atom detection of lithium, fluorine, sodium and chlorine with near-atomic precision, which is limited by the incident probe size, signal delocalization and atomic movement in nanospace. Moreover, chemical shifts of lithium K-edge have been successfully identified with various atomic configurations in one-dimensional lithium compounds.

  15. Calculated and experimental low-loss electron energy loss spectra of dislocations in diamond and GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, R; Gutiérrez-Sosa, A; Bangert, U; Heggie, M I; Blumenau, A T; Frauenheim, T; Briddon, P R

    2002-01-01

    First-principles calculations of electron energy loss (EEL) spectra for bulk GaN and diamond are compared with experimental spectra acquired with a scanning tunnelling electron microscope offering ultra-high-energy resolution in low-loss energy spectroscopy. The theoretical bulk low-loss EEL spectra, in the E sub g to 10 eV range, are in good agreement with experimental data. Spatially resolved spectra from dislocated regions in both materials are distinct from bulk spectra. The main effects are, however, confined to energy losses lying above the band edge. The calculated spectra for low-energy dislocations in diamond are consistent with the experimental observations, but difficulties remain in understanding the spectra of threading dislocations in GaN.

  16. Energy Loss Effect in High-Energy Drell-Yan Dimuon Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-Gui; WANG Hong-Min

    2002-01-01

    By means of the nuclear parton distribution obtained from DGLAP equation,measured Drell Yan production cross sections for 800 GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets are analyzed within Glauber framework which takes into account energy loss of the beam proton.It is shown that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the FNAL E866.

  17. Heavy quark pair production in high energy pA collisions: Open heavy flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Hirotsugu

    2013-01-01

    We study open heavy flavor meson production in proton-nucleus (pA) collisions at RHIC and LHC energies within the Color Glass Condensate framework. We use the unintegrated gluon distribution at small Bjorken's x in the proton obtained by solving the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling correction and constrained by global fitting of HERA data. We change the initial saturation scale of the gluon distribution for the heavy nucleus. The gluon distribution with McLerran-Venugopalan model initial condition is also used for comparison. We present transverse momentum spectra of single D and B productions in pA collisions, and the so-called nuclear modification factor. The azimuthal angle correlation of open heavy flavor meson pair is also computed to study the modification due to the gluon saturation in the heavy nucleus at the LHC.

  18. ATLAS top quark results

    CERN Document Server

    Menke, Sven; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronises, analyses of events containing top quarks allow to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This talk will focus on recent precision top-quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration: Single top-quark and top-quark pair production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented, as well as measurements of top-quark pair production in association with a W or Z boson and measurements of top quark properties such as the spin correlation and W boson helicity in top quark pair events.

  19. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vtb| in 1.96 TeV pp¯ collisions with missing transverse energy and jets and final CDF combination

    OpenAIRE

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; A. Anastassov; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F.

    2016-01-01

    An updated measurement of the single top quark production cross section is presented using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), corresponding to 9.5  fb[superscript -1] of integrated luminosity from proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. The events selected contain an imbalance in the total transverse momentum, jets identified as containing b quarks, and no identified leptons. The sum of the s- and t-channel single top quark cross se...

  20. The Fracture Influence on the Energy Loss of Compressed Air Energy Storage in Hard Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled nonisothermal gas flow and geomechanical numerical modeling is conducted to study the influence of fractures (joints on the complex thermohydromechanical (THM performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES in hard rock caverns. The air-filled chamber is modeled as porous media with high porosity, high permeability, and high thermal conductivity. The present analysis focuses on the CAES in hard rock caverns at relatively shallow depth, that is, ≤100 m, and the pressure in carven is significantly higher than ambient pore pressure. The influence of one discrete crack and multiple crackson energy loss analysis of cavern in hard rock media are carried out. Two conditions are considered during each storage and release cycle, namely, gas injection and production mass being equal and additional gas injection supplemented after each cycle. The influence of the crack location, the crack length, and the crack open width on the energy loss is studied.

  1. Structural Variations to a Donor Polymer with Low Energy Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Bazan, Guillermo C

    2017-08-01

    Two regioregular narrow band gap conjugated polymers with a D’-A-D-A repeat unit architecture, namely PIFCF and PSFCF, were designed and synthesized. Both polymers contain strictly organized fluorobenzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (FBT) orientations and different solubilizing side chains for solution processing. Compared to the previously reported asymmetric pyridyl-[2,1,3]thiadiazole (PT) based regioregular polymer, namely PIPCP, PIFCF and PSFCF exhibit wider band gaps, tighter π-π stacking, and improved hole mobilities. When incorporated into solar cells with fullerene acceptors, the Eloss = Eg - eVoc values of PIFCF and PSFCF devices are increased compared to solar cells based on PIPCP. Determination of Ect in these solar cells reveals that, relative to PIPCP, PIFCF solar cells lose more energy from Eg - Ect, and PSFCF solar cells lose more energy from both Eg - Ect and Ect - eVoc. The close structural relationship between PIPCP and PIFCF provides an excellent framework to establish molecular features that impact the relationship between Eg and Ect. Theoretical calculations predict that Eloss of PIFCF:PC61BM would be higher than in the case of PIPCP:PC61BM, due to greater Eg - Ect. These findings provide insight into the design of high performance, low voltage loss photovoltaic polymeric materials with desirable optoelectronic properties.

  2. Method of Sum of Power Losses as a Way for Determining the ki Coefficients of Energy Losses in Hydraulic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maczyszyn A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows application of the method of sum of power losses to determining energy losses which occur in hydraulic rotary motor in situation when not all laboratory data are at one’s disposal or when no use is made of data contained in catalogue charts. The method makes it possible to determine the coefficients, ki, of energy losses occurring in the motor. The method of sum of power losses is based on the approach proposed by Z. Paszota, in the papers [3 ÷ 9]. It consists in adding power flow of energy losses occurring in the motor to power flow output and comparing the sum to the power flow input. Application of the method is exemplified by using a A6VM hydraulic motor.

  3. An Experimental Study of Pile-Supported OWC-Type Breakwaters: Energy Extraction and Vortex-Induced Energy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrating wave energy converters with breakwaters is a promising concept for wave energy utilization. On the basis of fulfilling the wave protection demands, pile-supported Oscillating Water Column (OWC-type breakwaters can also meet the local needs of electricity far from the lands. In the present study, the wave energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were analyzed based on a two-point measurement method. The importance of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss on the wave energy dissipation of pile-supported OWC-type breakwaters were experimentally investigated. It was found that the trends of energy extraction and vortex-induced energy loss were generally correlated. The effects of the pneumatic damping induced by top opening affected the vortex-induced energy loss more than the energy extraction. Results showed that a larger pneumatic damping was preferable for the purpose of increasing energy extraction, whereas for a smaller pneumatic damping the vortex-induced energy loss was more important to the energy dissipation. With increasing draft, the energy extraction decreased, but the vortex-induced energy loss complementally contributed to the total energy dissipation and made the energy dissipation at the same level as that for a shallower draft.

  4. Is the up-quark massless?

    CERN Document Server

    Irving, A C; Michael, C; Sharkey, K J; Wittig, H

    2001-01-01

    We report on determinations of the low-energy constants alpha5 and alpha8 in the effective chiral Lagrangian at O(p^4), using lattice simulations with N_f=2 flavours of dynamical quarks. Precise knowledge of these constants is required to test the hypothesis whether or not the up-quark is massless. Our results are obtained by studying the quark mass dependence of suitably defined ratios of pseudoscalar meson masses and matrix elements. Although comparisons with an earlier study in the quenched approximation reveal small qualitative differences in the quark mass behaviour, numerical estimates for alpha5 and alpha8 show only a weak dependence on the number of dynamical quark flavours. Our results disfavour the possibility of a massless up-quark, provided that the quark mass dependence in the physical three-flavour case is not fundamentally different from the two-flavour case studied here.

  5. QQqq Four-Quark Bound States in Chiral SU(3) Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; ZHANG Hai-Xia; ZHANG Zong-Ye

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of QQqq heavy-light four-quark bound states has been analyzed by means of the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q is the light quark (u, d, or s). We obtain a bound state for the bbnn configuration with quantum number JP=1+, I=0 and for the ccnn (JP=1+, I=0) configuration, which is not bound but slightly above the D*D* threshold (n is u or d quark). Meanwhile, we also conclude that a weakly bound state in bbnn system can also be found without considering the chiral quark interactions between the two light quarks, yet its binding energy is weaker than that with the chiral quark interactions.

  6. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  7. Parametric study of minimum converter loss in an energy-storage dc-to-dc converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, R. C.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Through a combination of analytical and numerical minimization procedures, a converter design that results in the minimum total converter loss (including core loss, winding loss, capacitor and energy-storage-reactor loss, and various losses in the semiconductor switches) is obtained. Because the initial phase involves analytical minimization, the computation time required by the subsequent phase of numerical minimization is considerably reduced in this combination approach. The effects of various loss parameters on the optimum values of the design variables are also examined.

  8. Chiral Symmetry Restoration with a Chiral Chemical Potential: the Role of Momentum Dependent Quark Self-energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggieri, M

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study restoration of chiral symmetry at finite temperature for quark matter with a chiral chemical potential, $\\mu_5$, by means of a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This model allows to introduce in the simplest way possible a Euclidean momentum, $p_E$, dependent quark mass function which decays (neglecting logarithms) as $1/p_E^2$ for large $p_E$ in agreement with asymptotic behaviour expected in presence of a nonperturbative quark condensate. We show that the momentum dependence of the quark mass function, which has been neglected in all of the previous model studies, drastically affects the dependence of the critical temperature versus $\\mu_5$. We explain this in terms of a natural removal of ultraviolet modes at $T>0$ in the gap equation, as well as of the natural addition of these modes at $T=0$ which help to catalyze chiral symmetry breaking. As a result we find that within this model the critical temperature increases with $\\mu_5$.

  9. Top quark mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Tuula [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  10. Deconfinement and virtual quark loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, T.; Engels, J.; Satz, H.

    1983-12-01

    We calculate paer Monte Carlo evaluation on an 83 × 3 lattice the energy density ɛG of the gluon sector of QCD, including virtual quark loops up to the fourth power in the hopping parameter expansion. For light quarks of one flavour, we observe at T/ΛL 95 +/- 10 a rapid variation of ɛG in T, accompanied by strong fluctuations from iteration to iteration. as clear signal of the deconfinement transition.

  11. Low energy electron loss peaks of CuInTe/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleint, C. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Physik); Schulze, S. (Technische Hochschule, Karl-Marx-Stadt (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Physik/Elektronische Bauelemente); Tomlinson, R.D. (Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1982-09-01

    Reflection low energy electron loss spectra were observed from CuInTe/sub 2/ monocrystals. The spectra were taken with a LEED system to obtain the first derivative of the scattered electron energy distribution using primary energies of 50, 90, and 190 eV. The second derivative and the loss maxima energies have been determined after a smoothing procedure. The loss peaks are coordinated to plasmon features, surfaces states, and interband transitions.

  12. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  13. Exploring energy loss by vector flow mapping in children with ventricular septal defect: Pathophysiologic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takashi; Itatani, Keiichi; Takanashi, Manabu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Ando, Hisashi; Kimura, Sumito; Oka, Norihiko; Miyaji, Kagami; Ishii, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Vector flow mapping is a novel echocardiographic flow visualization method, and it has enabled us to quantitatively evaluate the energy loss in the left ventricle (intraventricular energy loss). Although intraventricular energy loss is assumed to be a part of left ventricular workload itself, it is unclear what this parameter actually represents. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss. We enrolled 26 consecutive children with ventricular septal defect (VSD). On echocardiography vector flow mapping, intraventricular energy loss was measured in the apical 3-chamber view. We measured peak energy loss and averaged energy loss in the diastolic and systolic phases, and subsequently compared these parameters with catheterization parameters and serum brain natrium peptide (BNP) level. Diastolic, peak, and systolic energy loss were strongly and positively correlated with right ventricular systolic pressure (r=0.76, 0.68, and 0.56, penergy loss were significantly correlated with BNP (r=0.75, 0.69 and 0.49, penergy loss in the left ventricle. The results of the present study encourage further studies in other study populations to elucidate the characteristics of intraventricular energy loss for its possible clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for

  15. The unquenched quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Santopinto, E

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we briefly discuss the results for charmonium and bottomonium spectra with self-energy corrections in the unquenched quark model, due to the coupling to the meson-meson continuum. The UQM formalism can be extended to include also the effects of hybrid mesons, i.e. hybrid loops. Finally, we discuss the results of a calculation of hybrid mesons spectrum in Coulomb Gauge QCD.

  16. Discovery of single top quark production

    CERN Document Server

    Gillberg, Dag

    2011-01-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking—the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of singl...

  17. Search for Supersymmetry in Final States with a Single Lepton, B-Quark Jets, and Missing Transverse Energy at the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pietsch, Niklas Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Supersymmetry constitutes an attractive extension of the Standard Model of particle physics. It provides a natural Dark Matter candidate and is able to resolve thehierarchy problem. If Supersymmetry is a natural solution of the hierarchy problem,the supersymmetric partner particles of the top and the bottom quark may be copiously produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, resultingin final states with isolated leptons, jets, some of which originate from a bottomquark, and missing transverse energy.In this thesis, the first search for Supersymmetry in events with a single lepton,bottom quark-jets, and missing transverse energy at the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is presented. This search is one of the worldwide first analyses that directlyprobe natural Supersymmetry. The search is performed with proton-proton collisiondata recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV during 2011, corresponding to anintegrated luminosity of 4.98 fb−1 . To minimize the systematic uncertainties of...

  18. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollan, J. J.

    1981-11-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  19. Bipolar energy-loss measurements on cryostable, low-loss conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    Losses have been measured on a prototype conductor for the 20 MJ coil for conditions which simulate closely the actual coil field sweep. The data on the prototype II conductor indicates coil losses which exceed the coil specification. The application of certain correction factors reduces the projected losses within the specification for a 2 s reversal but not for a 1 s reversal. Verification of these corrections await measurements on the actual strand and completion of coil construction and testing.

  20. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for

  1. Specific Features of Heavy Quark Production. LPHD approach to heavy particle spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Dokshitzer, Yu. L.; Khoze, V. A.; Troyan, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    Perturbative QCD formula for inclusive energy spectra of heavy quarks from heavy quark initiated jets which takes into account collinear and/or soft logarithms in all orders, the exact first order result and two-loop effects is applied to distributions of heavy flavoured hadrons in the framework of the LPHD concept. Fits to experimentally measured charm and bottom mean energy losses result in $\\alpha_{\\MSbar}(M_Z)=0.125\\pm 0.003\\pm 0.004$ and $(2\\GeV)^{-1}\\int_0^{2\\GeV} dk \\alpha_s^{eff}(k)= ...

  2. Charge exchange and energy loss of slow highly charged ions in 1 nm thick carbon nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A; Gruber, Elisabeth; Ritter, Robert; Heller, René; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2014-04-18

    Experimental charge exchange and energy loss data for the transmission of slow highly charged Xe ions through ultrathin polymeric carbon membranes are presented. Surprisingly, two distinct exit charge state distributions accompanied by charge exchange dependent energy losses are observed. The energy loss for ions exhibiting large charge loss shows a quadratic dependency on the incident charge state indicating that equilibrium stopping force values do not apply in this case. Additional angle resolved transmission measurements point on a significant contribution of elastic energy loss. The observations show that regimes of different impact parameters can be separated and thus a particle's energy deposition in an ultrathin solid target may not be described in terms of an averaged energy loss per unit length.

  3. Unquenched QCD with Light Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, A; Yoo, J

    2003-01-01

    We present recent results in unquenched lattice QCD with two degenerate light sea quarks using the truncated determinant approximation (TDA). In the TDA the infrared modes contributing to the quark determinant are computed exactly up to some cutoff in quark off-shellness (typically 2$\\Lambda_{QCD}$). This approach allows simulations to be performed at much lighter quark masses than possible with conventional hybrid MonteCarlo techniques. Results for the static energy and topological charge distributions are presented using a large ensemble generated on very coarse (6$^4$) but physically large lattices. Preliminary results are also reported for the static energy and meson spectrum on 10$^3$x20 lattices (lattice scale $a^{-1}$=1.15 GeV) at quark masses corresponding to pions of mass $\\leq$ 200 MeV. Using multiboson simulation to compute the ultraviolet part of the quark determinant the TDA approach becomes an exact with essentially no increase in computational effort. Some preliminary results using this fully u...

  4. Generalization of radiative jet energy loss to non-zero magnetic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena, E-mail: magda@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Djordjevic, Marko [Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-03-19

    Reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions require accurate computation of radiative energy loss. While all available energy loss formalisms assume zero magnetic mass - in accordance with the one-loop perturbative calculations - different non-perturbative approaches report a non-zero magnetic mass at RHIC and LHC. We here generalize a recently developed energy loss formalism in a realistic finite size QCD medium, to consistently include a possibility for existence of non-zero magnetic screening. We also present how the inclusion of finite magnetic mass changes the energy loss results. Our analysis suggests a fundamental constraint on magnetic to electric mass ratio.

  5. Stellar energy loss rates in the pair-annihilation process beyond the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ruíz, M. A.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A.; González-Sánchez, A.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the stellar energy loss due to neutrino-pair production in e+e- annihilation in the context of a 331 model, a left-right symmetric model and a simplest little Higgs model in a way that can be used in supernova calculations. We also present some simple estimates which show that such process can act as an efficient energy loss mechanism in the shocked supernova core. We find that the stellar energy loss is almost independent of the parameters of the models in the allowed range for these parameters. This work complements other studies on the stellar energy loss rate in e+e- annihilation.

  6. Calcium quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggli, Ernst; Egger, Marcel

    2002-05-01

    Elementary subcellular Ca2+ signals arising from the opening of single ion channels may offer the possibility to examine the stochastic behavior and the microscopic chemical reaction rates of these channel proteins in their natural environment. Such an analysis can yield detailed information about the molecular function that cannot be derived from recordings obtained from an ensemble of channels. In this review, we summarize experimental evidence suggesting that Ca2+ sparks, elementary Ca2+ signaling events of cardiac and skeletal muscle excitation contraction coupling, may be comprised of a number of smaller Ca2+ signaling events, the Ca2+ quarks.

  7. Search for Scalar Bottom Quarks from Gluino Decays in Proton - Anti-proton Collisions at a Center-of-Mass Energy of 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rott, Carsten [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The authors have performed a search for the scalar bottom quark ($\\tilde{b}$1) from gluino ($\\tilde{g}$) decays in an R-parity conserving SUSY scenario with m$\\tilde{g}$ > m$\\tilde{b}1$, by investigating a final state of large missing transverse energy, with three or more jets, and some of them from the hadronization of b-quarks. A data sample of 156 pb-1 collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV was used. For the final selection, jets containing secondary displaced vertices were required. This analysis has been performed ''blind'', in that the inspection of the signal region was only made after the Standard Model prediction was finalized. Comparing data with SUSY predictions, they can exclude masses of the gluino and sbottom of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c2 respectively.

  8. Search for Scalar Bottom Quarks from Gluino Decays in Proton - Anti-proton Collisions at a Center-of-Mass Energy of 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rott, Carsten

    2004-12-01

    The authors have performed a search for the scalar bottom quark ({tilde b}{sub 1}) from gluino ({tilde g}) decays in an R-parity conserving SUSY scenario with m{sub {tilde g}} > m{sub {tilde b}{sub 1}}, by investigating a final state of large missing transverse energy, with three or more jets, and some of them from the hadronization of b-quarks. A data sample of 156 pb{sup -1} collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV was used. For the final selection, jets containing secondary displaced vertices were required. This analysis has been performed ''blind'', in that the inspection of the signal region was only made after the Standard Model prediction was finalized. Comparing data with SUSY predictions, they can exclude masses of the gluino and sbottom of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c{sup 2} respectively.

  9. Quark mass effects in quark number susceptibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Thorben

    2016-01-01

    The quark degrees of freedom of the QGP with special focus on mass effects are investigated. A next-to-leading-order perturbation theory approach with quark mass dependence is applied and compared to lattice QCD results.

  10. Direct photon production and jet energy-loss in small systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chun; Paquet, Jean-François; Denicol, Gabriel S; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Two types of penetrating probes, direct photon and QCD jets, are investigated in the background of a small and rapidly expanding droplet of quark-gluon plasma. The additional thermal electromagnetic radiation results in a $\\sim$50\\% enhancement of the direct photons. In high multiplicity p+Pb collisions, jets can lose a sizeable fraction of their initial energy, leading to a charged hadron $R_\\mathrm{pA}$ of $\\sim$0.8 at a transverse momentum around 10\\,GeV. Those two proposed measurements can help understand the apparent collective behaviour observed in small collision systems.

  11. Jet energy loss in Boson-jet events in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Ran

    2017-01-01

    A typical approach to study the medium produced in heavy ion collisions is to understand the passage of elementary particles through it. As Z bosons and photons do not participate in the strong interaction, their correlation with jets within the same event is a clean probe of the medium-induced energy loss of (predominantly) quark jets. In this analysis, Z+jet and photon+jet correlations are studied using the high statistics PbPb and pp data taken at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector. The evolution of azimuthal angular distributions and average momentum imbalance between the jet and Z or photon as a function of transverse momentum of the color neutral probe will be presented. In addition the jet $I_{AA}$, as a function of photon $p_{T}$ and collision centrality is studied.

  12. Properties of the Top Quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicke, Daniel; /Wuppertal U., Dept. Math.

    2009-08-01

    The aim of particle physics is the understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The current theory of elementary particle physics, the Standard Model, contains twelve different types of fermions which (neglecting gravity) interact through the gauge bosons of three forces. In addition a scalar particle, the Higgs boson, is needed for theoretical consistency. These few building blocks explain all experimental results found in the context of particle physics, so far. Nevertheless, it is believed that the Standard Model is only an approximation to a more complete theory. First of all the fourth known force, gravity, has withstood all attempts to be included until now. Furthermore, the Standard Model describes several features of the elementary particles like the existence of three families of fermions or the quantisation of charges, but does not explain these properties from underlying principles. Finally, the lightness of the Higgs boson needed to explain the symmetry breaking is difficult to maintain in the presence of expected corrections from gravity at high scales. This is the so called hierarchy problem. In addition astrophysical results indicate that the universe consists only to a very small fraction of matter described by the Standard Model. Large fractions of dark energy and dark matter are needed to describe the observations. Both do not have any correspondence in the Standard Model. Also the very small asymmetry between matter and anti-matter that results in the observed universe built of matter (and not of anti-matter) cannot be explained until now. It is thus an important task of experimental particle physics to test the predictions of the Standard Model to the best possible accuracy and to search for deviations pointing to necessary extensions or modifications of our current theoretical understanding. The top quark was predicted to exist by the Standard Model as the partner of the bottom quark. It was first observed in 1995 by the

  13. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  14. Trajectory-dependent energy loss for swift He atoms axially scattered off a silver surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos Rubiano, C.A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Ató mica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Gravielle, M.S., E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    Angle- and energy-loss-resolved distributions of helium atoms grazingly scattered from a Ag(110) surface along low indexed crystallographic directions are investigated considering impact energies in the few keV range. Final projectile distributions are evaluated within a semi-classical formalism that includes dissipative effects due to electron–hole excitations through a friction force. For mono-energetic beams impinging along the [11{sup ¯}0],[11{sup ¯}2] and [001] directions, the model predicts the presence of multiple peak structures in energy-loss spectra. Such structures provide detailed information about the trajectory-dependent energy loss. However, when the experimental dispersion of the incident beam is taken into account, these energy-loss peaks are completely washed out, giving rise to a smooth energy-loss distribution, in fairly good agreement with available experimental data.

  15. A parametrisation of the energy loss distributions of charged particles and its applications for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of charged particles in silicon is approximated by a simple analytical parametrization. Its use is demonstrated through several examples. With the help of energy deposits in sensing elements of the detector, the position of track segments and the corresponding deposited energy are estimated with improved accuracy and less bias. The parametrization is successfully used to estimate the energy loss rate of charged particles, and it is applied to detector gain calibration tasks.

  16. Top quark measurements in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lista, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Experimental results on top-quark physics obtained at the CMS experiment are reported based on the data recorded at centre-of-mass energy up to 13 TeV. Inclusive and differential cross sections for both top-quark pair and single top-quark production are presented, as well as measurements of top-quark properties in production and decay, and searches for anomalous couplings. The presented measurements test theoretical predictions, including recent perturbative QCD calculations, provide constraints of fundamental standard model parameters, and set limits on physics beyond the standard model.

  17. Single top quark production with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccolo Davide

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of single top quark production performed using the CMS experiment [1] data collected in 2011 at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and in 2012 at 8 TeV, are presented. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production are also presented. The results include the measurement of the charge ratio in the single top t-channel.

  18. Single top quark production with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Soureek

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of single top quark production are presented, performed using CMS data collected in 2011, 2012 and 2015 at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV respectively. The cross sections for the electroweak production of single top quarks in the t-channel and in association with W-bosons is measured and the results are used to place constraints on the CKM matrix element Vtb. In the t-channel the ratio of top and anti-top production cross sections is determined and compared with predictions from different parton density distribution functions. In the same channel, the inclusive cross-section in the fiducial volume is also measured. Measurements of top quark properties in single top quark production such as the top-quark polarisation, W-helicity in top quark decay and searches for anomalous couplings to gluons, photons are also presented,. A search for the s-channel is also performed.

  19. The Physical Foundation of the Quark Model the Quark Model as an approximation of the BCC Model

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, J L

    2001-01-01

    From the Dirac sea concept, the BCC model infers that the quarks u and d constitute a body center cubic quark lattice in the vacuum; when a quark $q^*$ is excited from the vacuum, the nearest primitive cell u' and d' is accompanying excited by the quark $q^*$. Using the energy band theory, the model deduces the quantum numbers (I, S, C, b, and Q) and the masses of all quarks using a united mass formula. Then, it shows that the system of} 3 excited quarks ($q^*u'd'

  20. Heavy quark production in pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGaughey, P.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Quack, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruuskanen, P.V. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)]|[Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    A systematic study of the inclusive single heavy quark and heavy-quark pair production cross sections in pp collisions is presented for RHIC and LHC energies. We compare with existing data when possible. The dependence of the rates on the renormalization and factorization scales is discussed. Predictions of the cross sections are given for two different sets of parton distribution functions.

  1. Comparison of radiative energy loss models in a hot QCD medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.

    2010-01-01

    The suppression of high $p_{T}$ hadron production in heavy ion collisions is thought to be due to energy loss by gluon radiation off hard partons in a QCD medium. Existing models of QCD radiative energy loss in a color-charged medium give estimates of the coupling strength of the parton to the

  2. REFINED ALGORITHMS OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY LOSSES CALCULATION IN 0,38 KV NETWORKS IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnyk A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach for closer definition of electrical energy losses size in air lines due to the accounting of environment temperature influence and flowing current size on the wire resistance is offered. Multifunctional microprocessor devices for energy losses calculation are elaborated.

  3. Electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions in high energy collisions with molecular oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, P; Nielsen, SB; Sørensen, M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions Lys-Hn(n)+ (n = 7 - 17) and the concomitant formation of Lys-Hn(n+1)+. in high-energy collisions with molecular oxygen (laboratory kinetic energy = 50 x n keV). The cross section for electron loss increases with the charge stat...

  4. Comparison of radiative energy loss models in a hot QCD medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.

    2010-01-01

    The suppression of high $p_{T}$ hadron production in heavy ion collisions is thought to be due to energy loss by gluon radiation off hard partons in a QCD medium. Existing models of QCD radiative energy loss in a color-charged medium give estimates of the coupling strength of the parton to the mediu

  5. Energy loss of a heavy particle near 3D charged rotating hairy black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, Jalil [Ilam University, Physics Department, P.O.Box 69315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a charged rotating black hole in three dimensions with a scalar charge and discuss the energy loss of a heavy particle moving near the black-hole horizon. We also study quasi-normal modes and find the dispersion relations. We find that the effect of scalar charge and electric charge increases the energy loss. (orig.)

  6. Energy loss of a heavy particle near 3D charged rotating hairy black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Jalil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider a charged rotating black hole in three dimensions with a scalar charge and discuss the energy loss of a heavy particle moving near the black-hole horizon. We also study quasi-normal modes and find the dispersion relations. We find that the effect of scalar charge and electric charge increases the energy loss.

  7. Evaluation of economic loss from energy-related environmental pollution: a case study of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Liu, Gengyuan; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-09-01

    With the growth of energy consumption, energy-related environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, which in turn causes enormous economic loss because of public health damage, corrosion of materials, crop yield reduction, and other factors. Evaluating economic loss caused by energy-related environmental pollution can contribute to decision making in energy management. A framework for evaluating economic loss from environmental pollution produced during energy production, transportation, and consumption is proposed in this paper. Regarding SO2, PM10, and solid waste as the main pollutants, economic losses from health damage, materials corrosion, crop yield reduction, and solid waste pollution are estimated based on multiple concentration-response relationships and dose-response functions. The proposed framework and evaluation methods are applied to Beijing, China. It is evident that total economic loss attributable to energy-related environmental pollution fluctuated during 2000-2011 but had a general growth trend, with the highest value reaching 2.3 × 108 CNY (China Yuan) in 2006. Economic loss caused by health damage contributes most to the total loss among the four measured damage types. The total economic loss strongly correlates with the amount of energy consumption, especially for oil and electricity. Our evaluation framework and methods can be used widely to measure the potential impact of environmental pollution in the energy lifecycle.

  8. Electromagnetic therapeutic coils design to reduce energy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrek Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of power loss reduction in applicators used in magnetotherapy. To generate magnetic field whose distribution is optimal and to reduce the power loss, the authors establish a set of parameters to evaluate the model of device. Results make it possible to infer that the real power input necessary to operate the magnetic field generator properly may vary significantly depending on construction and localization. The issues raised in this paper should be treated as a basis for further discussion on the construction of applicators used, e.g., in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

  9. A Linearized Boltzmann transport model for jet propagation in the quark-gluon plasma: Heavy quark evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2016-01-01

    A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model coupled with hydrodynamical background is established to describe the evolution of jet shower partons and medium excitations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We extend the LBT model to include both elastic and inelastic processes for light and heavy partons in the quark-gluon plasma. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is developed for the hadronization of heavy quarks. Within this framework, we investigate how heavy flavor observables depend on various ingredients, such as different energy loss and hadronization mechanisms, the momentum and temperature dependences of the transport coefficients, and the radial flow of the expanding fireball. Our model calculations show good descriptions of $D$ meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at the LHC and RHIC. The prediction for the Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$=5.02 TeV is provided.

  10. Semi-Inclusive Charged-Pion Electroproduction off Protons and Deuterons: Cross Sections, Ratios and Access to the Quark-Parton Model at Low Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Asaturyan, R; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Tadevosyan, V; Adams, G S; Ahmidouch, A; Angelescu, T; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, A; Baker, O K; Benmouna, N; Bertoncini, C; Blok, H P; Boeglin, W U; Bosted, P E; Breuer, H; Christy, M E; Connell, S H; Cui, Y; Dalton, M M; Danagoulian, S; Day, D; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Khayari, N El; Fenker, H C; Frolov, V V; Gan, L; Gaskell, D; Hafidi, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Hungerford, E; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Joo, K; Kalantarians, N; Kelly, J J; Keppel, C E; Kubarovsky, V; Li, Y; Liang, Y; Mack, D; Malace, S P; Markowitz, P; McGrath, E; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, A; Moziak, B; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Opper, A K; Ostapenko, T; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rock, S E; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Smith, G R; Stoler, P; Tang, L; Ungaro, M; Uzzle, A; Vidakovic, S; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wang, M; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F R; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yuan, L; Zheng, X

    2011-01-01

    A large set of cross sections for semi-inclusive electroproduction of charged pions (pi+-) from both proton and deuteron targets was measured. The data are in the deep-inelastic scattering region with invariant mass squared W2 > 4 GeV2 and range in four-momentum transfer squared 2 pion production mechanisms. The x, z and Pt2 dependences of several ratios (the ratios of favored-unfavored fragmentation functions, charged pion ratios, deuteron-hydrogen and aluminum-deuteron ratios for pi+ and pi-) have been studied. The ratios are found to be in good agreement with expectations based upon a high-energy quark-parton model description. We find the azimuthal dependences to be small, as compared to exclusive pion electroproduction, and consistent with theoretical expectations based on tree-level factorization in terms of transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions. In the con text of a simple model, the initial transverse momenta of d quarks are found to be slightly smaller than for...

  11. Search for $s$-channel Single Top Quark Production in the Missing Energy Plus Jets Sample using the Full CDF II Data Set

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Giurgiu, Gavril A; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi Marchese; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Martínez-Perez, Mario; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Ranjan, Niharika; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The first search for single top quark production from the exchange of an $s$-channel virtual $W$ boson using events with an imbalance in the total transverse momentum, $b$-tagged jets, and no identified leptons is presented. The full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.45 fb$^{-1}$ from Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, is used. Assuming the electroweak production of top quarks of mass 172.5 GeV/$c^2$ in the $s$-channel, a cross section of $1.12_{-0.57}^{+0.61}$ (stat+syst) pb, with a significance of 1.9 standard deviations, is measured. This measurement is combined with a previous result obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse momentum, $b$-tagged jets, and exactly one identified lepton, yielding a cross section of $1.36_{-0.32}^{+0.37}$ (stat+syst) pb, with a significance of 4.2 standard deviations.

  12. Search for $s$-channel Single Top Quark Production in the Missing Energy Plus Jets Sample using the Full CDF II Data Set

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Giurgiu, Gavril A; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Martínez-Perez, Mario; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Ranjan, Niharika; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2014-06-09

    The first search for single top quark production from the exchange of an $s$-channel virtual $W$ boson using events with an imbalance in the total transverse momentum, $b$-tagged jets, and no identified leptons is presented. The full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.45 fb$^{-1}$ from Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, is used. Assuming the electroweak production of top quarks of mass 172.5 GeV/$c^2$ in the $s$-channel, a cross section of $1.12_{-0.57}^{+0.61}$ (stat+syst) pb, with a significance of 1.9 standard deviations, is measured. This measurement is combined with a previous result obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse momentum, $b$-tagged jets, and exactly one identified lepton, yielding a cross section of $1.36_{-0.32}^{+0.37}$ (stat+syst) pb, with a significance of 4.2 standard deviations.

  13. Prompt photon in association with a heavy-quark jet in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stavreva, T; Schienbein, I

    2012-01-01

    We present a phenomenological study of the associated production of a prompt photon and a heavy quark jet (charm or bottom) in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC. This channel allows for estimating the amount of energy loss experienced by the charm and bottom quarks propagating in the dense QCD medium produced in those collisions. Calculations are carried out at next-to-leading order (NLO) accuracy using the BDMPS-Z heavy-quark quenching weights. The quenching of the single heavy-quark jet spectrum reflects fairly the hierarchy in the heavy quark energy loss assumed in the perturbative calculation. On the contrary, the single photon spectrum in heavy-ion collisions is only modified at low momenta, for which less heavy-quark jets pass the kinematic cuts. On top of single particle spectra, the two-particle final state provides a range of observables (photon-jet pair momentum, jet asymmetry, among others) which are studied in detail. The comparison of the photon-jet pair momentum, from p-p to Pb-Pb collisions, is sensi...

  14. ATLAS Top Quark Results

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Kevin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk will present highlights of a few recent precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration of the top quark using 13 TeV and 8 TeV collision data: top-quark pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented alongside top quark properties measurements. These measurements, including results using boosted top quarks, probe our understanding of top quark production in the TeV regime. Measurements of the top quark mass and searches for rare top quark decays are also presented.

  15. The relation between the fundamental scale controlling high-energy interactions of quarks and the proton mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deur, Alexandre [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); de Teramond, Guy F. [Univ. de Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2015-04-06

    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) provides a fundamental description of the physics binding quarks into protons, neutrons, and other hadrons. QCD is well understood at short distances where perturbative calculations are feasible. Establishing an explicit relation between this regime and the large-distance physics of quark confinement has been a long-sought goal. A major challenge is to relate the parameter Λs, which controls the predictions of perturbative QCD (pQCD) at short distances, to the masses of hadrons. Here we show how new theoretical insights into QCD's behavior at large and small distances lead to an analytical relation between hadronic masses and Λs. The resulting prediction, Λs = 0.341 ± 0.024 GeV agrees well with the experimental value 0.339 ± 0.016 GeV. Conversely, the experimental value of Λs can be used to predict the masses of hadrons, a task which had so far only been accomplished through intensive numerical lattice calculations, requiring several phenomenological input parameters.

  16. Dilepton Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺泽君; 蒋维洲; 张家驹; 张伟; 刘波

    2002-01-01

    We have studied dilepton production in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon matter produced at RHIC energies.We find that the dilepton yield is no longer a monotonically decreasing function of the initial quark chemicalpotential. Therefore, the dilepton suppression may not be useful as a signature for quark-gluon matter formation.

  17. Channeling energy loss and dechanneling of He along axial and planar directions of Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, S.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the energy loss and the dechanneling of He ions in the energy of 1.5 MeV and 2 MeV along the and axial directions as well as the {1 0 0} and {1 1 0} planar directions of Si were studied by the simulation of the channeling Rutherford backscattering spectra. The simulation was done based on the considerations that a fraction of the aligned beam enters the sample as a random component due to the ions scattering from the surface, and the dechanneling starts at the greater penetration depths, xDech. It was presumed that the dechanneling process follows a simple exponential law with a parameter λ which is proportional to the half-thickness. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to set the best parameters of energy loss ratio, xDech and λ. The experimental results are well reproduced by this simulation. Differences between various axial and planar channels in the Si crystal and their influence on the energy loss ratio and dechanneling of He ions are described. Moreover, the energy dependence of energy loss ratio and dechanneling of He ions were investigated. It is shown that the dechanneling behavior of ions depends on the energy and energy loss of the ions along a channel. The channeled to random energy loss increases by decreasing ions energy.

  18. Statistical Quark Model for the Nucleon Structure Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirez, Carlos; Tomio, Lauro; Trevisan, Luis A.; Frederico, Tobias

    2009-06-01

    A statistical quark model, with quark energy levels given by a central linear confining potential is used to obtain the light sea-quark asymmetry, d¯/ū, and also for the ratio d/u, inside the nucleon. After adjusting a temperature parameter by the Gottfried sum rule violation, and chemical potentials by the valence up and down quark normalizations, the results are compared with experimental data available.

  19. The optimum grain size for minimizing energy losses in iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, M.F. de [Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda/Universidade Federal Fluminense Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, Vila Santa Cecilia, 27255-125, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: mcampos@metal.eeimvr.uff.br; Teixeira, J.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado 532, 05508-901, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Landgraf, F.J.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado 532, 05508-901, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: landgraf@ipt.br

    2006-06-15

    A model able to predict the optimum grain size for textured electrical steels used in motors or transformers is presented. The model is based on the Pry and Bean model for the anomalous losses. The validity of the model is restricted to the frequency range of 1-1000 Hz. The model predicts that the optimum grain size decreases as: resistivity decreases or frequency increases or thickness of steel sheet increases. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental results.

  20. Heavy quark dynamics in the QGP: Towards a solution of the RAA and ν2 puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scardina F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two key observables related to heavy quarks that have been measured in experiments are the nuclear suppression factor RAA and the elliptic flow ν2. The simultaneous reproduction of these two observables is a puzzle which have challenged all the existing models. We discuss two ingredients responsible for addressing a large part of such a puzzle: the temperature dependence of the energy loss and the full solution of the Boltzmann collision integral for the scattering between the heavy quarks and the particle of the bulk.

  1. The Body Center Cubic Quark Lattice Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Xu, Jiao

    2004-01-01

    The Standard Model while successful in many ways is incomplete; many questions remain. The origin of quark masses and hadronization of quarks are awaiting an answer. From the Dirac sea concept, we infer that two kinds of elementary quarks (u(0) and d(0)) constitute a body center cubic (BCC) quark lattice with a lattice constant a < $10^{-18}$m in the vacuum. Using energy band theory and the BCC quark lattice, we can deduce the rest masses and the intrinsic quantum numbers (I, S, C, b and Q) of quarks. With the quark spectrum, we deduce a baryon spectrum. The theoretical spectrum is in agreement well with the experimental results. Not only will this paper provide a physical basis for the Quark Model, but also it will open a door to study the more fundamental nature at distance scales <$10^{-18}$m. This paper predicts some new quarks $u_{c}$(6490) and d$_{b}$(9950), and new baryons $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$(6500), $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}$(9960).

  2. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  3. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Marmitt, G. G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Finkelstein, Y. [Nuclear Research Center — Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Moreh, R. [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  4. Search for gluinos and scalar quarks in pp collisions at square root[s] = 1.8 TeV using the missing energy plus multijets signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolder, T; Akimoto, H; Akopian, A; Albrow, M G; Amaral, P; Amidei, D; Anikeev, K; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Bailey, S; de Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Berge, J P; Berryhill, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bokhari, W; Bolla, G; Bonushkin, Y; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; van den Brink, S; Bromberg, C; Brozovic, M; Brubaker, E; Bruner, N; Buckley-Geer, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byon-Wagner, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Carlson, J; Carlsmith, D; Caskey, W; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Chan, A W; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M-T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Christofek, L; Chu, M L; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Clark, A G; Connolly, A; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cranshaw, J; Cropp, R; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; D'Auria, S; DeJongh, F; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Done, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Eddy, N; Einsweiler, K; Elias, J E; Engels, E; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fan, Q; Feild, R G; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Frisch, H J; Fukui, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Gallas, A; Gallinaro, M; Gao, T; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gay, C; Gerdes, D W; Giannetti, P; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldstein, J; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Green, C; Grim, G; Gris, P; Groer, L; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guillian, G; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haas, R M; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hall, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Hao, W; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hoffman, K D; Holck, C; Hollebeek, R; Holloway, L; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J; Ikeda, H; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; James, E; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Kambara, H; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Karr, K; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K; Kelly, M; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R; Khazins, D; Kikuchi, T; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Koehn, P; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kovacs, E; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhlmann, S E; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, A M; Lee, K; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Liu, J B; Liu, Y C; Litvintsev, D O; Lobban, O; Lockyer, N; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lusin, S; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Mangano, M; Mariotti, M; Martignon, G; Martin, A; Matthews, J A J; Mayer, J; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McKigney, E; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Miao, T; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitselmakher, G; Moggi, N; Moore, E; Moore, R; Morita, Y; Moulik, T; Mulhearn, M; Mukherjee, A; Muller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Nachtman, J; Nagaslaev, V; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakano, I; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C-Y P; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Partos, D; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pescara, L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pitts, K T; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Popovic, M; Prokoshin, F; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pukhov, O; Punzi, G; Rakitine, A; Ratnikov, F; Reher, D; Reichold, A; Ribon, A; Riegler, W; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Robertson, W J; Robinson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Roy, A; Ruiz, A; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sato, H; Savard, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A; Scribano, A; Segler, S; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Shah, T; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shibayama, T; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Singh, P; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, C; Snider, F D; Solodsky, A; Spalding, J; Speer, T; Sphicas, P; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Spiegel, L; Steele, J; Stefanini, A; Strologas, J; Strumia, F; Stuart, D; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, T; Takano, T

    2002-01-28

    We have performed a search for gluinos (g) and scalar quarks (q) in a data sample of 84 pb(-1) of pp collisions at square root[s] = 1.8 TeV, recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We investigate the final state of large missing transverse energy and three or more jets, a characteristic signature in R-parity-conserving supersymmetric models. The analysis has been performed "blind," in that the inspection of the signal region is made only after the predictions from standard model backgrounds have been calculated. Comparing the data with predictions of constrained supersymmetric models, we exclude gluino masses below 195 GeV/c2 (95% C.L.), independent of the squark mass. For the case m(q) approximately m(g), gluino masses below 300 GeV/c2 are excluded.

  5. Mesospheric energy loss rates by OH and O2 emissions at 23°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Takahashi

    Full Text Available The nightglow OH(9, 4 and O2 atmospheric (0,1 band emission intensities and their rotational temperatures T(OH and T(O2, respectively, observed at Cachoeira Paulista (23°S, 45°W, Brazil, during the period from October 1989 to December 1990, have been analyzed to study the nighttime mesospheric energy loss rates through the radiations from the vibrationally excited OH* and electronically excited O2* bands. The total emission rates of the OH Meinel bands, O2 atmospheric (0,0 and O2 infrared atmospheric (1Δg bands were calculated using reported data for the relative band intensities I(ν'',ν'/I(9,4, IO2A(0,0/IO2A(0,1 and IO2(1Δg/IO2A(0,1. It was found that there is a minimum in equivalent energy loss rate by the OH* Meinel bands during December/January (equivalent energy loss rate of 0.39K/day*, where day* means averaged over the night and maximum in equivalent energy loss rate during September (equivalent energy loss rate of 0.98K/day*. Energy loss rate by the O2* radiation, on the other hand, is weaker than that by the OH* Meinel bands, showing equivalent energy loss rates of 0.12K/day* and 0.22K/day* during January and September, respectively.

  6. Addressing student models of energy loss in quantum tunnelling

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, M C; Bao, L; Wittmann, Micael C.; Morgan, Jeffrey T.; Bao, Lei

    2005-01-01

    We report on a multi-year, multi-institution study to investigate student reasoning about energy in the context of quantum tunnelling. We use ungraded surveys, graded examination questions, individual clinical interviews, and multiple-choice exams to build a picture of the types of responses that students typically give. We find that two descriptions of tunnelling through a square barrier are particularly common. Students often state that tunnelling particles lose energy while tunnelling. When sketching wave functions, students also show a shift in the axis of oscillation, as if the height of the axis of oscillation indicated the energy of the particle. We find inconsistencies between students' conceptual, mathematical, and graphical models of quantum tunnelling. As part of a curriculum in quantum physics, we have developed instructional materials to help students develop a more robust and less inconsistent picture of tunnelling, and present data suggesting that we have succeeded in doing so.

  7. On the strange quark mass with improved staggered quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, J.; Davies, C.; Lepage, G. P.; Mason, Q.; Trottier, H.

    2002-01-01

    We present results on the sum of the masses of light and strange quark using improved staggered quarks. Our calculation uses 2+1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The effects of the dynamical quarks are clearly visible.

  8. Energy losses in the Polish power system and possibilities of reducing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchta, F.; Janiczek, R.; Sobieszczanski, S. [Politechnika Slaska, Katowice (Poland). PSE SA

    1993-11-01

    Analyzes energy losses in power generation and power distribution systems in Poland. The following aspects of power losses in power generation are evaluated: structure of existing power plants in Poland, types of equipment used in coal-fired power plants, efficiency of condensation units (about 36.0% or 11.6-10 MJ/kWxh), efficiency of planned modernization of existing power units, effects of flue gas desulfurization on efficiency of power generation in coal-fired power plants, energy policy of Poland, investment in coal-fired power plants, feasibility of clean coal programs, effects of replacing conventional coal combustion by combined-cycle power plants with coal gasification on energy efficiency and energy losses, energy losses during power transmission and distribution. 19 refs.

  9. Nuclear matter from effective quark-quark interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, M; Fukukawa, K

    2014-12-12

    We study neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter with the quark-meson model for the two-nucleon interaction. The Bethe-Bruckner-Goldstone many-body theory is used to describe the correlations up to the three hole-line approximation with no extra parameters. At variance with other nonrelativistic realistic interactions, the three hole-line contribution turns out to be non-negligible and to have a substantial saturation effect. The saturation point of nuclear matter, the compressibility, the symmetry energy, and its slope are within the phenomenological constraints. Since the interaction also reproduces fairly well the properties of the three-nucleon system, these results indicate that the explicit introduction of the quark degrees of freedom within the considered constituent quark model is expected to reduce the role of three-body forces.

  10. The QCD string with quarks; 1, spinless quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, A Yu; Simonov, Yu A

    1993-01-01

    Starting from the QCD Lagrangian we derive the effective action for massive quark and antiquark at large distances, corresponding to the minimal area low of the Wilson loop. The path integral method is used to quantize the system and the spectrum is obtained with asymptotically linear Regge trajectories. Two dynamical regimes distinguished by the string energy--momentum distribution are found: at large orbital excitations ($l\\gg 1$) the system behaves as a string and yields the Regge slope of $\\frac{1}{2 \\pi \\sigma}$, while at small $l$ one obtains a potential-like regime for relativistic or nonrelativistic system . The problem of relative time is clarified. It is shown that in the valence quark approximation one can reduce the initial four-dimensional dynamics to the three-dimensional one. The limiting case of a pure string (without quark kinetic terms) is studied and the spectrum of the straight-line string is obtained.

  11. Measurement of the single top quark production cross section and |Vt b| in 1.96 TeV p p ¯ collisions with missing transverse energy and jets and final CDF combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.; CDF Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    An updated measurement of the single top quark production cross section is presented using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), corresponding to 9.5 fb-1 of integrated luminosity from proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. The events selected contain an imbalance in the total transverse momentum, jets identified as containing b quarks, and no identified leptons. The sum of the s - and t -channel single top quark cross sections is measured to be 3.5 3-1.16+1.25 pb and a lower limit on the magnitude of the top-to-bottom quark coupling, |Vt b| of 0.63, is obtained at the 95% credibility level. These measurements are combined with previously reported CDF results obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse momentum, jets identified as originating from b quarks, and one identified lepton. The combined cross section is measured to be 3.0 2-0.48+0.49 pb and a lower limit on |Vt b| of 0.84 is obtained at the 95% credibility level.

  12. Search for the supersymmetric partner of bottom quark at DO at Tevatron. Studies on missing transverse energy; Recherche du partenaire supersymetrique du quark bottom au sein de l'experience DO aupres du TeVatron. Etudes sur l'energie transverse manquante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, S

    2007-09-15

    Supersymmetry, the extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, is searched for, by trying to observe the supersymmetric partner of the bottom quark (b-bar). This search is performed by using events with a final state comprising 2 coplanar b-quark jets and missing transverse energy and coming from a sample of 992 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, the Fermilab pp-bar collider. The absence of an excess of events in comparison to Standard Model expectations leads to exclude sb masses up to 201 GeV and neutralino masses up to 94 GeV. The missing transverse energy has been studied carefully under 2 points of view, because of its fundamental role in this search. First, at the level of the trigger system which allows the online selection candidate events, and then during the process Z {yields} {nu}{nu} + jets that is an important background noise and in which the transverse momentum of Z turns into missing energy because of the no-detection of the neutrinos. (author)

  13. Neutrino energy loss by electron capture in magnetic field at the crusts of neutron stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Jing; LUO Zhi-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the p-f shell model,the effect of strong magnetic field on neutrino energy loss rates by electron capture is investigated.The calculations show that the magnetic field has only a slight effect on the neutrino energy loss rates in the range of 108-1013 G on the surfaces of most neutron stars.But for some magnetars,the range of the magnetic field is 1013-1018 G,and the neutrino energy loss rates are greatly reduced,even by more than four orders of magnitude due to the strong magnetic field.

  14. Partonic energy loss in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions jet suppression versus jet fragmentation softening

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhtin, Igor P

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the modification of a jet fragmentation function due to medium-induced partonic energy loss in context of leading particle observables in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions. We also analyze the relation between in-medium softening jet fragmentation function and suppression of the jet rates due to energy loss outside the jet cone. The predicted anti-correlation between two effects allows to probe a fraction of partonic energy loss carried out of the jet cone and truly lost to the jet.

  15. Energy loss and longitudinal wakefield of relativistic short proton bunches in electron clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Boine-Frankenheim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study is the numerical computation of the wakefield and energy loss per unit length for relativistic, short (<10  ns proton bunches interacting with an electron cloud inside the beam pipe. We present analytical expressions for the energy loss in the impulse kick approximation. For the simulation of the wakefields a 2D self-consistent, electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC code is employed. Results for the energy loss and for the wakefields are presented for the parameter scope of the CERN LHC and SPS. For selected parameters the results are compared to a three-dimensional (3D electromagnetic PIC code.

  16. Search for scalar top quarks in the acoplanar charm jets and missing transverse energy final state in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; sman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, AA; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, ee H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Dliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, e H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gel, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gmez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, e R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Krop, D; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kura, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, cD; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Lévêque, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-01-01

    We present a search for the pair production of scalar top quarks, $\\tilde{t}$, using 995 pb$^{-1}$ of data collected in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV. Both scalar top quarks are assumed to decay into a charm quark and a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}^{0}_{1}$), where $\\tilde{\\chi}^{0}_{1}$ is the lightest supersymmetric particle. This leads to a final state with two acoplanar charm jets and missing transverse energy. We find the yield of such events to be consistent with the standard model expectation, and exclude sets of $\\tilde{t}$ and $\\tilde{\\chi}^{0}_{1} $ masses at the 95% C.L. that substantially extend the domain excluded by previous searches.

  17. Physics of the Quark Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)

  18. Physics of the Quark Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the charge independence, wavefunctions, magnetic moments, and high-energy scattering of hadrons on the basis of group theory and nonrelativistic quark model with mass spectrum calculated by first-order perturbation theory. The presentation is explainable to advanced undergraduate students. (CC)

  19. Quark confinement in a constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langfeld, K.; Rho, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique

    1995-07-01

    On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.

  20. Quark-gluon plasma 5

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is the fifth volume in the series on the subject of quark-gluon plasma, a unique phase created in heavy-ion collisions at high energy. It contains review articles by the world experts on various aspects of quark-gluon plasma taking into account the advances driven by the latest experimental data collected at both the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The articles are pedagogical and comprehensive which can be helpful for both new researchers entering the field as well as the experienced physicists working on the subject.

  1. Top quark properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuji Takeuchi

    2012-10-01

    Since the top quark was discovered at Tevatron in 1995, many top quark properties have been measured. However, the top quark is still interesting due to unique features which originate from the extremely heavy mass, and providing various test grounds on the Standard Model as well as searches for a new physics. Though the measurements of the top quark had been performed only at Tevatron so far, LHC is now ready for measurements with more top quarks than Tevatron. In this article, recent measurements of top quark properties from Tevatron (CDF and DØ) as well as LHC (ATLAS and CMS) are presented.

  2. Applicability of Parametrized Form of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation with an effective gluon propagator, a parametrized fully dressed confining quark propagator is suggested in this paper. The parametrized quark propagator describes a confined quark propagation in hadron, and is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The vector and scalar self-energy functions [1 - Af(p2)] and [Bf(p2) - mf], dynamically running effective mass of quark Mf(p2) and the structure of non-local quark vacuum condensates as well as local quark vacuum condensates are predicted by use of the parametrized quark propagator. The results are compatible with other theoretical calculations.

  3. Quark Gluon Condensate,Virtuality and Susceptibility of QCD Vacuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Juan; WU Qing; MA Wei-Xing

    2008-01-01

    We study vacuum of QCD in this work.The structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate,values of various local quark and gluon vacuum condensates,quark-gluon mixed vacuum condensate,quark and gluon virtuality in QCD vacuum state,quark dynamical mass and susceptibility of QCD vacuum state to external field are predicted by use of the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in "rainbow" approximation with a modeling gluon propagator and three different sets of quark-quark interaction parameters.Our theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the correspondent empirical values used widely in literature,and many other theoretical calculations.The quark propagator and self-energy functions are also obtained from the numerical solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations.This work is centrally important for studying non-perturbative QCD,and has many important applications both in particle and nuclear physics.

  4. Limits for Recombination in a Low Energy Loss Organic Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Menke, S. Matthew

    2016-11-03

    Donor-acceptor organic solar cells often show high quantum yields for charge collection, but relatively low open-circuit voltages (VOC) limit power conversion efficiencies to around 12%. We report here the behavior of a system, PIPCP:PC61BM, that exhibits very low electronic disorder (Urbach energy less than 27 meV), very high carrier mobilities in the blend (field-effect mobility for holes >10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1), and a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (50 meV). These characteristics should give excellent performance, and indeed, the VOC is high relative to the donor energy gap. However, we find the overall performance is limited by recombination, with formation of lower-lying triplet excitons on the donor accounting for 90% of the recombination. We find this is a bimolecular process that happens on time scales as short as 100 ps. Thus, although the absence of disorder and the associated high carrier mobility speeds up charge diffusion and extraction at the electrodes, which we measure as early as 1 ns, this also speeds up the recombination channel, giving overall a modest quantum yield of around 60%. We discuss strategies to remove the triplet exciton recombination channel.

  5. Updated Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and $V{tb}$ in the Missing Transverse Energy Plus Jets Topology in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Marchese, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; D'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Ramos, J P Fernández; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; López, O González; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grosso-Pilcher, C; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucà, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Fernández, I Redondo; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Sorin, V; Song, H; Stancari, M; Denis, R St; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W -M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2014-01-01

    An updated measurement of the single top quark production cross section is presented using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and corresponding to 9.5 fb${}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity from proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. The events selected contain an imbalance in the total transverse energy, jets identified as originating from $b$ quarks, and no identified leptons. The sum of the $s$- and $t$-channel single top quark cross sections is measured to be $3.53_{-1.16}^{+1.25}$ pb and a lower limit on $V_{tb}$ of 0.63 is obtained at the 95% credibility level. These measurements are combined with previously reported CDF results obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse energy, jets identified as originating from $b$ quarks, and exactly one identified lepton. The combined cross section is measured to be $3.02_{-0.48}^{+0.49}$ pb and a lower limit on $V{tb}$ of 0.84 is obtained at the 95% credibility level.

  6. Calibration de l'echelle d'energie des jets et mesure de la masse du quark top dans le canal semi-leptonique dans l'experience ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083328

    The main goal of this thesis is to provide a measurement as accurate as possible of the top quark mass in the semi-leptonic decay channel. This experimental measurement is made thanks to the ATLAS detector near LHC, a proton-proton collider. The main interests for this precison measurement are the physics constraints to the theoretical models of fundamental constituents. Besides, the top quark mass is a parameter allowing to have more information on the vacuum stability at the Planck scale within the Standard Model. Jet energy calibration is crucial to this measurement. The impact of real data taking conditions on this calibration and on jet performance is detailed. The top quark mass measurement using 2011 data collected at an energy in the center-of-mass of 7 TeV is presented. It is using a tridimensional template analysis method. The measured top quark mass is: mtop = 172.01 ± 0.92 (stat) ± 1.17 (syst) GeV. The 2012 data collected at an energy in the center-of-mass of 8 TeV are also analysed, and a preli...

  7. Updated Measurement of the Single Top Quark Production Cross Section and $V{tb}$ in the Missing Transverse Energy Plus Jets Topology in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Shreyber-Tecker, Irina; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-02-26

    An updated measurement of the single top quark production cross section is presented using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and corresponding to 9.5 fb${}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity from proton-antiproton collisions at 1.96 TeV center-of-mass energy. The events selected contain an imbalance in the total transverse energy, jets identified as originating from $b$ quarks, and no identified leptons. The sum of the $s$- and $t$-channel single top quark cross sections is measured to be $3.53_{-1.16}^{+1.25}$ pb and a lower limit on $V_{tb}$ of 0.63 is obtained at the 95% credibility level. These measurements are combined with previously reported CDF results obtained from events with an imbalance in total transverse energy, jets identified as originating from $b$ quarks, and exactly one identified lepton. The combined cross section is measured to be $3.02_{-0.48}^{+0.49}$ pb and a lower limit on $V{tb}$ of 0.84 is obtained at the 95% credibility level.

  8. Effect of current quark masses on quark phase transitions in supernovae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xiang-Jun; LUO Zhi-Quan; LIU Hong-Lin

    2008-01-01

    The current quark mass model is adopted to study the phase transition of two-flavor quark matter to more stable three-flavor quark matter in the whole core of a supernova. It shows that the timescale of the process is shorter than 10-8 seconds, thatthe u- and d-quark masses can be neglected completely in this model, and that the temperature and the total neutrino energies in the core after the conversion increase nearly by 40% and 20% on the average compared with former results, respectively. The last result can further enhance the probability of success for a supernova explosion significantly.

  9. Scattering of Quark-Quasiparticles in the Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannarelli, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rapp, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3366 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Employing a Brueckner-type many-body approach, based on a driving potential extracted from lattice QCD, we study light quark properties in a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) at moderate temperatures, T{approx}1-2T{sub c}. The quark-antiquark T-matrix is calculated self-consistently with pertinent quark self-energies. While the repulsive octet channel induces quasiparticle masses of up to 150 MeV, the attractive color-singlet part exhibits resonance structures which lead to quasiparticle widths of {approx}200MeV.

  10. Measurement of top quark polarisation in $t$-channel single top quark production

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Awad, Adel; El Sawy, Mai; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova PANEVA, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in $t$-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. A high-purity sample of $t$-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. A differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of 0.26 $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.10 (syst), which is compatible with a $p$-value of 4.6% with the standard model prediction of 0.44.

  11. Measurement of top quark polarisation in t-channel single top quark production

    CERN Document Server

    Tiko, Andres

    2016-01-01

    A first measurement of the top quark spin asymmetry, sensitive to the top quark polarisation, in $t$-channel single top quark production is presented. It is based on a sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$. A high-purity sample of $t$-channel single top quark events with an isolated muon is selected. Signal and background components are estimated using a fit to data. A differential cross section measurement, corrected for detector effects, of an angular observable sensitive to the top quark polarisation is performed. The differential distribution is used to extract a top quark spin asymmetry of $0.26 \\pm 0.03 \\textrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.10 \\textrm{(syst)}$, which is compatible with a p-value of $4.6\\%$ with the standard model prediction of 0.44.

  12. Commissioning ATLAS and CMS with top quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B S; Corcella, G; Di Sipio, R; Petrucciani, G

    2008-01-01

    The large ttbar production cross-section at the LHC suggests the use of top quark decays to calibrate several critical parts of the detectors, such as the trigger system, the jet energy scale and b-tagging.

  13. The Onset of Quark-Hadron Duality in Pion Electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Navasardyan, T; Ahmidouch, A; Angelescu, T; Arrington, J; Asaturyan, R; Baker, O K; Benmouna, N; Bertoncini, C; Blok, H P; Bosted, P E; Breuer, H; Böglin, W; Christy, M E; Connell, S H; Cui, Y; Dalton, M M; Danagulyan, S; Day, D; Dodario, T; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Frolov, V V; Gan, L; Gaskell, D; Hafidi, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Huber, G M; Hungerford, E; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Joo, K; Kalantarians, N; Kelly, J J; Keppel, C E; Khayari, N E; Kinney, E R; Kubarovski, V; Li, Y; Liang, Y; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McGrath, E; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Mkrtchyan, H; Moziak, B; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Opper, A K; Ostapenko, T; Reimer, P; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Rock, S E; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Smith, C; Smith, G R; Stoler, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Ungaro, M; Uzzle, A; Vidakovic, S; Villano, A; Vulcan, W F; Wang, M; Warren, G; Wesselmann, F; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yuan, L; Zheng, X; Zhu, H

    2007-01-01

    A large data set of charged-pion electroproduction from both hydrogen and deuterium targets has been obtained spanning the low-energy residual-mass region. These data conclusively show the onset of the quark-hadron duality phenomenon, as predicted for high-energy hadron electroproduction. We construct several ratios from these data to exhibit the relation of this phenomenon to the high-energy factorization ansatz of electron-quark scattering and subsequent quark-to- pion production mechanisms.

  14. Generalization of radiative jet energy loss to non-zero magnetic mass

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions require accurate computation of radiative energy loss. With this goal, an energy loss formalism in a realistic finite size dynamical QCD medium was recently developed. While this formalism assumes zero magnetic mass - in accordance with the one-loop perturbative calculations - different non-perturbative approaches report a non-zero magnetic mass at RHIC and LHC. We here generalize the energy loss to consistently include a possibility for existence of non-zero magnetic screening. We also present how the inclusion of finite magnetic mass changes the energy loss results. Our analysis indicates a fundamental constraint on magnetic to electric mass ratio.

  15. An investigation of standby energy losses in residential sector: Solutions and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [G. Narayanamma Institute of Technology and Science (for Women), Hyderabad (India); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the standby power losses of household appliances and determines these losses by field measurements and bottom-up approaches. It is revealed that average standby power losses of e-appliances at household in Oman is 103.4 Watts and could further increase if other miscellaneous appliances are also taken into account. Calculations show that TV sets alone are responsible to consume 1.89 MW standby powers across the country. The paper considers various technological and socio-economic options to diminish the standby power consumption and signify that 42.72% of energy consumed by appliances can be saved by end-users implementing suitable measures. Energy management programmes like energy efficiency standards, labelling and policy instruments to tackle the standby power losses are also discussed. Finally, paper looks into the barriers and their way-outs to implement the energy efficiency standards and labelling.

  16. Energy Loss of a Heavy Fermion in an Anisotropic QED Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We compute the leading-order collisional energy loss of a heavy fermion propagating in a QED plasma with an electron distribution function which is anisotropic in momentum space. We show that in the presence of such anisotropies there can be a significant directional dependence of the heavy fermion energy loss with the effect being quite large for highly-relativistic velocities. We also repeat the analysis of the isotropic case more carefully and show that the final result depends on the intermediate scale used to separate hard and soft contributions to the energy loss. We then show that the canonical isotropic result is obtained in the weak-coupling limit. For intermediate-coupling we use the residual scale dependence as a measure of our theoretical uncertainty. We also discuss complications which could arise due to the presence of unstable soft photonic modes and demonstrate that the calculation of the energy loss is safe.

  17. Stellar energy loss rates in the pair-annihilation process beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Ruiz, M.A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, Apartado Postal C-585, Zacatecas (Mexico); Gutierrez-Rodriguez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Facultad de Fisica, Apartado Postal C-580, Zacatecas (Mexico); Gonzalez-Sanchez, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Facultad de Fisica, Apartado Postal C-580, Zacatecas (Mexico); PSL Research University, Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS UMR 8112, Paris (France)

    2017-01-15

    We calculate the stellar energy loss due to neutrino-pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation in the context of a 331 model, a left-right symmetric model and a simplest little Higgs model in a way that can be used in supernova calculations. We also present some simple estimates which show that such process can act as an efficient energy loss mechanism in the shocked supernova core. We find that the stellar energy loss is almost independent of the parameters of the models in the allowed range for these parameters. This work complements other studies on the stellar energy loss rate in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. (orig.)

  18. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  19. Estimation of Power/Energy Losses in Electric Distribution Systems based on an Efficient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Grigoras

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of the power/energy losses constitutes an important tool for an efficient planning and operation of electric distribution systems, especially in a free energy market environment. For further development of plans of energy loss reduction and for determination of the implementation priorities of different measures and investment projects, analysis of the nature and reasons of losses in the system and in its different parts is needed. In the paper, an efficient method concerning the power flow problem of medium voltage distribution networks, under condition of lack of information about the nodal loads, is presented. Using this method it can obtain the power/energy losses in power transformers and the lines. The test results, obtained for a 20 kV real distribution network from Romania, confirmed the validity of the proposed method.  

  20. Energy loss of keV He2+ scattered off an Al(110) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limburg, J; Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R; Hausmann, S; Heiland, W; Narmann, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results of measurements of energy loss suffered by He-projectiles scattered off an Al surface. The measured loss distributions are modeled in terms of the (classical) friction experienced by the projectiles due to their interaction with the electron gas at the Al surface. Simulat

  1. Energy balance and the composition of weight loss during prolonged space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated metabolic balance analysis, Skylab integrated metabolic balance analysis and computer simulation of fluid-electrolyte responses to zero-g, overall mission weight and tissue losses, energy balance, diet and exercise, continuous changes, electrolyte losses, caloric and exercise requirements, and body composition are discussed.

  2. Incorporation of Finite Element Analysis into Annual Energy Loss Estimation for Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    Several methods of estimating the annual energy losses for wind turbine generators are investigated in this paper. Utilizing a high amount of transient simulations with motion is first demonstrated. Usage of a space-time transformation for prediction of iron losses is also explored. The methods, ...

  3. Optimization of Monochromated TEM for Ultimate Resolution Imaging and Ultrahigh Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    The performance of a monochromated transmission electron microscope with Wien type monochromator is optimized to achieve an extremely narrow energy spread of electron beam and an ultrahigh energy resolution with spectroscopy. The energy spread in the beam is improved by almost an order of magnitude as compared to specified values. The optimization involves both the monochromator and the electron energy loss detection system. We demonstrate boosted capability of optimized systems with respect to ultra-low loss EELS and sub-angstrom resolution imaging (in a combination with spherical aberration correction).

  4. The calculation of mechanical energy loss for incompressible steady pipe flow of homogeneous fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士和; 薛娇; 范敏

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of the mechanical energy loss is one of the fundamental problems in the field of Hydraulics and Enginee- ring Fluid Mechanics. However, for a non-uniform flow the relation between the mechanical energy loss in a volume of fluid and the kinematical and dynamical characteristics of the flow field is not clearly established. In this paper a new mechanical energy equation for the incompressible steady non-uniform pipe flow of homogeneous fluid is derived, which includes the variation of the mean tur- bulent kinetic energy, and the formula for the calculation of the mechanical energy transformation loss for the non-uniform flow bet- ween two cross sections is obtained based on this equation. This formula can be simplified to the Darcy-Weisbach formula for the uniform flow as widely used in Hydraulics. Furthermore, the contributions of the mechanical energy loss relative to the time avera- ged velocity gradient and the dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy in the turbulent uniform pipe flow are discussed, and the con- tributions of the mechanical energy loss in the viscous sublayer, the buffer layer and the region above the buffer layer for the turbu- lent uniform flow are also analyzed.

  5. Energy loss of ions by electric-field fluctuations in a magnetized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B; Deutsch, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the energy loss of charged particles in a magnetized classical plasma due to the electric-field fluctuations are reported. The energy loss for a test particle is calculated through the linear-response theory. At vanishing magnetic field, the electric-field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the charged particle for all velocities. It has been shown that in the presence of strong magnetic field, this effect occurs only at low velocities. In the case of high velocities, the test particle systematically loses its energy due to the interaction with a stochastic electric field. The net effect of the fluctuations is the systematic reduction of the total energy loss (i.e., the sum of the polarization and stochastic energy losses) at vanishing magnetic field and reduction or enhancement at strong field, depending on the velocity of the particle. It is found that the energy loss of the slow heavy ion contains an anomalous term that depends logarithmically on the projectile mass. The physical origin of this anomalous term is the coupling between the cyclotron motion of the plasma electrons and the long-wavelength, low-frequency fluctuations produced by the projectile ion. This effect may strongly enhance the stochastic energy gain of the particle.

  6. Toward 10 meV electron energy-loss spectroscopy resolution for plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Edson P; Rossouw, David; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2014-06-01

    Energy resolution is one of the most important parameters in electron energy-loss spectroscopy. This is especially true for measurement of surface plasmon resonances, where high-energy resolution is crucial for resolving individual resonance peaks, in particular close to the zero-loss peak. In this work, we improve the energy resolution of electron energy-loss spectra of surface plasmon resonances, acquired with a monochromated beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope, by the use of the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm. We test the performance of the algorithm in a simulated spectrum and then apply it to experimental energy-loss spectra of a lithographically patterned silver nanorod. By reduction of the point spread function of the spectrum, we are able to identify low-energy surface plasmon peaks in spectra, more localized features, and higher contrast in surface plasmon energy-filtered maps. Thanks to the combination of a monochromated beam and the Richardson-Lucy algorithm, we improve the effective resolution down to 30 meV, and evidence of success up to 10 meV resolution for losses below 1 eV. We also propose, implement, and test two methods to limit the number of iterations in the algorithm. The first method is based on noise measurement and analysis, while in the second we monitor the change of slope in the deconvolved spectrum.

  7. Interdependence of reabsorption and internal energy losses in luminescent solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digaum, Jennefir; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2014-03-01

    As a complementary device to photovoltaic (PV) cells, luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) can reduce the cost of solar energy by replacing the expensive PV material with inexpensive energy-harvesting plastic or glass matrix. However, due to its low efficiency, LSCs are still not commercially viable. The low efficiency is due to the various losses associated with light harvesting and trapping. Most of these losses come from reabsorption and escape of reemitted energy from the LSC device. State-of-the-art LSC technology focuses on decreasing reabsorption loss by employing luminophores with a large Stokes shift. But these materials typically have low quantum yield. Increasing the Stokes shift of the luminophore reduces reabsorption but introduces substantial loss due to low quantum yield and the Stokes shift of the re-emitted photons. The interdependence of these losses is studied computationally using a ray-tracing model that accounts for reabsorption, Stokes shift, escape cone loss, and matrix loss. It is shown that using high Stokesshift luminophores does not give the highest energy efficiency. Higher energy efficiency is obtained by optimizing the Stokes shift. Even greater performance can be achieved by employing high-quantum-yield dyes with intermediate Stokes shift. LSC devices based on this approach could be nearly twice as efficient as those based on conventional luminophores, such as Rhodamine B.

  8. Energy losses of positive and negative charged particles in electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diachenko, M. M.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2017-02-01

    A heavy charged particle propagation through electron gas has been studied using combination of non-relativistic quantum mechanics and the Green’s functions method. The energy loss of a charged particle has been found in the case of large transferred momentum taking into account the interference term in the expression for the rate. The dependence of the energy loss of a charged particles in electron gas with nonzero temperature on the sign of the charge has been obtained.

  9. Small Current Quark Mass Effects on Dressed-Quark Propagator in an Effective Quark-Quark Interaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Hong-Shi; WU Xiao-Hua; SUN Wei-Min; ZHAO En-Guang; WANG Fan

    2003-01-01

    A method for obtaining the smallcurrent quark mass dependence of the dressed quark propagator froman effective quark-quark interaction model is developed. Within this approach the small current quark mass effects ondressed-quark propagator have been studied. A comparison with previous results is given.

  10. Search for new resonances with top quark

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Min Suk

    2015-01-01

    Many models of physics beyond the Standard Model predict new gauge bosons that decay to a top quark pair or a top quark and a bottom quark. The most recent results from new resonance searches for $\\rm{Z'} \\rightarrow \\rm{t\\bar{t}} \\rightarrow \\rm{W^{+}bW^{-}\\bar{b}}$ and $\\rm{W'} \\rightarrow \\rm{tb} \\rightarrow \\rm{Wbb}$ are presented using the proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The searches are performed with the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC using an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$, respectively. The analyses are done in the leptonic and hadronic decay modes of the top quark. No evidence for new resonances with top quark is observed and 95\\% confidence level (CL) limits on the production rate are determined for massive states in theories beyond the Standard Model.

  11. Quarks and partons. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschos, E A

    1976-01-01

    This contribution reviews the evidence accumulated over the past year in favor of quarks and partons. Then it applies the quark ideas in order to interpret the neutrino-induced production of charm and the structure of neutral currents.

  12. New State of Nuclear Matter: Nearly Perfect Fluid of Quarks and Gluons in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements. The results reveal that a dense, strongly-interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry s...

  13. Validity of COSMED's quark CPET mixing chamber system in evaluating energy metabolism during aerobic exercise in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Austin, Melanie D; Dew, Dustin; Utter, Alan C

    2013-01-01

    This study validated the accuracy of COSMED's Quark cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) metabolic mixing chamber system in measuring metabolic factors during maximal, graded exercise testing. Subjects included 32 physically active men between the ages of 18 and 34 years. During the first test session, subjects were measured for maximal oxygen consumption twice (15 min separation) with the CPET and Douglas bag systems (random order). During the second test session, subjects exercised through four stages of the Bruce treadmill protocol with measurement by the CPET and Douglas bag systems (random order) during steady state at the end of each 3-minute stage. Statistical analysis using a 2 (systems) x 5 (time) repeated measures ANOVA showed that the pattern of change in VO2, VCO2, VE, FeO2, FeCO2, and RER did not differ significantly between CPET and Douglas bag systems. This validation study indicates that the CPET mixing chamber system provides valid metabolic measurements that compare closely with the Douglas bag system during aerobic exercise.

  14. Measurement Of The Top Quark-anti-top Quark Production Cross Section At Center Of Mass Energy = 1.96 Tev In The Electron + Jets Final State Of Proton-antiproton Collisions At The Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, D

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the measurement of the cross section for tt¯ production in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.96 TeV in e+jets final states observed at the DØ experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. Our result is based on data collected from the June 2002 to September 2003 period of Run II of the pp¯ Collider. In the Standard Model, the top quark is expected to decay mainly into a W boson and a b quark. The W boson can decay subsequently into a lepton and its neutrino or a q′q¯ quark-antiquark pair. In this thesis, we focus on the e+ν e or e− n&d1; e decays of one of the W bosons and the q′q¯ decays of the other W boson in tt¯ final states. The b, q and q′ quarks appear as jets of particles in the detector, thereby defining the e+jets final state. We present two methods used for performing this measurement. The first method is based on a Random Grid Search (RGS) that minimizes the uncertainty on the extrac...

  15. On the use of energy loss mechanisms to constrain Lorentz invariance violations

    CERN Document Server

    Mazón, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In light of recent and probably incoming observations of very high energy astroparticles, such as those reported by the IceCube collaboration, we readdress the energy loss mechanism by Lorentz violating particles. We analytically show that Cohen-Glashow's formula for energy loss is connected with a Poisson distribution for the number of decays, whose large fluctuations prevent from placing bounds on Lorentz invariance violations. However, this model ignores the sharp change in the decay width after each process. We propose replacing Poisson statistics with a new distribution that takes this into account. We study the average final energy and its fluctuations according to the new statistics, contrasting it with Cohen-Glashow's result and discussing the reliability of energy loss mechanisms to constrain violations of Lorentz invariance.

  16. Energy loss and straggling of MeV Si ions in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vockenhuber, C., E-mail: vockenhuber@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Arstila, K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Jensen, J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Julin, J.; Kettunen, H.; Laitinen, M.; Rossi, M.; Sajavaara, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Thöni, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Whitlow, H.J. [Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, 2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    We present measurements of energy loss and straggling of Si ions in gases. An energy range from 0.5 to 12 MeV/u was covered using the 6 MV EN tandem accelerator at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and the K130 cyclotron accelerator facility at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Our energy-loss data compare well with calculation based on the SRIM and PASS code. The new straggling measurements support a pronounced peak in He gas at around 4 MeV/u predicted by recent theoretical calculations. The straggling curve structure in the other gases (N{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr) is relatively flat in the covered energy range. Although there is a general agreement between the straggling data and the theoretical calculations, the experimental uncertainties are too large to confirm or exclude the predicted weak multi-peak structure in the energy-loss straggling.

  17. Energy loss and straggling of MeV Si ions in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Arstila, K.; Jensen, J.; Julin, J.; Kettunen, H.; Laitinen, M.; Rossi, M.; Sajavaara, T.; Thöni, M.; Whitlow, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present measurements of energy loss and straggling of Si ions in gases. An energy range from 0.5 to 12 MeV/u was covered using the 6 MV EN tandem accelerator at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and the K130 cyclotron accelerator facility at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Our energy-loss data compare well with calculation based on the SRIM and PASS code. The new straggling measurements support a pronounced peak in He gas at around 4 MeV/u predicted by recent theoretical calculations. The straggling curve structure in the other gases (N2, Ne, Ar, Kr) is relatively flat in the covered energy range. Although there is a general agreement between the straggling data and the theoretical calculations, the experimental uncertainties are too large to confirm or exclude the predicted weak multi-peak structure in the energy-loss straggling.

  18. Evidence for production of single top quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; sman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, AA; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Dliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, e H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gel, D; Gerber, eC E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gmez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, o H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, e R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Korablev, V M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Krop, D; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kura, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, cD; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Lévêque, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, e V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vetterli, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2008-01-01

    We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron ppbar collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top quark partner that is always produced from strong coupling processes. Top quarks were first observed in pair production in 1995, and since then, single top quark production has been searched for in ever larger datasets. In this analysis, we select events from a 0.9 fb-1 dataset that have an electron or muon and missing transverse energy from the decay of a W boson from the top quark decay, and two, three, or four jets, with one or two of the jets identified as originating from a b hadron decay. The selected events are mostly backgrounds such as W+jets and ttbar events, which we separate from the expected signals using three multivariate analysis techniques: boosted decision trees, Bayesian neural networks, and matrix element...

  19. Top quark measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on dif- ferential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.

  20. Top Quark Results

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS collaboration; LHCb collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of top quarks from Run-I and Run-II of the LHC are presented. Results on differential and inclusive top quark production cross sections, measured by the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments, and measurements of top quark properties and mass are reported.

  1. COMPONENTS OF TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY LOSSES POWER IN PQR SPATIAL COORDINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Zhemerov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To obtain relations determining the components of the total losses power with p-q-r power theory for three-phase four-wire energy supply systems, uniquely linking four components: the lowest possible losses power, losses power caused by the reactive power, losses power caused by the instantaneous active power pulsations, losses power caused by current flowing in the neutral wire. Methodology. We have applied concepts of p-q-r power theory, the theory of electrical circuits and mathematical simulation in Matlab package. Results. We have obtained the exact relation, which allows to calculate the total losses power in the three-phase four-wire energy supply system using three components corresponding to the projections of the generalized vectors of voltage and current along the pqr axis coordinates. Originality. For the first time, we have established a mathematical relationship between spatial representation of instantaneous values of the vector components and the total losses power in the three-phase four-wire energy supply systems. Practical value. We have elucidated an issue that using the proposed methodology would create a measuring device for determining the current value of the components of total losses power in three-phase systems. The device operates with measuring information about instantaneous values of currents and voltages.

  2. Search for exotic light-flavor quark partners in pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onsem, Gerrit van [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Vector-like quarks appear in many new-physics models extending the standard model. We search for vector-like quarks coupling to first-generation quarks using 8 TeV pp collision data collected by the CMS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The exotic quarks are assumed to be produced both singly and in pairs, and to decay via a W, Z or Higgs boson. We have defined various sets of selections on the reconstructed physics objects, subdividing the data set in different event categories, considering final states with at least one muon or electron. No significant excess over standard model expectations has been found, and exclusion limits on the mass of the exotic quarks are set.

  3. A simple method for realistic estimation of the most probable energy loss in thin gas layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, V. M.; Merson, G. I.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method for the estimation of the relativistic rise of the most probable ionisation loss in thin gas layers is suggested. The method is based on the similarity of the most probable and restricted energy loss of relativistic charged particles in matter. This allows to correct the Landau-Sternheimer theory taking into account the fact that particle collisions with internal atomic electrons do not influence the most probable value of the ionisation loss. The effective values of the charge number and average ionisation potential which are simple to calculate are used for this correction. A similarity of the energy loss distributions for various gases and gas layers is found. This similarity is expressed in a constant fraction of the ionisation loss distribution tail area ( ˜ 1:3.5). It is the value which was used for correction of the Landau-Sternheimer formula.

  4. Density measurement of thin layers by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jürgen; Ramm, Jürgen; Gemming, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    A method to measure the density of thin layers is presented which utilizes electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques within a transmission electron microscope. The method is based on the acquisition of energy filtered images in the low loss region as well as of an element distribution map using core loss edges. After correction of multiple inelastic scattering effects, the intensity of the element distribution map is proportional to density and thickness. The dependence of the intensities of images with low energy loss electrons on the density is different from that. This difference allows the calculation of the relative density pixel by pixel and to determine lateral density gradients or fluctuations in thin films without relying on a constant specimen thickness. The method is demonstrated at thin carbon layers produced with density gradients.

  5. Hysteresis model and statistical interpretation of energy losses in non-oriented steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mănescu, Veronica, E-mail: veronica.paltanea@upb.ro; Păltânea, Gheorghe; Gavrilă, Horia

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the hysteresis energy losses in two non-oriented industrial steels (M400-65A and M800-65A) were determined, by means of an efficient classical Preisach model, which is based on the Pescetti–Biorci method for the identification of the Preisach density. The excess and the total energy losses were also determined, using a statistical framework, based on magnetic object theory. The hysteresis energy losses, in a non-oriented steel alloy, depend on the peak magnetic polarization and they can be computed using a Preisach model, due to the fact that in these materials there is a direct link between the elementary rectangular loops and the discontinuous character of the magnetization process (Barkhausen jumps). To determine the Preisach density it was necessary to measure the normal magnetization curve and the saturation hysteresis cycle. A system of equations was deduced and the Preisach density was calculated for a magnetic polarization of 1.5 T; then the hysteresis cycle was reconstructed. Using the same pattern for the Preisach distribution, it was computed the hysteresis cycle for 1 T. The classical losses were calculated using a well known formula and the excess energy losses were determined by means of the magnetic object theory. The total energy losses were mathematically reconstructed and compared with those, measured experimentally.

  6. Hysteresis model and statistical interpretation of energy losses in non-oriented steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mănescu (Păltânea), Veronica; Păltânea, Gheorghe; Gavrilă, Horia

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the hysteresis energy losses in two non-oriented industrial steels (M400-65A and M800-65A) were determined, by means of an efficient classical Preisach model, which is based on the Pescetti-Biorci method for the identification of the Preisach density. The excess and the total energy losses were also determined, using a statistical framework, based on magnetic object theory. The hysteresis energy losses, in a non-oriented steel alloy, depend on the peak magnetic polarization and they can be computed using a Preisach model, due to the fact that in these materials there is a direct link between the elementary rectangular loops and the discontinuous character of the magnetization process (Barkhausen jumps). To determine the Preisach density it was necessary to measure the normal magnetization curve and the saturation hysteresis cycle. A system of equations was deduced and the Preisach density was calculated for a magnetic polarization of 1.5 T; then the hysteresis cycle was reconstructed. Using the same pattern for the Preisach distribution, it was computed the hysteresis cycle for 1 T. The classical losses were calculated using a well known formula and the excess energy losses were determined by means of the magnetic object theory. The total energy losses were mathematically reconstructed and compared with those, measured experimentally.

  7. Energy loss of protons in SrTiO{sub 3} studied by medium energy ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedyulin, S.N., E-mail: sdedyuli@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Singh, M.P.; Razavi, F.S. [Department of Physics, Brock University, St. Catherines, Ontario, L2S 3A1 (Canada); Goncharova, L.V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The energy loss of medium energy protons (55-170 keV/amu) was studied for a thin SrTiO{sub 3} film on Si. The thickness of the film and the structure of the SrTiO{sub 3}/Si interface was determined by the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). These film parameters, together with energy losses extracted from MEIS spectra, were used to calculate stopping cross sections of SrTiO{sub 3} by an iterative procedure. In comparison with Andersen and Ziegler values, the data are systematically lower over the whole energy range.

  8. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengzheng; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR1

  9. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Jensen, Jørgen Bauck; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the trade-off between energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient conditions, in supermarket refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large potential for energy savings without extra loss of food quality...... is demonstrated. We also show that by utilizing the relatively slow dynamics of the food temperature, compared with the air temperature, we are able to further lower both the energy consumption and the peak value of power requirement. The Pareto optimal curve is found by off-line optimization....

  10. Energy loss to intravalley acoustic modes in nano-dimensional wire structures at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S.; Das, B.; Basu, A.; Das, J.; Bhattacharya, D. P.; Sarkar, C. K.

    2017-03-01

    The theory of rate of loss of energy of non-equilibrium electrons due to inelastic interaction with the intravalley acoustic phonons in a nano-dimensional semiconductor wire has been developed under the condition of low lattice temperature, when the approximations of the well known traditional theory are not valid. Numerical results are obtained for narrow-channel GaAs-GaAlAs wires structures. On comparison with other available results it is revealed that the finite energy of the intravalley acoustic phonons and, the use of the full form of the phonon distribution without truncation to the equipartition law, produce significant changes in the energy loss characteristics at low temperatures.

  11. On Energy Diagnosis of Steam Power Plants: A Comparison among Three Global Losses Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Taccani

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objectives of energy systems diagnosis are: i identifying components responsible for highest losses increments in comparison with design conditions, ii quantifying energy-efficiency recovery when design conditions are restored in a particular system component. In this paper the energy diagnosis of an existing steam power plant is faced on the basis of three different formulae expressing global losses.

    A simulation model of a real 320 MW steam power plant has been implemented with a commercial modular energy systems simulation software (Aspen+. The functional decay of different components of the plant has been simulated using the model. The results show that the components actually responsible for the additional power losses can be identified and the effect of restoring design conditions can be quantified in most cases with sufficient approximation by using the General Formula for the Efficiency or the Lost work Impact Formula (developed in the ambit of thermoeconomics.

  12. Effect of energetic ion loss on ICRF heating efficiency and energy confinement time in heliotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Nuehrenberg, J.

    1999-06-01

    ICRF heating efficiency and the global energy confinement time during ICRF heating are investigated including the effect of energetic ion loss in heliotrons. The approximate formula of ICRF heating efficiency is derived using the results based on Monte Carlo simulations. The global energy confinement time including energetic ion effect can be expressed in terms of ICRF heating power, plasma density, and magnetic field strength in heliotrons. Our results in the CHS plasma show the systematic decrement of the global energy confinement time due to the energetic ion loss from the assumed energy confinement scaling law, which is consistent with the experimental observations. Also we apply our model to the ICRF minority heating in the LHD plasma in two cases of typical magnetic configurations. The clear increment of the global energy confinement time due to the stored energy of energetic tail ions is obtained in the `orbit improved` configuration, while the decrement is observed in the `standard` configuration. (author)

  13. Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    of low-energy DH systems. Various design concepts are considered in this paper: flexible pre-insulated twin pipes with symmetrical or asymmetrical insulation, double pipes, triple pipes. These technologies are potentially energyefficient and cost-effective solutions for DH networks in low-heat density......The synergy between highly energy efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Distribution heat losses represent a key factor in the design...... areas. We start with a review of theories and methods for steady-state heat loss calculation. Next, the article shows how detailed calculations with 2D-modeling of pipes can be carried out by means of computer software based on the finite element method (FEM). The model was validated by comparison...

  14. New approach to initializing hydrodynamic fields and mini-jet propagation in quark-gluon fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okai, Michito; Kawaguchi, Koji; Tachibana, Yasuki; Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2017-05-01

    We propose a new approach to initialize the hydrodynamic fields, such as energy density distributions and four-flow velocity fields in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions at the collider energies. Instead of matching the energy-momentum tensor or putting the initial conditions of quark-gluon fluids at a fixed initial time, we utilize a framework of relativistic hydrodynamic equations with source terms to describe the initial stage. Putting the energy and momentum loss rate of the initial partons into the source terms, we obtain hydrodynamic initial conditions dynamically. The resultant initial profile of the quark-gluon fluid looks highly bumpy as seen in the conventional event-by-event initial conditions. In addition, initial random flow velocity fields also are generated as a consequence of momentum deposition from the initial partons. We regard the partons that survive after the dynamical initialization process as the mini-jets and find sizable effects of both mini-jet propagation in the quark-gluon fluids and initial random transverse flow on the final momentum spectra and anisotropic flow observables. We perform event-by-event (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic simulations with this new framework that enables us to describe the hydrodynamic bulk collectivity, parton energy loss, and interplay among them in a unified manner.

  15. Method and apparatus for low-loss storage of thermal energy and for low-loss withdrawal of the stored thermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U.

    1980-08-26

    A mehtod is described for low-loss thermal energy storage in and withdrawal from a heat accumulator connected with an energy source and a heat consumer in a circulatory system through which a heat-carrying flow medium circulates. The method consits of passing the flow medium through the energy source so as to withdraw thermal energy from the energy source and effect absorption of the thermal energy by the flow medium, guiding the flow medium in respective layers within the heat accumulator in a direction from the center of the heat accumulator toward the periphery thereof so as to store the thermal energy in a heat storage mass disposed in the heat accumulator; and guiding the flow medium in the layers thereof through the heat accumulator in a direction from the periphery of the heat accumulator to the center thereof, and passing the flow medium from the heat accumulator through the consumer so as to withdraw thermal energy therefrom and transfer it to the consumer.

  16. The different energy loss mechanisms of inclusive and b-tagged reconstructed jets within ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Senzel, Florian; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of jet quenching provides essential information about the properties of hot and dense matter created in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Recent results from experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) show evidence for an unexpectedly similar suppression of both light and heavy flavor jets. Furthermore, the role of radiative energy loss of heavy quarks is still under active discussion within the theoretical community. By employing the parton cascade BAMPS (Boltzmann Approach to Multi-Parton Scatterings), which numerically solves the 3+1D Boltzmann equation both for light and heavy flavor partons, we calculate the nuclear modification factor of inclusive and b-tagged reconstructed jets in 0-10% central $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 ATeV Pb+Pb collisions. Based on perturbative QCD cross sections we find a rather similar suppression of light and heavy flavor jets. To further investigate light and heavy flavor energy loss we predict a different $R$ dependence of the suppression of inclusive and b-ta...

  17. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, Pweight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, Pweight loss relative to energy deficit in mice. PMID:26784324

  18. a Study of Hadronization Using Energy Flow from Electron-Positron Annihilation Into Quarks and Gluons at Square Root S of 29 GEV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Leslie J.

    We have made a high statistics study of QCD jets produced in e('+)e('-) annihilations at SQRT.(s) of 29 GeV and observed in the MAC detector located at the PEP storage ring at SLAC. The MAC detector uses calorimetry and provides a homogeneous response over much of its 98%(.)4(pi) sr instrumented solid angle. A data sample of well reconstructed hadronic events was selected by requiring that E(,vis) in the calorimeters be near SQRT.(s), and almost all the energy be deposited in the central calorimeters. Fits of the jet transverse energy flow are made to the data using String (STR) model and several types of Independent Jet (IJM) model hypotheses, where (alpha)(,s), the strong coupling constant, and (sigma)(,q), the width of the secondary quark P(,(PERP)) distribution, are free parameters. The fits to O((alpha)(,s)('2)) using MS renormalization yield (alpha)(,s) (TURN) 0.17 with the STR hypothesis, and (alpha)(,s) (TURN) 0.12 with the various IJM hypotheses. The correlations between (alpha)(,s) and (sigma)(,q) are examined. Detailed comparisons were made with other experimental results. The energy flow projected onto the event plane of 3-jet events selected from the above data sample was studied. The data shows an asymmetric energy flow around the thin jet. Such an asymmetry was predicted by the STR model, and a cluster model (Webber) incorporating soft gluon interference. The various IJM models show no such asymmetry. We associate this asymmetry with coherence effects during hadronization.

  19. Production and decay of heavy top quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, R.P.

    1989-08-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the top quark exists and has a mass between 50 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}. The decays of a top quark with a mass in this range are studied with emphasis placed on the mass region near the threshold for production of real W bosons. Topics discussed are: (1) possible enhancement of strange quark production when M{sub W} + m{sub s} < m{sub t} < M{sub W} + m{sub b}; (2) exclusive decays of T mesons to B and B{asterisk} mesons using the non-relativistic quark model; (3) polarization of intermediate W's in top quark decay as a source of information on the top quark mass. The production of heavy top quarks in an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider with a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV is studied. The effective-boson approximation for photons, Z{sup 0}'s and W's is reviewed and an analogous approximation for interfaces between photons and Z{sup 0}'s is developed. The cross sections for top quark pair production from photon-photon, photon-Z{sup 0}, Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0}, and W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} fusion are calculated using the effective-boson approximation. Production of top quarks along with anti-bottom quarks via {gamma}W{sup +} and Z{sup 0}W{sup +} fusion is studied. An exact calculation of {gamma}e{sup +} {yields} {bar {nu}}t{bar b} is made and compared with the effective-W approximation. 31 refs., 46 figs.

  20. Density Functional Theory Modeling of Low-Loss Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in Wurtzite III-Nitride Ternary Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarrat, Alberto; Sastre, Xavier; Peiró, Francesca; Estradé, Sónia

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the dielectric response of III-nitride semiconductors is studied using density functional theory (DFT) band structure calculations. The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the features in the low-loss electron energy-loss spectra of ternary alloys, but the results are also relevant to optical and UV spectroscopy results. In addition, the dependence of the most remarkable features with composition is tested, i.e. applying Vegard's law to band gap and plasmon energy. For this purpose, three wurtzite ternary alloys, from the combination of binaries AlN, GaN, and InN, were simulated through a wide compositional range (i.e., Al x Ga1-x N, In x Al1-x N, and In x Ga1-x N, with x=[0,1]). For this DFT calculations, the standard tools found in Wien2k software were used. In order to improve the band structure description of these semiconductor compounds, the modified Becke-Johnson exchange-correlation potential was also used. Results from these calculations are presented, including band structure, density of states, and complex dielectric function for the whole compositional range. Larger, closer to experimental values, band gap energies are predicted using the novel potential, when compared with standard generalized gradient approximation. Moreover, a detailed analysis of the collective excitation features in the dielectric response reveals their compositional dependence, which sometimes departs from a linear behavior (bowing). Finally, an advantageous method for measuring the plasmon energy dependence from these calculations is explained.

  1. Signaling proteins that influence energy intake may affect unintentional weight loss in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernette, Catherine M; White, B Douglas; Zizza, Claire A

    2011-06-01

    After age 70 to 75 years, average body weight decreases both in ailing and healthy people because of a loss of appetite that results in reduced energy intake and the loss of body fat and lean muscle tissue. This so-called anorexia of aging predisposes elderly people to continued pathologic weight loss and malnutrition-major causes of morbidity and mortality. Health care professionals must understand the many factors involved in the anorexia of aging to help older adults prevent unintentional weight loss. Psychological, social, and cultural factors are important effectors; however, physiological factors are emphasized here because they are not thoroughly understood and they make it inherently difficult for most people to alter their body weight. Monoamines, steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids), endocannabinoids, and proteins all influence body weight. This review is an analysis of proteins from the brain, pancreas, adipose tissue, and gastrointestinal tract that are known to affect energy intake and energy balance, with an attempt to identify those factors that may change with aging. The articles included in this review were obtained by a PubMed database search using the keywords mouse OR rat OR human AND aged OR aging OR older OR elderly AND adult AND anorexia OR "unintentional weight loss," and each of the individual proteins discussed, as well as from the reference lists of those articles. The results reveal that some proteins may be important in the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons, whereas others may not have a significant role. However, many of the proteins that could conceivably have a role in unintentional weight loss have not yet been studied with that question in mind. Preventing unintentional weight loss in older adults is an important goal and further research on the role of proteins important for the maintenance of energy balance and the development of unintentional weight loss in elderly persons is

  2. Energy loss straggling in Aluminium foils for Li and C ions in fractional energy loss limits (ΔE/E) ∼10-60%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, P. K.; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Shyam; Sharma, V.; Khan, S. A.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    The energy loss straggling of Li and C ions in Al foils of various thicknesses has been measured, within the fractional energy loss limit (∆E/E) ∼ 10-60%. These measurements have been performed using the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility available at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The measured straggling values have been compared with the corresponding predicted values adopting popularly used collisional straggling formulations viz Bohr, Lindhard and Scharff, Bethe-Livingston, Titeica. In addition, the experimental data has been compared to the Yang et al. empirical formula and Close Form Model, recently proposed by Montanari et al. The straggling values derived by Titeica theory were found to be in better agreement with the measured values as compared to other straggling formulations. The charge-exchange straggling component has been estimated from the measured data based on Titeica's theory. Finally, a function of the ion effective charge and the energy loss fraction within the target has been fitted to the latter straggling component.

  3. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  4. Electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikash Sinha

    2000-04-01

    Successive equilibration of quark degrees of freedom and its effects on electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma are discussed. The effects of the variation of vector meson masses and decay widths on photon production from hot strongly interacting matter formed after Pb + Pb and S + Au collisions at CERN SPS energies are considered. It has been shown that the present photon spectra measured by WA80 and WA98 Collaborations can not distinguish between the formation of quark matter and hadronic matter in the initial state.

  5. Single quark entropy and the Polyakov loop

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Johannes Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    We study Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with 2+1 flavors with almost physical quark masses using the highly improved staggered quark action (HISQ). We calculate the Polyakov loop in a wide temperature range, obtain the free energy and the entropy of a single static quark and discuss the QCD crossover region in detail. We show that the entropy has a peak close to the chiral crossover and consider the consequences for the deconfinement aspects of the crossover phenomena. We study the renormalized Polyakov loop susceptibilities and place them into the context of the crossover. We also obtain a quantitative result for the onset of weak coupling behavior at high temperatures.

  6. Comparative analysis of characteristic electron energy loss spectra and inelastic scattering cross-section spectra of Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, A. S.; Igumenov, A. Yu.; Mikhlin, Yu. L.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Zhigalov, V. S.

    2016-05-01

    The inelastic electron scattering cross section spectra of Fe have been calculated based on experimental spectra of characteristic reflection electron energy loss as dependences of the product of the inelastic mean free path by the differential inelastic electron scattering cross section on the electron energy loss. It has been shown that the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have certain advantages over the electron energy loss spectra in the analysis of the interaction of electrons with substance. The peaks of energy loss in the spectra of characteristic electron energy loss and inelastic electron scattering cross sections have been determined from the integral and differential spectra. It has been shown that the energy of the bulk plasmon is practically independent of the energy of primary electrons in the characteristic electron energy loss spectra and monotonically increases with increasing energy of primary electrons in the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra. The variation in the maximum energy of the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra is caused by the redistribution of intensities over the peaks of losses due to various excitations. The inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra have been analyzed using the decomposition of the spectra into peaks of the energy loss. This method has been used for the quantitative estimation of the contributions from different energy loss processes to the inelastic electron scattering cross-section spectra of Fe and for the determination of the nature of the energy loss peaks.

  7. High-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jessica A; Scheltens, Frank J; Drummy, Lawrence F; Durstock, Michael F; Hage, Fredrik S; Ramasse, Quentin M; McComb, David W

    2017-09-01

    Advances in electron monochromator technology are providing opportunities for high energy resolution (10 - 200meV) electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to be performed in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The energy-loss near-edge structure in core-loss spectroscopy is often limited by core-hole lifetimes rather than the energy spread of the incident illumination. However, in the valence-loss region, the reduced width of the zero loss peak makes it possible to resolve clearly and unambiguously spectral features at very low energy-losses (photovoltaics (OPVs): poly(3-hexlythiophene) (P3HT), [6,6] phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and fullerene (C60). Data was collected on two different monochromated instruments - a Nion UltraSTEM 100 MC 'HERMES' and a FEI Titan(3) 60-300 Image-Corrected S/TEM - using energy resolutions (as defined by the zero loss peak full-width at half-maximum) of 35meV and 175meV, respectively. The data was acquired to allow deconvolution of plural scattering, and Kramers-Kronig analysis was utilized to extract the complex dielectric functions. The real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric functions obtained from the two instruments were compared to evaluate if the enhanced resolution in the Nion provides new opto-electronic information for these organic materials. The differences between the spectra are discussed, and the implications for STEM-EELS studies of advanced materials are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Space-Time Geometry of Quark and Strange Quark Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We study quark and strange quark matter in the context of general relativity. For this purpose, we solve Einstein's field equations for quark and strange quark matter in spherical symmetric space-times. We analyze strange quark matter for the different equations of state (EOS) in the spherical symmetric space-times, thus we are able to obtain the space-time geometries of quark and strange quark matter. Also, we discuss die features of the obtained solutions. The obtained solutions are consistent with the results of Brookhaven Laboratory, i.e. the quark-gluon plasma has a vanishing shear (i.e. quark-gluon plasma is perfect).

  9. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass in the All-Hadronic Top-Antitop Decay Channel Using Proton-Proton Collision Data from the ATLAS Experiment at a Centre-of-Mass Energy of 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220136

    A measurement of the top quark mass ($m_{top}$) is presented using top quark candidates reconstructed from the jets in all-hadronic $t\\bar{t}$ decays. The analysis makes use of the full ATLAS dataset collected over the 2012 period at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV and with a total integrated luminosity of $\\int Ldt=20.6$ fb$^{-1}$. A five-jet trigger, together with an offline cut requiring five central jets with a transverse momentum of at least 60 GeV, was used to pre-select candidate signal events. A series of selection cuts are subsequently employed to increase the signal fraction in data events, motivated by both measured data and simulation. These cuts, as well the analytic $\\chi^2$ reconstruction algorithm to designate which jets are to be used to reconstruct the top quarks, aim to select those events and candidate top quarks deemed most consistent with an all-hadronic $t\\bar{t}$ decay topology. The most discriminating cut involves the output of a b-tagging algorithm employed to ident...

  10. Measurement of the Single Top Quark Cross Section in the Lepton Plus Jets Final State in Proton-Antiproton Collisions at a Center of Mass Energy of 1.96 TeV Using the CDF II Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhenbin [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of the single top quark cross section in the lepton plus jets final state using an integrated luminosity corresponding to 7.5 fb-1 of p\\bar p collision data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The single top candidate events are identified by the signature of a charged lepton, large missing transverse energy, and two or three jets with at least one of them identified as originating from a bottom quark. A new Monte Carlo generator POWHEG is used to model the single top quark production processes, which include s-channel, t-channel, and Wt-channel. A neural network multivariate method is exploited to discriminate the single top quark signal from the comparatively large backgrounds. We measure a single top production cross section of $3.04^{+0.57}_{-0.53} (\\mathrm{stat.~+~syst.})$ pb assuming $m_{\\rm top}=172.5$~GeV/$c^2$. In addition, we extract the CKM matrix element value $|V_{tb}|=0.96\\pm 0.09~(\\mathrm{stat.~+~syst.})\\ ± 0.05~(\\mathrm{theory})$ and set a lower limit of $|V_{tb}|>0.78$ at the 95% credibility level.

  11. Neutrino energy loss by electron capture on strongly screened iron group nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jing-Jing; Luo Zhi-Quan

    2007-01-01

    The influences on the neutrino energy loss rates in iron group nuclei at the same density are investigated in the presence of strong electron screening and in the absence of electron screening. The results show that at a temperature of 15 × 109 K, the neutrino energy loss rates which come from the electron capture processfor most iron group nuclei decrease no more than 2 orders of magnitude but for the others (such as 53,55,56,57,58,59,60Co, 56,59Ni) they can decrease about 3 orders of magnitude due to strong electron screening (SES), whereas, at a temperature of 109K the neutrino energy loss rates of the most iron group nuclei can be diminished greatly due to the SES. For example, 61Fe, 60Fe,and 62Ni the neutrino energy loss rates decrease about 4, 15 and 16 orders of magnitude and for 57Cr, 58Cr, and 60Cr decrease about 18, 12, and 10 orders of magnitude respectively. According to our calculations the neutrino energy loss rates of nuclei 58Mn, 59Mn, 60Mn, and 62Mn may decrease about 13 orders of magnitude at a temperature of 109 K due to the SES.

  12. Restricted energy loss of ultrarelativistic particles in thin targets - A search for deviations from constancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K.K.; Esberg, J.; Hansen, K.R.; Knudsen, H.; Lund, M.; Thomsen, H.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Uggerhoj, U.I., E-mail: ulrik@phys.au.d [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Moller, S.P. [Institute for Storage Ring Facilities, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Sona, P. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Mangiarotti, A. [LIP, Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal); Ketel, T.J. [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dizdar, A. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Ballestrero, S. [University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2010-05-01

    Experimental results for the restricted energy loss of ultrarelativistic electrons, with Lorentz factors up to 3x10{sup 5}, in a 535mum thin silicon detector are presented. The combination of high Lorentz factors and thin targets, opens for the possibility to study two mutually excluding effects, both based upon theory and on scarce experimental observations. One is a disappearance of the density effect when the transit time becomes so short that the effect of plasma-oscillations becomes negligible. This would result in an increased energy loss as the Lorentz factor increases. The other is an effect based on the existence of a coherence length over which there are contributions to the energy loss. This effect leads to a substantially decreased energy loss for thin targets as the Lorentz factor increases. The latter is shown to be incompatible with our measurements, whereas the former may be present with a correction of a few percent to an otherwise constant energy loss. Furthermore, we point to significant effects related to synchrotron and transition radiation, that must be carefully considered in a possible future experiment, and may as well have been of significance for the conclusion in earlier experiments.

  13. Athermal Energy Loss from X-rays Deposited in Thin Superconducting Films on Solid Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozorezov, Alexander G.; Lambert, Colin J.; Bandler, Simon R.; Balvin, Manuel A.; Busch, Sarah E.; Sagler, Peter N.; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Smith, Stephen J.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Sadleir, John E.

    2013-01-01

    When energy is deposited in a thin-film cryogenic detector, such as from the absorption of an X-ray, an important feature that determines the energy resolution is the amount of athermal energy that can be lost to the heat bath prior to the elementary excitation systems coming into thermal equilibrium. This form of energy loss will be position-dependent and therefore can limit the detector energy resolution. An understanding of the physical processes that occur when elementary excitations are generated in metal films on dielectric substrates is important for the design and optimization of a number of different types of low temperature detector. We have measured the total energy loss in one relatively simple geometry that allows us to study these processes and compare measurements with calculation based upon a model for the various di.erent processes. We have modeled the athermal phonon energy loss in this device by finding an evolving phonon distribution function that solves the system of kinetic equations for the interacting system of electrons and phonons. Using measurements of device parameters such as the Debye energy and the thermal di.usivity we have calculated the expected energy loss from this detector geometry, and also the position-dependent variation of this loss. We have also calculated the predicted impact on measured spectral line-shapes, and shown that they agree well with measurements. In addition, we have tested this model by using it to predict the performance of a number of other types of detector with di.erent geometries, where good agreement is also found.

  14. Perturbative static four-quark potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, J; Green, A M

    1995-01-01

    A first attempt to understand hadron dynamics at low energies in terms of the fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom incorporates the effects of the gluonic field into a potential depending only on the spatial positions of the quarks, which are considered in the infinite mass limit. A suitable framework for calculating such potentials between static quarks, i.e.\\ a generalization of the Wilson loop will be discussed. Making a connection with recent Monte Carlo lattice simulations for the lowest two energies of a system of two quarks and two antiquarks, the static qq\\bar{q}\\bar{q}-potential will be calculated in perturbation theory to fourth order. The result will be shown to be exactly equal to the prediction of a straightforward two-body approach, which in Monte Carlo lattice simulations has been found to be a reasonable approximation for very small interquark distances.

  15. Top-quark properties at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Menendez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Recent results on top quark properties and interactions are presented, obtained using data collected with the LHC ATLAS and CMS experiments during the years 2011 and 2012 at 7 and 8 TeV $pp$ center-of-mass energy, and with the Tevatron's CDF and D0 experiments at 1.96 TeV $p\\bar{p}$ center-of-mass energies. The mass of the top quark is extracted using several methods, including indirect constraints from the measured cross section. Further results include measurements of top quark properties, such as the top pair charge asymmetry, spin correlation and polarization, as well as the search for anomalous couplings and charge-parity violations in top-quark pair production. No deviations were found with respect to the predictions of the Standard Model.

  16. Prompt quark production by exploding sphalerons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuryak, Edward; Zahed, Ismail

    2003-01-01

    Following recent works on the production and subsequent explosive decay of QCD sphaleronlike clusters, we discuss the mechanism of quark pair production in this process. We first show how the gauge field explosive solution of Luscher and Schechter can be achieved by noncentral conformal mapping from the O(4)-symmetric solution. Our main result is a new solution to the Dirac equation in real time in this configuration, obtained by the same inversion of the fermion O(4) zero mode. It explicitly shows how the quark acceleration occurs, starting from the spherically O(3)-symmetric zero energy chiral quark state to the final spectrum of nonzero energies. The sphaleronlike clusters with any Chern-Simons number always produce NFL¯R quarks, and the antisphaleron-like clusters the opposite chirality. The result are relevant for hadron-hadron and nucleus-nucleus collisions at large (s), wherein such clusters can be produced.

  17. The sound produced by a fast parton in the quark-gluon plasma is a "crescendo"

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, R B

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by fast partons traversing a quark-gluon plasma. The medium excitation due to collisions is taken to be given by the well known expression for the collisional drag force. The radiative energy loss of the parton contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. We derive a differential equation which governs how the spectrum of radiated gluons is modified when this energy loss is taken into account. This modified spectrum is then used to calculate the additional energy deposition due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. Numerical results are presented for the medium response for the case of two energetic back-to-back partons created in a hard interaction.

  18. The sound generated by a fast parton in the quark-gluon plasma is a crescendo

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, R B

    2009-01-01

    The total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by a fast parton traversing a quark-gluon plasma is calculated. We take the medium excitation due to collisions to be given by the well known expression for the collisional drag force. The parton's radiative energy loss contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. In our model, this leads to a length dependence on the differential energy loss due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. The final result, which is a sum of the primary and the secondary contributions, is then treated as the coefficient of a local hydrodynamic source term. Results are presented for energy density wave induced by two fast, back-to-back partons created in an initial hard interaction.

  19. Sound Produced by a Fast Parton in the Quark-Gluon Plasma is a ``Crescendo''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, R. B.; Müller, B.

    2009-07-01

    We calculate the total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by fast partons traversing a quark-gluon plasma. The medium excitation due to collisions is taken to be given by the well-known expression for the collisional drag force. The radiative energy loss of the parton contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. We derive a differential equation which governs how the spectrum of radiated gluons is modified when this energy loss is taken into account. This modified spectrum is then used to calculate the additional energy deposition due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. Numerical results are presented for the medium response for the case of two energetic back-to-back partons created in a hard interaction.

  20. Sound produced by a fast parton in the quark-gluon plasma is a "crescendo".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, R B; Müller, B

    2009-07-24

    We calculate the total energy deposited into the medium per unit length by fast partons traversing a quark-gluon plasma. The medium excitation due to collisions is taken to be given by the well-known expression for the collisional drag force. The radiative energy loss of the parton contributes to the energy deposition because each radiated gluon acts as an additional source of collisional energy loss in the medium. We derive a differential equation which governs how the spectrum of radiated gluons is modified when this energy loss is taken into account. This modified spectrum is then used to calculate the additional energy deposition due to the interactions of radiated gluons with the medium. Numerical results are presented for the medium response for the case of two energetic back-to-back partons created in a hard interaction.

  1. Search for supersymmetry in final states with a single lepton, b-quark jets, and missing transverse energy in proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.

    2013-03-01

    A search motivated by supersymmetric models with light top squarks is presented using proton-proton collision data recorded with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of s=7TeV during 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98fb-1. The analysis is based on final states with a single lepton, b-quark jets, and missing transverse energy. Standard model yields are predicted from data using two different approaches. The observed event numbers are found to be compatible with these predictions. Results are interpreted in the context of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model and of a simplified model with four top quarks in the final state.

  2. Search for supersymmetry in final states with a single lepton, b-quark jets, and missing transverse energy in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A search motivated by supersymmetric models with light top squarks is presented using proton-proton collision data recorded with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV during 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.98 inverse femtobarns. The analysis is based on final states with a single lepton, b-quark jets, and missing transverse energy. Standard model yields are predicted from data using two different approaches. The observed event numbers are found to be compatible with these predictions. Results are interpreted in the context of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model and of a simplified model with four top quarks in the final state.

  3. Discovery of single top quark production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillberg, Dag [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The top quark is by far the heaviest known fundamental particle with a mass nearing that of a gold atom. Because of this strikingly high mass, the top quark has several unique properties and might play an important role in electroweak symmetry breaking - the mechanism that gives all elementary particles mass. Creating top quarks requires access to very high energy collisions, and at present only the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is capable of reaching these energies. Until now, top quarks have only been observed produced in pairs via the strong interaction. At hadron colliders, it should also be possible to produce single top quarks via the electroweak interaction. Studies of single top quark production provide opportunities to measure the top quark spin, how top quarks mix with other quarks, and to look for new physics beyond the standard model. Because of these interesting properties, scientists have been looking for single top quarks for more than 15 years. This thesis presents the first discovery of single top quark production. An analysis is performed using 2.3 fb-1 of data recorded by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. Boosted decision trees are used to isolate the single top signal from background, and the single top cross section is measured to be σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → tb + X, tqb + X) = 3.74-0.74+0.95 pb. Using the same analysis, a measurement of the amplitude of the CKM matrix element Vtb, governing how top and b quarks mix, is also performed. The measurement yields: |V{sub tb}|f1L| = 1.05 -0.12+0.13, where f1L is the left-handed Wtb coupling. The separation of signal from background is improved by combining the boosted decision trees with two other multivariate techniques. A new cross section measurement is performed, and the significance for the excess over the predicted background exceeds 5

  4. Measuring top quark production asymmetries at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Gauld, Rhorry

    2013-01-01

    Simulated data is studied to assess the potential sensitivity of LHCb to measure top quark production asymmetries, via the single particle pseudorapidity asymmetry in muonic decays of top quarks, with current integrated luminosities of 1, 2 fb$^{−1}$ at 7, 8 TeV LHC centre of mass energies respectively. This includes estimates of reconstruction effects as well as theoretical errors present in signal modelling at the next-to-leading order.

  5. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  6. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, Apartado Postal 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia de Abajo, F.J. [Departamento Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, Apartado Postal 649, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Echenique, P.M. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, Apartado Postal 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)

    1996-05-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Absolute Determination of Optical Constants by a Direct Physical Modeling of Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, H; Toth, J; Tokesi, K; Ding, Z J

    2016-01-01

    We present an absolute extraction method of optical constants of metal from the measured reflection electron energy loss (REELS) spectra by using the recently developed reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. The method is based on a direct physical modeling of electron elastic and electron inelastic scattering near the surface region where the surface excitation becomes important to fully describe the spectrum loss feature intensity in relative to the elastic peak intensity. An optimization procedure of oscillator parameters appeared in the energy loss function (ELF) for describing electron inelastic scattering due to the bulk- and surface-excitations was performed with the simulated annealing method by a successive comparison between the measured and Monte Carlo simulated REELS spectra. The ELF and corresponding optical constants of Fe were obtained from the REELS spectra measured at incident energies of 1000, 2000 and 3000 eV. The validity of the present optical data has been verified with the f- and ps-sum r...

  8. An analytic solution for energy loss and time-of-flight calculations for intermediate-energy light ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, RJM; Hulsbergen, W; Prendergast, EP; van den Brink, A; de Haas, AP; Habets, JJLM; Kamermans, R; Koopmans, M; Kuijer, PG; de Laat, CTAM; Ostendorf, RW; Peghaire, A; Rossewij, M

    1999-01-01

    Particle identification in intermediate heavy-ion collisions, using a modern 4 pi detector which contains several active layers, relies on a parametrisation or numerical integration of the energy loss in thick layers of detector material for different ions. Here an analytical solution applicable ove

  9. A Study of Weak Corrections to Drell-Yan, Top-quark pair and Di-jet Production at High Energies with MCFM

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, John M; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Electroweak (EW) corrections can be enhanced at high energies due to the soft or collinear radiation of virtual and real $W$ and $Z$ bosons that result in Sudakov-like corrections of the form $\\alpha_W^l\\log^n(Q^2/M_{W,Z}^2)$, where $\\alpha_W =\\alpha/(4\\pi\\sin^2\\theta_W)$ and $n\\le 2l-1$. The inclusion of EW corrections in predictions for hadron colliders is therefore especially important when searching for signals of possible new physics in distributions probing the kinematic regime $Q^2 \\gg M_V^2$. Next-to-leading order (NLO) EW corrections should also be taken into account when their size ($\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha)$) is comparable to that of QCD corrections at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) ($\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s^2)$). To this end we have implemented the NLO weak corrections to the Neutral-Current Drell-Yan process, top-quark pair production and di-jet production in the parton-level Monte-Carlo program MCFM. This enables a combined study with the corresponding QCD corrections at NLO and NNLO. We provide b...

  10. Recent results of high-energy spin phenomena of gluons and sea-quarks in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC at BNL

    CERN Document Server

    Surrow, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is carrying out a spin physics program in high-energy polarized proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200\\,$GeV and $\\sqrt{s}=500\\,$GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. One of the main objectives of the spin physics program at RHIC is the precise determination of the polarized gluon distribution function. The STAR detector is well suited for the reconstruction of various final states involving jets, $\\pi^{0}$, $\\pi^{\\pm}$, e$^{\\pm}$ and $\\gamma$, which allows to measure several different processes. Recent results suggest a gluon spin contribution to the proton spin at the same level as the quark spin contribution itself. The production of $W$ bosons in polarized p+p collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=500\\,$GeV opens a new era in the study of the spin-flavor structure of the proton. $W^{-(+)}$ bosons are produced in $\\bar{u}+d\\;(\\bar{d}+u)$ collisions and can be detected through their leptonic...

  11. Search for Dark Matter in Missing-Energy Final States with an Energetic Jet or Top Quarks with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00245767

    The overwhelming astrophysical evidence for Dark Matter is an important motivation to search for new physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the Standard Model of particle physics is able to predict measurements and observations to an astounding precision, it does not provide a candidate particle for Dark Matter. If possibly produced in high-energy proton-proton collisions, such particles would traverse the detectors without leaving a signal. Hence, searches rely on the resulting momentum imbalance in the transverse plane. One particular extension of the Standard Model that allows for a Dark Matter candidate is Supersymmetry. Since the supersymmetric partner of the top quark is expected to be relatively light it could be in reach of LHC experiments and possibly detected. This thesis presents a study of the validity of commonly-used effective field theory models of Dark Matter production at the LHC. It shows that in a significant fraction of events the assumptions of an effective field theory...

  12. Electron energy loss spectroscopy with parallel readout of energy and momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald; Sforzini, Jessica; Soubatch, Serguei; Tautz, F Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a high energy resolution electron source that matches the requirements for parallel readout of energy and momentum of modern hemispherical electron energy analyzers. The system is designed as an add-on device to typical photoemission chambers. Due to the multiplex gain, a complete phonon dispersion of a Cu(111) surface was measured in seven minutes with 4 meV energy resolution.

  13. Radiation Energy Loss from Laser-Heated Shenguang-Ⅱ Hohlraums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Tie-Qiang; HUANG Tian-Xuan; SUN Ke-Xu; WANG Guang-Yu; DUAN Qing-Sheng; PEI Wen-Bing; GU Pei-Jun; ZHANG Xing-Hong; DING Yong-Kun; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; YANG Jia-Min

    2004-01-01

    @@ The x ray energy loss out of laser-heated hohlraum through laser entrance holes (LEH) is discussed in detail according to a simple theoretical model and is compared with the hohlraum experimental data measured at Shenguang Ⅱ laser facility. The radiation loss is considered to be composed of two parts, that is, direct contribution from laser spots and re-emitted part from the x ray-heated hohlraum inner wall, and the former accounts for about 20% of the total loss for the Shenguang Ⅱ hohlraums. Owing to the non-equilibrium characteristics of laser target coupling the direct contribution part is non-equilibrium in spectrum.

  14. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan-e~Alam; Subhasis~Chattopadhyay; Tapan~Nayak

    2008-10-01

    Institute (Kolkata) Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton) Danfysik, Department of Science and Technology (New Delhi) Elsevier B V (Amsterdam) Government of Rajasthan European Organization for Nuclear Research (Geneva) Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (Darmstadt) Hewlett-Packard Indian Institute of Astrophysics (Bangalore) Institute of Physics (Bhubaneswar) IOP Publishing (Bristol) Merint Infrastructure Ltd. Rajasthan Travel service (Jaipur) RIKEN-BNL Research Centre (Upton) Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kolkata) Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (Mumbai) The Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Chennai) Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (Kolkata) Without the generous support of these organizations it would not have been possible to organize the conference successfully. Jaipur is a city of valour, of battles won and lost, of the vanquished and the victors; Jaipur is a city of legends and romance. Now Jaipur is also a city of carnival; carnival in the world of quarks and gluons with the beautiful maiden ALICE gracing the quarkland.

  15. Chiral Quark Model of Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X J; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Yan, Mu-Lin

    1999-01-01

    We study SU(3)$_L\\timesSU(3)_R$ chiral quark model of mesons up to next leading order of $1/N_c$ expansion. Composite vector and axial-vector mesons resonances are introduced via non-linear realization of chiral SU(3) and vector meson dominant. Effects of one-loop graphs of pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons is calculated systematically and the significant results are obtained. Correction of effective gluon interaction is studied too. The light quark masses are introduced via new mechanism which agree with phenomenology and the requirement of chiral symmetry. Up to powers four of derivatives, chiral effective lagrangian of mesons is derived and evaluated to next leading order of $1/N_c$. Low energy limit of the model is examined. Ten low energy coupling constants $L_i(i=1,2,...,10)$ in ChPT are obtained and agree with ChPT well.

  16. Dynamically Running Mass of Light Quark and QCD Vacuum Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULi-Juan; PINGRong-Gang

    2004-01-01

    Based on Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in “rainbow”approximation, the dynamically running mass of light quark and QCD vacuum condensate are investigated. The structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate, the values of local vacuum condensate of quarks and quark-gluon mixture, and dynamical transition of quark mass from current quark to constituent quark are illustrated. At the same time, according to the knowledge and experience learned from an extensive study of the solutions of DSEs, a parameterized form of confining quark propagator is suggested for a practical use. The new parameterized form of quark propagator is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The predictions for p2-dependence of effective quark masses, Mr(p2), defined by the self-energy functions Af(p2) and Bf(p2), both from the numerical solutions of DSEs and from its parameterized form, are shown dynamically. Our conclusion is that all numerical results are consistent with empirical values used in(QCD sum rules and lattice QCD calculations. For a qualitative study, the parameterized form is a sumciently good approximation to confining quark propagator.

  17. Dynamically Running Mass of Light Quark and QCD Vacuum Condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li-Juan; PING Rong-Gang; MA Wei-Xing

    2004-01-01

    Based on Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs) in "rainbow" approximation, the dynamically running mass of light quark and QCD vacuum condensate are investigated. The structure of non-local quark vacuum condensate, the values of local vacuum condensate of quarks and quark-gluon mixture, and dynamical transition of quark mass from current quark to constituent quark are illustrated. At the same time, according to the knowledge and experience learned from an extensive study of the solutions of DSEs, a parameterized form of confining quark propagator is suggested for a practical use. The new parameterized form of quark propagator is analytic everywhere in the finite complex p2-plane and has no Lehmann representation. The predictions for p2-dependence of effective quark masses, Mf(p2), defined by the self-energy functions Af(p2) and Bf(p2), both from the numerical solutions of DSEs and from its parameterized form, are shown dynamically. Our conclusion is that all numerical results are consistent with empirical values used in QCD sum rules and lattice QCD calculations. For a qualitative study, the parameterized form is a sufficiently good approximation to confining quark propagator.

  18. Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping

    by applying two main optimization strategies to traditional refrigeration systems. The first strategy is a new defrost-on-demand scheme, which based on an objective function between quality loss and energy consumption, continuously seeks an optimal time interval for defrosting in dynamic situation. The second...... strategy is through utilization of the thermal mass of the refrigerated foodstuffs, the day-night temperature variation and the capacity control of the compressor, to realize a trade-off between system energy consumption and food quality loss....

  19. Top quark physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadov, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bauer, U.; Belyaev, A.; Berger, E. L.; Sullivan, Z.; Tait, T. M. P.

    2000-03-24

    The top quark, when it was finally discovered at Fermilab in 1995 completed the three-generation structure of the Standard Model (SM) and opened up the new field of top quark physics. Viewed as just another SM quark, the top quark appears to be a rather uninteresting species. Produced predominantly, in hadron-hadron collisions, through strong interactions, it decays rapidly without forming hadrons, and almost exclusively through the single mode t {r_arrow} Wb. The relevant CKM coupling V{sub tb} is already determined by the (three-generation) unitarity of the CKM matrix. Rare decays and CP violation are unmeasurable small in the SM. Yet the top quark is distinguished by its large mass, about 35 times larger than the mass of the next heavy quark, and intriguingly close to the scale of electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking. This unique property raises a number of interesting questions. Is the top quark mass generated by the Higgs mechanism as the SM predicts and is its mass related to the top-Higgs-Yukawa coupling? Or does it play an even more fundamental role in the EW symmetry breaking mechanism? If there are new particles lighter than the top quark, does the top quark decay into them? Could non-SM physics first manifest itself in non-standard couplings of the top quark which show up as anomalies in top quark production and decays? Top quark physics tries to answer these questions. Several properties of the top quark have already been examined at the Tevatron. These include studies of the kinematical properties of top production, the measurements of the top mass, of the top production cross-section, the reconstruction of t{bar t}pairs in the fully hadronic final states, the study of {tau} decays of the top quark, the reconstruction of hadronic decays of the W boson from top decays, the search for flavor changing neutral current decays, the measurement of the W helicity in top decays, and bounds on t{bar t} spin correlations. Most of these measurements are limited by

  20. Physics objects for top quark physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkings, Richard John; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Top quark physics measurements performed using data from the ATLAS detector at the LHC rely on efficient reconstruction and precise calibration of leptons, jets and missing transverse energy. A review of the techniques used to reconstruct such objects is given, with an emphasis on the uncertainties achieved for energy calibration and efficiency measurements, illustrated with the impact on key top quark physics results.

  1. Physics objects for top quark physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkings, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Top quark physics measurements performed using data from the ATLAS detector at the LHC rely on efficient reconstruction and precise calibration of leptons, jets and missing transverse energy. A review of the techniques used to reconstruct such objects is given, with an emphasis on the uncertainties achieved for energy calibration and efficiency measurements, illustrated with their impact on key top quark physics results.

  2. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  3. Restricted energy loss of ultrarelativistic particles in thin targets: A search for deviations from constancy

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, K K; Hansen, K R; Knudsen, H; Lund, M.; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhoj, U I; Moller, S P; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Ballestrero, S

    2010-01-01

    Experimental results for the restricted energy loss of ultrarelativistic electrons, with Lorentz factors up to 3x10^5, in a 535@mm thin silicon detector are presented. The combination of high Lorentz factors and thin targets, opens for the possibi lity to study two mutually excluding effects, both based upon theory and on scarce experimental observations. One is a disappearance of the density effect when the transit time becomes so short that the effect of plasma-oscillations becomes negligible. Th is would result in an increased energy loss as the Lorentz factor increases. The other is an effect based on the existence of a coherence length over which there are contributions to the energy loss. This effect leads to a substantially decreased energy l oss for thin targets as the Lorentz factor increases. The latter is shown to be incompatible with our measurements, whereas the former may be present with a correction of a few percent to an otherwise constant energy loss. Furthermore, we point to signifi cant eff...

  4. Energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled in a bent silicon crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Nace; Petrović, Srdjan; Nešković, Nebojša

    2013-05-01

    A detailed study of the energy loss distributions of the relativistic protons axially channeled in the bent Si crystals is presented in this work. The bending angle was varied from 0 to 20 μrad, while the crystal thickness was equal to 1 mm. The proton energy was chosen to be 7 TeV in accordance with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane and the computer simulation method. An accurate energy loss model was used, which takes into account the trajectory dependence of the energy loss of protons during their motion through the crystal channels. Further, the dispersion of the proton's scattering angle caused by its collisions with the electrons of the crystal and the divergence of the proton beam were taken into account. The calculated dependence of the number of dechanneled protons on the bending angle was excellently fitted by the Gompertz type dechanneling function.

  5. Energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled in a bent silicon crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanov, Nace, E-mail: nacestoj@pmf.ukim.mk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, P.O. Box 162, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Petrović, Srdjan; Nešković, Nebojša [Laboratory of Physics (010), Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2013-05-01

    A detailed study of the energy loss distributions of the relativistic protons axially channeled in the bent < 100 > Si crystals is presented in this work. The bending angle was varied from 0 to 20 μrad, while the crystal thickness was equal to 1 mm. The proton energy was chosen to be 7 TeV in accordance with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane and the computer simulation method. An accurate energy loss model was used, which takes into account the trajectory dependence of the energy loss of protons during their motion through the crystal channels. Further, the dispersion of the proton’s scattering angle caused by its collisions with the electrons of the crystal and the divergence of the proton beam were taken into account. The calculated dependence of the number of dechanneled protons on the bending angle was excellently fitted by the Gompertz type dechanneling function.

  6. Simulation of electron energy loss spectra of nanomaterials with linear-scaling density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, E. W.; Ratcliff, L. E.; Payne, M. C.; Haynes, P. D.; Hine, N. D. M.

    2016-04-20

    Experimental techniques for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combine high energy resolution with high spatial resolution. They are therefore powerful tools for investigating the local electronic structure of complex systems such as nanostructures, interfaces and even individual defects. Interpretation of experimental electron energy loss spectra is often challenging and can require theoretical modelling of candidate structures, which themselves may be large and complex, beyond the capabilities of traditional cubic-scaling density functional theory. In this work, we present functionality to compute electron energy loss spectra within the onetep linear-scaling density functional theory code. We first demonstrate that simulated spectra agree with those computed using conventional plane wave pseudopotential methods to a high degree of precision. The ability of onetep to tackle large problems is then exploited to investigate convergence of spectra with respect to supercell size. Finally, we apply the novel functionality to a study of the electron energy loss spectra of defects on the (1 0 1) surface of an anatase slab and determine concentrations of defects which might be experimentally detectable.

  7. Two types of glitches in a solid quark star model

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jiguang

    2015-01-01

    The glitch of anomalous X-ray pulsars \\& soft gamma repeaters (AXP/SGRs) usually accompanied with detectable energy releases manifesting as X-ray bursts or outbursts, while the glitch of some pulsars like Vela release negligible energy. We find that these two types of glitch can naturally correspond to two types of starquake of solid stars. So far only quark star and quark cluster star model develop a solid star model. Then the two types of glitch may be an implication that the pulsar is composed by quark matter or quark cluster matter.

  8. The effect of weight loss by energy restriction on metabolic profile and glucose tolerance in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Hesta, M; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2008-10-01

    In nine initially obese ponies, a weekly weight loss according to 1% of their ideal body weight was evaluated for its impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile. Weight loss was obtained solely through energy restriction, initially at 70% of maintenance energy requirements, but to maintain constant weight loss, feed amount had to be decreased to 50% and 35% of maintenance energy requirement during the course of the trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17. Fasted blood samples were taken on weeks 0, 3, 10, 17 for analysis of triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), T(3), T(4) and leptin. Total average weight loss was 18.2%. When the OGTT was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17, ponies had lost 0.22%, 9.9% and 16.3% of their initial weight respectively. Weight loss was associated with a decreased AUC for glucose and insulin. Moreover, greater % weight loss was associated with a significantly lower glucose peak and a lower area under the curve (AUC glucose). The lower glucose response after an OGTT in lean ponies was not the result of an increased insulin secretion, but an improved insulin sensitivity. Restricted feeding led to mobilization of TG and NEFA and to a reduced basal metabolism, with lower LDH, CPK, T(3) and leptin. in obese Shetland ponies, weight loss at a rate of 1% of ideal body weight per week through restricted energy intake, ameliorated insulin sensitivity.

  9. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success.

  10. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  11. Energy loss distributions of 7 TeV protons channeled in a bent silicon crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Nace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled through the bent Si crystals, with the constant curvature radius, R = 50 m, are studied here. The proton energy is 7 TeV and the thickness of the crystal is varied from 1 mm to 5 mm, which corresponds to the reduced crystal thickness, L, from 2.1 to 10.6, respectively. The proton energy was chosen in accordance with the large hadron collider project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated by the computer simulation method using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane. Dispersion of the proton scattering angle caused by its collisions with the crystal’s electrons was taken into account. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45006

  12. The Meson Spectrum of the BCC Quark Model (A Modification of the Quark Model)

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, J L; Xu, Jiao Lin; Yu, Xin

    2002-01-01

    Using the quark spectrum of the BCC Quark Model [1] and the phenomenological formula for the binding energies of the mesons, not only have we deduced the intrinsic quantum numbers (I, S, C, b, and Q) of all mesons as was done with the Quark Model [2], but also we deduced the meson mass spectrum in agreement with experimental results [3] that we could not deduce using the Quark Model. The experimental meson spectrum gives some evidence of the existence of the new quarks $q_S^*(1391)$, $q_S^*(2551)$ and $q_C^*(6591)$..., which are predicted by the BCC Quark Model. The meson $\\chi (1600)$ $[2^+(2^{++})]$ with I = 2 (predicted by the BCC Quark Model--T(1603)) has already been discovered [4]. If this is finally confirmed, it will provide a strong support for the BCC Quark Model. We propose a search for the mesons D(5996), $D_S (6151)$, B(9504), $B_S (9659)$, $B_C (11031)$, $\\eta (5926)$, $\\eta (17837)$, $\\psi (25596)$, $\\Upsilon (17805)$, $\\Upsilon (29597)$, T(960), T(1282), T(1603), and T(1924).

  13. Characterization of Solidified Gas Thin Film Targets via $\\alpha$ Particle Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Beveridge, J L; Douglas, J L; Huber, T M; Jacot-Guillarmod, R; Kim, S K; Knowles, P E; Kunselman, A R; Maier, M; Marshall, G M; Mason, G R; Mulhauser, F; Olin, A; Petitjean, C; Porcelli, T A; Zmeskal, J

    1996-01-01

    A method is reported for measuring the thickness and uniformity of thin films of solidified gas targets. The energy of alpha particles traversing the film is measured and the energy loss is converted to thickness using the stopping power. The uniformity is determined by measuring the thickness at different positions with an array of sources. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to study the film deposition mechanism. Thickness calibrations for a TRIUMF solid hydrogen target system are presented.

  14. High-resolution proton energy-loss spectrometer for surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Kanasaki, Junichi; Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsuda, Kouji; Aoki, Masahiko.

    1988-11-01

    We describe a new ion-beam surface analyzer, proton energy loss spectrometer. It analyzes ions incident at 100 keV and scattered by 180degC at solid surfaces with a resolution of 5eV. The results of computer simulation of the energy spectra of scattered ions and the informations on surface electronic and atomic structures possibly derived by the analysis are described. Application of the spectrometer in several areas of science and technology is briefly discussed.

  15. Electron-energy-loss spectral library and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1983-09-01

    An electron energy loss spectral library can be an invaluable tool in materials research from a fundamental as well as a practical standpoint. Although it will not alleviate all the complications associated with quantification, this type of library can help to elucidate details of spectral profiles previously found intractable. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy. The author also wishes to express his gratitude to the organizing committee for partial financial support provided to attend this meeting.

  16. Energy losses of charged particles in a finite layer of substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechin, V. A.

    1985-04-01

    The energy lost by a charged particle as it crosses a plane-parallel plate with dielectric permittivity in a vacuum is calculated theoretically, applying the intermediate transition to the Heaviside transformation and considering various combinations of particle Lorentz factor and plate thickness. The problems encountered in comparing the theoretical predictions with experimental data are examined, and the application of the model of energy loss in very thin layers of Ermilova et al. (1974) is found to explain the observed anomalies.

  17. Antiferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors with High Energy-Storage Densities, Low Energy Losses, and Fast Discharge Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chang Won; Amarsanaa, Gantsooj; Won, Sung Sik; Chae, Song A; Lee, Dae Su; Kim, Ill Won

    2015-12-09

    We demonstrate a capacitor with high energy densities, low energy losses, fast discharge times, and high temperature stabilities, based on Pb(0.97)Y(0.02)[(Zr(0.6)Sn(0.4))(0.925)Ti(0.075)]O3 (PYZST) antiferroelectric thin-films. PYZST thin-films exhibited a high recoverable energy density of U(reco) = 21.0 J/cm(3) with a high energy-storage efficiency of η = 91.9% under an electric field of 1300 kV/cm, providing faster microsecond discharge times than those of commercial polypropylene capacitors. Moreover, PYZST thin-films exhibited high temperature stabilities with regard to their energy-storage properties over temperatures ranging from room temperature to 100 °C and also exhibited strong charge-discharge fatigue endurance up to 1 × 10(7) cycles.

  18. Top Quark Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Juste, A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years after its discovery at the Tevatron collider, we still know little about the top quark. Its large mass suggests it may play a key role in the mechanism of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB), or open a window of sensitivity to new physics related to EWSB and preferentially coupled to it. To determine whether this is the case, precision measurements of top quark properties are necessary. The high statistics samples being collected by the Tevatron experiments during Run II start to incisively probe the top quark sector. This report summarizes the experimental status of the top quark, focusing in particular on the recent measurements from the Tevatron Run II.

  19. Top quark properties

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas Maestro, Javier

    2016-01-01

    An overview of recent top quark measurements in proton-proton collisions at 7, and 8 TeV in data collected with the CMS and ATLAS experiments at the LHC, using a data sample collected during the years 2011, 2012 is presented. The results include measurements of top-quark pairs spin correlation, the top pair charge asymmetry, the cross section of top-quark pair events produced in association with a W or a Z boson. The mass of the top quark is estimated by different methods. Some results on the same topics are also presented in data collected by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron collider.

  20. Energy loss distributions of 7 TeV protons axially channeled in the bent Si crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Nace; Petrović, Srdjan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled in the bent Si crystal are studied. The crystal thickness is equal to 1 mm, which corresponds to the reduced crystal thickness, Λ, equal to 1.22, whereas the bending angle, α, was varied from 0 to 30 μrad. The proton energy of 7 TeV was chosen in accordance with the concept of using the bent crystals as a tool for selective deflection of the beam halo particles from the LUA9 experiment at LHC. For the continuum interaction potential of the proton and the crystal the Molière's expression was used and the energy loss of a proton was calculated by applying the trajectory dependent stopping power model. Further, the uncertainness of the scattering angle of the proton caused by its collisions with the electrons of the crystal and the divergence of the proton beam were taken into account. The energy loss distribution of the channeled protons was obtained via the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane and the computer simulation method. The analysis of the obtained theoretical data shows that the shape of the energy loss distribution strongly depends on the horizontal or vertical direction of the curvature of the crystal. The number of dechanneled protons as a function of the bending angle also strongly depends on the direction of the crystal's curvature. As a result, the dechanneling rates and ranges, obtained from the Gompertz type sigmoidal fitting functions, have different sets of values for different bending orientations. We have also studied the influence of the proton beam divergence on the energy loss distribution of channeled protons.

  1. A proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karl; Murphy, Shane; Palmer, Richard E.

    2017-03-01

    A compact proximal retarding field analyzer for scanning probe energy loss spectroscopy measurements is described. Using the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as a field emission (FE) electron source in conjunction with this analyzer, which is placed at a glancing angle to the surface plane, FE sample current and electron reflectivity imaging may be performed simultaneously. This is demonstrated in measurements of Ag nanostructures prepared on graphite by electron-beam lithogr