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Sample records for quantum-dot-perylene bisimide assemblies

  1. Identification of Different Donor-Acceptor Structures via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET in Quantum-Dot-Perylene Bisimide Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian von Borczyskowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoassemblies are formed via self-assembly of ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots (QD and perylene bisimide (PBI dyes. Upon assembly formation the QD photoluminescence is quenched, as can be detected both via single particle detection and ensemble experiments in solution. Quenching has been assigned to FRET and NON-FRET processes. Analysis of FRET allows for a distinction between different geometries of the QD dye assemblies. Time-resolved single molecule spectroscopy reveals intrinsic fluctuations of the PBI fluorescence lifetime and spectrum, caused by rearrangement of the phenoxy side groups. The distribution of such molecular conformations and their changed dynamics upon assembly formation are discussed in the scope of FRET efficiency and surface ligand density.

  2. Molecular assemblies of perylene bisimide dyes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görl, Daniel; Zhang, Xin; Würthner, Frank

    2012-06-25

    Perylene bisimides are among the most valuable functional dyes and have numerous potential applications. As a result of their chemical robustness, photostability, and outstanding optical and electronic properties, these dyes have been applied as pigments, fluorescence sensors, and n-semiconductors in organic electronics and photovoltaics. Moreover, the extended quadrupolar π system of this class of dyes has facilitated the construction of numerous supramolecular architectures with fascinating photophysical properties. However, the supramolecular approach to the formation of perylene bisimide aggregates has been restricted mostly to organic media. Pleasingly, considerable progress has been made in the last few years in developing water-soluble perylene bisimides and their application in aqueous media. This Review provides an up-to-date overview on the self-assembly of perylene bisimides through π-π interactions in aqueous media. Synthetic strategies for the preparation of water-soluble perylene bisimides and the influence of water on the π-π stacking of perylene bisimides as well as the resulting applications are discussed.

  3. Assembly of DNA triangles mediated by perylene bisimide caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacher, Florian; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Würthner, Frank; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2011-06-06

    Perylene bisimides (PBI) have been synthetically incorporated as caps onto a Y-shaped DNA triple strand. These PBI caps serve as "sticky" ends in the spontaneous assembly of larger DNA ensembles, linking the triangular DNA through stacking interactions. This, in turn, yields a hypsochromic shift in the absorption and a red shift in the fluorescence as characteristic optical readouts. This assembly occurs spontaneously without any enzymatic ligation process and without the use of overhanging DNA as sticky ends. Instead, dimerizations of the PBI chromophores in the assembly are controlled by the DNA as a structural scaffold. Thereby, the PBI-driven assembly is fully reversible. Due to the fact that PBI dimerization does not occur in the single strand, the aggregates can be destroyed by thermal dehybridization of the DNA scaffold and reassembled by reannealing of the DNA construct. In view of the fact that PBI forms stable radical anions, the presented DNA architectures are not only interesting optical biomaterials, but are also promising materials for molecular electronics with DNA.

  4. Photoinduced processes in self-assembled porphyrin/perylene bisimide metallosupramolecular boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indelli, M Teresa; Chiorboli, Claudio; Scandola, Franco; Iengo, Elisabetta; Osswald, Peter; Würthner, Frank

    2010-11-18

    Two new supramolecular boxes, (ZnMC)(2)(rPBI)(2) and (ZnMC)(2)(gPBI)(2), have been obtained by axial coordination of N,N'-dipyridyl-functionalized perylene bisimide (PBI) dyes to the zinc ion centers of two 2+2 porphyrin metallacycles (ZnMC = [trans,cis,cis-RuCl(2)(CO)(2)(Zn·4'-cis-DPyP)](2)). The two molecular boxes involve PBI pillars with different substituents at the bay area: the "red" PBI (rPBI = N,N'-di(4-pyridyl)-1,6,7,12-tetra(4-tert-butylphenoxy)perylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic acid bisimide) containing tert-butylphenoxy substituents and the "green" PBI (gPBI = N,N'-di(4-pyridyl)-1,7-bis(pyrrolidin-1-yl)perylene-3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic acid bisimide) bearing pyrrolidinyl substituents. Due to the rigidity of the modules and the simultaneous formation of four pyridine-zinc bonds, these discrete adducts self-assemble quantitatively and are remarkably stable in dichloromethane solution. The photophysical behavior of the new supramolecular boxes has been studied in dichloromethane by emission spectroscopy and ultrafast absorption techniques. A different photophysical behavior is observed for the two systems. In (ZnMC)(2)(rPBI)(2), efficient electron transfer quenching of both perylene bisimide and zinc porphyrin chromophores is observed, leading to a charge separated state, PBI(-)-Zn(+), in which a perylene bisimide unit is reduced and zinc porphyrin is oxidized. In the deactivation of the perylene bisimide localized excited state, an intermediate zwitterionic charge transfer state of type PBI(-)-PBI(+) seems to play a relevant role. In (ZnMC)(2)(gPBI)(2), singlet energy transfer from the Zn porphyrin chromophores to the perylene bisimide units occurs with an efficiency of 0.7. This lower than unity value is due to a competing electron transfer quenching, leading to the charge separated state PBI(-)-Zn(+). The distinct photophysical behavior of these two supramolecular boxes is interpreted in terms of energy changes occurring upon replacement of the "red" r

  5. Subcomponent self-assembly of a 4 nm M4 L6 tetrahedron with Zn(II) vertices and perylene bisimide dye edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischmann, Peter D; Kunz, Valentin; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Würthner, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Formation of a tetrahedron with >4 nm perylene bisimide (PBI) dye edges and Zn(II) vertices in a one-pot 22 component self-assembly reaction is reported. The luminescent polyhedron equilibrates to a Zn2 L3 helicate and disassembles upon dilution. Insights into the subcomponent self-assembly of extended PBI ligands help to refine design rules for constructing large photofunctional metallosupramolecular hosts.

  6. Self-repairing complex helical columns generated via kinetically controlled self-assembly of dendronized perylene bisimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, Virgil; Hudson, Steven D; Peterca, Mihai; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Aqad, Emad; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans W; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Heiney, Paul A

    2011-11-16

    The dendronized perylene 3,4:9,10-tetracarboxylic acid bisimide (PBI), (3,4,5)12G1-3-PBI, was recently reported to self-assemble in complex helical columns containing tetramers of PBI as basic repeat unit. These tetramers contain a pair of two molecules arranged side-by-side and another pair in the next stratum of the column turned upside-down and rotated around the column axis. Intra- and intertetramer rotation angles and stacking distances are different. At high temperature, (3,4,5)12G1-3-PBI self-assembles via a thermodynamically controlled process in a 2D hexagonal columnar phase while at low temperature in a 3D orthorhombic columnar array via a kinetically controlled process. Here, we report the synthesis and structural analysis, by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray and electron diffraction, and solid-state NMR performed at different temperatures, on the supramolecular structures generated by a library of (3,4,5)nG1-3-PBI with n = 14-4. For n = 11-8, the kinetically controlled self-assembly from low temperature changes in a thermodynamically controlled process, while the orthorhombic columnar array for n = 9 and 8 transforms from the thermodynamic product into the kinetic product. The new thermodynamic product at low temperature for n = 9, 8 is a self-repaired helical column with an intra- and intertetramer distance of 3.5 Å forming a 3D monoclinic periodic array via a kinetically controlled self-assembly process. The complex dynamic process leading to this reorganization was elucidated by solid-state NMR and X-ray diffraction. This discovery is important for the field of self-assembly and for the molecular design of supramolecular electronics and solar cell.

  7. Bright Fluorescence and Host-Guest Sensing with a Nanoscale M₄L₆ Tetrahedron Accessed by Self-Assembly of Zinc-Imine Chelate Vertices and Perylene Bisimide Edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischmann, Peter D; Kunz, Valentin; Würthner, Frank

    2015-06-15

    A highly luminescent Zn4L6 tetrahedron is reported with 3.8 nm perylene bisimide edges and hexadentate Zn(II)-imine chelate vertices. Replacing Fe(II) and monoamines commonly utilized in subcomponent self-assembly with Zn(II) and tris(2-aminoethyl)amine provides access to a metallosupramolecular host with the rare combination of structural integrity at concentrations <10(-7) mol L(-1) and an exceptionally high fluorescence quantum yield of Φ(em) =0.67. Encapsulation of multiple perylene or coronene guest molecules is accompanied by strong luminescence quenching. We anticipate this self-assembly strategy may be generalized to improve access to brightly fluorescent coordination cages tailored for host-guest light-harvesting, photocatalysis, and sensing.

  8. Synthesis and predetermined supramolecular chirality of carbohydrate-functionalized perylene bisimide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Rang; Han, Dan; Cao, Guo-Jing; Li, Xiao-Liu

    2015-05-01

    Eight carbohydrate-modified perylene bisimides (PBI-4 lac-2 lac, PBI-4 lac-2 Man, PBI-4 lac-2 Gal, PBI-4 lac-2 Mal, PBI-4 Man-2 Man, PBI-4 Man-2 lac, PBI-4 Man-2 Gal and PBI-4 Man-2 Mal) were synthesized, and the following predetermined supramolecular chirality rule was found: perylene bisimides modified with disaccharides (D-lactose and D-maltose) at the imide position generated right-handed chirality, and those modified with monosaccharides (D-mannose and D-galactose) generated left-handed chirality, when D-lactose or D-mannose was substituted in the bay positions of perylene bisimides with amide bonds as the linking spacers. These results may be because of the difference in the stacking angle of the perylene bisimide backbones induced by the steric effect and the additional hydrogen bonds between the disaccharide residues. This study provides an important design rule for predetermined chiral self-assembly of perylene bisimides.

  9. Tetrahedral Arrangements of Perylene Bisimide Columns via Supramolecular Orientational Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dipankar; Peterca, Mihai; Aqad, Emad; Partridge, Benjamin E; Heiney, Paul A; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans W; Zeng, Xiangbing; Percec, Virgil

    2017-01-24

    Chiral, shape, and liquid crystalline memory effects are well-known to produce commercial macroscopic materials with important applications as springs, sensors, displays, and memory devices. A supramolecular orientational memory effect that provides complex nanoscale arrangements was only recently reported. This supramolecular orientational memory was demonstrated to preserve the molecular orientation and packing within supramolecular units of a self-assembling cyclotriveratrylene crown at the nanoscale upon transition between its columnar hexagonal and Pm3̅n cubic periodic arrays. Here we report the discovery of supramolecular orientational memory in a dendronized perylene bisimide (G2-PBI) that self-assembles into tetrameric crowns and subsequently self-organizes into supramolecular columns and spheres. This supramolecular orientation memory upon transition between columnar hexagonal and body-centered cubic (BCC) mesophases preserves the 3-fold cubic [111] orientations rather than the 4-fold [100] axes, generating an unusual tetrahedral arrangement of supramolecular columns. These results indicate that the supramolecular orientational memory concept may be general for periodic arrays of self-assembling dendrons and dendrimers as well as for other periodic and quasiperiodic nanoscale organizations comprising supramolecular spheres, generated from other organized complex soft matter including block copolymers and surfactants.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of bisimide amines and bisimide amine-cured epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop tough, moisture resistant, high char yield epoxy resins by means of novel bisimide amine (BIA) hardener curing agents and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin system. The BIAs are isolated as mixtures containing monomer, oligomer, and polymeric species, and then characterized by elemental analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography. The bisimide amine-cured epoxies (IMEs) were characterized with respect to moisture absorption, thermal properties, and physical and mechanical properties, as well as in the role of matrices in Celion 6000/IME composites. The relative toughness characteristics of each IME formulation was measured by the 10 deg off-axis tensile test, measuring the uniaxial tensile strength, shear strength, and shear-strain-to-failure of the composite systems.

  11. Green Perylene Bisimide Dyes: Synthesis, Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Chang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three asymmetric amino-substituted perylene bisimide dyes with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 6, 12, or 18, 1-(N,N-dialkylaminoperylene bisimides (1a–1c, were synthesized under mild condition in high yields and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance, HRMS (High Resolution Mass Spectrometer, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra, as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV. These molecules show intense green color in both solution and solid state and are highly soluble in dichloromethane and even in nonpolar solvents, such as hexane. The shapes of the absorption spectra of 1a–1c in solid state and in solution were found to be virtually the same, indicating that the long alkyl chains could efficiently prevent aggregation. They exhibit a unique charge transfer emission in the near-infrared region, of which the peak wavelengths show strong solvatochromism. The dipole moments of the compounds have been estimated using the Lippert-Mataga equation, and upon excitation, they show larger dipole moment changes than that of 1-aminoperylene bisimide (2. Furthermore, all of the compounds exhibit two quasi-reversible one-electron oxidations and two quasi-reversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. Complementary density functional theory (DFT calculations performed on these dyes are reported in order to rationalize their molecular structures and electronic properties.

  12. Green and highly efficient synthesis of perylene and naphthalene bisimides in nothing but water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Bettina; Svirkova, Anastasiya; Bintinger, Johannes; Hametner, Christian; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Unterlass, Miriam M

    2017-01-19

    High-purity, symmetrically substituted perylene and naphthalene bisimides were obtained by hydrothermal condensation of monoamines with the corresponding bisanhydride. The hydrothermal imidization proceeds quantitatively, without the need for organic solvents, catalysts or excess of the amines.

  13. Synthesis and near-infrared characteristics of novel perylene bisimide dyes bay-functionalized with naphthalimide chromophores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Gao; Yang Li; He Tian

    2007-01-01

    Novel perylene bisimide dyes bay-functionalized with naphthalimide chromophores have been prepared conveniently by coupling of 1,8-naphthalimide and dibromoperylene bisimides. Their optical properties were investigated by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of these compounds showed wide spectral responses from 300 to 700 nm,which would be potentials for application as organic solar cells.

  14. 1,6-Diaminoperylene bisimide with a highly twisted perylene core

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHE-WEI CHANG; FANG-YUN CHIEN; JIUN-WEI HU; HSING-YANG TSAI; KEW-YU CHEN

    2017-02-01

    1,6-Diaminoperylene bisimide (1) was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-raydiffraction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the structure of 1,6-disubstituted perylene bisimide has been reported. The crystal belongs to triclinic, space group P-1, with a = 10.3966(10), b = 15.3398(16), c = 16.8495(17) Å, α = 79.490(4)◦, β = 87.055(3)◦, γ = 79.423(3)◦, and Z = 2. Compound1 possesses two intramolecular C–H· · ·N hydrogen bonds, which generate two S(6) ring motifs. The central perylene core of 1 is twisted with dihedral angles of 19.48(2)◦ and 19.50(2)◦; this twist configuration induces the axial chirality in this family of perylene bisimide chromophores. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations also show that the core twist angles of 1,6-diaminoperylene bisimide are larger than those of 1,7-diaminoperylene bisimide, which may account for the fact that the 1,7-regioisomer has a more extended effective conjugation length than the 1,6-regioisomer.

  15. Syntheses and Chemosensory of Anthracene and Phenanthrene Bisimide Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Zachary A.

    2004-01-01

    As the present technology of biochemical weapons advances, it is essential for science to attempt to prepare our nation for such an occurrence. Various areas of current research are devoted to precautionary measures and potential antidotes for national security. A practical application of these precautions would be the development of a chemical capable of detecting harmful gas. The benefits of being capable to synthesis a chemical compound that would warn and identify potentially deadly gases would ensure a higher level of safety. The chemicals in question can be generalized as bisimide anthracene derivatives. The idea behind these compounds is that in the presence of certain nerve gases, the compound will actually fluoresce, giving an indication that there is a strong likelihood of the presence of a nerve gas and ensure the proper precautionary measures are taken. The fluorescence is due to the quenching of an electric proton transfer within the structure of the molecule. The system proves to be very unique on account of the fact that the fluorescence can be "turned off" by reducing the system. By utilizing the synthesis designed by Dr. Faysal Ilhan, four distinct compounds can be synthesized through photochemical reactions involving para- and ortho- diketones. The photochemistry involved is very modem and much research is being devoted to fully understanding the possibilities and alternative applications of such materials. and meta-nitro anthracene bisimide (ABI-NO2), the amine of each (ABI-NH2), a para- and meta-nitro phenanthrene bisimjde (PBI-NO2), and the amine of each (PBI-NH2). Upon synthesizing these distinct compounds, I must then purify and analyze them in order to obtain any relevant trends, behaviors, and characteristics. The chemical composition analyses that will be conducted are the procedures taken by Dr. Daniel Tyson on previous experiments. The results generated from the data will point further research in the correct direction and hopefully

  16. Photoinduced electron and energy transfer processes in a bichromophoric pyrene-perylene bisimide system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaletas, B.K.; Dobrava, R.; Sautter, A.; Wurthner, F.; Zimine, M.; De Cola, L.; Williams, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis and photophysical properties of a system consisting of a bay-functionalized perylene bisimide, containing four appended pyrene and two coordinating pyridine units, and its reference system are described. A complete study of their photophysical properties was obtained using UV-vis absor

  17. Photoinduced Electron and Energy Transfer Processes in a Bichromophoric Pyrene-Perylene Bisimide System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaletas, B.K.; Dobrawa, R.; Sautter, A.; Wuerthner, F.; Zimine, M.Y.; De Cola, L.; Williams, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis and photophysical properties of a system consisting of a bay-functionalized perylene bisimide, containing four appended pyrene and two coordinating pyridine units, and its reference system are described. A complete study of their photophysical properties was obtained using UV-vis absor

  18. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  19. Rapid Energy Transfer Enabling Control of Emission Polarization in Perylene Bisimide Donor-Acceptor Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menelaou, Christopher; ter Schiphorst, Jeroen; Kendhale, Amol M; Parkinson, Patrick; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Herz, Laura M

    2015-04-02

    Materials showing rapid intramolecular energy transfer and polarization switching are of interest for both their fundamental photophysics and potential for use in real-world applications. Here, we report two donor-acceptor-donor triad dyes based on perylene-bisimide subunits, with the long axis of the donors arranged either parallel or perpendicular to that of the central acceptor. We observe rapid energy transfer (energy transfer rate for the linearly arranged triad but severely underestimates it for the orthogonal case. We show that the rapid energy transfer arises from a combination of through-bond coupling and through-space transfer between donor and acceptor units. As they allow energy cascading to an excited state with controllable polarization, these triad dyes show high potential for use in luminescent solar concentrator devices.

  20. 1,7-Bis-(N,N-dialkylaminoperylene Bisimides: Facile Synthesis and Characterization as Near-Infrared Fluorescent Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew-Yu Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Three symmetric alkylamino-substituted perylene bisimides with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 6, 12, or 18, 1,7-bis-(N,N-dialkylaminoperylene bisimides (1a–1c, were synthesized under mild condition and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopy. Their optical and electrochemical properties were measured using UV-Vis and emission spectroscopic techniques as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV. These compounds show deep green color in both solution and solid state, and are highly soluble in dichloromethane and even in nonpolar solvents such as hexane. The shapes of the absorption spectra of 1a–1c in the solution and solid state were found to be almost the same, indicating that the long alkyl chains could efficiently prevent intermolecular contact and aggregation. They show a unique charge transfer emission in the near-infrared region, of which the peak wavelengths exhibit strong solvatochromism. The dipole moments of the molecules have been estimated using the Lippert–Mataga equation, and upon excitation, they show larger dipole moment changes than that of 1,7-diaminoperylene bisimide (2. Moreover, all the dyes exhibit two irreversible one-electron oxidations and two quasi-reversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. Complementary density functional theory calculations performed on these chromophores are reported in order to rationalize their electronic structure and optical properties.

  1. Design and synthesis of nanoporous perylene bis-imide linked metalloporphyrin frameworks and their catalytic activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar Singh; Debkumar Bandyopadhyay

    2016-01-01

    Two nanoporous perylene bis-imide linked metalloporphyrin framework catalysts have been synthesized via condensation of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4′-aminophenyl) iron(III) porphyrin chloride or 5,10, 15,20-tetrakis-(4′-aminophenyl) manganese(III) porphyrin chloride with perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Both the materials were crystalline in nature and were characterized by electron microscopy techniques, solid-state 1H-13C CP/MS NMR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The nitrogen gas physisorption study has indicated that both materials are porous in nature and have BET surface area with 653 m2/g and 974 m2/g with uniform pore size of 2.8 nm. These materials were found to act as very good heterogeneous catalysts for selective oxidation of alkanes and alkenes with tert-butyl hydroperoxide and were not degraded even after multiple uses up to 10 cycles.

  2. Benzothiazole and Perylene Bisimide Derivatives - Synthesis and Opto-Electronic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, S.

    2012-07-01

    This work investigates the tuning of photophysical properties of two different classes of photoactive molecules, 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT) and perylene bisimide (PBI). The Suzuki coupling reaction was employed to synthesize aryl-substituted derivatives of HBT and PBI. The tuning of the photophysical properties of both HBT and PBI was successfully carried out by attaching either electrondonating (ED) or electron-withdrawing (EW) aryl moieties to the parent compounds. For HBT, a series of 5-substituted derivatives were synthesized to modify the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of zinc-benzothiazole (Znb{sub 2}) complexes. Perylene bay substitutions were used to tune the HOMO-LUMO (LUMO: lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energy gap of the diaryl-PBIs. Spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques were used to determine the effects of substituents on the photophysical properties to the parent compounds. For the Znb{sub 2} complexes, absorption and emission spectra as well as the HOMO energy levels are effectively modified by the aryl-substitution while the LUMO energy level remains largely unaffected. Whereas, for the PBI derivatives, the spectroscopic profiles as well as the HOMO and LUMO energy levels were tuned by the attached aryl groups. These results indicate that inductive effects are more dominant in both Znb{sub 2} and PBI derivatives. All the involved reactions, especially borylation of both the HBT and PBI were studied in detail to achieve maximum yield and simple purification. The separation of a series of 1,7- and 1,6-diaryl-PBIs by normal column chromatography was an important step in perylene chemistry. The individual regioisomers of diaryl-PBIs were unambiguously characterized by observing the chemical shifts of ?- methylene protons using 300 MHz 'H NMR spectroscopy. Obtained results indicate that both 1,7- and 1,6-regioisomers of same diaryl-PBI possess slightly different opto-electronic properties

  3. Fabrication and humidity sensing performance studies of a fluorescent film based on a cholesteryl derivative of perylene bisimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Haonan; Liu, Taihong; Ding, Liping; Fang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    A fluorescent film based on a cholesteryl derivative of perylene bisimide (PTCDI-co-CholDEA) was fabricated via utilization of an electrostatic spinning technique on a glass plate surface. SEM studies revealed that the film was characterized by fibrous network structure. It is the structure and the chemical composition that make the fluorescence emission of the film sensitive to the variation of local environmental humidity. The sensitivity of the sensing is 0.1497 (×10(4)a.u. of the intensity)/1% RH, of which RH is the abbreviation of relative humidity. The maximum quenching efficiency of the film is 55.4% when humidity reaches 97% RH. Furthermore, the sensing process is fully reversible, and presence of other commonly found liquids shows little effect to the monitoring process.

  4. Perylene Bisimide as a Promising Zinc Oxide Surface Modifier: Enhanced Interfacial Combination for Highly Efficient Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Li; Zhang, Wenqiang; Wu, Siping; Qin, Leiqiang; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Zengqi; Wu, Hongbin; Ma, Yuguang

    2015-11-25

    We report the application of a perylene bisimide (PBI-H) as zinc oxide (ZnO) surface modifier to afford an organic-inorganic co-interlayer for highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics (i-OPV). By thermal annealing, a N-Zn chemical bond formed between PBI-H and ZnO, inducing close organic-inorganic combination. In addition, this co-interlayer shows decreased work function and increased electron transportation and conductivity, which are benefits for the cathode to enhance charge extraction efficiency and decrease recombination losses. As a result a highly efficient i-OPV was achieved with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.43% based on this co-interlayer with PTB7:PC71BM as the active layer, which shows over 35% enhancement compared to that of the device without the PBI-H layer. Moreover, this co-interlayer was widely applicable for i-OPVs based on various material systems, such as P3HT:PC61BM and PTB7-Th:PC71BM, resulting in PCE as high as 4.78% and 10.31%, respectively.

  5. Can the Excited State Energy of a Pyrenyl Unit Be Directly Transferred to a Perylene Bisimide Moiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Shang, Congdi; Wang, Li; Peng, Haonan; Yin, Shiwei; Fang, Yu

    2016-11-23

    A pyrenyl unit (Py) was chemically connected to a perylene bisimide (PBI) moiety through a long and flexible linker, 4,7,10-trioxa-1,13-tridecanediamine (TOA), resulting in a fluorescent dyad, PBI-TOA-Py. Ultraviolet-visible absorption and fluorescence studies revealed that the two fluorescent units of PBI-TOA-Py behave independently. However, efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the Py unit to the PBI moiety in solution state was also observed. Temperature and solvent effect studies demonstrated that the energy transfer efficiency is highly dependent upon solution temperature and solvent nature. Specifically, for the dimethylformamide (DMF) solution of PBI-TOA-Py, the FRET efficiency is close to 88% at temperatures below ∼40 °C, but the efficiency greatly decreases to nearly zero when the temperature exceeds ∼80 °C. Moreover, addition of HAc into the DMF solution at room temperature could reduce the energy transfer efficiency to nearly zero, suggesting that the excited state energy of Py cannot be directly transferred to the PBI structure even though they are properly and chemically bonded. On the basis of the observations and time-resolved studies, it is believed that the observed efficient FRET from the Py unit to the PBI moiety occurs mainly through Py excimer formation, which could be a result of intermolecular association of the compound. Thus, the applications of the fluorescent dyad in solvent discrimination and trace water determination in organic solvents were verified through example studies.

  6. Molecular size, shape, and electric charges: essential for perylene bisimide-based DNA intercalator to localize in cell nuclei and inhibit cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zejun; Cheng, Wenyu; Guo, Kunru; Yu, Jieshi; Shen, Jie; Tang, Jun; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2015-05-13

    The molecular properties concerning size, shape, and electric charges of the planar aromatic DNA intercalators are still poorly understood. Herein, a series of water-soluble perylene bisimide (PBI) derivatives containing a rigid and planar aromatic nanoscaffold with different size, shape, and electric charges were synthesized. Using histochemistry and cell viability assays on animal tissues and cancer cells, we revealed the molecular properties required for successful DNA intercalators to localize in cell nuclei and inhibit cancer cells. Small molecular size and the strong polarity of hydrophilic substituents are prerequisites for PBI-based DNA intercalators. A large number of charges facilitate the nucleic accumulation of these DNA intercalators, while fewer charges and planar aromatic nanoscaffold more efficiently inhibit cancer cell growth.

  7. Bisimide amine cured epoxy /IME/ resins and composites. II - Ten-degree off-axis tensile and shear properties of Celion 6000/IME composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Bisimide amines (BIAs), which are presently used as curing agents in a state-of-the-art epoxy resin, are oligomeric and polymeric mixtures. A series of composites consisting of the novel BIA-cured epoxy resin reinforced with Celion 6000 graphite fibers were fabricated and evaluated, and the ten-degree, off-axis uniaxial tensile and shear properties of these composites were determined. The use of the intralaminar shear strain-to-failure was used in the calculation of resin shear strain-to-failure. Study results indicate that several of these novel composite systems exhibit shear strain properties that are superior to those of the control composite system of the present experiments, which employed a sulfone curing agent.

  8. Nonfullerene-Acceptor All-Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells Based on Highly Twisted Perylene Bisimide with an Efficiency of over 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Rui; Feng, Jiajing; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Meng, Dong; Ren, Zhongjie; Wang, Zhaohui; Yan, Shouke

    2017-01-25

    Two twisted singly linked perylene bisimide (PBI) dimers with chalcogen bridges in the PBI cores, named C4,4-SdiPBI-S and C4,4-SdiPBI-Se, were synthesized as acceptors for nonfullerene all-small-molecule organic solar cells (NF all-SMSCs). A moderate-band-gap small-molecule DR3TBDTT used as the electron donor displayed complementary absorption with C4,4-SdiPBI-S and C4,4-SdiPBI-Se. It was found that solvent-vapor annealing (SVA) played a critical role in the photovoltaic performance in NF all-SMSCs, which improves the crystallinity of the donor and acceptors, promotes the proper phase segregation domain size, and therefore enhances charge transport. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of NF all-SMSC devices based on DR3TBDTT/C4,4-SdiPBI-S and DR3TBDTT/C4,4-SdiPBI-Se increased from 2.52% to 5.81% (JSC = 11.12 mA cm(-2), VOC = 0.91 V, and FF = 57.32%) and from 2.65% to 6.22% (JSC = 11.55 mA cm(-2), VOC = 0.92 V, and FF = 58.72%), respectively, after exposure to chloroform vapor. The best efficiency of 6.22% is one of the highest PCEs for NF all-SMSC-based PBI acceptors so far. The studies illustrate that highly efficient NF all-SMSCs can be achieved by using a PBI acceptor with a suitable SVA process.

  9. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies...

  10. Photo-electric properties of 1,4,5,8-naphthalene bisimide derivative%1,4,5,8-萘二酰亚胺衍生物光电性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 胡桂菊; 吕良飞; 吴杰颖; 田玉鹏

    2012-01-01

    以两种l,4,5,8-萘二酰亚胺衍生物为研究对象,结合理论计算,系统研究两种化合物紫外吸收、荧光光谱、循环伏安和电化学发光性质,用平面分子内电荷转移(PICT)模型解释双荧光现象,探讨结构与光电性质之间的关系.结果表明:在萘二酰亚胺分子上引入功能基团,一方面能改善分子的溶解性,另一方面优化了该类物质的光物理学和电化学性质.%Two novel 1,4,5,8 - naphthalene bisimide derivatives were synthesized, and the UV absorption, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence ( ECL) properties of the two compounds were systematically studied combining density functional theory ( DFT) theoretical calculation. Those dual fluorescent emissions were rationally explained by the planar intramolecular charge transfer ( PICT) model. The results indicate that all the compounds display excellent optical and electrical properties by introducing electron-donating group compared to its parent unit.

  11. Sabot assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz

    2016-11-08

    A sabot assembly includes a projectile and a housing dimensioned and configured for receiving the projectile. An air pressure cavity having a cavity diameter is disposed between a front end and a rear end of the housing. Air intake nozzles are in fluid communication with the air pressure cavity and each has a nozzle diameter less than the cavity diameter. In operation, air flows through the plurality of air intake nozzles and into the air pressure cavity upon firing of the projectile from a gun barrel to pressurize the air pressure cavity for assisting in separation of the housing from the projectile upon the sabot assembly exiting the gun barrel.

  12. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  13. Dump assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  14. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  15. Self-assembly of intramolecular charge-transfer compounds into functional molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Liu, Taifeng; Liu, Huibiao; Tian, Mao-Zhong; Li, Yuliang

    2014-04-15

    Highly polarized compounds exhibiting intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) are used widely as nonlinear optical (NLO) materials and red emitters and in organic light emitting diodes. Low-molecular-weight donor/acceptor (D/A)-substituted ICT compounds are ideal candidates for use as the building blocks of hierarchically structured, multifunctional self-assembled supramolecular systems. This Account describes our recent studies into the development of functional molecular systems with well-defined self-assembled structures based on charge-transfer (CT) interactions. From solution (sensors) to the solid state (assembled structures), we have fully utilized intrinsic and stimulus-induced CT interactions to construct these functional molecular systems. We have designed some organic molecules capable of ICT, with diversity and tailorability, that can be used to develop novel self-assembled materials. These ICT organic molecules are based on a variety of simple structures such as perylene bisimide, benzothiadiazole, tetracyanobutadiene, fluorenone, isoxazolone, BODIPY, and their derivatives. The degree of ICT is influenced by the nature of both the bridge and the substituents. We have developed new methods to synthesize ICT compounds through the introduction of heterocycles or heteroatoms to the π-conjugated systems or through extending the conjugation of diverse aromatic systems via another aromatic ring. Combining these ICT compounds featuring different D/A units and different degrees of conjugation with phase transfer methodologies and solvent-vapor techniques, we have self-assembled various organic nanostructures, including hollow nanospheres, wires, tubes, and ribbonlike architectures, with controllable morphologies and sizes. For example, we obtained a noncentrosymmetric microfiber structure that possessed a permanent dipole along its fibers' long axis and a transition dipole perpendicular to it; the independent NLO responses of this material can be separated and

  16. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  17. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  18. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  19. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  20. Probe tip heating assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  1. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  2. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  3. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  4. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick

    Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e. g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is

  5. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  6. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  7. Composite fan stator assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donges, G.L.

    1993-07-13

    A composite fan stator assembly is described for a gas turbine engine having at least two fan rotor stages, the composite stator assembly comprising: an annular composite fan case assembly including an access port, the fan case assembly circumferentially disposed around first and second fan rotor stage locations, a composite fan stator stage supported by and extending radially inward of the fan case assembly and axially disposed between the two fan rotor stage locations, the fan stator stage includes at least one removable vane segment accessible for removal through the access port for assembly and reassembly, the composite fan case assembly including a separable composite forward fan case assembly and a separable composite aft fan case assembly spaced axially aft of the forward fan case assembly, the forward fan case assembly being bolted to the aft fan case assembly, wherein the composite fan stator stage is axially and radially trapped and supported by the forward and aft fan case assemblies. A composite stator vane assembly comprising: a composite inner shroud, a composite outer shroud disposed radially outward of the inner shroud, a plurality of vanes disposed between the shrouds, the vanes including a suction side and a pressure side and radially inner and outer roots, the roots extending through platforms of corresponding ones of the inner and outer shrouds, four box-type attachment elements corresponding to curved suction and pressure sides of the inner and outer roots, the box-type attachment elements having two connected legs angled with respect to each other, a first one of the legs extending along, conforming to the curve of, and bonded to a corresponding one of the airfoil root sides, and a second one of the legs extending along and bonded to a composite shroud surface.

  8. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  9. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  10. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  11. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  12. Assembly of primary cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Veland, Iben R; Schrøder, Jacob M

    2008-01-01

    in primary cilia assembly or function have been associated with a panoply of disorders and diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, left-right asymmetry defects, hydrocephalus, and Bardet Biedl Syndrome. Here we provide an up-to-date review focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly...

  13. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz;

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  14. Perspective: Geometrically frustrated assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Gregory M.

    2016-09-01

    This perspective will overview an emerging paradigm for self-organized soft materials, geometrically frustrated assemblies, where interactions between self-assembling elements (e.g., particles, macromolecules, proteins) favor local packing motifs that are incompatible with uniform global order in the assembly. This classification applies to a broad range of material assemblies including self-twisting protein filament bundles, amyloid fibers, chiral smectics and membranes, particle-coated droplets, curved protein shells, and phase-separated lipid vesicles. In assemblies, geometric frustration leads to a host of anomalous structural and thermodynamic properties, including heterogeneous and internally stressed equilibrium structures, self-limiting assembly, and topological defects in the equilibrium assembly structures. The purpose of this perspective is to (1) highlight the unifying principles and consequences of geometric frustration in soft matter assemblies; (2) classify the known distinct modes of frustration and review corresponding experimental examples; and (3) describe outstanding questions not yet addressed about the unique properties and behaviors of this broad class of systems.

  15. Laser bottom hole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  16. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Paul A; Church, Deanna M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-04

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site.

  17. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  18. Constrained space camera assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  19. Dynamic nanoparticle assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libing; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2012-11-20

    Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic, and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple levels of hierarchy of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously form superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display the ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the "bottom-up" fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces)are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable super structures with a nearly constant number of NPs or Class 2 where the total number of NPs changes, while the organizational motif in the final superstructure remains the same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of

  20. DC source assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  1. Modular assembled space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-09-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  2. Designing Assemblies Of Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, F. W.; Kennedy, D.; Butler, R.; Aston, G.; Anderson, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    VICONOPT calculates vibrations and instabilities of assemblies of prismatic plates. Designed for efficient, accurate analysis of buckling and vibration, and for optimum design of panels of composite materials. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  3. Visualisation in Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at visualisation types in assembly. Broad usage of artificial visualisation in assembly is held down mainly for economic reasons. One of the possible solutions is usage of the presented light visualisation method. This simple method of light visualisation is convenient when vibration orientation is not working properly and artificial visualisation is economically ineffective. Described principle of orientation is a technical solution of the author.

  4. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  5. Fuel assembly reconstitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Mario M.; Oliveira, Monica G.N.; Ferreira Junior, Decio B.M.; Santos, Barbara O. dos; Santos, Jorge E. dos, E-mail: mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Fuel failures have been happened in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide, without lost of integrity and safety, mainly for the public, environment and power plants workers. The most common causes of these events are corrosion (CRUD), fretting and pellet cladding interaction. These failures are identified by increasing the activity of fission products, verified by chemical analyses of reactor coolant. Through these analyses, during the fourth operation cycle of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant, was possible to observe fuel failure indication. This indication was confirmed in the end of the cycle during the unloading of reactor core through leakage tests of fuel assembly, using the equipment called 'In Mast Sipping' and 'Box Sipping'. After confirmed, the fuel assembly reconstitution was scheduled, and happened in April, 2007, where was identified the cause and the fuel rod failure, which was substitute by dummy rods (zircaloy). The cause was fretting by 'debris'. The actions to avoid and prevent fuel assemblies failures are important. The goals of this work are to describe the methodology of fuel assembly reconstitution using the FARE (Fuel Assembly Reconstitution Equipment) system, to describe the results of this task in economic and security factors of the company and show how the fuel assembly failures are identified during operation and during the outage. (author)

  6. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  7. Inducing the Formation of Functional Macroscopic Assemblies Through Programmed Orthogonal Supramolecular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-27

    journal references, in the following categories: (b) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Fusion Functional Polymeric Materials...Division of Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering (PMSE) Young Investigator Award 2014 Names of Post Doctorates Names of Faculty Supported Names of...diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP), and electron acceptors based on the perylene derived bisimide (PDI) scaffolds were chosen because of their easy preparation and their

  8. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  9. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  10. In vitro kinetochore assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miell, Matthew D D; Straight, Aaron F

    2016-01-01

    The kinetochore is the primary site of interaction between chromosomes and microtubules of the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation. The kinetochore is a complex of more than 100 proteins that transiently assemble during mitosis at a single defined region on each chromosome, known as the centromere. Kinetochore assembly and activity must be tightly regulated to ensure proper microtubule interaction and faithful chromosome segregation because perturbation of kinetochores often results in aneuploidy and cell lethality. As such, cell free and reconstituted systems to analyze kinetochore formation and function are invaluable in probing the biochemical activities of kinetochores. In vitro approaches to studying kinetochores have enabled the manipulation of kinetochore protein structure, function, interactions and regulation that are not possible in cells. Here we outline a cell-free approach for the assembly of centromeres and recruitment of functional kinetochores that enables their manipulation and analysis. PMID:27193846

  11. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued...... that territorialisation is accomplished not just through (re)defining bounded space, but more broadly through the assembling of four elements: space, subjects, objects, and expertise. Four case studies of sustainability certification in seafood are analyzed to show that ‘green gabbing’ is not necessarily the central...... dynamic in assembling sustainable territories, and that certification always involves state agencies in determining how the key elements that comprise it are defined. Whereas some state agencies have been suspicious of sustainability certification, others have embraced it or even used it to extend...

  12. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  13. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  14. Integrated magnetic transformer assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics transformer assembly comprising a first magnetically permeable core forming a first substantially closed magnetic flux path and a second magnetically permeable core forming a second substantially closed magnetic flux path. A first input...... inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and a second input inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable core. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly further comprises a first output......-winding of the first output inductor winding and the first half-winding of the second output inductor winding are configured to produce aligned, i.e. in the same direction, magnetic fluxes through the first substantially closed magnetic flux path. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly is well- suited for use...

  15. Low inductance connector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

    2013-07-09

    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  16. Self assembling proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  17. Assembling an aesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Emily

    2012-12-01

    Recent research informing and related to the study of three-dimensional scientific models is assembled here in a way that explores an aesthetic, specifically, of touch. I concentrate on the materiality of models, drawing on insights from the history and philosophy of science, design and metaphysics. This article chronicles the ways in which touch, or material interactions, operate in the world of 3D models, and its role in what models mean and do. I end with a call for greater attention to scientific process, described as assembly of and within science, which is revealed by this focus on touch. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Interactive Assembly Process Planner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华飞; 张林鍹; 肖田元; 曾理; 古月

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and performance of the virtual assembly support system (VASS), a new system that can provide designers and assembly process engineers with a simulation and visualization environment where they can evaluate the assemblability/disassemblability of products, and thereby use a computer to intuitively create assembly plans and interactively generate assembly process charts. Subassembly planning and assembly priority reasoning techniques were utilized to find heuristic information to improve the efficiency of assembly process planning. Tool planning was implemented to consider tool requirements in the product design stage. New methods were developed to reduce the computation amount involved in interference checking. As an important feature of the VASS, human interaction was integrated into the whole process of assembly process planning, extending the power of computer reasoning by including human expertise, resulting in better assembly plans and better designs.

  19. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  20. A Method for Designing Assembly Tolerance Networks of Mechanical Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing mechanical assemblies, assembly tolerance design is an important issue which must be seriously considered by designers. Assembly tolerances reflect functional requirements of assembling, which can be used to control assembling qualities and production costs. This paper proposes a new method for designing assembly tolerance networks of mechanical assemblies. The method establishes the assembly structure tree model of an assembly based on its product structure tree model. On this basis, assembly information model and assembly relation model are set up based on polychromatic sets (PS theory. According to the two models, the systems of location relation equations and interference relation equations are established. Then, using methods of topologically related surfaces (TTRS theory and variational geometric constraints (VGC theory, three VGC reasoning matrices are constructed. According to corresponding relations between VGCs and assembly tolerance types, the reasoning matrices of tolerance types are also established by using contour matrices of PS. Finally, an exemplary product is used to construct its assembly tolerance networks and meanwhile to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Industrial Assembly Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Buch, Jacob Pørksen; Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær;

    This technical report presents 13 different industrial assembly tasks, which are composed of 70 different operations. The report is written to provide an overview and do as such not contain product specific information such as object weights, dimensions etc. The operations are classified into a set...

  2. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    that territorialisation is accomplished not just through (re)defining bounded space, but more broadly through the assembling of four elements: space, subjects, objects, and expertise. Four case studies of sustainability certification in seafood are analyzed to show that ‘green gabbing’ is not necessarily the central...

  3. Turbomachine blade assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose

    2016-11-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system comprising a turbomachine blade assembly having a blade portion, a shank portion, and a mounting portion, wherein the blade portion, the shank portion, and the mounting portion comprise a first plurality of plies extending from a tip of the airfoil to a base of the dovetail.

  4. Assemblies of Polyoxometalates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Assemblies of Polyoxometalates Polyoxometalates, or POMs for short, come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some of them are among the largest inorganic molecules known today. These molecules can be highly symmetrical and, as the name already implies, consist of (mainly) metal (molybdenum, tungsten,

  5. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

  6. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

  7. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

  8. Industrial Assembly Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Buch, Jacob Pørksen; Iversen, Thorbjørn Mosekjær

    This technical report presents 13 different industrial assembly tasks, which are composed of 70 different operations. The report is written to provide an overview and do as such not contain product specific information such as object weights, dimensions etc. The operations are classified into a set...

  9. Metaphase Spindle Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun M. Kapoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A microtubule-based bipolar spindle is required for error-free chromosome segregation during cell division. In this review I discuss the molecular mechanisms required for the assembly of this dynamic micrometer-scale structure in animal cells.

  10. Dump valve assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A dump valve assembly comprising a body having a bore defined by a tapered wall and a truncated spherical valve member adapted to seat along a spherical surface portion thereof against said tapered wall. Means are provided for pivoting said valve member between a closed position engagable with said tapered wall and an open position disengaged therefrom.

  11. Supramolecular Assemblies in Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrachtrup, J.; Tietz, C.; Jelezko, F.; Gerken, U.; Schuler, S.; Götze, B.; Volkmer, A.

    2002-10-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus contains a wealth of supramolecular assemblies that are optimized for charge and energy transfer. Various techniques have been applied to investigate these functions that rely on the electronic interaction among pigment molecules. In this contribution we will present single-molecule studies of pigment protein complexes. They reveal new information about electronic interactions between chlorophyll molecules in light harvesting complexes.

  12. Beyond the Assembly Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Rebecca; Guild, Todd

    1985-01-01

    Describes how Hughes Aircraft trainers followed four steps in meeting the challenges of a flexible manufacturing environment: needs assessment, design strategy, pilot evaluation, and follow-through. Within this environment, 50 self-paced training products were developed for one of the company's wire and back plane harness assembly departments. (CT)

  13. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor...

  14. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor and pro...

  15. Top-down assembly design using assembly features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石万凯; DENEUX; Dominique; 等

    2002-01-01

    The primary task of top-down assembly desig is to define a product's detailed physical description satisfying its functional requirements identified during the functional design phase.The implementation of this design process requires two things,that is ,product functional representation and a general assembly model.Product functions are not only the formulation of a customer's needs,but also the input data of assembly design.A general assembly model is to support the evolving process of the elaboration of a product structure.The assembly feature of extended concept is taken as a functional carrier,which is a generic relation among assembly-modeled entities.The model of assembly features describes the link between product functions and form features of parts.On the basis of this link,the propagation of design modifications is discussed so as to preserve the functionality and the coherence of the assembly model.The formal model of assembly design process describes the top-down process of creating an assembly model.This formal model is represented by the combination of assembly feature operations,the assembly model and the evaluation process.A design case study is conducted to verify the applicability of the presented approaches.

  16. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  17. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  18. Low inductance busbar assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann

    2010-09-21

    A busbar assembly for electrically coupling first and second busbars to first and second contacts, respectively, on a power module is provided. The assembly comprises a first terminal integrally formed with the first busbar, a second terminal integrally formed with the second busbar and overlapping the first terminal, a first bridge electrode having a first tab electrically coupled to the first terminal and overlapping the first and second terminals, and a second tab electrically coupled to the first contact, a second bridge electrode having a third tab electrically coupled to the second terminal, and overlapping the first and second terminals and the first tab, and a fourth tab electrically coupled to the second contact, and a fastener configured to couple the first tab to the first terminal, and the third tab to the second terminal.

  19. Composite airfoil assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-03-03

    A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.

  20. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  1. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...

  2. OH Module Assembly Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, P.J.; /Fermilab

    1990-10-16

    There is an OR module assembly stand in use at IB4. This design has been approved by safety, as presented by Mike Foley, and has been successfully used. Another one is needed at the D-zero assembly building, but some modifications need to be made. This report will show that the new modified design is at least as strong, if not stronger, than the older IB4 design in every aspect. Since the weight distribution of the OR modules on the sling is indeterminate, this report compares three cases of support for the entire assembly: the lowest two beams only, the lowest four beams only, and all six beams. In each of these cases, the new design is stronger than the old design in maximum allowable weight. The ability of the the cradle to support the weight is also shown. For all of the failure conditions except for two, the cradle is stronger than the beams that it supports. In the two excepted situations, the calculated limit of the cradle is less than the beams it supports. This is because no credit is taken for the sling and strongback, which in reality will relieve much of the horizontal load.

  3. IAHS Third Scientific Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) convened its Third Scientific Assembly in Baltimore, Md., May 10-19, 1989. The Assembly was attended by about 450 scientists and engineers. The attendance was highest from the U.S., as could be expected; 37 were from Canada; 22 each, Netherlands and United Kingdom; 14, Italy; 12, China; 10, Federal Republic of Germany; 8 each from France, the Republic of South Africa, and Switzerland; 7, Austria; 6 each, Finland and Japan; others were scattered among the remainder of 48 countries total.one of the cosponsors and also handled business matters for the Assembly. Other cosponsors included the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and U.K. Overseas Development Authority (ODA). U.S. federal agencies serving as cosponsors included the Environmental Protection Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Weather Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of State, and U.S. Geological Survey.

  4. Fourth Doctoral Student Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Ingrid Haug

    2016-01-01

    On 10 May, over 130 PhD students and their supervisors, from both CERN and partner universities, gathered for the 4th Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber.   The assembly was followed by a poster session, at which eighteen doctoral students presented the outcome of their scientific work. The CERN Doctoral Student Programme currently hosts just over 200 students in applied physics, engineering, computing and science communication/education. The programme has been in place since 1985. It enables students to do their research at CERN for a maximum of three years and to work on a PhD thesis, which they defend at their University. The programme is steered by the TSC committee, which holds two selection committees per year, in June and December. The Doctoral Student Assembly was opened by the Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti, who stressed the importance of the programme in the scientific environment at CERN, emphasising that there is no more rewarding activity than lear...

  5. Failure of granular assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Welker, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates granular assemblies subjected to increasing external forces in the quasi-static limit. In this limit, the system’s evolution depends on static properties of the system, but is independent of the particles’ inertia. At the failure, which occurs at a certain value of the external forces, the particles’ motions increase quickly. In this thesis, the properties of granular systems during the weakening process and at the failure are investigated with the Discrete Element Meth...

  6. Composite nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollard, W.J.; Ferrari, H.M.

    1982-04-27

    An open lattice elongated nuclear fuel assembly including small diameter fuel rods disposed in an array spaced a selected distance above an array of larger diameter fuel rods for use in a nuclear reactor having liquid coolant flowing in an upward direction. Plenums are preferably provided in the upper portion of the upper smaller diameter fuel rods and in the lower portion of the lower larger diameter fuel rods. Lattice grid structures provide lateral support for the fuel rods and preferably the lowest grid about the upper rods is directly and rigidly affixed to the highest grid about the lower rods.

  7. Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

    2014-10-21

    The ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue. Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of spatially mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play

  8. Multivalent Protein Assembly Using Monovalent Self-Assembling Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Petkau-Milroy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Discotic molecules, which self-assemble in water into columnar supramolecular polymers, emerged as an alternative platform for the organization of proteins. Here, a monovalent discotic decorated with one single biotin was synthesized to study the self-assembling multivalency of this system in regard to streptavidin. Next to tetravalent streptavidin, monovalent streptavidin was used to study the protein assembly along the supramolecular polymer in detail without the interference of cross-linking. Upon self-assembly of the monovalent biotinylated discotics, multivalent proteins can be assembled along the supramolecular polymer. The concentration of discotics, which influences the length of the final polymers at the same time dictates the amount of assembled proteins.

  9. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  10. Progress of EMBarrel assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Chalifour, M

    2002-01-01

    The assembly of the sixteen "M" modules into a vertical axis cylinder has been achieved last Friday, completing the first wheel of the Electromagnetic Barrel Calorimeter (see picture). With this, an important milestone in the construction of the ATLAS detector has been reached. Future steps are the rotation of the cylinder axis into horizontal position, in order to integrate the presamplers and heat exchangers by the end of October. The transportation of the wheel and its insertion into the cryostat is the next major milestone, and is planned for the beginning of 2003. The construction of the modules (the so-called "P" modules) of the second wheel is ongoing at Saclay, Annecy and CERN, and will be completed in the coming months. The assembly of the second wheel should start at CERN in February, and its insertion in the cryostat is scheduled for June 2003. This achievement is the result of a successful collaboration of all institutes involved in the construction of the EM Barrel, namely Annecy, Saclay and CE...

  11. Microchannel heat sink assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Wayne L.; Contolini, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a microchannel heat sink with a thermal range from cryogenic temperatures to several hundred degrees centigrade. The heat sink can be used with a variety of fluids, such as cryogenic or corrosive fluids, and can be operated at a high pressure. The heat sink comprises a microchannel layer preferably formed of silicon, and a manifold layer preferably formed of glass. The manifold layer comprises an inlet groove and outlet groove which define an inlet manifold and an outlet manifold. The inlet manifold delivers coolant to the inlet section of the microchannels, and the outlet manifold receives coolant from the outlet section of the microchannels. In one embodiment, the manifold layer comprises an inlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the inlet manifold, and an outlet hole extending through the manifold layer to the outlet manifold. Coolant is supplied to the heat sink through a conduit assembly connected to the heat sink. A resilient seal, such as a gasket or an O-ring, is disposed between the conduit and the hole in the heat sink in order to provide a watetight seal. In other embodiments, the conduit assembly may comprise a metal tube which is connected to the heat sink by a soft solder. In still other embodiments, the heat sink may comprise inlet and outlet nipples. The present invention has application in supercomputers, integrated circuits and other electronic devices, and is suitable for cooling materials to superconducting temperatures.

  12. ULTRASONIC ASSEMBLY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes the possibility of machine producesers to optimize the costs of clothes assembling. Ultrasonic systems being frequently utilized have many advantages on semi products of synthetic textile and technical textile. First of all, sewing – cutting process can be accomplished under high speeds and rate of losses can be minimized. Cutting seal applications are frequently used for underwear and sportswear. Slicing and unit cutting machines, as well as portable sealing machines are available for labeling sector. Products such as bag, pocket and cover can be sewed in a seamless manner for promotion purposes. All objects in terms of accessories are obtained in same standard. Our quilting machines are preferred in worldwide due to its threadless, high quality sealing. An alternative to the classic sewing assembly, with thread and needles is ultrasonic seaming. In ultrasonic welding, there are no connective bolts, nails, soldering materials, or adhesives necessary to bind the materials together. Ultrasonic is defined as acoustic frequencies above the range audible to the human ear. Ultrasonic frequencies are administered to the fabric from the sonotrode of bonding machine. The high frequency and powerful energy produced, when is release in one special environment, the ultrasound heating this environment. The ability to ultrasonic weld textiles and films depend on their thermoplastic contents and the desired end results. The paper defines the weld ability of more common textiles and films. The welding refers to all types of bonding and sealing, as in point bonding of fabric, or continuous sealing of film.

  13. ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 3 October 2001 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises:   Opening Remarks (P. Levaux) Some aspects of risk in a pension fund (C. Cuénoud) Annual Report 2000: Presentation and results (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. Results of the actuarial reviews (G. Maurin) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (P. Levaux) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2000 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel. + 41 22 767 91 94; e-mail Graziella.Praire@cern.ch) The English version will be published next week.

  14. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nikolay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors.

  15. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  16. Coded nanoscale self-assembly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prathyush Samineni; Debabrata Goswami

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate coded self-assembly in nanostructures using the code seeded at the component level through computer simulations. Defects or cavities occur in all natural assembly processes including crystallization and our simulations capture this essential aspect under surface minimization constraints for self-assembly. Our bottom-up approach to nanostructures would provide a new dimension towards nanofabrication and better understanding of defects and crystallization process.

  17. Geometric reasoning about assembly tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.

  18. Rocket Assembly and Checkout Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Integrates, tests, and calibrates scientific instruments flown on sounding rocket payloads. The scientific instruments are assembled on an optical bench;...

  19. Seismic behaviour of fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heuy Gap; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-01

    A general approach for the dynamic time-history analysis of the reactor core is presented in this paper as a part of the fuel assembly qualification program. Several detailed core models are set up to reflect the placement of the fuel assemblies within the core shroud. Peak horizontal responses are obtained for each model for the motions induced from earthquake. The dynamic responses such as fuel assembly shear force, bending moment and displacement, and spacer grid impact loads are carefully investigated. Also, the sensitivity responses are obtained for the earthquake motions and the fuel assembly non-linear response characteristics are discussed. (Author) 9 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Assembly line performance and modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rane, Arun B; Sunnapwar, Vivek K

    2017-01-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations...

  1. Multi-position photovoltaic assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-03-18

    The invention is directed to a PV assembly, for use on a support surface, comprising a base, a PV module, a multi-position module support assembly, securing the module to the base at shipping and inclined-use angles, a deflector, a multi-position deflector support securing the deflector to the base at deflector shipping and deflector inclined-use angles, the module and deflector having opposed edges defining a gap therebetween. The invention permits transport of the PV assemblies in a relatively compact form, thus lowering shipping costs, while facilitating installation of the PV assemblies with the PV module at the proper inclination.

  2. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  3. Next-generation transcriptome assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-09-01

    Transcriptomics studies often rely on partial reference transcriptomes that fail to capture the full catalog of transcripts and their variations. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and assembly algorithms have facilitated the reconstruction of the entire transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), even without a reference genome. However, transcriptome assembly from billions of RNA-seq reads, which are often very short, poses a significant informatics challenge. This Review summarizes the recent developments in transcriptome assembly approaches - reference-based, de novo and combined strategies-along with some perspectives on transcriptome assembly in the near future.

  4. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  5. Cilium assembly and disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilium is an antenna-like, immotile organelle present on most types of mammalian cells, which interprets extracellular signals that regulate growth and development. Although once considered a vestigial organelle, the primary cilium is now the focus of considerable interest. We now know that ciliary defects lead to a panoply of human diseases, termed ciliopathies, and the loss of this organelle may be an early signature event during oncogenic transformation. Ciliopathies include numerous seemingly unrelated developmental syndromes, with involvement of the retina, kidney, liver, pancreas, skeletal system and brain. Recent studies have begun to clarify the key mechanisms that link cilium assembly and disassembly to the cell cycle, and suggest new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27350441

  6. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Panitz, Janda K. G.; Sharp, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  7. Chaperoning 5S RNA assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    ...—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP...

  8. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  9. Newnes electronics assembly pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Produced in association with the Engineering Training Authority with contributions from dozens of people in the electronics industry. The material covers common skills in electrical and electronic engineering and concentrates mainly on wiring and assembly. 'Newnes Electronics Assembly Pocket Book' is for electronics technicians, students and apprentices.

  10. Assembly sequencing with toleranced parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latombe, J.C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Robotics Lab.; Wilson, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    1995-02-21

    The goal of assembly sequencing is to plan a feasible series of operations to construct a product from its individual parts. Previous research has thoroughly investigated assembly sequencing under the assumption that parts have nominal geometry. This paper considers the case where parts have toleranced geometry. Its main contribution is an efficient procedure that decides if a product admits an assembly sequence with infinite translations that is feasible for all possible instances of the components within the specified tolerances. If the product admits one such sequence, the procedure can also generate it. For the cases where there exists no such assembly sequence, another procedure is proposed which generates assembly sequences that are feasible only for some values of the toleranced dimensions. If this procedure produces no such sequence, then no instance of the product is assemblable. Finally, this paper analyzes the relation between assembly and disassembly sequences in the presence of toleranced parts. This work assumes a simple, but non-trivial tolerance language that falls short of capturing all imperfections of a manufacturing process. Hence, it is only one step toward assembly sequencing with toleranced parts.

  11. Fuel cell sub-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell sub-assembly comprising a plurality of fuel cells, a first section of a cooling means disposed at an end of the assembly and means for connecting the fuel cells and first section together to form a unitary structure.

  12. Integrating genome assemblies with MAIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J.F.; Winterbach, W.; Van den Broek, M.; Daran, J.M.; Reinders, M.J.T.; De Ridder, D.

    2010-01-01

    De novo assembly of a eukaryotic genome with next-generation sequencing data is still a challenging task. Over the past few years several assemblers have been developed, often suitable for one specific type of sequencing data. The number of known genomes is expanding rapidly, therefore it becomes po

  13. What was the Assembly Line?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    2010-01-01

    The assembly line is still evolving a century after its invention, and it was not a distinct historical stage, nor was it part of an inevitable sequence that followed "Taylorism."......The assembly line is still evolving a century after its invention, and it was not a distinct historical stage, nor was it part of an inevitable sequence that followed "Taylorism."...

  14. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  15. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  16. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  17. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Gorpani

    2000-06-26

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  18. Tile Calorimete Pre-Assembly Summary and Barrel Assembly Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Proudfoot, J; Liablin, M V; Topilin, N D

    2004-01-01

    The barrel survey results from the pre-assembly in Building 185 are reviewed. From these and the models developed to calculate the cylinder geometry we propose a minimal modification to the shimming plan for the barrel calorimeter assembly in the Atlas cavern. At the precision of this calculation, we expect the tile calorimeter to be almost entirely within it design envelope. The focus of this note is the radial envelope. Based on the pre-assembly experience the tile calorimeter will fit comfortably within its envelope along the beam line.

  19. Subcritical nuclear assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    A Subcritical Nuclear Assembly is a device where the nuclear-fission chain reaction is initiated and maintained using an external neutron source. It is a valuable educational and research tool where in a safe way many reactor parameters can be measured. Here, we have used the Wigner-Seitz method in the six-factor formula to calculate the effective multiplication factor of a subcritical nuclear reactor Nuclear Chicago model 9000. This reactor has approximately 2500 kg of natural uranium heterogeneously distributed in slugs. The reactor uses a {sup 239}PuBe neutron source that is located in the center of an hexagonal array. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code, a three-dimensional model of the subcritical reactor was designed to estimate the effective multiplication factor, the neutron spectra, the total and thermal neutron fluences along the radial and axial axis. With the neutron spectra in two locations outside the reactor the ambient dose equivalent were estimated. (Author)

  20. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zongxuan (Troy, MI)

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  1. Illustrating how mechanical assemblies work

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-07-26

    How things work visualizations use a variety of visual techniques to depict the operation of complex mechanical assemblies. We present an automated approach for generating such visualizations. Starting with a 3D CAD model of an assembly, we first infer the motions of individual parts and the interactions between parts based on their geometry and a few user specified constraints. We then use this information to generate visualizations that incorporate motion arrows, frame sequences and animation to convey the causal chain of motions and mechanical interactions between parts. We present results for a wide variety of assemblies. © 2010 ACM.

  2. Illustrating how mechanical assemblies work

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2013-01-01

    How-things-work visualizations use a variety of visual techniques to depict the operation of complex mechanical assemblies. We present an automated approach for generating such visualizations. Starting with a 3D CAD model of an assembly, we first infer the motions of the individual parts and the interactions across the parts based on their geometry and a few user-specified constraints. We then use this information to generate visualizations that incorporate motion arrows, frame sequences, and animation to convey the causal chain of motions and mechanical interactions across parts. We demonstrate our system on a wide variety of assemblies. © 2013 ACM 0001-0782/13/01.

  3. Assembly line performance and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Arun B.; Sunnapwar, Vivek K.

    2017-03-01

    Automobile sector forms the backbone of manufacturing sector. Vehicle assembly line is important section in automobile plant where repetitive tasks are performed one after another at different workstations. In this thesis, a methodology is proposed to reduce cycle time and time loss due to important factors like equipment failure, shortage of inventory, absenteeism, set-up, material handling, rejection and fatigue to improve output within given cost constraints. Various relationships between these factors, corresponding cost and output are established by scientific approach. This methodology is validated in three different vehicle assembly plants. Proposed methodology may help practitioners to optimize the assembly line using lean techniques.

  4. Directed Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Axel Rune Fredrik; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a complement to common "top-down" lithography techniques, "bottom-up" assembly techniques are emerging as promising tools to build nanoscale structures in a predictable way. Gold nanoparticles that are stable and relatively easy to synthesize are important building blocks in many such structures...... due to their useful optical and electronic properties. Programmed assembly of gold nanoparticles in one, two, and three dimensions is therefore of large interest. This review focuses on the progress from the last three years in the field of directed gold nanoparticle and nanorod assembly using...

  5. Hear Exchange Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Sibilia, Marc; Miller, Jeffrey; Tonon, Thomas S.

    2003-05-27

    A heat exchange assembly comprises a plurality of plates disposed in a spaced-apart arrangement, each of the plurality of plates includes a plurality of passages extending internally from a first end to a second end for directing flow of a heat transfer fluid in a first plane, a plurality of first end-piece members equaling the number of plates and a plurality of second end-piece members also equaling the number of plates, each of the first and second end-piece members including a recessed region adapted to fluidly connect and couple with the first and second ends of the plate, respectively, and further adapted to be affixed to respective adjacent first and second end-piece members in a stacked formation, and each of the first and second end-piece members further including at least one cavity for enabling entry of the heat transfer fluid into the plate, exit of the heat transfer fluid from the plate, or 180.degree. turning of the fluid within the plate to create a serpentine-like fluid flow path between points of entry and exit of the fluid, and at least two fluid conduits extending through the stacked plurality of first and second end-piece members for providing first fluid connections between the parallel fluid entry points of adjacent plates and a fluid supply inlet, and second fluid connections between the parallel fluid exit points of adjacent plates and a fluid discharge outlet so that the heat transfer fluid travels in parallel paths through each respective plate.

  6. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called digital materials. We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  7. Robotically Assembled Aerospace Structures: Digital Material Assembly using a Gantry-Type Assembler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Greenfield; Copplestone, Grace; O'Connor, Molly; Hu, Steven; Nowak, Sebastian; Cheung, Kenneth; Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the development of automated assembly techniques for discrete lattice structures using a multi-axis gantry type CNC machine. These lattices are made of discrete components called "digital materials." We present the development of a specialized end effector that works in conjunction with the CNC machine to assemble these lattices. With this configuration we are able to place voxels at a rate of 1.5 per minute. The scalability of digital material structures due to the incremental modular assembly is one of its key traits and an important metric of interest. We investigate the build times of a 5x5 beam structure on the scale of 1 meter (325 parts), 10 meters (3,250 parts), and 30 meters (9,750 parts). Utilizing the current configuration with a single end effector, performing serial assembly with a globally fixed feed station at the edge of the build volume, the build time increases according to a scaling law of n4, where n is the build scale. Build times can be reduced significantly by integrating feed systems into the gantry itself, resulting in a scaling law of n3. A completely serial assembly process will encounter time limitations as build scale increases. Automated assembly for digital materials can assemble high performance structures from discrete parts, and techniques such as built in feed systems, parallelization, and optimization of the fastening process will yield much higher throughput.

  8. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  9. Analysis of Illumina Microbial Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clum, Alicia; Foster, Brian; Froula, Jeff; LaButti, Kurt; Sczyrba, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Woyke, Tanja

    2010-05-28

    Since the emerging of second generation sequencing technologies, the evaluation of different sequencing approaches and their assembly strategies for different types of genomes has become an important undertaken. Next generation sequencing technologies dramatically increase sequence throughput while decreasing cost, making them an attractive tool for whole genome shotgun sequencing. To compare different approaches for de-novo whole genome assembly, appropriate tools and a solid understanding of both quantity and quality of the underlying sequence data are crucial. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of short-read Illumina sequence assembly strategies for bacterial and archaeal genomes. Different types of Illumina libraries as well as different trim parameters and assemblers were evaluated. Results of the comparative analysis and sequencing platforms will be presented. The goal of this analysis is to develop a cost-effective approach for the increased throughput of the generation of high quality microbial genomes.

  10. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  11. Chromatin assembly using Drosophila systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyodorov, Dmitry V; Levenstein, Mark E

    2002-05-01

    To successfully study chromatin structure and activity in vitro, it is essential to have a chromatin assembly system that will prepare extended nucleosome arrays with highly defined protein content that resemble bulk chromatin isolated from living cell nuclei in terms of periodicity and nucleosome positioning. The Drosophila ATP-dependent chromatin assembly system described in this unit meets these requirements. The end product of the reaction described here has highly periodic extended arrays with physiologic spacing and positioning of the nucleosomes.

  12. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  13. DNA controlled assembly of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stefan; Jakobsen, Ulla; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2009-01-01

    DNA-encoding of solid nanoparticles requires surfacechemistry, which is often tedious and not generally applicable. In the present study non-covalently attached DNA are used to assemble soft nanoparticles (liposomes) in solution. This process displays remarkably sharp thermal transitions from...... assembled to disassembled state for which reason this method allows easy and fast detection of polynucleotides (e.g. DNA or RNA), including single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as insertions and deletions....

  14. Another successful Doctoral Student Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday 2 April, CERN hosted its third Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber.   CERN PhD students show off their posters in CERN's Main Building. Speaking to a packed house, Director-General Rolf Heuer gave the assembly's opening speech and introduced the poster session that followed. Seventeen CERN PhD students presented posters on their work, and were greeted by their CERN and University supervisors. It was a very successful event!

  15. Optical gating of perylene bisimide fluorescence using dithienylcyclopentene photochromic switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pärs, Martti; Köhler, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.koehler@uni-bayreuth.de [Experimental Physics IV, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Gräf, Katja; Bauer, Peter; Thelakkat, Mukundan [Applied Functional Polymers, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2013-11-25

    The emission of millions of fluorescence photons from a chromophore is controlled by the absorption of a few tens of photons in a photochromic molecule. The parameters that determine the efficiency of this process are investigated, providing insights for the development of an all-optical gate.

  16. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is...). When subjected to tests procedures specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the abdomen assembly...

  17. Precision Assembly of Systems on Surfaces (PASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Precision Assembly of Systems on Surfaces ( PASS ) This program was directed at generating functionalized surfaces and assemblies for electronic and...journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Precision Assembly of Systems on Surfaces ( PASS ) Report Title This...PRECISION ASSEMBLY OF SYSTEMS ON SURFACES ( PASS ) PI: Timothy M. Swager Massachusetts Institute of Technology Final Report: DARPA, Defense

  18. Molecular self-assembly advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dequan, Alex Li

    2012-01-01

    In the past several decades, molecular self-assembly has emerged as one of the main themes in chemistry, biology, and materials science. This book compiles and details cutting-edge research in molecular assemblies ranging from self-organized peptide nanostructures and DNA-chromophore foldamers to supramolecular systems and metal-directed assemblies, even to nanocrystal superparticles and self-assembled microdevices

  19. Product lifecycle-oriented virtual assembly technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; NING Ru-xin; YAO Jun; WAN Bi-le

    2006-01-01

    VA (virtual assembly) provides a more efficient,intuitive and convenient method for assembly process modeling,simulation and analysis.Previous researches about VA are almost isolated and dispersive,and have not established the understanding and definition of VA from a macroscopical and integrated view.Based on the analysis of the connotations of VA,a PLO-VATA (product lifecycle-oriented virtual assembly technology architecture) is proposed,in this architecture,VA is decomposed into four basic elements:principles and methodology of DFA (design for assembly),assembly analysis and evaluation,virtual assembly model and virtual assembly toolkits.Immersion,concurrence,integration and collaboration are the four main characteristics of VA being put forward.The key techniques of VA including virtual assembly model,virtual assembly analysis and evaluation,and virtual assembly process planning are discussed.Finally,a prototype system is built to validate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  20. Assembly of lamins in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINGUNGWEI; XIANGJUNTONG; 等

    1996-01-01

    After lamins A,B and C were isolated and purified from rat liver,their assembly properties were examined by electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy by electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy using negative staining and the glycerol coating method,respectively.By varying the assembly time or the ionic conditions under which polymerization takes place,we have observed different stages of lamin assembly,which may provide clues on the structure of the 10 nm lamin filaments.At the first level of structural organization,two lamin polypeptides associate laterally into dimers with the two domains being parallel and in register.At the second level of structural organization,two dimers associate in a half-staggered and antiparallel fashion to form a tetramer 75 nm in length.At the third level of structural organization,4-10 lamin tetramers associate laterally in register to form 75 nm long 10nm filaments,which in turn combine head to head into long,fully assembled lamin filaments.The assembled lamin filaments are nonpolar.

  1. Dynamic pathways for viral capsid assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, Michael F.; Chandler, David

    2006-01-01

    We develop a class of models with which we simulate the assembly of particles into T1 capsid-like objects using Newtonian dynamics. By simulating assembly for many different values of system parameters, we vary the forces that drive assembly. For some ranges of parameters, assembly is facile, while for others, assembly is dynamically frustrated by kinetic traps corresponding to malformed or incompletely formed capsids. Our simulations sample many independent trajectories at various capsomer c...

  2. Dynamics of assembly production flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distr...

  3. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  4. Nitrogenase Assembly: Strategies and Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickerman, Nathaniel S; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogenase is a metalloenzyme system that plays a critical role in biological nitrogen fixation, and the study of how its metallocenters are assembled into functional entities to facilitate the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia is an active area of interest. The diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii is especially amenable to culturing and genetic manipulation, and this organism has provided the basis for many insights into the assembly of nitrogenase proteins and their respective metallocofactors. This chapter will cover the basic procedures necessary for growing A. vinelandii cultures and subsequent recombinant transformation and protein expression techniques. Furthermore, protocols for nitrogenase protein purification and substrate reduction activity assays are described. These methods provide a solid framework for the assessment of nitrogenase assembly and catalysis. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assembling of hydrogenated aluminum clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, F.; Mananes, A. [Dept. de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Molina, L.M.; Lopez, M.J.; Alonso, J.A. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    The electronic and atomic structure of Al{sub 13}H has been studied using Density Functional Theory. Al{sub 13}H has closed electronic shells. This makes the cluster very stable and suggests that it could be a candidate to form cluster assembled solids. The interaction between two Al{sub 13}H clusters was analyzed and we found that the two units preserve their identities in the dimer. A cubic-like solid phase assembled from Al{sub 13}H units was then modeled. In that solid the clusters retain much of their identity. Molecular dynamics runs show that the structure of the assembled solid is stable at least up to 150 K. A favorable relative orientation of the clusters with respect to their neighbors is critical for the stability of that solid. (orig.)

  6. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-05-30

    This report describes the modeling of a PWR fuel assembly under dynamic shock loading in support of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) shaker test campaign. The focus of the test campaign is on evaluating the response of used fuel to shock and vibration loads that a can occur during highway transport. Modeling began in 2012 using an LS-DYNA fuel assembly model that was first created for modeling impact scenarios. SNL’s proposed test scenario was simulated through analysis and the calculated results helped guide the instrumentation and other aspects of the testing. During FY 2013, the fuel assembly model was refined to better represent the test surrogate. Analysis of the proposed loads suggested the frequency band needed to be lowered to attempt to excite the lower natural frequencies of the fuel assembly. Despite SNL’s expansion of lower frequency components in their five shock realizations, pretest predictions suggested a very mild dynamic response to the test loading. After testing was completed, one specific shock case was modeled, using recorded accelerometer data to excite the model. Direct comparison of predicted strain in the cladding was made to the recorded strain gauge data. The magnitude of both sets of strain (calculated and recorded) are very low, compared to the expected yield strength of the Zircaloy-4 material. The model was accurate enough to predict that no yielding of the cladding was expected, but its precision at predicting micro strains is questionable. The SNL test data offers some opportunity for validation of the finite element model, but the specific loading conditions of the testing only excite the fuel assembly to respond in a limited manner. For example, the test accelerations were not strong enough to substantially drive the fuel assembly out of contact with the basket. Under this test scenario, the fuel assembly model does a reasonable job of approximating actual fuel assembly response, a claim that can be verified through

  7. Self-assembly of cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülöp, Z.; Kurkov, S.V.; Nielsen, T.T.;

    2012-01-01

    The design of functional cyclodextrin (CD) nanoparticles is a developing area in the field of nanomedicine. CDs can not only help in the formation of drug carriers but also increase the local concentration of drugs at the site of action. CD monomers form aggregates by self-assembly, a tendency...... that increases upon formation of inclusion complexes with lipophilic drugs. However, the stability of such aggregates is not sufficient for parenteral administration. In this review CD polymers and CD containing nanoparticles are categorized, with focus on self-assembled CD nanoparticles. It is described how...... the nanoparticles can be stabilized and tuned to have specific properties....

  8. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  9. Automated solar panel assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  10. Ultrasonic Assembly of Thermoplastic Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurman, W. R.

    1970-03-31

    Four ultrasonic methods were evaluated for assembly of experimental plastic parts for detonators: (1) welding, (2) crimping and staking, (3) insertion, and (4) reactivation of adhesives. For welding, staking and insertion, plastics with low elastic moduli, such as acrylics and polycarbonate, produced the best results. Thermosetting, hot-melt, and solution adhesives could all be activated ultrasonically to form good bonds on plastics and other materials. This evaluation indicated that thermoplastic detonator parts could be assembled ultrasonically in shorter times than by present production techniques with high bond strengths and high product acceptance rates.

  11. STAR: a simple TAL effector assembly reaction using isothermal assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolok, Sabine; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Pollard, Steven M

    2016-09-12

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain modular programmable DNA binding domains. Fusing TALEs with effector domains creates synthetic transcription factors (TALE-TFs) or nucleases (TALENs), enabling precise gene manipulations. The construction of TALEs remains challenging due to their repetitive sequences. Here we report a simple TALE assembly reaction (STAR) that enables individual laboratories to generate multiple TALEs in a facile manner. STAR uses an isothermal assembly ('Gibson assembly') that is labour- and cost-effective, accessible, rapid and scalable. A small 68-part fragment library is employed, and the specific TALE repeat sequence is generated within ~8 hours. Sequence-verified TALENs or TALE-TF plasmids targeting 17 bp target sequences can be produced within three days, without the need for stepwise intermediate plasmid production. We demonstrate the utility of STAR through production of functional TALE-TFs capable of activating human SOX2 expression. STAR addresses some of the shortcomings of existing Golden Gate or solid-phase assembly protocols and enables routine production of TALE-TFs that will complement emerging CRISPR/Cas9-based reagents across diverse applications in mammalian stem cell and synthetic biology.

  12. "Assembling" the Ideal Learner: The School Assembly as Regulatory Ritual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Patti; Jacklin, Heather

    2015-01-01

    "School assemblies" are rituals that celebrate and mark the school community. They carry messages of allegiance and belonging that are disseminated both verbally and nonverbally. Although verbal messages are explicitly stated, nonverbal messages are conveyed through subjection to habits, rules, and orders (Foucault 1977) and are…

  13. iAssembler: a package for de novo assembly of Roche-454/Sanger transcriptome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs have played significant roles in gene discovery and gene functional analysis, especially for non-model organisms. For organisms with no full genome sequences available, ESTs are normally assembled into longer consensus sequences for further downstream analysis. However current de novo EST assembly programs often generate large number of assembly errors that will negatively affect the downstream analysis. In order to generate more accurate consensus sequences from ESTs, tools are needed to reduce or eliminate errors from de novo assemblies. Results We present iAssembler, a pipeline that can assemble large-scale ESTs into consensus sequences with significantly higher accuracy than current existing assemblers. iAssembler employs MIRA and CAP3 assemblers to generate initial assemblies, followed by identifying and correcting two common types of transcriptome assembly errors: 1 ESTs from different transcripts (mainly alternatively spliced transcripts or paralogs are incorrectly assembled into same contigs; and 2 ESTs from same transcripts fail to be assembled together. iAssembler can be used to assemble ESTs generated using the traditional Sanger method and/or the Roche-454 massive parallel pyrosequencing technology. Conclusion We compared performances of iAssembler and several other de novo EST assembly programs using both Roche-454 and Sanger EST datasets. It demonstrated that iAssembler generated significantly more accurate consensus sequences than other assembly programs.

  14. Focal Plane Image Assembly of Subpixel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scanning assembly principle and construction of scanning assembly sample.The factors that affect assembly accuracy are analyzed.There are two steps in CCD focal plane scanning assembly.The first is rough assembly,and the second is accurate assembly.In this paper,the moiré fringe is introduced in judging assembly accuracy directly and accurately.The equation for optical transmission characteristics of CCD Moiré fringes is presented.The measurement of Moiré fringes can be completed when some conditions are satisfied.2D-assembly error can be obtained by using digital correlation filtering technique.Finally,the result of focal plane scanning assembly is presented.The result is in good accordance with theory.

  15. Assembly Sequence Planning for Mechanical Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A method for assembly sequence planning is proposed in this paper. First, two methods for assembly sequence planning are compared, which are indirect method and direct method. Then, the limits of the previous assembly planning system are pointed out. On the basis of indirect method, an improved method for assembly sequence planning is put forward. This method is composed of four parts, which are assembly modeling for products, assembly sequence representing, assembly sequence planning, and evaluation and optimization. The assembly model is established by human machine interaction, and the assembly model contains components' information and the assembly relation among the components. The assembly sequence planning is based on the breaking up of the assembly model. And/or graph is used to represent assembly sequence set. Every component which satisfies the disassembly condition is recorded as a node of an and/or graph. After the disassembly sequence and/or graph is generated, heuristic algorithm - AO* algorithm is used to search the disassembly sequence and/or graph, and the optimum assembly sequence planning is realized. This method is proved to be effective in a prototype system which is a sub-project of a state 863/CIMS research project of China - ‘Concurrent Engineering’.

  16. Quantum magnetism through atomic assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of magnetic structures, composed of only a few atoms. Those structures are first built atom-by-atom and then locally probed, both with a low-temperature STM. The technique that we use to assemble them is vertical atom manipulation, while to study their phy

  17. DNA controlled assembly of liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stefan; Jakobsen, Ulla; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2009-01-01

    DNA-encoding of solid nanoparticles requires surfacechemistry, which is often tedious and not generally applicable. In the present study non-covalently attached DNA are used to assemble soft nanoparticles (liposomes) in solution. This process displays remarkably sharp thermal transitions from...

  18. Construction of YBS Critical Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Qi; LIANG; Shu-hong; ZHU; Qing-fu; ZHANG; Wei; YANG; Li-jun; QUAN; Yan-hui

    2015-01-01

    Supported by the XDA program of CAS,the YBS critical assembly has been constructed for the experimental research of the coupling and influence characteristics of spallation target and reactor in ADS system.This work consists of two parts:one is the conversion of the reactor hall and control room,and the other manufacture,installation and commissioning of the critical

  19. TWOWS Assembly Convenes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2010-01-01

    @@ "Women are still under-represented in the fields of science and technology,"remarked HE Naledi Pandor,minister of science and technology of South Africa,at her invited speech heralding the opening of the Fourth General Assembly and International Conference of the Third World Organization for Women in Science(TWOWS)on the morning of June 27 in Beijing.

  20. Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The 2007 AGU Fellows were presented at the recent Joint Assembly in Acapulco, Mexico. A formal ceremony was held on 25 May 2007, where President Tim Killeen introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each had been selected. The presentations were followed by an honors fiesta at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees.

  1. Dynamics of assembly production flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distributed assembly processes. From a physical perspective, these phenomena provide insight into delay dynamics and inventory distributions in large-scale manufacturing systems.

  2. In vitro assembly of catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

    2014-10-10

    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process.

  3. Automated Solar-Array Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffa, A.; Bycer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Large arrays are rapidly assembled from individual solar cells by automated production line developed for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Apparatus positions cells within array, attaches interconnection tabs, applies solder flux, and solders interconnections. Cells are placed in either straight or staggered configurations and may be connected either in series or in parallel. Are attached at rate of one every 5 seconds.

  4. J-2 Engine Assembly Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    J-2 engines for the Saturn IB/Saturn V launch vehicles are lined up in the assembly area at Rocketdyne's manufacturing plant in Canoga Park, California. Five J-2 engines provided more than 1,000,000 pounds of thrust to accelerate the second stage toward a Moon trajectory.

  5. A composite solar power assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairamov, R.B.; Khodzhiev, A.I.; Korneev, N.R.; Kuladova, N.A.; Ushakova, A.D.

    1981-08-23

    An assembly is described which contains heat and cooling sections; the first of these contains a solar collector built in the form of a frame with a light transparent cover and an internal boiler and battery. The second section contains an aborber and an evaporator; the battery and the evaporator are connected to the customer through a heat exchanger.

  6. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  7. ATLAS Assembly Hall Open Day

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    To mark the 50th Anniversary of the founding of CERN, a day of tours, displays and presentations was held in October 2004. The assembly halls for the experiments that were waiting to be installed on the LHC, such as ATLAS shown here, were transformed into display areas and cafés.

  8. HIV-1 assembly in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaroch Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines. Early electron microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells. This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive. Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent genome-wide screens. However, their respective

  9. DESIGN REUSE METHOD FOR ASSEMBLIES IN CONCEPT DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yan; Tan Jianrong; Xu Jing

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at difficult sorting and retrieving complicated structure assemblies in assembly lib,a method for compartmentalizing assembly design resource by conceptual product structure model is presented. The similar assembly retrieval mechanisms of symbol assembly relation graph matching and symbol assembly relation graph similarity are discussed. The method is validated by taking valve rod assemblies as example.

  10. Minimus: a fast, lightweight genome assembler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzberg Steven L

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome assemblers have grown very large and complex in response to the need for algorithms to handle the challenges of large whole-genome sequencing projects. Many of the most common uses of assemblers, however, are best served by a simpler type of assembler that requires fewer software components, uses less memory, and is far easier to install and run. Results We have developed the Minimus assembler to address these issues, and tested it on a range of assembly problems. We show that Minimus performs well on several small assembly tasks, including the assembly of viral genomes, individual genes, and BAC clones. In addition, we evaluate Minimus' performance in assembling bacterial genomes in order to assess its suitability as a component of a larger assembly pipeline. We show that, unlike other software currently used for these tasks, Minimus produces significantly fewer assembly errors, at the cost of generating a more fragmented assembly. Conclusion We find that for small genomes and other small assembly tasks, Minimus is faster and far more flexible than existing tools. Due to its small size and modular design Minimus is perfectly suited to be a component of complex assembly pipelines. Minimus is released as an open-source software project and the code is available as part of the AMOS project at Sourceforge.

  11. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2014-09-01

    A rare variety of self-assembledmolecular triangle [Pd3(bpy)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1 is prepared by the combination of Pd(bpy)(NO3)2 with imidazole, at 1:1 ratio, in acetonitrile-water. Deprotonation of imidazole happened during the course of the complexation reaction where upon the metallomacrocycle is formed. The bowl-shaped trinuclear architecture of 1 is crafted with three peripheral bpy units capable of - stacking interactions. While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear manner utilizing intermolecular - interactions where upon two out of three bpy units of each molecule participated in the chain formation.

  12. Hydraulic Experiment for Simulative Assemblies of Blanket Assembly and Np Transmutation Assembly of China Experimental Fast Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Dao-xi; QI; Xiao-guang; ZHAI; Wei-ming; YANG; Bing; ZHOU; Ping

    2013-01-01

    The out-of reactor hydraulic experiment of fast reactor assembly is one of the important experiments in the process of the development of the fast reactor assembly.In this experiment,the size of the throttling element in the foot of the assembly is decided which is fit for the flow division in the reactor and the

  13. Compact MCP assemblies for mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, S. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Umebayashi, S. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Kusuyama, Y. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Natsume, Y. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.; Oba, K. [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Shizuoka (Japan). Electron Tube Div.

    1995-09-01

    We have developed compact microchannel plate (MCP) assemblies which have a high gain, good pulse height resolution and a fast response for MS applications. In this paper, these new assemblies are described referring to their structures, functions and characteristics. (orig.).

  14. Detonator assembly for oil well perforating gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regalbuto, J.A.

    1981-02-18

    A safe/arm detonator assembly for use with an oil well perforating gun assembly has 2 housing members isolated from well-bore fluid which are rotatable from a safe position wherein a detonator and a booster are held out of alignment, to an armed position wherein the detonator and booster are moved into alignment. The detonator assembly is further arranged to be installed in a well perforating gun assembly such that the gun assembly may be transported with the detonator assembly in the safe position, and rotated to the armed position at the well site without disassembling the gun assembly. A safety pin may protrude from one of the housing members across a cavity between the members to cover and protect the booster from accidental detonation when the detonator assembly is in the safe position. The detonator and booster cavities may be held aligned by a detent ball. 16 claims.

  15. STAR: a simple TAL effector assembly reaction using isothermal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolok, Sabine; Garcia-Diaz, Claudia; Pollard, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) contain modular programmable DNA binding domains. Fusing TALEs with effector domains creates synthetic transcription factors (TALE-TFs) or nucleases (TALENs), enabling precise gene manipulations. The construction of TALEs remains challenging due to their repetitive sequences. Here we report a simple TALE assembly reaction (STAR) that enables individual laboratories to generate multiple TALEs in a facile manner. STAR uses an isothermal assembly (‘Gibson assembly’) that is labour- and cost-effective, accessible, rapid and scalable. A small 68-part fragment library is employed, and the specific TALE repeat sequence is generated within ~8 hours. Sequence-verified TALENs or TALE-TF plasmids targeting 17 bp target sequences can be produced within three days, without the need for stepwise intermediate plasmid production. We demonstrate the utility of STAR through production of functional TALE-TFs capable of activating human SOX2 expression. STAR addresses some of the shortcomings of existing Golden Gate or solid-phase assembly protocols and enables routine production of TALE-TFs that will complement emerging CRISPR/Cas9-based reagents across diverse applications in mammalian stem cell and synthetic biology. PMID:27615025

  16. United assembly algorithm for optical burst switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Yu(于金辉); Yijun Yang(杨教军); Yuehua Chen(陈月华); Ge Fan(范戈)

    2003-01-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising optical switching technology. The burst assembly algorithm controls burst assembly, which significantly impacts performance of OBS network. This paper provides a new assembly algorithm, united assembly algorithm, which has more practicability than conventional algorithms. In addition, some factors impacting selections of parameters of this algorithm are discussed and the performance of this algorithm is studied by computer simulation.

  17. Virtual Reality and Haptics for Product Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptics can significantly enhance the user's sense of immersion and interactivity. An industrial application of virtual reality and haptics for product assembly is described in this paper, which provides a new and low-cost approach for product assembly design, assembly task planning and assembly operation training. A demonstration of the system with haptics device interaction was available at the session of exp.at'11.

  18. Uracil Excision for Assembly of Complex Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2015-01-01

    inexpensive technologies available. Here, we describe four different protocols for uracil excision-based DNA editing: one for simple manipulations such as site-directed mutagenesis, one for plasmid-based multigene assembly in Escherichia coli, one for one-step assembly and integration of single or multiple...... genes into the genome, and a standardized assembly pipeline using benchmarked oligonucleotides for pathway assembly and multigene expression optimization....

  19. Snowball: Strain aware gene assembly of Metagenomes

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, I.; Schönhuth, A.; McHardy, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Gene assembly is an important step in functional analysis of shotgun metagenomic data. Nonetheless, strain aware assembly remains a challenging task, as current assembly tools often fail to distinguish among strain variants or require closely related reference genomes of the studied species to be available. We have developed Snowball, a novel strain aware and reference-free gene assembler for shotgun metagenomic data. It uses profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) of gene domains of interest to ...

  20. Supramolecular assemblies based on glycoconjugated dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Supramolecular assemblies of glycoconjugated dyes can be tailored with properties that make them attractive for use in biomedical applications. For example, when assemblies of glycoconjugated dyes are displaying carbohydrates on their periphery in a polyvalent manner, these assemblies can be used to

  1. LHC Magnet Assembly Facility in building 181

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2005-01-01

    Hall 181 activities for the LHC machine * Reception of the American magnets : quadrupoles and separation dipoles * Assembly of the string Low-Beta Triplet -Q2-Q3-DFBX-D1 * Insertion quadrupoles cold masses assembly * Magnets reception type MQM, MQY, MCBC et MCBY * Assembly in the shell * Longitudinal welding under the press * Equipment with end covers in the finishing area

  2. Radiation Effects Simulation of Fuel Assemblies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Yao

    2015-01-01

    Due to a large number of photons irradiated by the fuel assemblies after radiation in the reactor,the data acquisition and image reconstruction will be interfered seriously for the nuclear fuel assembly non-destructive testing system.Therefore,in process of the fuel assembly NDT system

  3. Snowball: Strain aware gene assembly of Metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregor, I.; Schönhuth, A.; McHardy, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Gene assembly is an important step in functional analysis of shotgun metagenomic data. Nonetheless, strain aware assembly remains a challenging task, as current assembly tools often fail to distinguish among strain variants or require closely related reference genomes of the studied species to be av

  4. Linear Logic for Meaning Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F C N; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

    1995-01-01

    Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Meanings are often assumed to combine via function application, which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. However, we believe that the functional structure of Lexical-Functional Grammar is best used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. It has been difficult, however, to reconcile this approach with the combination of meanings by function application. In contrast to compositional approaches, we present a deductive approach to assembling meanings, based on reasoning with constraints, which meshes well with the unordered nature of information in the functional structure. Our use of linear logic as a `glue' for assembling meanings allows for a coherent treatment of the LFG requ...

  5. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  6. Nuclear reactor composite fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Donn M. (Richland, WA); Marr, Duane R. (West Richland, WA); Cappiello, Michael W. (Richland, WA); Omberg, Ronald P. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A core and composite fuel assembly for a liquid-cooled breeder nuclear reactor including a plurality of elongated coextending driver and breeder fuel elements arranged to form a generally polygonal bundle within a thin-walled duct. The breeder elements are larger in cross section than the driver elements, and each breeder element is laterally bounded by a number of the driver elements. Each driver element further includes structure for spacing the driver elements from adjacent fuel elements and, where adjacent, the thin-walled duct. A core made up of the fuel elements can advantageously include fissile fuel of only one enrichment, while varying the effective enrichment of any given assembly or core region, merely by varying the relative number and size of the driver and breeder elements.

  7. Chaperoning 5S RNA assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    In eukaryotes, three of the four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)—the 5.8S, 18S, and 25S/28S rRNAs—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP), containing ribosomal proteins Rpl5/uL18 and Rpl11/uL5, prior to its incorporation into preribosomes. In mammals, the 5S RNP is also a central regulator of the homeostasis of the tumor suppressor p53. The nucleolar localization of the 5S RNP and its assembly into preribosomes are performed by a specialized complex composed of Rpf2 and Rrs1 in yeast or Bxdc1 and hRrs1 in humans. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex alone, in complex with the 5S RNA, and within pre-60S ribosomes. We show that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex contains a specialized 5S RNA E-loop-binding module, contacts the Rpl5 protein, and also contacts the ribosome assembly factor Rsa4 and the 25S RNA. We propose that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex establishes a network of interactions that guide the incorporation of the 5S RNP in preribosomes in the initial conformation prior to its rotation to form the central protuberance found in the mature large ribosomal subunit. © 2015 Madru et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, David L.; Mills, Raymond A.; Bowden, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) was to create a near-term Shuttle flight experiment focusing on the deployment and erection of structural truss elements. The activities of the MIT Space Systems Laboratory consist of three major areas: preparing and conducting neutral buoyancy simulation test series; producing a formal SADE Experiment plan; and studying the structural dynamics issues of the truss structure. Each of these areas is summarized.

  9. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  10. Self-assembled plasmonic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlig, Stefan; Cunningham, Alastair; Dintinger, José; Scharf, Toralf; Bürgi, Thomas; Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    Nowadays for the sake of convenience most plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated by top-down nanofabrication technologies. This offers great degrees of freedom to tailor the geometry with unprecedented precision. However, it often causes disadvantages as well. The structures available are usually planar and periodically arranged. Therefore, bulk plasmonic structures are difficult to fabricate and the periodic arrangement causes undesired effects, e.g., strong spatial dispersion is observed in metamaterials. These limitations can be mitigated by relying on bottom-up nanofabrication technologies. There, self-assembly methods and techniques from the field of colloidal nanochemistry are used to build complex functional unit cells in solution from an ensemble of simple building blocks, i.e., in most cases plasmonic nanoparticles. Achievable structures are characterized by a high degree of nominal order only on a short-range scale. The precise spatial arrangement across larger dimensions is not possible in most cases; leading essentially to amorphous structures. Such self-assembled nanostructures require novel analytical means to describe their properties, innovative designs of functional elements that possess a desired near- and far-field response, and entail genuine nanofabrication and characterization techniques. Eventually, novel applications have to be perceived that are adapted to the specifics of the self-assembled nanostructures. This review shall document recent progress in this field of research. Emphasis is put on bottom-up amorphous metamaterials. We document the state-of-the-art but also critically assess the problems that have to be overcome.

  11. Automated solar module assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bycer, M.

    1980-01-01

    The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

  12. Automated solar module assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bycer, M.

    1980-08-01

    The solar module assembly machine which Kulicke and Soffa delivered under this contract is a cell tabbing and stringing machine, and capable of handling a variety of cells and assembling strings up to 4 feet long which then can be placed into a module array up to 2 feet by 4 feet in a series of parallel arrangement, and in a straight or interdigitated array format. The machine cycle is 5 seconds per solar cell. This machine is primarily adapted to 3 inch diameter round cells with two tabs between cells. Pulsed heat is used as the bond technique for solar cell interconnects. The solar module assembly machine unloads solar cells from a cassette, automatically orients them, applies flux and solders interconnect ribbons onto the cells. It then inverts the tabbed cells, connects them into cell strings, and delivers them into a module array format using a track mounted vacuum lance, from which they are taken to test and cleaning benches prior to final encapsulation into finished solar modules. Throughout the machine the solar cell is handled very carefully, and any contact with the collector side of the cell is avoided or minimized.

  13. Assembly modes of dragonfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Xiao; Yin, Ya-Jun; Zhong, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The assembly modes of dragonfly wings are observed through FEG-ESEM. Different from airplane wings, dragonfly wings are found to be assembled through smooth transition mode and global package mode. First, at the vein/membrane conjunctive site, the membrane is divided into upper and lower portions from the center layer and transited smoothly to the vein. Then the two portions pack the vein around and form the outer surface of the vein. Second, at the vein/spike conjunctive site, the vein and spike are connected smoothly into a triplet. Last, at the vein/membrane/spike conjunctive site, the membrane (i.e., the outer layer of the vein) transits smoothly to the spike, packs it around, and forms its outer layer. In short, the membrane looks like a closed coat packing the wing as a whole. The smooth transition mode and the global package mode are universal assembly modes in dragonfly wings. They provide us the references for better understanding of the functions of dragonfly wings and the bionic manufactures of the wings of flights with mini sizes.

  14. AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Henry C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome assembly is difficult due to repeated sequences within the genome, which create ambiguities and cause the final assembly to be broken up into many separate sequences (contigs. Long range linking information, such as mate-pairs or mapping data, is necessary to help assembly software resolve repeats, thereby leading to a more complete reconstruction of genomes. Prior work has used optical maps for validating assemblies and scaffolding contigs, after an initial assembly has been produced. However, optical maps have not previously been used within the genome assembly process. Here, we use optical map information within the popular de Bruijn graph assembly paradigm to eliminate paths in the de Bruijn graph which are not consistent with the optical map and help determine the correct reconstruction of the genome. Results We developed a new algorithm called AGORA: Assembly Guided by Optical Restriction Alignment. AGORA is the first algorithm to use optical map information directly within the de Bruijn graph framework to help produce an accurate assembly of a genome that is consistent with the optical map information provided. Our simulations on bacterial genomes show that AGORA is effective at producing assemblies closely matching the reference sequences. Additionally, we show that noise in the optical map can have a strong impact on the final assembly quality for some complex genomes, and we also measure how various characteristics of the starting de Bruijn graph may impact the quality of the final assembly. Lastly, we show that a proper choice of restriction enzyme for the optical map may substantially improve the quality of the final assembly. Conclusions Our work shows that optical maps can be used effectively to assemble genomes within the de Bruijn graph assembly framework. Our experiments also provide insights into the characteristics of the mapping data that most affect the performance of our algorithm, indicating the

  15. Robust, directed assembly of fluorescent nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianinia, Mehran; Shimoni, Olga; Bendavid, Avi; Schell, Andreas W; Randolph, Steven J; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J

    2016-10-27

    Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing, nanophotonics and quantum communications. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensors and nanophotonics devices.

  16. Robust, directed assembly of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Kianinia, Mehran; Shimoni, Olga; Randolph, Steven J; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor; Lobo, Charlene J

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of fluorescent nanoparticles are highly sought after for applications in sensing and nanophotonics. Here we present a simple and robust method of assembling fluorescent nanodiamonds into macroscopic arrays. Remarkably, the yield of this directed assembly process is greater than 90% and the assembled patterns withstand ultra-sonication for more than three hours. The assembly process is based on covalent bonding of carboxyl to amine functional carbon seeds and is applicable to any material, and to non-planar surfaces. Our results pave the way to directed assembly of sensing and nanophotonics devices.

  17. Observations and Models of Galaxy Assembly Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan A.

    2017-01-01

    The assembly history of dark matter haloes imparts various correlations between a halo’s physical properties and its large scale environment, i.e. assembly bias. It is common for models of the galaxy-halo connection to assume that galaxy properties are only a function of halo mass, implicitly ignoring how assembly bias may affect galaxies. Recently, programs to model and constrain the degree to which galaxy properties are influenced by assembly bias have been undertaken; however, the extent and character of galaxy assembly bias remains a mystery. Nevertheless, characterizing and modeling galaxy assembly bias is an important step in understanding galaxy evolution and limiting any systematic effects assembly bias may pose in cosmological measurements using galaxy surveys.I will present work on modeling and constraining the effect of assembly bias in two galaxy properties: stellar mass and star-formation rate. Conditional abundance matching allows for these galaxy properties to be tied to halo formation history to a variable degree, making studies of the relative strength of assembly bias possible. Galaxy-galaxy clustering and galactic conformity, the degree to which galaxy color is correlated between neighbors, are sensitive observational measures of galaxy assembly bias. I will show how these measurements can be used to constrain galaxy assembly bias and the peril of ignoring it.

  18. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  19. Dynamic pathways for viral capsid assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Michael F.; Chandler, David

    2006-02-09

    We develop a class of models with which we simulate the assembly of particles into T1 capsid-like objects using Newtonian dynamics. By simulating assembly for many different values of system parameters, we vary the forces that drive assembly. For some ranges of parameters, assembly is facile, while for others, assembly is dynamically frustrated by kinetic traps corresponding to malformed or incompletely formed capsids. Our simulations sample many independent trajectories at various capsomer concentrations, allowing for statistically meaningful conclusions. Depending on subunit (i.e., capsomer) geometries, successful assembly proceeds by several mechanisms involving binding of intermediates of various sizes. We discuss the relationship between these mechanisms and experimental evaluations of capsid assembly processes.

  20. Integrated Virtual Assembly Process Planning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhua; HOU Weiwei; HOU Weiwei; SHANG Wei; SHANG Wei; NING Ruxin; NING Ruxin

    2009-01-01

    Assembly process planning(APP) for complicated products is a time-consuming and difficult work with conventional method. Virtual assembly process planning(VAPP) provides engineers a new and efficiency way. Previous studies in VAPP are almost isolated and dispersive, and have not established a whole understanding and discussed key realization techniques of VAPP from a systemic and integrated view. The integrated virtual assembly process planning(IVAPP) system is a new virtual reality based engineering application, which offers engineers an efficient, intuitive, immersive and integrated method for assembly process planning in a virtual environment. Based on analysis the information integration requirement of VAPP, the architecture of IVAPP is proposed. Through the integrated structure, IVAPP system can realize information integration and workflow controlling. In order to model the assembly process in IVAPP, a hierarchical assembly task list(HATL) is presented, in which different assembly tasks for assembling different components are organized into a hierarchical list. A process-oriented automatic geometrical constraint recognition algorithm(AGCR) is proposed, so that geometrical constraints between components can be automatically recognized during the process of interactive assembling. At the same time, a progressive hierarchical reasoning(PHR) model is discussed. AGCR and PHR will greatly reduce the interactive workload. A discrete control node model(DCNM) for cable harness assembly planning in IVAPP is detailed. DCNM converts a cable harness into continuous flexed line segments connected by a series of section center points, and designs can realize cable harness planning through controlling those control nodes. Mechanical assemblies (such as transmission case and engine of automobile) are used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method and algorithms. The application of IVAPP system reveals advantages over the traditional assembly process planning method

  1. The BAGEL assembler generation library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter A.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents two coupled software packages which receive widespread use in the field of numerical simulations of Quantum Chromo-Dynamics. These consist of the BAGEL library and the BAGEL fermion sparse-matrix library, BFM. The Bagel library can generate assembly code for a number of architectures and is configurable - supporting several precision and memory pattern options to allow architecture specific optimisation. It provides high performance on the QCDOC, BlueGene/L and BlueGene/P parallel computer architectures that are popular in the field of lattice QCD. The code includes a complete conjugate gradient implementation for the Wilson and domain wall fermion actions, making it easy to use for third party codes including the Jefferson Laboratory's CHROMA, UKQCD's UKhadron, and the Riken-Brookhaven-Columbia Collaboration's CPS packages. Program summaryProgram title: Bagel Catalogue identifier: AEFE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Public License V2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 109 576 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 892 841 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, assembler Computer: Massively parallel message passing. BlueGene/QCDOC/others. Operating system: POSIX, Linux and compatible. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes. 16 384 processors used. Classification: 11.5 External routines: QMP, QDP++ Nature of problem: Quantum Chromo-Dynamics sparse matrix inversion for Wilson and domain wall fermion formulations. Solution method: Optimised Krylov linear solver. Unusual features: Domain specific compiler generates optimised assembly code. Running time: 1 h per matrix inversion; multi-year simulations.

  2. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken

    2006-01-01

    for reuse, and a procedure that computes point-wise vector multiplication. The latter uses a common idiom of prefetching memory resulting in out-of-bounds reading from memory. I present two extensions to the baseline type system: The first extension is a simple modification of some type rules to allow out...... the requirements of a procedure. I implement a proof-of-concept type checker for both the baseline type system and the extensions. I get good performance results on a small benchmark suite of programs representative of handwritten DSP assembler code. These empirical results are encouraging and strongly suggest...

  3. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  4. Algorithms for Automated DNA Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Published online 23 March 2010 Nucleic Acids Research , 2010, Vol. 38, No. 8 2607–2616 doi:10.1093/nar/gkq165 The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford...composite part Pcon.RFP is also called an ‘intermediate part’ since it is constructed as an intermediate step in assembling the 2608 Nucleic Acids Research , 2010...in A–C. We assume part cd is already present in the part library. Nucleic Acids Research , 2010, Vol. 38, No. 8 2609 at M edical Library on S eptem ber

  5. Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1999-03-04

    In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

  6. Stereocontrol within polyketide assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatinge-Clay, Adrian T

    2016-02-01

    Most of the stereocenters of polyketide natural products are established during assembly line biosynthesis. The body of knowledge for how stereocenters are set is now large enough to begin constructing physical models of key reactions. Interactions between stereocenter-forming enzymes and polyketide intermediates are examined here at atomic resolution, drawing from the most current structural and functional information of ketosynthases (KSs), ketoreductases (KRs), dehydratases (DHs), enoylreductases (ERs), and related enzymes. While many details remain to be experimentally determined, our understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms utilized by the chirality-molding enzymes of modular PKSs is rapidly advancing.

  7. Assembly-line Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Zendejas, Silvino; Malhotra, Shan

    1987-01-01

    Costs and profits estimated for models based on user inputs. Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program generalized so useful for production-line manufacturing companies. Provides accurate and reliable means of comparing alternative manufacturing processes. Used to assess impact of changes in financial parameters as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required rate of return of equity. Most important capability is ability to estimate prices manufacturer would have to receive for its products to recover all of costs of production and make specified profit. Written in TURBO PASCAL.

  8. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  9. Self-assembled nanostructured metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsinet, Virginie; Baron, Alexandre; Pouget, Emilie; Okazaki, Yutaka; Oda, Reiko; Barois, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    The concept of metamaterials emerged in the years 2000 with the achievement of artificial structures enabling nonconventional propagation of electromagnetic waves, such as negative phase velocity or negative refraction. The electromagnetic response of metamaterials is generally based on the presence of optically resonant elements —or meta-atoms— of sub-wavelength size and well-designed morphology so as to provide the desired electric and magnetic optical properties. Top-down technologies based on lithography techniques have been intensively used to fabricate a variety of efficient electric and magnetic resonators operating from microwave to visible light frequencies. However, the technological limits of the top-down approach are reached in visible light where a huge number of nanometre-sized elements is required. We show here that the bottom-up fabrication route based on the combination of nanochemistry and the self-assembly methods of colloidal physics provide an excellent alternative for the large-scale synthesis of complex meta-atoms, as well as for the fabrication of 2D and 3D samples exhibiting meta-properties in visible light. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  10. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Regeneration Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlen, Amber; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010 the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This technology requires hydrogen to recover oxygen from carbon dioxide. This results in the production of water and methane. Water is electrolyzed to provide oxygen to the crew. Methane is vented to space resulting in a loss of valuable hydrogen and unreduced carbon dioxide. This is not critical for ISS because of the water resupply from Earth. However, in order to have enough oxygen for long-term missions, it will be necessary to recover the hydrogen to maximize oxygen recovery. Thus, the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was designed to recover hydrogen from methane. During operation, the PPA produces small amounts of carbon that can ultimately reduce performance by forming on the walls and windows of the reactor chamber. The carbon must be removed, although mechanical methods are highly inefficient, thus chemical methods are of greater interest. The purpose of this effort was to determine the feasibility of chemically removing the carbon from the walls and windows of a PPA reactor using a pure carbon dioxide stream.

  11. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-12-31

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele`s pivot. The Schiele`s pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele`s pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele`s pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  12. Anisotropic assembly and pattern formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brecht, James H.; Uminsky, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of anisotropy in two classes of individual-based models for self-organization, collective behavior and self-assembly. We accomplish this via first-order dynamical systems of pairwise interacting particles that incorporate anisotropic interactions. At a continuum level, these models represent the natural anisotropic variants of the well-known aggregation equation. We leverage this framework to analyze the impact of anisotropic effects upon the self-assembly of co-dimension one equilibrium structures, such as micelles and vesicles. Our analytical results reveal the regularizing effect of anisotropy, and isolate the contexts in which anisotropic effects are necessary to achieve dynamical stability of co-dimension one structures. Our results therefore place theoretical limits on when anisotropic effects can be safely neglected. We also explore whether anisotropic effects suffice to induce pattern formation in such particle systems. We conclude with brief numerical studies that highlight various aspects of the models we introduce, elucidate their phase structure and partially validate the analysis we provide.

  13. Chemical reactions directed Peptide self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B; Das, Apurba K

    2015-05-13

    Fabrication of self-assembled nanostructures is one of the important aspects in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The study of self-assembled soft materials remains an area of interest due to their potential applications in biomedicine. The versatile properties of soft materials can be tuned using a bottom up approach of small molecules. Peptide based self-assembly has significant impact in biology because of its unique features such as biocompatibility, straight peptide chain and the presence of different side chain functionality. These unique features explore peptides in various self-assembly process. In this review, we briefly introduce chemical reaction-mediated peptide self-assembly. Herein, we have emphasised enzymes, native chemical ligation and photochemical reactions in the exploration of peptide self-assembly.

  14. The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw

    2013-10-01

    A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (keff=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication.

  15. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  16. Algorithm for a Microfluidic Assembly Line

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Tobias M.; Mandre, Shreyas; Brenner, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic technology has revolutionized the control of flows at small scales giving rise to new possibilities for assembling complex structures on the microscale. We analyze different possible algorithms for assembling arbitrary structures, and demonstrate that a sequential assembly algorithm can manufacture arbitrary 3D structures from identical constituents. We illustrate the algorithm by showing that a modified Hele-Shaw cell with 7 controlled flowrates can be designed to construct the ...

  17. Balancing parallel assembly lines with disabled workers

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Felipe F. B.; Costa,Alysson M.; Miralles, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    We study an assembly line balancing problem that occurs in sheltered worker centers for the disabled, where workers with very different characteristics are present. We are interested in the situation in which parallel assembly lines are allowed and name the resulting problem as parallel assembly line worker assignment and balancing problem. We present a linear mixed-integer formulation and a four-stage heuristic algorithm. Computational results with a large set of instances recently proposed ...

  18. Henry Ford vs. assembly line balancing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J M

    2014-01-01

    Ford’s Assembly Line at Highland Park is one of the most influential conceptualizations of a production system. New data reveal Ford’s operations were adaptable to strongly increasing and highly variable demand. These analyses show Ford’s assembly line was used differently than modern ones and their production systems were more flexible than previously recognized. Assembly line balancing theory largely ignores earlier practice. It will be shown that Ford used multiple lines flexibly to cope w...

  19. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  20. Design for Un-heterogeneous Critical Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Fan; ZHOU; Qi

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the nuclear criticality issues in the dissolving process,a new critical assembly is designed by theoretical calculation to satisfy the heterogeneous critical experimental demands based on the existed YSR assembly(Fig.1).The experiment plans,geometry structure of the assembly,solution contents and fuel rods arrangements are determined.The parameters for each scheme are listed in Table 1.

  1. Control model for reconfigurable assembly systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jianfeng; Yin Yuehong; Chen Zhaoneng

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes knowledge based object-oriented timed colored Petri net, a modeling method for reconfigurable assembly systems. Combining knowledge and object-oriented method into timed colored Petri net, a comprehensive and powerful representation model for control of RAS is obtained. With object-oriented method the whole system can be decomposed into concrete objects explicitly, and their relationships are constructed according to the system assembly requirements. Finally, a simple assembly system modeled by the KTCOPN is presented.

  2. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  3. Tablet—next generation sequence assembly visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Iain; Bayer, Micha; Cardle, Linda; Shaw, Paul; Stephen, Gordon; Wright, Frank; Marshall, David

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Tablet is a lightweight, high-performance graphical viewer for next-generation sequence assemblies and alignments. Supporting a range of input assembly formats, Tablet provides high-quality visualizations showing data in packed or stacked views, allowing instant access and navigation to any region of interest, and whole contig overviews and data summaries. Tablet is both multi-core aware and memory efficient, allowing it to handle assemblies containing millions of reads, even on a 32...

  4. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-07

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  5. Metagenomic Assembly: Overview, Challenges and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghurye, Jay S.; Cepeda-Espinoza, Victoria; Pop, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have led to the increased use of high throughput sequencing in characterizing the microbial communities associated with our bodies and our environment. Critical to the analysis of the resulting data are sequence assembly algorithms able to reconstruct genes and organisms from complex mixtures. Metagenomic assembly involves new computational challenges due to the specific characteristics of the metagenomic data. In this survey, we focus on major algorithmic approaches for genome and metagenome assembly, and discuss the new challenges and opportunities afforded by this new field. We also review several applications of metagenome assembly in addressing interesting biological problems. PMID:27698619

  6. AutoAssemblyD: a graphical user interface system for several genome assemblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Adonney Allan de Oliveira; de Sá, Pablo Henrique Caracciolo Gomes; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel Thiago Jucá

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have increased the amount of biological data generated. Thus, bioinformatics has become important because new methods and algorithms are necessary to manipulate and process such data. However, certain challenges have emerged, such as genome assembly using short reads and high-throughput platforms. In this context, several algorithms have been developed, such as Velvet, Abyss, Euler-SR, Mira, Edna, Maq, SHRiMP, Newbler, ALLPATHS, Bowtie and BWA. However, most such assemblers do not have a graphical interface, which makes their use difficult for users without computing experience given the complexity of the assembler syntax. Thus, to make the operation of such assemblers accessible to users without a computing background, we developed AutoAssemblyD, which is a graphical tool for genome assembly submission and remote management by multiple assemblers through XML templates. AssemblyD is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/autoassemblyd. It requires Sun jdk 6 or higher.

  7. Ultrasound transducer assembly and method for manufacturing an ultrasound transducer assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Henneken, V.A.; Louwerse, M.C.; Raganato, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasound transducer assembly (10), in particular for intravascular ultrasound systems. The ultrasound transducer assembly comprises at least one silicon substrate element (30) including an ultrasound transducer element (14) for emitting and receiving ultrasound

  8. Ultrasound transducer assembly and method for manufacturing an ultrasound transducer assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Henneken, V.A.; Louwerse, M.C.; Raganato, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasound transducer assembly (10), in particular for intravascular ultrasound systems. The ultrasound transducer assembly comprises at least one silicon substrate element (30) including an ultrasound transducer element (14) for emitting and receiving ultrasound

  9. Low inductance power electronics assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S.; Korich, Mark D.; Chou, Cindy; Tang, David; Carlson, Douglas S.; Barry, Alan L.

    2012-10-02

    A power electronics assembly is provided. A first support member includes a first plurality of conductors. A first plurality of power switching devices are coupled to the first support member. A first capacitor is coupled to the first support member. A second support member includes a second plurality of conductors. A second plurality of power switching devices are coupled to the second support member. A second capacitor is coupled to the second support member. The first and second pluralities of conductors, the first and second pluralities of power switching devices, and the first and second capacitors are electrically connected such that the first plurality of power switching devices is connected in parallel with the first capacitor and the second capacitor and the second plurality of power switching devices is connected in parallel with the second capacitor and the first capacitor.

  10. Directed actin assembly and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa; Galland, Rémi; Suarez, Cristian; Guérin, Christophe; Théry, Manuel; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a key component of the cellular architecture. However, understanding actin organization and dynamics in vivo is a complex challenge. Reconstitution of actin structures in vitro, in simplified media, allows one to pinpoint the cellular biochemical components and their molecular interactions underlying the architecture and dynamics of the actin network. Previously, little was known about the extent to which geometrical constraints influence the dynamic ultrastructure of these networks. Therefore, in order to study the balance between biochemical and geometrical control of complex actin organization, we used the innovative methodologies of UV and laser patterning to design a wide repertoire of nucleation geometries from which we assembled branched actin networks. Using these methods, we were able to reconstitute complex actin network organizations, closely related to cellular architecture, to precisely direct and control their 3D connections. This methodology mimics the actin networks encountered in cells and can serve in the fabrication of innovative bioinspired systems.

  11. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays.

  12. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-14

    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  13. Fellows Celebrated at Joint Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The 2009 AGU Fellows were presented at the recent Joint Assembly in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. At a formal ceremony on 26 May 2009, AGU President Timothy L. Grove introduced each Fellow and read a brief statement of the achievements for which each had been selected. The presentations were followed by a reception for meeting attendees and a banquet at which family members and close colleagues further feted the honorees. AGU Fellows are scientists who have attained “acknowledged eminence in the geophysical sciences.” Election to AGU Fellowship is a very high recognition by one's peers. The number of Fellows elected may not exceed 0.1% of the membership in any given year.

  14. Self assembly of interlocked architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Schergna, S

    2002-01-01

    An area of great interest is the synthesis and characterisation of molecules possessing moving parts, with the goal that they can act as 'molecular machine' carrying out tasks that molecules with fixed conventional architectures cannot do. Rotaxanes and catenanes (mechanically interlocked architectures) represent one approach toward achieving these aims as their component wheels and / or threads are connected together but can still move, in certain, controlled directions. This thesis focused on the study of structural rigidity and the preorganisation of thread binding sites as factors of major influence on template efficiency in the synthesis of hydrogen bond assembled supramolecular structures (rotaxanes and catenanes). Chapter One gives a brief outline of the common synthetic approaches to interlocked architectures (catenanes and rotaxanes) that are now being developed to address the problems outlined above. Chapter Two and Chapter Three concerns the synthesis of novel amide-based rotaxanes containing vario...

  15. Dual contact pogo pin assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Stephen McGarry

    2016-06-21

    A contact assembly includes a base and a pair of electrical contacts supported by the base. A first end of the first electrical contact corresponds to a first end of the base and is configured to engage a first external conductive circuit element. A first end of the second electrical contact also corresponds to the first end of the base and is configured to engage a second external conductive circuit element. The first contact and the second contact are electrically isolated from one another and configured to compress when engaging an external connector element. The base includes an aperture positioned on a second end of the base outboard of a second end of the first and second electrical contacts. The aperture presents a narrowing shape with a wide mouth distal the electrical contacts and a narrow internal through-hole proximate the electrical contacts.

  16. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  17. Laminins in basement membrane assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenester, Erhard; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    The heterotrimeric laminins are a defining component of all basement membranes and self-assemble into a cell-associated network. The three short arms of the cross-shaped laminin molecule form the network nodes, with a strict requirement for one α, one β and one γ arm. The globular domain at the end of the long arm binds to cellular receptors, including integrins, α-dystroglycan, heparan sulfates and sulfated glycolipids. Collateral anchorage of the laminin network is provided by the proteoglycans perlecan and agrin. A second network is then formed by type IV collagen, which interacts with the laminin network through the heparan sulfate chains of perlecan and agrin and additional linkage by nidogen. This maturation of basement membranes becomes essential at later stages of embryo development.

  18. High temperature control rod assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, Russell E. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  19. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  20. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  1. Valve stem and packing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wordin, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  2. Research of Deviation of Axes of Assembled Details at Assembly with Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Mozga, N; Griņevičs, I

    2016-01-01

    Typical process of automatic assembly consists of many steps, such as loading of components, their feeding, orientation, fitting, control, transportation etc. But the most difficult and responsible step in the all-assembling processes is to make sure of interaction between components relative to each other on the assembling position with demanded accuracy.

  3. Opto-thermophoretic assembly of colloidal matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Zhang, Jianli; Peng, Xiaolei; Wu, Zilong; Coughlan, Anna C H; Mao, Zhangming; Bevan, Michael A; Zheng, Yuebing

    2017-09-01

    Colloidal matter exhibits unique collective behaviors beyond what occurs at single-nanoparticle and atomic scales. Treating colloidal particles as building blocks, researchers are exploiting new strategies to rationally organize colloidal particles into complex structures for new functions and devices. Despite tremendous progress in directed assembly and self-assembly, a truly versatile assembly technique without specific functionalization of the colloidal particles remains elusive. We develop a new strategy to assemble colloidal matter under a light-controlled temperature field, which can solve challenges in the existing assembly techniques. By adding an anionic surfactant (that is, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride), which serves as a surface charge source, a macro ion, and a micellar depletant, we generate a light-controlled thermoelectric field to manipulate colloidal atoms and a depletion attraction force to assemble the colloidal atoms into two-dimensional (2D) colloidal matter. The general applicability of this opto-thermophoretic assembly (OTA) strategy allows us to build colloidal matter of diverse colloidal sizes (from subwavelength scale to micrometer scale) and materials (polymeric, dielectric, and metallic colloids) with versatile configurations and tunable bonding strengths and lengths. We further demonstrate that the incorporation of the thermoelectric field into the optical radiation force can achieve 3D reconfiguration of the colloidal matter. The OTA strategy releases the rigorous design rules required in the existing assembly techniques and enriches the structural complexity in colloidal matter, which will open a new window of opportunities for basic research on matter organization, advanced material design, and applications.

  4. Self-assembled nanogaps for molecular electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Jain, Titoo

    2009-01-01

    A nanogap for molecular devices was realized using solution-based self-assembly. Gold nanorods were assembled to gold nanoparticle-coated conducting SnO2:Sb nanowires via thiol end-capped oligo(phenylenevinylene)s (OPVs). The molecular gap was easily created by the rigid molecule itself during se...

  5. ATLAS: End-cap Toroid assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In building 191 and building 180- assembly of this massive piece.To reach the top of the end-cap the cranes has to be used and during the assembly you can see welding and hear many tools running background.

  6. Assembly of the CMS hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter is assembled on the end-cap of the CMS detector in the assembly hall. Hadronic calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  7. Preliminary High-Throughput Metagenome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusheyko, Serge; Furman, Craig; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank

    2007-03-26

    Metagenome data sets present a qualitatively different assembly problem than traditional single-organism whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly. The unique aspects of such projects include the presence of a potentially large number of distinct organisms and their representation in the data set at widely different fractions. In addition, multiple closely related strains could be present, which would be difficult to assemble separately. Failure to take these issues into account can result in poor assemblies that either jumble together different strains or which fail to yield useful results. The DOE Joint Genome Institute has sequenced a number of metagenomic projects and plans to considerably increase this number in the coming year. As a result, the JGI has a need for high-throughput tools and techniques for handling metagenome projects. We present the techniques developed to handle metagenome assemblies in a high-throughput environment. This includes a streamlined assembly wrapper, based on the JGI?s in-house WGS assembler, Jazz. It also includes the selection of sensible defaults targeted for metagenome data sets, as well as quality control automation for cleaning up the raw results. While analysis is ongoing, we will discuss preliminary assessments of the quality of the assembly results (http://fames.jgi-psf.org).

  8. Research on Self-Assembling Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-30

    0K. in a second phase of this contract we turned our efforts to the fabrication and studies of self assembled quantum dots . We first demonstrated a...method for producing InAs-GasAs self assembled quantum dots (SAD) using MBE. (AN)

  9. CT Performance Evaluation Using Multi Material Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns an investigation of the accuracy of Computed Tomography measurements using multi-material assemblies. In this study, assemblies involving similar densities for elementary parts were considered. The investigation includes dimensional and geometrical measurements of two 10 mm high...

  10. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  11. Aerodynamic seal assemblies for turbo-machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Wolfe, Christopher; Fang, Biao

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides an aerodynamic seal assembly for use with a turbo-machine. The aerodynamic seal assembly may include a number of springs, a shoe connected to the springs, and a secondary seal positioned about the springs and the shoe.

  12. Uracil Excision for Assembly of Complex Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Kim, Se Hyeuk

    2015-01-01

    Despite decreasing prices on synthetic DNA constructs, higher-order assembly of PCR-generated DNA continues to be an important exercise in molecular and synthetic biology. Simplicity and robustness are attractive features met by the uracil excision DNA assembly method, which is one of the most in...

  13. Fibril assembly in whey protein mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study fibril assembly in mixtures of whey proteins. The effect of the composition of the protein mixture on the structures and the resulting phase behaviour was investigated. The current work has shown that beta-lactoglobulin is responsible for the fibril assembly

  14. Hydrodynamically driven colloidal assembly in dip coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosqui, Carlos E; Morris, Jeffrey F; Stone, Howard A

    2013-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca(2/3)/sqrt[Bo] particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.

  15. Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment (SADE) experiment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, D. L.; Bowden, M. L.

    1982-03-01

    The Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment concept is to erect a hybrid deployed/assembled structure as an early space experiment in large space structures technology. The basic objectives can be broken down into three generic areas: (1) by performing assembly tasks both in space and in neutral buoyancy simulation, a mathematical basis will be found for the validity conditions of neutral buoyancy, thus enhancing the utility of water as a medium for simulation of weightlessness; (2) a data base will be established describing the capabilities and limitations of EVA crewmembers, including effects of such things as hardware size and crew restraints; and (3) experience of the M.I.T. Space Systems Lab in neutral buoyancy simulation of large space structures assembly indicates that the assembly procedure may create the largest loads that a structure will experience during its lifetime. Data obtained from the experiment will help establish an accurate loading model to aid designers of future space structures.

  16. Cable Harness Assembly Planning in Virtual Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhua; NING Ruxin; BAI Shuqing; WANG Bile

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of characteristic of cable harness planning in virtual environment, a discrete control node modeling (DCNM) method of cable harness in virtual environment and the cable harness assembly routing technique based on it are proposed. DCNM converts a cable harness into continuous flexed line segments connected by a series of section center points, and the design can realize cable harness planning through controlling those control nodes. This method of cable harness routing in the virtual environment breaks the status that virtual assembly process planning is just suitable for the rigid components at present, and impulse the virtual assembly process planning to be more practical. Relation algorithms have been verified in a self-developed system named virtual cable harness assembly planning (VCHAP) system, and this VCHAP system has been applied in assembly process planning of aerospace-related products.

  17. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  18. Specific genomic cues regulate Cajal body assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Iain A; Hager, Gordon L; Dundr, Miroslav

    2016-10-07

    The assembly of specialized sub-nuclear microenvironments known as nuclear bodies (NBs) is important for promoting efficient nuclear function. In particular, the Cajal body (CB), a prominent NB that facilitates spliceosomal snRNP biogenesis, assembles in response to genomic cues. Here, we detail the factors that regulate CB assembly and structural maintenance. These include the importance of transcription at nucleating gene loci, the grouping of these genes on human chromosomes 1, 6 and 17, as well as cell cycle and biochemical regulation of CB protein function. We also speculate on the correlation between CB formation and RNA splicing levels in neurons and cancer. The timing and location of these specific molecular events is critical to CB assembly and its contribution to genome function. However, further work is required to explore the emerging biophysical characteristics of CB assembly and the impact upon subsequent genome reorganization.

  19. Quality Assessment of Domesticated Animal Genome Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Stefan E; Anthon, Christian; Palasca, Oana; Gorodkin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The era of high-throughput sequencing has made it relatively simple to sequence genomes and transcriptomes of individuals from many species. In order to analyze the resulting sequencing data, high-quality reference genome assemblies are required. However, this is still a major challenge, and many domesticated animal genomes still need to be sequenced deeper in order to produce high-quality assemblies. In the meanwhile, ironically, the extent to which RNAseq and other next-generation data is produced frequently far exceeds that of the genomic sequence. Furthermore, basic comparative analysis is often affected by the lack of genomic sequence. Herein, we quantify the quality of the genome assemblies of 20 domesticated animals and related species by assessing a range of measurable parameters, and we show that there is a positive correlation between the fraction of mappable reads from RNAseq data and genome assembly quality. We rank the genomes by their assembly quality and discuss the implications for genotype analyses.

  20. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd S.; Russell, Thomas P.; Dinsmore, Anthony; Skaff, Habib; Lin, Yao

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  1. Vector assembly of colloids on monolayer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yang, Shenyu; Tsang, Boyce; Tu, Mei; Granick, Steve

    2017-06-01

    The key to spontaneous and directed assembly is to encode the desired assembly information to building blocks in a programmable and efficient way. In computer graphics, raster graphics encodes images on a single-pixel level, conferring fine details at the expense of large file sizes, whereas vector graphics encrypts shape information into vectors that allow small file sizes and operational transformations. Here, we adapt this raster/vector concept to a 2D colloidal system and realize `vector assembly' by manipulating particles on a colloidal monolayer substrate with optical tweezers. In contrast to raster assembly that assigns optical tweezers to each particle, vector assembly requires a minimal number of optical tweezers that allow operations like chain elongation and shortening. This vector approach enables simple uniform particles to form a vast collection of colloidal arenes and colloidenes, the spontaneous dissociation of which is achieved with precision and stage-by-stage complexity by simply removing the optical tweezers.

  2. Rotor blade assembly having internal loading features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloway, Daniel David

    2017-05-16

    Rotor blade assemblies and wind turbines are provided. A rotor blade assembly includes a rotor blade having exterior surfaces defining a pressure side, a suction side, a leading edge and a trailing edge each extending between a tip and a root, the rotor blade defining a span and a chord, the exterior surfaces defining an interior of the rotor blade. The rotor blade assembly further includes a loading assembly, the loading assembly including a weight disposed within the interior and movable generally along the span of the rotor blade, the weight connected to a rotor blade component such that movement of the weight towards the tip causes application of a force to the rotor blade component by the weight. Centrifugal force due to rotation of the rotor blade biases the weight towards the tip.

  3. Innovation in Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Cui, Jiwei; Björnmalm, Mattias; Braunger, Julia A; Ejima, Hirotaka; Caruso, Frank

    2016-12-14

    Methods for depositing thin films are important in generating functional materials for diverse applications in a wide variety of fields. Over the last half-century, the layer-by-layer assembly of nanoscale films has received intense and growing interest. This has been fueled by innovation in the available materials and assembly technologies, as well as the film-characterization techniques. In this Review, we explore, discuss, and detail innovation in layer-by-layer assembly in terms of past and present developments, and we highlight how these might guide future advances. A particular focus is on conventional and early developments that have only recently regained interest in the layer-by-layer assembly field. We then review unconventional assemblies and approaches that have been gaining popularity, which include inorganic/organic hybrid materials, cells and tissues, and the use of stereocomplexation, patterning, and dip-pen lithography, to name a few. A relatively recent development is the use of layer-by-layer assembly materials and techniques to assemble films in a single continuous step. We name this "quasi"-layer-by-layer assembly and discuss the impacts and innovations surrounding this approach. Finally, the application of characterization methods to monitor and evaluate layer-by-layer assembly is discussed, as innovation in this area is often overlooked but is essential for development of the field. While we intend for this Review to be easily accessible and act as a guide to researchers new to layer-by-layer assembly, we also believe it will provide insight to current researchers in the field and help guide future developments and innovation.

  4. Optical Tweezer Assembly and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    An Optical Tweezer, as the name implies, is a useful tool for precision manipulation of micro and nano scale objects. Using the principle of electromagnetic radiation pressure, an optical tweezer employs a tightly focused laser beam to trap and position objects of various shapes and sizes. These devices can trap micrometer and nanometer sized objects. An exciting possibility for optical tweezers is its future potential to manipulate and assemble micro and nano sized sensors. A typical optical tweezer makes use of the following components: laser, mirrors, lenses, a high quality microscope, stage, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, TV monitor and Position Sensitive Detectors (PSDs). The laser wavelength employed is typically in the visible or infrared spectrum. The laser beam is directed via mirrors and lenses into the microscope. It is then tightly focused by a high magnification, high numerical aperture microscope objective into the sample slide, which is mounted on a translating stage. The sample slide contains a sealed, small volume of fluid that the objects are suspended in. The most common objects trapped by optical tweezers are dielectric spheres. When trapped, a sphere will literally snap into and center itself in the laser beam. The PSD s are mounted in such a way to receive the backscatter after the beam has passed through the trap. PSD s used with the Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) technique provide highly precise data. Most optical tweezers employ lasers with power levels ranging from 10 to 100 miliwatts. Typical forces exerted on trapped objects are in the pico-newton range. When PSDs are employed, object movement can be resolved on a nanometer scale in a time range of milliseconds. Such accuracy, however, can only by utilized by calibrating the optical tweezer. Fortunately, an optical tweezer can be modeled accurately as a simple spring. This allows Hook s Law to be used. My goal this summer at NASA Glenn Research Center is the assembly and

  5. Light-structured colloidal assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Antoine; Mena, Youssef; Ramananarivo, Sophie; Sacanna, Stefano; Palacci, Jeremie; Palacci lab Team; Sacanna lab Team

    2016-11-01

    Self-propelled particles (SPP) are a key tool since they are of relative simplicity as compared to biological micro-entities and provide a higher level of control. They can convert an energy source into motion and work, and exhibit surprising non-equilibrium behavior. In our work, we focus on the manipulation of colloids using light. We exploit osmotic and phoretic effects to act on single and ensemble of colloids. The key mechanism relies on the photocatalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using hematite, which triggers the motion of colloids around it when illuminated. We use hematite particles and particles with photocatalytic inclusions (i.e. SPP). We first show that the interactions between hematite and colloidal tracers can be tuned by adjusting the chemical environment. Furthermore, we report a phototaxic behavior (migration in light gradient) of the particles. From this, we explore the effect of spatio-temporal modulation of the light to control the motion of colloids at the single particle level, and to generate self-assembled colloidal structures through time and space. The so-formed structures are maintained by phoretic and hydrodynamic forces resulting from the motion of each particles. Ultimately, a dynamic light modulation may be a route for the creation of active colloidal motion on a collective scale through the synchronization of the individual motions of SPP. This work is supported by NSF CAREER DMR 1554724.

  6. High temperature control rod assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, R.E.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a control rod assembly for use in nuclear reactor control. It comprises segments, each the segment being made of a graphite composite material, each the segment having a chamber for containing neutron-absorbing material, wherein the chamber compromises a hollow cylindrical sleeve having a first end formed with an opening for receiving the neutron-absorbing material, and having a second end formed with a sleeve bore and an outer sleeve surface; a cylindrical weight-bearing support post positioned substantially centrally of the sleeve, the support post having a first end formed as a ball surface portion and a second end formed as a ball surface portion and a second end formed as a shaft, the shaft being engageable with the sleeve bore for rigidly coupling the support post axially within the hollow sleeve, a hollow cylindrical collar having a socket lip portion correspondingly shaped to receive the ball surface portion of an adjacent support post, and having an inner surface for engaging the outer sleeve surface on the second end of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve.

  7. Theory of meiotic spindle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furthauer, Sebastian; Foster, Peter; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The meiotic spindle is a biological structure that self assembles from the intracellular medium to separate chromosomes during meiosis. It consists of filamentous microtubule (MT) proteins that interact through the fluid in which they are suspended and via the associated molecules that orchestrate their behavior. We aim to understand how the interplay between fluid medium, MTs, and regulatory proteins allows this material to self-organize into the spindle's highly stereotyped shape. To this end we develop a continuum model that treats the spindle as an active liquid crystal with MT turnover. In this active material, molecular motors, such as dyneins which collect MT minus ends and kinesins which slide MTs past each other, generate active fluid and material stresses. Moreover nucleator proteins that are advected with and transported along MTs control the nucleation and depolymerization of MTs. This theory captures the growth process of meiotic spindles, their shapes, and the essential features of many perturbation experiments. It thus provides a framework to think about the physics of this complex biological suspension.

  8. Halliburton Composite Bridge Plug Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starbuck, J.M.; Luttrell, C.R.; Aramayo, G.

    2005-01-15

    The overall objectives of this CRADA were to assist Halliburton in analyzing a composite bridge plug and to determine why their original design was failing in the field. In Phase 1, finite element analyses were done on the original composite slip design and several alternative designs. The composite slip was the component in the bridge plug that was failing. The finite element code ABAQUS was used for these calculations and I-DEAS was used as the pre- and post-processor in the analyses. Several different designs and materials were analyzed and recommendations were made towards improving the design. In Phase 2, the objective was to develop finite element models that would accurately represent the deformations in the entire all-composite 4-1/2' diameter bridge plug assembly. The finite element code LS-DYNA was used and the results from this effort were intended to expand Halliburton's composite design and analysis capabilities with regard to developing future composite components for downhole tools. In addition to the finite element modeling, this effort involved the utilization of micromechanics to determine the necessary composite material properties that were needed as input for finite element codes.

  9. The tile assembly model is intrinsically universal

    CERN Document Server

    Doty, David; Patitz, Matthew J; Schweller, Robert T; Summers, Scott M; Woods, Damien

    2011-01-01

    We prove that the abstract Tile Assembly Model (aTAM) of nanoscale self-assembly is intrinsically universal. This means that there is a single tile assembly system U that, with proper initialization, simulates any tile assembly system T. The simulation is "intrinsic" in the sense that the self-assembly process carried out by U is exactly that carried out by T, with each tile of T represented by an m x m "supertile" of U. Our construction works for the full aTAM at any temperature, and it faithfully simulates the deterministic or nondeterministic behavior of each T. Our construction succeeds by solving an analog of the cell differentiation problem in developmental biology: Each supertile of U, starting with those in the seed assembly, carries the "genome" of the simulated system T. At each location of a potential supertile in the self-assembly of U, a decision is made whether and how to express this genome, i.e., whether to generate a supertile and, if so, which tile of T it will represent. This decision must ...

  10. Assembly design system based on engineering connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-12-01

    An assembly design system is an important part of computer-aided design systems, which are important tools for realizing product concept design. The traditional assembly design system does not record the connection information of production on the engineering layer; consequently, the upstream design idea cannot be fully used in the downstream design. An assembly design model based on the relationship of engineering connection is presented. In this model, all nodes are divided into two categories: The component and the connection. Moreover, the product is constructed on the basis of the connection relationship of the components. The model is an And/Or graph and has the ability to record all assembly schemes. This model records only the connection information that has engineering application value in the product design. In addition, this model can significantly reduce the number of combinations, and is very favorable for the assembly sequence planning in the downstream. The system contains a connection knowledge system that can be mapped to the connection node, and the connection knowledge obtained in practice can be returned to the knowledge system. Finally, VC++ 6.0 is used to develop a prototype system called Connect-based Assembly Planning (CAP). The relationship between the CAP system and the commercial assembly design system is also established.

  11. Constraints on Assembly Bias from Galaxy Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Zentner, Andrew R; Bosch, Frank C van den; Lange, Johannes U; Villarreal, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We constrain the newly-introduced decorated Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model using SDSS DR7 measurements of projected galaxy clustering or r-band luminosity threshold samples. The decorated HOD is a model for the galaxy-halo connection that augments the HOD by allowing for the possibility of galaxy assembly bias: galaxy luminosity may be correlated with dark matter halo properties besides mass, Mvir. We demonstrate that it is not possible to rule out galaxy assembly bias using DR7 measurements of galaxy clustering alone. Moreover, galaxy samples with Mr < -20 and Mr < -20.5 favor strong central galaxy assembly bias. These samples prefer scenarios in which high-concentration are more likely to host a central galaxy relative to low-concentration halos of the same mass. We exclude zero assembly bias with high significance for these samples. Satellite galaxy assembly bias is significant for the faintest sample, Mr < -19. We find no evidence for assembly bias in the Mr < -21 sample. Assembly bi...

  12. Mechanical Self-Assembly Science and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical Self-Assembly: Science and Applications introduces a novel category of self-assembly driven by mechanical forces. This book discusses self-assembly in various types of small material structures including thin films, surfaces, and micro- and nano-wires, as well as the practice's potential application in micro and nanoelectronics, MEMS/NEMS, and biomedical engineering. The mechanical self-assembly process is inherently quick, simple, and cost-effective, as well as accessible to a large number of materials, such as curved surfaces for forming three-dimensional small structures. Mechanical self-assembly is complementary to, and sometimes offer advantages over, the traditional micro- and nano-fabrication. This book also: Presents a highly original aspect of the science of self-assembly Describes the novel methods of mechanical assembly used to fabricate a variety of new three-dimensional material structures in simple and cost-effective ways Provides simple insights to a number of biological systems and ...

  13. Composite panel, wall assembly and components therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.J.

    1988-12-20

    This invention is concerned with improvements in wall assemblies made of a plurality of composite wall panels, such as concrete wall panels, and components and connectors for such assemblies. The invention is also concerned with a method of making such composite wall panels by molding concrete to form a concrete panel. It is particularly applicable for the provision of upstanding walls around oil tanks and hydrocarbon storage facilities, thereby to form part of a containment structure that can satisfy safety regulations for spills around such facilities. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, there is provided a composite building product comprising a concrete panel, said panel being obtained by molding a respective concrete composition. The panel has at least one metal hinge element integrally secured at a respective peripheral edge, with said metal hinge element being secured at the panel to project sufficiently therefrom so as to present a first hinge element. Several of the panels can be connected in a corral-type wall assembly in a variety of configuration. Another aspect of the invention provides, for use in a wall assembly, a portable composite panel comprising a concrete panel body, which is obtained by molding a respective concrete composition; and a frame assembly for reinforcing the peripheral edges of said concrete panel body. The frame assembly includes at least one metal member for provision of a first hing element for connecting a plurality of said panels in a corral-type wall assembly. 7 figs.

  14. Self and directed assembly: people and molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony D. James

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly and directed-assembly are two very important aspects of supramolecular chemistry. As a young postgraduate student working in Canada with Tom Fyles my introduction to Supramolecular Chemistry was through the self-assembly of phospholipid membranes to form vesicles for which we were developing unimolecular and self-assembling transporter molecules. The next stage of my development as a scientist was in Japan with Seiji Shinkai where in a “Eureka” moment, the boronic acid templating unit (directed-assembly of Wulff was combined with photoinduced electron transfer systems pioneered by De Silva. The result was a turn-on fluorescence sensor for saccharides; this simple result has continued to fuel my research to the present day. Throughout my career as well as assembling molecules, I have enjoyed bringing together researchers in order to develop collaborative networks. This is where molecules meet people resulting in assemblies worth more than the individual “molecule” or “researcher”. My role in developing networks with Japan was rewarded by the award of a Daiwa-Adrian Prize in 2013 and I was recently rewarded for developing networks with China with an Inaugural CASE Prize in 2015.

  15. Directed Self-Assembly of Nanodispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furst, Eric M [University of Delaware

    2013-11-15

    Directed self-assembly promises to be the technologically and economically optimal approach to industrial-scale nanotechnology, and will enable the realization of inexpensive, reproducible and active nanostructured materials with tailored photonic, transport and mechanical properties. These new nanomaterials will play a critical role in meeting the 21st century grand challenges of the US, including energy diversity and sustainability, national security and economic competitiveness. The goal of this work was to develop and fundamentally validate methods of directed selfassembly of nanomaterials and nanodispersion processing. The specific aims were: 1. Nanocolloid self-assembly and interactions in AC electric fields. In an effort to reduce the particle sizes used in AC electric field self-assembly to lengthscales, we propose detailed characterizations of field-driven structures and studies of the fundamental underlying particle interactions. We will utilize microscopy and light scattering to assess order-disorder transitions and self-assembled structures under a variety of field and physicochemical conditions. Optical trapping will be used to measure particle interactions. These experiments will be synergetic with calculations of the particle polarizability, enabling us to both validate interactions and predict the order-disorder transition for nanocolloids. 2. Assembly of anisotropic nanocolloids. Particle shape has profound effects on structure and flow behavior of dispersions, and greatly complicates their processing and self-assembly. The methods developed to study the self-assembled structures and underlying particle interactions for dispersions of isotropic nanocolloids will be extended to systems composed of anisotropic particles. This report reviews several key advances that have been made during this project, including, (1) advances in the measurement of particle polarization mechanisms underlying field-directed self-assembly, and (2) progress in the

  16. Object-Oriented Modeling of Virtual Assembly Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengTaixiong; HeYulin; 等

    2002-01-01

    Virtual assembly is a Virtual Reality(VR) based engineering application which allows engineers to evaluate,analyze,and plan the assembly of mechanical systems,To model the virtual assembly process,new methodology must be applied.Based on the idea that the virtual assembly system is an event driven system,the interactive behavior and information model is proposed to describe the dynamic process of virtual assembly.Definition of the objectoriented model of virtual assembly is put forward.

  17. Seismic response of nuclear fuel assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváč Z.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical modelling and computer simulation of the seismic response of fuel assembly components. The seismic response is investigated by numerical integration method in time domain. The seismic excitation is given by two horizontal and one vertical synthetic accelerograms at the level of the pressure vessel seating. Dynamic response of the hexagonal type nuclear fuel assembly is caused by spatial motion of the support plates in the reactor core investigated on the reactor global model. The modal synthesis method with condensation is used for calculation of the fuel assembly component displacements and speeds on the level of the spacer grid cells.

  18. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  19. System and method for conveying an assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2015-01-15

    An apparatus, system, and method for conveying an assembly along a track. A rail can include a first planar side, a second planar side, and a third planar side. The first, second, and third planar sides can be arranged to form at least two acute angles. A carriage assembly can include a drive wheel and at least two roller sets. The drive wheel can be configured to contact the first planar side and is configured to translate the carriage assembly along the rail. The at least two roller sets can be configured to contact the two other sides to maintain the carriage in contact with the rail.

  20. Thermal battery automated assembly station conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D

    1988-08-01

    Thermal battery assembly involves many operations which are labor- intense. In August 1986, a project team was formed at GE Neutron Devices to investigate and evaluate more efficient and productive battery assembly techniques through the use of automation. The result of this study was the acceptance of a plan to automate the piece part pellet fabrication and battery stacking operations by using computerized pellet presses and robots which would be integrated by a main computer. This report details the conceptual design and development plan to be followed in the fabrication, development, and implementation of a thermal battery automated assembly station. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Mudular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    of modular product families and the interacting assembly system.   The thesis reviews extant theory and provides various classifications and discussions guided by the overall theme of product modularity and assembly systems. The empirical system analysis, based upon a longitudinal single case study......, articulates a system model incorporating both structural and performance elements. The extensive and detailed case analysis provides the necessary insight into the specific variables associated with the complex configuration of modular products and assembly systems.   Based upon the system model a number...

  2. Classification of assembly techniques for micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2005-01-01

    Industrial production of micro products to be introduced in the market has to be reliable, fast, carried out at a reasonable price and in an acceptable quantity. One of the crucial steps in the process chain related to micro product manufacture is the assembly phase. Here components are handled...... of components and level of integration are made. This paper describes a systematic characterization of micro assembly methods. This methodology offers the opportunity of a cross comparison among different techniques to gain a choosing principle of the favourable micro assembly technology in a specific case...

  3. Analysis of Human Communication during Assembly Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    AD-A7l 43 ANALYSIS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION DURING ASSEMBLY TASKS in1(U) CRNEGIE-MELLO UNIY PITTSBURGH PA ROBOTICS INST UNCLSSIIEDK S BARBER ET AL...ao I Dur~~~~IngAbcbyTs; 7c .S:in i lSAo .0. Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Tasks K. Suzanne Barber and Gerald J. Agin CMU-RI-TR-86-1...TYPE or REPORT & PE-Rioo CevCZaz Analysis of Human Communication During Assembly Inlterim Tasks I . PERFORMING 00RG. REPORT NUMBER 1. £UT~oOR~e) IL

  4. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  5. Irradiated MTR fuel assemblies sipping test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, J.A.; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Zeituni, Carlos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia do Nucleo

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes the procedure and methodology used to perform sipping test with the IEA-R1 fuel assemblies at the storage pool, and presents the results obtained for Cs-137 sipping water activity for each fuel assembly analyzed. Discussion is made correlating corrosion pits to the activity values measured. A Cs-137 leaking rate is determined which can be compared to the criteria established for canning spent fuel assemblies inside the pool of for shipment abroad. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Fullerene assemblies toward photo-energy conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanfei; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2014-04-28

    Manipulating molecular interaction and assembly for developing various functional nanostructures with controlled dimensionality, morphology and tailored properties is currently a research focus in molecular science and materials chemistry. Particularly, the self-organization of fullerenes (i.e. C60) to form various functional assemblies has received intense interest since it can provide excellent optoelectronic properties for photo-energy conversion-induced applications such as solar cells and field effect transistors (FET). In this perspective, we describe our recent efforts toward the development in the area of fullerene molecular design and assemblies aimed at improving the photoconductivity and photo-energy (electric and thermal) conversion systems.

  7. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  8. Classification of assembly techniques for micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2005-01-01

    Industrial production of micro products to be introduced in the market has to be reliable, fast, carried out at a reasonable price and in an acceptable quantity. One of the crucial steps in the process chain related to micro product manufacture is the assembly phase. Here components are handled...... of components and level of integration are made. This paper describes a systematic characterization of micro assembly methods. This methodology offers the opportunity of a cross comparison among different techniques to gain a choosing principle of the favourable micro assembly technology in a specific case...

  9. Recent development of peptide self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiubo Zhao; Fang Pan; Jian R. Lu

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are the building blocks to build peptides and proteins. Recent development in peptide synthesis has however enabled us to mimic this natural process by preparing various long and short peptides possessing different conformations and biological functions. The self-assembly of short designed peptides into molecular nanostructures is becoming a growing interest in nanobiotechnology. Self-assembled peptides exhibit several attractive features for applications in tissue regeneration, drug delivery, biological surface engineering as well as in food science, cosmetic industry and antibiotics. The aim of this review is to introduce the readers to a number of representative studies on peptide self-assembly.

  10. Computer organization and assembly language programming

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, James L

    1978-01-01

    Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming deals with lower level computer programming-machine or assembly language, and how these are used in the typical computer system. The book explains the operations of the computer at the machine language level. The text reviews basic computer operations, organization, and deals primarily with the MIX computer system. The book describes assembly language programming techniques, such as defining appropriate data structures, determining the information for input or output, and the flow of control within the program. The text explains basic I/O

  11. Virtual Teaching Simulation for Robot Assembly Accuracy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征; 周宏甫; 刘斌

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, by teaching a 3D robot unit model and playing back to simulate the assembly process in a virtual assembly environment, errors in robot assembly are analyzed. The paper also presents a visualization method for analyzing accuracy of the robot assembly, and studies the influence of the spatial pose of a robot on the success rate of an axis-hole assembly, and accuracy of the robot teaching program in particular. Through integration of various errors and on the basis of assembly accuracy, tolerance of error sources can be reasonably distributed to meet the assembly accuracy requirement, therefore the planning of robot assembly unit can be improved.

  12. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  13. Automated array assembly. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aiello, R.V.

    1977-12-01

    Three main sections are included which describe a general technology assessment and manufacturing cost analysis; a near-term (1982) factory design; and the results of an experimental production study for the large-scale production of flat-panel silicon solar-cell arrays. The results of an extensive study and detailed analysis of technologies which could be related to array module manufacturing are presented. From this study, several manufacturing sequences emerge as candidates for satisfying the ERDA/JPL cost goal of $0.50/W selling price in 1986. A minimum manufacturing cost was found in a highly automated line of $0.30/W assuming the silicon is free. The panels are of a double-glass construction and are based on round wafers. Screen-printed silver has been used as the metallization with a spray-coated antireflection (AR) layer. The least expensive junction-formation technology appears to be ion implantation;however, several other technologies also may be used with very little cost penalty as described. An interim 1982 factory is described for the large-scale production of silicon solar-cell array modules. The boundary conditions for this design are the use of Czochralski silicon crystals and $25/kg polycrystalline silicon. The objective is a large-scale production facility to meet an intermediate ERDA cost goal of $2.00/W in 1982. A 6-month experimental production study of the elements of low-cost solar-cell manufacturing sequences is described as an outgrowth of the cost and manufacturing studies. This program consisted of three parts: an experimental production line study of the major variables associated with the fabrication of 3-in.-diameter silicon solar cells; a study of thick-film screen-printed silver metallization; and panel design and assembly development. (WHK)

  14. Molecular motor assembly of a biomimetic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Active biological molecules and functional structures can be fabricated into a bio-mimetic system by using molecular assembly method. Such materials can be used for the drug delivery, disease diagnosis and therapy, and new nanodevice construction.

  15. Heterogeneous self-assembled media for biopolymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2011-01-01

    compartments and lipid-bilayer lattices. Another kind of media is represented by self-assembled phases in the reaction medium, e.g., in water-ice matrices that are formed by two co-existing aqueous phases (a solid phase and a concentrated liquid phase) when an aqueous solution is cooled below its freezing......Heterogeneous media, such as micro-structured aqueous environments, could offer an alternative approach to the synthesis of biopolymers with novel functions. Structured media are here defined as specialized, self-assembled structures that are formed, e.g, by amphiphiles, such as liposomes, emulsion...... point, but above the eutectic point. These media have the capacity to assemble chemical molecules or complex catalytic assemblies into unique configurations that are unstable or unavailable in bulk aqueous phases. Reactions can then proceed which do not readily occur in homogeneous solutions. To gauge...

  16. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The ability to grow stem cells in the laboratory and to guide their maturation to functional cells allows us to study the underlying mechanisms that govern vasculature differentiation and assembly in health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that early stages of vascular growth are exquisitely tuned by biophysical cues from the microenvironment, yet the scientific understanding of such cellular environments is still in its infancy. Comprehending these processes sufficiently to manipulate them would pave the way to controlling blood vessel growth in therapeutic applications. This book assembles the works and views of experts from various disciplines to provide a unique perspective on how different aspects of its microenvironment regulate the differentiation and assembly of the vasculature. In particular, it describes recent efforts to exploit modern engineering techniques to study and manipulate various biophysical cues. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly provides an inter...

  17. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  18. Magnetically mediated vortexlike assembly of gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianfei; Dong, Jian; Sun, Dongke; Guo, Zhirui; Gu, Ning

    2012-04-24

    Gold nanoshells currently attract increasing research interests due to the important role in many subjects. For practical applications, random arrangement of the nanoparticles is often unfavored so that the assembly of gold nanoshells is becoming a central issue. We here proposed to utilize time-variant magnetic field to direct the assembly of gold nanoshells. It was discovered that the alternating magnetic field can mediate the vortex-like assembly of gold nanoshells. The mechanism was explored and thought to be relative with the electric field of induction which caused the thermal gradient on the substrate and the electric force. The vortexlike structure as well as the assembly mechanism will play an important role in research and application of gold nanomaterials.

  19. 2007 General Assembly: Work, decisions, appeal…

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2008-01-01

    The Staff Association General Assembly was held on 11 April in the main auditorium. According to tradition, a report of the activities of the past year was made and everyone was able to assess the extent of the work accomplished.

  20. SHARC: Space Habitat, Assembly and Repair Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Todd; Hoetger, Debora; Kuo, Addison; Lo, Michael; Marcus, Leland; Tran, Philip; Tutt, Chris; Wassmuth, Chad; Wildgrube, Gregory

    1992-01-01

    Integrated Space Systems (ISS) has taken on the task of designing a Space Habitat, Assembly and Repair Center (SHARC) in Low Earth Orbit to meet the future needs of the space program. Our goal is to meet the general requirements given by the 1991/1992 AIAA/LORAL Team Space Design competition with an emphasis on minimizing the costs of such a design. A baseline structural configuration along with preliminary designs of the major subsystems was created. Our initial mission requirements, which were set by AIAA, were that the facility be able to: support simultaneous assembly of three major vehicles; conduct assembly operations and minimal extra vehicular activity (EVA); maintain orbit indefinitely; and assemble components 30 feet long with a 10 foot diameter in a shirtsleeve environment.

  1. Slipping past the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Radhika; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2013-11-01

    Error-free genome segregation depends on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a signalling network that delays anaphase onset until chromosomes have established proper spindle attachments. Three reports now quantitatively examine the sensitivity and robustness of the SAC response.

  2. Native Communities and the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A loosely knit coalition of over 25 native groups, the Peruvian Amazon Peoples has prepared a statement directed at the Peruvian Constitutional Assembly for purposes of Native input into the preparation of a revised national constitution. (JC)

  3. Method of making a unitized electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksa, M.J.; Pohto, G.R.; Lakatos, L.K.; Wheeler, D.J.; Solomon, F.; Niksa, A.J.; Schue, T.J.; Genodman, Y.; Turk, T.R.; Hagel, D.P.

    1988-12-06

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom. 6 figs.

  4. Method of making a unitized electrode assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niksa, Marilyn J. (Painesville, OH); Pohto, Gerald R. (Mentor, OH); Lakatos, Leslie K. (Mentor, OH); Wheeler, Douglas J. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Solomon, Frank (Great Neck, NY); Niksa, Andrew J. (Painesville, OH); Schue, Thomas J. (Huntsburg, OH); Genodman, Yury (Brooklyn, NY); Turk, Thomas R. (Mentor, OH); Hagel, Daniel P. (Willoughby, OH)

    1988-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  5. Optimal production planning for PCB assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, William

    2006-01-01

    Focuses on the optimization of the Printed circuit board (PCB) assembly lines' efficiency. This book integrates the component sequencing and the feeder arrangement problems together for the pick-and-place machine and the chip shooter machines.

  6. optimal assembly line balancing using simulation techniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University ..... tested as per the simulation design. Certain key ..... Industry using a Genetic Algorithm”,. International Journal of ... Optimization Models for Assembly Line. Balancing in ...

  7. Torsional fluctuations in columnar DNA assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, D J

    2005-01-01

    In columnar assemblies of helical bio-molecules the azimuthal degrees of freedom, i.e. rotations about the long axes of molecules, may be important in determining the structure of the assemblies especially when the interaction energy between neighbouring molecules explicitly depends on their relative azimuthal orientations. For DNA this leads to a rich variety of mesophases for columnar assemblies, each categorized by a specific azimuthal ordering. In a preceding paper [A. Wynveen, D. J. Lee, and A. A. Kornyshev, Eur. Phys. J. E, 16, 303 (2005)] a statistical mechanical theory was developed for the assemblies of torsionally rigid molecues in order to determine how thermal fluctuations influence the structure of these mesophases. Here we extend this theory by including torsional fluctuations of the molecules, where a DNA molecule may twist about its long axis at the cost of torsional elastic energy. Comparing this with the previous study, we find that inclusion of torsional fluctuations further increases the d...

  8. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  9. SolidWorks 2011 Assemblies Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lombard, Matt

    2011-01-01

    A fan of the SolidWorks Bible, but want more detail on assemblies? Here you go. SolidWorks fans have long sought more detail on SolidWorks topics, and now you have it. We took our popular SolidWorks Bible, divided it into two books (SolidWorks 2011 Assemblies Bible and SolidWorks 2011 Parts Bible) and packed each new book with a host of items from your wish lists, such as more extensive coverage of the basics, additional tutorials, and expanded coverage of topics largely ignored by other books. This SolidWorks 2011 Assemblies Bible shows you how to organize parts data to create assemblies or s

  10. Photonic hybrid assembly through flexible waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörhoff, K.; Prak, A.; Postma, F.; Leinse, A.; Wu, K.; Peters, T. J.; Tichem, M.; Amaning-Appiah, B.; Renukappa, V.; Vollrath, G.; Balcells-Ventura, J.; Uhlig, P.; Seyfried, M.; Rose, D.; Santos, R.; Leijtens, X. J. M.; Flintham, B.; Wale, M.; Robbins, D.

    2016-05-01

    Fully automated, high precision, cost-effective assembly technology for photonic packages remains one of the main challenges in photonic component manufacturing. Next to the cost aspect the most demanding assembly task for multiport photonic integrated circuits (PICs) is the high-precision (±0.1 μm) alignment and fixing required for optical I/O in InP PICs, even with waveguide spot size conversion. In a European research initiative - PHASTFlex - we develop and investigate an innovative, novel assembly concept, in which the waveguides in a matching TriPleX interposer PIC are released during fabrication to make them movable. After assembly of both chips by flip-chip bonding on a common carrier, TriPleX based actuators and clamping functions position and fix the flexible waveguides with the required accuracy.

  11. Thermal Analysis of a TREAT Fuel Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, Dionissios [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wright, Arthur E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-07-09

    The objective of this study was to explore options as to reduce peak cladding temperatures despite an increase in peak fuel temperatures. A 3D thermal-hydraulic model for a single TREAT fuel assembly was benchmarked to reproduce results obtained with previous thermal models developed for a TREAT HEU fuel assembly. In exercising this model, and variants thereof depending on the scope of analysis, various options were explored to reduce the peak cladding temperatures.

  12. Interactive Assembly Guide using Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard; Larsen, Christian Lindequist

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an Augmented Reality system for aiding a pump assembling process at Grundfos, one of the leading pump producers. Stable pose estimation of the pump is required in order to augment the graphics correctly. This is achieved by matching image edges with synthesized edges from CAD...... norm. A dynamic visualization of the augmented graphics provides the user with guidance. Usability tests show that the accuracy of the system is sufficient for assembling the pump....

  13. Automated analysis for lifecycle assembly processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Brown, R.G.; Peters, R.R.

    1998-05-01

    Many manufacturing companies today expend more effort on upgrade and disposal projects than on clean-slate design, and this trend is expected to become more prevalent in coming years. However, commercial CAD tools are better suited to initial product design than to the product`s full life cycle. Computer-aided analysis, optimization, and visualization of life cycle assembly processes based on the product CAD data can help ensure accuracy and reduce effort expended in planning these processes for existing products, as well as provide design-for-lifecycle analysis for new designs. To be effective, computer aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that apply to their companies and products as well as to the life cycles of their products. Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during its entire life cycle for purposes including service, field repair, upgrade, and disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and constraints (compared to initial assembly) require one to re-visit the significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or applied studies of life cycle assembly processes, which give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for; optimize, and analyze life cycle assembly processes.

  14. Establishment of China Nuclear Fuel Assembly Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENPeng; ZHANGYing-chao; LIUTing-jin; JINYong-li

    2003-01-01

    During researching, designing, manufacturing and post irradiation, a large amount of data on fuel assembly of China nuclear power plants has been accumulated. It is necessary to collect the data together,so that the researchers, designers, manufactures and managers could use the data conveniently. It was proposed to establish a China Nuclear Fuel Assembly Database through the Internet on workstations during the year of 2003 to 2006, so the data would be shared in China nuclear industry.

  15. Flexible logistic concepts for assembly systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Logistics is a crucial issue for small and medium sized enterprises (SME. This paper deals with logistical concepts for assembly systems. The IPH is currently conducting a project with the aim of developing a method to combine allocation and delivery concepts for assembly systems to increase the logistical efficiency of SME. Via this method SME are able to adapt quickly to changing market environments.

  16. Spontaneous Assembly of Exopolymers from Phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xue Ding

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton exopolymeric substances (EPS contribute significantly to the dissolved organic car bon (DOC pool in the ocean, playing crucial roles in the surface ocean car bon cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that ~10% of marine DOC can self-assemble as microgels through electro static Ca bonds providing hotspots of enriched microbial substrate. How ever, the question whether EPS can self-assemble and the formation mechanisms for EPS microgels have not been examined. Here were port that EPS from three representative phytoplankton species, Synechococcus, Emiliania huxleyi, and Skeletonema costatum can spontaneously self assemble in artificial sea water (ASW, forming microscopic gels of ~ 3 - 4 _ in diameter. Different from the marine DOC polymers assembly, these EPS samples can self-assemble in Ca2+-free ASW. Further experiments from fluorescence enhancement and chemical composition analysis confirmed the existence of fair amounts of hydrophobic domains in these EPS samples. These results suggest that hydrophobic interactions play a key role in the assembly of EPS from these three species of marine phytoplankton.

  17. Traceable assembly of microparts using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Dae; Hwang, Sun-Uk; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2012-10-01

    Assembly of components with a size in the order of tens of micrometers or less is difficult because the gravitational forces become smaller than weak forces such as capillary, electrostatic and van der Waals forces. As such, the picked-up components commonly adhere to the manipulator, making the release operation troublesome, and the repeatable supply of components cannot be guaranteed because the magazining and bunkering scheme available in conventional scale assembly cannot be extended to these small objects. Moreover, there are also no effective ways known to deliver the finalized assembly externally. In this paper, we present the manipulation and assembly of microparts using optical tweezers, which by nature do not have stiction problems. Techniques allowing bunkering and finalizing the assembly for exporting are also presented. Finally, we demonstrate an exemplary microassembly formed by assembling two microparts: a movable microring and a microrod fixed on a glass substrate. We believe this traceable microassembly to be an important step forward for micro- and nano-manufacturing.

  18. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  19. The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, David L; Kinlaw, Mathew T

    2013-10-01

    A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (k(eff)=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-assembly micro optical filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping (Cerina); Le, Kevin; Malalur-Nagaraja-Rao, Smitha; Hsu, Lun-Chen; Chiao, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Optical communication and sensor industry face critical challenges in manufacturing for system integration. Due to the assembly complexity and integration platform variety, micro optical components require costly alignment and assembly procedures, in which many required manual efforts. Consequently, self-assembly device architectures have become a great interest and could provide major advantages over the conventional optical devices. In this paper, we discussed a self-assembly integration platform for micro optical components. To demonstrate the adaptability and flexibility of the proposed optical device architectures, we chose a commercially available MEMS fabrication foundry service - MUMPs (Multi-User MEMS Process). In this work, polysilicon layers of MUMPS are used as the 3-D structural material for construction of micro component framework and actuators. However, because the polysilicon has high absorption in the visible and near infrared wavelength ranges, it is not suitable for optical interaction. To demonstrate the required optical performance, hybrid integration of materials was proposed and implemented. Organic compound materials were applied on the silicon-based framework to form the required optical interfaces. Organic compounds provide good optical transparency, flexibility to form filters or lens and inexpensive manufacturing procedures. In this paper, we have demonstrated a micro optical filter integrated with self-assembly structures. We will discuss the self-assembly mechanism, optical filter designs, fabrication issues and results.

  1. Mitochondrial ribosome assembly in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Dasmanthie; Tu, Ya-Ting; Amunts, Alexey; Fontanesi, Flavia; Barrientos, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome is a structurally and functionally conserved macromolecular machine universally responsible for catalyzing protein synthesis. Within eukaryotic cells, mitochondria contain their own ribosomes (mitoribosomes), which synthesize a handful of proteins, all essential for the biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation system. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of the yeast, porcine and human mitoribosomal subunits and of the entire human mitoribosome have uncovered a wealth of new information to illustrate their evolutionary divergence from their bacterial ancestors and their adaptation to synthesis of highly hydrophobic membrane proteins. With such structural data becoming available, one of the most important remaining questions is that of the mitoribosome assembly pathway and factors involved. The regulation of mitoribosome biogenesis is paramount to mitochondrial respiration, and thus to cell viability, growth and differentiation. Moreover, mutations affecting the rRNA and protein components produce severe human mitochondrial disorders. Despite its biological and biomedical significance, knowledge on mitoribosome biogenesis and its deviations from the much-studied bacterial ribosome assembly processes is scarce, especially the order of rRNA processing and assembly events and the regulatory factors required to achieve fully functional particles. This article focuses on summarizing the current available information on mitoribosome assembly pathway, factors that form the mitoribosome assembly machinery, and the effect of defective mitoribosome assembly on human health.

  2. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  3. Identifying wrong assemblies in de novo short read primary sequence assembly contigs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VANDNA CHAWLA; RAJNISH KUMAR; RAVI SHANKAR

    2016-09-01

    With the advent of short-reads-based genome sequencing approaches, large number of organisms are being sequencedall over the world. Most of these assemblies are done using some de novo short read assemblers and other relatedapproaches. However, the contigs produced this way are prone to wrong assembly. So far, there is a conspicuousdearth of reliable tools to identify mis-assembled contigs. Mis-assemblies could result from incorrectly deleted orwrongly arranged genomic sequences. In the present work various factors related to sequence, sequencing andassembling have been assessed for their role in causing mis-assembly by using different genome sequencing data.Finally, some mis-assembly detecting tools have been evaluated for their ability to detect the wrongly assembledprimary contigs, suggesting a lot of scope for improvement in this area. The present work also proposes a simpleunsupervised learning-based novel approach to identify mis-assemblies in the contigs which was found performingreasonably well when compared to the already existing tools to report mis-assembled contigs. It was observed that theproposed methodology may work as a complementary system to the existing tools to enhance their accuracy.

  4. SparseAssembler2: Sparse k-mer Graph for Memory Efficient Genome Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Chengxi; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Yu, Douglas W; Pop, Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: To tackle the problem of huge memory usage associated with de Bruijn graph-based algorithms, upon which some of the most widely used de novo genome assemblers have been built, we released SparseAssembler1. SparseAssembler1 can save as much as 90% memory consumption in comparison with the state-of-art assemblers, but it requires rounds of denoising to accurately assemble genomes. In this paper, we introduce a new general model for genome assembly that uses only sparse k-mers. The new model replaces the idea of the de Bruijn graph from the beginning, and achieves similar memory efficiency and much better robustness compared with our previous SparseAssembler1. Results: Based on the sparse k-mers graph model, we develop SparseAssembler2. We demonstrate that the decomposition of reads of all overlapping k-mers, which is used in existing de Bruijn graph genome assemblers, is overly cautious. We introduce a sparse k-mer graph structure for saving sparse k-mers, which greatly reduces memory space requirem...

  5. The continuous assembly and transfer of nanoelements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun

    Patterned nanoelements on flexible polymeric substrates at micro/nano scale at high rate, low cost, and commercially viable route offer an opportunity for manufacturing devices with micro/nano scale features. These micro/nano scale now made with various nanoelement can enhance the device functionality in sensing and switching due to their improved conductivity and better mechanical properties. In this research the fundamental understanding of high rate assembly and transfer of nanoelements has been developed. To achieve this objective, three sub topics were made. In the first step, the use of electrophoresis for the controlled assembly of CNT's on interdigitated templates has been shown. The time scale of assembly reported is shorter than the previously reported assembly time (60 seconds). The mass deposited was also predicted using the Hamaker's law. It is also shown that pre-patterned CNT's could be transferred from the rigid templates onto flexible polymeric substrates using a thermoforming process. The time scale of transfer is less than one minute (50 seconds) and was found to be dependent on polymer chemistry. It was found that CNT's preferentially transfer from Au electrode to non-polar polymeric substrates (polyurethane and polyethylene terephalathate glycol) in the thermoforming process. In the second step, a novel process (Pulsed Electrophoresis) has been shown for the first time to assist the assembly of conducting polyaniline on gold nanowire interdigitated templates. This technique offers dynamic control over heat build-up, which has been a main drawback in the DC electrophoresis and AC dielectrophoresis as well as the main cause of nanowire template damage. The use of this technique allowed higher voltages to be applied, resulting in shorter assembly times (e.g., 17.4 seconds, assembly resolution of 100 nm). The pre-patterned templates with PANi deposition were subsequently used to transfer the nanoscale assembled PANi from the rigid templates to

  6. Competition between self-assembly and surface adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Douglas, Jack F.; Freed, Karl F.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate a minimal equilibrium polymerization model for the competition between self-assembly on a boundary and in solution that arises when an assembling system is in the presence of an adsorbing interface. Adsorption generally occurs upon cooling, but assembly (equilibrium polymerization) may arise either upon cooling or heating. Both cases are shown to exhibit a coupling between adsorption and self-assembly. When both assembly and adsorption proceed upon cooling, a change in the ratio of the enthalpy of adsorption to the enthalpy of assembly in solution can switch the system between a predominance of self-assembly in solution to assembly on the substrate. If assembly is promoted by heating and adsorption by cooling, as in many self-assembling proteins in aqueous solution, then a self-assembly analog of a closed loop phase boundary is found. In particular, the order parameter for assembly on the surface exhibits a peak as a function of temperature. As demonstrated by illustrative examples, the coupling between surface adsorption and self-assembly provides a powerful means of switching self-assembly processes on and off. Understanding and controlling this switching phenomenon will be useful in designing and directing self-assembly processes on surfaces for applications to nanomanufacturing and in developing treatments for diseases arising from pathological adsorption-induced assembly.

  7. 49 CFR 572.124 - Thorax assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax assembly and test procedure. 572.124...-year-old Child Test Dummy, Beta Version § 572.124 Thorax assembly and test procedure. (a) Thorax (upper torso) assembly. The thorax consists of the part of the torso assembly shown in drawing 127-2000. (b...

  8. 49 CFR 572.164 - Thorax assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax assembly and test procedure. 572.164... Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.164 Thorax assembly and test procedure. (a) Thorax (upper torso) assembly. The thorax consists of the part of the torso assembly shown in drawing 167...

  9. 49 CFR 572.154 - Thorax assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax assembly and test procedure. 572.154... 12-Month-Old Infant, Alpha Version § 572.154 Thorax assembly and test procedure. (a) Thorax Assembly (refer to § 572.150(a)(1)(iv)) . The thorax consists of the part of the torso assembly shown in drawing...

  10. 49 CFR 572.74 - Thorax assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax assembly and test procedure. 572.74 Section...-Year-Old Child § 572.74 Thorax assembly and test procedure. (a) Thorax assembly. The thorax consists of... Weld Ass'y.”, dated September 24, 1996). (b) Thorax assembly requirements. When the thorax is impacted...

  11. The construction of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter: crystal assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    This photogallery describes the whole sequence of crystal assembly up to the so-called supermodules of 1700 PWO crystals each. Figures 1-6: submodule (10 crystals + their APDs) assembly with alveola structures. Figs. 7-11: module assembly. Each module is composed by 400 or 500 crystals. Figs. 13-17: supermodule assembly, thermal screen and monitoring, transport.

  12. 21 CFR 890.3500 - External assembled lower limb prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External assembled lower limb prosthesis. 890.3500... External assembled lower limb prosthesis. (a) Identification. An external assembled lower limb prosthesis... the lower extremity. Examples of external assembled lower limb prostheses are the following:...

  13. Assembly auxiliary system for narrow cabins of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Due to the narrow space and complex structure of spacecraft cabin, the existing asssembly systems can not well suit for the assembly process of cabin products. This paper aims to introduce an assembly auxiliary system for cabin products. A hierarchical-classification method is proposed to re-adjust the initial assembly relationship of cabin into a new hierarchical structure for efficient assembly planning. An improved ant colony algorithm based on three assembly principles is established for searching a optimizational assembly sequence of cabin parts. A mixed reality assembly environment is constructed with enhanced information to promote interaction efficiency of assembly training and guidance. Based on the machine vision technology, the inspection of left redundant objects and measurement of parts distance in inner cabin are efficiently performed. The proposed system has been applied to the assembly work of a spacecraft cabin with 107 parts, which includes cabin assembly planning, assembly training and assembly quality inspection. The application result indicates that the proposed system can be an effective assistant tool to cabin assembly works and provide an intuitive and real assembly experience for workers. This paper presents an assembly auxiliary system for spacecraft cabin products, which can provide technical support to the spacecraft cabin assembly industry.

  14. Dynamic synchrony of local cell assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshio; Takahashi, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the problem of the dynamic size of a cell assembly and discuss how we can detect synchronized firing of a local cell assembly consisting of closely neighboring neurons in the working brain. A local cell assembly is difficult to detect because of the problem of spike overlapping of neighboring neurons, which cannot be overcome by ordinary spike-sorting techniques. We introduce a unique technique of spike-sorting that combines independent component analysis (ICA) and an ordinary sorting method to separate individual neighboring neurons and analyze their firing synchrony in behaving animals. One of our experiments employing this method showed that some closely neighboring neurons in the monkey prefrontal cortex have dynamic and sharp synchrony of firing reflecting local cell assemblies during working-memory processes. Another experiment showed that our other method (ICSort) of novel spike-sorting by ICA using special electrodes (dodecatrodes) can distinguish firing signals from the soma and those from the dendrites of individual neurons in behaving rats and suggests that the somatic and dendritic signals have different roles in information processing. This indicates that functional connectivity among neurons may be more dynamic and complex and spikes from the soma and dendrites of individual neurons should be considered in the investigation of the activity of local cell assemblies. We finally propose that detailed and real features of a local cell assembly consisting of closely neighboring neurons should be examined further and detection of local cell assemblies could be applied to the development of neuronal prosthetic devices, that is, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs).

  15. Templated Self Assemble of Nano-Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suo, Zhigang [Harvard University

    2013-04-29

    This project will identify and model mechanisms that template the self-assembly of nanostructures. We focus on a class of systems involving a two-phase monolayer of molecules adsorbed on a solid surface. At a suitably elevated temperature, the molecules diffuse on the surface to reduce the combined free energy of mixing, phase boundary, elastic field, and electrostatic field. With no template, the phases may form a pattern of stripes or disks. The feature size is on the order of 1-100 nm, selected to compromise the phase boundary energy and the long-range elastic or electrostatic interaction. Both experimental observations and our theoretical simulations have shown that the pattern resembles a periodic lattice, but has abundant imperfections. To form a perfect periodic pattern, or a designed aperiodic pattern, one must introduce a template to guide the assembly. For example, a coarse-scale pattern, lithographically defined on the substrate, will guide the assembly of the nanoscale pattern. As another example, if the molecules on the substrate surface carry strong electric dipoles, a charged object, placed in the space above the monolayer, will guide the assembly of the molecular dipoles. In particular, the charged object can be a mask with a designed nanoscale topographic pattern. A serial process (e.g., e-beam lithography) is necessary to make the mask, but the pattern transfer to the molecules on the substrate is a parallel process. The technique is potentially a high throughput, low cost process to pattern a monolayer. The monolayer pattern itself may serve as a template to fabricate a functional structure. This project will model fundamental aspects of these processes, including thermodynamics and kinetics of self-assembly, templated self-assembly, and self-assembly on unconventional substrates. It is envisioned that the theory will not only explain the available experimental observations, but also motivate new experiments.

  16. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  17. Realization Techniques of Virtual Assembly Process Planning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; NING Ru-xin; TANG Cheng-tong

    2005-01-01

    The key realization techniques of virtual assembly process planning (VAPP) system are analyzed,including virtual assembly model, real-time collision detection, automatic constraint recognition algorithm, cable harness assembly process planning and visual assembly process plan at the workshop. A virtual assembly model based on hierarchical assembly task list (HATL) is put forward, in which assembly tasks are defined to express component assembling operations and are sequentially and hierarchically organized according to different subassemblies, which can perfectly model the construction process of product. And a multi-layer automatic geometry constraint recognition algorithm of how to identify assembly constraint relations in the virtual environment is proposed, then a four-layer collision detection algorithm is discussed. A VAPP system is built and some simple mechanical assemblies are used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method and algorithms.

  18. Method of making hermetic seals for hermetic terminal assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2010-04-13

    This invention teaches methods of making a hermetic terminal assembly comprising the steps of: inserting temporary stops, shims and jigs on the bottom face of a terminal assembly thereby blocking assembly core open passageways; mounting the terminal assembly inside a vacuum chamber using a temporary assembly perimeter seal and flange or threaded assembly interfaces; mixing a seal admixture and hardener in a mixer conveyor to form a polymer seal material; conveying the polymer seal material into a polymer reservoir; feeding the polymer seal material from the reservoir through a polymer outlet valve and at least one polymer outlet tube into the terminal assembly core thereby filling interstitial spaces in the core adjacent to service conduits, temporary stop, and the terminal assembly casing; drying the polymer seal material at room temperature thereby hermetically sealing the core of the terminal assembly; removing the terminal assembly from the vacuum chamber, and; removing the temporary stops, shims.

  19. RESEARCH ON THE CONSTRAINT MAPPING FROM FUNCTION TO ASSEMBLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Jianrong; Ji Yangjian; Liu Zhenyu; Chen Hongliang; Yue Xiaoli

    2003-01-01

    Assembly sketch is not only the visualization of abstract function, but also the template of detail design. Two kinds of information are needed to create assembly sketch: structure and assembly constraint. Most researches are aimed at how to obtain structures from function, but the problem of how to obtain assembly constraint from function is ignored. Following the definition of assembly unit and the classification of function, a hierarchical mapping method from function to assembly constraint is put forward, and the mapping method includes two steps. The first step is the mapping from function to assembly semantics which is assembly expression and accordant with engineer's design habit. The second one is the mapping from assembly semantics to basic assembly constraints that are convenient for computer to handle. The mapping method is applied to DDMS (design, drafting and management system) successfully.

  20. Self-assembled hemicapsules with inherent functionalities: modeling of a supramolecular electrostatic self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oshovsky, G.; Reinhoudt, David; Verboom, Willem

    2006-01-01

    An approach to functional self-assembled hemicapsules is described consisting of the use of multivalent (valency ≥ 4) and divalent components, the functional groups of which have a relatively weak binding affinity. Electrostatic self-assembly of tetrakis(pyridiniummethyl)cavitand hemispheres (H) and

  1. A Magnetic Assembly, a Fluid-Flow Assembly and an Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention provides a magnetic assembly, the assembly comprising: a magnet (4); and a ferromagnetic component (6) having at least two regions of different Curie temperature, the magnet (4) and the ferromagnetic component being movable with respect to each other in dependence on the temperature...

  2. A Magnetic Assembly, a Fluid-Flow Assembly and an Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention provides a magnetic assembly, the assembly comprising: a magnet (4); and a ferromagnetic component (6) having at least two regions of different Curie temperature, the magnet (4) and the ferromagnetic component being movable with respect to each other in dependence on the temperature...

  3. Nanoparticle Array Assembly Using Chemical Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sarah Marie

    This dissertation demonstrates chemically-driven self-assembly techniques to produce assemblies of closely-spaced metal nanoparticles from colloidal nanoparticle solution in order to engineer enhanced optical fields. Planar nanoparticle assemblies provide a platform for a multitude of applications and material architectures. With nanoscale inter-particle spacing, metallic nanoparticles enable increased efficiency of photovoltaic devices due to light focusing and enhancement of electromagnetic fields useful for optical sensing of molecules due to coupling of the plasmon resonance in nanoparticle gaps. For molecular sensors, development of self-assembled two-dimensional assemblies of closely-spaced nanoparticles is useful for producing surface plasmon resonance sensors and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based sensing. Using chemical self-assembly, monodisperse, colloidal gold nanoparticles were attached on self-organized polymer templates in order to pattern assemblies of nanoparticle clusters with sub-10 nanometer inter-particle spacing. First citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles were functionalized with thioctic acid ligands in solution. Then poly(methyl methacrylate) domains in phase-separated poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) thin films were chemically modified with surface amine functional groups. Au nanoparticles were preferentially attached to the functionalized PMMA surface domains using cross-linking chemistry. This method allows for versatility of size, shape, and composition. In this dissertation, we demonstrated attachment of 5, 10, and 20 nm Au and 20 nm Ag nanoparticles. PS-b-PMMA thin films also exhibit versatility of domain size and morphology by varying polymer molecular weights. The nanoparticle diameter to PMMA domain size ratio influenced the cluster size. As the ratio decreased, larger clusters were observed on PMMA domains with increased frequency. SERS measurement of nanoparticle assemblies showed uniform signal

  4. Self-assembly of smallest magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh Taheri, Sara; Michaelis, Maria; Friedrich, Thomas; Förster, Beate; Drechsler, Markus; Römer, Florian M; Bösecke, Peter; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Weber, Birgit; Rehberg, Ingo; Rosenfeldt, Sabine; Förster, Stephan

    2015-11-24

    The assembly of tiny magnetic particles in external magnetic fields is important for many applications ranging from data storage to medical technologies. The development of ever smaller magnetic structures is restricted by a size limit, where the particles are just barely magnetic. For such particles we report the discovery of a kind of solution assembly hitherto unobserved, to our knowledge. The fact that the assembly occurs in solution is very relevant for applications, where magnetic nanoparticles are either solution-processed or are used in liquid biological environments. Induced by an external magnetic field, nanocubes spontaneously assemble into 1D chains, 2D monolayer sheets, and large 3D cuboids with almost perfect internal ordering. The self-assembly of the nanocubes can be elucidated considering the dipole-dipole interaction of small superparamagnetic particles. Complex 3D geometrical arrangements of the nanodipoles are obtained under the assumption that the orientation of magnetization is freely adjustable within the superlattice and tends to minimize the binding energy. On that basis the magnetic moment of the cuboids can be explained.

  5. Programming biomolecular self-assembly pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Choi, Harry M T; Calvert, Colby R; Pierce, Niles A

    2008-01-17

    In nature, self-assembling and disassembling complexes of proteins and nucleic acids bound to a variety of ligands perform intricate and diverse dynamic functions. In contrast, attempts to rationally encode structure and function into synthetic amino acid and nucleic acid sequences have largely focused on engineering molecules that self-assemble into prescribed target structures, rather than on engineering transient system dynamics. To design systems that perform dynamic functions without human intervention, it is necessary to encode within the biopolymer sequences the reaction pathways by which self-assembly occurs. Nucleic acids show promise as a design medium for engineering dynamic functions, including catalytic hybridization, triggered self-assembly and molecular computation. Here, we program diverse molecular self-assembly and disassembly pathways using a 'reaction graph' abstraction to specify complementarity relationships between modular domains in a versatile DNA hairpin motif. Molecular programs are executed for a variety of dynamic functions: catalytic formation of branched junctions, autocatalytic duplex formation by a cross-catalytic circuit, nucleated dendritic growth of a binary molecular 'tree', and autonomous locomotion of a bipedal walker.

  6. Assembling and Installing LRUs for NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, R E

    2003-12-31

    Within the 192 National Ignition Facility (NIF) beamlines, there are over 7000 large (40 x 40 cm) optical components, including laser glass, mirrors, lenses, and polarizers. These optics are held in large opto-mechanical assemblies called line-replaceable units (LRUs). Each LRU has strict specifications with respect to cleanliness, alignment, and wavefront so that once activated, each NIF beamline will meet its performance requirements. NIF LRUs are assembled, tested, and refurbished in on-site cleanroom facilities. The assembled LRUs weigh up to 1800 kilograms, and are about the size of a phone booth. They are transported in portable clean canisters and inserted into the NIF beampath using robotic transporters. This plug and play design allows LRUs to be easily removed from the beampath for maintenance or upgrades. Commissioning of the first NIF quad, an activity known as NIF Early Light (NEL), has validated LRU designs and architecture, as well as demonstrated that LRUs can be assembled and installed as designed. Furthermore, it has served to develop key processes and tools forming the foundation for NIF s long-term LRU production and maintenance strategy. As we look forward to building out the rest of NIF, the challenge lies in scaling up the production rate while maintaining quality, implementing process improvements, and fully leveraging the learning and experience gained from NEL. This paper provides an overview of the facilities, equipment and processes used to assemble and install LRUs in NIF.

  7. Pulsed electric field assisted assembly of polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kazmer, David O.; Barry, Carol M. F.; Mead, Joey L.

    2012-08-01

    Assembling conducting polyaniline (PANi) on pre-patterned nano-structures by a high rate, commercially viable route offers an opportunity for manufacturing devices with nanoscale features. In this work we report for the first time the use of pulsed electric field to assist electrophoresis for the assembly of conducting polyaniline on gold nanowire interdigitated templates. This technique offers dynamic control over heat build-up, which has been a main drawback in the DC electrophoresis and AC dielectrophoresis as well as the main cause of nanowire template damage. The use of this technique allowed higher voltages to be applied, resulting in shorter assembly times (e.g., 17.4 s, assembly resolution of 100 nm). Moreover, the area coverage increases with the increase in number of pulses. A similar trend was observed with the deposition height and the increase in deposition height followed a linear trend with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. When the experimental mass deposited was compared with Hamaker’s theoretical model, the two were found to be very close. The pre-patterned templates with PANi deposition were subsequently used to transfer the nanoscale assembled PANi from the rigid templates to thermoplastic polyurethane using the thermoforming process.

  8. [INVITED] Self-assembled optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alexandre; Aradian, Ashod; Ponsinet, Virginie; Barois, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled metamaterials constitute a promising platform to achieving bulk and homogenous optical materials that exhibit unusual effective medium properties. For many years now, the research community has contemplated lithographically fabricated metasurfaces, with extraordinary optical features. However, achieving large volumes at low cost is still a challenge by top-down fabrication. Bottom-up fabrication, that relies both on nanochemistry and self-assembly, is capable of building such materials while greatly reducing the energy footprint in the formulation of the metamaterial. Self-assembled metamaterials have shown that they are capable of reaching unprecedented values of bulkiness and homogeneity figures of merit. This feat is achieved by synthesizing plasmonic nanoresonators (meta-atoms in the sense of artificial polarizable units) and assembling them into a fully three-dimensional matrix through a variety of methods. Furthermore it has been shown that a wide range of material parameters can be tailored by controlling the geometry and composition of the meta-atoms as well as the volume fraction of the nano-objects in the metamaterial. Here we conduct a non-comprehensive review of some of the recent trends in self-assembled optical metamaterials and illustrate these trends with our recent work.

  9. Preparation of the magnet sub-assemblies

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: On a rotation bench, preparation of the lower half-yoke with the bus bars and the pre-curved shell. The components are put on a dummy half-yoke in view of being rotated upside down. Photo 02: On a rotation bench, preparation of the lower half-yoke with the bus bars and the pre-curved shell. The components are put on a dummy half-yoke in view of being rotated upside down. Photo 03: The half-yoke assembly is made of short packs that are assembled together and locked with 15-m long tie-rods on a dedicated bench. Photo 04: The collared-coils assembly is equipped with magnetic inserts and special shims on a rotation bench in view of its installation in the yoke, operation that is called "yoking". At that stage of the assembly, the collared-coils assembly is equipped with the end plates and the electrical connections between the poles and between dipole I and dipoe II are made.

  10. Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Richard H.; Zdeb, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system.

  11. Molecular self-assembly at solid surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Roberto; Gallego, José María; de Parga, Amadeo L Vázquez; Martín, Nazario; Miranda, Rodolfo

    2011-11-23

    Self-assembly, the process by which objects initially distributed at random arrange into well-defined patterns exclusively due to their local mutual interactions without external intervention, is generally accepted to be the most promising method for large-scale fabrication of functional nanostructures. In particular, the ordering of molecular building-blocks deposited at solid surfaces is relevant for the performance of many organic electronic and optoelectronic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) or photovoltaic solar cells. However, the fundamental knowledge on the nature and strength of the intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions that govern the ordering of molecular adsorbates is, in many cases, rather scarce. In most cases, the structure and morphology of the organic-metal interface is not known and it is just assumed to be the same as in the bulk, thereby implicitly neglecting the role of the surface on the assembly. However, this approximation is usually not correct, and the evidence gathered over the last decades points towards an active role of the surface in the assembly, leading to self-assembled structures that only in a few occasions can be understood by considering just intermolecular interactions in solid or gas phases. In this work we review several examples from our recent research demonstrating the apparently endless variety of ways in which the surface might affect the assembly of organic adsorbates.

  12. Nanopropulsion by biocatalytic self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Joy; Hope, Alexander; Hughes, Meghan; Debnath, Sisir; Fleming, Scott; Wark, Alastair W; Ulijn, Rein V; Haw, Mark D

    2014-09-23

    A number of organisms and organelles are capable of self-propulsion at the micro- and nanoscales. Production of simple man-made mimics of biological transportation systems may prove relevant to achieving movement in artificial cells and nano/micronscale robotics that may be of biological and nanotechnological importance. We demonstrate the propulsion of particles based on catalytically controlled molecular self-assembly and fiber formation at the particle surface. Specifically, phosphatase enzymes (acting as the engine) are conjugated to a quantum dot (the vehicle), and are subsequently exposed to micellar aggregates (fuel) that upon biocatalytic dephosphorylation undergo fibrillar self-assembly, which in turn causes propulsion. The motion of individual enzyme/quantum dot conjugates is followed directly using fluorescence microscopy. While overall movement remains random, the enzyme-conjugates exhibit significantly faster transport in the presence of the fiber forming system, compared to controls without fuel, a non-self-assembling substrate, or a substrate which assembles into spherical, rather than fibrous structures upon enzymatic dephosphorylation. When increasing the concentration of the fiber-forming fuel, the speed of the conjugates increases compared to non-self-assembling substrate, although directionality remains random.

  13. ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING in a CLOTHING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASNALCACI Kubra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines take the attention of researchers and companies because of its great effect on efficiency. Efficiency in assembly lines has an important role on cost and quality which are the basic fundamentals of competition. Assembly lines contain a number of workstations and tasks (jobs are processed in these stations and are moved from station to station. The tasks are assigned to each station regarding a cycle time. The cycle time is the maximum available time for the production of a job at any workstation. The assingning of jobs to workstations is based on the objective of minimizing the workflow among the workstations, reducing the throughput time as well as the work in progress and thus increasing productivity. If the jobs are not allocated in balance, this will cause idle workstations and waste of workforce besides the loss of overall efficiency. In this study, an assebly line balancing problem was examined for a five pocket denim trousers in a clothing company. Firstly, priority associations and standard durations of operations of denim trousers were determined. Then, assembly line balancing study was carried out by using ranked positional weights assembly line balancing method developed by Helgeson and Birnie to increase the production in a clothing company manufacturing five pocket denim trousers.

  14. RESEARCH OF MOVEMENT NAVIGATION BASED ON ASSEMBLY CONSTRAINT RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The requirements and features of virtual assembly movement navigator are analyzed to help operators flexibly manipulate virtual objects, precisely locate or assemble virtual parts in virtual environment. With the degree-of-freedom analysis, the assembly constraint hierarchical model is constructed and the system's constraints are built dynamically. Thus, all objects in virtual environment can be located reasonally by the navigator. Moreover, the assembly constraint recognition in the process of assembly and movement correction is also discussed.

  15. Whole-Genome Sequence Assembly for Mammalian Genomes: Arachne 2

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, David B.; Butler, Jonathan; Gnerre, Sante; Mauceli, Evan; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Jill P. Mesirov; Michael C Zody; Lander, Eric S.

    2003-01-01

    We previously described the whole-genome assembly program Arachne, presenting assemblies of simulated data for small to mid-sized genomes. Here we describe algorithmic adaptations to the program, allowing for assembly of mammalian-size genomes, and also improving the assembly of smaller genomes. Three principal changes were simultaneously made and applied to the assembly of the mouse genome, during a six-month period of development: (1) Supercontigs (scaffolds) were iteratively broken and rej...

  16. Some new algorithms for computer aided assembly planning

    OpenAIRE

    Kunica, Zoran; Vranješ, Božo; Hrman, Miljenko

    2015-01-01

    The paper depicts some of the improved and newly implemented algorithms of the computer aided design (CAD) based system for the plan generation of automatic assembly (GPAS), relating to definitions of assembly sequence and paths, space structuring (layout) of the assembly process for bench assembly product orientation, connectivity, and treatment of identical parts in a product. In the approach, the parts of which are presented in the paper, the mechanical product to be assembled is, initiall...

  17. Pulse detonation assembly and hybrid engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Adam (Inventor); Dean, Anthony John (Inventor); Vandervort, Christian Lee (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A pulse detonation (PD) assembly includes a number of PD chambers adapted to expel respective detonation product streams and a number of barriers disposed between respective pairs of PD chambers. The barriers define, at least in part, a number of sectors that contain at least one PD chamber. A hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and barriers. The hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly having at least one turbine stage, being in flow communication with the PD chambers and being configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams. A segmented hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and segments configured to receive and direct the detonation product streams from respective PD chambers. The segmented hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams.

  18. Communication: Microphase equilibrium and assembly dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Despite many attempts, ordered equilibrium microphases have yet to be obtained in experimental colloidal suspensions. The recent computation of the equilibrium phase diagram of a microscopic, particle-based microphase former [Zhuang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 098301 (2016)] has nonetheless found such mesoscale assemblies to be thermodynamically stable. Here, we consider their equilibrium and assembly dynamics. At intermediate densities above the order-disorder transition, we identify four different dynamical regimes and the structural changes that underlie the dynamical crossovers from one disordered regime to the next. Below the order-disorder transition, we also find that periodic lamellae are the most dynamically accessible of the periodic microphases. Our analysis thus offers a comprehensive view of the dynamics of disordered microphases and a route to the assembly of periodic microphases in a putative well-controlled, experimental system.

  19. S-layer protein self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pum, Dietmar; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2013-01-25

    Crystalline S(urface)-layers are the most commonly observed cell surface structures in prokaryotic organisms (bacteria and archaea). S-layers are highly porous protein meshworks with unit cell sizes in the range of 3 to 30 nm, and thicknesses of ~10 nm. One of the key features of S-layer proteins is their intrinsic capability to form self-assembled mono- or double layers in solution, and at interfaces. Basic research on S-layer proteins laid foundation to make use of the unique self-assembly properties of native and, in particular, genetically functionalized S-layer protein lattices, in a broad range of applications in the life and non-life sciences. This contribution briefly summarizes the knowledge about structure, genetics, chemistry, morphogenesis, and function of S-layer proteins and pays particular attention to the self-assembly in solution, and at differently functionalized solid supports.

  20. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  1. Thermal Aspects Related to Power Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLESCA, A.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many cases when a power assembly based on power semiconductors is used, catastrophic failure is the result of steep temperature gradient in the localized temperature distribution. Hence, an optimal heatsink design for certain industrial applications has become a real necessity. In this paper, the Pro/ENGINEER software with the thermal simulation integrated tool, Pro/MECHANICA, has been used for thermal study of a specific power semiconductor assembly. A series of steady-state and transient thermal simulations have been performed. The experimental tests have confirmed the simulation results. Therefore, the use of specific 3D modeling and simulation software allows to design special power semiconductor assemblies with a better thermal transfer between its heatsink and power electronic components at given operating conditions.

  2. Microcomponent assembly for efficient contacting of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Monte K.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Friedrich, Michele; Hanna, William T.; Call, Charles J.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a fundamental method and apparatus of a microcomponent assembly that overcomes the inherent limitations of state of the art chemical separations. The fundamental element enabling miniaturization is the porous contactor contained within a microcomponent assembly for mass transfer of a working compound from a first medium to a second medium. The porous contactor has a thickness, and a plurality of pores extending through the thickness. The pores are of a geometry cooperating with a boundary tension of one or the other or both of the media thereby preventing migration of one, other or both through the microporous contactor while permitting passage of the working compound. In the microcomponent assembly, the porous contactor is placed between a first laminate such that a first space or first microplenum is formed between the microporous contactor and the first laminate. Additionally, a cover sheet provides a second space or second plenum between the porous contactor and the cover sheet.

  3. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  4. Patterned self-assembled film guided electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Feng; LI; Bin; XU; Tao; CHEN; Miao; HAO; Jingcheng; LI

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the fabrication of polypyrrole (PPy) microstructures through patterned self-assembled film guided electrodeposition. Thus the patterned self-assembled monolayer is prepared by microcontact printing (μCP) and used as the template in the electrodeposition of PPy. It has been found that the self-assembled monolayer plays completely different roles on different substrates in directing the deposition of the PPy. Namely, the electrodeposition mainly occurs on the exposed area of the gold substrates patterned with dodecanethiol (DDT) and octadecanelthiol (ODT) and on the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate patterned with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), while PPy nucleates on the OTS covered area and no deposition is found on the exposed area of a semiconductor substrate (silicon). This is attributed to the cooperative effect between the substrate conductivity and the compatibility of the PPy oligomer with the covered or exposed area of the substrate surface.

  5. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles and the curved bus ended with flanges for the connection with the protection diode. Photo 2 The connection-side end of the active part assembly. This view shows the electrical connections between the poles, the auxiliary bus bars and the instrumentation wires. Photo 3 Lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can see the mechanical support of the corretor magnets that are to be installed around the cold bore tubes. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Around the magnet, there are datum points (on the tripodes) needed to build up the coordinates system for the measurements.

  6. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 2 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. Photo 3 Zoom of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. One can also see the auxiliary bus bars needed to power the corrector magnets that are installed in the dipole cold mass assembly. Photo 4 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions.

  7. [Ergonomic evaluation of assembly line of tractors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellera, L; Buratti, G

    2012-01-01

    In the assembly lines in the engineering sector, ever more guided by the theories of lean production, is increasingly important ergonomic factor working conditions to preserve the health of workers and ensuring the performance. This analysis has focused on the study of biomechanical and postural stress of work tasks of an assembly line of the tractor, characterized by different weights and volumes from that of the car. Comparison with the technical standard of EN 1005-4 has allowed the identification as the machining assembly of small components result in conditions of acceptability, while most of the other processes aren't reliable. The emergence of these problems pushed to find several ergonomic solutions including the development of a special reclining seat to enable a proper posture during the working.

  8. Self-assembled gelators for organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sukumaran Santhosh; Prasanthkumar, Seelam; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2012-02-20

    Nature excels at engineering materials by using the principles of chemical synthesis and molecular self-assembly with the help of noncovalent forces. Learning from these phenomena, scientists have been able to create a variety of self-assembled artificial materials of different size, shapes, and properties for wide ranging applications. An area of great interest in this regard is solvent-assisted gel formation with functional organic molecules, thus leading to one-dimensional fibers. Such fibers have improved electronic properties and are potential soft materials for organic electronic devices, particularly in bulk heterojunction solar cells. Described herein is how molecular self-assembly, which was originally proposed as a simple laboratory curiosity, has helped the evolution of a variety of soft functional materials useful for advanced electronic devices such as organic field-effect transistors and organic solar cells. Highlights on some of the recent developments are discussed.

  9. Advances in Multiferroic Nanomaterials Assembled with Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an entirely new perspective of multifunctional materials, multiferroics have attracted a great deal of attention. With the rapidly developing micro- and nano-electro-mechanical system (MEMS&NEMS, the new kinds of micro- and nanodevices and functionalities aroused extensive research activity in the area of multiferroics. As an ideal building block to assemble the nanostructure, cluster exhibits particular physical properties related to the cluster size at nanoscale, which is efficient in controlling the multiferroic properties for nanomaterials. This review focuses on our recent advances in multiferroic nanomaterials assembled with clusters. In particular, the single phase multiferroic films and compound heterostructured multiferroic films assembled with clusters were introduced detailedly. This technique presents a new and efficient method to produce the nanostructured multiferroic materials for their potential application in NEMS devices.

  10. Composite nozzle design for reactor fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlatt, G.R.; Allison, D.K.

    1984-01-24

    A composite nozzle is described for a fuel assembly adapted for installation on the upper or lower end thereof and which is constructed from two components. The first component includes a casting weldment or forging designed to carry handling loads, support fuel assembly weight and flow loads, and interface with structural members of both the fuel assembly and reactor internal structures. The second component of the nozzle consists of a thin stamped bore machine flow plate adapted for attachment to the casting body. The plate is designed to prevent fuel rods from being ejected from the core and provide orifices for coolant flow to a predetermined value and pressure drop which is consistent with the flow at other locations in the core.

  11. New inlet nozzle assembly: C Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, J.F.

    1960-10-19

    The use of self-supported fuel elements in ribless Zircaloy-2 tubes at C-Reactor requires some inlet nozzle modification to allow charging of the larger overall diameter fuel pieces. A new nozzle assembly has been developed (by Equipment Development Operation -- IPD) which will allow use of the new fuel pieces and at the same time increase the reliability of the header-to-tube piping and reduce pumping power losses. Flow test data were requested for the new assembly and the results of these tests are presented herein. This report also presents a comparison of the header to tube energy losses for the various reactor inlet nozzle assemblies which are currently used on the Hanford production reactors.

  12. Advanced DNA assembly technologies in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetanova, Billyana; Peng, Lansha; Liang, Xiquan; Li, Ke; Hammond, Linda; Peterson, Todd C; Katzen, Federico

    2012-05-01

    Recombinant DNA technologies have had a fundamental impact on drug discovery. The continuous emergence of unique gene assembly techniques resulted in the generation of a variety of therapeutic reagents such as vaccines, cancer treatment molecules and regenerative medicine precursors. With the advent of synthetic biology there is a growing need for precise and concerted assembly of multiple DNA fragments of various sizes, including chromosomes. In this article, we summarize the highlights of the recombinant DNA technology since its inception in the early 1970s, emphasizing on the most recent advances, and underscoring their principles, advantages and shortcomings. Current and prior cloning trends are discussed in the context of sequence requirements and scars left behind. Our opinion is that despite the remarkable progress that has enabled the generation and manipulation of very large DNA sequences, a better understanding of the cell's natural circuits is needed in order to fully exploit the current state-of-the-art gene assembly technologies.

  13. Comparing de novo assemblers for 454 transcriptome data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaxter Mark L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roche 454 pyrosequencing has become a method of choice for generating transcriptome data from non-model organisms. Once the tens to hundreds of thousands of short (250-450 base reads have been produced, it is important to correctly assemble these to estimate the sequence of all the transcripts. Most transcriptome assembly projects use only one program for assembling 454 pyrosequencing reads, but there is no evidence that the programs used to date are optimal. We have carried out a systematic comparison of five assemblers (CAP3, MIRA, Newbler, SeqMan and CLC to establish best practices for transcriptome assemblies, using a new dataset from the parasitic nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis. Results Although no single assembler performed best on all our criteria, Newbler 2.5 gave longer contigs, better alignments to some reference sequences, and was fast and easy to use. SeqMan assemblies performed best on the criterion of recapitulating known transcripts, and had more novel sequence than the other assemblers, but generated an excess of small, redundant contigs. The remaining assemblers all performed almost as well, with the exception of Newbler 2.3 (the version currently used by most assembly projects, which generated assemblies that had significantly lower total length. As different assemblers use different underlying algorithms to generate contigs, we also explored merging of assemblies and found that the merged datasets not only aligned better to reference sequences than individual assemblies, but were also more consistent in the number and size of contigs. Conclusions Transcriptome assemblies are smaller than genome assemblies and thus should be more computationally tractable, but are often harder because individual contigs can have highly variable read coverage. Comparing single assemblers, Newbler 2.5 performed best on our trial data set, but other assemblers were closely comparable. Combining differently optimal assemblies

  14. Modeling of Parameters of Subcritical Assembly SAD

    CERN Document Server

    Petrochenkov, S; Puzynin, I

    2005-01-01

    The accepted conceptual design of the experimental Subcritical Assembly in Dubna (SAD) is based on the MOX core with a nominal unit capacity of 25 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient $k_{\\rm eff} =0.95$ and accelerator beam power 1 kW. A subcritical assembly driven with the existing 660 MeV proton accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has been modelled in order to make choice of the optimal parameters for the future experiments. The Monte Carlo method was used to simulate neutron spectra, energy deposition and doses calculations. Some of the calculation results are presented in the paper.

  15. Rationally engineering natural protein assemblies in nanobiotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howorka, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Multimeric protein assemblies are essential components in viruses, bacteria, eukaryotic cells, and organisms where they act as cytoskeletal scaffold, storage containers, or for directional transport. The bottom-up structures can be exploited in nanobiotechnology by harnessing their built-in properties and combining them with new functional modules. This review summarizes the design principles of natural protein assemblies, highlights recent progress in their structural elucidation, and shows how rational engineering can create new biomaterials for applications in vaccine development, biocatalysis, materials science, and synthetic biology.

  16. Quality Experiences in Aerospace Electronic Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B.V. Rama Murthy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of the electronic assembly depends largely on good quality practices (GQP adoptedduring the process of electronic assembly. Quality experiences gained during working atthe defence and space laboratories have been used to develop good quality practices such asthree- tray method for cleaning of PCBs, use of grommets for cable routing, use of eye-piecelessstereo zoom microscope for visual testinglinspection, pre-tinning of components, desiccatorsfor storage, potting prior to conformal coating, continuity and isolation checks, de-golding ofleads prior to soldering, and use of flux-cored solder wire. The paper also discusses how andwhy these good quality practices were evolved.

  17. Self-assembly of colloidal surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Willem

    2012-02-01

    We developed colloidal dumbbells with a rough and a smooth part, based on a method reported in Ref. [1]. Specific attraction between the smooth parts occurs upon addition of non-adsorbing polymers of appropriate size. We present the first results in terms of the assemblies that emerge in these systems. [4pt] [1] D.J. Kraft, W.S. Vlug, C.M. van Kats, A. van Blaaderen, A. Imhof and W.K. Kegel, Self-assembly of colloids with liquid protrusions, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 1182, (2009)

  18. Quality Assessment of Domesticated Animal Genome Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Stefan E; Anthon, Christian; Palasca, Oana

    2015-01-01

    domesticated animal genomes still need to be sequenced deeper in order to produce high-quality assemblies. In the meanwhile, ironically, the extent to which RNAseq and other next-generation data is produced frequently far exceeds that of the genomic sequence. Furthermore, basic comparative analysis is often...... affected by the lack of genomic sequence. Herein, we quantify the quality of the genome assemblies of 20 domesticated animals and related species by assessing a range of measurable parameters, and we show that there is a positive correlation between the fraction of mappable reads from RNAseq data...

  19. Self-assembly of small peptidomimetic cyclophanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Jorge; Burguete, M Isabel; Escuder, Beatriu; Galindo, Francisco; Gavara, Raquel; Miravet, Juan F; Luis, Santiago V; Peris, Gabriel

    2004-08-20

    The self-assembly of a series of small peptidomimetic cyclophanes in organic solvents was studied. X-ray diffraction, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modelling were used to understand the structural features of these self-assembling compounds both at the molecular and supramolecular level. The factors that could influence the formation of gels rather than crystals were studied and a model for the arrangement of molecules in the gel was proposed. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy revealed that in some cases these compounds undergo a transcription of chirality when going from organogelator to helicoidal gel fibres.

  20. Hierarchical silica particles by dynamic multicomponent assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Z. W.; Hu, Q. Y.; Pang, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Aerosol-assisted assembly of mesoporous silica particles with hierarchically controllable pore structure has been prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO, H[OCH(CH3)CH2],OH) as co-templates. Addition of the hydrophobic PPO significantly influe......-silicate assembling system was discussed. The mesostructure of these particles was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and N-2 sorption. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  1. Automatic Tool for Local Assembly Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-11

    Whole community shotgun sequencing of total DNA (i.e. metagenomics) and total RNA (i.e. metatranscriptomics) has provided a wealth of information in the microbial community structure, predicted functions, metabolic networks, and is even able to reconstruct complete genomes directly. Here we present ATLAS (Automatic Tool for Local Assembly Structures) a comprehensive pipeline for assembly, annotation, genomic binning of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data with an integrated framework for Multi-Omics. This will provide an open source tool for the Multi-Omic community at large.

  2. Assembly planning at the micro scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Xavier, P.; Brown, R.

    1998-05-14

    This paper investigates a new aspect of fine motion planning for the micro domain. As parts approach 1--10 {micro}m or less in outside dimensions, interactive forces such as van der Waals and electrostatic forces become major factors which greatly change the assembly sequence and path plans. It has been experimentally shown that assembly plans in the micro domain are not reversible, motions required to pick up a part are not the reverse of motions required to release a part. This paper develops the mathematics required to determine the goal regions for pick up, holding, and release of a micro-sphere being handled by a rectangular tool.

  3. HTS 20 M 600 a link assembled

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2013-01-01

    The final deliverable of the EuCARD Task 7.5 activity is a 20 m long Superconducting Link made of HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) cables of the type and in quantity as required for the powering of the LHC superconducting circuits fed from LHC P7 (50 cables rated at 600 A). Following an intense R&D activity, which included the study of novel concepts of cables made from HTS tape conductor and the development and test of prototype units, the final deliverable was successfully assembled at CERN in May 2013. This document reports on the activity that culminated with the assembly of the 20 m long HTS Superconducting Link.

  4. Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.

    2016-09-27

    Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing is a concept that allows the strength of thick-wall rigid pipe, and the flexibility of thin-wall tubing, to be realized in a single design. The primary use is for a drillstring tubular, but it has potential for other applications requiring transmission of mechanical loads (forces and torques) through an initially coiled tubular. The concept uses a spring-loaded spherical `ball-and-socket` type joint to interconnect two or more short, rigid segments of pipe. Use of an optional snap ring allows the joint to be permanently made, in a `self-assembling` manner.

  5. HETDEX: VIRUS Spectrographs Assembly and Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Boster, E.; Meador, W.; Allen, R.; Hill, G. J.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    We describe the assembly and optical alignment process used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the accuracy, interchangeability, time and cost constraints, a production line will be set up to construct and test modular subassemblies in parallel. To facilitate the VIRUS production, fixtures and adjustment mechanisms have been designed to aid in assembly and alignment. This poster describes the details and operations of the camera mirror, collimator mirror and grating adjustment mechanisms, as well as the fold flat mirror alignment fixture.

  6. VIRUS spectrograph assembly and alignment procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Boster, Emily; DePoy, D. L.; Herbig, Benjamin; Hill, Gary J.; Lee, Hanshin; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martin, Emily C.; Meador, William; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the mechanical assembly and optical alignment processes used to construct the Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument. VIRUS is a set of 150+ optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). To meet the instrument's manufacturing constraints, a production line will be set up to build subassemblies in parallel. To aid in the instrument's assembly and alignment, specialized fixtures and adjustment apparatuses have been developed. We describe the design and operations of the various optics alignment apparatuses, as well as the mirrors' alignment and bonding fixtures.

  7. Unified Framework for Finite Element Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Alnæs, Martin Sandve; Mardal, Kent-Andre; Skavhaug, Ola; Langtangen, Hans Petter; 10.1504/IJCSE.2009.029160

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of any finite element simulation is the assembly of matrices and vectors from discrete variational forms. We propose a general interface between problem-specific and general-purpose components of finite element programs. This interface is called Unified Form-assembly Code (UFC). A wide range of finite element problems is covered, including mixed finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin methods. We discuss how the UFC interface enables implementations of variational form evaluation to be independent of mesh and linear algebra components. UFC does not depend on any external libraries, and is released into the public domain.

  8. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  9. Remote control of self-assembled microswimmers

    CERN Document Server

    Grosjean, Galien; Darras, Alexis; Hubert, Maxime; Lumay, Geoffroy; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Physics governing the locomotion of microorganisms and other microsystems is dominated by viscous damping. An effective swimming strategy involves the non-reciprocal and periodic deformations of the considered body. Here, we show that a magnetocapillary-driven self-assembly, composed of three soft ferromagnetic beads, is able to swim along a liquid-air interface when powered by an external magnetic field. More importantly, we demonstrate that trajectories can be fully controlled, opening ways to explore low Reynolds number swimming. This magnetocapillary system spontaneously forms by self-assembly, allowing miniaturization and other possible applications such as cargo transport or solvent flows.

  10. Single-particle study of protein assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2001-10-01

    A study of protein assembly in solution with single-particle imaging and reconstruction techniques using cryoelectron microscopy is reported. The human glutamine synthetase enzyme, important in brain metabolism, and previously assumed to be assembled into a homogeneous quaternary structure, is found to be heterogeneous, with three oligomeric states that co-exist at room temperature. This result corrects an old structural and kinetic model determined by ensemble averaging techniques that assumed a homogeneous system. Unexpectedly fast protein dissociation kinetics results from a stabilized transition state.

  11. DWPF GC FILTER ASSEMBLY SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Imrich, K.

    2009-11-11

    On March 18, 2009 a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) GC Line Filter Assembly was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This filter assembly was removed from operation following the completion of Sludge Batch 4 processing in the DWPF. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request. This document reports the pictures, observations, samples collected, and analytical results for the assembly. The assembly arrived at SRNL separated into its three component filters: high efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-1, HEPA-2, and a high efficiency mist evaporator (HEME). Each stage of the assembly's media was sampled and examined visually and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solids built up in the filter housing following the first stage HEME, were dissolved in dilute nitric acid and analyzed by ICP-AES and the undissolved white solids were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The vast majority of the material in each of the three stages of the DWPF GC Line Filter Assembly appears to be contaminated with a Hg compound that is {approx}59 wt% Hg on a total solids basis. The Hg species was identified by XRD analysis to contain a mixture of Hg{sub 4}(OH)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Hg{sub 10}(OH){sub 4}(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}. Only in the core sample of the second stage HEPA, did this material appear to be completely covering portions of the filter media, possibly explaining the pressure drops observed by DWPF. The fact that the material migrates through the HEME filter and both HEPA filters, and that it was seen collecting on the outlet side of the HEME filter, would seem to indicate that these filters are not efficient at removing this material. Further SRAT off-gas system modeling should help determine the extent of Hg breakthrough past the Mercury Water Wash Tank (MWWT). The SRAT off-gas system has not been modeled since startup of the facility. Improvements to the efficiency of Hg stripping prior to the ammonia scrubber would seem

  12. SWAP-Assembler 2: Optimization of De Novo Genome Assembler at Large Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jintao; Seo, Sangmin; Balaji, Pavan; Wei, Yanjie; Wang, Bingqiang; Feng, Shengzhong

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we analyze and optimize the most time-consuming steps of the SWAP-Assembler, a parallel genome assembler, so that it can scale to a large number of cores for huge genomes with the size of sequencing data ranging from terabyes to petabytes. According to the performance analysis results, the most time-consuming steps are input parallelization, k-mer graph construction, and graph simplification (edge merging). For the input parallelization, the input data is divided into virtual fragments with nearly equal size, and the start position and end position of each fragment are automatically separated at the beginning of the reads. In k-mer graph construction, in order to improve the communication efficiency, the message size is kept constant between any two processes by proportionally increasing the number of nucleotides to the number of processes in the input parallelization step for each round. The memory usage is also decreased because only a small part of the input data is processed in each round. With graph simplification, the communication protocol reduces the number of communication loops from four to two loops and decreases the idle communication time. The optimized assembler is denoted as SWAP-Assembler 2 (SWAP2). In our experiments using a 1000 Genomes project dataset of 4 terabytes (the largest dataset ever used for assembling) on the supercomputer Mira, the results show that SWAP2 scales to 131,072 cores with an efficiency of 40%. We also compared our work with both the HipMER assembler and the SWAP-Assembler. On the Yanhuang dataset of 300 gigabytes, SWAP2 shows a 3X speedup and 4X better scalability compared with the HipMer assembler and is 45 times faster than the SWAP-Assembler. The SWAP2 software is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/swapassembler.

  13. Functional materials of self-assembled compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameren, R. van

    2010-01-01

    The research described in the thesis entitled “Functional materials of self-assembled compounds” has been carried out at the interface of physics and chemistry, with the aim to explore new scientific opportunities and develop new applications. The research mainly focuses on porphyrins,

  14. Critical Casimir forces for colloidal assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.D.; Dang, M.T.; Nguyen, T.A.; Schall, P.

    2016-01-01

    Critical Casimir forces attract increasing interest due to their opportunities for reversible particle assembly in soft matter and nano science. These forces provide a thermodynamic analogue of the celebrated quantum mechanical Casimir force that arises from the confinement of vacuum fluctuations

  15. Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J. Owen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses like herpes simplex virus are large DNA viruses characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. As for all herpesviruses, alphaherpesvirus virions contain a protein-rich layer called “tegument” that links the DNA-containing capsid to the glycoprotein-studded membrane envelope. Tegument proteins mediate a diverse range of functions during the virus lifecycle, including modulation of the host-cell environment immediately after entry, transport of virus capsids to the nucleus during infection, and wrapping of cytoplasmic capsids with membranes (secondary envelopment during virion assembly. Eleven tegument proteins that are conserved across alphaherpesviruses have been implicated in the formation of the tegument layer or in secondary envelopment. Tegument is assembled via a dense network of interactions between tegument proteins, with the redundancy of these interactions making it challenging to determine the precise function of any specific tegument protein. However, recent studies have made great headway in defining the interactions between tegument proteins, conserved across alphaherpesviruses, which facilitate tegument assembly and secondary envelopment. We summarize these recent advances and review what remains to be learned about the molecular interactions required to assemble mature alphaherpesvirus virions following the release of capsids from infected cell nuclei.

  16. Assembling the LHC short straight sections

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The building where the short straight sections are being assembled, was often called ‘Lego Land’ by the workers because of the wide variety of sets of magnets and cryostats. Short straight sections contain magnets for manipulating the beam inside cryostats with liquid helium to keep the magnets at a cool 1.9 K (-271.3°C).

  17. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  18. Heterogeneous MEMS device assembly and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topart, Patrice; Picard, Francis; Ilias, Samir; Alain, Christine; Chevalier, Claude; Fisette, Bruno; Paultre, Jacques E.; Généreux, Francis; Legros, Mathieu; Lepage, Jean-François; Laverdière, Christian; Ngo Phong, Linh; Caron, Jean-Sol; Desroches, Yan

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, smart phone applications have both raised the pressure for cost and time to market reduction, and the need for high performance MEMS devices. This trend has led the MEMS community to develop multi-die packaging of different functionalities or multi-technology (i.e. wafer) approaches to fabricate and assemble devices respectively. This paper reports on the fabrication, assembly and packaging at INO of various MEMS devices using heterogeneous assembly at chip and package-level. First, the performance of a giant (e.g. about 3 mm in diameter), electrostatically actuated beam steering mirror is presented. It can be rotated about two perpendicular axes to steer an optical beam within an angular cone of up to 60° in vector scan mode with an angular resolution of 1 mrad and a response time of 300 ms. To achieve such angular performance relative to mirror size, the microassembly was performed from sub-components fabricated from 4 different wafers. To combine infrared detection with inertial sensing, an electroplated proof mass was flip-chipped onto a 256×1 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA and released using laser ablation. In addition to the microassembly technology, performance results of packaged devices are presented. Finally, to simulate a 3072×3 pixel uncooled detector for cloud and fire imaging in mid and long-wave IR, the staggered assembly of six 512×3 pixel FPAs with a less than 50 micron pixel co-registration is reported.

  19. Cell cycle regulation of central spindle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Masanori; Pavicic, Visnja; Grüneberg, Ulrike; Nigg, Erich A; Glotzer, Michael

    2004-08-19

    The bipolar mitotic spindle is responsible for segregating sister chromatids at anaphase. Microtubule motor proteins generate spindle bipolarity and enable the spindle to perform mechanical work. A major change in spindle architecture occurs at anaphase onset when central spindle assembly begins. This structure regulates the initiation of cytokinesis and is essential for its completion. Central spindle assembly requires the centralspindlin complex composed of the Caenorhabditis elegans ZEN-4 (mammalian orthologue MKLP1) kinesin-like protein and the Rho family GAP CYK-4 (MgcRacGAP). Here we describe a regulatory mechanism that controls the timing of central spindle assembly. The mitotic kinase Cdk1/cyclin B phosphorylates the motor domain of ZEN-4 on a conserved site within a basic amino-terminal extension characteristic of the MKLP1 subfamily. Phosphorylation by Cdk1 diminishes the motor activity of ZEN-4 by reducing its affinity for microtubules. Preventing Cdk1 phosphorylation of ZEN-4/MKLP1 causes enhanced metaphase spindle localization and defects in chromosome segregation. Thus, phosphoregulation of the motor domain of MKLP1 kinesin ensures that central spindle assembly occurs at the appropriate time in the cell cycle and maintains genomic stability.

  20. Clusters and Cluster-Assembled Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    time that full diagrams of the curves of equal mean chemical potential, in terms of pressure and volume, pressure and temperature, and volume and...assembled and will prove invaluable for the continuing work: Databse 1: Numerical solutions of the shapes (and all geometric parameters) of the opti

  1. Bola-amphiphile self-assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneborg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Bola-amphiphiles are rod-like molecules where both ends of the molecule likes contact with water, while the central part of the molecule dislikes contact with water. What do such molecules do when they are dissolved in water? They self-assemble into micelles. This is a Dissipartive particle...

  2. Positional assembly of temperature-responsive biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuwen, R.L.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Wolf, de F.A.; Hest, van J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Incorporation of enzymic cascade reactions in a microchannel for org. synthesis can be achieved if spatially controlled immobilization of a series of enzymes is possible. This project attempts positional assembly of enzymes using the inverse phase transition temp. (Tt) of elastin-like proteins (ELPs

  3. Functional materials of self-assembled compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameren, R. van

    2010-01-01

    The research described in the thesis entitled “Functional materials of self-assembled compounds” has been carried out at the interface of physics and chemistry, with the aim to explore new scientific opportunities and develop new applications. The research mainly focuses on porphyrins, chromophoric

  4. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    of the method is the vacuum chamber in which the aerogel glazing is prior to mounting of the last glass pane. This glass pane is kept above the rest of the glazing while the chamber is evacuated. When the desired gas pressure is reached the glazing is assembled and the chamber is ventilated. Due to the fast...

  5. Polymer Self-assembly on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianini, Michele; Motta, Nunzio

    This chapter analyses the poly(3-hexylthiophene) self-assembly on carbon nanotubes and the interaction between the two materials forming a new hybrid nanostructure. The chapter starts with a review of the several studies investigating polymers and biomolecules self-assembled on nanotubes. Then conducting polymers and polythiophenes are briefly introduced. Accordingly, carbon nanotube structure and properties are reported in Sect. 3. The experimental section starts with the bulk characterisation of polymer thin films with the inclusion of uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes. By using volume film analysis techniques (AFM, TEM, UV-Vis and Raman), we show how the polymer's higher degree of order is a direct consequence of interaction with carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, it is through the use of nanoscale analysis and molecular dynamic simulations that the self-assembly of the polymer on the nanotube surface can be clearly evidenced and characterised. In Sect. 6, the effect of the carbon templating structure on the P3HT organisation on the surface is investigated, showing the chirality-driven polymer assembly on the carbon nanotube surface. The interaction between P3HT and CNTs brings also to charge transfer, with the modification of physical properties for both species. In particular, the alteration of the polymer electronic properties and the modification of the nanotube mechanical structure are a direct consequence of the P3HT π-π stacking on the nanotube surface. Finally, some considerations based on molecular dynamics studies are reported in order to confirm and support the experimental results discussed.

  6. Membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Surya (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Atti, Anthony (Inventor); Olah, George (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst ink for a fuel cell including a catalytic material and poly(vinylidene fluoride). The ink may be applied to a substrate to form an electrode, or bonded with other electrode layers to form a membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  7. Reconstitution of fuel assemblies and core components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, Wolfgang; Langenberger, Jan [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Due to AREVA's experience and big portfolio of techniques, reconstitution of fuel assemblies and core components at light water reactors is possible within a reasonable timeframe and with interesting cost benefit. Customer feedback indicates the sustainability of such reconstitutions. As a result, a long-term maintenance of value can be assured and early waste disposal can be avoided. (orig.)

  8. Members of the CMS crystal assembly team

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    From left to right: Hervé Cornet, Dominique Deyrail, Olivier Teller, Etiennette Auffray, Igor Tarasov, Michel Lebeau, Guy Chevenier, Norbert Frank and Rachid Kerkach. Below: one of the systems used to assembly the crystals in modules for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter.

  9. DNA addition using linear self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian; QIAN LuLu; LIU Qiang; ZHANG ZhiZhou; HE Lin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a DNA algorithm which adds two nonnegative binary integers using self-assembly in constant steps. The approach has the benefit of greater experimental simplicity when compared with previous DNA addition algorithms. For the addition of two binary n-bit integers, O(n) is different from DNA strands and only O(1) biochemical experimental procedures are required.

  10. Molecular assembly in natural and engineered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Howorka, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This volume explores some of the most exciting recent advances in basic research on molecular assembly in natural and engineered systems and how this knowledge is leading to advances in the various fields.* This series provides a forum for discussion of new discoveries, approaches, and ideas * Contributions from leading scholars and industry experts * Reference guide for researchers involved in molecular biology and related fields

  11. The TileCal Barrel Test Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Leitner, R

    On 30th October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It started on 23rd June and is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year. The ATLAS engineers and technicians are quick: instead of the 27 weeks initially foreseen for assembling the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) in building 185, they inserted the last of the 64 modules on 30th October after only 19 weeks. In part, this was due to the experience gained in the dry run assembly of the first extended barrel, produced in Spain, in spring this year (see Bulletin 23/2003); however, the central barrel is twice as long - and twice as heavy. With a length of 6.4 metres, an outer diameter of 8.5 metres and an inner diameter of 4.5 metres, the object weight is 1300 tonnes. The whole barrel cylinder is supported by the stainless steel support structure weighing only 27 tons. The barrel also has to have the right shape: over the whole 8...

  12. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  13. Semiconductor monolayer assemblies with oriented crystal faces

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Guijun

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication of two-dimensional monolayers of crystalline oxide and oxynitride particles was attempted on glass plate substrates. X-Ray diffraction patterns of the assemblies show only specific crystal facets, indicative of the uniform orientation of the particles on the substrate. The selectivity afforded by this immobilization technique enables the organization of randomly distributed polycrystalline powders in a controlled manner.

  14. Fluorescent Self-Assembled Polyphenylene Dendrimer Nanofibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Daojun; Feyter, Steven De; Cotlet, Mircea; Wiesler, Uwe-Martin; Weil, Tanja; Herrmann, Andreas; Müllen, Klaus; Schryver, Frans C. De

    2003-01-01

    A second-generation polyphenylene dendrimer 1 self-assembles into nanofibers on various substrates such as HOPG, silicon, glass, and mica from different solvents. The investigation with noncontact atomic force microscopy (NCAFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the morphology of the

  15. 19 CFR 10.16 - Assembly abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad... section. The mixing or combining of liquids, gases, chemicals, food ingredients, and amorphous solids with... terminal panel and housing which are also American-made. The completed article upon importation would be...

  16. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.; Crawford, T. M.

    2016-03-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufac-turing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles.

  17. Self-assembly of Artificial Actin Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Christopher; Cheng, Shengfeng

    Actin Filaments are long, double-helical biopolymers that make up the cytoskeleton along with microtubules and intermediate filaments. In order to further understand the self-assembly process of these biopolymers, a model to recreate actin filament geometry was developed. A monomer in the shape of a bent rod with vertical and lateral binding sites was designed to assemble into single or double helices. With Molecular Dynamics simulations, a variety of phases were observed to form by varying the strength of the binding sites. Ignoring lateral binding sites, we have found a narrow range of binding strengths that lead to long single helices via various growth pathways. When lateral binding strength is introduced, double helices begin to form. These double helices self-assemble into substantially more stable structures than their single helix counterparts. We have found double helices to form long filaments at about half the vertical binding strength of single helices. Surprisingly, we have found that triple helices occasionally form, indicating the importance of structural regulation in the self-assembly of biopolymers.

  18. Stabilization of Self-Assembled Alumina Mesophases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Lidia Lopez; Perdriau, Sebastien; ten Brink, Gert; Kooi, Bart J.; Heeres, Hero Jan; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An efficient route to stabilize alumina mesophases derived from evaporation-induced self-assembly is reported after investigating various aspects in-depth: influence of the solvent (EtOH, s-BuOH, and t-BuOH) on the textural and structural properties of the mesophases based on aluminum

  19. Self-assembly of knots and links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Enzo; Polles, Guido; Marenduzzo, Davide; Micheletti, Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Guiding the self-assembly of identical building blocks towards complex three-dimensional structures with a set of desired properties is a major goal in material science, chemistry and physics. A particularly challenging problem, especially explored in synthetic chemistry, is that of self-assembling closed structures with a target topology starting by simple geometrical templates. Here we overview and revisit recent advancements, based on stochastic simulations, where the geometry of rigid helical templates with functionalised sticky ends has been designed for self-assembling efficiently and reproducibly into a wide range of three-dimensional closed structures. Notably, these include non trivial topologies of links and knots, including the 819 knot that we had predicted to be highly encodable and that has only recently been obtained experimentally. By appropriately tuning the parameters that define the template shape, we show that, for fixed concentration of templates, the assembly process can be directed towards the formation of specific knotted and linked structures such as the trefoils, pentafoil knots, Hopf and Solomon links. More exotic and unexpected knots and links are also found. Our results should be relevant to the design of new protocols that can both increase and broaden the population of synthetise molecular knots and catenanes.

  20. Orthology Guided Assembly in highly heterozygous crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruttink, Tom; Sterck, Lieven; Rohde, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Despite current advances in next-generation sequencing data analysis procedures, de novo assembly of a reference sequence required for SNP discovery and expression analysis is still a major challenge in genetically uncharacterized, highly heterozygous species. High levels of polymorphism inherent...

  1. Supramolecular assembly in telechelic polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    2009-10-01

    Equilibrium, supramolecular assembly in melt blends of two species of telechelic polymers with reversible bonding sites at both ends is theoretically investigated. The bonding between polymers, whether between like or dislike chains, is controlled by affinities of chain bonding set by specified bond energies. Low affinities, or low overall bond strength, results in a monodisperse population of unlinked chains while larger affinities cause longer chains to assemble, forming a polydisperse blend. We investigate sequentially blends with only homobonding (like chain), only heterobonding (dislike chain), and finally a mixed homo- and heterobonding melt. In the first case, the effects of longer chain assembly and polydispersity in a homogeneous melt and its bulk demixing transition are explored. In contrast with the homobonding case, large heterobonding affinities cause alternating blocks to assemble into multiblock copolymers, which can lead to mesophases. The weak bonding region between bulk phase separation and mesophase stability is investigated and a novel Lifshitz point is found indicating a region prone to emulsify. Mixed homo- and heterobonding systems are also examined. Polymeric segments of both species are modeled as flexible Gaussian threads and nonspecific interactions between dissimilar blocks are contactlike Flory-Huggins repulsions. The melts are assumed to be incompressible and all calculations are carried out within mean-field theory. A new integral equation formalism is developed for enumerating all linear species in these complex supramolecular systems, and the random phase approximation and numerical self-consistent field theory are invoked in this context to map out a variety of phase diagrams.

  2. Early assembly of the most massive galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Chris A; Hilton, Matt; Kay, Scott T; Stanford, S Adam; Davidson, Michael; Hosmer, Mark; Hoyle, Ben; Liddle, Andrew; Lloyd-Davies, Ed; Mann, Robert G; Mehrtens, Nicola; Miller, Christopher J; Nichol, Robert C; Romer, A Kathy; Sahlen, Martin; Viana, Pedro T P; West, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The current consensus is that galaxies begin as small density fluctuations in the early Universe and grow by in situ star formation and hierarchical merging. Stars begin to form relatively quickly in sub-galactic sized building blocks called haloes which are subsequently assembled into galaxies. However, exactly when this assembly takes place is a matter of some debate. Here we report that the stellar masses of brightest cluster galaxies, which are the most luminous objects emitting stellar light, some 9 billion years ago are not significantly different from their stellar masses today. Brightest cluster galaxies are almost fully assembled 4-5 Gyrs after the Big Bang, having grown to more than 90% of their final stellar mass by this time. Our data conflict with the most recent galaxy formation models based on the largest simulations of dark matter halo development. These models predict protracted formation of brightest cluster galaxies over a Hubble time, with only 22% of the stellar mass assembled at the epoc...

  3. Habitat filters in fungal endophyte community assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes can influence host health, and more broadly, can instigate trophic cascades with effects scaling to the ecosystem level. Despite this, biotic mechanisms of endophyte community assembly are largely unknown. We used maize to investigate three potential habitat filters in endophyte co...

  4. Solving infeasibility problems in computerized test assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timminga, E.

    1998-01-01

    Linear programming techniques have been used successfully in a variety of test assembly problems. It is, however, possible that no test can be found meeting all the constraints in the linear programming model. The problem of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear programming models is discussed.

  5. Automated Simultaneous Assembly for Multistage Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Krista; Ariel, Adelaide; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2005-01-01

    This article offers some solutions used in the assembly of the computerized Uniform Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) licensing examination as practical alternatives for operational programs producing large numbers of forms. The Uniform CPA examination was offered as an adaptive multistage test (MST) beginning in April of 2004. Examples of…

  6. DPAL: Deductive Language for Embroidery Pattern Assembling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟波; 郭磊; 陈世福

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of DPA: a deductive language for embroidery pattern assembling. DPAL is similar to SQL and generates the embroidery pattern by matching the operators of space relation with the rule in rule database. It improves the production efficiency of embroidery drafts and increases the variety of colors and patterns.

  7. Stabilization of Self-Assembled Alumina Mesophases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Lidia Lopez; Perdriau, Sebastien; ten Brink, Gert; Kooi, Bart J.; Heeres, Hero Jan; Melian-Cabrera, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    An efficient route to stabilize alumina mesophases derived from evaporation-induced self-assembly is reported after investigating various aspects in-depth: influence of the solvent (EtOH, s-BuOH, and t-BuOH) on the textural and structural properties of the mesophases based on aluminum tri-sec-butoxi

  8. Microparticle Assembly Pathways on Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Casper; Heinrich, Doris; Kraft, Daniela J.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding interactions between microparticles and lipid membranes is of increasing importance, especially for unraveling the influence of microplastics on our health and environment. Here, we study how a short-ranged adhesive force between microparticles and model lipid membranes causes membrane-mediated particle assembly. Using confocal microscopy, we observe the initial particle attachment to the membrane, then particle wrapping, and in rare cases spontaneous membrane tubulation. In the attached state, we measure that the particle mobility decreases by 26%. If multiple particles adhere to the same vesicle, their initial single-particle state determines their interactions and subsequent assembly pathways: 1) attached particles only aggregate when small adhesive vesicles are present in solution, 2) wrapped particles reversibly attract one another by membrane deformation, and 3) a combination of wrapped and attached particles form membrane-mediated dimers, which further assemble into a variety of complex structures. The experimental observation of distinct assembly pathways induced only by a short ranged membrane-particle adhesion, shows that a cellular cytoskeleton or other active components are not required for microparticle aggregation. We suggest that this membrane-mediated microparticle aggregation is a reason behind reported long retention times of polymer microparticles in organisms.

  9. Mixer Assembly for a Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongtao (Inventor); Cohen, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Fotache, Catalin G. (Inventor); Smith, Lance L. (Inventor); Hautman, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A mixer assembly for a gas turbine engine is provided, including a main mixer with fuel injection holes located between at least one radial swirler and at least one axial swirler, wherein the fuel injected into the main mixer is atomized and dispersed by the air flowing through the radial swirler and the axial swirler.

  10. Molecular Engineering of Self-assembled Nanoreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-15

    GOx. A B modified enzymes including Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pDH), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Alkaline Phosphatase (APase) and...nanostructures assemblies. 3) Development of methods to specifically conjugate DNA oligos to the N- or C- terminus of several dehydrogenases . This...inter- component spatial arrangement. The DNA nanotweezers were used to regulate NAD- dehydrogenase activities. 6) Optimization of the regulatory

  11. Solving infeasibility problems in computerized test assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timminga, E.

    1998-01-01

    Linear programming techniques have been used successfully in a variety of test assembly problems. It is, however, possible that no test can be found meeting all the constraints in the linear programming model. The problem of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear programming models is discussed.

  12. A new DNA sequence assembly program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, J K; Smith, K f; Staden, R

    1995-01-01

    We describe the Genome Assembly Program (GAP), a new program for DNA sequence assembly. The program is suitable for large and small projects, a variety of strategies and can handle data from a range of sequencing instruments. It retains the useful components of our previous work, but includes many novel ideas and methods. Many of these methods have been made possible by the program's completely new, and highly interactive, graphical user interface. The program provides many visual clues to the current state of a sequencing project and allows users to interact in intuitive and graphical ways with their data. The program has tools to display and manipulate the various types of data that help to solve and check difficult assemblies, particularly those in repetitive genomes. We have introduced the following new displays: the Contig Selector, the Contig Comparator, the Template Display, the Restriction Enzyme Map and the Stop Codon Map. We have also made it possible to have any number of Contig Editors and Contig Joining Editors running simultaneously even on the same contig. The program also includes a new 'Directed Assembly' algorithm and routines for automatically detecting unfinished segments of sequence, to which it suggests experimental solutions. Images PMID:8559656

  13. Self-assembly of latex particles for colloidal crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhirong Li; Jingxia wang; Yanlin Song

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembly of latex particles is of great importance for fabricating various functional colloidal crystals.In this paper,we review recent research on the self-assembly of latex particles for colloidal crystals,covering the assembly forces and various assembly approaches of latex particles,including self-assembly by gravity sedimentation,vertical deposition,physical confinement,electric field,and magnetic field.Furthermore,some simple methods for assembling latex particles such as spin coating,spray coating,and printing are also summarized.

  14. Multi-User Collaborative Assembly Planning over the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJunfeng; LiuJihong; ZhongYifang

    2003-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of products and for the distributed product development, more closely collaborative work among designers is required. A collaborative assembly planning approach is proposed to support assembly planning in a networked environment. The working procedure is depicted and the key techniques including collaborative-planning-oriented assembly decomposition modeling, assembly assignment modeling, and sub-plans merging are addressed. By incorporating visual models at client side with assembly application models at server side, a web-based supporting environment for collaborative assembly planning has been developed using VRML and Java-EAI techniques. A case study is given to illustrate the feasibility and validity of the idea.

  15. Synthesis, assembly and device of 1-dimentional nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis and assembly of 1-dimentional (1-D) nanostructures and measurement of their electrical and optical properties are very important in fabrication of nanodevices. Recent developments in this field are summarized in this review. The assembling methods can be divided into two classes: assembly using macroscopic field forces and microfluidic-assisted-template-integration. The former can assemble nanowires by controlling direction and intensity of electric or magnetic field, while the latter represents a general assembly strategy for any kind of 1-D nanostructures. The assembly of 1-D nanostructures will make it possible to fabricate nanosensors, nanolasers and nanoscale logic gate circuits for computation.

  16. Path planning of the robot assembly based on Voronoi diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zhuang; ZHAO Yan-zheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on the concepts of Voronoi diagram that describes geometry information of the robot assembly in C space, the position vector path parameter equation of the assembly movement between the step shaft and two-sided beating bracket was given. And the path planning strategy of the component initiative assembly was put forward as well. Theoretical analysis proves that using the Voronoi diagram to do the geometry reasoning on the assembly space can evaluate the feasibility of the component assembly, and can present the reference posi-tion vector path of the component movement from the initial configuration to the objective configuration, there-fore improves the flexibility of the robot initiative assembly.

  17. Self-assembled nanolaminate coatings (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, H.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics (LM Aero) are collaborating to develop affordable, self-assembled, nanocomposite coatings and associated fabrication processes that will be tailored to Lockheed Martin product requirements. The purpose of this project is to develop a family of self-assembled coatings with properties tailored to specific performance requirements, such as antireflective (AR) optics, using Sandia-developed self-assembled techniques. The project met its objectives by development of a simple and economic self-assembly processes to fabricate multifunctional coatings. Specifically, materials, functionalization methods, and associated coating processes for single layer and multiple layers coatings have been developed to accomplish high reflective coatings, hydrophobic coatings, and anti-reflective coatings. Associated modeling and simulations have been developed to guide the coating designs for optimum optical performance. The accomplishments result in significant advantages of reduced costs, increased manufacturing freedom/producibility, improved logistics, and the incorporation of new technology solutions not possible with conventional technologies. These self-assembled coatings with tailored properties will significantly address LMC's needs and give LMC a significant competitive lead in new engineered materials. This work complements SNL's LDRD and BES programs aimed at developing multifunctional nanomaterials for microelectronics and optics as well as structure/property investigations of self-assembled nanomaterials. In addition, this project will provide SNL with new opportunities to develop and apply self-assembled nanocomposite optical coatings for use in the wavelength ranges of 3-5 and 8-12 micrometers, ranges of vital importance to military-based sensors and weapons. The SANC technologies will be applied to multiple programs within the LM Company including the F-35, F-22, ADP (Future Strike Bomber

  18. Self-Assembly of Large Amyloid Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Devin M.

    Functional amyloids found throughout nature have demonstrated that amyloid fibers are potential industrial biomaterials. This work introduces a new "template plus adder" cooperative mechanism for the spontaneous self-assembly of micrometer sized amyloid fibers. A short hydrophobic template peptide induces a conformation change within a highly alpha-helical adder protein to form beta-sheets that continue to assemble into micrometer sized amyloid fibers. This study utilizes a variety of proteins that have template or adder characteristics which suggests that this mechanism may be employed throughout nature. Depending on the amino acid composition of the proteins used the mixtures form amyloid fibers of a cylindrical ( 10 mum diameter, 2 GPa Young's modulus) or tape (5- 10 mum height, 10-20 mum width and 100-200 MPa Young's modulus) morphology. Processing conditions are altered to manipulate the morphology and structural characteristics of the fibers. Spectroscopy is utilized to identify certain amino acid groups that contribute to the self-assembly process. Aliphatic amino acids (A, I, V and L) are responsible for initiating conformation change of the adder proteins to assemble into amyloid tapes. Additional polyglutamine segments (Q-blocks) within the protein mixtures will form Q hydrogen bonds to reinforce the amyloid structure and form a cylindrical fiber of higher modulus. Atomic force microscopy is utilized to delineate the self-assembly of amyloid tapes and cylindrical fibers from protofibrils (15-30 nm width) to fibers (10-20 mum width) spanning three orders of magnitude. The aliphatic amino acid content of the adder proteins' alpha-helices is a good predictor of high density beta-sheet formation within the protein mixture. Thus, it is possible to predict the propensity of a protein to undergo conformation change into amyloid structures. Finally, Escherichia coli is genetically engineered to express a template protein which self-assembles into large amyloid

  19. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  20. BASIC: A Simple and Accurate Modular DNA Assembly Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Marko; Casini, Arturo; Mackrow, Ben; Ellis, Tom; Baldwin, Geoff S

    2017-01-01

    Biopart Assembly Standard for Idempotent Cloning (BASIC) is a simple, accurate, and robust DNA assembly method. The method is based on linker-mediated DNA assembly and provides highly accurate DNA assembly with 99 % correct assemblies for four parts and 90 % correct assemblies for seven parts [1]. The BASIC standard defines a single entry vector for all parts flanked by the same prefix and suffix sequences and its idempotent nature means that the assembled construct is returned in the same format. Once a part has been adapted into the BASIC format it can be placed at any position within a BASIC assembly without the need for reformatting. This allows laboratories to grow comprehensive and universal part libraries and to share them efficiently. The modularity within the BASIC framework is further extended by the possibility of encoding ribosomal binding sites (RBS) and peptide linker sequences directly on the linkers used for assembly. This makes BASIC a highly versatile library construction method for combinatorial part assembly including the construction of promoter, RBS, gene variant, and protein-tag libraries. In comparison with other DNA assembly standards and methods, BASIC offers a simple robust protocol; it relies on a single entry vector, provides for easy hierarchical assembly, and is highly accurate for up to seven parts per assembly round [2].

  1. Mixed Reality-based Interactive Technology for Aircraft Cabin Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shiqi; PENG Tao; WANG Junfeng; XU Chi

    2009-01-01

    Due to the narrowness of space and the complexity of structure, the assembly of aircraft cabin has become one of the major bottlenecks in the whole manufacturing process. To solve the problem, at the beginning of aircraft design, the different stages of the lifecycle of aircraft must be thought about, which include the trial manufacture, assembly, maintenance, recycling and destruction of the product. Recently, thanks to the development of the virtual reality and augmented reality, some low-cost and fast solutions are found for the product assembly. This paper presents a mixed reality-based interactive technology for the aircraft cabin assembly, which can enhance the efficiency of the assemblage in a virtual environment in terms of vision, information and operation. In the mixed reality-based assembly environment, the physical scene can be obtained by a camera and then generated by a computer. The virtual parts, the features of visual assembly, the navigation information, the physical parts and the physical assembly environment will be mixed and presented in the same assembly scene. The mixed or the augmented information will provide some assembling information as a detailed assembly instruction in the mixed reality-based assembly environment. Constraint proxy and its match rules help to reconstruct and visualize the restriction relationship among different parts, and to avoid the complex calculation of constraint's match. Finally, a desktop prototype system of virtual assembly has been built to assist the assembly verification and training with the virtual hand.

  2. Self-assembling nanoparticles at surfaces and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinge, S.S.; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Reinhoudt, David

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles are the focus of much attention due to their astonishing properties and numerous possibilities for applications in nanotechnology. For realising versatile functions, assembly of nanoparticles in regular patterns on surfaces and at interfaces is required. Assembling nanoparticles

  3. Error Analysis of Robotic Assembly System Based on Screw Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩卫军; 费燕琼; 赵锡芳

    2003-01-01

    Assembly errors have great influence on assembly quality in robotic assembly systems. Error analysis is directed to the propagations and accumula-tions of various errors and their effect on assembly success.Using the screw coordinates, assembly errors are represented as "error twist", the extremely compact expression. According to the law of screw composition, relative position and orientation errors of mating parts are computed and the necessary condition of assembly success is concluded. A new simple method for measuring assembly errors is also proposed based on the transformation law of a screw.Because of the compact representation of error, the model presented for error analysis can be applied to various part- mating types and especially useful for error analysis of complexity assembly.

  4. Locking Corners Speed Solar-Array Frame Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitered corners of solar-array frames joined together by single angle brace and two springs. Locking corner braces and mating frame members pushed together by hand or assembled automatically. Fastening system used to assemble window screens and picture frames.

  5. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  6. Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Next Generation MK III Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly will maximize the Hard Upper Torso - Hatch assembly weight reduction through the combination of innovative...

  7. Virtual Commissioning of an Assembly Cell with Cooperating Robots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. Makris; G. Michalos; G. Chryssolouris

    2012-01-01

      The Virtual Commissioning (VC) technology is the latest trend in automotive assembly which, among other benefits, promises a more efficient handling of the complexity in assembly systems, a great reduction in the system's ramp-up...

  8. Commercial Application of In-Space Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymer, John; Hanson, Mark; Tadros, Al; Boccio, Joel; Hollenstein, Bruno; Emerick, Ken; Doughtery, Sean; Doggett, Bill; Dorsey, John T.; King, Bruce D.; Bowman, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    In-Space assembly (ISA) expands the opportunities for cost effective emplacement of systems in space. Currently, spacecraft are launched into space and deploy into their operational configuration through a carefully choreographed sequence of operations. The deployment operation dictates the arrangement of the primary systems on the spacecraft, limiting the ability to take full advantage of launch vehicles volume and mass capability. ISA enables vastly different spacecraft architectures and emplacement scenarios to be achieved, including optimal launch configurations ranging from single launch and assembly to on-orbit aggregation of multiple launches at different orbital locations and times. The spacecraft can be visited at different orbital locations and times to effect expansion and maintenance of an operational capability. To date, the primary application of ISA has been in large programs funded by government organizations, such as the International Space Station. Recently, Space Systems Loral (SSL) led a study funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), called Dragonfly, to investigate the commercial applicability and economic advantages of ISA. In the study, it was shown that ISA enables SSL to double the capability of a commercial satellite system by taking advantage of alternate packaging approaches for the reflectors. The study included an ultra-light-weight robotic system, derived from Mars manipulator designs, to complete assembly of portions of the antenna system using a tool derived from DARPA orbital express and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) automated structural assembly experience. The mechanical connector that enables robotic ISA takes advantage of decades of development by NASA from the 1970's to 1980's during the Space Station Freedom program, the precursor to the ISS. The mechanical connector was originally designed for rapid astronaut assembly while also providing a high quality structural connection

  9. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  10. The A, C, G, and T of Genome Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Wajid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome assembly in its two decades of history has produced significant research, in terms of both biotechnology and computational biology. This contribution delineates sequencing platforms and their characteristics, examines key steps involved in filtering and processing raw data, explains assembly frameworks, and discusses quality statistics for the assessment of the assembled sequence. Furthermore, the paper explores recent Ubuntu-based software environments oriented towards genome assembly as well as some avenues for future research.

  11. Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler G; Garzon, Max H; Deaton, Russell J

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic self-assembly systems

  12. Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler G Moore

    Full Text Available Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic

  13. Three-Dimensional DNA Nanostructures Assembled from DNA Star Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Cheng; Zhang, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Tile-based DNA self-assembly is a promising method in DNA nanotechnology and has produced a wide range of nanostructures by using a small set of unique DNA strands. DNA star motif, as one of DNA tiles, has been employed to assemble varieties of symmetric one-, two-, three-dimensional (1, 2, 3D) DNA nanostructures. Herein, we describe the design principles, assembly methods, and characterization methods of 3D DNA nanostructures assembled from the DNA star motifs.

  14. Programmed Nanomaterial Assemblies in Large Scales: Applications of Synthetic and Genetically- Engineered Peptides to Bridge Nano-Assemblies and Macro-Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Hiroshi

    2014-09-09

    Work is reported in these areas: Large-scale & reconfigurable 3D structures of precise nanoparticle assemblies in self-assembled collagen peptide grids; Binary QD-Au NP 3D superlattices assembled with collagen-like peptides and energy transfer between QD and Au NP in 3D peptide frameworks; Catalytic peptides discovered by new hydrogel-based combinatorial phage display approach and their enzyme-mimicking 2D assembly; New autonomous motors of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) powered by reorganization of self-assembled peptides at interfaces; Biomimetic assembly of proteins into microcapsules on oil-in-water droplets with structural reinforcement via biomolecular recognition-based cross-linking of surface peptides; and Biomimetic fabrication of strong freestanding genetically-engineered collagen peptide films reinforced by quantum dot joints. We gained the broad knowledge about biomimetic material assembly from nanoscale to microscale ranges by coassembling peptides and NPs via biomolecular recognition. We discovered: Genetically-engineered collagen-like peptides can be self-assembled with Au NPs to generate 3D superlattices in large volumes (> μm{sup 3}); The assembly of the 3D peptide-Au NP superstructures is dynamic and the interparticle distance changes with assembly time as the reconfiguration of structure is triggered by pH change; QDs/NPs can be assembled with the peptide frameworks to generate 3D superlattices and these QDs/NPs can be electronically coupled for the efficient energy transfer; The controlled assembly of catalytic peptides mimicking the catalytic pocket of enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions with high selectivity; and, For the bacteria-mimicking swimmer fabrication, peptide-MOF superlattices can power translational and propellant motions by the reconfiguration of peptide assembly at the MOF-liquid interface.

  15. 49 CFR 572.144 - Thorax assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax assembly and test procedure. 572.144...-year-Old Child Crash Test Dummy, Alpha Version § 572.144 Thorax assembly and test procedure. (a) Thorax (upper torso) assembly (refer to § 572.140(a)(1)(iv)). The thorax consists of the upper part of the torso...

  16. 49 CFR 572.185 - Thorax (upper torso) assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax (upper torso) assembly. 572.185 Section 572... Impact Crash Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.185 Thorax (upper torso) assembly. (a) The thorax assembly of the dummy must meet the requirements of both (b) and (c) of this section. Section 572...

  17. 49 CFR 572.134 - Thorax assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax assembly and test procedure. 572.134... Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Test Dummy, Alpha Version § 572.134 Thorax assembly and test procedure. (a) Thorax (Upper Torso) Assembly (refer to § 572.130(a)(1)(iii)). The thorax consists of the part of...

  18. Controlled assembly of copper phthalocyanine with 1-iodooctadecane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Shengbin; WANG Chen; WAN Lijun; BAI Chunli

    2003-01-01

    The binary assembly behavior of 1-iodoocta- decane with substituted phthalocyanine (Pc) is studied using the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). By altering the substituted alkyl groups attached to the phthalocyanine ring, either uniform assembly or phase separation behavior can be observed. It is suggested that the strength of intermolecular interaction between phthalocyanine molecules is the determining factor for the assembly structure.

  19. Self-assembly of polar functionalities using noncovalent platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, Jessica M.C.A.; Crego-Calama, Mercedes; Luyten, Ingrid; Timmerman, Peter; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2000-01-01

    Small peptide fragments functionalized with dimelamine units spontaneously form well-defined assemblies. The hydrogen-bond donating and accepting sites in the peptide units are perfectly compatible with the hydrogen-bond assembly motif and slightly stabilize the assembly via additional hydrogen-bond

  20. Passive Gamma Analysis of the Boiling-Water-Reactor Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Passive gamma analysis can be used to determine BU and CT of BWR assembly. The analysis is somewhat more complicated and less effective than similar method for PWR assemblies. From the measurements along the lengths of the BWR1 and BWR9 assemblies, there are hints that we may be able to use their information to help improve the model functions for better results.

  1. Regulated assembly of a supramolecular centrosome scaffold in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodruff, J. B.; Wueseke, O.; Viscardi, V.

    2015-01-01

    are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, PCM assembly requires the coiled-coil protein SPD-5. We found that recombinant SPD-5 could polymerize to form micrometer-sized porous networks in vitro. Network assembly was accelerated by two conserved regulators that control PCM assembly in vivo, Polo...

  2. Supramolecular chemistry: Unexplored territory for self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuerle, Florian

    2016-12-01

    Cage-like structures can self-assemble from suitable metal ions and organic linkers, but the size of the assemblies was limited. The surprise discovery of a new series of cages opens up fresh horizons for self-assembly. See Letter p.563

  3. Filter holder assembly having extended collar spacer ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A filter holder assembly is provided that utilizes a fail-safe regenerator unit with an annular spacer ring having an extended metal collar for containment and positioning of a compliant ceramic gasket used in the assembly. The filter holder assembly is disclosed for use with advanced composite, filament wound, and metal candle filters.

  4. 19 CFR 10.18 - Valuation of assembled articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of assembled articles. 10.18 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.18 Valuation of assembled articles. As in the case...

  5. Bioinspired assembly of small molecules in cell milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaimin; Feng, Zhaoqianqi; Xu, Bing

    2017-03-30

    Self-assembly, the autonomous organization of components to form patterns or structures, is a prevalent process in nature at all scales. Particularly, biological systems offer remarkable examples of diverse structures (as well as building blocks) and processes resulting from self-assembly. The exploration of bioinspired assemblies not only allows for mimicking the structures of living systems, but it also leads to functions for applications in different fields that benefit humans. In the last several decades, efforts on understanding and controlling self-assembly of small molecules have produced a large library of candidates for developing the biomedical applications of assemblies of small molecules. Moreover, recent findings in biology have provided new insights on the assemblies of small molecules to modulate essential cellular processes (such as apoptosis). These observations indicate that the self-assembly of small molecules, as multifaceted entities and processes to interact with multiple proteins, can have profound biological impacts on cells. In this review, we illustrate that the generation of assemblies of small molecules in cell milieu with their interactions with multiple cellular proteins for regulating cellular processes can result in primary phenotypes, thus providing a fundamentally new molecular approach for controlling cell behavior. By discussing the correlation between molecular assemblies in nature and the assemblies of small molecules in cell milieu, illustrating the functions of the assemblies of small molecules, and summarizing some guiding principles, we hope this review will stimulate more molecular scientists to explore the bioinspired self-assembly of small molecules in cell milieu.

  6. DNA-bridged Chiroplasmonic Assemblies of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Chirality at nanoscale attracts a lot of attention during the last decade. A number of chiral nanoscale systems had been discovered ranging from individual nanoparticles to helical nanowires and from lithographically defined substrates. DNA bridges make possible in-silico engineering and practical construction of complex assemblies of nanoparticles with of both plasmonic and excitonic nature. In this presentation, expected and unexpected optical effects that we observed in chiral plasmonic and excitonic systems will be demonstrated. Special effort will be placed on the transitioning of theoretical and experimental knowledge about chiral nanoscale systems to applications. The most obvious direction for practical targets was so far, the design of metamaterials for negative refractive index optics. The results describing the 3D materials with the highest experimentally observed chiral anisotropy factor will be presented. It will be followed by the discussion of the recent developments in analytical application of chiral assemblies for detection of cancer and bacterial contamination.

  7. Virus Assemblies as Templates for Nanocircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James N Culver; Michael T Harris

    2011-08-31

    The goals of this project were directed at the identification and characterization of bio-mineralization processes and patterning methods for the development of nano scale materials and structures with novel energy and conductive traits. This project utilized a simple plant virus as a model template to investigate methods to attach and coat metals and other inorganic compounds onto biologically based nanotemplates. Accomplishments include: the development of robust biological nanotemplates with enhanced inorganic coating activities; novel coating strategies that allow for the deposition of a continuous inorganic layer onto a bio-nanotemplate even in the absence of a reducing agent; three-dimensional patterning methods for the assemble of nano-featured high aspect ratio surfaces and the demonstrated use of these surfaces in enhancing battery and energy storage applications. Combined results from this project have significantly advanced our understanding and ability to utilize the unique self-assembly properties of biologically based molecules to produce novel materials at the nanoscale level.

  8. CLP-based protein fragment assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Palu', Alessandro Dal; Fogolari, Federico; Pontelli, Enrico; 10.1017/S1471068410000372

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates a novel approach, based on Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), to predict the 3D conformation of a protein via fragments assembly. The fragments are extracted by a preprocessor-also developed for this work- from a database of known protein structures that clusters and classifies the fragments according to similarity and frequency. The problem of assembling fragments into a complete conformation is mapped to a constraint solving problem and solved using CLP. The constraint-based model uses a medium discretization degree Ca-side chain centroid protein model that offers efficiency and a good approximation for space filling. The approach adapts existing energy models to the protein representation used and applies a large neighboring search strategy. The results shows the feasibility and efficiency of the method. The declarative nature of the solution allows to include future extensions, e.g., different size fragments for better accuracy.

  9. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  10. Molecular cell death platforms and assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Peter D; Riedl, Stefan J

    2010-12-01

    Multi-cellular animals have evolved a variety of mechanisms to respond to diverse apoptotic stimuli. In general these proceed through activation of apical caspases and culminate in executioner caspase activation and cell death. Because of the breadth of possible initiators, various molecular platforms are used to trigger different apical caspases. Although some common protein domains are used to assemble the apoptosome, the PIDDosome and death receptor complexes, an array of checks-and-balances are employed to ensure appropriate activation. Notwithstanding, these pathways share the underlying principle of proximity-dependent activation and post-translational modification. Here we will describe our current structural understanding of assembly and regulation of these signaling platforms.

  11. The Robust Assembly of Small Symmetric Nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jef; Zandi, Roya

    2015-09-01

    Highly symmetric nanoshells are found in many biological systems, such as clathrin cages and viral shells. Many studies have shown that symmetric shells appear in nature as a result of the free-energy minimization of a generic interaction between their constituent subunits. We examine the physical basis for the formation of symmetric shells, and by using a minimal model, demonstrate that these structures can readily grow from the irreversible addition of identical subunits. Our model of nanoshell assembly shows that the spontaneous curvature regulates the size of the shell while the mechanical properties of the subunit determine the symmetry of the assembled structure. Understanding the minimum requirements for the formation of closed nanoshells is a necessary step toward engineering of nanocontainers, which will have far-reaching impact in both material science and medicine.

  12. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    This research centres on assembly systems designed for utilizing product modularization. Altogether, the task for companies has become an issue of managing the overall trade-off between the external market’s desire for variety and the internal efficiency and effectiveness. Product modularization...... of the rela-tionship between variables associated with configuration of modular product families and the interacting assembly system. One core result is the development of a system model based on the longitudinal case study incorporating both structural and performance elements. Based on the system model......) the mix flexible con-figuration focusing on the simultaneous product variety. These two views are in particular different in respect to the understanding of product modularization. All in all, modularization needs to be, and can be, configured in regard to the specific task, which is believed constituting...

  13. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 2 The cold mass assembly is resting on special supports in order to allow the finishing operations. Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 3 View of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. One can also see the light building surrounding the finishing station, which purpose is to isolate the laser measuring machines from disturbances. Photo 5 The extremity of the shri...

  14. Insights into eisosome assembly and organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Murphy Er; Kim Kt

    2012-06-01

    Eisosomes, large protein complexes that are predominantly composed of BAR-domain-containing proteins Pil1 and its homologs, are situated under the plasma membrane of ascomycetes. A successful targeting of Pil1 onto the future site of eisosome accompanies maturation of eisosome. During or after recruitment, Pil1 undergoes self-assembly into filaments that can serve as scaffolds to induce membrane furrows or invaginations. Although a consequence of the invagination is likely to redistribute particular proteins and lipids to a different location, the precise physiological role of membrane invagination and eisosome assembly awaits further investigation. The present review summarizes recent research findings within the field regarding the detailed structural and functional significance of Pil1 on eisosome organization.

  15. Soft matter perspective on protein crystal assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Diana; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Crystallography may be the gold standard of protein structure determination, but obtaining the necessary high-quality crystals is also in some ways akin to prospecting for the precious metal. The tools and models developed in soft matter physics to understand colloidal assembly offer some insights into the problem of crystallizing proteins. This topical review describes the various analogies that have been made between proteins and colloids in that context. We highlight the explanatory power of patchy particle models, but also the challenges of providing guidance for crystallizing specific proteins. We conclude with a presentation of possible future research directions. This review is intended for soft matter scientists interested in protein crystallization as a self-assembly problem, and as an introduction to the pertinent physics literature for protein scientists more generally.

  16. Fibrillin: from microfibril assembly to biomechanical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielty, Cay M; Baldock, Clair; Lee, David; Rock, Matthew J; Ashworth, Jane L; Shuttleworth, C Adrian

    2002-02-28

    Fibrillins form the structural framework of a unique and essential class of extracellular microfibrils that endow dynamic connective tissues with long-range elasticity. Their biological importance is emphasized by the linkage of fibrillin mutations to Marfan syndrome and related connective tissue disorders, which are associated with severe cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal defects. These microfibrils have a complex ultrastructure and it has proved a major challenge both to define their structural organization and to relate it to their biological function. However, new approaches have at last begun to reveal important insights into their molecular assembly, structural organization and biomechanical properties. This paper describes the current understanding of the molecular assembly of fibrillin molecules, the alignment of fibrillin molecules within microfibrils and the unique elastomeric properties of microfibrils.

  17. Towards negative index self-assembled metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Fruhnert, Martin; Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic response of meta-atoms that can be fabricated by a bottom-up technique. Usually such meta-atoms consist of a dielectric core surrounded by a large number of solid metallic nanoparticles. In contrast to those meta-atoms considered thus far, we study here for the first time hollow metallic nanoparticles (shells). In doing so we solve one of the most pertinent problems of current self-assembled metamaterials, namely implementing meta-atoms with sufficiently large resonance strength and small absorption. Both conditions have to be met for deep sub-wavelength meta-atoms to obtain effectively homogeneous metamaterials which may be meaningfully described by negative material parameters. Eventually we show that by using these findings self-assembled negative index materials come in reach.

  18. Remembering a Shape -- Assembling a Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeravcic, Zorana; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael; Leibler, Stanislas

    2014-03-01

    Recently we have been developing a new connection between self-assembly and neural networks, where a multi-component particle system with specified interaction rules between its components is mapped onto a multi-state Hopfield neural network model. Within this framework, a fixed interaction pattern of neurons representing a ``memory'' maps to particle interactions encoding a certain structure. Properties of neural networks motivate new types of questions: Can the interaction energies of particles code for multiple structures at the same time? Can stored structures be retrieved by throwing in a nucleation seed (i.e., a small assembly of particles) and have it complete into the desired stored structure? Can we define a capacity, i.e., a maximal number of structures that can be retrieved with limited error? We investigate these questions using numerical simulations of different types of building blocks with short-range interactions.

  19. Stereochemistry in subcomponent self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Ana M; Ramsay, William J; Nitschke, Jonathan R

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: As Pasteur noted more than 150 years ago, asymmetry exists in matter at all organization levels. Biopolymers such as proteins or DNA adopt one-handed conformations, as a result of the chirality of their constituent building blocks. Even at the level of elementary particles, asymmetry exists due to parity violation in the weak nuclear force. While the origin of homochirality in living systems remains obscure, as does the possibility of its connection with broken symmetries at larger or smaller length scales, its centrality to biomolecular structure is clear: the single-handed forms of bio(macro)molecules interlock in ways that depend upon their handednesses. Dynamic artificial systems, such as helical polymers and other supramolecular structures, have provided a means to study the mechanisms of transmission and amplification of stereochemical information, which are key processes to understand in the context of the origins and functions of biological homochirality. Control over stereochemical information transfer in self-assembled systems will also be crucial for the development of new applications in chiral recognition and separation, asymmetric catalysis, and molecular devices. In this Account, we explore different aspects of stereochemistry encountered during the use of subcomponent self-assembly, whereby complex structures are prepared through the simultaneous formation of dynamic coordinative (N → metal) and covalent (N═C) bonds. This technique provides a useful method to study stereochemical information transfer processes within metal-organic assemblies, which may contain different combinations of fixed (carbon) and labile (metal) stereocenters. We start by discussing how simple subcomponents with fixed stereogenic centers can be incorporated in the organic ligands of mononuclear coordination complexes and communicate stereochemical information to the metal center, resulting in diastereomeric enrichment. Enantiopure subcomponents were then

  20. SOLID GAS SUSPENSION NUCLEAR FUEL ASSEMBLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluderberg, D.C.; Ryon, J.W.

    1962-05-01

    A fuel assembly is designed for use in a gas-suspension cooled nuclear fuel reactor. The coolant fluid is an inert gas such as nitrogen or helium with particles such as carbon suspended therein. The fuel assembly is contained within an elongated pressure vessel extending down into the reactor. The fuel portion is at the lower end of the vessel and is constructed of cylindrical segments through which the coolant passes. Turbulence promotors within the passageways maintain the particles in agitation to increase its ability to transfer heat away from the outer walls. Shielding sections and alternating passageways above the fueled portion limit the escape of radiation out of the top of the vessel. (AEC)