Quantum point contacts in quantum wire systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sternemann, E.; Buchholz, S.S.; Fischer, S.F.; Kunze, U. [Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Reuter, D.; Wieck, A.D. [Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)
2010-07-01
Quantum point contacts (QPCs) attract high interest for applications as magnetic focussing, beam splitting (quantum Hall edge states), spin filtering and electron thermometry. Here, we investigate QPCs in complex quantum wire (QWR) systems such as quantum rings. The QPCs were realized by lithographical definition of a short (150 nm) constriction (170 nm width) in (a) a 540 nm wide QWR and (b) 520 nm wide QWR leads of a QWR ring as in. Nanogates on top of the constrictions allow for the control of occupied modes in the QPCs. The devices are based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with a 2DEG 55 nm below the surface, patterned by electron beam lithography and wet-chemical etching. Two- and four-terminal conductance measurements at temperatures between 23 mK and 4.2 K were performed using lock-in technique. Our measurements reveal that QPCs in 1D nanostructures can be prepared to show subband separations of 6 meV, clear conductance quantization as well as the 0.7 anomaly. We further show that electron injection across a QPC into a QWR ring allows for electron interference (Aharonov-Bohm effect).
Nonlinear peltier effect in quantum point contacts
Bogachek, E. N.; Scherbakov, A. G.; Landman, Uzi
1998-11-01
A theoretical analysis of the Peltier effect in two-dimensional quantum point contacts, in field-free conditions and under the influence of applied magnetic fields, is presented. It is shown that in the nonlinear regime (finite applied voltage) new peaks in the Peltier coefficient appear leading to violation of Onsager's relation. Oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in a magnetic field are demonstrated.
Quantum point contacts as heat engines
Pilgram, Sebastian; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa
2015-11-01
The efficiency of macroscopic heat engines is restricted by the second law of thermodynamics. They can reach at most the efficiency of a Carnot engine. In contrast, heat currents in mesoscopic heat engines show fluctuations. Thus, there is a small probability that a mesoscopic heat engine exceeds Carnot's maximum value during a short measurement time. We illustrate this effect using a quantum point contact as a heat engine. When a temperature difference is applied to a quantum point contact, the system may be utilized as a source of electrical power under steady state conditions. We first discuss the optimal working point of such a heat engine that maximizes the generated electrical power and subsequently calculate the statistics for deviations of the efficiency from its most likely value. We find that deviations surpassing the Carnot limit are possible, but unlikely.
Reprint of : Quantum point contacts as heat engines
Pilgram, Sebastian; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa
2016-08-01
The efficiency of macroscopic heat engines is restricted by the second law of thermodynamics. They can reach at most the efficiency of a Carnot engine. In contrast, heat currents in mesoscopic heat engines show fluctuations. Thus, there is a small probability that a mesoscopic heat engine exceeds Carnot's maximum value during a short measurement time. We illustrate this effect using a quantum point contact as a heat engine. When a temperature difference is applied to a quantum point contact, the system may be utilized as a source of electrical power under steady state conditions. We first discuss the optimal working point of such a heat engine that maximizes the generated electrical power and subsequently calculate the statistics for deviations of the efficiency from its most likely value. We find that deviations surpassing the Carnot limit are possible, but unlikely.
Nonlinear Seebeck and Peltier effects in quantum point contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cipiloglu, M.A.; Turgut, S.; Tomak, M. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)
2004-09-01
The charge and entropy currents across a quantum point contact are expanded as a series in powers of the applied bias voltage and the temperature difference. After that, the expansions of the Seebeck voltage in temperature difference and the Peltier heat in current are obtained. With a suitable choice of the average temperature and chemical potential, the lowest order nonlinear term in both cases appear to be of third order. The behavior of the third-order coefficients in both cases are then investigated for different contact parameters. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Nonlinear Seebeck and Peltier effects in quantum point contacts
Çipilolu, M. A.; Turgut, S.; Tomak, M.
2004-09-01
The charge and entropy currents across a quantum point contact are expanded as a series in powers of the applied bias voltage and the temperature difference. After that, the expansions of the Seebeck voltage in temperature difference and the Peltier heat in current are obtained. With a suitable choice of the average temperature and chemical potential, the lowest order nonlinear term in both cases appear to be of third order. The behavior of the third-order coefficients in both cases are then investigated for different contact parameters.
Current-voltage curves of gold quantum point contacts revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, K.; Nielsen, S K.; Brandbyge, Mads;
2000-01-01
We present measurements of current-voltage (I-V) curves on gold quantum point contacts (QPCs) with a conductance up to 4 G(0) (G(0) = 2e(2)/h is the conductance quantum) and voltages up to 2 V. The QPCs are formed between the gold tip of a scanning tunneling microscope and a Au(110) surface under...... clean ultra-high-vacuum conditions at room temperature. The I - V curves are found to he almost linear in contrast to previous reports. Tight-binding calculations of I - V curves for one- and two-atom contacts are in excellent agreement with our measurements. On the other hand, clearly nonlinear I - V...
Detection of Majorana Kramers pairs using a quantum point contact
Li, Jian; Pan, Wei; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Lutchyn, Roman
We propose a setup that integrates a quantum point contact (QPC) and a Josephson junction on a quantum spin Hall sample, experimentally realizable in InAs/GaSb quantum wells. The confinement due to both the QPC and the superconductor results in a Kramers pair of Majorana zero-energy bound states when the superconducting phases in the two arms differ by an odd multiple of π across the Josephson junction. We investigate the detection of these Majorana pairs with the integrated QPC, and find a robust switching from normal to Andreev scattering across the edges due to the presence of Majorana Kramers pairs. This transport signature is expected to be exhibited in measurements of differential conductance and/or current cross-correlation at low bias. This work was supported by ONR-N00014-14-1-0330.
Scanning gate imaging of a disordered quantum point contact.
Aoki, N; da Cunha, C R; Akis, R; Ferry, D K; Ochiai, Y
2014-05-14
Scanning gate microscopy (SGM) is a novel technique that has been used to image characteristic features related to the coherent electron flow in mesoscopic structures. For instance, SGM has successfully been applied to study peculiar electron transport properties that arise due to small levels of disorder in a system. The particular case of an InGaAs quantum well layer in a heterostructure, which is dominated by a quasi-ballistic regime, was analyzed. A quantum point contact fabricated onto this material exhibits conduction fluctuations that are not expected in typical high-mobility heterostructures such as AlGaAs/GaAs. SGM revealed not only interference patterns corresponding to specific conductance fluctuations but also mode-dependent resistance peaks corresponding to the first and second quantum levels of conductance (2e(2)/h) at zero magnetic field. On the other hand, clear conductance plateaus originating from the integer quantum Hall effect were observed at high magnetic fields. The physical size of incompressible edge channels was estimated from cross-sectional analysis of these images.
Detection of Majorana Kramers Pairs Using a Quantum Point Contact
Li, Jian; Pan, Wei; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Lutchyn, Roman M.
2016-07-01
We propose a setup that integrates a quantum point contact (QPC) and a Josephson junction on a quantum spin Hall sample, experimentally realizable in InAs/GaSb quantum wells. The confinement due to both the QPC and the superconductor results in a Kramers pair of Majorana zero-energy bound states when the superconducting phases in the two arms differ by an odd multiple of π across the Josephson junction. We investigate the detection of these Majorana pairs with the integrated QPC, and find a robust switching from normal to Andreev scattering across the edges due to the presence of Majorana Kramers pairs. Such a switching of the current represents a qualitative signature where multiterminal differential conductances oscillate with alternating signs when the external magnetic field is tuned. We show that this qualitative signature is also present in current cross-correlations. Thus, the change of the backscattering current nature affects both conductance and shot noise, the measurement of which offers a significant advantage over quantitative signatures such as conductance quantization in realistic measurements.
Effect of Quantum Point Contact Measurement on Electron Spin State in Quantum Dots
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Fei-Yun; TU Tao; HAO Xiao-Jie; GUO Guang-Can; GUO Guo-Ping
2009-01-01
We study the time evolution of two electron spin states in a double quantum-dot system, which includes a nearby quantum point contact (QPC) as a measurement device. We find that the QPC measurement induced decoherence is in the microsecond timescale. We also find that the enhanced QPC measurement will trap the system in its initial spin states, which is consistent with the quantum Zeno effect.
Giant acoustoelectric current in suspended quantum point contacts
Kreft, Dustin J.; Mourokh, Lev G.; Shin, Hyuncheol; Bichler, Max; Wegscheider, Werner; Blick, Robert H.
2016-12-01
We present results on the acoustoelectric current driven through a quantum point contact (QPC) placed on a suspended nanobridge, which is subject to surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The magnitude of this current is much larger than that of a two-dimensional gas, and the system has enhanced sensitivity to perturbations. In particular, the current oscillations as a function of magnetic field exhibit additional features associated with the spin splitting. Furthermore, the negative voltage applied to the QPC gates induces the oscillations revealing the subband structure not seen in transport measurements at the elevated temperatures of our experiment. Near the pinch off conditions, the acoustoelectric current becomes negative which we attribute to the enhanced backscattering caused by the SAW-phonons' absorption and emission.
Komnik, A.; Saleur, H.
2011-09-01
We verify the validity of the Cohen-Gallavotti fluctuation theorem for the strongly correlated problem of charge transfer through an impurity in a chiral Luttinger liquid, which is realizable experimentally as a quantum point contact in a fractional quantum Hall edge state device. This is accomplished via the development of an analytical method to calculate the full counting statistics of the problem in all the parameter regimes involving the temperature, the Hall voltage, and the gate voltage.
Microscopic Current Flow Patterns in Nanoscale Quantum Point Contacts
Sai, Na; Bushong, Neil; Hatcher, Ryan; di Ventra, Massimiliano
2006-03-01
Transport in nanoscale conductors has been studied extensively mainly using the stationary scattering approach. However, the dynamical nature of transport, and in particular, the flow patterns of the microscopic current through a nanoscale junction, have remained poorly understood. We apply a novel time-dependent transport approach [1], which combines closed and finite geometries with time-dependent density functional theory,to study current flow patterns in nanoscale quantum point contacts [2]. The results of both atomistic and jellium calculations show that surface charges form dynamically at the junction-electrode interfaces in both abrupt and adiabatic junctions. The curr ent exhibits some characteristics of a classical hydrodynamic liquid but also displays unique patterns arising from the interaction with the surface charges. We also investigate the effect of the flow velocity, charge density, and lattice structures on the electron dynamics. If time permits we also discuss the effects of the viscosity of the electron liquid [3]. Work supported by DOE (DE-FG02-05ER46204). [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004). [2] N. Bushong, N. Sai and, M. Di Ventra, Nano Lett. (in press). [3] N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale, and M. Di Ventra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005 ).
Gate-defined graphene quantum point contact in the quantum Hall regime.
Nakaharai, S; Williams, J R; Marcus, C M
2011-07-15
We investigate transport in a gate-defined graphene quantum point contact in the quantum Hall regime. Edge states confined to the interface of p and n regions in the graphene sheet are controllably brought together from opposite sides of the sample and allowed to mix in this split-gate geometry. Among the expected quantum Hall features, an unexpected additional plateau at 0.5h/e2 is observed. We propose that chaotic mixing of edge channels gives rise to the extra plateau.
Zhang, L.X.; Leburton, J.P.; Hanson, R.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.
2004-01-01
We show that the design of a quantum point contact adjacent to a quantum dot can be optimized to produce maximum sensitivity to single-electron charging in the quantum dot. Our analysis is based on the self-consistent solution of coupled three-dimensional Kohn-Sham and Poisson equations for the
The features of ballistic electron transport in a suspended quantum point contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shevyrin, A. A., E-mail: shevandrey@isp.nsc.ru; Budantsev, M. V.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pogosov, A. G. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ishutkin, S. V.; Shesterikov, E. V. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2014-05-19
A suspended quantum point contact and the effects of the suspension are investigated by performing identical electrical measurements on the same experimental sample before and after the suspension. In both cases, the sample demonstrates conductance quantization. However, the suspended quantum point contact shows certain features not observed before the suspension, namely, plateaus at the conductance values being non-integer multiples of the conductance quantum, including the “0.7-anomaly.” These features can be attributed to the strengthening of electron-electron interaction because of the electric field confinement within the suspended membrane. Thus, the suspended quantum point contact represents a one-dimensional system with strong electron-electron interaction.
Hybrid Quantum Point Contact-Superconductor Devices Using InSb Nanowires
Gill, Stephen; Damasco, John Jeffrey; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Mason, Nadya
Recent experiments using hybrid nanowire (NW)-superconductor (SC) devices have provided evidence for Majorana quasiparticles in tunneling experiments. However, these tunneling experiments are marked by a soft superconducting gap, which likely originates from disorder at the NW-SC interface. Hence, clean NW-SC interfaces are important for future Majorana studies. By carefully processing the NW-SC interface, we have realized quantized conductance steps in quantum point contacts fabricated from InSb NWs and superconducting contacts. We study the length dependence of ballistic behavior and the induced superconductivity in InSb NWs by quantum point contact spectroscopy. Additionally, we discuss how the transport in InSb NW-SC quantum point contacts evolves in magnetic field.
Quantum-ring spin interference device tuned by quantum point contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diago-Cisneros, Leo [Facultad de Física, Universidad de La Habana, C.P.10400, La Habana (Cuba); Mireles, Francisco [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, Baja California, México (Mexico)
2013-11-21
We introduce a spin-interference device that comprises a quantum ring (QR) with three embedded quantum point contacts (QPCs) and study theoretically its spin transport properties in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Two of the QPCs conform the lead-to-ring junctions while a third one is placed symmetrically in the upper arm of the QR. Using an appropriate scattering model for the QPCs and the S-matrix scattering approach, we analyze the role of the QPCs on the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) and Aharonov-Casher (AC) conductance oscillations of the QR-device. Exact formulas are obtained for the spin-resolved conductances of the QR-device as a function of the confinement of the QPCs and the AB/AC phases. Conditions for the appearance of resonances and anti-resonances in the spin-conductance are derived and discussed. We predict very distinctive variations of the QR-conductance oscillations not seen in previous QR proposals. In particular, we find that the interference pattern in the QR can be manipulated to a large extend by varying electrically the lead-to-ring topological parameters. The latter can be used to modulate the AB and AC phases by applying gate voltage only. We have shown also that the conductance oscillations exhibits a crossover to well-defined resonances as the lateral QPC confinement strength is increased, mapping the eigenenergies of the QR. In addition, unique features of the conductance arise by varying the aperture of the upper-arm QPC and the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Our results may be of relevance for promising spin-orbitronics devices based on quantum interference mechanisms.
Peltier Coefficient and Photon-Assisted Tunnelling in Quantum Point Contact
H. Aly, Arafa
2008-12-01
We present the Peltier coefficient and thermal transport in quantum point contact (QPC), under the influence of external fields and different temperatures. Also we obtain the oscillations of the Peltier coefficient in external fields. Numerical calculations of the Peltier coefficient are performed at different applied voltages, amplitudes and temperatures. The obtained results are consistent with the experimental data in the literature.
Conductance enhancement in quantum-point-contact semiconductor-superconductor devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flensberg, Karsten;
1999-01-01
We present numerical calculations of the conductance of an interface between a phase-coherent two-dimensional electron gas and a superconductor with a quantum point contact in the normal region. Using a scattering matrix approach we reconsider the geometry of De Raedt, Michielsen, and Klapwijk [P...
Combining general relativity and quantum theory points of conflict and contact
Padmanabhan, T
2001-01-01
The issues related to bringing together the principles of general relativity and quantum theory are discussed. After briefly summarising the points of conflict between the two formalisms I focus on four specific themes in which some contact has been established in the past between GR and quantum field theory: (i) The role of planck length in the microstructure of spacetime (ii) The role of quantum effects in cosmology and origin of the universe (iii) The thermodynamics of spacetimes with horizons and especially the concept of entropy related to spacetime geometry (iv) The problem of the cosmological constant.
Anomalous conductance of a strongly interacting Fermi gas through a quantum point contact
Liu, Boyang; Zhai, Hui; Zhang, Shizhong
2017-01-01
In this work we study the particle conductance of a strongly interacting Fermi gas through a quantum point contact. With an atom-molecule two-channel model, we compute the contribution to particle conductance by both the fermionic atoms and the bosonic molecules using the Keldysh formalism. Focusing on the regime above the Fermi superfluid transition temperature, we find that the fermionic contribution to the conductance is reduced by interaction compared with the quantized value for the noninteracting case; while the bosonic contribution to the conductance exhibits a plateau with nonuniversal values that is larger than the quantized conductance. This feature is particularly profound at temperature close to the superfluid transition. We emphasize that the enhanced conductance arises because of the bosonic nature of closed channel molecules and the low dimensionality of the quantum point contact.
Fluctuation theorem for a double quantum dot coupled to a point-contact electrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golubev, D. [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Utsumi, Y. [Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507 (Japan); Marthaler, M. [Institut für Theoretische Festkörperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schön, G. [Institut für Theoretische Festkörperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany and Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2013-12-04
Motivated by recent experiments on the real-time single-electron counting through a semiconductor GaAs double quantum dot (DQD) by a nearby quantum point contact (QPC), we develop the full-counting statistics of coupled DQD and QPC system. By utilizing the time-scale separation between the dynamics of DQD and QPC, we derive the modified master equation with tunneling rates depending on the counting fields, which fulfill the detailed fluctuation theorem. Furthermore, we derive universal relations between the non-linear corrections to the current and noise, which can be verified in experiments.
Peltier Coefficient and Photon-Assisted Tunneling in Quantum Point Contact
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Arafa H. Aly
2008-01-01
@@ We present the Peltier coefficient and thermal transport in quantum point contact (QPC), under the influence of external fields and different temperatures.Also we obtain the oscillations of the Peltier coeffffcient in external fields.Numerical calculations of the Peltier coefficient are performed at different applied voltages, amplitudes and temperatures.The obtained results are cons/stent with the experimental data in the literature.
Measurement Back-Action in Quantum Point-Contact Charge Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno Küng
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Charge sensing with quantum point-contacts (QPCs is a technique widely used in semiconductor quantum-dot research. Understanding the physics of this measurement process, as well as finding ways of suppressing unwanted measurement back-action, are therefore both desirable. In this article, we present experimental studies targeting these two goals. Firstly, we measure the effect of a QPC on electron tunneling between two InAs quantum dots, and show that a model based on the QPC’s shot-noise can account for it. Secondly, we discuss the possibility of lowering the measurement current (and thus the back-action used for charge sensing by correlating the signals of two independent measurement channels. The performance of this method is tested in a typical experimental setup.
Modeling A.C. Electronic Transport through a Two-Dimensional Quantum Point Contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aronov, I.E.; Beletskii, N.N.; Berman, G.P.; Campbell, D.K.; Doolen, G.D.; Dudiy, S.V.
1998-12-07
We present the results on the a.c. transport of electrons moving through a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor quantum point contact (QPC). We concentrate our attention on the characteristic properties of the high frequency admittance ({omega}{approximately}0 - 50 GHz), and on the oscillations of the admittance in the vicinity of the separatrix (when a channel opens or closes), in presence of the relaxation effects. The experimental verification of such oscillations in the admittance would be a strong confirmation of the semi-classical approach to the a.c. transport in a QPC, in the separatrix region.
Tunable strength saddle-point contacts impact on quantum rings transmission
González, J. J.; Diago-Cisneros, L.
2016-09-01
A particular subject of investigation is the role of several sadle-point contact (QPC) parameters on the scattering properties of an Aharonov-Bohm-Aharonov-Casher quantum ring (QR) under Rashba-type spin orbit interaction. We discuss the interplay of the conductance with the confinement strengths and height of the QPC, which yields new and tunable harmonic and non-harmonics patterns, while one manipulates these constriction parameters. This phenomenology may be of utility to implement a novel way to modulate spin interference effects in semiconducting QRs, providing an appealing test-platform for spintronics applications.
Liu, Bao; Zhang, Feng-Yang; Song, Jie; Song, He-Shan
2015-01-01
We propose a direct measurement scheme to read out the geometric phase of a coupled double quantum dot system via a quantum point contact(QPC) device. An effective expression of the geometric phase has been derived, which relates the geometric phase of the double quantum dot qubit to the current through QPC device. All the parameters in our expression are measurable or tunable in experiment. Moreover, since the measurement process affects the state of the qubit slightly, the geometric phase can be protected. The feasibility of the scheme has been analyzed. Further, as an example, we simulate the geometrical phase of a qubit when the QPC device is replaced by a single electron transistor(SET). PMID:26121538
Mapping out spin and particle conductances in a quantum point contact
Krinner, Sebastian; Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Grenier, Charles; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-07-01
We study particle and spin transport in a single-mode quantum point contact, using a charge neutral, quantum degenerate Fermi gas with tunable, attractive interactions. This yields the spin and particle conductance of the point contact as a function of chemical potential or confinement. The measurements cover a regime from weak attraction, where quantized conductance is observed, to the resonantly interacting superfluid. Spin conductance exhibits a broad maximum when varying the chemical potential at moderate interactions, which signals the emergence of Cooper pairing. In contrast, the particle conductance is unexpectedly enhanced even before the gas is expected to turn into a superfluid, continuously rising from the plateau at 1/h1/h for weak interactions to plateau-like features at nonuniversal values as high as 4/h4/h for intermediate interactions. For strong interactions, the particle conductance plateaus disappear and the spin conductance gets suppressed, confirming the spin-insulating character of a superfluid. Our observations document the breakdown of universal conductance quantization as many-body correlations appear. The observed anomalous quantization challenges a Fermi liquid description of the normal phase, shedding new light on the nature of the strongly attractive Fermi gas.
Microscopic origin of the '0.7-anomaly' in quantum point contacts.
Bauer, Florian; Heyder, Jan; Schubert, Enrico; Borowsky, David; Taubert, Daniela; Bruognolo, Benedikt; Schuh, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner; von Delft, Jan; Ludwig, Stefan
2013-09-05
Quantum point contacts are narrow, one-dimensional constrictions usually patterned in a two-dimensional electron system, for example by applying voltages to local gates. The linear conductance of a point contact, when measured as function of its channel width, is quantized in units of GQ = 2e(2)/h, where e is the electron charge and h is Planck's constant. However, the conductance also has an unexpected shoulder at ∼0.7GQ, known as the '0.7-anomaly', whose origin is still subject to debate. Proposed theoretical explanations have invoked spontaneous spin polarization, ferromagnetic spin coupling, the formation of a quasi-bound state leading to the Kondo effect, Wigner crystallization and various treatments of inelastic scattering. However, explicit calculations that fully reproduce the various experimental observations in the regime of the 0.7-anomaly, including the zero-bias peak that typically accompanies it, are still lacking. Here we offer a detailed microscopic explanation for both the 0.7-anomaly and the zero-bias peak: their common origin is a smeared van Hove singularity in the local density of states at the bottom of the lowest one-dimensional subband of the point contact, which causes an anomalous enhancement in the Hartree potential barrier, the magnetic spin susceptibility and the inelastic scattering rate. We find good qualitative agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental results on the dependence of the conductance on gate voltage, magnetic field, temperature, source-drain voltage (including the zero-bias peak) and interaction strength. We also clarify how the low-energy scale governing the 0.7-anomaly depends on gate voltage and interactions. For low energies, we predict and observe Fermi-liquid behaviour similar to that associated with the Kondo effect in quantum dots. At high energies, however, the similarities between the 0.7-anomaly and the Kondo effect end.
Nonequilibrium transport through a point contact in the nu = 5/2 non-Abelian quantum Hall state.
Feiguin, Adrian; Fendley, Paul; Fisher, Matthew P A; Nayak, Chetan
2008-12-05
We analyze charge-e/4 quasiparticle tunneling between the edges of a point contact in a non-Abelian model of the nu = 5/2 quantum Hall state in the presence of a finite voltage difference using the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group method. We confirm that, as the voltage decreases, the system is broken into two pieces. In the limits of small and large voltage, we recover the results expected from perturbation theory about the infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. We test our methods by finding the analogous nonequilibrium current through a point contact at nu = 1/3.
Quantum point contacts and resistive switching in Ni/NiO nanowire junctions
Oliver, Sean M.; Fairfield, Jessamyn A.; Bellew, Allen T.; Lee, Sunghun; Champlain, James G.; Ruppalt, Laura B.; Boland, John J.; Vora, Patrick M.
2016-11-01
Metal oxide devices that exhibit resistive switching are leading candidates for non-volatile memory applications due to their potential for fast switching, low-power operation, and high device density. It is widely accepted in many systems that two-state resistive behavior arises from the formation and rupture of conductive filaments spanning the oxide layer. However, means for controlling the filament geometry, which critically influences conduction, have largely been unexamined. Here, we explore the connection between filament geometry and conductance in a model resistive switching system based on the junction of two nickel/nickel oxide core/shell nanowires. Variable temperature current-voltage measurements indicate that either wide metallic filaments or narrow semiconducting filaments can be preferentially formed by varying the current compliance during electroformation. Metallic filaments behave as a conventional metallic resistance in series with a small barrier, while semiconducting filaments behave as quantum point contacts. The ability to tune filament geometry and behavior through the electroforming process may open avenues for enhanced functionality in nanoscale memristive systems.
Interference features in scanning gate conductance maps of quantum point contacts with disorder
Kolasiński, K.; Szafran, B.; Brun, B.; Sellier, H.
2016-08-01
We consider quantum point contact (QPC) defined within a disordered two-dimensional electron gas as studied by scanning gate microscopy. We evaluate the conductance maps in the Landauer approach with a wave-function picture of electron transport for samples with both low and high electron mobility at finite temperatures. We discuss the spatial distribution of the impurities in the context of the branched electron flow. We reproduce the surprising temperature stability of the experimental interference fringes far from the QPC. Next, we discuss funnel-shaped features that accompany splitting of the branches visible in previous experiments. Finally, we study elliptical interference fringes formed by an interplay of scattering by the pointlike impurities and by the scanning probe. We discuss the details of the elliptical features as functions of the tip voltage and the temperature, showing that the first interference fringe is very robust against the thermal widening of the Fermi level. We present a simple analytical model that allows for extraction of the impurity positions and the electron-gas depletion radius induced by the negatively charged tip of the atomic force microscope, and apply this model on experimental scanning gate images showing such elliptical fringes.
Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karadi, Chandu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1995-09-01
The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlO_{x}Nb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic.
Spin splitting generated in a Y-shaped semiconductor nanostructure with a quantum point contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wójcik, P., E-mail: pawel.wojcik@fis.agh.edu.pl; Adamowski, J., E-mail: janusz.adamowski@fis.agh.edu.pl; Wołoszyn, M.; Spisak, B. J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków (Poland)
2015-07-07
We have studied the spin splitting of the current in the Y-shaped semiconductor nanostructure with a quantum point contact (QPC) in a perpendicular magnetic field. Our calculations show that the appropriate tuning of the QPC potential and the external magnetic field leads to an almost perfect separation of the spin-polarized currents: electrons with opposite spins flow out through different output branches. The spin splitting results from the joint effect of the QPC, the spin Zeeman splitting, and the electron transport through the edge states formed in the nanowire at the sufficiently high magnetic field. The Y-shaped nanostructure can be used to split the unpolarized current into two spin currents with opposite spins as well as to detect the flow of the spin current. We have found that the separation of the spin currents is only slightly affected by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The spin-splitter device is an analogue of the optical device—the birefractive crystal that splits the unpolarized light into two beams with perpendicular polarizations. In the magnetic-field range, in which the current is carried through the edges states, the spin splitting is robust against the spin-independent scattering. This feature opens up a possibility of the application of the Y-shaped nanostructure as a non-ballistic spin-splitter device in spintronics.
Interedge backscattering in buried split-gate-defined graphene quantum point contacts
Xiang, Shaohua; Mreńca-Kolasińska, Alina; Miseikis, Vaidotas; Guiducci, Stefano; Kolasiński, Krzysztof; Coletti, Camilla; Szafran, Bartłomiej; Beltram, Fabio; Roddaro, Stefano; Heun, Stefan
2016-10-01
Quantum Hall effects offer a formidable playground for the investigation of quantum transport phenomena. Edge modes can be deflected, branched, and mixed by designing a suitable potential landscape in a two-dimensional conducting system subject to a strong magnetic field. In the present work, we demonstrate a buried split-gate architecture and use it to control electron conduction in large-scale single-crystal monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The control of the edge trajectories is demonstrated by the observation of various fractional quantum resistances, as a result of a controllable interedge scattering. Experimental data are successfully modeled both numerically and analytically within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Our architecture is particularly promising and unique in view of the investigation of quantum transport via scanning probe microscopy, since graphene constitutes the topmost layer of the device. For this reason, it can be approached and perturbed by a scanning probe down to the limit of mechanical contact.
Charge noise analysis of metal oxide semiconductor dual-gate Si/SiGe quantum point contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kamioka, J.; Oda, S. [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S9-11, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Kodera, T., E-mail: kodera.t.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S9-11, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-NE-25, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Takeda, K.; Obata, T. [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2014-05-28
The frequency dependence of conductance noise through a gate-defined quantum point contact fabricated on a Si/SiGe modulation doped wafer is characterized. The 1/f{sup 2} noise, which is characteristic of random telegraph noise, is reduced by application of a negative bias on the global top gate to reduce the local gate voltage. Direct leakage from the large global gate voltage also causes random telegraph noise, and therefore, there is a suitable point to operate quantum dot measurement.
All-electrical nonlinear fano resonance in coupled quantum point contacts
Xiao, Shiran
This thesis is motivated by recent interest in the Fano resonance (FR). As a wave-interference phenomenon, this resonance is of increasing importance in optics, plasmon-ics, and metamaterials, where its ability to cause rapid signal modulations under variation of some suitable parameter makes it desirable for a variety of applications. In this thesis, I focus on a novel manifestation of this resonance in systems of coupled quantum point contacts (QPCs). The major finding of this work is that the FR in this system may be ma-nipulated by applying a nonlinear DC bias to the system. Under such conditions, we are able to induce significant distortions of resonance lineshape, providing a pathway to all-electrical manipulation of the FR. To interpret this behavior we apply a recently-developed model for a three-path FR, involving an additional "intruder" continuum. We have previously used this model to account for the magnetic-field induced distortions of the FR observed in coupled QPCs, and show here that this model also provides a frame-work for understanding the observed nonlinear behavior. Our work therefore reveals a new manifestation of the FR that can be sensitively tailored by external control, a finding that may eventually allow the application of this feature to nanoelectronics. Since the in-terference scheme involves in this thesis is a completely general one, it should be broadly applicable across a variety of different wave-based systems, including those in both pho-tonics and electronics and opening up the possibility of new applications in areas such as chemical and biological sensing and secure communications.
Quantization and anomalous structures in the conductance of Si/SiGe quantum point contacts
von Pock, J. F.; Salloch, D.; Qiao, G.; Wieser, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Kunze, U.
2016-04-01
Quantum point contacts (QPCs) are fabricated on modulation-doped Si/SiGe heterostructures and ballistic transport is studied at low temperatures. We observe quantized conductance with subband separations up to 4 meV and anomalies in the first conductance plateau at 4e2/h. At a temperature of T = 22 mK in the linear transport regime, a weak anomalous kink structure arises close to 0.5(4e2/h), which develops into a distinct plateau-like structure as temperature is raised up to T = 4 K. Under magnetic field parallel to the wire up to B = 14 T, the anomaly evolves into the Zeeman spin-split level at 0.5(4e2/h), resembling the "0.7 anomaly" in GaAs/AlGaAs QPCs. Additionally, a zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) is observed in nonlinear transport spectroscopy. At T = 22 mK, a parallel magnetic field splits the ZBA peak up into two peaks. At B = 0, elevated temperatures lead to similar splitting, which differs from the behavior of ZBAs in GaAs/AlGaAs QPCs. Under finite dc bias, the differential resistance exhibits additional plateaus approximately at 0.8(4e2/h) and 0.2(4e2/h) known as "0.85 anomaly" and "0.25 anomaly" in GaAs/AlGaAs QPCs. Unlike the first regular plateau at 4e2/h, the 0.2(4e2/h) plateau is insensitive to dc bias voltage up to at least VDS = 80 mV, in-plane magnetic fields up to B = 15 T, and to elevated temperatures up to T = 25 K. We interpret this effect as due to pinching off one of the reservoirs close to the QPC. We do not see any indication of lifting of the valley degeneracy in our samples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zozoulenko, I V; Ihnatsenka, S [Solid State Electronics, Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Linkoeping University, 60174 Norrkoeping (Sweden)
2008-04-23
We have developed a mean-field first-principles approach for studying electronic and transport properties of low dimensional lateral structures in the integer quantum Hall regime. The electron interactions and spin effects are included within the spin density functional theory in the local density approximation where the conductance, the density, the effective potentials and the band structure are calculated on the basis of the Green's function technique. In this paper we present a systematic review of the major results obtained on the energetics, spin polarization, effective g factor, magnetosubband and edge state structure of split-gate and cleaved-edge overgrown quantum wires as well as on the conductance of quantum point contacts (QPCs) and open quantum dots. In particular, we discuss how the spin-resolved subband structure, the current densities, the confining potentials, as well as the spin polarization of the electron and current densities in quantum wires and antidots evolve when an applied magnetic field varies. We also discuss the role of the electron interaction and spin effects in the conductance of open systems focusing our attention on the 0.7 conductance anomaly in the QPCs. Special emphasis is given to the effect of the electron interaction on the conductance oscillations and their statistics in open quantum dots as well as to interpretation of the related experiments on the ultralow temperature saturation of the coherence time in open dots.
Point contacts in encapsulated graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Handschin, Clevin [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Swiss Nanoscience Institute, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Fülöp, Bálint; Csonka, Szabolcs [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budafoki ut 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Makk, Péter; Blanter, Sofya; Weiss, Markus; Schönenberger, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Schoenenberger@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Material Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)
2015-11-02
We present a method to establish inner point contacts with dimensions as small as 100 nm on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated graphene heterostructures by pre-patterning the top-hBN in a separate step prior to dry-stacking. 2- and 4-terminal field effect measurements between different lead combinations are in qualitative agreement with an electrostatic model assuming point-like contacts. The measured contact resistances are 0.5–1.5 kΩ per contact, which is quite low for such small contacts. By applying a perpendicular magnetic field, an insulating behaviour in the quantum Hall regime was observed, as expected for inner contacts. The fabricated contacts are compatible with high mobility graphene structures and open up the field for the realization of several electron optical proposals.
Wang, S.L.; Son, P.C. van; Wees, B.J. van; Klapwijk, T.M.
1992-01-01
The conductance of ballistic point contacts in high-mobility Si-inversion layers has been studied at several temperatures between 75 and 600 mK both without and in a magnetic field (up to 12T). When the width of constriction is varied in zero magnetic field, step-like features at multiples of 4e2/h
Coherent electron focusing with quantum point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas
Houten, H. van; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Broekaart, M.E.I.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.
1989-01-01
Transverse electron focusing in a two-dimensional electron gas is investigated experimentally and theoretically for the first time. A split Schottky gate on top of a GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs heterostructure defines two point contacts of variable width, which are used as injector and collector of ballistic el
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola
2011-01-01
where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...
Tu, Xingchen; Wang, Minglang; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin
2014-11-21
Besides the peak at one conductance quantum, G0, two additional features at ∼0.4 G0 and ∼1.3 G0 have been observed in the conductance histograms of silver quantum point contacts at room temperature in ambient conditions. In order to understand such feature, here we investigate the electronic transport and mechanical properties of clean and oxygen-doped silver atomic contacts by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that, unlike clean Ag single-atom contacts showing a conductance of 1 G0, the low-bias conductance of oxygen-doped Ag atomic contacts depends on the number of oxygen impurities and their binding configuration. When one oxygen atom binds to an Ag monatomic chain sandwiched between two Ag electrodes, the low-bias conductance of the junction always decreases. In contrast, when the number of oxygen impurities is two and the O-O axis is perpendicular to the Ag-Ag axis, the transmission coefficients at the Fermi level are, respectively, calculated to be 1.44 for the junction with Ag(111) electrodes and 1.24 for that with Ag(100) electrodes, both in good agreement with the measured value of ∼1.3 G0. The calculated rupture force (1.60 nN for the junction with Ag(111) electrodes) is also consistent with the experimental value (1.66 ± 0.09 nN), confirming that the measured ∼1.3 G0 conductance should originate from Ag single-atom contacts doped with two oxygen atoms in a perpendicular configuration.
Microscopic origin of the 1.3 G0 conductance observed in oxygen-doped silver quantum point contacts
Tu, Xingchen
2014-11-21
© 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. Besides the peak at one conductance quantum, G0, two additional features at ∼0.4 G0 and ∼1.3 G0 have been observed in the conductance histograms of silver quantum point contacts at room temperature in ambient conditions. In order to understand such feature, here we investigate the electronic transport and mechanical properties of clean and oxygen-doped silver atomic contacts by employing the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that, unlike clean Ag single-atom contacts showing a conductance of 1 G0, the low-bias conductance of oxygen-doped Ag atomic contacts depends on the number of oxygen impurities and their binding configuration. When one oxygen atom binds to an Ag monatomic chain sandwiched between two Ag electrodes, the low-bias conductance of the junction always decreases. In contrast, when the number of oxygen impurities is two and the O-O axis is perpendicular to the Ag-Ag axis, the transmission coefficients at the Fermi level are, respectively, calculated to be 1.44 for the junction with Ag(111) electrodes and 1.24 for that with Ag(100) electrodes, both in good agreement with the measured value of ∼1.3 G0. The calculated rupture force (1.60 nN for the junction with Ag(111) electrodes) is also consistent with the experimental value (1.66 ± 0.09 nN), confirming that the measured ∼1.3 G0 conductance should originate from Ag single-atom contacts doped with two oxygen atoms in a perpendicular configuration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola
2011-01-01
where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...... design, geography, and mobility studies. After the introduction in section we develop and define the notion of CPC based upon a broad set of disciplines and theories. We illustrate the usefulness of the notion within the field of mobility in the network city and within the field of service design...
Pakmehr, Mehdi; Whiteside, Vincent; Bhandari, Nikhil; Cahay, Marc; Newrock, Richard; McCombe, Bruce
2013-03-01
We have studied the THz magneto-photoresponse of a 2DEG in an InAs quantum well with an embedded Quantum Point Contact in the frequency/field region where electron cyclotron resonance (CR) dominates the response suing several lines from an optically pumped THz laser. The photoresponse near CR is manifested as an envelope of the amplitude of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of the 2DEG with a peak near the CR field. Clear spin-splitting of the quantum oscillations is observed for B > 4, while the SdH oscillations do not show resolved spin-splitting up to 10 T. Data were simulated by a model of resonant carrier heating (due to CR), and from the simulations the carrier density, the CR effective mass, scattering times and the g-factor were obtained. We find a significantly enhanced g-factor, apparently due to many-electron exchange interaction effects. The g-factor determined from fitting spin-split Landau level peaks increases with magnetic field. Work at UB was supported by NSF DMR 1008138 and the Office of the Provost; work at the University of Cincinnati was supported by NSF ECCE 1028483.
Information about the state of a charge qubit gained by a weakly coupled quantum point contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashhab, S; You, J Q; Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)], E-mail: ashhab@riken.jp
2009-12-15
We analyze the information that one can learn about the state of a quantum two-level system, i.e. a qubit, when probed weakly by a nearby detector. We consider the general case where the qubit Hamiltonian and the qubit's operator probed by the detector do not commute. Because the qubit's state keeps evolving while being probed and the measurement data is mixed with a detector-related background noise, one might expect the detector to fail in this case. We show, however, that under suitable conditions and by proper analysis of the measurement data, useful information about the initial state of the qubit can be extracted. Our approach complements the usual master-equation and quantum-trajectory approaches, which describe the evolution of the qubit's quantum state during the measurement process but do not keep track of the acquired measurement information.
Holmqvist, C.; Belzig, W.; Fogelström, M.
2012-08-01
The supercurrent through a quantum point contact coupled to a nanomagnet strongly depends on the dynamics of the nanomagnet's spin. We employ a fully microscopic model to calculate the transport properties of a junction coupled to a spin whose dynamics is modeled as Larmor precession brought about by an external magnetic field and find that the dynamics affects the charge and spin currents by inducing transitions between the continuum states outside the superconducting gap region and the Andreev levels. This redistribution of the quasiparticles leads to a nonequilibrium population of the Andreev levels and an enhancement of the supercurrent which is visible as a modified current-phase relation as well as a nonmonotonous critical current as function of temperature. The nonmonotonous behavior is accompanied by a corresponding change in spin-transfer torques acting on the precessing spin and leads to the possibility of using temperature as a means to tune the back-action on the spin.
Irie, Hiroshi; Todt, Clemens; Kumada, Norio; Harada, Yuichi; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Muraki, Koji
2016-10-01
We study coherent transport and bound state formation of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in a high-mobility I n0.75G a0.25As two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) coupled to a superconducting Nb electrode by means of a quantum point contact (QPC) as a tunable single-mode probe. Below the superconducting critical temperature of Nb, the QPC shows a single-channel conductance greater than the conductance quantum 2 e2/h at zero bias, which indicates the presence of Andreev-reflected quasiparticles, time-reversed states of the injected electron, returning back through the QPC. The marked sensitivity of the conductance enhancement to voltage bias and perpendicular magnetic field suggests a mechanism analogous to reflectionless tunneling—a hallmark of phase-coherent transport, with the boundary of the 2DEG cavity playing the role of scatterers. When the QPC transmission is reduced to the tunneling regime, the differential conductance vs bias voltage probes the single-particle density of states in the proximity area. Measured conductance spectra show a double peak within the superconducting gap of Nb, demonstrating the formation of Andreev bound states in the 2DEG. Both of these results, obtained in the open and closed geometries, underpin the coherent nature of quasiparticles, i.e., phase-coherent Andreev reflection at the InGaAs/Nb interface and coherent propagation in the ballistic 2DEG.
Wójcik, Paweł; Adamowski, Janusz
2017-01-01
The spin filtering effect in the bilayer nanowire with quantum point contact is investigated theoretically. We demonstrate the new mechanism of the spin filtering based on the lateral inter-subband spin-orbit coupling, which for the bilayer nanowires has been reported to be strong. The proposed spin filtering effect is explained as the joint effect of the Landau-Zener intersubband transitions caused by the hybridization of states with opposite spin (due to the lateral Rashba SO interaction) and the confinement of carriers in the quantum point contact region. PMID:28358141
Hybrid superconductor-quantum point contact devices using InSb nanowires
Gill, S. T.; Damasco, J.; Car, D.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Mason, N.
2016-12-01
Proposals for studying topological superconductivity and Majorana bound states in a nanowire proximity coupled to superconductors require that transport in the nanowire is ballistic. Previous works on hybrid nanowire-superconductor systems have shown evidence for Majorana bound states, but these experiments were also marked by disorder, which disrupts ballistic transport. In this paper, we demonstrate ballistic transport in the InSb nanowires interfaced directly with superconducting Al by observing quantized conductance at zero-magnetic field. Additionally, we demonstrate that the nanowire is proximity coupled to the superconducting contacts by observing Andreev reflection. These results are important steps for robustly establishing topological superconductivity in the InSb nanowires.
Bhandari, Nikhil; Charles, James; Dutta, Maitreya; Das, Partha; Cahay, Marc; Newrock, Richard; Herbert, Steven
2013-03-01
We report the first experimental investigation of a device consisting of a quantum point contact (QPC) with four gates - two in-plane side gates in series. The first set of gates (nearest the source contact) is asymmetrically biased to create spin polarization in the channel of the QPC. A symmetric bias is then applied on the second set of side gates (nearest the drain) and varied to tune the location of a conductance anomaly near 0.5 (x2e2/h). The experimental results compare well with simulations of the four-gate QPC devices using a Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism. The device is shown to be a tunable all-electric spin polarizer. The range of common-mode bias on the first set of gates over which maximum spin polarization can be achieved is much broader for the four-gate structure compared with the case of a QPC with a single pair of in-plane side gates. This work is supported by NSF under Award 1028483.
Multi-channel conduction in redox-based resistive switch modelled using quantum point contact theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miranda, E., E-mail: enrique.miranda@uab.cat; Suñé, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallés, Barcelona (Spain); Mehonic, A.; Kenyon, A. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)
2013-11-25
A simple analytic model for the electron transport through filamentary-type structures in Si-rich silica (SiO{sub x})-based resistive switches is proposed. The model is based on a mesoscopic description and is able to account for the linear and nonlinear components of conductance that arise from both fully and partially formed conductive channels spanning the dielectric film. Channels are represented by arrays of identical scatterers whose number and quantum transmission properties determine the current magnitude in the low and high resistance states. We show that the proposed model not only reproduces the experimental current-voltage (I-V) characteristics but also the normalized differential conductance (dln(I)/dln(V)-V) curves of devices under test.
Analysis of Self-Terminated Pressure-Driven Quantum Point Contacts with Ultrafast Optical Pulses
Soltani, Fatemeh; Wlasenko, Alex; Steeves, Geoff
2009-05-01
A self-terminated electrochemical method was used to fabricate atomic-scale contacts between two Au electrodes in a microfluidic channel. The conductance of the contacts varies in a stepwise fashion. The mechanism works by a pressure-driven flow parallel with a pair of Au electrodes with a 100 μm gap in an electrolyte of HCl. Without applied flow, dendrite growth and dense branching morphology were typically observed at the cathode. The addition of applied pressure-driven flow resulted in a densely packed gold structure that filled the channel. The electrochemical fabrication approach introduces large variance in the formation and location of individual junctions. Understanding and controlling this process will enable the precise positioning of reproducible geometries into nano-electronic devices. To investigate the high speed behaviour of a QPC, it can be integrated with a transmission line structure patterned on a photoconductive GaAs substrate. The nonlinear conductance of the QPC (due to the finite density of states of the conductors) can be examined and compared with recent theoretical studies. Samples are fabricated in situ using an electrochemical procedure to produce QPCs along the transmission line structure. This method may provide insight into Terahertz Optoelectronic devices and ultrafast communication systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gloos, K.; Utko, P.; Aagesen, M.;
2006-01-01
We investigate the I(V) characteristics (current versus bias voltage) of side-gated quantum-point contacts, defined in GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures. These point contacts are operated in the closed-channel regime, that is, at fixed gate voltages below zero-bias pinch-off for conductance. Our...... analysis is based on a single scaling factor, extracted from the experimental I(V) characteristics. For both polarities, this scaling factor transforms the change of bias voltage into a change of electron energy. The latter is determined with respect to the top of the potential barrier of the contact....... Such a built-in energy-voltage calibration allows us to distinguish between the different contributions to the electron transport across the pinched-off contact due to thermal activation or quantum tunneling. The first involves the height of the barrier, and the latter also its length. In the model that we...
Koop, E. J.; Lerescu, A. I.; Liu, J.; van Wees, B. J.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; van der Wal, C. H.
2007-01-01
The conductance of a quantum point contact (QPC) shows several features that result from many-body electron interactions. The spin degeneracy in zero magnetic field appears to be spontaneously lifted due to the so-called 0.7 anomaly. Further, the g-factor for electrons in the QPC is enhanced, and a
On the zero-bias anomaly and Kondo physics in quantum point contacts near pinch-off.
Xiang, S; Xiao, S; Fuji, K; Shibuya, K; Endo, T; Yumoto, N; Morimoto, T; Aoki, N; Bird, J P; Ochiai, Y
2014-03-26
We investigate the linear and non-linear conductance of quantum point contacts (QPCs), in the region near pinch-off where Kondo physics has previously been connected to the appearance of the 0.7 feature. In studies of seven different QPCs, fabricated in the same high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction, the linear conductance is widely found to show the presence of the 0.7 feature. The differential conductance, on the other hand, does not generally exhibit the zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) that has been proposed to indicate the Kondo effect. Indeed, even in the small subset of QPCs found to exhibit such an anomaly, the linear conductance does not always follow the universal temperature-dependent scaling behavior expected for the Kondo effect. Taken collectively, our observations demonstrate that, unlike the 0.7 feature, the ZBA is not a generic feature of low-temperature QPC conduction. We furthermore conclude that the mere observation of the ZBA alone is insufficient evidence for concluding that Kondo physics is active. While we do not rule out the possibility that the Kondo effect may occur in QPCs, our results appear to indicate that its observation requires a very strict set of conditions to be satisfied. This should be contrasted with the case of the 0.7 feature, which has been apparent since the earliest experimental investigations of QPC transport.
Oliver, Sean; Fairfield, Jessamyn; Lee, Sunghun; Bellew, Allen; Stone, Iris; Ruppalt, Laura; Boland, John; Vora, Patrick
Resistive switching is ideal for use in non-volatile memory where information is stored in a metallic or insulating state. Nanowire junctions formed at the intersection of two Ni/NiO core/shell nanowires have emerged as a leading candidate structure where resistive switching occurs due to the formation and destruction of conducting filaments. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the conduction mechanisms as measurements are typically only performed at room temperature. Here, we combine temperature-dependent current-voltage (IV) measurements from 15 - 300 K with magnetoresistance studies and achieve new insight into the nature of the conducting filaments. We identify a novel semiconducting state that behaves as a quantum point contact and find evidence for a possible electric-field driven phase transition. The insulating state exhibits unexpectedly complex IV characteristics that highlight the disordered nature of the ruptured filament while we find clear signs of anisotropic magnetoresistance in the metallic state. Our results expose previously unobserved behaviors in nanowire resistive switching devices and pave the way for future applications where both electrical and magnetic switching can be achieved in a single device. This work was supported by ONR Grant N-00014-15-1-2357.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Taksu Cheon
2002-08-01
The existence of several exotic phenomena, such as duality and spectral anholonomy is pointed out in one-dimensional quantum wire with a single defect. The topological structure in the spectral space which is behind these phenomena is identiﬁed.
Quantum Transport with Three Time Dependent Quantum Point Contacts%含三个含时点接触的量子输运
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程芳
2016-01-01
拓扑绝缘体的材料可大大提高计算机芯片的运行速度和工作效率，甚至可能会成为以自旋电子学为基础的下一代全新计算机技术的基石。拓扑绝缘体的边缘态展现出奇特的性质，电子在表面自由流动，不损耗任何能量。使用玻色化，重整化群，格林函数的方法从理论上研究了三个含时点接触存在对拓扑边缘态输运性质的影响。得到电流随偏压和温度变化的解析表达式，以及依赖于电子间相互作用幂指数变化规律。该理论提供了一种调控纳米结构中输运性质的手段。%The novel topological insulator material has provided the physical foundation for the dissipationless spin transport, possibly constructed the brand-new spintronic devices. The edge state of the topological insulator shows unusual helical feature due to the electron spin-momentum locking. Using the Luttinger liquid theory and nonequilibium Green function, the quantum transport in a quantum spin Hall bar with three quantum point contacts ( QPCs) was studied. The currents display very different pump frequency dependence for weak and strong e-e inter-action. These unique properties were induced by the helical feature of the edge states, and therefore can be used to detect and control edge state transport.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔迪
2015-01-01
Abstract:Quantum transmission is based on quantum entanglement, which is a kind of the phenomenon of quantum mechanics. Quantum object refers to two or more between the localized, the classic strong correlation. When two object quantum entanglement in the quantum state is not independent, but related, and the correlation distance, a pair of electronic of entanglement state, no matter how far apart, they spin direction will remain an up and a down. If one of the electronic spin direction is changed, another of the electron spin direction wil follow to change immediately.
Sentís, Gael; Bagan, Emilio; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Muñoz-Tapia, Ramon
2016-10-01
Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is crucial for a number of applications in biology, medicine, and social sciences. Here we take the problem of detecting sudden changes to the quantum domain. We consider a source that emits quantum particles in a default state, until a point where a mutation occurs that causes the source to switch to another state. The problem is then to find out where the change occurred. We determine the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point, allowing for collective measurements on the whole sequence of particles emitted by the source. Then, we devise online strategies where the particles are measured individually and an answer is provided as soon as a new particle is received. We show that these online strategies substantially underperform the optimal quantum measurement, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.
Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Argo Nurbawono
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.
Sentís, Gael; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Munoz-Tapia, Ramon
2016-01-01
Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is of crucial importance for a number of applications in medicine, biology, geophysics, and social sciences. Here we investigate the problem in the quantum domain, considering a source that emits particles in a default state, until a point where it switches to another state. Given a sequence of particles emitted by the source, the problem is to find out where the change occurred. For large sequences, we obtain an analytical expression for the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point when joint measurements on the whole sequence are allowed. We also construct strategies that measure the particles individually and provide an online answer as soon as a new particle is emitted by the source. We show that these strategies substantially underperform the optimal strategy, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.
Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de
1997-01-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the
Quantum critical points in quantum impurity systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hyun Jung [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany); Bulla, Ralf [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)]. E-mail: bulla@cpfs.mpg.de
2005-04-30
The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the soft-gap Anderson model, where an impurity couples to a non-trivial fermionic bath. In this case, zero-temperature phase transitions occur between two different phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. However, the quantum critical point cannot be described by non-interacting fermionic or bosonic excitations.
Quantum critical points in quantum impurity systems
Lee, Hyun Jung; Bulla, Ralf
2005-04-01
The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the soft-gap Anderson model, where an impurity couples to a non-trivial fermionic bath. In this case, zero-temperature phase transitions occur between two different phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. However, the quantum critical point cannot be described by non-interacting fermionic or bosonic excitations.
Nanoscale thermometry using point contact thermocouples.
Sadat, Seid; Tan, Aaron; Chua, Yi Jie; Reddy, Pramod
2010-07-14
Probing temperature fields with nanometer resolution is critical to understanding nanoscale thermal transport as well as dissipation in nanoscale devices. Here, we demonstrate an atomic force microscope (AFM)-based technique capable of mapping temperature fields in metallic films with approximately 10 mK temperature resolution and thermocouples on a grid. The local temperature at each point contact is obtained by measuring the thermoelectric voltage of the platinum-gold point contact and relating it to the local temperature. These results demonstrate a direct measurement of the temperature field of a metallic surface without using specially fabricated scanning temperature-probes.
Quantum points/patterns, Part 2. From quantum points to quantum patterns via multiresolution
Fedorova, Antonina N
2011-01-01
It is obvious that we still have not any unified framework covering a zoo of interpretations of Quantum Mechanics, as well as satisfactory understanding of main ingredients of a phenomena like entanglement. The starting point is an idea to describe properly the key ingredient of the area, namely point/particle-like objects (physical quantum points/particles or, at least, structureless but quantum objects) and to change point (wave) functions by sheaves to the sheaf wave functions (Quantum Sheaves). In such an approach Quantum States are sections of the coherent sheaves or contravariant functors from the kinematical category describing space-time to other one, Quantum Dynamical Category, properly describing the complex dynamics of Quantum Patterns. The objects of this category are some filtrations on the functional realization of Hilbert space of Quantum States. In this Part 2, the sequel of Part 1, we present a family of methods which can describe important details of complex behaviour in quantum ensembles: t...
Low contact resistance in epitaxial graphene devices for quantum metrology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tom Yager
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We investigate Ti/Au contacts to monolayer epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001 for applications in quantum resistance metrology. Using three-terminal measurements in the quantum Hall regime we observed variations in contact resistances ranging from a minimal value of 0.6 Ω up to 11 kΩ. We identify a major source of high-resistance contacts to be due bilayer graphene interruptions to the quantum Hall current, whilst discarding the effects of interface cleanliness and contact geometry for our fabricated devices. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate methods to improve the reproducibility of low resistance contacts (<10 Ω suitable for high precision quantum resistance metrology.
Low contact resistance in epitaxial graphene devices for quantum metrology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yager, Tom, E-mail: yager@chalmers.se, E-mail: ywpark@snu.ac.kr; Lartsev, Arseniy; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kubatkin, Sergey [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology Göteborg, S-412 96 (Sweden); Cedergren, Karin [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW-2052 (Australia); Yakimova, Rositsa [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University Linköping, S-581 83 (Sweden); Panchal, Vishal; Kazakova, Olga [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Tzalenchuk, Alexander [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Kim, Kyung Ho; Park, Yung Woo, E-mail: yager@chalmers.se, E-mail: ywpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
We investigate Ti/Au contacts to monolayer epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001) for applications in quantum resistance metrology. Using three-terminal measurements in the quantum Hall regime we observed variations in contact resistances ranging from a minimal value of 0.6 Ω up to 11 kΩ. We identify a major source of high-resistance contacts to be due bilayer graphene interruptions to the quantum Hall current, whilst discarding the effects of interface cleanliness and contact geometry for our fabricated devices. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate methods to improve the reproducibility of low resistance contacts (<10 Ω) suitable for high precision quantum resistance metrology.
Fermion-induced quantum critical points.
Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong
2017-08-22
A unified theory of quantum critical points beyond the conventional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm remains unknown. According to Landau cubic criterion, phase transitions should be first-order when cubic terms of order parameters are allowed by symmetry in the Landau-Ginzburg free energy. Here, from renormalization group analysis, we show that second-order quantum phase transitions can occur at such putatively first-order transitions in interacting two-dimensional Dirac semimetals. As such type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points are induced by gapless fermions, we call them fermion-induced quantum critical points. We further introduce a microscopic model of SU(N) fermions on the honeycomb lattice featuring a transition between Dirac semimetals and Kekule valence bond solids. Remarkably, our large-scale sign-problem-free Majorana quantum Monte Carlo simulations show convincing evidences of a fermion-induced quantum critical points for N = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, consistent with the renormalization group analysis. We finally discuss possible experimental realizations of the fermion-induced quantum critical points in graphene and graphene-like materials.Quantum phase transitions are governed by Landau-Ginzburg theory and the exceptions are rare. Here, Li et al. propose a type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points induced by gapless fermions in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals.
Quantum Point Cloud and its Compression
Jiang, Nan; Hu, Hao; Dang, Yijie; Zhang, Wenyin
2017-10-01
Quantum computation is becoming an important and effective tool to overcome the high real-time computational requirements of classical digital image processing. The quantum representations of two-dimensional images have been a lot of achievements. However, there are only few methods to express a three-dimensional image by quantum representation. In this paper, a three-dimensional quantum representation for digital images — quantum point cloud is proposed. Moreover, a lossy compression method is used to reduce the complexity of preparation.
Lu, Fangchao; Tang, Ning; Shang, Liangliang; Guan, Hongming; Xu, Fujun; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo
2017-01-01
Magnetic transport spectroscopy is investigated in quantum point contacts (QPCs) fabricated in Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures. The magnetic field perpendicular to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is shown to depopulate the quasi-one-dimensional energy levels in the first two-dimensional (2D) subband faster than those in the second one. In GaN based heterostructures, the energy levels in the second 2D subband is generally concealed in the fast course of depletion and hence rarely detected. The perpendicular magnetic field facilitates the observation of the second 2D subband, and provides a method to study the properties of these energy levels. A careful analysis on the rate of the magnetic depletion with respect to the level index and confinement is carried out, from which the profile of the lateral confinement in GaN based QPCs is found to be triangular. The stability diagram at T shows the energy separation between the first and second 2D subband to be in the range of 32 to 42 meV. PMID:28225042
Controlling superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points.
Seo, S; Park, E; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Kim, J N; Shim, J-H; Thompson, J D; Park, Tuson
2015-03-04
The heavy fermion compound CeRhIn5 is a rare example where a quantum critical point, hidden by a dome of superconductivity, has been explicitly revealed and found to have a local nature. The lack of additional examples of local types of quantum critical points associated with superconductivity, however, has made it difficult to unravel the role of quantum fluctuations in forming Cooper pairs. Here, we show the precise control of superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points in CeRhIn5. Slight tin-substitution for indium in CeRhIn5 shifts its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point from 2.3 GPa to 1.3 GPa and induces a residual impurity scattering 300 times larger than that of pure CeRhIn5, which should be sufficient to preclude superconductivity. Nevertheless, superconductivity occurs at the quantum critical point of the tin-doped metal. These results underline that fluctuations from the antiferromagnetic quantum criticality promote unconventional superconductivity in CeRhIn5.
Spectroscopy of phonons and spin torques in magnetic point contacts.
Yanson, I K; Naidyuk, Yu G; Bashlakov, D L; Fisun, V V; Balkashin, O P; Korenivski, V; Konovalenko, A; Shekhter, R I
2005-10-28
Phonon spectroscopy is used to investigate the mechanism of current-induced spin torques in nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (N/F) point contacts. Magnetization excitations observed in the magneto-conductance of the point contacts are pronounced for diffusive and thermal contacts, where the electrons experience significant scattering in the contact region. We find no magnetic excitations in highly ballistic contacts. Our results show that impurity scattering at the N/F interface is the origin of the new single-interface spin torque effect.
Quantum-to-classical crossover near quantum critical point.
Vasin, M; Ryzhov, V; Vinokur, V M
2015-12-21
A quantum phase transition (QPT) is an inherently dynamic phenomenon. However, while non-dissipative quantum dynamics is described in detail, the question, that is not thoroughly understood is how the omnipresent dissipative processes enter the critical dynamics near a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report a general approach enabling inclusion of both adiabatic and dissipative processes into the critical dynamics on the same footing. We reveal three distinct critical modes, the adiabatic quantum mode (AQM), the dissipative classical mode [classical critical dynamics mode (CCDM)], and the dissipative quantum critical mode (DQCM). We find that as a result of the transition from the regime dominated by thermal fluctuations to that governed by the quantum ones, the system acquires effective dimension d + zΛ(T), where z is the dynamical exponent, and temperature-depending parameter Λ(T) ∈ [0, 1] decreases with the temperature such that Λ(T = 0) = 1 and Λ(T → ∞) = 0. Our findings lead to a unified picture of quantum critical phenomena including both dissipation- and dissipationless quantum dynamic effects and offer a quantitative description of the quantum-to-classical crossover.
MECHANISM OF BOUNDARY LUBRICATION UNDER POINT CONTACT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Weizu; HUANG Ping
2006-01-01
The acid number of the mixed solution of 150SN oil and oleic acid characterizes the volume content of oleic acid in the solution, based on which the adsorptive capability of oleic acid is studied on the 45 steel balls and disks. Boundary lubrication tests are carried out on a self designed ball-on-disk machine. The base oil is pure 150SN oil, and oleic acid as additive are added into the lubricant. Disks have surface roughness values (Ra) of 0.8 μm and 0.4 μm. The electrical contact resistance method is used to determine the lubrication status. Hypothesize that the molecular film is monomolecular layer in condensed state and the opposing surfaces are completely separated by molecular film. A boundary lubrication model is established according to experimental results and hypothesizes. The experimental and calculational results show that the adsorption of polar molecules on steel surface is the main factor to form the boundary lubrication film. Load and sliding speed contribute little to the friction coefficient of boundary lubrication. The properties of steel surface and additive for the lubricant significantly influence on the characters of boundary lubrication. The smaller the surface roughness value is, the smaller the friction coefficient of the boundary lubrication is.
Holographic Butterfly Effect at Quantum Critical Points
Ling, Yi; Wu, Jian-Pin
2016-01-01
When the Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L$ in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound $\\lambda_L\\leqslant 2\\pi k_BT$, it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this letter we propose that the butterfly velocity $v_B$ can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with two holographic models exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the second derivative of $v_B$ with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).
Fixed-point adiabatic quantum search
Dalzell, Alexander M.; Yoder, Theodore J.; Chuang, Isaac L.
2017-01-01
Fixed-point quantum search algorithms succeed at finding one of M target items among N total items even when the run time of the algorithm is longer than necessary. While the famous Grover's algorithm can search quadratically faster than a classical computer, it lacks the fixed-point property—the fraction of target items must be known precisely to know when to terminate the algorithm. Recently, Yoder, Low, and Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 210501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.210501] gave an optimal gate-model search algorithm with the fixed-point property. Previously, it had been discovered by Roland and Cerf [Phys. Rev. A 65, 042308 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevA.65.042308] that an adiabatic quantum algorithm, operating by continuously varying a Hamiltonian, can reproduce the quadratic speedup of gate-model Grover search. We ask, can an adiabatic algorithm also reproduce the fixed-point property? We show that the answer depends on what interpolation schedule is used, so as in the gate model, there are both fixed-point and non-fixed-point versions of adiabatic search, only some of which attain the quadratic quantum speedup. Guided by geometric intuition on the Bloch sphere, we rigorously justify our claims with an explicit upper bound on the error in the adiabatic approximation. We also show that the fixed-point adiabatic search algorithm can be simulated in the gate model with neither loss of the quadratic Grover speedup nor of the fixed-point property. Finally, we discuss natural uses of fixed-point algorithms such as preparation of a relatively prime state and oblivious amplitude amplification.
Dynamical Response near Quantum Critical Points
Lucas, Andrew; Gazit, Snir; Podolsky, Daniel; Witczak-Krempa, William
2017-02-01
We study high-frequency response functions, notably the optical conductivity, in the vicinity of quantum critical points (QCPs) by allowing for both detuning from the critical coupling and finite temperature. We consider general dimensions and dynamical exponents. This leads to a unified understanding of sum rules. In systems with emergent Lorentz invariance, powerful methods from quantum field theory allow us to fix the high-frequency response in terms of universal coefficients. We test our predictions analytically in the large-N O (N ) model and using the gauge-gravity duality and numerically via quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a lattice model hosting the interacting superfluid-insulator QCP. In superfluid phases, interacting Goldstone bosons qualitatively change the high-frequency optical conductivity and the corresponding sum rule.
Superconductor-normal-superconductor with distributed Sharvin point contacts
Holcomb, Matthew J.; Little, William A.
1994-01-01
A non-linear superconducting junction device comprising a layer of high transient temperature superconducting material which is superconducting at an operating temperature, a layer of metal in contact with the layer of high temperature superconducting material and which remains non-superconducting at the operating temperature, and a metal material which is superconducting at the operating temperature and which forms distributed Sharvin point contacts with the metal layer.
Dynamical response near quantum critical points
Lucas, Andrew; Podolsky, Daniel; Witczak-Krempa, William
2016-01-01
We study high frequency response functions, notably the optical conductivity, in the vicinity of quantum critical points (QCPs) by allowing for both detuning from the critical coupling and finite temperature. We consider general dimensions and dynamical exponents. This leads to a unified understanding of sum rules. In systems with emergent Lorentz invariance, powerful methods from conformal field theory allow us to fix the high frequency response in terms of universal coefficients. We test our predictions analytically in the large-N O(N) model and using the gauge-gravity duality, and numerically via Quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a lattice model hosting the interacting superfluid-insulator QCP. In superfluid phases, interacting Goldstone bosons qualitatively change the high frequency optical conductivity, and the corresponding sum rule.
Electron tunneling and point contact Andreev reflection studies of superconductors
Dai, Wenqing
The energy gap is the most fundamental property of a superconductor. Electron tunneling spectroscopy and point contact spectroscopy (PCS) are powerful techniques for studying the density of states and energy gap features of superconductors. Two different superconducting systems, multiband superconductor MgB2 and proximity induced topological superconductor NbSe2/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures were studied using either quasiparticle tunneling in planar tunnel junctions or PCS in this work. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).
Fixing the quantum three-point function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Yunfeng; Kostov, Ivan [Institut de Physique Théorique, DSM, CEA, URA2306 CNRS,Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Loebbert, Florian [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Niels Bohr International Academy & Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Serban, Didina [Institut de Physique Théorique, DSM, CEA, URA2306 CNRS,Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2014-04-03
We propose a new method for the computation of quantum three-point functions for operators in su(2) sectors of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The method is based on the existence of a unitary transformation relating inhomogeneous and long-range spin chains. This transformation can be traced back to a combination of boost operators and an inhomogeneous version of Baxter’s corner transfer matrix. We reproduce the existing results for the one-loop structure constants in a simplified form and indicate how to use the method at higher loop orders. Then we evaluate the one-loop structure constants in the quasiclassical limit and compare them with the recent strong coupling computation.
Zero-point quantum fluctuations in cosmology
Hollenstein, Lukas; Maggiore, Michele; Mitsou, Ermis
2011-01-01
We re-examine the classic problem of the renormalization of zero-point quantum fluctuations in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. We discuss a number of issues that arise when regularizing the theory with a momentum-space cutoff, and show explicitly how introducing non-covariant counter-terms allows to obtain covariant results for the renormalized vacuum energy-momentum tensor. We clarify some confusion in the literature concerning the equation of state of vacuum fluctuations. Further, we point out that the general structure of the effective action becomes richer if the theory contains a scalar field phi with mass m smaller than the Hubble parameter H(t). Such an ultra-light particle cannot be integrated out completely to get the effective action. Apart from the volume term and the Einstein-Hilbert term, that are reabsorbed into renormalizations of the cosmological constant and Newton's constant, the effective action in general also has a term proportional to F(phi)R, for some function F(phi). As a resu...
Quantum kicked harmonic oscillator in contact with a heat bath
Prado Reynoso, M. Á.; López Vázquez, P. C.; Gorin, T.
2017-02-01
We consider the quantum harmonic oscillator in contact with a finite-temperature bath, modeled by the Caldeira-Leggett master equation. Applying periodic kicks to the oscillator, we study the system in different dynamical regimes between classical integrability and chaos, on the one hand, and ballistic or diffusive energy absorption, on the other. We then investigate the influence of the heat bath on the oscillator in each case. Phase-space techniques allow us to simulate the evolution of the system efficiently. In this way, we calculate high-resolution Wigner functions at long times, where the system approaches a quasistationary cyclic evolution. Thereby, we perform an accurate study of the thermodynamic properties of a nonintegrable, quantum chaotic system in contact with a heat bath at finite temperature. In particular, we find that the heat transfer between harmonic oscillator and heat bath is governed by Fourier's law.
Results from Point Contact Tunnelling Spectroscopy and Atomic Layer Deposition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Proslier, Th. [Illinois Institute of Technology; Zasadzinski, J. [Illinois Institute of Technology; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Elam, J. W. [ANL; Norem, J. [ANL; Pellin, M. J. [ANL
2009-11-01
We have shown previously that magnetic niobium oxides can influence the superconducting density of states at the surface of cavity-grade niobium coupons. We will present recent results obtained by Point Contact Tunneling spectroscopy (PCT) on coupons removed from hot and cold spots in a niobium cavity, as well as a comparative study of magnetic oxides on mild baked/unbaked electropolished coupons. We will also describe recent results obtained from coated cavities, ALD films properties and new materials using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).
Simulation of temperature distribution of point contacts in mixed lubrication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU; Yuchuan(刘雨川); HU; Yuanzhong(胡元中); WANG; Wenzhong; (王文中); WANG; Hui(王慧)
2002-01-01
The numerical simulation of temperature distribution of point contacts in mixed lubrication is presented. The calculating includes two steps. First, temperature rises on two surfaces are obtained by a temperature integration method of transient point heat source. Second, the partition coefficients of heat flux are determined by matching the temperature of two surfaces. Similar to the calculation of elastic deformation, double linear interpolation function is used to get a better accuracy, and moving grid method is used to increase the efficiency of the computation. Due to the symmetry of influence coefficient matrix in the direction perpendicular to the velocity, storage and computational work are further reduced by 50%. Numerical samples validate the algorithm and program. The calculating results of the cases of smooth surface and isotropic sinusoidal surface are presented.
Design and construction of a point-contact spectroscopy rig with lateral scanning capability.
Tortello, M; Park, W K; Ascencio, C O; Saraf, P; Greene, L H
2016-06-01
The design and realization of a cryogenic rig for point-contact spectroscopy measurements in the needle-anvil configuration is presented. Thanks to the use of two piezoelectric nano-positioners, the tip can move along the vertical (z) and horizontal (x) direction and thus the rig is suitable to probe different regions of a sample in situ. Moreover, it can also form double point-contacts on different facets of a single crystal for achieving, e.g., an interferometer configuration for phase-sensitive measurements. For the later purpose, the sample holder can also host a Helmholtz coil for applying a small transverse magnetic field to the junction. A semi-rigid coaxial cable can be easily added for studying the behavior of Josephson junctions under microwave irradiation. The rig can be detached from the probe and thus used with different cryostats. The performance of this new probe has been tested in a Quantum Design PPMS system by conducting point-contact Andreev reflection measurements on Nb thin films over large areas as a function of temperature and magnetic field.
Analysis of high efficiency back point contact silicon solar cells
Luque, Antonio
1988-01-01
A model has been developed for the analysis of Back Point-Contact (BPC) cells under variable injection level. The analysis has been applied to an experimental cell from Stanford University to allow the extraction of the recombination parameters of this cell. While the bulk SRH recombination and the recombination in the surface and in the emitters are those expected, the Auger constant takes a higher value (2.1 × 10 -30 cm 6/s), than the one usually accepted, and in agreement with the measurements by the Stanford group, for the carrier density involved here. The analysis indicates that best efficiency results are obtained with cells with finely designed emitter dots and well passivated surfaces, made on high resistivity substrates, leading to an upper limit of efficiency obtained at 20 W/cm 2 of about 30.4%. If our technology prevents us from a fine dot delineation (below 5-10 μm) then the highest efficiency is to be expected from the more conventional Interdigitated Back Contact cells with a limit (with our fitted Auger constant) of about 30%. Finally, if the commonly accepted value of the Auger constant (3.8 × 10 -31 cm 6/s) is used this limit is obtained at 50 W/cm 2 and is of 33.1% with a strongly idealized cell. All the efficiencies are at 25°C.
Order parameter fluctuations at a buried quantum critical point.
Feng, Yejun; Wang, Jiyang; Jaramillo, R; van Wezel, Jasper; Haravifard, S; Srajer, G; Liu, Y; Xu, Z-A; Littlewood, P B; Rosenbaum, T F
2012-05-08
Quantum criticality is a central concept in condensed matter physics, but the direct observation of quantum critical fluctuations has remained elusive. Here we present an X-ray diffraction study of the charge density wave (CDW) in 2H-NbSe(2) at high pressure and low temperature, where we observe a broad regime of order parameter fluctuations that are controlled by proximity to a quantum critical point. X-rays can track the CDW despite the fact that the quantum critical regime is shrouded inside a superconducting phase; and in contrast to transport probes, allow direct measurement of the critical fluctuations of the charge order. Concurrent measurements of the crystal lattice point to a critical transition that is continuous in nature. Our results confirm the long-standing expectations of enhanced quantum fluctuations in low-dimensional systems, and may help to constrain theories of the quantum critical Fermi surface.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneiter, P. [Schweizerische Agentur fuer Energieeffizienz (S.A.F.E.), Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, B. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Berne (Switzerland)
2003-07-01
This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes a project that was to define a National Contact Point (NCP) for the 'GreenLight' programme of the European Union. The aim of this programme is to promote the use of energy-efficient lighting in the service sector as well as in trade and industry. The financial benefits of energy-efficient lighting are stressed. Public relations activities such as publications in print media, a web site and presentations at several events are described. Improvements made to the 'GreenLight' product to fit it to the requirements of the potential partners ('customers') in Switzerland are discussed, as is experience gained in the project's first year of operation.
Quantum coordinated multi-point communication based on entanglement swapping
Du, Gang; Shang, Tao; Liu, Jian-wei
2017-05-01
In a quantum network, adjacent nodes can communicate with each other point to point by using pre-shared Einsten-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, and furthermore remote nodes can establish entanglement channels by using quantum routing among intermediate nodes. However, with the rapid development of quantum networks, the demand of various message transmission among nodes inevitably emerges. In order to realize this goal and extend quantum networks, we propose a quantum coordinated multi-point communication scheme based on entanglement swapping. The scheme takes full advantage of EPR pairs between adjacent nodes and performs multi-party entanglement swapping to transmit messages. Considering various demands of communication, all nodes work cooperatively to realize different message transmission modes, including one to many, many to one and one to some. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can flexibly organize a coordinated group and efficiently use EPR resources, while it meets basic security requirement under the condition of coordinated communication.
ANALYSIS OF POINT CONTACTS SUBJECTED TO A CONCENTRATED NORMAL FORCES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan GHIMIȘI
2016-12-01
Full Text Available To "non-compliant" contacts in which deformations are sufficiently small compared to the size of bodies, elasticity theory applies to closed contact defined by the contact area. Stresses and displacements in elastic semispaces can cause tractions of the surface, being deducted for the first time by Boussinesq (1885 and Cerruti (1882
Effective production of orbital quantum entanglement in chaotic quantum dots with nonideal contacts
Santos, E. H.; Almeida, F. A. G.
2016-09-01
We study orbital entanglement production in a chaotic quantum dot with two-channel leads by varying the opacity of the contacts in the unitary and orthogonal Wigner-Dyson ensembles. We computed the occurrence probability of entangled states (squared norm) and its concurrence (entanglement level). We also define an entanglement production factor to properly evaluate the entanglement behavior in the system considering effective aspects. The results are numerically obtained through (i) integrations over random matrix ensembles (exact results) for the scenario of one contact ideally fixed and (ii) random matrix simulations for arbitrary contact opacities (sampling). Those outcomes are in mutual agreement and indicate that the optimum effective production of orbital entanglement is achieved when both contacts are ideal and the time-reversal symmetry is broken.
Population equations for quantum systems in contact with dissipation mechanisms
Huang, X. Y.; Narducci, L. M.; Yuan, J. M.
1981-06-01
We discuss the construction of population equations for driven quantum systems in contact with dissipation mechanisms in the limit where the strength of the driving force is sufficiently weak that a suitable Born expansion can be carried out in powers of the coupling constant of the coherent interaction. The Zwanzig projector technique and the application of an appropriate eigenfunction-expansion method due to Weidlich lead to an elegant derivation of population equations. If the decay rates of the irreversible processes allow the application of the Markoff approximation, ordinary first-order differential equations for the level populations can be derived. The transition rates are constructed explicitly in terms of the coherent Liouville operator and the Weidlich eigenfunctions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasegawa, S.; Grey, Francois
2002-01-01
show that this type of conduction is measurable using new types of experimental probes, such as the multi-tip scanning tunnelling microscope and the micro-four-point probe. The resulting electronic transport properties are intriguing, and suggest that semiconductor surfaces should be considered......The electrical properties of semiconductor surfaces have played a decisive role in one of the most important discoveries of the last century, transistors. In the 1940s, the concept of surface states-new electron energy levels characteristic of the surface atoms-was instrumental in the fabrication...... of the first point-contact transistors, and led to the successful fabrication of field-effect transistors. However, to this day, one property of semiconductor surface states remains poorly understood, both theoretically and experimentally. That is the conduction of electrons or holes directly through...
Self-designed conical point contact plate and clinical application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Objective: To design a new kind of conical point contact plate (CPCP) in treatment of diaphyseal fracture to avoid further dam age to the blood supply of the cortex. Methods: There were 4 pairs of conicles with a diameter of 1. 5-4 mm beneath the plate symmetrically. The nibs of the conicles were embedd ed about 1-1.5 mm in the cortex by the axial force of screws. The conicle provided a gap about 2 mm between the plate and the bone so as not to compress the periosteum and cortex. And the periostem didnt need to be stripped off dur ing operation and there was no need of postoperative external fixation. Results: Forty-two cases with diaphyseal fracture were stabili zed by using CPCP. The patients could do joint exercise without loading after operation. Partial weight bearing could be performed in 4-6 weeks postoperati vely. There was no obvious external callus in these cases. The average time of b one healing was 3 months in the tibia and forearm fracture and 4 months in the f emur. Complications such as infection, non-union or malunion etc. were not foun d. The implant was removed 6-10 months after operation. Conclusions: CPCP has the advantages of drastic reduction of the implant-to-bone interface virtually, elimination of the impairment of the periosteal blood supply, increase of the rate of healing and good stability whi ch meets the need of early functional exercise.
Solar LBIC scanning of high-efficiency point-contact silicon solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vorster, F.J.; Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), Port Elizabeth (South Africa)
2008-07-01
The induced current response from a High Efficiency Concentrator (HECO) monocrystaline Si solar cell was mapped as a function of surface position and cell bias by using a solar light beam induced current (S-LBIC) mapping system while at the same time dynamically biasing the whole cell with an external voltage. Recombination accounts for a major portion of the reduction in quantum efficiency in these cells. This paper examines the spatial distribution of defect mechanisms causing a reduction of collected photocurrent of the backside point-contact device structure while under spot illumination. By examining the bias dependence of the S-LBIC maps, the identification of current loss mechanisms of solar cells under concentrated solar irradiance may be improved. The techniques employed to interpret the spatially distributed I-V curves are discussed and results presented. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
A method for improved accuracy in three dimensions for determining wheel/rail contact points
Yang, Xinwen; Gu, Shaojie; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhou, Yu; Lian, Songliang
2015-11-01
Searching for the contact points between wheels and rails is important because these points represent the points of exerted contact forces. In order to obtain an accurate contact point and an in-depth description of the wheel/rail contact behaviours on a curved track or in a turnout, a method with improved accuracy in three dimensions is proposed to determine the contact points and the contact patches between the wheel and the rail when considering the effect of the yaw angle and the roll angle on the motion of the wheel set. The proposed method, with no need of the curve fitting of the wheel and rail profiles, can accurately, directly, and comprehensively determine the contact interface distances between the wheel and the rail. The range iteration algorithm is used to improve the computation efficiency and reduce the calculation required. The present computation method is applied for the analysis of the contact of rails of CHINA (CHN) 75 kg/m and wheel sets of wearing type tread of China's freight cars. In addition, it can be proved that the results of the proposed method are consistent with that of Kalker's program CONTACT, and the maximum deviation from the wheel/rail contact patch area of this two methods is approximately 5%. The proposed method, can also be used to investigate static wheel/rail contact. Some wheel/rail contact points and contact patch distributions are discussed and assessed, wheel and rail non-worn and worn profiles included.
A Fast Measurement based fixed-point Quantum Search Algorithm
Mani, Ashish
2011-01-01
Generic quantum search algorithm searches for target entity in an unsorted database by repeatedly applying canonical Grover's quantum rotation transform to reach near the vicinity of the target entity represented by a basis state in the Hilbert space associated with the qubits. Thus, when qubits are measured, there is a high probability of finding the target entity. However, the number of times quantum rotation transform is to be applied for reaching near the vicinity of the target is a function of the number of target entities present in the unsorted database, which is generally unknown. A wrong estimate of the number of target entities can lead to overshooting or undershooting the targets, thus reducing the success probability. Some proposals have been made to overcome this limitation. These proposals either employ quantum counting to estimate the number of solutions or fixed point schemes. This paper proposes a new scheme for stopping the application of quantum rotation transformation on reaching near the ...
Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition.
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar
We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.
Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvali, Gia [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); CERN, Theory Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); New York University, Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York, NY (United States); Gomez, Cesar [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, C-XVI, Madrid (Spain)
2014-02-15
We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs. (orig.)
Black Holes as Critical Point of Quantum Phase Transition
Dvali, Gia
2014-01-01
We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.
Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar
2014-02-01
We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.
Multicritical point in a diluted bilayer Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet.
Sandvik, Anders W
2002-10-21
The S=1/2 Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnet with randomly removed interlayer dimers is studied using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. A zero-temperature multicritical point (p(*),g(*)) at the classical percolation density p=p(*) and interlayer coupling g(*) approximately equal 0.16 is demonstrated. The quantum critical exponents of the percolating cluster are determined using finite-size scaling. It is argued that the associated finite-temperature quantum critical regime extends to zero interlayer coupling and could be relevant for antiferromagnetic cuprates doped with nonmagnetic impurities.
Floating point representations in quantum circuit synthesis
Wiebe, Nathan; Kliuchnikov, Vadym
2013-09-01
We provide a non-deterministic quantum protocol that approximates the single qubit rotations Rx(2ϕ21ϕ22) using Rx(2ϕ1) and Rx(2ϕ2) and a constant number of Clifford and T operations. We then use this method to construct a ‘floating point’ implementation of a small rotation wherein we use the aforementioned method to construct the exponent part of the rotation and also to combine it with a mantissa. This causes the cost of the synthesis to depend more strongly on the relative (rather than absolute) precision required. We analyze the mean and variance of the T-count required to use our techniques and provide new lower bounds for the T-count for ancilla free synthesis of small single-qubit axial rotations. We further show that our techniques can use ancillas to beat these lower bounds with high probability. We also discuss the T-depth of our method and see that the vast majority of the cost of the resultant circuits can be shifted to parallel computation paths.
Collectivity, Phase Transitions and Exceptional Points in Open Quantum Systems
Heiss, W D; Rotter, I
1998-01-01
Phase transitions in open quantum systems, which are associated with the formation of collective states of a large width and of trapped states with rather small widths, are related to exceptional points of the Hamiltonian. Exceptional points are the singularities of the spectrum and eigenfunctions, when they are considered as functions of a coupling parameter. In the present paper this parameter is the coupling strength to the continuum. It is shown that the positions of the exceptional points (their accumulation point in the thermodynamical limit) depend on the particular type and energy dependence of the coupling to the continuum in the same way as the transition point of the corresponding phase transition.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TWO-POINT CONTACT BETWEEN WHEEL AND RAIL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun Zhang; Shouguang Sun; Xuesong Jin
2009-01-01
The elastic-plastic contact problem with rolling friction of wheel-rail is solved using the FE parametric quadratic programming method. Thus, the complex elastic-plastic contact problem can be calculated with high accuracy and efficiency, while the Hertz's hypothesis and the elastic semi-space assumption are avoided. Based on the 'one-point' contact calculation of wheel-rail, the computational model of 'two-point' contact are established and calculated when the wheel flange is close to the rail. In the case of 'two-point' contact, the changing laws of wheelrail contact are introduced and contact forces in various load cases are carefully analyzed. The main reason of wheel flange wear and rail side wear is found. Lubrication computational model of the wheel flange is constructed. Comparing with the result without lubrication, the contact force between wheel flange and rail decreases, which is beneficial for reducing the wear of wheel-rail.
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication for line and point contacts asymptotic and numerical approaches
Kudish, Ilya I
2013-01-01
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication for Line and Point Contacts: Asymptotic and Numerical Approaches describes a coherent asymptotic approach to the analysis of lubrication problems for heavily loaded line and point contacts. This approach leads to unified asymptotic equations for line and point contacts as well as stable numerical algorithms for the solution of these elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) problems. A Unique Approach to Analyzing Lubrication Problems for Heavily Loaded Line and Point Contacts The book presents a robust combination of asymptotic and numerical techniques to solve EHL p
Ultimate quantum limit on resolution of two thermal point sources
Nair, Ranjith
2016-01-01
We obtain the fundamental quantum limit for resolving two thermal point sources using an imaging system with limited spatial bandwidth. Using the quantum Cram\\'er-Rao bound, we show that the standard Rayleigh limit is not fundamental and can be surpassed by concrete coherent measurement techniques. Our results are valid for all values of the source strength, all ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, and for any imaging system with an inversion-symmetric point-spread function. Our findings have applications to many areas of metrology including microscopy, astronomy, and standoff target sensing.
Universal Postquench Prethermalization at a Quantum Critical Point.
Gagel, Pia; Orth, Peter P; Schmalian, Jörg
2014-11-28
We consider an open system near a quantum critical point that is suddenly moved towards the critical point. The bath-dominated diffusive nonequilibrium dynamics after the quench is shown to follow scaling behavior, governed by a critical exponent that emerges in addition to the known equilibrium critical exponents. We determine this exponent and show that it describes universal prethermalized coarsening dynamics of the order parameter in an intermediate time regime. Implications of this quantum critical prethermalization are: (i) a power law rise of order and correlations after an initial collapse of the equilibrium state and (ii) a crossover to thermalization that occurs arbitrarily late for sufficiently shallow quenches.
Odd-Parity Superconductivity and the Ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point
Huxley, A. D.; Yates, S. J. C.; Lévy, F.; Sheikin, I.
2007-05-01
The study of the emergence of superconductivity close to quantum critical points affords a powerful means to identify the mechanism that drives the formation of unconventional superconductivity in heavy fermion materials. The recent discovery of superconducting states close to quantum critical points in ferromagnets UGe2 and URhGe is reviewed in this light. For URhGe we examine whether the predominant type of magnetic excitations involved are longitudinal excitations, hitherto considered theoretically to be the most promising candidate to mediate equal-spin-paired superconductivity.
Edge state tunneling in a point contact at filling fraction ν=5/2
Radu, Iuliana P.; Miller, J. B.; Dillard, C. R.; Marcus, C. M.; Kastner, M. A.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2008-03-01
We investigate low temperature transport properties of quantum point contacts (QPCs) fabricated in a GaAs/AlGaAs 2-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) with mobility 2000 m^2/Vs in a perpendicular magnetic field. The 2-DEG exhibits fractional quantum Hall effect, including a well-quantized plateau at ν=5/2. We study the temperature and DC current bias dependence of the transport through the QPC at ν=5/2 while preserving the same filling number in both the QPC and the bulk of the sample. We compare our results to theoretical predictions for quasi-particle tunneling in the weak coupling regime, and extract the quasi-particle charge and the strength of the Coulomb interaction, as reflected by the Luttinger liquid parameter g. This work was partially supported by ARO (W911NF-05-1-0062), by the NSEC program of NSF (PHY-0117795), by NSF (DMR-0353209) at MIT and by Project Q of Microsoft Corporation at Harvard University.
Two-point functions in (loop) quantum cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele, E-mail: calcagni@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: gielen@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: doriti@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)
2011-06-21
The path-integral formulation of quantum cosmology with a massless scalar field as a sum-over-histories of volume transitions is discussed, with particular but non-exclusive reference to loop quantum cosmology. Exploiting the analogy with the relativistic particle, we give a complete overview of the possible two-point functions, pointing out the choices involved in their definitions, deriving their vertex expansions and the composition laws they satisfy. We clarify the origin and relations of different quantities previously defined in the literature, in particular the tie between definitions using a group averaging procedure and those in a deparametrized framework. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the physics of a single quantum universe (where there exist superselection rules on positive- and negative-frequency sectors and different choices of inner product are physically equivalent) and multiverse field theories where the role of these sectors and the inner product are reinterpreted.
Two-point functions in (loop) quantum cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Gielen, Steffen [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2011-07-01
We discuss the path-integral formulation of quantum cosmology with a massless scalar field as a sum-over-histories of volume transitions, with particular but non-exclusive reference to loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Exploiting the analogy with the relativistic particle, we give a complete overview of the possible two-point functions, pointing out the choices involved in their definitions, deriving their vertex expansions and the composition laws they satisfy. We clarify the origin and relations of different quantities previously defined in the literature, in particular the tie between definitions using a group averaging procedure and those in a deparametrized framework. Finally, we draw some conclusions about the physics of a single quantum universe (where there exist superselection rules on positive- and negative-frequency sectors and different choices of inner product are physically equivalent) and multiverse field theories where the role of these sectors and the inner product are reinterpreted.
Point Contacts in Modeling Conducting 2D Planar Structures
Thiel, David V; Hettenhausen, Jan; Lewis, Andrew
2015-01-01
Use of an optimization algorithm to improve performance of antennas and electromagnetic structures usually ends up in planar unusual shapes. Using rectangular conducting elements the proposed structures sometimes have connections with only one single point in common between two neighboring areas. The single point connections (point crossing) can affect the electromagnetic performance of the structure. In this letter, we illustrate the influence of point crossing on dipole and loop antennas using MoM, FDTD, and FEM solvers. Current distribution, radiation pattern, and impedance properties for different junctions are different. These solvers do not agree in the modeling of the point crossing junctions which is a warning about uncertainty in using such junctions. However, solvers agree that a negligible change in the junction would significantly change the antenna performance. We propose that one should consider both bridging and chamfering of the conflicting cells to find optimized structures. This reduces the ...
Partial dynamical symmetry at critical points of quantum phase transitions.
Leviatan, A
2007-06-15
We show that partial dynamical symmetries can occur at critical points of quantum phase transitions, in which case underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of partial dynamical symmetries are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape phases in nuclei.
Headache with autonomic features in a child: cluster headache or contact-point headache?
Mishra, Devendra; Choudhury, Krishna Kant; Gupta, Alok
2008-03-01
Headache and facial pain due to diseases of the nose and sinuses are not uncommon in children. However, nasal contact-point associated with headache is relatively uncommon and has unclear etiological significance. We herein report a child having headache with autonomic features and contact-point in the nose, and discuss the difficulties in diagnostic categorization.
Inverted point-contact spectrum of electron-phonon interactions in arsenic homocontacts
Khotkevich, A. V.; Krasnyi, A. S.
2016-04-01
The point-contact (microcontact) spectra (second derivatives of the current-voltage characteristics) of As/As point homocontacts are measured at liquid helium temperatures. Inversion of the sign of the point-contact spectrum is observed as a result of the destruction of electron localization in the arsenic contacts owing to electron-phonon interactions. The point-contact spectrum contains two major peaks at energies of 10 and 25 meV. The boundary of the single-phonon part of the spectrum corresponds to 34 meV. This agrees with available data on the density of phonon states. Assuming that the inverted point-contact spectrum reflects features of the electro-phonon interaction spectral function, the mean-square frequency of the phonons is calculated and the Debye temperature is estimated.
Quantum Limits to Optical Point-Source Localization
Tsang, Mankei
2014-01-01
Many superresolution microscopic techniques rely on the accurate localization of optical point sources from far field. To investigate the fundamental limits to their resolution, here I derive measurement-independent quantum lower bounds on the error of locating point sources in free space, taking full account of the quantum, nonparaxial, and vectoral nature of photons. To arrive at analytic results, I focus mainly on the cases of one and two classical monochromatic sources with an initial vacuum optical state. For one source, a lower bound on the root-mean-square position estimation error is on the order of $\\lambda_0/\\sqrt{N}$, where $\\lambda_0$ is the free-space wavelength and $N$ is the average number of radiated photons. For two sources, owing to a nuisance parameter effect, the error bound diverges when their radiated fields overlap significantly. The use of squeezed light to further enhance the accuracy of locating one point source is also discussed.
Thermal conductivity at a disordered quantum critical point
Hartnoll, Sean A; Santos, Jorge E
2015-01-01
Strongly disordered and strongly interacting quantum critical points are difficult to access with conventional field theoretic methods. They are, however, both experimentally important and theoretically interesting. In particular, they are expected to realize universal incoherent transport. Such disordered quantum critical theories have recently been constructed holographically by deforming a CFT by marginally relevant disorder. In this paper we find additional disordered fixed points via relevant disordered deformations of a holographic CFT. Using recently developed methods in holographic transport, we characterize the thermal conductivity in both sets of theories in 1+1 dimensions. The thermal conductivity is found to tend to a constant at low temperatures in one class of fixed points, and to scale as $T^{0.3}$ in the other. Furthermore, in all cases the thermal conductivity exhibits discrete scale invariance, with logarithmic in temperature oscillations superimposed on the low temperature scaling behavior....
An N/4 fixed-point duality quantum search algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Here a fixed-point duality quantum search algorithm is proposed.This algorithm uses iteratively non-unitary operations and measurements to search an unsorted database.Once the marked item is found,the algorithm stops automatically.This algorithm uses a constant non-unitary operator,and requires N/4 steps on average(N is the number of data from the database) to locate the marked state.The implementation of this algorithm in a usual quantum computer is also demonstrated.
Quantum Algorithms with Fixed Points: The Case of Database Search
Grover, L K; Tulsi, T; Grover, Lov K.; Patel, Apoorva; Tulsi, Tathagat
2006-01-01
The standard quantum search algorithm lacks a feature, enjoyed by many classical algorithms, of having a fixed-point, i.e. a monotonic convergence towards the solution. Here we present two variations of the quantum search algorithm, which get around this limitation. The first replaces selective inversions in the algorithm by selective phase shifts of $\\frac{\\pi}{3}$. The second controls the selective inversion operations using two ancilla qubits, and irreversible measurement operations on the ancilla qubits drive the starting state towards the target state. Using $q$ oracle queries, these variations reduce the probability of finding a non-target state from $\\epsilon$ to $\\epsilon^{2q+1}$, which is asymptotically optimal. Similar ideas can lead to robust quantum algorithms, and provide conceptually new schemes for error correction.
Quantum theory of superresolution for two incoherent optical point sources
Tsang, Mankei; Lu, Xiaoming
2015-01-01
We prove that Rayleigh's criterion is fundamentally irrelevant to the localization of two incoherent point sources in far-field optical imaging. This is done in two ways: (1) We derive the quantum Cram\\'er-Rao error bound for the problem under standard assumptions for thermal optical sources, and the bound shows little sign of the accuracy degradation that plagues conventional imaging when Rayleigh's criterion is violated. (2) We propose a linear optical measurement method called spatial-mode demultiplexing (SPADE) that can attain the quantum bound for separation estimation regardless of the distance between the sources, a task conventional methods perform poorly for close sources. These results demonstrate that Rayleigh's criterion is nothing but a technicality specific to conventional imaging, and cleverer quantum measurements can locate two incoherent sources with arbitrary separation almost as accurately as conventional methods do for isolated sources.
Experimental consequences of quantum critical points at high temperatures
Freitas, D. C.; Rodière, P.; Núñez, M.; Garbarino, G.; Sulpice, A.; Marcus, J.; Gay, F.; Continentino, M. A.; Núñez-Regueiro, M.
2015-11-01
We study the C r1 -xR ex phase diagram finding that its phase transition temperature towards an antiferromagnetic order TN follows a quantum [(xc-x ) /xc ] ψ law, with ψ =1 /2 , from the quantum critical point (QCP) at xc=0.25 up to TN≈600 K . We compare this system to others in order to understand why this elemental material is affected by the QCP up to such unusually high temperatures. We determine a general criterion for the crossover, as a function of an external parameter such as concentration, from the region controlled solely by thermal fluctuations to that where quantum effects become observable. The properties of materials with low coherence lengths will thus be altered far away from the QCP.
Bižić, Milan B.; Petrović, Dragan Z.; Tomić, Miloš C.; Djinović, Zoran V.
2017-07-01
This paper presents the development of a unique method for experimental determination of wheel-rail contact forces and contact point position by using the instrumented wheelset (IWS). Solutions of key problems in the development of IWS are proposed, such as the determination of optimal locations, layout, number and way of connecting strain gauges as well as the development of an inverse identification algorithm (IIA). The base for the solution of these problems is the wheel model and results of FEM calculations, while IIA is based on the method of blind source separation using independent component analysis. In the first phase, the developed method was tested on a wheel model and a high accuracy was obtained (deviations of parameters obtained with IIA and really applied parameters in the model are less than 2%). In the second phase, experimental tests on the real object or IWS were carried out. The signal-to-noise ratio was identified as the main influential parameter on the measurement accuracy. Тhе obtained results have shown that the developed method enables measurement of vertical and lateral wheel-rail contact forces Q and Y and their ratio Y/Q with estimated errors of less than 10%, while the estimated measurement error of contact point position is less than 15%. At flange contact and higher values of ratio Y/Q or Y force, the measurement errors are reduced, which is extremely important for the reliability and quality of experimental tests of safety against derailment of railway vehicles according to the standards UIC 518 and EN 14363. The obtained results have shown that the proposed method can be successfully applied in solving the problem of high accuracy measurement of wheel-rail contact forces and contact point position using IWS.
Metallic magnets without inversion symmetry and antiferromagnetic quantum critical points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, I.A.
2006-07-01
This thesis focusses on two classes of systems that exhibit non-Fermi liquid behaviour in experiments: we investigated aspects of chiral ferromagnets and of antiferromagnetic metals close to a quantum critical point. In chiral ferromagnets, the absence of inversion symmetry makes spin-orbit coupling possible, which leads to a helical modulation of the ferromagnetically ordered state. We studied the motion of electrons in the magnetically ordered state of a metal without inversion symmetry by calculating their generic band-structure. We found that spin-orbit coupling, although weak, has a profound effect on the shape of the Fermi surface: On a large portion of the Fermi surface the electron motion parallel to the helix practically stops. Signatures of this effect can be expected to show up in measurements of the anomalous Hall effect. Recent neutron scattering experiments uncovered the existence of a peculiar kind of partial order in a region of the phase diagram adjacent to the ordered state of the chiral ferromagnet MnSi. Starting from the premise that this partially ordered state is a thermodynamically distinct phase, we investigated an extended Ginzburg-Landau theory for chiral ferromagnets. In a certain parameter regime of the Ginzburg-Landau theory we identified crystalline phases that are reminiscent of the so-called blue phases in liquid crystals. Many antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion systems can be tuned into a regime where they exhibit non-Fermi liquid exponents in the temperature dependence of thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat capacity; this behaviour could be due to a quantum critical point. If the quantum critical behaviour is field-induced, the external field does not only suppress antiferromagnetism but also induces spin precession and thereby influences the dynamics of the order parameter. We investigated the quantum critical behavior of clean antiferromagnetic metals subject to a static, spatially uniform external magnetic field. We
Spin transfer torques and spin dynamics in point contacts and spin-flop tunnel junctions
Konovalenko, Alexander
2008-01-01
The first part of this thesis is an experimental study of the spin-dependent transport in magnetic point contacts. Nano-contacts are produced micromechanically, by bringing a sharpened non-magnetic (N) tip into contact with a ferromagnetic (F) film. The magnetic and magneto-transport properties of such N/F nanocontacts are studied using transport spectroscopy, spanning the ballistic, diffusive, and thermal transport regimes. Single N/F interfaces can exhibit current driven magnetic excitation...
2011-01-25
... ADMINISTRATION Service Contract Inventory and Corresponding Point of Contact Information Per Section 703 of... Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are providing the Web site address (URL) for the Service Contract... Consolidated Appropriations Act, Public Law 111-117. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dennis Wilhite,...
CONTACT DEFORMATION AND PRE-CONTROL OF TRANSMISSION PROPERTIES OF POINT CONJUGATE GEAR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
According to spatial conjugate principle and theory of elastic contact, a method to pre-control transmission properties and contact mark of point meshing gear is presented, while the deformation of tooth surface is under consideration. A new approach to improve the quality of spiral bevel gear is illustrated emphatically.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jimmi; Jacobsen, Torben
2010-01-01
The Finite-Element-Method (FEM) was used for the simulations of the effect of a changing current distribution during AC impedance spectrum recording on electroceramic point contact and thin film model electrodes. For pure electronic conducting point contact electrodes the transition from the prim......The Finite-Element-Method (FEM) was used for the simulations of the effect of a changing current distribution during AC impedance spectrum recording on electroceramic point contact and thin film model electrodes. For pure electronic conducting point contact electrodes the transition from...... regarding its significance is provided. The associated characteristic impedance spectrum shape change is simulated and its origin discussed. Furthermore, the characteristic shape of impedance spectra of thin electroceramic film electrodes with lateral ohmic resistance is studied as a function...
Recent progress of probing correlated electron states by point contact spectroscopy
Lee, Wei-Cheng; Greene, Laura H.
2016-09-01
We review recent progress in point contact spectroscopy (PCS) to extract spectroscopic information out of correlated electron materials, with the emphasis on non-superconducting states. PCS has been used to detect bosonic excitations in normal metals, where signatures (e.g. phonons) are usually less than 1% of the measured conductance. In the superconducting state, point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) has been widely used to study properties of the superconducting gap in various superconductors. It has been well-recognized that the corresponding conductance can be accurately fitted by the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory in which the AR occurring near the point contact junction is modeled by three parameters; the superconducting gap, the quasiparticle scattering rate, and a dimensionless parameter, Z, describing the strength of the potential barrier at the junction. AR can be as large as 100% of the background conductance, and only arises in the case of superconductors. In the last decade, there have been more and more experimental results suggesting that the point contact conductance could reveal new features associated with the unusual single electron dynamics in non-superconducting states, shedding a new light on exploring the nature of the competing phases in correlated materials. To correctly interpret these new features, it is crucial to re-examine the modeling of the point contact junctions, the formalism used to describe the single electron dynamics particularly in point contact spectroscopy, and the physical quantity that should be computed to understand the conductance. We will summarize the theories for point contact spectroscopy developed from different approaches and highlight these conceptual differences distinguishing point contact spectroscopy from tunneling-based probes. Moreover, we will show how the Schwinger-Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh (SKBK) formalism together with the appropriate modeling of the nano-scale point contacts randomly distributed
The partition function zeroes of quantum critical points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crompton, P.R. [Department of Applied Maths, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.crompton@lancaster.ac.uk
2009-04-01
The Lee-Yang theorem for the zeroes of the partition function is not strictly applicable to quantum systems because the zeroes are defined in units of the fugacity e{sup h{delta}}{sup {tau}}, and the Euclidean-time lattice spacing {delta}{tau} can be divergent in the infrared (IR). We recently presented analytic arguments describing how a new space-Euclidean time zeroes expansion can be defined, which reproduces Lee and Yang's scaling but avoids the unresolved branch points associated with the breaking of nonlocal symmetries such as Parity. We now present a first numerical analysis for this new zeroes approach for a quantum spin chain system. We use our scheme to quantify the renormalization group flow of the physical lattice couplings to the IR fixed point of this system. We argue that the generic Finite-Size Scaling (FSS) function of our scheme is identically the entanglement entropy of the lattice partition function and, therefore, that we are able to directly extract the central charge, c, of the quantum spin chain system using conformal predictions for the scaling of the entanglement entropy.
Impurities near an antiferromagnetic-singlet quantum critical point
Mendes-Santos, T.; Costa, N. C.; Batrouni, G.; Curro, N.; dos Santos, R. R.; Paiva, T.; Scalettar, R. T.
2017-02-01
Heavy-fermion systems and other strongly correlated electron materials often exhibit a competition between antiferromagnetic (AF) and singlet ground states. Using exact quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we examine the effect of impurities in the vicinity of such an AF-singlet quantum critical point (QCP), through an appropriately defined "impurity susceptibility" χimp. Our key finding is a connection within a single calculational framework between AF domains induced on the singlet side of the transition and the behavior of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate 1 /T1 . We show that local NMR measurements provide a diagnostic for the location of the QCP, which agrees remarkably well with the vanishing of the AF order parameter and large values of χimp.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hyun-Jung [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Bulla, Ralf [Theoretische Physik III, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Vojta, Matthias [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2005-11-02
The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the particle-hole symmetric soft-gap Anderson model. The model displays two stable phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. In contrast, the quantum phase transitions turn out to be described by interacting fixed points, and their excitations cannot be described in terms of free particles. We show that the structure of the many-body spectrum of these critical fixed points can be understood using renormalized perturbation theory close to certain values of the bath exponents which play the role of critical dimensions. Contact is made with perturbative renormalization group calculations for the soft-gap Anderson and Kondo models. A complete description of the quantum critical many-particle spectra is achieved using suitable marginal operators; technically this can be understood as epsilon-expansion for full many-body spectra.
Lee, Hyun-Jung; Bulla, Ralf; Vojta, Matthias
2005-11-01
The numerical renormalization group method is used to investigate zero-temperature phase transitions in quantum impurity systems, in particular in the particle-hole symmetric soft-gap Anderson model. The model displays two stable phases whose fixed points can be built up of non-interacting single-particle states. In contrast, the quantum phase transitions turn out to be described by interacting fixed points, and their excitations cannot be described in terms of free particles. We show that the structure of the many-body spectrum of these critical fixed points can be understood using renormalized perturbation theory close to certain values of the bath exponents which play the role of critical dimensions. Contact is made with perturbative renormalization group calculations for the soft-gap Anderson and Kondo models. A complete description of the quantum critical many-particle spectra is achieved using suitable marginal operators; technically this can be understood as epsilon-expansion for full many-body spectra.
Computer-aided determination of occlusal contact points for dental 3-D CAD.
Maruyama, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Yasuo; Hayashi, Toyohiko; Kato, Kazumasa
2006-05-01
Present dental CAD systems enable us to design functional occlusal tooth surfaces which harmonize with the patient's stomatognathic function. In order to avoid occlusal interferences during tooth excursions, currently available systems usually use the patient's functional occlusal impressions for the design of occlusal contact points. Previous interfere-free design, however, has been done on a trial-and-error basis by using visual inspection. To improve this time-consuming procedure, this paper proposes a computer-aided system for assisting in the determination of the occlusal contact points by visualizing the appropriate regions of the opposing surface. The system can designate such regions from data of the opposing occlusal surfaces and their relative movements can be simulated by using a virtual articulator. Experiments for designing the crown of a lower first molar demonstrated that all contact points selected within the designated regions completely satisfied the required contact or separation during tooth excursions, confirming the effectiveness of our computer-aided procedure.
Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)
Klink, W. H.
1993-01-01
The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.
Kamioka, Takefumi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Kyotaro; Ohshita, Yoshio
2015-08-01
A simulation of interdigitated back-contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cells was performed using a quantum transport model to consider the quantum effect at the crystalline/amorphous (c/a) heterojunction interface. It was found that the impact of the quantum effect on the open-circuit voltage is comparable to that of the interface defect density at the c/a interface, indicating the importance of implementation of the quantum model. The optimal back-contact design was also discussed from the viewpoint of mass production, in which the design rule is relaxed. The degradation of the conversion efficiency by widening the gap between the p- and n-aSi:H layers can be compensated by improving passivation quality at the c/a interface.
Bhole, Gaurav; Anjusha, V. S.; Mahesh, T. S.
2016-04-01
A robust control over quantum dynamics is of paramount importance for quantum technologies. Many of the existing control techniques are based on smooth Hamiltonian modulations involving repeated calculations of basic unitaries resulting in time complexities scaling rapidly with the length of the control sequence. Here we show that bang-bang controls need one-time calculation of basic unitaries and hence scale much more efficiently. By employing a global optimization routine such as the genetic algorithm, it is possible to synthesize not only highly intricate unitaries, but also certain nonunitary operations. We demonstrate the unitary control through the implementation of the optimal fixed-point quantum search algorithm in a three-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system. Moreover, by combining the bang-bang pulses with the crusher gradients, we also demonstrate nonunitary transformations of thermal equilibrium states into effective pure states in three- as well as five-qubit NMR systems.
Contacts and Edge State Equilibration in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Kane, C. L.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.
1995-01-01
We develop a simple kinetic equation description of edge state dynamics in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), which allows us to examine in detail equilibration processes between multiple edge modes. As in the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE), inter-mode equilibration is a prerequisite for quantization of the Hall conductance. Two sources for such equilibration are considered: Edge impurity scattering and equilibration by the electrical contacts. Several specific models for electric...
Atlas of point contact spectra of electron-phonon interactions in metals
Khotkevich, A V
1995-01-01
The characteristics of electrical contacts have long attracted the attention of researchers since these contacts are used in every electrical and electronic device. Earlier studies generally considered electrical contacts of large dimensions, having regions of current concentration with diameters substantially larger than the characteristic dimensions of the material: the interatomic distance, the mean free path for electrons, the coherence length in the superconducting state, etc. [110]. The development of microelectronics presented to scientists and engineers the task of studying the characteristics of electrical contacts with ultra-small dimensions. Characteristics of point contacts such as mechanical stability under continuous current loads, the magnitudes of electrical fluctuations, inherent sensitivity in radio devices and nonlinear characteristics in connection with electromagnetic radiation can not be understood and altered in the required way without knowledge of the physical processes occurring in c...
Contact point generation for convex polytopes in interactive rigid body dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silcowitz-Hansen, Morten; Abel, Sarah Maria Niebe; Erleben, Kenny
When computing contact forces in rigid body dynamics systems, most state-of-the-art solutions use iterative methods such as the projected Gauss–Seidel (PGS) method. Methods such as the PGS method are preferred for their robustness. However, the time-critical nature of interactive applications...... for convex polytopes. A novel contact point generation method is presented, which is based on growth distances and Gauss maps. We demonstrate improvements when using our method in the context of interactive rigid body simulation...
Metal-oxide-metal point contact junction detectors. [detection mechanism and mechanical stability
Baird, J.; Havemann, R. H.; Fults, R. D.
1973-01-01
The detection mechanism(s) and design of a mechanically stable metal-oxide-metal point contact junction detector are considered. A prototype for a mechanically stable device has been constructed and tested. A technique has been developed which accurately predicts microwave video detector and heterodyne mixer SIM (semiconductor-insulator-metal) diode performance from low dc frequency volt-ampere curves. The difference in contact potential between the two metals and geometrically induced rectification constitute the detection mechanisms.
Automated fabrication technique of gold tips for use in point-contact spectroscopy
Narasiwodeyar, S; Liu, M; Park, W K; Greene, L H
2014-01-01
For a successful point-contact spectroscopy (PCS) measurement, metallic tips of proper shape and smoothness are essential to ensure the ballistic nature of a point-contact junction. Until recently, the fabrication of Au tips suitable for use in point-contact spectroscopy has remained more of an art involving a trial and error method rather than an automated scientific process. To address these issues, we have developed a technique with which one can prepare high quality Au tips reproducibly and systematically. It involves an electronic control of the driving voltages used for an electrochemical etching of a gold wire in an HCl-glycerol mixture or an HCl solution. We find that a stopping current, below which the circuit is set to shut off, is a single very important parameter to produce an Au tip of desired shape. We present detailed descriptions for a two-step etching process for Au tips and also test results from PCS measurements using them.
Two-step fabrication technique of gold tips for use in point-contact spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narasiwodeyar, S.; Dwyer, M.; Liu, M.; Park, W. K., E-mail: wkpark@illinois.edu; Greene, L. H. [Department of Physics and Material Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
2015-03-15
For a successful point-contact spectroscopy (PCS) measurement, metallic tips of proper shape and smoothness are essential to ensure the ballistic nature of a point-contact junction. Until recently, the fabrication of Au tips suitable for use in point-contact spectroscopy has remained more of an art involving a trial and error method rather than an automated scientific process. To address these issues, we have developed a technique with which one can prepare high quality Au tips reproducibly and systematically. It involves an electronic control of the driving voltages used for an electrochemical etching of a gold wire in a HCl-glycerol mixture or a HCl solution. We find that a stopping current, below which the circuit is set to shut off, is a single very important parameter to produce an Au tip of desired shape. We present detailed descriptions for a two-step etching process for Au tips and also test results from PCS measurements using them.
Point-contact spectroscopy on LaS, GdS and TmSe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frankowski, I.; Wachter, P. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik)
1981-12-01
The current-voltage characteristics of point contacts with LaS, GdS and TmSe have been studied experimentally at liquid-helium temperatures. For LaS- and GdS-point contacts the observed structures in the spectra of d/sup 2/U/dI/sup 2/ measured as a function of the applied voltage are in agreement with the structures of the phonon density of states found by Raman scattering experiments. In point contacts with the intermediate valent compound TmSe a strong peak was observed in the first derivative dU/dI with a half width of 2 mV showing a logarithmic decrease with increasing voltage.
Conductance histogram evolution of an EC-MCBJ fabricated Au atomic point contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Yang; Liu Junyang; Chen Zhaobin; Tian Jinghua; Jin Xi; Liu Bo; Yang Fangzu; Tian Zhongqun [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li Xiulan; Tao Nongjian [Center for Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Biodesign Institute, Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6206 (United States); Luo Zhongzi; Lu Miao, E-mail: zqtian@xmu.edu.cn [Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Nano Technology Institute, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)
2011-07-08
This work presents a study of Au conductance quantization based on a combined electrochemical deposition and mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) method. We describe the microfabrication process and discuss improved features of our microchip structure compared to the previous one. The improved structure prolongs the available life of the microchip and also increases the success rate of the MCBJ experiment. Stepwise changes in the current were observed at the last stage of atomic point contact breakdown and conductance histograms were constructed. The evolution of 1G{sub 0} peak height in conductance histograms was used to investigate the probability of formation of an atomic point contact. It has been shown that the success rate in forming an atomic point contact can be improved by decreasing the stretching speed and the degree that the two electrodes are brought into contact. The repeated breakdown and formation over thousands of cycles led to a distinctive increase of 1G{sub 0} peak height in the conductance histograms, and this increased probability of forming a single atomic point contact is discussed.
Quantum Coherent Multielectron Processes in an Atomic Scale Contact
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peters, Peter-Jan; Xu, Fei; Kaasbjerg, Kristen
2017-01-01
The light emission from a scanning tunneling microscope operated on a Ag(111) surface at 6 K is analyzed from low conductances to values approaching the conductance quantum. Optical spectra recorded at sample voltages V reveal emission with photon energies hv > 2eV. A model of electrons interacting...... coherently via a localized plasmon-polariton mode reproduces the experimental data, in particular, the kinks in the spectra at eV and 2eV as well as the scaling of the intensity at low and intermediate conductances....
Quantum Coherent Multielectron Processes in an Atomic Scale Contact
Peters, Peter-Jan; Xu, Fei; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Rastelli, Gianluca; Belzig, Wolfgang; Berndt, Richard
2017-08-01
The light emission from a scanning tunneling microscope operated on a Ag(111) surface at 6 K is analyzed from low conductances to values approaching the conductance quantum. Optical spectra recorded at sample voltages V reveal emission with photon energies h ν >2 e V . A model of electrons interacting coherently via a localized plasmon-polariton mode reproduces the experimental data, in particular, the kinks in the spectra at e V and 2 e V as well as the scaling of the intensity at low and intermediate conductances.
del Campo, Adolfo; Rams, Marek M; Zurek, Wojciech H
2012-09-14
The dynamics of a quantum phase transition is inextricably woven with the formation of excitations, as a result of critical slowing down in the neighborhood of the critical point. We design a transitionless quantum driving through a quantum critical point, allowing one to access the ground state of the broken-symmetry phase by a finite-rate quench of the control parameter. The method is illustrated in the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Driving through the critical point is assisted by an auxiliary Hamiltonian, for which the interplay between the range of the interaction and the modes where excitations are suppressed is elucidated.
Four-terminal resistance in a clean interacting quantum wire with invasive contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aita, H., E-mail: lili@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas-UNLP, CC 67, La Plata 1900 (Argentina); IFLP-CONICET (Argentina); Arrachea, L. [Departamento de Fisica and IFIBA, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pebellon I, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Naon, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas-UNLP, CC 67, La Plata 1900 (Argentina); IFLP-CONICET (Argentina)
2012-08-15
We investigate the behavior of the four-terminal resistance R{sub 4pt} in an interacting quantum wire described by a Luttinger liquid with an applied bias voltage V and coupled to two voltage probes. We extend previous results, obtained for very weakly coupled contacts, to the case in which the effects of the probes become non-trivially correlated.
THE QUANTUM – MECHANICAL MODEL OF FORMING CONTACT AREAS IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH SPHERICAL FILLER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. V. Suhovaya
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The structure and properties of the composites having Fe-C-B-Р binders alloyed with molybdenum and strengthened by the W-C quickly-cooled filler were investigated in this work. The model based on quantum mechanics principles explaining the dependencies of contact interaction zones width on filler diameter was suggested.
Mora-Sero, Ivan
2013-08-12
Colloidal quantum dot solar cells achieve spectrally selective optical absorption in a thin layer of solution-processed, size-effect tuned, nanoparticles. The best devices built to date have relied heavily on drift-based transport due to the action of an electric field in a depletion region that extends throughout the thickness of the quantum dot layer. Here we study for the first time the behaviour of the best-performing class of colloidal quantum dot films in the absence of an electric field, by screening using an electrolyte. We find that the action of selective contacts on photovoltage sign and amplitude can be retained, implying that the contacts operate by kinetic preferences of charge transfer for either electrons or holes. We develop a theoretical model to explain these experimental findings. The work is the first to present a switch in the photovoltage in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by purposefully formed selective contacts, opening the way to new strategies in the engineering of colloidal quantum dot solar cells. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Mora-Sero, Ivan; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Gonzalez-Pedro, Victoria; Gimenez, Sixto; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Kemp, Kyle W.; Sargent, Edward H.; Bisquert, Juan
2013-08-01
Colloidal quantum dot solar cells achieve spectrally selective optical absorption in a thin layer of solution-processed, size-effect tuned, nanoparticles. The best devices built to date have relied heavily on drift-based transport due to the action of an electric field in a depletion region that extends throughout the thickness of the quantum dot layer. Here we study for the first time the behaviour of the best-performing class of colloidal quantum dot films in the absence of an electric field, by screening using an electrolyte. We find that the action of selective contacts on photovoltage sign and amplitude can be retained, implying that the contacts operate by kinetic preferences of charge transfer for either electrons or holes. We develop a theoretical model to explain these experimental findings. The work is the first to present a switch in the photovoltage in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by purposefully formed selective contacts, opening the way to new strategies in the engineering of colloidal quantum dot solar cells.
NON-CONTACT MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OF FREEFORM SURFACE AND NURBS RECONSTRUCTION OF MEASUREMENT POINTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Based on the development of the non-contact measurement system of free-form surface, NURBS reconstruc-tion of measurement points of freeform surface is effectively realized by modifying the objective function and recursiveprocedure and calculating the optimum number of control points. The reconstruction precision is evaluated through Ja-cobi's transformation method. The feasibility of the measurement system and effectiveness of the reconstruction algo-rithm above are proved by experiment.
Parab, Pradnya; Chauhan, Prashant; Muthurajan, H.; Bose, Sangita
2017-04-01
We present a critical analysis of an alternative technique of point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) spectroscopy used to extract energy resolved information of superconductors which is based on making ‘soft-contacts’ between superconductors and indium. This technique is not sensitive to mechanical vibrations and hence can be used in a cryogen free platform increasing its accessibility to users having no access to cryogenic liquids. Through our experiments on large number of superconducting films we show that the PCAR spectra below the T c of In show sub-harmonic gap structures consistent with the theory of multiple Andreev reflection (MAR) and a zero bias conductance (ZBC) anomaly associated with the Josephson supercurrent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that large contact resistance with low transparency ballistic contacts in the PCAR regime are required to obtain reliable spectroscopic data. One limitation of the technique arises for low contact resistance junctions where the superconducting proximity effect (SPE) reduces the value of the superconducting energy gap.
Current driven tri-stable resistance states in magnetic point contacts.
Yanson, I K; Fisun, V V; Naidyuk, Yu G; Balkashin, O P; Triputen, L Yu; Konovalenko, A; Korenivski, V
2009-09-02
Point contacts between normal and ferromagnetic metals are investigated using magnetoresistance and transport spectroscopy measurements combined with micromagnetic simulations. Pronounced hysteresis in the point contact resistance versus both bias current and external magnetic field are observed. It is found that such hysteretic resistance can exhibit, in addition to bi-stable resistance states found in ordinary spin valves, tri-stable resistance states with a middle resistance level. We interpret these observations in terms of surface spin valve and spin vortex states, originating from a substantially modified spin structure at the ferromagnetic interface in the contact core. We argue that these surface spin states, subject to a weakened exchange interaction, dominate the effects of spin transfer torques on the nanometer scale.
Current driven tri-stable resistance states in magnetic point contacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanson, I K; Fisun, V V; Naidyuk, Yu G; Balkashin, O P; Triputen, L Yu [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Lenin Avenue, 61103, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Konovalenko, A; Korenivski, V [Nanostructure Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 10691, Stockholm (Sweden)
2009-09-02
Point contacts between normal and ferromagnetic metals are investigated using magnetoresistance and transport spectroscopy measurements combined with micromagnetic simulations. Pronounced hysteresis in the point contact resistance versus both bias current and external magnetic field are observed. It is found that such hysteretic resistance can exhibit, in addition to bi-stable resistance states found in ordinary spin valves, tri-stable resistance states with a middle resistance level. We interpret these observations in terms of surface spin valve and spin vortex states, originating from a substantially modified spin structure at the ferromagnetic interface in the contact core. We argue that these surface spin states, subject to a weakened exchange interaction, dominate the effects of spin transfer torques on the nanometer scale.
32 CFR Appendix B to Part 290 - DCAA's FOIA Points of Contact
2010-07-01
... ACT PROGRAM Pt. 290, App. B Appendix B to Part 290—DCAA's FOIA Points of Contact (Regional Offices..., Puerto Rico and nearby Islands, and Mexico. Massachusetts DCAA Northeastern Regional Office, Attn: RCI-2..., Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin...
ASYMMETRIC DIFFERENTIAL RESISTANCE OF POINT CONTACTS ON NORMAL-METAL-SUPERCONDUCTOR BILAYERS
HOEVERS, HFC; VANDERGRINTEN, MGD; JENNEN, PLH; VANKEMPEN, H; VANSON, PC
1994-01-01
Point-contact junctions on normal-metal-superconductor bilayers show asymmetries of different magnitudes and signs in the differential resistance versus voltage curves for opposite-bias voltages. In the absence of Andreev reflection (i.e. for energies outside the energy gap) no asymmetry is found.
Point Contact Andreev Reflection Measurement of the Spin Polarization of Ferromagnetic Alloy NiFeSb
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李壮志; 陶宏杰; 闻海虎; 张铭; 柳祝红; 崔玉亭; 吴光恒
2002-01-01
We have studied the temperature-dependent and barrier-strength-dependent Andreev reflection tunnelling spectroscopy with point contacts consisting of the newly synthesized half-metallic alloy NiFeSb and a Nb tip. By fitting the data to the generalized Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory, a spin polarization P ＝ 0.52 has been obtained.
CDEX-1 1 kg point-contact germanium detector for low mass dark matter searches
Kang, Ke-Jun; Yue, Qian; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Li, Yuan-Jing; Bai, Yang; Bi, Yong; Chang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Nan; Chen, Ning; Chen, Qing-Hao; Chen, Yun-Hua; Chuang, Yo-Chun; Deng, Zhi; Du, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Hao, Xi-Qing; He, Qing-Ju; Hu, Xin-Hui; Huang, Han-Xiong; Huang, Teng-Rui; Jiang, Hao; Li, Hau-Bin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jin; Li, Jun; Li, Xia; Li, Xin-Ying; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Liao, Heng-Yi; Lin, Fong-Kay; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Lü, Lan-Chun; Ma, Hao; Mao, Shao-Ji; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Jie; Ren, Jing; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Shen, Man-Bin; Lakhwinder, Singh; Manoj, Kumar Singh; Arun, Kumar Soma; Su, Jian; Tang, Chang-Jian; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Ji-Min; Wang, Li; Wang, Qing; Wong Tsz-King, Henry; Wu, Shi-Yong; Wu, Wei; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Xing, Hao-Yang; Xu, Yin; Xue, Tao; Yang, Li-Tao; Yang, Song-Wei; Yi, Nan; Yu, Chun-Xu; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yun-Hua; Zhao, Ming-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Su-Ning; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Zhu, Xue-Zhou; Zhu, Zhong-Hua
2013-12-01
The CDEX collaboration has been established for direct detection of light dark matter particles, using ultra-low energy threshold point-contact p-type germanium detectors, in China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL). The first 1 kg point-contact germanium detector with a sub-keV energy threshold has been tested in a passive shielding system located in CJPL. The outputs from both the point-contact P+ electrode and the outside N+ electrode make it possible to scan the lower energy range of less than 1 keV and at the same time to detect the higher energy range up to 3 MeV. The outputs from both P+ and N+ electrode may also provide a more powerful method for signal discrimination for dark matter experiment. Some key parameters, including energy resolution, dead time, decay times of internal X-rays, and system stability, have been tested and measured. The results show that the 1 kg point-contact germanium detector, together with its shielding system and electronics, can run smoothly with good performances. This detector system will be deployed for dark matter search experiments.
The CDEX-1 1 kg Point-Contact Germanium Detector for Low Mass Dark Matter Searches
Kang, Ke-Jun; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Li, Yuan-Jing; Bai, Yang; Bi, Yong; Chang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Nan; Chen, Ning; Chen, Qing-Hao; Chen, Yun-Hua; Chuang, You-Chun; Dend, Zhi; Du, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Hao, Xi-Qing; He, Qing-Ju; Hu, Xin-Hui; Huang, Han-Xiong; Huang, Teng-Rui; Jiang, Hao; Li, Hau-Bin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jin; Li, Jun; Li, Xia; Li, Xin-Ying; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Liao, Heng-Ye; Lin, Fong-Kay; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Lv, Lan-Chun; Ma, Hao; Mao, Shao-Ji; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Jie; Ren, Jing; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Shen, Man-Bin; Singh, Lakhwinder; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Soma, Arun Kumar; Su, Jian; Tang, Chang-Jian; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Ji-Min; Wang, Li; Wang, Qing; Wong, Tsz-King Henry; Wu, Shi-Yong; Wu, Wei; Xing, Hao-Yang; Xu, Yin; Xue, Tao; Yang, Li-Tao; Yang, Song-Wei; Yi, Nan; Yu, Chun-Xu; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yun-Hua; Zhao, Ming-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Su-Ning; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Zhu, Xue-Zhou; Zhu, Zhong-Hua
2013-01-01
The CDEX Collaboration has been established for direct detection of light dark matter particles, using ultra-low energy threshold p-type point-contact germanium detectors, in China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL). The first 1 kg point-contact germanium detector with a sub-keV energy threshold has been tested in a passive shielding system located in CJPL. The outputs from both the point-contact p+ electrode and the outside n+ electrode make it possible to scan the lower energy range of less than 1 keV and at the same time to detect the higher energy range up to 3 MeV. The outputs from both p+ and n+ electrode may also provide a more powerful method for signal discrimination for dark matter experiment. Some key parameters, including energy resolution, dead time, decay times of internal X-rays, and system stability, have been tested and measured. The results show that the 1 kg point-contact germanium detector, together with its shielding system and electronics, can run smoothly with good performances. This...
Subharmonic energy-gap structure and heating effects in superconducting niobium point contacts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flensberg, K.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev
1989-01-01
We present experimental data of the temperature-dependent subharmonic energy-gap structure (SGS) in the current-voltage (I-V) curves of superconducting niobium point contacts. The observed SGS is modified by heating effects. We construct a model of the quasiparticle conductance of metallic...
Cheon, T
2004-01-01
We show that the U(2) family of point interactions on a line can be utilized to provide the U(2) family of qubit operations for quantum information processing. Qubits are realized as localized states in either side of the point interaction which represents a controllable gate. The manipulation of qubits proceeds in a manner analogous to the operation of an abacus. Keywords: quantum computation, quantum contact interaction, quantum wire
McCarter, W. J.; Taha, H. M.; Suryanto, B.; Starrs, G.
2015-08-01
Ac impedance spectroscopy measurements are used to critically examine the end-to-end (two-point) testing technique employed in evaluating the bulk electrical resistivity of concrete. In particular, this paper focusses on the interfacial contact region between the electrode and specimen and the influence of contacting medium and measurement frequency on the impedance response. Two-point and four-point electrode configurations were compared and modelling of the impedance response was undertaken to identify and quantify the contribution of the electrode-specimen contact region on the measured impedance. Measurements are presented in both Bode and Nyquist formats to aid interpretation. Concretes mixes conforming to BSEN206-1 and BS8500-1 were investigated which included concretes containing the supplementary cementitious materials fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag. A measurement protocol is presented for the end-to-end technique in terms of test frequency and electrode-specimen contacting medium in order to minimize electrode-specimen interfacial effect and ensure correct measurement of bulk resistivity.
Kinematics and tribological problems of linear guidance systems in four contact points
Popescu, A.; Olaru, D.
2016-08-01
A procedure has been developed to determine both the value of the ball's angular velocity and the angular position of this velocity, according to the normal loads in a linear system with four contact points. The program is based on the variational analysis of the power losses in ball-races contacts. Based on this the two kinematics parameters of the ball (angular velocity and angular position) were determined, in a linear system type KUE 35 as function of the C/P ratio.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jackson, Robert L., E-mail: jackson@auburn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)
2015-05-21
The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cunha, R.O., E-mail: rafaelotoniel@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970 (Brazil); Baptista, D.L.; Heinemann, M.; Kuhn, M.F.; Schmidt, J.E.; Pereira, L.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970 (Brazil)
2012-09-15
We investigate the importance of using nanotips on a point contact spin-transfer torque (STT) experiment. A systematic analysis comparing the STT in a magnetic thin film in current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) geometry sample for magnetic coated and uncoated tungsten nanotips is shown. The STT effect presents a reverse resistance to current behavior when using a magnetic coating layer on the nanotips. We demonstrate that the magnetic layer on the tip may assume the role of a polarizer layer. This effect opens up the possibility of exploiting simpler architectures in STT-based devices, such as STT-random access memory (STT-RAM). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the spin-transfer torque (STT) effect using point contacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tungsten nanotips were fabricated by electrochemical process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of the use of magnetic coating tips on STT effect was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed that the magnetic layer on the tip may assume the role of a polarizer layer.
Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics employing low-cost electrical contacts
Debnath, Ratan; Greiner, Mark T.; Kramer, Illan J.; Fischer, Armin; Tang, Jiang; Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.; Wang, Xihua; Levina, Larissa; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Sargent, Edward H.
2010-07-01
With an aim to reduce the cost of depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells, we describe herein a strategy that replaces costly Au with a low-cost Ni-based Ohmic contact. The resultant devices achieve 3.5% Air Mass 1.5 power conversion efficiency. Only by incorporating a 1.2-nm-thick LiF layer between the PbS quantum dot film and Ni, we were able to prevent undesired reactions and degradation at the metal-semiconductor interface.
Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics employing low-cost electrical contacts
Debnath, Ratan
2010-01-01
With an aim to reduce the cost of depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells, we describe herein a strategy that replaces costly Au with a low-cost Ni-based Ohmic contact. The resultant devices achieve 3.5% Air Mass 1.5 power conversion efficiency. Only by incorporating a 1.2-nm-thick LiF layer between the PbS quantum dot film and Ni, we were able to prevent undesired reactions and degradation at the metal-semiconductor interface. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Crystal Power: Piezo Coupling to the Quantum Zero Point
November, Laurence J
2011-01-01
We consider electro-optical constructions in which the Casimir force is modulated in opposition to piezo-crystal elasticity, as in a stack of alternating tunably conductive and piezo layers. Adjacent tunably conducting layers tuned to conduct, attract by the Casimir force compressing the intermediate piezo, but when subsequently detuned to insulate, sandwiched piezo layers expand elastically to restore their original dimension. In each cycle some electrical energy is made available from the quantum zero point (zp). We estimate that the maximum power that could be derived at semiconductor THz modulation rates is megawatts/cm3. Similarly a permittivity wave generated by a THz acoustic wave in a single crystal by the acousto-optic effect produces multiple coherent Casimir wave mode overtones and a bulk mode. We model the Casimir effect in a sinusoidally graded medium finding it to be very enhanced over what is found in a multilayer stack for the equivalent permittivity contrast, and more slowly decreasing with s...
Zooming on the quantum critical point in Nd-LSCO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cyr-Choiniere, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.cyr-choiniere@usherbrooke.c [Department de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Daou, R.; Chang, J.; Laliberte, Francis; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; LeBoeuf, David [Department de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Jo, Y.J.; Balicas, L. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310-3706 (United States); Yan, J.-Q. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J.B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Taillefer, Louis, E-mail: louis.taillefer@physique.usherbrooke.c [Department de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1Z8 (Canada)
2010-12-15
Recent studies of the high-T{sub c} superconductor La{sub 1.6-x}Nd{sub 0.4}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (Nd-LSCO) have found a linear-T in-plane resistivity {rho}{sub ab} and a logarithmic temperature dependence of the thermopower S/T at a hole doping p=0.24 and a Fermi-surface reconstruction just below p=0.24. These are typical signatures of a quantum critical point (QCP). Here we report data on the c-axis resistivity {rho}{sub c}(T) of Nd-LSCO measured as a function of temperature near this QCP, in a magnetic field large enough to entirely suppress superconductivity. Like {rho}{sub ab},{rho}{sub c} shows an upturn at low temperature, a signature of Fermi surface reconstruction caused by stripe order. Tracking the height of the upturn as it decreases with doping enables us to pin down the precise location of the QCP where stripe order ends, at p*=0.235{+-}0.005. We propose that the temperature T{sub {rho}} below which the upturn begins marks the onset of the pseudogap phase, found to be roughly twice as high as the stripe-ordering temperature in this material.
Quantum Spacetime, from a Practitioner's Point of View
Ambjorn, J; Jurkiewicz, J; Loll, R
2013-01-01
We argue that theories of quantum gravity constructed with the help of (Causal) Dynamical Triangulations have given us the most informative, quantitative models to date of quantum spacetime. Most importantly, these are derived dynamically from nonperturbative and background-independent quantum theories of geometry. In the physically relevant case of four spacetime dimensions, the ansatz of Causal Dynamical Triangulations produces - from a fairly minimal set of quantum field-theoretic inputs - an emergent spacetime which macroscopically looks like a de Sitter universe, and on Planckian scales possesses unexpected quantum properties. Important in deriving these results are a regularized version of the theory, in which the quantum dynamics is well defined, can be studied with the help of numerical Monte Carlo methods and extrapolated to infinite lattice volumes.
Theory of Point Contact Restraint and Qualitative Analysis of Robot Grasping
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊有伦
1994-01-01
This paper presents a geometrical representation of robot grasping and a definition of "relative form closure" of point contact restraint based on the concepts of positive linear combination,affine combination,convex combination,etc.in the screw space.The dual equivalence theorem,topological equivalence theorem and algebraic equivalence theorem are derived from the defined restraint cone and freedom cone in the dual screw spaces.A J0-function method of computer-aided grasp planning is implemented more efficiently than other proposed methods.The states of restraint and instantaneous motion of a rigid body grasped by a set of point contacts are specified by the unisense degrees of freedom and unisense degrees of restraint.Finally,a quality measure of robot grasping is provided for the synthesis procedure of relatively form-closed grasp.
Pairwise contact energy statistical potentials can help to find probability of point mutations.
Saravanan, K M; Suvaithenamudhan, S; Parthasarathy, S; Selvaraj, S
2017-01-01
To adopt a particular fold, a protein requires several interactions between its amino acid residues. The energetic contribution of these residue-residue interactions can be approximated by extracting statistical potentials from known high resolution structures. Several methods based on statistical potentials extracted from unrelated proteins are found to make a better prediction of probability of point mutations. We postulate that the statistical potentials extracted from known structures of similar folds with varying sequence identity can be a powerful tool to examine probability of point mutation. By keeping this in mind, we have derived pairwise residue and atomic contact energy potentials for the different functional families that adopt the (α/β)8 TIM-Barrel fold. We carried out computational point mutations at various conserved residue positions in yeast Triose phosphate isomerase enzyme for which experimental results are already reported. We have also performed molecular dynamics simulations on a subset of point mutants to make a comparative study. The difference in pairwise residue and atomic contact energy of wildtype and various point mutations reveals probability of mutations at a particular position. Interestingly, we found that our computational prediction agrees with the experimental studies of Silverman et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 2001;98:3092-3097) and perform better prediction than iMutant and Cologne University Protein Stability Analysis Tool. The present work thus suggests deriving pairwise contact energy potentials and molecular dynamics simulations of functionally important folds could help us to predict probability of point mutations which may ultimately reduce the time and cost of mutation experiments. Proteins 2016; 85:54-64. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep
2016-08-30
Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.
Lighting system with thermal management system having point contact synthetic jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Sharma, Rajdeep
2016-08-23
Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system includes a plurality of synthetic jets. The synthetic jets are arranged within the lighting system such that they are secured at contact points.
Dynamic Carrying Capacity Analysis of Double-Row Four-Point Contact Ball Slewing Bearing
Yunfeng Li; Di Jiang
2015-01-01
Carrying capacity is the most important performance index for slewing bearings. Maximizing the carrying capacity of slewing bearing is one pursuing goal for the bearing designer; this is usually realized by optimizing the design parameters. A method of analyzing the carrying capacity of double-row four-point contact ball slewing bearing by using dynamic carrying capacity surfaces was proposed in this paper. Based on the dynamic load carrying capacity surface of the slewing bearing, the effect...
Universal Entanglement Entropy in 2D Conformal Quantum Critical Points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, Benjamin; Mulligan, Michael; Fradkin, Eduardo; Kim, Eun-Ah
2008-12-05
We study the scaling behavior of the entanglement entropy of two dimensional conformal quantum critical systems, i.e. systems with scale invariant wave functions. They include two-dimensional generalized quantum dimer models on bipartite lattices and quantum loop models, as well as the quantum Lifshitz model and related gauge theories. We show that, under quite general conditions, the entanglement entropy of a large and simply connected sub-system of an infinite system with a smooth boundary has a universal finite contribution, as well as scale-invariant terms for special geometries. The universal finite contribution to the entanglement entropy is computable in terms of the properties of the conformal structure of the wave function of these quantum critical systems. The calculation of the universal term reduces to a problem in boundary conformal field theory.
Point contacts at the copper-indium-gallium-selenide interface—A theoretical outlook
Bercegol, Adrien; Chacko, Binoy; Klenk, Reiner; Lauermann, Iver; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Liero, Matthias
2016-04-01
For a long time, it has been assumed that recombination in the space-charge region of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) is dominant, at least in high efficiency solar cells with low band gap. The recent developments like potassium fluoride post deposition treatment and point-contact junction may call this into question. In this work, a theoretical outlook is made using three-dimensional simulations to investigate the effect of point-contact openings through a passivation layer on CIGS solar cell performance. A large set of solar cells is modeled under different scenarios for the charged defect levels and density, radius of the openings, interface quality, and conduction band offset. The positive surface charge created by the passivation layer induces band bending and this influences the contact (CdS) properties, making it beneficial for the open circuit voltage and efficiency, and the effect is even more pronounced when coverage area is more than 95%, and also makes a positive impact on the device performance, even in the presence of a spike at CIGS/CdS heterojunction.
Dynamic Carrying Capacity Analysis of Double-Row Four-Point Contact Ball Slewing Bearing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunfeng Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Carrying capacity is the most important performance index for slewing bearings. Maximizing the carrying capacity of slewing bearing is one pursuing goal for the bearing designer; this is usually realized by optimizing the design parameters. A method of analyzing the carrying capacity of double-row four-point contact ball slewing bearing by using dynamic carrying capacity surfaces was proposed in this paper. Based on the dynamic load carrying capacity surface of the slewing bearing, the effect of changes of the bearing design parameters, such as axial clearance, raceway groove radius coefficient, and contact angle, on the dynamic carrying capacity of the slewing bearing was researched; the trend and the degree of the effect of the micro changes of the bearing design parameters on the dynamic load carrying capacity of the bearing were discussed, and the results provide the basis for optimizing the design parameter of this type of slewing bearing.
Fermi-surface collapse and dynamical scaling near a quantum-critical point.
Friedemann, Sven; Oeschler, Niels; Wirth, Steffen; Krellner, Cornelius; Geibel, Christoph; Steglich, Frank; Paschen, Silke; Kirchner, Stefan; Si, Qimiao
2010-08-17
Quantum criticality arises when a macroscopic phase of matter undergoes a continuous transformation at zero temperature. While the collective fluctuations at quantum-critical points are being increasingly recognized as playing an important role in a wide range of quantum materials, the nature of the underlying quantum-critical excitations remains poorly understood. Here we report in-depth measurements of the Hall effect in the heavy-fermion metal YbRh(2)Si(2), a prototypical system for quantum criticality. We isolate a rapid crossover of the isothermal Hall coefficient clearly connected to the quantum-critical point from a smooth background contribution; the latter exists away from the quantum-critical point and is detectable through our studies only over a wide range of magnetic field. Importantly, the width of the critical crossover is proportional to temperature, which violates the predictions of conventional theory and is instead consistent with an energy over temperature, E/T, scaling of the quantum-critical single-electron fluctuation spectrum. Our results provide evidence that the quantum-dynamical scaling and a critical Kondo breakdown simultaneously operate in the same material. Correspondingly, we infer that macroscopic scale-invariant fluctuations emerge from the microscopic many-body excitations associated with a collapsing Fermi-surface. This insight is expected to be relevant to the unconventional finite-temperature behavior in a broad range of strongly correlated quantum systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying-Chien Tsai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The offset between the center lines of the polished end-face and the fiber core has a significant effect on coupling efficiency. The initial contact point and the contact force are two of the most important parameters that induce the offset. This study proposes an image assistant method to find the initial contact point and a mathematical model to estimate the contact force when fabricating the double-variable-curvature end-face of single mode glass fiber. The repeatability of finding the initial contact point via the vision assistant program is 0.3 μm. Based on the assumption of a large deflection, a mathematical model is developed to study the relationship between the contact force and the displacement of the lapping film. In order to verify the feasibility of the mathematical model, experiments, as well as DEFORM simulations, are carried out. The results show that the contact forces are alomst linearly proportional to the feed amounts of the lapping film and the errors are less than 9%. By using the method developed in this study, the offset between the grinding end-face and the center line of the fiber core is within 0.15 to 0.35 μm.
Lost in Virtual Reality: Pathfinding Algorithms Detect Rock Fractures and Contacts in Point Clouds
Thiele, S.; Grose, L.; Micklethwaite, S.
2016-12-01
UAV-based photogrammetric and LiDAR techniques provide high resolution 3D point clouds and ortho-rectified photomontages that can capture surface geology in outstanding detail over wide areas. Automated and semi-automated methods are vital to extract full value from these data in practical time periods, though the nuances of geological structures and materials (natural variability in colour and geometry, soft and hard linkage, shadows and multiscale properties) make this a challenging task. We present a novel method for computer assisted trace detection in dense point clouds, using a lowest cost path solver to "follow" fracture traces and lithological contacts between user defined end points. This is achieved by defining a local neighbourhood network where each point in the cloud is linked to its neighbours, and then using a least-cost path algorithm to search this network and estimate the trace of the fracture or contact. A variety of different algorithms can then be applied to calculate the best fit plane, produce a fracture network, or map properties such as roughness, curvature and fracture intensity. Our prototype of this method (Fig. 1) suggests the technique is feasible and remarkably good at following traces under non-optimal conditions such as variable-shadow, partial occlusion and complex fracturing. Furthermore, if a fracture is initially mapped incorrectly, the user can easily provide further guidance by defining intermediate waypoints. Future development will include optimization of the algorithm to perform well on large point clouds and modifications that permit the detection of features such as step-overs. We also plan on implementing this approach in an interactive graphical user environment.
Time-Transient Characteristics of a Point-Contact-Type Peltier Device
Anzai, Toru; Yamaguchi, Shigeo
We proposed a new type of Peltier device, and succeeded in the fabrication of the device, which we call a point-contact-type sandwich-structure (PCS). A micro-object can be cooled or heated using our fabricated device. The tip was cooled through the Peltier effect, and a tip temperature of -36.3°C was achieved at a current of 28 A. When current was reversed, the tip was heated and the maximum tip temperature was 251.5°C at a current of 20 A. The PCS Peltier device can be useful in medical treatment and bioelectronics.
Cunha, R. O.; Baptista, D. L.; Heinemann, M.; Kuhn, M. F.; Schmidt, J. E.; Pereira, L. G.
2012-09-01
We investigate the importance of using nanotips on a point contact spin-transfer torque (STT) experiment. A systematic analysis comparing the STT in a magnetic thin film in current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) geometry sample for magnetic coated and uncoated tungsten nanotips is shown. The STT effect presents a reverse resistance to current behavior when using a magnetic coating layer on the nanotips. We demonstrate that the magnetic layer on the tip may assume the role of a polarizer layer. This effect opens up the possibility of exploiting simpler architectures in STT-based devices, such as STT-random access memory (STT-RAM).
Observation of the optical analogue of the quantized conductance of a point contact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montie, E.A.; Cosman, E.C.; Hooft, G.W. ' t; Mark, M.B. van der; Beenakker, C.W.J. (Philips Research Labs., Eindhoven (Netherlands))
1991-12-01
The light power transmitted by a diffusively illuminated slit of finite thickness is observed to depend stepwise on the slit width. The steps have equal height and a width of one half the wavelength of the monochromatic light used. This novel diffraction phenomenon is the analogue of the quantization of the conductance of a point contact in a two-dimensional electron gas. In contrast to the electronic case, absorption at the walls of the slit plays an important role in determining the shape of the steps, as we show from a model calculation. (orig.).
Point-contact spectroscopy of superconducting URu sub 2 Si sub 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasselbach, K.; Kirtley, J.R. (IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)); Lejay, P. (Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, C.N.R.S., Boite Postal 166X, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX (France))
1992-09-01
We present point-contact measurements of the antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion superconductor URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Our data in the superconducting state agree remarkably well with the theory of Blonder, Tinkham, and Klapwijk (BTK), and are consistent with a gap with {ital d}-wave symmetry. In the normal state a gap'' in the conductance develops as the temperature is lowered below the Neel temperature. The persistence of this gap into the superconducting state supports the view that magnetically correlated electrons participate in the superconductivity.
Pre-Processing of Point-Data from Contact and Optical 3D Digitization Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirko Soković
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Contemporary 3D digitization systems employed by reverse engineering (RE feature ever-growing scanning speeds with the ability to generate large quantity of points in a unit of time. Although advantageous for the quality and efficiency of RE modelling, the huge number of point datas can turn into a serious practical problem, later on, when the CAD model is generated. In addition, 3D digitization processes are very often plagued by measuring errors, which can be attributed to the very nature of measuring systems, various characteristics of the digitized objects and subjective errors by the operator, which also contribute to problems in the CAD model generation process. This paper presents an integral system for the pre-processing of point data, i.e., filtering, smoothing and reduction, based on a cross-sectional RE approach. In the course of the proposed system development, major emphasis was placed on the module for point data reduction, which was designed according to a novel approach with integrated deviation analysis and fuzzy logic reasoning. The developed system was verified through its application on three case studies, on point data from objects of versatile geometries obtained by contact and laser 3D digitization systems. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the system.
Wholly smoothing cutter orientations for five-axis NC machining based on cutter contact point mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Cutting forces with respect to different cutter orientations are analyzed for five-axis NC machining of a ball-end cutter.A measure is then defined to quantify the effects of cutter orientation variation.According to the measure,a novel model and algorithm are proposed to wholly optimize cutter orientations based on a cutter contact(CC) point mesh.The method has two advantages.One is that the cutter orientation smoothnesses along the feed direction and pick-feed direction are both wholly optimized.The other is that only the accessibility cones of mesh points are required to compute and the computation efficiency is improved.These advantages are shown by simulating the machining efficiency,the stability of feed velocities and the smoothness of cutting force.A computational example and a cutting experiment are finally given to illustrate the validity of the proposed method.
Evaluation of the leap motion controller as a new contact-free pointing device.
Bachmann, Daniel; Weichert, Frank; Rinkenauer, Gerhard
2014-12-24
This paper presents a Fitts' law-based analysis of the user's performance in selection tasks with the Leap Motion Controller compared with a standard mouse device. The Leap Motion Controller (LMC) is a new contact-free input system for gesture-based human-computer interaction with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. Up to this point, there has hardly been any systematic evaluation of this new system available. With an error rate of 7.8% for the LMC and 2.8% for the mouse device, movement times twice as large as for a mouse device and high overall effort ratings, the Leap Motion Controller's performance as an input device for everyday generic computer pointing tasks is rather limited, at least with regard to the selection recognition provided by the LMC.
Evaluation of the Leap Motion Controller as a New Contact-Free Pointing Device
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Bachmann
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a Fitts’ law-based analysis of the user’s performance in selection tasks with the Leap Motion Controller compared with a standard mouse device. The Leap Motion Controller (LMC is a new contact-free input system for gesture-based human-computer interaction with declared sub-millimeter accuracy. Up to this point, there has hardly been any systematic evaluation of this new system available. With an error rate of 7.8% for the LMC and 2.8% for the mouse device, movement times twice as large as for a mouse device and high overall effort ratings, the Leap Motion Controller’s performance as an input device for everyday generic computer pointing tasks is rather limited, at least with regard to the selection recognition provided by the LMC.
Fermionic quantum critical point of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice
Wang, L.; Corboz, P.; Troyer, M.
2014-01-01
Spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice provide a minimal realization of lattice Dirac fermions. Repulsive interactions between nearest neighbors drive a quantum phase transition from a Dirac semimetal to a charge-density-wave state through a fermionic quantum critical point, where the coupling of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groll, Nickolas; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zasadzinksi, John F. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)
2015-09-15
We describe the design and testing of a point contact tunneling spectroscopy device that can measure material surface superconducting properties (i.e., the superconducting gap Δ and the critical temperature T{sub C}) and density of states over large surface areas with size up to mm{sup 2}. The tip lateral (X,Y) motion, mounted on a (X,Y,Z) piezo-stage, was calibrated on a patterned substrate consisting of Nb lines sputtered on a gold film using both normal (Al) and superconducting (PbSn) tips at 1.5 K. The tip vertical (Z) motion control enables some adjustment of the tip-sample junction resistance that can be measured over 7 orders of magnitudes from a quasi-ohmic regime (few hundred Ω) to the tunnel regime (from tens of kΩ up to few GΩ). The low noise electronic and LabVIEW program interface are also presented. The point contact regime and the large-scale motion capabilities are of particular interest for mapping and testing the superconducting properties of macroscopic scale superconductor-based devices.
Aguayo, E; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Barton, P J; Beene, J R; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Collar, J I; Combs, D C; Cooper, R J; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Esterline, J; Fast, J E; Fields, N; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gehman, V M; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Guiseppe, V E; Gusey, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Horton, M; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Johnson, R A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Knecht, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; Looker, Q; Luke, P N; MacMullin, S; Marino, M G; Martin, R D; Merriman, J H; Miller, M L; Mizouni, L; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; Overman, N R; Perumpilly, G; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Steele, D; Strain, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Varner, R L; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; Wilkerson, J F; Yakushev, E; Yaver, H; Young, A R; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V
2012-01-01
A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguayo, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Amman, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Avignone, F. T. [University of South Carolina/ORNL; Barabash, A.S. [Institute of Theoretical & Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia; Barton, P. J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Bertrand Jr, Fred E [ORNL; Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brudanin, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Busch, M. [Duke University; Chan, Y-D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Christofferson, C. D. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD; Collar, Juan I. [University of Chicago; Combs, D. C. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Cooper, Reynold J [ORNL; Detwiler, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Doe, P. J. [University of Washington; Efremenko, Yuri [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Egorov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Ejiri, H. [Osaka University; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Esterline, J. [Duke University; Fast, J.E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Fields, N. [University of Chicago; Finnerty, P. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Fraenkle, F. M. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Giovanetti, G. K. [Univ, of North Carolina & Triangle Universities Nucl. Lab - Durham, NC; Green, M. P. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Gusey, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Hallin, A. L. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; Hazama, R. [Osaka University; Henning, R. [Univ, of North Carolina & Triangle Universities Nucl. Lab - Durham, NC; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Horton, M. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD; Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology; Howe, M. A. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Keeter, K.J. [Black Hills State University, Spearfish, SD; Kidd, M. F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Knecht, A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Kochetov, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Konovalov, S.I. [Institute of Theoretical & Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia; Kouzes, R. T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); LaFerriere, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leon, J. [University of Washington, Seattle; Leviner, L. E. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Loach, J.C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Looker, Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Luke, P.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); MacMullin, S. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Marino, M. G. [University of Washington, Seattle; Martin, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merriman, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miller, M. L. [University of Washington, Seattle; Mizouni, L. [PPNL/Univ. of South Carolina; Nomachi, M. [Osaka University; Orrell, John L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Overman, N. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Perumpilly, G. [University of South Dakota; Phillips II, D. G. [University of North Carolina / Triangle Universities Nuclear Lababoratory, Durham; Poon, A.W.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); et al.
2013-01-01
A study of signals originating near the lithium-diffused n+ contact of p-type point contact (PPC) high purity germanium detectors (HPGe) is presented. The transition region between the active germanium and the fully dead layer of the n+ contact is examined. Energy depositions in this transition region are shown to result in partial charge collection. This provides a mechanism for events with a well defined energy to contribute to the continuum of the energy spectrum at lower energies. A novel technique to quantify the contribution from this source of background is introduced. Experiments that operate germanium detectors with a very low energy threshold may benefit from the methods presented herein.
The biomechanics of point contact-dynamic compression plate and its effects on bone perfusion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Yu-feng; LI Qi-hong; GU Zu-chao; WANG Ai-min
2006-01-01
Objective: To compare the mechanical properties of point contact-dynamic compression plate (PC-DCP) and its effects on cortical bone perfusion with that of dynamic compression plates (DCP) in goat tibiae.Methods: Twenty pairs of matched fresh goat tibiae were used. A transverse fracture model was established.The fractures with a 3mm interspace between the fracture ends were subject to fixations with the DCPs and the PCDCPs respectively, then the four-points bending tests and the torsion tests were conducted to compare the mechanical properties of the PC-DCP with that of DCP. Another 13sexually mature goats underwent fixations with the DCPs and the PC-DCPs, respectively, at the mid-shafts of the intact bilateral tibiae. Ischemic zones were observed at four time points (1 day, 2, 6, and 12 weeks after operation)using disulphine blue staining technique.Results: There were no significant differences in mechanical properties, such as bend- and torsionresistance, between the DCPs and the PC-DCPs. One day,2, and 6 weeks after operation, on the side of DCP fixation, outer cortical bone iscbemia under the plate persisted, and this condition did not reverse until 12 weeks after operation. However, on the side of PC-DCP fixation,cortical bone ischemia occurred only in the periphery of the screw holes and at the contact sites of the PC NUTs 1 day after operation, and it disappeared at 2 weeks after operation.Conclusions: The PC-DCP has similar biomechanical properties of the DCP, but is less detrimental to local bone blood circulation than the conventional plates.
Aggarwal, Leena; Gayen, Sirshendu; Das, Shekhar; Kumar, Ritesh; Süß, Vicky; Felser, Claudia; Shekhar, Chandra; Sheet, Goutam
2017-01-01
A Weyl semimetal is a topologically non-trivial phase of matter that hosts mass-less Weyl fermions, the particles that remained elusive for more than 80 years since their theoretical discovery. The Weyl semimetals exhibit unique transport properties and remarkably high surface spin polarization. Here we show that a mesoscopic superconducting phase with critical temperature Tc=7 K can be realized by forming metallic point contacts with silver (Ag) on single crystals of TaAs, while neither Ag nor TaAs are superconductors. Andreev reflection spectroscopy of such point contacts reveals a superconducting gap of 1.2 meV that coexists with a high transport spin polarization of 60% indicating a highly spin-polarized supercurrent flowing through the point contacts on TaAs. Therefore, apart from the discovery of a novel mesoscopic superconducting phase, our results also show that the point contacts on Weyl semimetals are potentially important for applications in spintronics.
Quantum Brownian motion near a point-like reflecting boundary
De Lorenci, V A; Silva, M M
2014-01-01
The Brownian motion of a test particle interacting with a quantum scalar field in the presence of a perfectly reflecting boundary is studied in (1 + 1)-dimensional flat spacetime. Particularly, the expressions for dispersions in velocity and position of the particle are explicitly derived and their behaviors examined. The results are similar to those corresponding to an electric charge interacting with a quantum electromagnetic field near a reflecting plane boundary, mainly regarding the divergent behavior of the dispersions at the origin (where the boundary is placed), and at the time interval corresponding to a round trip of a light pulse between the particle and the boundary. We close by addressing some effects of allowing the position of the particle to fluctuate.
Point and standoff detection of trace explosives using quantum cascade lasers
Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Dongkyu; Liu, Xunchen; Van Neste, C. W.; Thundat, Thomas
2014-06-01
Chemical sensors based on micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS) offer many advantages. However, obtaining chemical selectivity in M/NEMS sensors using chemoselective interfaces has been a longstanding challenge. Despite their many advantages, M/NEMS devices relying on chemoselective interfaces do not have sufficient selectivity. Therefore, highly sensitive and selective detection and quantification of chemical molecules using real-time, miniature sensor platforms still remains as a crucial challenge. Incorporating photothermal/photoacoustic spectroscopic techniques with M/NEMS using quantum cascade lasers can provide the chemical selectivity without sacrificing the sensitivity of the miniaturized sensing system. Point sensing is defined as sensing that requires collection and delivery of the target molecules to the sensor for detection and analysis. For example, photothermal cantilever deflection spectroscopy, which combines the high thermomechanical sensitivity of a bimetallic microcantilever with high selectivity of the mid infrared (IR) spectroscopy, is capable of obtaining molecular signatures of extremely small quantities of adsorbed explosive molecules (tens of picogram). On the other hand, standoff sensing is defined as sensing where the sensor and the operator are at distance from the target samples. Therefore, the standoff sensing is a non-contact method of obtaining molecular signatures without sample collection and processing. The distance of detection depends on the power of IR source, the sensitivity of a detector, and the efficiency of the collecting optics. By employing broadly tunable, high power quantum cascade lasers and a boxcar averager, molecular recognition of trace explosive compounds (1 μg/cm2 of RDX) on a stainless steel surface has been achieved at a distance of five meters.
Exceptional points for parameter estimation in open quantum systems: Analysis of the Bloch equations
Am-Shallem, Morag; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2014-01-01
The dynamics of open quantum systems is typically described by a quantum dynamical semigroup generator ${\\cal L}$. The eigenvalues of ${\\cal L}$ are complex, reflecting unitary as well as dissipative dynamics. For certain values of parameters defining ${\\cal L}$, non-hermitian degeneracies emerge, i.e. exceptional points ($EP$). We study the implications of such points in the open system dynamics of a two-level-system described by the Bloch equation. This open system has become the paradigm of diverse fields in physics, from NMR to quantum information and elementary particles. We find as a function of detuning and driving amplitude a continuous line of exceptional points merging into two cusps of triple degeneracy. The dynamical signature of these $EP$ points is a unique time evolution. This unique feature can be employed experimentally to locate the $EP$ points and thereby to determine the intrinsic system parameters for any desired accuracy.
Theory of finite-entanglement scaling at one-dimensional quantum critical points.
Pollmann, Frank; Mukerjee, Subroto; Turner, Ari M; Moore, Joel E
2009-06-26
Studies of entanglement in many-particle systems suggest that most quantum critical ground states have infinitely more entanglement than noncritical states. Standard algorithms for one-dimensional systems construct model states with limited entanglement, which are a worse approximation to quantum critical states than to others. We give a quantitative theory of previously observed scaling behavior resulting from finite entanglement at quantum criticality. Finite-entanglement scaling in one-dimensional systems is governed not by the scaling dimension of an operator but by the "central charge" of the critical point. An important ingredient is the universal distribution of density-matrix eigenvalues at a critical point [P. Calabrese and A. Lefevre, Phys. Rev. A 78, 032329 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevA.78.032329]. The parameter-free theory is checked against numerical scaling at several quantum critical points.
GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure point-contact concentrator cells
Gale, R. P.; Zavracky, P. M.; Mcclelland, R. W.; Fan, John C. C.
1987-01-01
Point-contact cells fabricated in silicon have recently achieved very high efficiencies. Applying this structure to GaAs is difficult as it requires both surface passivation of the GaAs and a film of GaAs with thickness less than 10 microns. The authors propose to overcome these difficulties by (1) using AlGaAs layers grown by OMCVD to act as front- and back-surface fields in order to confine the photogenerated minority carriers away from the surfaces, and (2) using the CLEFT technology to produce thin, separated films of this structure. It has been found that much of the necessary technologies have been developed and that the primary problem remaining to be solved is localized junction formation.
Fixed points and infrared completion of quantum gravity
Christiansen, Nicolai; Pawlowski, Jan M; Rodigast, Andreas
2012-01-01
The phase diagram of four-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity is studied using Wilson's renormalization group. Smooth trajectories connecting the ultraviolet fixed point at short distances with attractive infrared fixed points at long distances are derived from the non-perturbative graviton propagator. Implications for the asymptotic safety conjecture and further results are discussed.
Zenzerovic, I.; Kropp, W.; Pieringer, A.
2016-08-01
Curve squeal is a strong tonal sound that may arise when a railway vehicle negotiates a tight curve. In contrast to frequency-domain models, time-domain models are able to capture the nonlinear and transient nature of curve squeal. However, these models are computationally expensive due to requirements for fine spatial and time discretization. In this paper, a computationally efficient engineering model for curve squeal in the time-domain is proposed. It is based on a steady-state point-contact model for the tangential wheel/rail contact and a Green's functions approach for wheel and rail dynamics. The squeal model also includes a simple model of sound radiation from the railway wheel from the literature. A validation of the tangential point-contact model against Kalker's transient variational contact model reveals that the point-contact model performs well within the squeal model up to at least 5 kHz. The proposed squeal model is applied to investigate the influence of lateral creepage, friction and wheel/rail contact position on squeal occurrence and amplitude. The study indicates a significant influence of the wheel/rail contact position on squeal frequencies and amplitudes. Friction and lateral creepage show an influence on squeal occurrence and amplitudes, but this is only secondary to the influence of the contact position.
Aradhya, Sriharsha V; Meisner, Jeffrey S; Krikorian, Markrete; Ahn, Seokhoon; Parameswaran, Radha; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin; Venkataraman, Latha
2012-03-14
Electronic factors in molecules such as quantum interference and cross-conjugation can lead to dramatic modulation and suppression of conductance in single-molecule junctions. Probing such effects at the single-molecule level requires simultaneous measurements of independent junction properties, as conductance alone cannot provide conclusive evidence of junction formation for molecules with low conductivity. Here, we compare the mechanics of the conducting para-terminated 4,4'-di(methylthio)stilbene and moderately conducting 1,2-bis(4-(methylthio)phenyl)ethane to that of insulating meta-terminated 3,3'-di(methylthio)stilbene single-molecule junctions. We simultaneously measure force and conductance across single-molecule junctions and use force signatures to obtain independent evidence of junction formation and rupture in the meta-linked cross-conjugated molecule even when no clear low-bias conductance is measured. By separately quantifying conductance and mechanics, we identify the formation of atypical 3,3'-di(methylthio)stilbene molecular junctions that are mechanically stable but electronically decoupled. While theoretical studies have envisaged many plausible systems where quantum interference might be observed, our experiments provide the first direct quantitative study of the interplay between contact mechanics and the distinctively quantum mechanical nature of electronic transport in single-molecule junctions.
Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory
Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Rejzner, Katarzyna
2016-08-01
We construct perturbative quantum gravity in a generally covariant way. In particular our construction is background independent. It is based on the locally covariant approach to quantum field theory and the renormalized Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. We do not touch the problem of nonrenormalizability and interpret the theory as an effective theory at large length scales.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi Peng Ling
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional numerical analysis of homojunction/heterojunction hybrid silicon wafer solar cells, featuring front-side full-area diffused homojunction contacts and rear-side heterojunction point contacts. Their device performance is compared with conventional full-area heterojunction solar cells as well as conventional diffused solar cells featuring locally diffused rear point contacts, for both front-emitter and rear-emitter configurations. A consistent set of simulation input parameters is obtained by calibrating the simulation program with intensity dependent lifetime measurements of the passivated regions and the contact regions of the various types of solar cells. We show that the best efficiency is obtained when a-Si:H is used for rear-side heterojunction point-contact formation. An optimization of the rear contact area fraction is required to balance between the gains in current and voltage and the loss in fill factor with shrinking rear contact area fraction. However, the corresponding optimal range for the rear-contact area fraction is found to be quite large (e.g. 20-60 % for hybrid front-emitter cells. Hybrid rear-emitter cells show a faster drop in the fill factor with decreasing rear contact area fraction compared to front-emitter cells, stemming from a higher series resistance contribution of the rear-side a-Si:H(p+ emitter compared to the rear-side a-Si:H(n+ back surface field layer. Overall, we show that hybrid silicon solar cells in a front-emitter configuration can outperform conventional heterojunction silicon solar cells as well as diffused solar cells with rear-side locally diffused point contacts.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Western, Ned J., E-mail: n.western@unsw.edu.au; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Wenham, Stuart R.; Bremner, Stephen P. [Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence, UNSW, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)
2015-07-28
Characterisation results are presented for ohmic contacts to passivated crystalline silicon, formed using the point-contacting by localised dielectric breakdown technique. Self aligned contact is made between the metal and heavily doped surface regions through an intrinsic a-Si:H passivation layer. Local doping is provided by a laser using a standard technique identical to that for selective emitter formation. Our results for gate metals of Au, Al, and Ti show that the technique does not rely on reactivity between the dielectric and the metal, excluding metal induced crystallisation from the contacting process. Diffusion of the gate metal into the dielectric is observed in transmission electron microscope images suggesting high temperatures are present locally during the breakdown process. The technique is equally applicable to contacting of n and p-type silicon, making it a potential alternative for ohmic contacting to silicon to passivated rear surfaces.
The critical point of quantum chromodynamics through lattice and experiment
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sourendu Gupta
2011-05-01
This talk discusses methods of extending lattice computations at ﬁnite temperature into regions of ﬁnite chemical potential, and the conditions under which such results from the lattice may be compared to experiments. Such comparisons away from a critical point are absolutely essential for quantitative use of lattice QCD in heavy-ion physics. An outline of various arguments which can then be used to locate the critical point is also presented.
Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L. [Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cubitt, Toby S. [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lucia, Angelo, E-mail: anlucia@ucm.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Michalakis, Spyridon [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, California 91125 (United States); Perez-Garcia, David [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); ICMAT, C/Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2015-10-15
We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free.
Isotope quantum effects in water around the freezing point.
Hart, R T; Mei, Q; Benmore, C J; Neuefeind, J C; Turner, J F C; Dolgos, M; Tomberli, B; Egelstaff, P A
2006-04-07
We have measured the difference in electronic structure factors between liquid H(2)O and D(2)O at temperatures of 268 and 273 K with high energy x-ray diffraction. These are compared to our previously published data measured from 279 to 318 K. We find that the total structural isotope effect increases by a factor of 3.5 over the entire range, as the temperature is decreased. Structural isochoric temperature differential and isothermal density differential functions have been used to compare these data to a thermodynamic model based upon a simple offset in the state function. The model works well in describing the magnitude of the structural differences above approximately 310 K, but fails at lower temperatures. The experimental results are discussed in light of several quantum molecular dynamics simulations and are in good qualitative agreement with recent temperature dependent, rotationally quantized rigid molecule simulations.
Athermal domain-wall creep near a ferroelectric quantum critical point.
Kagawa, Fumitaka; Minami, Nao; Horiuchi, Sachio; Tokura, Yoshinori
2016-02-16
Ferroelectric domain walls are typically stationary because of the presence of a pinning potential. Nevertheless, thermally activated, irreversible creep motion can occur under a moderate electric field, thereby underlying rewritable and non-volatile memory applications. Conversely, as the temperature decreases, the occurrence of creep motion becomes less likely and eventually impossible under realistic electric-field magnitudes. Here we show that such frozen ferroelectric domain walls recover their mobility under the influence of quantum fluctuations. Nonlinear permittivity and polarization-retention measurements of an organic charge-transfer complex reveal that ferroelectric domain-wall creep occurs via an athermal process when the system is tuned close to a pressure-driven ferroelectric quantum critical point. Despite the heavy masses of material building blocks such as molecules, the estimated effective mass of the domain wall is comparable to the proton mass, indicating the realization of a ferroelectric domain wall with a quantum-particle nature near the quantum critical point.
Quantum fixed-point search algorithm with general phase shifts
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Grover presented the Phase-π/3 search by replacing the selective inversions by selective phase shifts of π/3.In this paper,we review and discuss the fixed-point search with general but equal phase shifts and the fixedpoint search with general but different phase shifts.
75 FR 45673 - Compliance Assistance Resources and Points of Contact Available to Small Businesses
2010-08-03
... information is posted on the following Web site: http://www.business.gov/business-law/contacts/federal/ FOR... on the following Web site: http://www.business.gov/business-law/contacts/federal/ . There is also a... U.S.C. 3506(i)(1)). These contacts are also available at...
Superconductivity and non-Fermi liquid behavior near a nematic quantum critical point
Lederer, Samuel; Schattner, Yoni; Berg, Erez; Kivelson, Steven A.
2017-05-01
Using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo, we compute the properties of a lattice model with spin mn>1mn>mn>2mn>12 itinerant electrons tuned through a quantum phase transition to an Ising nematic phase. The nematic fluctuations induce superconductivity with a broad dome in the superconducting TcTc enclosing the nematic quantum critical point. For temperatures above TcTc, we see strikingly non-Fermi liquid behavior, including a “nodal-antinodal dichotomy” reminiscent of that seen in several transition metal oxides. In addition, the critical fluctuations have a strong effect on the low-frequency optical conductivity, resulting in behavior consistent with “bad metal” phenomenology.
Quantum transport of disordered Weyl semimetals at the nodal point.
Sbierski, Björn; Pohl, Gregor; Bergholtz, Emil J; Brouwer, Piet W
2014-07-11
Weyl semimetals are paradigmatic topological gapless phases in three dimensions. We here address the effect of disorder on charge transport in Weyl semimetals. For a single Weyl node with energy at the degeneracy point and without interactions, theory predicts the existence of a critical disorder strength beyond which the density of states takes on a nonzero value. Predictions for the conductivity are divergent, however. In this work, we present a numerical study of transport properties for a disordered Weyl cone at zero energy. For weak disorder, our results are consistent with a renormalization group flow towards an attractive pseudoballistic fixed point with zero conductivity and a scale-independent conductance; for stronger disorder, diffusive behavior is reached. We identify the Fano factor as a signature that discriminates between these two regimes.
Koye, K. A.; Winer, W. O.
1980-08-01
Fifty-seven measurements of the minimum lubricant film separating the elastohydrodynamically lubricated point contact of a steel crowned roller and a flat sapphire disk were made by an optical interferometry technique. The data collected were used to evaluate the Hamrock and Dowson minimum EHD film thickness model over a practical range of contact ellipticity ratio where the major axis of the contact ellipse is aligned both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of motion. A statistical analysis of the measured film thickness data showed that on the average the experimental data averaged 30 percent greater film thickness than the Hamrock and Dowson model predicts.
Developments in nano-oscillators based upon spin-transfer point-contact devices
Silva, T. J.; Rippard, W. H.
We review the current status of research on microwave nano-oscillators that utilize spin transfer devices with point-contact geometry, with an emphasis on the open questions that still prevent our full understanding of device properties. In particular, we examine those aspects that might affect irreproducibility of device performance. While there is a clear picture of the general principles that underlie the properties of the spin torque nano-oscillator, there are a number of details complicating the picture. We suggest that these details are potentially responsible for adversely affecting uniformity of performance from device to device. These details include (1) nonlinearities, (2) the Oersted field, (3) thermal and deterministic noise sources, and (4) non-uniformity of the spin accumulation. We suggest what role that these details might have in determining spin torque dynamics, and suggest particular avenues of investigation that might clarify whether or not these details are indeed responsible for device variability. This article is one of a series devoted to the subject of spin torque in this issue of the Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials.
Metzler, Jürgen; Kroschel, Kristian; Willersinn, Dieter
2017-03-01
Monitoring of the heart rhythm is the cornerstone of the diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias. It is done by means of electrocardiography which relies on electrodes attached to the skin of the patient. We present a new system approach based on the so-called vibrocardiogram that allows an automatic non-contact registration of the heart rhythm. Because of the contactless principle, the technique offers potential application advantages in medical fields like emergency medicine (burn patient) or premature baby care where adhesive electrodes are not easily applicable. A laser-based, mobile, contactless vibrometer for on-site diagnostics that works with the principle of laser Doppler vibrometry allows the acquisition of vital functions in form of a vibrocardiogram. Preliminary clinical studies at the Klinikum Karlsruhe have shown that the region around the carotid artery and the chest region are appropriate therefore. However, the challenge is to find a suitable measurement point in these parts of the body that differs from person to person due to e. g. physiological properties of the skin. Therefore, we propose a new Microsoft Kinect-based approach. When a suitable measurement area on the appropriate parts of the body are detected by processing the Kinect data, the vibrometer is automatically aligned on an initial location within this area. Then, vibrocardiograms on different locations within this area are successively acquired until a sufficient measuring quality is achieved. This optimal location is found by exploiting the autocorrelation function.
Review of laboratory programs for women Points-of-Contact Committee
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duke, D.; Magrini, K. [comps.] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McLane, V. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wieda, K. [comp.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1995-06-01
The mission of the DOE Review of Laboratory Programs for Women is to: provide DOE and its Laboratories with effective strategies, targeting women, for establishing aggressive outreach programs which improve the access of women to careers in science, engineering, and mathematics. Ensure that the Department and its Laboratories are exemplary places of employment by providing programs which enhance opportunity, remove barriers, and assist women in achieving full professional development. A survey of the DOE facilities was undertaken by the Points-of-Contact for the DOE Review of Laboratory Programs for Women in order to gather data to be used as a baseline against which to measure future progress. We plan to look at current programs already in place and evaluate them with a view to deciding which programs are most effective, and selecting model programs suitable for implementation at other facilities. The survey focused on four areas: statistical data, laboratory policy, formal and informal programs which affect the quality of life in the work environment, and career development and advancement, and educational programs. Although this report focuses on women, the problems discussed affect all DOE facility employees.
Spectral analysis of growing graphs a quantum probability point of view
Obata, Nobuaki
2017-01-01
This book is designed as a concise introduction to the recent achievements on spectral analysis of graphs or networks from the point of view of quantum (or non-commutative) probability theory. The main topics are spectral distributions of the adjacency matrices of finite or infinite graphs and their limit distributions for growing graphs. The main vehicle is quantum probability, an algebraic extension of the traditional probability theory, which provides a new framework for the analysis of adjacency matrices revealing their non-commutative nature. For example, the method of quantum decomposition makes it possible to study spectral distributions by means of interacting Fock spaces or equivalently by orthogonal polynomials. Various concepts of independence in quantum probability and corresponding central limit theorems are used for the asymptotic study of spectral distributions for product graphs. This book is written for researchers, teachers, and students interested in graph spectra, their (asymptotic) spectr...
Quantum and classical statistics of the electromagnetic zero-point field
Ibison, M
1996-01-01
A classical electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) analogue of the vacuum of quantum field theory has formed the basis for theoretical investigations in the discipline known as random or stochastic electrodynamics (SED) wherein quantum measurements are imitated by the introduction of a stochastic classical background EM field. Random EM fluctuations are assumed to provide perturbations which can mimic some quantum phenomena while retaining a purely classical basis, e.g. the Casimir force, the Van-der-Waals force, the Lamb shift, spontaneous emission, the RMS radius of the harmonic oscillator, and the radius of the Bohr atom. This classical ZPF is represented as a homogeneous, isotropic ensemble of plane waves with fixed amplitudes and random phases. Averaging over the random phases is assumed to be equivalent to taking the ground-state expectation values of the corresponding quantum operator. We demonstrate that this is not precisely correct by examining the statistics of the classical ZPF in contrast to that...
Signatures of quantum chaos in nodal points and streamlines in electron transport through billiards
Berggren, K F; Sadreev, A F; Starikov, A A; Berggren, Karl-Fredrik; Pichugin, Konstantin N.; Sadreev, Almas F.; Starikov, Anton
1999-01-01
Streamlines and distributions of nodal points are used as signatures of chaos in coherent electron transport through three types of billiards, Sinai, Bunimovich and rectangular. Numerical averaged distribution functions of nearest distances between nodal points are presented. We find the same form for the Sinai and Bunimovich billiards and suggest that there is a universal form that can be used as a signature of quantum chaos for electron transport in open billiards. The universal distribution function is found to be insensitive to the way avaraging is performed (over positions of leads, over an energy interval with a few conductance fluctuations, or both). The integrable rectangular billiard, on the other hand, displays nonuniversal distribution with a central peak related to partial order of nodal points for the case of symmetric attachment of leads. However cases with nonsymmetric leads tend to the universal form. Also it is shown how nodal points in rectangular billiard can lead to "channeling of quantum ...
Quantum limit for two-dimensional resolution of two incoherent optical point sources
Ang, Shan Zheng; Tsang, Mankei
2016-01-01
We obtain the multiple-parameter quantum Cram\\'er-Rao bound for estimating the Cartesian components of the centroid and separation of two incoherent optical point sources using an imaging system with finite spatial bandwidth. Under quite general and realistic assumptions on the point-spread function of the imaging system, and for weak source strengths, we show that the Cram\\'er-Rao bounds for the x and y components of the separation are independent of the values of those components, which may be well-below the conventional Rayleigh resolution limit. We also propose two linear optics-based measurement methods that approach the quantum bound for the estimation of the Cartesian components of the separation once the centroid has been located. One of the methods is an interferometric scheme that approaches the quantum bound for sub-Rayleigh separations. The other method uses fiber coupling to attain the bound regardless of the distance between the two sources.
Partial Dynamical Symmetry at Critical-Points of Quantum Phase Transitions
Leviatan, A
2007-01-01
We show that partial dynamical symmetries (PDS) can occur at critical-points of quantum phase transitions, in which case, underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of PDS are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape-phases in nuclei.
Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim
2012-10-01
Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.
Scaling of the magnetic Grüneisen ratio near quantum critical point
Tokiwa, Yoshi
2014-03-01
The magnetic Grüneisen ratio ΓH = (1/T)dT/dH is the most sensitive probe of quantum criticality. Its divergence signals the underlying instability. We have studied quantum criticality in the frustrated Kondo lattice system YbAgGe and the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 by high-precision magnetocaloric effect measurements. In the former, NFL behavior appears around a metamagnetic spin-flop transition between two symmetry broken phases. Previously, it was unclear how the two ordered phases are related to the NFL state. Here, we propose a novel quantum bicritical point (QBCP) scenario, which is distinct from either quantum critical end point or ordinary QCPs with single symmetry broken phase. The observed scaling behavior of ΓH and its characteristic asymmetry across the critical field are consistent with a QBCP scenario. We also report a possible violation of Wiedemann-Franz law at the QBCP in YbAgGe. In CeCoIn5 indications of a quantum critical field hidden inside the superconducting (SC) phase have been extensively debated. We show ΓH data and scaling analysis in the normal state, which surprisingly suggests a zero-field QCP. Anomalous behaviors of ΓH and specific heat within the SC state further support this conclusion.
Nonthermal Fixed Points in Quantum Field Theory Beyond the Weak-Coupling Limit
Berges, Jürgen
2016-01-01
Quantum systems in extreme conditions can exhibit universal behavior far from equilibrium associated to nonthermal fixed points, with a wide range of topical applications from early-universe inflaton dynamics and heavy-ion collisions to strong quenches in ultracold quantum gases. So far, most studies rely on a mapping of the quantum dynamics onto a classical-statistical theory that can be simulated on a computer. However, the mapping is based on a weak-coupling limit while phenomenological applications often require moderate values of couplings. We report on the observation of nonthermal fixed points directly in quantum field theory beyond the weak-coupling limit. For the example of a relativistic scalar \\mathrm{O}(N) symmetric quantum field theory, we numerically solve the nonequilibrium dynamics employing a 1/N expansion to next-to-leading order, which does not rely on a small coupling parameter. Starting from two different sets of (a) over-occupied and (b) strong-field initial conditions, we find that nont...
Experimental Determination of Load Carrying Capacity of Point Contacts at Zero Entrainment Velocity
Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Kingsbury, Edward P.; Prahl, Joseph M.
1999-01-01
A capacitance technique was used to monitor the film thickness separating two steel balls of a unique tribometer while subjecting the ball-ball contact to highly stressed, zero entrainment velocity (ZEV) conditions. All tests were performed under a N2 purge (R.H. carrying capacity at these zero entrainment velocity conditions, relevant to the ball-ball contact application in retainerless ball bearings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pauline N.M. Mwinzi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact Cathodic Circulating Antigen test (POC-CCA in S. mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: a batch- to-batch stability; b intra-reader and inter-reader variability; c day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and d to see if praziquantel (PZQ treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2% and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(- /POC-CCA(+ children, 149 children in an area of 10-15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(- based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+ were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40mg/kg samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47% POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a lesser POC-CCA level of positivity. The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to elimination of transmission.
Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Kittur, Nupur; Ochola, Elizabeth; Cooper, Philip J; Campbell, Carl H; King, Charles H; Colley, Daniel G
2015-01-01
Studies of the urine-based point-of-contact cathodic circulating antigen test (POC-CCA) in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic settings in Africa indicate it has good sensitivity in detecting infections, but in areas of low prevalence, the POC-CCA can be positive for persons who are egg-negative by Kato-Katz stool assays. We examined the POC-CCA assay for: (a) batch-to-batch stability; (b) intra-reader and inter-reader variability; (c) day-to-day variability compared to Kato-Katz stool assays, and (d) to see if praziquantel (PZQ) treatment converted Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals to POC-CCA negativity. We found essentially no batch-to-batch variation, negligible intra-reader variability (2%), and substantial agreement for inter-reader reliability. Some day-to-day variation was observed over 5 days of urine collection, but less than the variation in Kato-Katz stool assays over 3 days. To evaluate the effect of treatment on Kato-Katz(-)/POC-CCA(+) children, 149 children in an area of 10-15% prevalence who were Kato-Katz(-) based on 3 stool samples but POC-CCA(+) were enrolled. Seven days after treatment (PZQ 40 mg/kg) samples were again collected and tested. Almost half (47%) POC-CCA positive children turned negative. Those still POC-CCA positive received a second treatment, and 34% of them turned POC-CCA negative upon this second treatment. Most who remained POC-CCA positive shifted each time to a "lesser" POC-CCA "level of positivity." The data suggest that most Kato-Katz-negative/POC-CCA positive individuals harbor low-intensity infections, and each treatment kills all or some of their adult worms. The data also suggest that when evaluated by a more sensitive assay, the effective cure rates for PZQ are significantly less than those inferred from fecal testing. These findings have public health significance for the mapping and monitoring of Schistosoma infections and in planning the transition from schistosomiasis morbidity control to elimination of
Zero-point term and quantum effects in the Johnson noise of resistors: a critical appraisal
Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.
2016-05-01
There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor. This term originates from a quantum-theoretical treatment of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Is the zero-point term really there, or is it only an experimental artifact, due to the uncertainty principle, for phase-sensitive amplifiers? Could it be removed by renormalization of theories? We discuss some historical measurement schemes that do not lead to the effect predicted by the FDT, and we analyse new features that emerge when the consequences of the zero-point term are measured via the mean energy and force in a capacitor shunting the resistor. If these measurements verify the existence of a zero-point term in the noise, then two types of perpetual motion machines can be constructed. Further investigation with the same approach shows that, in the quantum limit, the Johnson-Nyquist formula is also invalid under general conditions even though it is valid for a resistor-antenna system. Therefore we conclude that in a satisfactory quantum theory of the Johnson noise, the FDT must, as a minimum, include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. Issues concerning the zero-point term may also have implications for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.
Reprint of : Dynamics of a quantum wave emitted by a decaying and evanescent point source
Delgado, F.; Muga, J. G.
2016-08-01
We put forward a model that describes a decaying and evanescent point source of non-interacting quantum waves in 1D. This point-source assumption allows for a simple description that captures the essential aspects of the dynamics of a wave traveling through a classically forbidden region without the need to specify the details of the inner region. The dynamics of the resulting wave is examined and several characteristic times are identified. One of them generalizes the tunneling time-scale introduced by Büttiker and Landauer and it characterizes the arrival of the maximum of the wave function. Diffraction in time and deviations from exponential decay are also studied. Here we show that there exists an optimal injection frequency and detection point for the observation of these two quantum phenomena.
Influence of the ferroelectric quantum critical point on SrTiO3 interfaces
Atkinson, W. A.; Lafleur, P.; Raslan, A.
2017-02-01
We study a model SrTiO3 interface in which conduction t2 g electrons couple to the ferroelectric (FE) phonon mode. We treat the FE mode within a self-consistent phonon theory that captures its quantum critical behavior and show that proximity to the quantum critical point leads to universal tails in the electron density of the form n (z ) ˜(λ+z ) -2 , where λ ˜T2 -d /z , with d =3 the dimensionality and z =1 the dynamical critical exponent. Implications for the metal-insulator transition at low electron density are discussed.
Regularity and chaos at critical points of first-order quantum phase transitions
Macek, Michal
2011-01-01
We study the interplay between regular and chaotic dynamics at the critical point of a first order quantum shape-phase transition in an interacting boson model of nuclei. A classical analysis reveals a distinct behavior of the coexisting phases in a broad energy range. The dynamics is completely regular in the deformed phase while it becomes strongly chaotic in the spherical phase. A quantum analysis of the spectra separates the regular states from the irregular ones, assigns them to particular phases and discloses persisting regular rotational bands in the deformed region.
Duality between the Deconfined Quantum-Critical Point and the Bosonic Topological Transition
Qin, Yan Qi; He, Yuan-Yao; You, Yi-Zhuang; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Sen, Arnab; Sandvik, Anders W.; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang
2017-07-01
Recently, significant progress has been made in (2 +1 )-dimensional conformal field theories without supersymmetry. In particular, it was realized that different Lagrangians may be related by hidden dualities; i.e., seemingly different field theories may actually be identical in the infrared limit. Among all the proposed dualities, one has attracted particular interest in the field of strongly correlated quantum-matter systems: the one relating the easy-plane noncompact CP1 model (NCCP1 ) and noncompact quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two flavors (N =2 ) of massless two-component Dirac fermions. The easy-plane NCCP1 model is the field theory of the putative deconfined quantum-critical point separating a planar (X Y ) antiferromagnet and a dimerized (valence-bond solid) ground state, while N =2 noncompact QED is the theory for the transition between a bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase and a trivial Mott insulator. In this work, we present strong numerical support for the proposed duality. We realize the N =2 noncompact QED at a critical point of an interacting fermion model on the bilayer honeycomb lattice and study it using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. Using stochastic series expansion QMC simulations, we study a planar version of the S =1 /2 J -Q spin Hamiltonian (a quantum X Y model with additional multispin couplings) and show that it hosts a continuous transition between the X Y magnet and the valence-bond solid. The duality between the two systems, following from a mapping of their phase diagrams extending from their respective critical points, is supported by the good agreement between the critical exponents according to the proposed duality relationships. In the J -Q model, we find both continuous and first-order transitions, depending on the degree of planar anisotropy, with deconfined quantum criticality surviving only up to moderate strengths of the anisotropy. This explains previous claims of no deconfined quantum
Transport Properties near Quantum Critical Point in 2D Hubbard Model
Chen, Kuang-Shing; Pathak, Sandeep; Yang, Shuxiang; Su, Shi-Quan; Galanakis, Dimitris; Mikelsons, Karlis; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark
2011-03-01
We obtain high quality estimates of the self energy Σ (K , ω) by direct analytic continuation of Σ (K , iωn) obtained from Continuous-Time Quantum Monte Carlo. We use these results to investigate the transport properties near the quantum critical point found in the 2D Hubbard model at finite doping. Resistivity, thermal conductivity, Wiedemann-Franz Law, and thermopower are examined in the Fermi liquid, Marginal Fermi liquid (MFL), and pseudo-gap regions. Σ (k , ω) with k along the nodal direction displays temperature-dependent scaling similar to that seen in the experiment. A next-nearest neighbor hopping tOISE-0730290.
The repulsive nature of naked singularities from the point of view of quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batic, D.; Chin, D. [University of West Indies, Department of Mathematics, Kingston 6 (Jamaica); Nowakowski, M. [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Cra. 1E No. 18A-10, Bogota (Colombia)
2011-04-15
We use the Dirac equation coupled to a background metric to examine what happens to quantum-mechanical observables like the probability density and the radial current in the vicinity of a naked singularity of the Reissner-Nordstroem type. We find that the wave function of the Dirac particle is regular in the point of the singularity. We show that the probability density is exactly zero at the singularity reflecting quantum-mechanically the repulsive nature of the naked singularity. Furthermore, the surface integral of the radial current over a sphere in the vicinity of the naked singularity turns out to be also zero. (orig.)
Łącki, Mateusz; Damski, Bogdan; Zakrzewski, Jakub
2016-12-02
We show that the critical point of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model can be easily found through studies of either on-site atom number fluctuations or the nearest-neighbor two-point correlation function (the expectation value of the tunnelling operator). Our strategy to locate the critical point is based on the observation that the derivatives of these observables with respect to the parameter that drives the superfluid-Mott insulator transition are singular at the critical point in the thermodynamic limit. Performing the quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, we show that this technique leads to the accurate determination of the position of its critical point. Our results can be easily extended to the three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model and different Hubbard-like models. They provide a simple experimentally-relevant way of locating critical points in various cold atomic lattice systems.
On the Origins of the Planck Zero Point Energy in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory
Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N
2015-01-01
It is argued that the zero point energy in quantum field theory is a reflection of the particle anti-particle content of the theory. This essential physical content is somewhat disguised in electromagnetic theory wherein the photon is its own anti-particle. To illustrate this point, we consider the case of a charged Boson theory $(\\pi^+,\\pi^-)$ wherein the particle and anti-particle can be distinguished by the charge $\\pm e$. Starting from the zero point energy, we derive the Boson pair production rate per unit time per unit volume from the vacuum in a uniform external electric field. The result is further generalized for arbitrary spin $s$.
Konno, Kohkichi; Nagasawa, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Rohta
2017-10-01
We discuss the scattering of a quantum particle by two independent successive point interactions in one dimension. The parameter space for two point interactions is given by U(2) × U(2) , which is described by eight real parameters. We perform an analysis of perfect resonant transmission on the whole parameter space. By investigating the effects of the two point interactions on the scattering matrix of plane wave, we find the condition under which perfect resonant transmission occurs. We also provide the physical interpretation of the resonance condition.
The Unicellular State as a Point Source in a Quantum Biological System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John S. Torday
2016-05-01
Full Text Available A point source is the central and most important point or place for any group of cohering phenomena. Evolutionary development presumes that biological processes are sequentially linked, but neither directed from, nor centralized within, any specific biologic structure or stage. However, such an epigenomic entity exists and its transforming effects can be understood through the obligatory recapitulation of all eukaryotic lifeforms through a zygotic unicellular phase. This requisite biological conjunction can now be properly assessed as the focal point of reconciliation between biology and quantum phenomena, illustrated by deconvoluting complex physiologic traits back to their unicellular origins.
Theory of the nematic quantum critical point in a nodal superconductor
Kim, Eun-Ah
2008-03-01
In the last several years, experimental evidence has accumulated in a variety of highly correlated electronic systems of new quantum phases which (for purely electronic reasons) spontaneously break the rotational (point group) symmetry of the underlying crystal. Such electron ``nematic'' phases have been seen in quantum Hall systems[1], in the metamagnetic metal Sr3Ru2O7[2], and more recently in magnetic neutron scattering studies of the high temperature superconductor, YBCO[3]. In the case of a high Tc superconductor, the quantum dynamics of nematic order parameter naturally couples strongly to quasiparticle (qp) excitations. In this talk, I will discuss our recent results on the effects of the coupling between quantum critical nematic fluctuations and the nodal qp's of a d-wave superconductor in the vicinity of a putative quantum critical point inside the superconducting phase. We solve a model system with N flavors of quasiparticles in the large N limit[4]. To leading order in 1/N, quantum fluctuations enhance the dispersion anisotropy of the nodal excitations, and cause strong scattering which critically broadens the quasiparticle peaks in the spectral function, except in the vicinity of ``the tips of the banana,'' where the qp's remain sharp. We will discuss the possible implications of our results to ARPES and STM experiments. [1] M.P. Lilly, K.B. Cooper, J.P. Eisenstein, L.N. Pfeiffer, and K.W. West, PRL 83, 824 (1999). [2] R. A. Borzi and S. A. Grigera and J. Farrell and R. S. Perry and S. J. S. Lister and S. L. Lee and D. A. Tennant and Y. Maeno and A. P. Mackenzie, Science 315, 214 (2007). [3] V. Hinkov, D. Haug, B. Fauqu'e, P. Bourges, Y. Sidis, A. Ivanov, C. Bernhard, C. T. Lin, B. Keimer, unpublished. [4] E.-A. Kim, M. Lawler, P. Oreto, E. Fradkin, S. Kivelson, cond-mat/0705.4099.
Nath, Anindya; Currie, Marc; Boyd, Anthony K.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Koehler, Andrew D.; Tadjer, Marko J.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Sridhara, Karthik; Hernandez, Sandra C.; Wollmershauser, James A.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Myers-Ward, Rachael L.; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Gaskill, D. Kurt
2016-06-01
Owing to its two-dimensional structure, graphene is extremely sensitive to surface contamination. Conventional processing techniques inevitably modify graphene’s intrinsic properties by introducing adsorbents and/or defects which limit device performance and understanding the intrinsic properties of graphene. Here we demonstrate femtosecond laser direct patterning of graphene microstructures, without the aid of resists or other chemicals, that enables us to study both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on the graphene-metal interface. The pulsed femtosecond laser was configured to ablate epitaxial graphene (EG) on a sub-micrometer scale and form a precisely defined region without damaging the surrounding material or substrate. The ablated area was sufficient to electrically isolate transfer length measurement structures and Hall devices for subsequent transport measurements. Using pristine and systematically contaminated surfaces, we found that Ni does not form bonds to EG synthesized on SiC in contrast to the well-known C-Ni bond formation for graphene synthesized on metals; known as end-contacting. Without end-contacting, the contact resistance (R C) of Ni to pristine and resist-contaminated EG are one and two orders of magnitude larger, respectively, than the intrinsic quantum limited contact resistance. The range of reported R C values is explained using carrier transmission probability, as exemplified by the Landauer-Büttiker model, which is dependent on the presence or absence of end-contacts and dopant/work-function mediated conduction. The model predicts the need for both end-contacts and a clean graphene-metal interface as necessary conditions to approach quantum limited contact resistance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. -H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Finnerty, P. S.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O’Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.
2016-11-11
A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of s at 90% C.L. It is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation.
Zhu, Lijun; Garst, Markus; Rosch, Achim; Si, Qimiao
2003-08-08
At a generic quantum critical point, the thermal expansion alpha is more singular than the specific heat c(p). Consequently, the "Grüneisen ratio," Gamma=alpha/c(p), diverges. When scaling applies, Gamma approximately T(-1/(nu z)) at the critical pressure p=p(c), providing a means to measure the scaling dimension of the most relevant operator that pressure couples to; in the alternative limit T-->0 and p not equal p(c), Gamma approximately 1/(p-p(c)) with a prefactor that is, up to the molar volume, a simple universal combination of critical exponents. For a magnetic-field driven transition, similar relations hold for the magnetocaloric effect (1/T) partial differential T/ partial differential H|(S). Finally, we determine the corrections to scaling in a class of metallic quantum critical points.
Kallin, Ann B; Hyatt, Katharine; Singh, Rajiv R P; Melko, Roger G
2013-03-29
We develop a method to calculate the bipartite entanglement entropy of quantum models, in the thermodynamic limit, using a numerical linked-cluster expansion (NLCE) involving only rectangular clusters. It is based on exact diagonalization of all n×m rectangular clusters at the interface between entangled subsystems A and B. We use it to obtain the Renyi entanglement entropy of the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model, for arbitrary real Renyi index α. Extrapolating these results as a function of the order of the calculation, we obtain universal pieces of the entanglement entropy associated with lines and corners at the quantum critical point. They show NLCE to be one of the few methods capable of accurately calculating universal properties of arbitrary Renyi entropies at higher dimensional critical points.
Itinerant Magnetism and the Ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point in Fe(Ga,Ge)3
Singh, David J.
2014-03-01
FeGa3 is a tetragonal semiconductor with a band gap of ~0.5 eV and interesting thermoelectric properties. It shows diamagnetic behavior but when modestly electron doped by Ge, a ferromagnetic quantum critical point emerges and the ground state becomes a ferromagnetic metal. We present first-principles calculations showing that the magnetism can be readily explained in an itinerant picture without the need for preexisting moments in the semiconducting state and without the need for correlation terms. We also present Boltzmann transport calculations of the thermopower. Itinerant magnetism implies strong coupling between the electrons at the Fermi energy that control transport and the magnetism. Thus, FeGa3 may be a particularly interesting material near a quantum critical point. We find that the ferromagnetic state is half-metallic over a substantial composition range. Work supported by the Department of Energy, BES, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.
Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation
Herbut, Igor F
2016-01-01
Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three dimensional ($d=3$) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions $N=N_c$. We discuss the root of universality of $N_c$ in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the $(d,N)$ plane. In particular, it is shown that as $d\\rightarrow 4$, $N_c\\rightarrow 0$ with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that $N_c = 2.89$ in $d=3$.
Topology-induced anomalous defect production by crossing a quantum critical point.
Bermudez, A; Patanè, D; Amico, L; Martin-Delgado, M A
2009-04-03
We study the influence of topology on the quench dynamics of a system driven across a quantum critical point. We show how the appearance of certain edge states, which fully characterize the topology of the system, dramatically modifies the process of defect production during the crossing of the critical point. Interestingly enough, the density of defects is no longer described by the Kibble-Zurek scaling, but determined instead by the nonuniversal topological features of the system. Edge states are shown to be robust against defect production, which highlights their topological nature.
Point contact characteristics of NbSe{sub 3} in the superconducting state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escudero, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional, Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Briggs, A.; Monceau, P. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, BP 166X, Grenoble (France)
2001-07-23
A study of the electronic properties of NbSe{sub 3} using NbSe{sub 3}-NbSe{sub 3} junctions has been made. Structures in the current against voltage curves and in the differential resistance against voltage curves were observed and studied as functions of temperature between 8 K and 0.4 K and magnetic field up to 1 T. Analysis of the data shows that the pressure applied at the contact is sufficient to make NbSe{sub 3} superconducting. (author)
A Novel Quantum Dots-Based Point of Care Test for Syphilis
Yang, Hao; Li, Ding; He, Rong; Guo, Qin; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Xueqing; Huang, Peng; Cui, Daxiang
2010-05-01
One-step lateral flow test is recommended as the first line screening of syphilis for primary healthcare settings in developing countries. However, it generally shows low sensitivity. We describe here the development of a novel fluorescent POC (Point Of Care) test method to be used for screening for syphilis. The method was designed to combine the rapidness of lateral flow test and sensitiveness of fluorescent method. 50 syphilis-positive specimens and 50 healthy specimens conformed by Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) were tested with Quantum Dot-labeled and colloidal gold-labeled lateral flow test strips, respectively. The results showed that both sensitivity and specificity of the quantum dots-based method reached up to 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91-100%), while those of the colloidal gold-based method were 82% (95% CI, 68-91%) and 100% (95% CI, 91-100%), respectively. In addition, the naked-eye detection limit of quantum dot-based method could achieve 2 ng/ml of anti-TP47 polyclonal antibodies purified by affinity chromatography with TP47 antigen, which was tenfold higher than that of colloidal gold-based method. In conclusion, the quantum dots were found to be suitable for labels of lateral flow test strip. Its ease of use, sensitiveness and low cost make it well-suited for population-based on-the-site syphilis screening.
Coherence, Charging, and Spin Effects in Quantum Dots and Point Contacts
2001-12-01
project and his rational ix method of thinking and working were a source of inspiration. Michael Janus and Linda Olofsson both spent a spring visiting our... Michael Janus helped significantly with the Kondo experiment and the never-explained “bunching” phenomenon. I am ever grateful to Michael for dinners...Boris Spivak , and Mike Stopa are among the many others with whom I’ve enjoyed good drinks and conversations. A number of people have helped keep our
Strečka, Jozef; Verkholyak, Taras
2016-10-01
Magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-(1/2,S) Heisenberg chains are examined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations for two different quantum spin numbers S=1 and 3/2. The calculated magnetization curves at finite temperatures are confronted with zero-temperature magnetization data obtained within the density matrix renormalization group method, which imply an existence of two quantum critical points determining a breakdown of the gapped Lieb-Mattis ferrimagnetic phase and Tomonaga-Luttinger spin-liquid phase, respectively. While a square root behavior of the magnetization accompanying each quantum critical point is gradually smoothed upon rising temperature, the susceptibility and isothermal entropy change data at low temperatures provide a stronger evidence of the zero-temperature quantum critical points through marked local maxima and minima, respectively.
Experimental Study of Load Carrying Capacity of Point Contacts at Zero Entrainment Velocity
Shogin, B. A.; Jones, W. R., Jr.; Kingsbury, E. P.; Jansen, M. J.; Prahl, J. M.
1998-01-01
A capacitance technique was used to monitor the film thickness separating two steel balls while subjecting the ball-ball contact to highly stressed, zero entrainment velocity conditions. Tests were performed in a nitrogen atmosphere and utilized 52100 steel balls and a polyalphaolefin lubricant. Capacitance to film thickness accuracy was verified under pure rolling conditions using established EHL theory. Zero entrainment velocity tests were performed at sliding speeds from 6.0 to 10.0 m/s and for sustained amounts of time to 28.8 min. The protective lubricant film separating the specimens at zero entrainment velocity had a film thickness between 0.10 to 0.14 microns (4 to 6 micro in.), which corresponded to a k value of 4. The formation of an immobile surface film formed by lubricant entrapment is discussed as an explanation of the load carrying capacity at zero entrainment velocity conditions, relevant to the ball-ball contacts occurring in retainerless ball bearings.
The phase and critical point of quantum Einstein-Cartan gravity
Xue, She-Sheng
2012-05-01
By introducing diffeomorphism and local Lorentz gauge invariant holonomy fields, we study in the recent article [S.-S. Xue, Phys. Rev. D 82 (2010) 064039] the quantum Einstein-Cartan gravity in the framework of Regge calculus. On the basis of strong coupling expansion, mean-field approximation and dynamical equations satisfied by holonomy fields, we present in this Letter calculations and discussions to show the phase structure of the quantum Einstein-Cartan gravity, (i) the order phase: long-range condensations of holonomy fields in strong gauge couplings; (ii) the disorder phase: short-range fluctuations of holonomy fields in weak gauge couplings. According to the competition of the activation energy of holonomy fields and their entropy, we give a simple estimate of the possible ultra-violet critical point and correlation length for the second-order phase transition from the order phase to disorder one. At this critical point, we discuss whether the continuum field theory of quantum Einstein-Cartan gravity can be possibly approached when the macroscopic correlation length of holonomy field condensations is much larger than the Planck length.
Cong, P. T.; Postulka, L.; Wolf, B.; van Well, N.; Ritter, F.; Assmus, W.; Krellner, C.; Lang, M.
2016-10-01
Magneto-acoustic investigations of the frustrated triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4 were performed for the longitudinal modes c11 and c33 in magnetic fields along the a-axis. The temperature dependence of the sound velocity at zero field shows a mild softening at low temperature and displays a small kink-like anomaly at TN. Isothermal measurements at T sound attenuation α reveal two closely spaced features of different characters on approaching the material's quantum-critical point (QCP) at Bs ≈ 8.5 T for B || a. The peak at slightly lower fields remains sharp down to the lowest temperature and can be attributed to the ordering temperature TN(B). The second anomaly, which is rounded and which becomes reduced in size upon cooling, is assigned to the material's spin-liquid properties preceding the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with decreasing temperature. These two features merge upon cooling suggesting a coincidence at the QCP. The elastic constant at lowest temperatures of our experiment at 32 mK can be well described by a Landau free energy model with a very small magnetoelastic coupling constant G/kB ≈ 2.8 K. The applicability of this classical model indicates the existence of a small gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum which drives the system away from quantum criticality.
Conversion of the zero-point energy of the quantum vacuum into classical mechanical energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turtur, Claus Wilhelm
2010-07-01
A perpetual motion machine - this can never exist. But energy sources nearly disregarded up to now - they exist. These are energy sources, which have been hardly under investigation, so that mankind did not yet learn how to get benefit from them. Most part of the universe consists of such energy, which is still called 'invisible'. A part of this energy is to be found within the so called zero-point oscillations of the quantum vacuum, thus within the empty void from the perspective of quantum physics. The author of the book is physicist. He theoretically developed and then experimentally verified a method for the conversion of vacuum energy into classical mechanical energy. His technique is one of the very few approaches known up to know. The most prominent approaches to convert vacuum energy are described in this book in many scientific details, and they are compared with other known proposals for the use of vacuum energy. (orig.)
Superconductivity near a Quantum-Critical Point: The Special Role of the First Matsubara Frequency.
Wang, Yuxuan; Abanov, Artem; Altshuler, Boris L; Yuzbashyan, Emil A; Chubukov, Andrey V
2016-10-07
Near a quantum-critical point in a metal strong fermion-fermion interaction mediated by a soft collective boson gives rise to incoherent, non-Fermi liquid behavior. It also often gives rise to superconductivity which masks the non-Fermi liquid behavior. We analyze the interplay between the tendency to pairing and fermionic incoherence for a set of quantum-critical models with effective dynamical interaction between low-energy fermions. We argue that superconducting T_{c} is nonzero even for strong incoherence and/or weak interaction due to the fact that the self-energy from dynamic critical fluctuations vanishes for the two lowest fermionic Matsubara frequencies ω_{m}=±πT. We obtain the analytic formula for T_{c}, which reproduces well earlier numerical results for the electron-phonon model at vanishing Debye frequency.
[Divine etiology in the Hebrew Bible: points of contact with Greek literature].
Byl, S
1998-11-01
Simon Byl has explored all the passages in the Hebraic Bible where God is considered sometimes the cause of disease, sometimes the means of healing. He reveals a great number of points of view common to the Biblical literature and to the Ancient Greek literature, with regard to divine aetiology.
The resolution of point sources of light as analyzed by quantum detection theory
Helstrom, C. W.
1972-01-01
The resolvability of point sources of incoherent light is analyzed by quantum detection theory in terms of two hypothesis-testing problems. In the first, the observer must decide whether there are two sources of equal radiant power at given locations, or whether there is only one source of twice the power located midway between them. In the second problem, either one, but not both, of two point sources is radiating, and the observer must decide which it is. The decisions are based on optimum processing of the electromagnetic field at the aperture of an optical instrument. In both problems the density operators of the field under the two hypotheses do not commute. The error probabilities, determined as functions of the separation of the points and the mean number of received photons, characterize the ultimate resolvability of the sources.
Resolution of point sources of light as analyzed by quantum detection theory.
Helstrom, C. W.
1973-01-01
The resolvability of point sources of incoherent thermal light is analyzed by quantum detection theory in terms of two hypothesis-testing problems. In the first, the observer must decide whether there are two sources of equal radiant power at given locations, or whether there is only one source of twice the power located midway between them. In the second problem, either one, but not both, of two point sources is radiating, and the observer must decide which it is. The decisions are based on optimum processing of the electromagnetic field at the aperture of an optical instrument. In both problems the density operators of the field under the two hypotheses do not commute. The error probabilities, determined as functions of the separation of the points and the mean number of received photons, characterize the ultimate resolvability of the sources.
Neural Network Based on Quantum Chemistry for Predicting Melting Point of Organic Compounds
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Juan A. Lazzús
2009-01-01
The melting points of organic compounds were estimated using a combined method that includes a backpropagation neural network and quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) parameters in quantum chemistry. Eleven descriptors that reflect the intermolec-ular forces and molecular symmetry were used as input variables. QSPR parameters were calculated using molecular modeling and PM3 semi-empirical molecular orbital theories. A total of 260 compounds were used to train the network, which was developed using MatLab. Then, the melting points of 73 other compounds were predicted and results were compared to experimental data from the literature. The study shows that the chosen artificial neural network and the quantitative structure property relationships method present an excellent alternative for the estimation of the melting point of an organic compound, with average absolute deviation of 5%.
Parisi, L.; Giorgini, S.
2017-02-01
We present a theoretical study based upon quantum Monte Carlo methods of the Bose polaron in one-dimensional systems with contact interactions. In this instance of the problem of a single impurity immersed in a quantum bath, the medium is a Lieb-Liniger gas of bosons ranging from the weakly interacting to the Tonks-Girardeau regime, whereas the impurity is coupled to the bath via a different contact potential, producing both repulsive and attractive interactions. Both the case of a mobile impurity, having the same mass as the particles in the medium, and the case of a static impurity with infinite mass are considered. We make use of numerical techniques that allow us to calculate the ground-state energy of the impurity, its effective mass, and the contact parameter between the impurity and the bath. These quantities are investigated as a function of the strength of interactions between the impurity and the bath and within the bath. In particular, we find that the effective mass rapidly increases to very large values when the impurity gets strongly coupled to an otherwise weakly repulsive bath. This heavy impurity hardly moves within the medium, thereby realizing the "self-localization" regime of the Landau-Pekar polaron. Furthermore, we compare our results with predictions of perturbation theory valid for weak interactions and with exact solutions available when the bosons in the medium behave as impenetrable particles.
Rescuing a Quantum Phase Transition with Quantum Noise
Zhang, Gu; Novais, E.; Baranger, Harold U.
2017-02-01
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroy quantum effects, as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment, the source of quantum noise. While the charge transport inhibits a quantum phase transition, the quantum noise reduces charge transport and restores the transition. We find a non-Fermi-liquid intermediate fixed point for all strengths of the noise. For strong noise, it is similar to the intermediate fixed point of the two-impurity Kondo model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlottmann, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, MC 4350-309 Keene Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)]. E-mail: schlottm@martech.fsu.edu
2004-12-31
The nesting of the Fermi surfaces of an electron pocket and a hole pocket separated by a wave vector Q and the interaction between electrons gives rise to spin- and charge-density waves. The order can gradually be suppressed by mismatching the nesting and a quantum critical point is obtained as the critical temperature tends to zero. We calculate the quasi-particle damping close to the quantum critical point and discuss its consequences on the resistivity and Hall effect.
Tonkikh, A A; Polyakov, N K; Tsyrlin, G E; Volovik, B V; Cherkashin, N; Ustinov, V M
2002-01-01
The optical and structural properties of the heterostructures with the quantum points in the InAs/GaAs system in the InGaAs solid solution are studied with application of various methodologies for sputtering from the molecular beams: the molecular-beam epitaxy submonolayer migration stimulated epitaxy. The photoluminescence spectra maxima in the studied samples are within the interval of 1.18-1.32 mu m. The growth parameters effect on the quantum points electron structure is identified
The break-up of heavy electrons at a quantum critical point.
Custers, J; Gegenwart, P; Wilhelm, H; Neumaier, K; Tokiwa, Y; Trovarelli, O; Geibel, C; Steglich, F; Pépin, C; Coleman, P
2003-07-31
The point at absolute zero where matter becomes unstable to new forms of order is called a quantum critical point (QCP). The quantum fluctuations between order and disorder that develop at this point induce profound transformations in the finite temperature electronic properties of the material. Magnetic fields are ideal for tuning a material as close as possible to a QCP, where the most intense effects of criticality can be studied. A previous study on the heavy-electron material YbRh2Si2 found that near a field-induced QCP electrons move ever more slowly and scatter off one another with ever increasing probability, as indicated by a divergence to infinity of the electron effective mass and scattering cross-section. But these studies could not shed light on whether these properties were an artefact of the applied field, or a more general feature of field-free QCPs. Here we report that, when germanium-doped YbRh2Si2 is tuned away from a chemically induced QCP by magnetic fields, there is a universal behaviour in the temperature dependence of the specific heat and resistivity: the characteristic kinetic energy of electrons is directly proportional to the strength of the applied field. We infer that all ballistic motion of electrons vanishes at a QCP, forming a new class of conductor in which individual electrons decay into collective current-carrying motions of the electron fluid.
Search for E(2g) phonon modes in MgB2 single crystals by point-contact spectroscopy.
Naidyuk, Yu G; Yanson, I K; Kvitnitskaya, O E; Lee, S; Tajima, S
2003-05-16
The electron-phonon interaction in magnesium diboride MgB2 single crystals is investigated by point-contact (PC) spectroscopy. For the first time the electron coupling with E(2g) phonon modes is resolved in the PC spectra. The correlation between intensity of the extremely broad E(2g) modes in the PC spectra and value of the superconducting gap is established. Our observations favor current theoretical models for electron-phonon mediated superconductivity in MgB2, and they better match the harmonic phonon model.
Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Stroh, Heiko; Lutter, Guillaume; Tzika, Faidra; Marković, Nikola
2017-08-03
Since a few years there are well-type HPGe-detectors with a small, point-like, anode contacts available commercially. This paper describes the characterisation of the first ultra low-background, so-called, SAGe™ well detector with regards to resolution and background performance. Inside a passive lead/copper shield in the underground laboratory HADES a background count rate of 690 ± 6d(-1) (268 ± 3d(-1) per kg Ge) was recorded 19 months after taking it underground. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
A Search of Low-Mass WIMPs with p-type Point Contact Germanium Detector in the CDEX-1 Experiment
Zhao, W; Kang, K J; Cheng, J P; Li, Y J; Wong, H T; Lin, S T; Chang, J P; Chen, J H; Chen, Q H; Chen, Y H; Deng, Z; Du, Q; Gong, H; Hao, X Q; He, H J; He, Q J; Huang, H X; Huang, T R; Jiang, H; Li, H B; Li, J; Li, J M; Li, X; Li, X Y; Li, Y L; Lin, F K; Liu, S K; Lü, L C; Ma, H; Ma, J L; Mao, S J; Qin, J Q; Ren, J; Ruan, X C; Sharma, V; Shen, M B; Singh, L; Singh, M K; Soma, A K; Su, J; Tang, C J; Wang, J M; Wang, L; Wang, Q; Wu, S Y; Wu, Y C; Xianyu, Z Z; Xiao, R Q; Xing, H Y; Xu, F Z; Xu, Y; Xu, X J; Xue, T; Yang, L T; Yang, S W; Yi, N; Yu, C X; Yu, H; Yu, X Z; Zeng, M; Zeng, X H; Zeng, Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y H; Zhao, M G; Zhou, Z Y; Zhu, J J; Zhu, W B; Zhu, X Z; Zhu, Z H
2016-01-01
The CDEX-1 experiment conducted a search of low-mass (< 10 GeV/c2) Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) dark matter at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory using a p-type point-contact germanium detector with a fiducial mass of 915 g at a physics analysis threshold of 475 eVee. We report the hardware set-up, detector characterization, data acquisition and analysis procedures of this experiment. No excess of unidentified events are observed after subtraction of known background. Using 335.6 kg-days of data, exclusion constraints on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent and spin-dependent couplings are derived.
Li, H B
2013-01-01
The p-type point-contact germanium detectors are novel techniques offering kg-scale radiation sensors with sub-keV sensitivities. They have been used for light Dark Matter WIMPs searches and may have potential applications in neutrino physics. There are, however, anomalous surface behaviour which needs to be characterized and understood. We describe the methods and results of a research program whose goals are to identify the bulk and surface events via software pulse shape analysis techniques, and to devise calibration schemes to evaluate the selection efficiency factors. Efficiencies-corrected background spectra from the low-background facility at Kuo-Sheng Neutrino Laboratory are derived.
Ting, David Z.-Y; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.
2012-01-01
The InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice based complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) has already demonstrated very good performance in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. In this work, we describe results on a modified CBIRD device that incorporates a double tunnel junction contact designed for robust device and focal plane array processing. The new device also exhibited reduced turn-on voltage. We also report results on the quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD). By incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the InAsSb absorber of the standard nBn detector structure, the QD-BIRD extend the detector cutoff wavelength from approximately 4.2 micrometers to 6 micrometers, allowing the coverage of the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The device has been observed to show infrared response at 225 K.
Ting, David Z.-Y; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Hill, Cory J.;
2012-01-01
The InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice based complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) has already demonstrated very good performance in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. In this work, we describe results on a modified CBIRD device that incorporates a double tunnel junction contact designed for robust device and focal plane array processing. The new device also exhibited reduced turn-on voltage. We also report results on the quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD). By incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the InAsSb absorber of the standard nBn detector structure, the QD-BIRD extend the detector cutoff wavelength from approximately 4.2 micrometers to 6 micrometers, allowing the coverage of the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The device has been observed to show infrared response at 225 K.
Measurement of gamma quantum interaction point in plastic scintillator with WLS strips
Smyrski, J.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Dulski, K.; Gajos, A.; Głowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N.; Gorgol, M.; Jasińska, B.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kamińska, D.; Korcyl, G.; Kowalski, P.; Krzemień, W.; Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Silarski, M.; Strzelecki, A.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Wojnarska, J.; Zgardzińska, B.; Zieliński, M.; Moskal, P.
2017-04-01
The feasibility of measuring the aśxial coordinate of a gamma quantum interaction point in a plastic scintillator bar via the detection of scintillation photons escaping from the scintillator with an array of wavelength-shifting (WLS) strips is demonstrated. Using a test set-up comprising a BC-420 scintillator bar and an array of sixteen BC-482A WLS strips we achieved a spatial resolution of 5 mm (σ) for annihilation photons from a 22Na isotope. The studied method can be used to improve the spatial resolution of a plastic-scintillator-based PET scanner which is being developed by the J-PET collaboration.
Infinite randomness fixed point of the superconductor-metal quantum phase transition.
Del Maestro, Adrian; Rosenow, Bernd; Müller, Markus; Sachdev, Subir
2008-07-18
We examine the influence of quenched disorder on the superconductor-metal transition, as described by a theory of overdamped Cooper pairs which repel each other. The self-consistent pairing eigenmodes of a quasi-one-dimensional wire are determined numerically. Our results support the recent proposal by Hoyos et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 230601 (2007)10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.230601] that the transition is characterized by the same strong-disorder fixed point describing the onset of ferromagnetism in the random quantum Ising chain in a transverse field.
Tadesse, Yared; Gebre, Nigussie; Daba, Shallo; Gashu, Zewdu; Habte, Dereje; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Negash, Solomon; Melkieneh, Kassahun; Jerene, Degu; K Haile, Yared; Kassie, Yewulsew; Melese, Muluken; G Suarez, Pedro
2016-01-01
A child's risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+) cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84%) were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8%) children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.08%). Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142) received IPT, 80.3% (114) of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yared Tadesse
Full Text Available A child's risk of developing tuberculosis (TB can be reduced by nearly 60% with administration of 6 months course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT. However, uptake of IPT by national TB programs is low, and IPT delivery is a challenge in many resource-limited high TB-burden settings. Routinely collected program data was analyzed to determine the coverage and outcome of implementation of IPT for eligible under-five year old children in 28 health facilities in two regions of Ethiopia. A total of 504 index smear-positive pulmonary TB (SS+ cases were reported between October 2013 and June 2014 in the 28 health facilities. There were 282 under-five children registered as household contacts of these SS+ TB index cases, accounting for 17.9% of all household contacts. Of these, 237 (84% were screened for TB symptoms, and presumptive TB was identified in 16 (6.8% children. TB was confirmed in 5 children, producing an overall yield of 2.11% (95% confidence interval, 0.76-4.08%. Of 221 children eligible for IPT, 64.3% (142 received IPT, 80.3% (114 of whom successfully completed six months of therapy. No child developed active TB while on IPT. Contact screening is a good entry point for delivery of IPT to at risk children and should be routine practice as recommended by the WHO despite the implementation challenges.
Basak, Subhash C.; Mills, Denise; Hawkins, Douglas M.
2008-06-01
A hierarchical classification study was carried out based on a set of 70 chemicals—35 which produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and 35 which do not. This approach was implemented using a regular ridge regression computer code, followed by conversion of regression output to binary data values. The hierarchical descriptor classes used in the modeling include topostructural (TS), topochemical (TC), and quantum chemical (QC), all of which are based solely on chemical structure. The concordance, sensitivity, and specificity are reported. The model based on the TC descriptors was found to be the best, while the TS model was extremely poor.
Nuclear Quantum Effects in Water at the Triple Point: Using Theory as a Link Between Experiments.
Cheng, Bingqing; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele
2016-06-16
One of the most prominent consequences of the quantum nature of light atomic nuclei is that their kinetic energy does not follow a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) experiments can measure this effect. Thus, the nuclear quantum kinetic energy can be probed directly in both ordered and disordered samples. However, the relation between the quantum kinetic energy and the atomic environment is a very indirect one, and cross-validation with theoretical modeling is therefore urgently needed. Here, we use state of the art path integral molecular dynamics techniques to compute the kinetic energy of hydrogen and oxygen nuclei in liquid, solid, and gas-phase water close to the triple point, comparing three different interatomic potentials and validating our results against equilibrium isotope fractionation measurements. We will then show how accurate simulations can draw a link between extremely precise fractionation experiments and DINS, therefore establishing a reliable benchmark for future measurements and providing key insights to increase further the accuracy of interatomic potentials for water.
Mishima, K; Yamashita, K
2009-01-21
We have constructed free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory for quantum systems and applied it to entanglement generation between rotational modes of two polar molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. The motivation of the present work is to solve optimal control problems more flexibly by extending the popular fixed time and fixed end-point optimal control theory for quantum systems to free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory. As a demonstration, the theory that we have constructed in this paper will be applied to entanglement generation in rotational modes of NaCl-NaBr polar molecular systems that are sensitive to the strength of entangling interactions. Our method will significantly be useful for the quantum control of nonlocal interaction such as entangling interaction, which depends crucially on the strength of the interaction or the distance between the two molecules, and other general quantum dynamics, chemical reactions, and so on.
End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhuan Wen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end‐point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end‐effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system’s inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one‐link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.
End-Point Contact Force Control with Quantitative Feedback Theory for Mobile Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuhuan Wen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Robot force control is an important issue for intelligent mobile robotics. The end-point stiffness of a robot is a key and open problem in the research community. The control strategies are mostly dependent on both the specifications of the task and the environment of the robot. Due to the limited stiffness of the end-effector, we may adopt inherent torque to feedback the oscillations of the controlled force. This paper proposes an effective control strategy which contains a controller using quantitative feedback theory. The nested loop controllers take into account the physical limitation of the system's inner variables and harmful interference. The biggest advantage of the method is its simplicity in both the design process and the implementation of the control algorithm in engineering practice. Taking the one-link manipulator as an example, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the proposed control method. The results show the satisfactory performance.
Abgrall, N; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Finnerty, P S; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I
2016-01-01
A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K-alpha electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of 5.8x10^30 seconds at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the x-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of 6.8x10^30 seconds at 90 C.L. It is estimated that the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76-Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation.
Simini, F.; Santos, D.; Francescoli, L.
2016-04-01
We measure the Tibiofemoral contact point migration to offer clinicians a tool to evaluate Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction. The design of the tool includes a C arm with fluoroscopy, image acquisition and processing system, interactive software and report generation for the clinical record. The procedure samples 30 images from the videofluoroscopy describing 2 seconds movements of hanging-to-full-extension of the knee articulation. A geometrical routine implemented in the original equipment (CINARTRO) helps capture tibial plateau and femoral condile profile by interaction with the user. The tightness or looseness of the knee is expressed by the migration given in terms of movement of the femur along the tibial plateau, as a percentage. We automatically create clinical reports in standard Clinical Document Architecture or CDA format. A special phantom was developed to correct the “pin cushion effect” in Rx images. Five cases of broken ACL patients were measured giving meaningful results for clinical follow up. Tibiofemoral contact point migration was measured as 60% of the tibial plateau, with standard deviation of 6% for healthy knees, 4% when injured and 1% after reconstruction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A.W.; Chan, Y.D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A.W.P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I.J.; Hoppe, E.W.; Kouzes, R.T.; LaFerriere, B.D.; Orrell, J.L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Yumatov, V. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Radford, D.C.; Varner, R.L.; White, B.R.; Yu, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brudanin, V.; Shirchenko, M.; Vasilyev, S.; Yakushev, E.; Zhitnikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R.G.H. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Caldwell, A.S.; Christofferson, C.D.; Dunagan, C.; Howard, S.; Suriano, A.M. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.H.; Elliott, S.R.; Goett, J.; Massarczyk, R.; Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ejiri, H. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Finnerty, P.S.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G.K.; Henning, R.; Howe, M.A.; MacMullin, J.; Meijer, S.J.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Rager, J.; Shanks, B.; Trimble, J.E.; Vorren, K.; Xu, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Green, M.P. [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Guiseppe, V.E.; Tedeschi, D.; Wiseman, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Jasinski, B.R. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, Vermillion, SD (United States); Keeter, K.J. [Black Hills State University, Department of Physics, Spearfish, SD (United States); Kidd, M.F. [Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN (United States); Martin, R.D. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Romero-Romero, E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Vetter, K. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilkerson, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
2016-11-15
A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K{sub α} electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of 5.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of 6.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. It is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation. (orig.)
Orbital Motion in the Vicinity of the Non-collinear Equilibrium Points of a Contact Binary Asteroid
Feng, Jinglang; Noomen, Ron; Yuan, Jianping
2015-11-01
The orbital motion around the non-collinear equilibrium points (EPs) of a contact binary asteroid is investigated in this paper. A contact binary asteroid is an asteroid consisting of two lobes that are in physical contact. Here, it is represented by the combination of an ellipsoid and a sphere. The gravity field of the ellipsoid is approximated by a spherical harmonic expansion with terms C20 ,C22 and C40, and the sphere by a straightforward point mass model. The non-collinear EPs are linearly stable for asteroids with slow rotation rates, and become unstable as the rotation rate goes up. To study the motion around the stable EPs, a third-order analytical solution is constructed, by the Lindstedt-Poincaré (LP) method. A good agreement is found between this analytical solution and numerical integrations for the motion in the vicinity of the stable EPs. Its accuracy decreases when the orbit goes further away from the EPs and the asteroid rotates faster. For the unstable EPs, the motions around them are unstable as well. Therefore, the linear feedback control law based on low thrust is introduced to stabilize the motion and track the reference trajectory. In addition, more control force is required as any of the injection error, the amplitude of the analytical reference orbit or the rotation rate of the asteroid increases. For small orbits around the EPs, the third-order analytical solution can serve as a good reference trajectory. However, for large amplitude orbits, accurate numerical orbits are to be used as reference. This avoids an extra control force to track the less accurate third-order analytical solution.
Distributional approach to point interactions in one-dimensional quantum mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcos eCalçada
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We consider the one-dimensional quantum mechanical problem of defining interactions concentrated at a single point in the framework of the theory of distributions. The often ill-defined product which describes the interaction term in the Schrodinger and Dirac equations is replaced by a well-defined distribution satisfying some simple mathematical conditions and, in addition, the physical requirement of probability current conservation is imposed. A four-parameter family of interactions thus emerges as the most general point interaction both in the non-relativistic and in the relativistic theories (in agreement with results obtained by self-adjoint extensions. Since the interaction is given explicitly, the distributional method allows one to carry out symmetry investigations in a simple way, and it proves to be useful to clarify some ambiguities related to the so-called $delta^prime$ interaction.
Charge separation in contact systems with CdSe quantum dot layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zillner, Elisabeth Franziska
2013-03-06
Quantum dot (QD) solar cells are a fast developing area in the field of solution processed photovoltaics. Central aspects for the application of QDs in solar cells are separation and transport of charge carriers in the QD layers and the formation of charge selective contacts. Even though efficiencies of up to 7% were reached in QD solar cells, these processes are not yet fully understood. In this thesis the mechanisms of charge separation, transport and recombination in CdSe QD layers and layer systems were studied. Charge separation was measured via surface photovoltage (SPV) at CdSe QD layers with thicknesses in the range of monolayers. To determine the influence of interparticle distance of QDs and trap states on the surface of QDs on charge separation, QDs with four different surfactant layers were studied. Layers of CdSe QDs were prepared on ITO, Si, SiO{sub 2} and CdS by dip coating under inert atmosphere. The layers were characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, UV-vis spectroscopy, step profilometry and scanning electron microscopy to determine the areal density, the absorption and thickness of CdSe QD monolayers. SPV measurements show that initial charge separation from the CdSe QDs on ITO only happened from the fi rst monolayer of QDs. Electrons, photo-excited in the fi rst monolayer of CdSe QDs, were trapped on the ITO surface. The remaining free holes were trapped in surface states and/or diffused into the neighboring QD layers. The thick surfactant layer ({approx} 1.6 nm) of pristine QDs had to be reduced by washing and/or ligand exchange for separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Both, interparticle distance and trap density, influenced the processes of charge separation and recombination. SPV transients of CdSe monolayers could be described by a single QD approximation model, based on Miller-Abrahams hopping of holes between the delocalized excitonic state, traps on the surface of the QD and the filled trap on the ITO surface
Exotic quantum critical point on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulator
Bi, Zhen; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke
2016-07-01
In the last few years a lot of exotic and anomalous topological phases were constructed by proliferating the vortexlike topological defects on the surface of the 3 d topological insulator (TI) [Fidkowski et al., Phys. Rev. X 3, 041016 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevX.3.041016; Chen et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 165132 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.165132; Bonderson et al., J. Stat. Mech. (2013) P09016, 10.1088/1742-5468/2013/09/P09016; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. B 88, 115137 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.115137; Metlitski et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 125111 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.125111]. In this work, rather than considering topological phases at the boundary, we will study quantum critical points driven by vortexlike topological defects. In general, we will discuss a (2 +1 )d quantum phase transition described by the following field theory: L =ψ ¯γμ(∂μ-i aμ) ψ +| (∂μ-i k aμ) ϕ| 2+r|ϕ | 2+g |ϕ| 4 , with tuning parameter r , arbitrary integer k , Dirac fermion ψ , and complex scalar bosonic field ϕ , which both couple to the same (2 +1 )d dynamical noncompact U(1) gauge field aμ. The physical meaning of these quantities/fields will be explained in the text. Making use of the new duality formalism developed in [Metlitski et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 245151 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.245151; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. X 5, 041031 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.041031; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 085110 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.085110; D. T. Son, Phys. Rev. X 5, 031027 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.031027], we demonstrate that this quantum critical point has a quasi-self-dual nature. And at this quantum critical point, various universal quantities such as the electrical conductivity and scaling dimension of gauge-invariant operators, can be calculated systematically through a 1 /k2 expansion, based on the observation that the limit k →+∞ corresponds to an ordinary 3 d X Y transition.
Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.
2000-10-01
We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.
A dynamical point of view of Quantum Information: entropy and pressure
Baraviera, A; Lopes, A O; Cunha, M Terra
2011-01-01
Quantum Information is a new area of research which has been growing rapidly since last decade. This topic is very close to potential applications to the so called Quantum Computer. In our point of view it makes sense to develop a more "dynamical point of view" of this theory. We want to consider the concepts of entropy and pressure for "stationary systems" acting on density matrices which generalize the usual ones in Ergodic Theory (in the sense of the Thermodynamic Formalism of R. Bowen, Y. Sinai and D. Ruelle). We consider the operator $\\mathcal{L}$ acting on density matrices $\\rho\\in \\mathcal{M}_N$ over a finite $N$-dimensional complex Hilbert space $\\mathcal{L}(\\rho):=\\sum_{i=1}^k tr(W_i\\rho W_i^*)V_i\\rho V_i^*,$ where $W_i$ and $V_i$, $i=1,2,...k$ are operators in this Hilbert space. $\\mathcal{L}$ is not a linear operator. In some sense this operator is a version of an Iterated Function System (IFS). Namely, the $V_i\\,(.)\\,V_i^*=:F_i(.)$, $i=1,2,...,k$, play the role of the inverse branches (acting on t...
Dynamics Modeling of a Continuum Robotic Arm with a Contact Point in Planar Grasp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Dehghani
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Grasping objects by continuum arms or fingers is a new field of interest in robotics. Continuum manipulators have the advantages of high adaptation and compatibility with respect to the object shape. However, due to their extremely nonlinear behavior and infinite degrees of freedom, continuum arms cannot be easily modeled. In fact, dynamics modeling of continuum robotic manipulators is state-of-the-art. Using the exact modeling approaches, such as theory of Cosserat rod, the resulting models are either too much time-taking for computation or numerically unstable. Thus, such models are not suitable for applications such as real-time control. However, based on realistic assumptions and using some approximations, these systems can be modeled with reasonable computational efforts. In this paper, a planar continuum robotic arm is modeled, considering its backbone as two circular arcs. In order to simulate finger grasping, the continuum arm experiences a point-force along its body. Finally, the results are validated using obtained experimental data.
Age-congruency and contact effects in body expression recognition from point-light displays (PLD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petra M.J. Pollux
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Recognition of older people’s body expressions is a crucial social skill. We here investigate how age, not just of the observer, but also of the observed individual, affects this skill. Age may influence the ability to recognize other people’s body expressions by changes in one’s own ability to perform certain action over the life-span (i.e., an own-age bias may occur, with best recognition for one’s own age. Whole body point light displays of children, young adults and older adults (>70 years expressing six different emotions were presented to observers of the same three age-groups. Across two variations of the paradigm, no evidence for the predicted own-age bias (a cross-over interaction between one’s own age and the observed person’s age was found. Instead, experience effects were found with children better recognizing older actors’ expressions of ‘active emotions,’ such as anger and happiness with greater exposure in daily life. Together, the findings suggest that age-related changes in one own’s mobility only influences body expression categorization in young children who interact frequently with older adults.
Einstein and early 20th Century avant-garde art: points of contact?
Martini, José X
2007-01-01
Art history linked some early 20th Century avant-garde visual art movements to contemporary systems of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics. One of the proposed connections is the one that might have existed between Cubism and Relativity, or more precisely, between Picasso and Einstein. The suggested links are similarity (in a weak version) or identity (in a strong version) in matters of space, time and simultaneity. It is possible, however, that these supposed links of Einstein and avant-garde art movements were more the product of the imagination of historians and critics, than the result of connections between painters and scientists. On the one hand, the visual arts (in contrast to music, as far as we now) were of no interest to Einstein, who, moreover, did not seem inclined or knowledgeable enough to appreciate advanced forms. On the other hand, Einstein's theories fell outside the artists' ken, let alone their understanding, although there are firm clues pointing to the fact that repercussions o...
Age-congruency and contact effects in body expression recognition from point-light displays (PLD)
Hermens, Frouke; Willmott, Alexander P.
2016-01-01
Recognition of older people’s body expressions is a crucial social skill. We here investigate how age, not just of the observer, but also of the observed individual, affects this skill. Age may influence the ability to recognize other people’s body expressions by changes in one’s own ability to perform certain action over the life-span (i.e., an own-age bias may occur, with best recognition for one’s own age). Whole body point light displays of children, young adults and older adults (>70 years) expressing six different emotions were presented to observers of the same three age-groups. Across two variations of the paradigm, no evidence for the predicted own-age bias (a cross-over interaction between one’s own age and the observed person’s age) was found. Instead, experience effects were found with children better recognizing older actors’ expressions of ‘active emotions,’ such as anger and happiness with greater exposure in daily life. Together, the findings suggest that age-related changes in one own’s mobility only influences body expression categorization in young children who interact frequently with older adults. PMID:27994986
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Polley Craig
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400°C required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zuo, Zheng-Wei, E-mail: zuozw@163.com [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Kang, Da-wei [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Wang, Zhao-Wu [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Liben [School of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)
2016-08-26
The tunneling junction between one-dimensional topological superconductor and integer (fractional) topological insulator (TI), realized via point contact, is investigated theoretically with bosonization technology and renormalization group methods. For the integer TI case, in a finite range of edge interaction parameter, there is a non-trivial stable fixed point which corresponds to the physical picture that the edge of TI breaks up into two sections at the junction, with one side coupling strongly to the Majorana fermion and exhibiting perfect Andreev reflection, while the other side decouples, exhibiting perfect normal reflection at low energies. This fixed point can be used as a signature of the Majorana fermion and tested by nowadays experiment techniques. For the fractional TI case, the universal low-energy transport properties are described by perfect normal reflection, perfect Andreev reflection, or perfect insulating fixed points dependent on the filling fraction and edge interaction parameter of fractional TI. - Highlights: • Tunneling junctions between topological superconductor and topological insulator are investigated. • There is a non-trivial stable fixed point in integer topological insulator case at low energies. • The edge of topological insulator breaks up into two sections at the junction. • One side couples strongly to the Majorana fermion and exhibits perfect Andreev reflection. • The other side decouples and exhibits perfect normal reflection.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koller, Sonja; Grifoni, Milena; Paaske, Jens
2012-01-01
We analyze distinct sources of spin-dependent energy level shifts and their impact on the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of interacting quantum dots coupled to collinearly polarized ferromagnetic leads. Level shifts due to virtual charge fluctuations can be quantitatively evaluated within...
Electric-field-controlled spin reversal in a quantum dot with ferromagnetic contacts
Hauptmann, J. R.; Paaske, J.; Lindelof, P. E.
2008-05-01
Manipulation of the spin states of a quantum dot by purely electrical means is a highly desirable property of fundamental importance for the development of spintronic devices such as spin filters, spin transistors and single spin memories as well as for solid-state qubits. An electrically gated quantum dot in the Coulomb blockade regime can be tuned to hold a single unpaired spin-1/2, which is routinely spin polarized by an applied magnetic field. Using ferromagnetic electrodes, however, the quantum dot becomes spin polarized by the local exchange field. Here, we report on the experimental realization of this tunnelling-induced spin splitting in a carbon-nanotube quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic nickel electrodes with a strong tunnel coupling ensuring a sizeable exchange field. As charge transport in this regime is dominated by the Kondo effect, we can use this sharp many-body resonance to read off the local spin polarization from the measured bias spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the exchange field can be compensated by an external magnetic field, thus restoring a zero-bias Kondo resonance, and we demonstrate that the exchange field itself, and hence the local spin polarization, can be tuned and reversed merely by tuning the gate voltage.
Noise effects in the quantum search algorithm from the computational complexity point of view
Gawron, Piotr; Klamka, Jerzy; Winiarczyk, Ryszard
2011-01-01
We analyse the resilience of the quantum search algorithm in the presence of quantum noise modelled as trace preserving completely positive maps. We study the influence of noise on computational complexity of the quantum search algorithm. We show that only for small amounts of noise the quantum search algorithm is still more efficient than any classical algorithm.
Field Dependence of π-Band Superconducting Gap in MgB2 Thin Films from Point-Contact Spectroscopy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Yan; XI Xiao-Xing; WANG Yong-Lei; SHAN Lei; JIA Ying; YANG Huan; WEN Hai-Hu; ZHUANG Cheng-Gang; LI Qi; CUI Yi
2008-01-01
We present the results of point-contact spectroscopy measurements on high-quality epitaxial MgB2 thin films with injected current along the c-axis. The temperature and field dependences of л-band properties with the field parallel to (H‖) or perpendicular to (H┴ ) the c-axis are investigated in detail. When a magnetic field is applied, either parallel or perpendicular to the c-axis, the density of the quasiparticle state (DOS) of the л-band proliferates quickly with increasing field, while the gap amplitude of the л-band decreases slowly, which is different from the recent theoretical calculations, showing a field dependent competition between the interband scattering and the pair-breaking effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McLane, V.; Layne, A.
1995-06-01
A survey of the DOE facilities was undertaken by the Points-of-Contact for the DOE Review of Laboratory Programs for Women in order to gather data to be used as a baseline against which to measure future progress. We plan to look at current programs already in place and evaluate them with a view to deciding which programs are most effective, and selecting model programs suitable for implementation at other facilities. The survey focused on four areas: 1) statistical data, 2) laboratory policy, 3) formal and informal programs which affect the quality of life in the work environment, and career development and advancement, and 4) educational programs. Although this report focuses on women, the problems discussed affect all DOE facility employees.
CoGeNT: A Search for Low-Mass Dark Matter using p-type Point Contact Germanium Detectors
Aalseth, C E; Colaresi, J; Collar, J I; Leon, J Diaz; Fast, J E; Fields, N E; Hossbach, T W; Knecht, A; Kos, M S; Marino, M G; Miley, H S; Miller, M L; Orrell, J L; Yocum, K M
2013-01-01
CoGeNT employs p-type point-contact (PPC) germanium detectors to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). By virtue of its low energy threshold and ability to reject surface backgrounds, this type of device allows an emphasis on low-mass dark matter candidates (WIMP mass around 10 GeV/c2). We report on the characteristics of the PPC detector presently taking data at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, elaborating on aspects of shielding, data acquisition, instrumental stability, data analysis, and background estimation. A detailed background model is used to investigate the low energy excess of events previously reported, and to assess the possibility of temporal modulations in the low-energy event rate. We conclude that the technique is ideally suited to search for the annual modulation signature expected from dark matter particle interactions in the region of WIMP mass and coupling favored by the DAMA/LIBRA claim.
Deng, Zhi; He, Li; Liu, Feng; Liu, Yinong; Xue, Tao; Li, Yulan; Yue, Qian
2017-05-01
The paper presents the developments of two cryogenic readout ASICs for the point-contact HPGe detectors for dark matter search and neutrino experiments. Extremely low noise readout electronics were demanded and the capability of working at cryogenic temperatures may bring great advantages. The first ASIC was a monolithic CMOS charge sensitive preamplifier with its noise optimized for ∼1 pF input capacitance. The second ASIC was a waveform recorder based on switched capacitor array. These two ASICs were fabricated in CMOS 350 nm and 180 nm processes respectively. The prototype chips were tested and showed promising results. Both ASICs worked well at low temperature. The preamplifier had achieved ENC of 10.3 electrons with 0.7 pF input capacitance and the SCA chip could run at 9 bit effective resolution and 25 MSPS sampling rate.
Coexistence of order and chaos at critical points of first-order quantum phase transitions in nuclei
Macek, M
2011-01-01
We study the interplay between ordered and chaotic dynamics at the critical point of a generic first-order quantum phase transition in the interacting boson model of nuclei. Classical and quantum analyses reveal a distinct behavior of the coexisting phases. While the dynamics in the deformed phase is robustly regular, the spherical phase shows strongly chaotic behavior in the same energy intervals. The effect of collective rotations on the dynamics is investigated.
Inflationary spectra from a near Ω -deformed spacetime transition point in loop quantum cosmology
Chen, Long; Zhu, Jian-Yang
2016-09-01
Anomaly-free perturbations of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections reveal an Ω -deformed spacetime structure, Ω ≔1 -2 ρ /ρc , where Ω 0 indicates a Lorentz-like space. It would be reasonable to give the initial value at the spacetime transition point, ρ =ρc/2 , but we find that it is impossible to define a Minkowski-like vacuum even for large k modes at that time. However, if we loosen the condition and give the initial value slightly after Ω =0 , e.g., Ω ≃0.2 , the vacuum state can be well defined and, furthermore, the slow roll approximation also works well in that region. Both scalar and tensor spectra are considered in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections. We find that, if the energy density is not too small in relation to ρc/2 when the considered k mode crossing the horizon, effective theory can give a much smaller scalar power spectrum than classical theory and the spectrum of tensor perturbations could blueshift. However, when compared to other observations, since the energy densities when the modes crossed the horizon were significantly smaller than ρc, the results we get agree with previous work in the literature and with the classical inflation theory.
Zero-Point Energy Leakage in Quantum Thermal Bath Molecular Dynamics Simulations.
Brieuc, Fabien; Bronstein, Yael; Dammak, Hichem; Depondt, Philippe; Finocchi, Fabio; Hayoun, Marc
2016-12-13
The quantum thermal bath (QTB) has been presented as an alternative to path-integral-based methods to introduce nuclear quantum effects in molecular dynamics simulations. The method has proved to be efficient, yielding accurate results for various systems. However, the QTB method is prone to zero-point energy leakage (ZPEL) in highly anharmonic systems. This is a well-known problem in methods based on classical trajectories where part of the energy of the high-frequency modes is transferred to the low-frequency modes leading to a wrong energy distribution. In some cases, the ZPEL can have dramatic consequences on the properties of the system. Thus, we investigate the ZPEL by testing the QTB method on selected systems with increasing complexity in order to study the conditions and the parameters that influence the leakage. We also analyze the consequences of the ZPEL on the structural and vibrational properties of the system. We find that the leakage is particularly dependent on the damping coefficient and that increasing its value can reduce and, in some cases, completely remove the ZPEL. When using sufficiently high values for the damping coefficient, the expected energy distribution among the vibrational modes is ensured. In this case, the QTB method gives very encouraging results. In particular, the structural properties are well-reproduced. The dynamical properties should be regarded with caution although valuable information can still be extracted from the vibrational spectrum, even for large values of the damping term.
Chen, Long
2016-01-01
Anomaly-free perturbations of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections reveal a $\\Omega$ -deformed space-time structure, $\\Omega:=1-2\\rho/\\rho_c$, where $\\Omega0$ means a Lorentz-like space. It would be reasonable to give the initial value at the space-time transition point, $\\rho=\\rho_c/2$, but we find it is impossible to define a Minkowski-like vacuum even for large $k$-modes at that time. However if we loose the condition and give the initial value near after $\\Omega=0$, e.g. $\\Omega\\simeq 0.2$, the vacuum state can be well defined and furthermore the slow roll approximation also works well in that region. Both scalar and tensor spectra are considered in the framework of loop quantum cosmology with holonomy corrections. We find that if the energy density is not too small compared with $\\rho_c/2$ when the considered $k$-mode crossing the horizon, effective theory can give a much smaller scalar power spectrum than classical theory and the spectrum of tensor perturbations could blue shift. But when co...
Cai, Ang; Pixley, Jedediah; Si, Qimiao
Heavy fermion metals represent a canonical system to study superconductivity driven by quantum criticality. We are particularly motivated by the properties of CeRhIn5, which shows the characteristic features of a Kondo destruction quantum critical point (QCP) in its normal state, and has one of the highest Tc's among the heavy fermion superconductors. As a first step to study this problem within a cluster-EDMFT approach, we analyze a four-site Anderson impurity model with the antiferromagnetic spin component of the cluster coupled to a sub-Ohmic bosonic bath. We find a QCP that belongs to the same universality class as the single-site Bose-Fermi Anderson model. Together with previous work on a two-site model, our result suggests that the Kondo destruction QCP is robust as cluster size increases. More importantly, we are able to calculate the d-wave pairing susceptibility, which we find to be enhanced near the QCP. Using this model as the effective cluster model of the periodic Anderson model, we are also able to study the superconducting pairing near the Kondo-destruction QCP of the lattice model; preliminary results will be presented.
Gattenlöhner, S; Hannes, W-R; Ostrovsky, P M; Gornyi, I V; Mirlin, A D; Titov, M
2014-01-17
We explore the longitudinal conductivity of graphene at the Dirac point in a strong magnetic field with two types of short-range scatterers: adatoms that mix the valleys and "scalar" impurities that do not mix them. A scattering theory for the Dirac equation is employed to express the conductance of a graphene sample as a function of impurity coordinates; an averaging over impurity positions is then performed numerically. The conductivity σ is equal to the ballistic value 4e2/πh for each disorder realization, provided the number of flux quanta considerably exceeds the number of impurities. For weaker fields, the conductivity in the presence of scalar impurities scales to the quantum-Hall critical point with σ≃4×0.4e2/h at half filling or to zero away from half filling due to the onset of Anderson localization. For adatoms, the localization behavior is also obtained at half filling due to splitting of the critical energy by intervalley scattering. Our results reveal a complex scaling flow governed by fixed points of different symmetry classes: remarkably, all key manifestations of Anderson localization and criticality in two dimensions are observed numerically in a single setup.
Candidate Elastic Quantum Critical Point in LaCu_{6-x}Au_{x}.
Poudel, L; May, A F; Koehler, M R; McGuire, M A; Mukhopadhyay, S; Calder, S; Baumbach, R E; Mukherjee, R; Sapkota, D; de la Cruz, C; Singh, D J; Mandrus, D; Christianson, A D
2016-12-02
The structural properties of LaCu_{6-x}Au_{x} are studied using neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The continuous orthorhombic-monoclinic structural phase transition in LaCu_{6} is suppressed linearly with Au substitution until a complete suppression of the structural phase transition occurs at the critical composition x_{c}=0.3. Heat capacity measurements at low temperatures indicate residual structural instability at x_{c}. The instability is ferroelastic in nature, with density functional theory calculations showing negligible coupling to electronic states near the Fermi level. The data and calculations presented here are consistent with the zero temperature termination of a continuous structural phase transition suggesting that the LaCu_{6-x}Au_{x} series hosts an elastic quantum critical point.
Magnetic and superconducting quantum critical points of heavy-fermion systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demuer, A.; Sheikin, I.; Braithwaite, D. E-mail: dbraithwaite@cea.fr; Faak, B.; Huxley, A.; Raymond, S.; Flouquet, J
2001-05-01
Two examples of heavy-fermion systems are presented : CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, an antiferromagnet with a quantum critical point at P{sub C}=28 kbar and UGe{sub 2} an itinerant ferromagnet which transits in a paramagnetic phase above P{sub C}=16 kbar. In CePd{sub 2}Si{sub 2} the superconductivity domain is centered on P{sub C}. Special attention was given to the superconducting and magnetic anomalies at their superconducting and Neel temperatures. In UGe{sub 2} superconductivity appears in 9 kbar at a temperature T{sub S}, more than two orders of magnitude lower than the Curie temperature; furthermore, it occurs only on the magnetic border (P
Magnetic and superconducting quantum critical points of heavy-fermion systems
Demuer, A.; Sheikin, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Fåk, B.; Huxley, A.; Raymond, S.; Flouquet, J.
2001-05-01
Two examples of heavy-fermion systems are presented : CePd 2Si 2, an antiferromagnet with a quantum critical point at PC=28 kbar and UGe 2 an itinerant ferromagnet which transits in a paramagnetic phase above PC=16 kbar. In CePd 2Si 2 the superconductivity domain is centered on PC. Special attention was given to the superconducting and magnetic anomalies at their superconducting and Néel temperatures. In UGe 2 superconductivity appears in 9 kbar at a temperature TS, more than two orders of magnitude lower than the Curie temperature; furthermore, it occurs only on the magnetic border ( P< PC). Another characteristic temperature TX is detected by resistivity; the zigzag uranium chain of the lattice may favor a supplementary nesting in the majority spin band.
Mapping the current–current correlation function near a quantum critical point
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prodan, Emil, E-mail: prodan@yu.edu [Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Bellissard, Jean [School of Mathematics and School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
2016-05-15
The current–current correlation function is a useful concept in the theory of electron transport in homogeneous solids. The finite-temperature conductivity tensor as well as Anderson’s localization length can be computed entirely from this correlation function. Based on the critical behavior of these two physical quantities near the plateau–insulator or plateau–plateau transitions in the integer quantum Hall effect, we derive an asymptotic formula for the current–current correlation function, which enables us to make several theoretical predictions about its generic behavior. For the disordered Hofstadter model, we employ numerical simulations to map the current–current correlation function, obtain its asymptotic form near a critical point and confirm the theoretical predictions.
Shear viscosity at the Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two dimensional metals
Patel, Aavishkar A; Sachdev, Subir
2016-01-01
In a strongly interacting quantum liquid without quasiparticles, general scaling arguments imply that the dimensionless ratio $(k_B /\\hbar)\\, \\eta/s$, where $\\eta$ is the shear viscosity and $s$ is the entropy density, is a universal number. We compute the shear viscosity of the Ising-nematic critical point of metals in spatial dimension $d=2$ by an expansion below $d=5/2$. The anisotropy associated with directions parallel and normal to the Fermi surface leads to a violation of the scaling expectations: $\\eta$ scales in the same manner as a chiral conductivity, and the ratio $\\eta/s$ diverges as $T^{-2/z}$, where $z$ is the dynamic critical exponent for fermionic excitations dispersing normal to the Fermi surface.
Four-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with weakly invasive contacts
Aita, Hugo; Arrachea, Liliana; Naón, Carlos
2011-01-01
We analyze the behavior of the four-terminal resistance, relative to the two-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with an impurity, taking into account the invasiveness of the voltage probes. We consider a one-dimensional Luttinger model of spinless fermions for the wire. We treat the coupling to the voltage probes perturbatively, within the framework of non-equilibrium Green function techniques. Our investigation unveils the combined effect of impurities, electron-electron inte...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rueda, A.
1986-11-11
Further discussions and detailed calculations on the problem of the spontaneous acceleration of free electromagnetically interacting particles by the zero-point field in the light of a quantum version of the Einstein-Hopf model are presented. It is shown that acceleration occurs if the zero-point field is represented in a time-symmetric fashion within the viewpoint of the Wheeler-Feynman radiant-absorber theory. However, if the zero-point field is represented in the time-asymmetric form, the quantum Einstein-Hopf model yields no translational kinetic-energy growth in disagreement with the previous prediction and with the result of the classical version of the zero-point field in stochastic electrodynamics. The calculations are clear and compelling. Despite that the last no-acceleration result is germane to phenomenological thermodynamics expectations and to a more consistent perspective of quantum theory, the second quantization that leads to the time-symmetric zero-point field yields a conceptually more satisfactory view of this background field which is no longer a free virtual field but becomes a real field which is originated in and is associated with particles. The discussion is based on the different boundary conditions for the electromagnetic-field tensor that the zero-point field (asymmetric vs. symmetric) requires in quantum and in classical theory: time symmetry presupposes a universe that is opaque. If this condition does not hold, we are forced to ordinary time asymmetry and, if a correspondence with quantum electrodynamics is desired, some modification of the hypothesis of stochastic electrodynamics would be required to prevent acceleration. The possible form of that modification is suggested.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola
2011-01-01
In contemporary urban societies multiple networks and systems interact, overlap, exist in parallel, converge, conflict etc. creating unforeseen complexity and less transparency. By exploring how layered networks of physical movement, service information, goods delivery, commercial communication etc...... design, geography, and mobility studies. After the introduction in section we develop and define the notion of CPC based upon a broad set of disciplines and theories. We illustrate the usefulness of the notion within the field of mobility in the network city and within the field of service design...
Det-Det correlations for quantum maps: Dual pair and saddle-point analyses
Nonnenmacher, S.; Zirnbauer, M. R.
2002-05-01
An attempt is made to clarify the ballistic nonlinear sigma model formalism recently proposed for quantum chaotic systems, by looking at the spectral determinant Z(s)=Det(1-sU) for quantized maps U∈U(N), and studying the correlator ωU(s)=∫dθ|Z(eiθs)|2. By identifying U(N) as one member of a dual pair acting in the spinor representation of Spin(4N), the expansion of ωU(s) in powers of s2 is shown to be a decomposition into irreducible characters of U(N). In close analogy with the ballistic nonlinear sigma model, a coherent-state integral representation of ωU(s) is developed. For generic U this integral has (N2N) saddle points and the leading-order saddle-point approximation turns out to reproduce ωU(s) exactly, up to a constant factor. This miracle is explained by interpreting ωU(s) as a character of U(2N), and arguing that the leading-order saddle-point result corresponds to the Weyl character formula. Unfortunately, the Weyl decomposition behaves nonsmoothly in the semiclassical limit N→∞, and to make further progress some additional averaging needs to be introduced. Several schemes are investigated, including averaging over basis states and an "isotropic" average. The saddle-point approximation applied in conjunction with these schemes is demonstrated to give incorrect results in general, one notable exception being a semiclassical averaging scheme, for which all loop corrections vanish identically. As a side product of the dual pair decomposition with isotropic averaging, the crossover between the Poisson and CUE limits is obtained.
Schroeder, Almut; Ubaid-Kassis, Sara; Vojta, Thomas
2011-03-09
We report magnetization measurements close to the ferromagnetic quantum phase transition of the d-metal alloy Ni(1 - x)V(x) at a vanadium concentration of x(c)≈11.4%. In the diluted regime (x > x(c)), the temperature (T) and magnetic field (H) dependences of the magnetization are characterized by nonuniversal power laws and display H/T scaling in a wide temperature and field range. The exponents vary strongly with x and follow the predictions of a quantum Griffiths phase. We also discuss the deviations and limits of the quantum Griffiths phase as well as the phase boundaries due to bulk and cluster physics.
Four-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with weakly invasive contacts.
Aita, Hugo; Arrachea, Liliana; Naón, Carlos
2011-11-30
We analyze the behavior of the four-terminal resistance, relative to the two-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with an impurity, taking into account the invasiveness of the voltage probes. We consider a one-dimensional Luttinger model of spinless fermions for the wire. We treat the coupling to the voltage probes perturbatively, within the framework of non-equilibrium Green function techniques. Our investigation unveils the combined effect of impurities, electron-electron interactions and invasiveness of the probes on the possible occurrence of negative resistance.
Coupling a point-like mass to quantum gravity with causal dynamical triangulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khavkine, I; Loll, R; Reska, P, E-mail: i.khavkine@uu.n, E-mail: r.loll@uu.n, E-mail: p.m.reska@uu.n [Spinoza Institute and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, NL-3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)
2010-09-21
We present a possibility of coupling a point-like, non-singular, mass distribution to four-dimensional quantum gravity in the nonperturbative setting of causal dynamical triangulations (CDT). In order to provide a point of comparison for the classical limit of the matter-coupled CDT model, we derive the spatial volume profile of the Euclidean Schwarzschild-de Sitter space glued to an interior matter solution. The volume profile is calculated with respect to a specific proper-time foliation matching the global time slicing present in CDT. It deviates in a characteristic manner from that of the pure-gravity model. The appearance of coordinate caustics and the compactness of the mass distribution in lattice units put an upper bound on the total mass for which these calculations are expected to be valid. We also discuss some of the implementation details for numerically measuring the expectation value of the volume profiles in the framework of CDT when coupled appropriately to the matter source.
Kondo effect and quantum critical point in Mn(1-x)CoxSi
Teyssier, J.; Viennois, R.; Guritanu, V.; Giannini, E.; van der Marel, D.
2010-01-01
We report magnetic, transport and neutron diffraction studies of the solid solution Mn1-xCoxSi. For the Mn rich compounds, a sharp decrease of the Curie temperature is observed upon cobalt doping and neutron elastic scattering shows that the helimagnetic order of MnSi persists up to x = 0.06 with a shortening of the helix period. For higher Co concentrations (0.06 Weiss temperature changes sign and the system enters an antiferromagnetic state upon cooling (TN=9K for x = 0.50). In this doping range, the antiferromagnetic coupling leads to a Kondo effect marked by a minimum in the resistivity. This scenario is supported by the scaling of the magnetoresistance with a TK approx 6.5 K, close to the change in curvature of the resistivity and in agreement with the Weiss temperature from magnetic susceptibility. The sign change of the Weiss temperature and the transition from a helimagnetic to an antiferromagnetic ground state, with increasing the Co doping, point toward the existence of a quantum critical point at the composition Mn0.94Co0.06Si.
New quantum-critical-point-related effects in Ce lattice systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sereni, J.G. [Division Bajas Temperaturas, Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA), 8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)]. E-mail: jsereni@cab.cnea.gov.ar
2004-12-31
Anomalous physical properties related to quantum critical points are investigated in Ce-systems whose magnetic phase boundaries, TN,C(x,p), can be traced for at least one decade of temperature. A change from the usual negative curvature to a linear concentration, x, dependence of TN,C(x) is observed at x*>=xcr/2 (xcr being the critical concentration). Within the x*xxcr region, the usual specific heat temperature dependence Cm/T{proportional_to}Ln(1/T) develops above TN,C, while a nearly constant value of Cm/T maximum is observed besides a scaling of Cm/T(T) with {delta}T=T-TN,C. Coincidentally, a significant increase of the zero-point entropy S0(x)(=RLn2-Sm(x,T)) occurs. Dimensionality and dynamics of the spin fluctuations can be analyzed computing the internal energy and entropy for T>=TN and AC-susceptibility results. Consequences for the free-energy evolution within this region and implications of the S0(x) increase are discussed.
Phillips, N G; Phillips, Nicholas. G.
2000-01-01
We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universe, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life `time-machines'. For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the var...
A periodic point-based method for the analysis of Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 symmetric quantum games
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneider, David, E-mail: schneide@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de EnergIa Atomica. Av. del Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-03-04
We present a novel method of looking at Nash equilibria in 2 x 2 quantum games. Our method is based on a mathematical connection between the problem of identifying Nash equilibria in game theory, and the topological problem of the periodic points in nonlinear maps. To adapt our method to the original protocol designed by Eisert et al (1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 3077-80) to study quantum games, we are forced to extend the space of strategies from the initial proposal. We apply our method to the extended strategy space version of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and find that a new set of Nash equilibria emerge in a natural way. Nash equilibria in this set are optimal as Eisert's solution of the quantum Prisoner's dilemma and include this solution as a limit case.
Tonkikh, A A; Polyakov, N K; Tsyrlin, G E; Kryzhanovskaya, N V; Sizov, D S; Ustinov, V M
2002-01-01
The possibility of obtaining the long-wave photoluminescence (up to 1.65 mu m at the room temperature) from the InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures is demonstrated. These structures are obtained through the method of the low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy on the basis of two approaches: growth of the InAs quantum points at the low growth rate and growth of the In sub 0 sub . sub 5 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 5 As quantum wells under the conditions of the III group elements excess
An MCMC-based waveform analysis with p-type point contact detectors in the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR
Shanks, Benjamin; MAJORANA Collaboration
2017-01-01
Statistical signal processing can be a powerful tool for extracting as much information as possible from raw data. By fitting data to a physical model of signal generation on an event-by-event basis, it can be used to perform precise event reconstruction and enable efficient background rejection. Searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay must achieve extremely low backgrounds to reach sensitivities required for discovery, and so can benefit greatly from this analysis technique. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR has implemented a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) signal processing algorithm to fit waveforms from p-type point contact (PPC) germanium detectors. After a machine learning step to tune detector fields and electronics response parameters, the MCMC algorithm is able to reconstruct the time, energy and position of interactions within the PPC detector. The parameters estimated with this method will find many applications within the DEMONSTRATOR physics program, including background identification and rejection. This will prove important as the DEMONSTRATOR aims to reach its background goal of < 3 counts/tonne/yr in the region of interest. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.
Probing chiral superconductivity in Sr2RuO4 underneath the surface by point contact measurements
Wang, He; Luo, Jiawei; Lou, Weijian; Ortmann, J. E.; Mao, Z. Q.; Liu, Y.; Wei, Jian
2017-05-01
Sr2RuO4 (SRO) is the prime candidate for a chiral p-wave superconductor with critical temperature {T}{{c}}({SRO})˜ 1.5 K. Chiral domains with opposite chiralities {p}x+/- {{{i}}{p}}y have been proposed, but are yet to be confirmed. We measure the field dependence of the point contact (PC) resistance between a tungsten tip and an SRO-Ru eutectic crystal, where micrometer-sized Ru inclusions are embedded in SRO with an atomically sharp interface. Ruthenium is an s-wave superconductor with {T}{{c}}({Ru})˜ 0.5 K; flux pinned near the Ru inclusions can suppress its superconductivity, as reflected in the PC resistance and spectra. This flux pinning effect originates from SRO underneath the surface and is very strong once flux is introduced. To fully remove flux pinning, one needs to thermally cycle the sample above T c(SRO) or apply alternating fields with decreasing amplitude. With alternating fields, the observed hysteresis in magnetoresistance can be explained by domain dynamics, providing support for the existence of chiral domains. The origin of the strong pinning could be the chiral domains themselves.
Uncovering the hidden quantum critical point in disordered massless Dirac and Weyl semimetals
Pixley, J. H.; Huse, David A.; Das Sarma, S.
2016-09-01
We study the properties of the avoided or hidden quantum critical point (AQCP) in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl semimetals in the presence of short range potential disorder. By computing the averaged density of states (along with its second and fourth derivative at zero energy) with the kernel polynomial method (KPM) we systematically tune the effective length scale that eventually rounds out the transition and leads to an AQCP. We show how to determine the strength of the avoidance, establishing that it is not controlled by the long wavelength component of the disorder. Instead, the amount of avoidance can be adjusted via the tails of the probability distribution of the local random potentials. A binary distribution with no tails produces much less avoidance than a Gaussian distribution. We introduce a double Gaussian distribution to interpolate between these two limits. As a result we are able to make the length scale of the avoidance sufficiently large so that we can accurately study the properties of the underlying transition (that is eventually rounded out), unambiguously identify its location, and provide accurate estimates of the critical exponents ν =1.01 ±0.06 and z =1.50 ±0.04 . We also show that the KPM expansion order introduces an effective length scale that can also round out the transition in the scaling regime near the AQCP.
Directed energy transfer in films of CdSe quantum dots: beyond the point dipole approximation.
Zheng, Kaibo; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhu, Nan; Chábera, Pavel; Lenngren, Nils; Chi, Qijin; Pullerits, Tõnu
2014-04-30
Understanding of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in thin films composed of quantum dots (QDs) is of fundamental and technological significance in optimal design of QD based optoelectronic devices. The separation between QDs in the densely packed films is usually smaller than the size of QDs, so that the simple point-dipole approximation, widely used in the conventional approach, can no longer offer quantitative description of the FRET dynamics in such systems. Here, we report the investigations of the FRET dynamics in densely packed films composed of multisized CdSe QDs using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and theoretical modeling. Pairwise interdot transfer time was determined in the range of 1.5 to 2 ns by spectral analyses which enable separation of the FRET contribution from intrinsic exciton decay. A rational model is suggested by taking into account the distribution of the electronic transition densities in the dots and using the film morphology revealed by AFM images. The FRET dynamics predicted by the model are in good quantitative agreement with experimental observations without adjustable parameters. Finally, we use our theoretical model to calculate dynamics of directed energy transfer in ordered multilayer QD films, which we also observe experimentally. The Monte Carlo simulations reveal that three ideal QD monolayers can provide exciton funneling efficiency above 80% from the most distant layer. Thereby, utilization of directed energy transfer can significantly improve light harvesting efficiency of QD devices.
Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors
Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada
2016-07-01
In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near ≈0.17, the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.
Quantum Wronskian approach to six-point gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Satoh, Yuji; Suzuki, Junji
2014-01-01
We study the six-point gluon scattering amplitudes in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling based on the twisted Z_4-symmetric integrable model. The lattice regularization allows us to derive the associated thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations as well as the functional relations among the Q-/T-/Y-functions. The quantum Wronskian relation for the Q-/T-functions plays an important role in determining a series of the expansion coefficients of the T-/Y-functions around the UV limit, including the dependence on the twist parameter. Studying the CFT limit of the TBA equations, we derive the leading analytic expansion of the remainder function for the general kinematics around the limit where the dual Wilson loops become regular-polygonal. We also compare the rescaled remainder functions at strong coupling with those at two, three and four loops, and find that they are close to each other along the trajectories parameterized by the scale parameter of the integrable model.
Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors.
Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada
2016-07-19
In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near [Formula: see text], the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.
Quantum critical point for stripe order: An organizing principle of cuprate superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas [Departement de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto (Canada); Taillefer, Louis, E-mail: Louis.Taillefer@USherbrooke.ca [Departement de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto (Canada)
2012-11-01
A spin density-wave quantum critical point (QCP) is the central organizing principle of organic, iron-pnictide, heavy-fermion and electron-doped cuprate superconductors. It accounts for the superconducting T{sub c} dome, the non-Fermi-liquid resistivity, and the Fermi-surface reconstruction. Outside the magnetically ordered phase above the QCP, scattering and pairing decrease in parallel as the system moves away from the QCP. Here we argue that a similar scenario, based on a stripe-order QCP, is a central organizing principle of hole-doped cuprate superconductors. Key properties of La{sub 1.8-x}Eu{sub 0.2}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, La{sub 1.6-x}Nd{sub 0.4}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} are naturally unified, including stripe order itself, its QCP, Fermi-surface reconstruction, the linear-T resistivity, and the nematic character of the pseudogap phase.
Is U3Ni3Sn4 best described as near a quantum critical point?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Booth, C.H.; Shlyk, L.; Nenkov, K.; Huber, J.G.; De Long, L.E.
2003-04-08
Although most known non-Fermi liquid (NFL) materials are structurally or chemically disordered, the role of this disorder remains unclear. In particular, very few systems have been discovered that may be stoichiometric and well ordered. To test whether U{sub 3}Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} belongs in this latter class, we present measurements of the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) of polycrystalline and single-crystal U{sub 3}Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} samples that are consistent with no measurable local atomic disorder. We also present temperature-dependent specific heat data in applied magnetic fields as high as 8 T that show features that are inconsistent with the antiferromagnetic Griffiths' phase model, but do support the conclusion that a Fermi liquid/NFL crossover temperature increases with applied field. These results are inconsistent with theoretical explanations that require strong disorder effects, but do support the view that U{sub 3}Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} is a stoichoiometric, ordered material that exhibits NFL behavior, and is best described as being near an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point.
Stamenov, Plamen; Borisov, Kiril
2016-10-01
Point Contact Andreev Reflection (PCAR) is one of the few available methods for the determination of the Fermi level spin polarisation in metals and degenerate semiconductors. It has traditionally been applied at fixed (liquid He) temperatures, using pure niobium as the superconductor, and at essentially zero applied magnetic fields, all of which limit the amount of information that it can provide - i.e. do not allow for the extraction of the sign of the spin polarisation and make the assignment of the transport regime to ballistic or diffusive almost impossible. Here a series of experiments is described, aimed at the expansion of this parameter space to higher magnetic fields and to higher temperatures. These require redesigned experimental setups and the use of higher performance superconductors. Demonstrations are described of the determination of the sign of the spin polarisation, at fields of more than 5 Tesla using a low-Z superconductor, as well as operations beyond 9.2 K. Doubts about the practical reliability of the PCAR technique are dispersed using systematic series of samples - the heavy rare-earths and comparisons with alternatives, such as spin-polarised field emission, photo-emission and Tedrow-Meservey tunnelling. The specific material examples presented include 3d-metals, order-disorder transition alloys and zero-moment half-metals - Fe, FeAl and MnRuGa, alternative low-Z and high-Z superconductors - MgB2 and NbTi, and magnetic topological insulators, such as Cr- and V-doped (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3.
Wen, Shuhuan; Zhu, Jinghai; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Shengyong
2014-09-01
Robot force control is an essential issue in robotic intelligence. There is much high uncertainty when robot end-effector contacts with the environment. Because of the environment stiffness effects on the system of the robot end-effector contact with environment, the adaptive generalized predictive control algorithm based on quantitative feedback theory is designed for robot end-point contact force system. The controller of the internal loop is designed on the foundation of QFT to control the uncertainty of the system. An adaptive GPC algorithm is used to design external loop controller to improve the performance and the robustness of the system. Two closed loops used in the design approach realize the system׳s performance and improve the robustness. The simulation results show that the algorithm of the robot end-effector contacting force control system is effective.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, the geometric properties of a pair of line contact surfaces are investigated. Then, based on the observation that the cutter envelope surface contacts with the cutter surface and design surface along the characteristic curve and cutter contact (CC) path, respectively, a mathematical model describing the third-order approximation of the cutter envelope surface according to just one given cutter location (CL) is developed. It is shown that at the CC point both the normal curvature of the normal section of the cutter envelope surface and its derivative with respect to the arc length of the normal section can be determined by those of the cutter surface and design surface. This model characterizes the intrinsic relationship among the cutter surface, cutter envelope surface and design surface in the neighborhood of the CC point, and yields the mathematical foundation for optimally approximating the cutter envelope surface to the design surface by adjusting the cutter location.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Based on the mathematical model describing the third-order approximation of the cutter envelope surface according to one given cutter location(CL),a tool positioning strategy is proposed for efficiently machining free-form surfaces with non-ball-end cutters.The optimal CL is obtained by adjusting the inclination and tilt angles of the cutter until its envelope surface and the design surface have the third-order contact at the cutter contact(CC)point,which results in a wide machining strip.The strategy can handle the constraints of machine joint angle limits,global collision avoidance and tool path smoothness in a nature way,and can be applied to general rotary cutters and complex surfaces.Numerical examples demonstrate that the third-order point contact approach can improve the machining strip width greatly as compared with the recently reported second-order one.
The Casimir Effect from the Point of View of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dappiaggi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.dappiaggi@unipv.it; Nosari, Gabriele [Università degli Studi di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); Pinamonti, Nicola [Università di Genova, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)
2016-06-15
We consider a region of Minkowski spacetime bounded either by one or by two parallel, infinitely extended plates orthogonal to a spatial direction and a real Klein-Gordon field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions. We quantize these two systems within the algebraic approach to quantum field theory using the so-called functional formalism. As a first step we construct a suitable unital ∗-algebra of observables whose generating functionals are characterized by a labelling space which is at the same time optimal and separating and fulfils the F-locality property. Subsequently we give a definition for these systems of Hadamard states and we investigate explicit examples. In the case of a single plate, it turns out that one can build algebraic states via a pull-back of those on the whole Minkowski spacetime, moreover inheriting from them the Hadamard property. When we consider instead two plates, algebraic states can be put in correspondence with those on flat spacetime via the so-called method of images, which we translate to the algebraic setting. For a massless scalar field we show that this procedure works perfectly for a large class of quasi-free states including the Poincaré vacuum and KMS states. Eventually Wick polynomials are introduced. Contrary to the Minkowski case, the extended algebras, built in globally hyperbolic subregions can be collected in a global counterpart only after a suitable deformation which is expressed locally in terms of a *-isomorphism. As a last step, we construct explicitly the two-point function and the regularized energy density, showing, moreover, that the outcome is consistent with the standard results of the Casimir effect.
The Casimir Effect from the Point of View of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory
Dappiaggi, Claudio; Nosari, Gabriele; Pinamonti, Nicola
2016-06-01
We consider a region of Minkowski spacetime bounded either by one or by two parallel, infinitely extended plates orthogonal to a spatial direction and a real Klein-Gordon field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions. We quantize these two systems within the algebraic approach to quantum field theory using the so-called functional formalism. As a first step we construct a suitable unital ∗-algebra of observables whose generating functionals are characterized by a labelling space which is at the same time optimal and separating and fulfils the F-locality property. Subsequently we give a definition for these systems of Hadamard states and we investigate explicit examples. In the case of a single plate, it turns out that one can build algebraic states via a pull-back of those on the whole Minkowski spacetime, moreover inheriting from them the Hadamard property. When we consider instead two plates, algebraic states can be put in correspondence with those on flat spacetime via the so-called method of images, which we translate to the algebraic setting. For a massless scalar field we show that this procedure works perfectly for a large class of quasi-free states including the Poincaré vacuum and KMS states. Eventually Wick polynomials are introduced. Contrary to the Minkowski case, the extended algebras, built in globally hyperbolic subregions can be collected in a global counterpart only after a suitable deformation which is expressed locally in terms of a *-isomorphism. As a last step, we construct explicitly the two-point function and the regularized energy density, showing, moreover, that the outcome is consistent with the standard results of the Casimir effect.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agus Wahidi
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This research is experimental, using first class learning a quantum model of learning with concept maps media and the second media using real environments by power point presentation. The population is all class XI Science, number 2 grade. The sampling technique is done by purposive random sampling. Data collection techniques to test for cognitive performance and memory capabilities, with a questionnaire for creativity. Hypothesis testing using three-way ANOVA different cells with the help of software Minitab 15.Based on the results of data processing, concluded: (1 there is no influence of the quantum model of learning with media learning concept maps and real environments for learning achievement chemistry, (2 there is a high impact memory ability and low on student achievement, (3 there is no the effect of high and low creativity in student performance, (4 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with memory ability on student achievement, (5 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments with creativity of student achievement, (6 there is no interaction memory skills and creativity of student achievement, (7 there is no interaction learning model quantum media learning concept maps and real environments, memory skills, and creativity on student achievement.
Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun
2017-01-01
The point-inclusion problem is an important secure multi-party computation that it involves two parties, where one has a private point and the other has a private area, and they want to determine whether the point is inside the area without revealing their respective private information. All previously proposed point-inclusion protocols are only suitable for a specific area, such as circle, rectangle and convex polygon. In this paper, we present a novel privacy-preserving point-inclusion quantum protocol for an arbitrary area, which is surrounded by any plane geometric figure. Compared to the classical related protocols, our protocol has the advantages of the higher security and the lower communication complexity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dominique Placko
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The distributed point source method, or DPSM, developed in the last decade has been used for solving various engineering problems—such as elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, electrostatic, and fluid flow problems. Based on a semi-analytical formulation, the DPSM solution is generally built by superimposing the point source solutions or Green’s functions. However, the DPSM solution can be also obtained by superimposing elemental solutions of volume sources having some source density called the equivalent source density (ESD. In earlier works mostly point sources were used. In this paper the DPSM formulation is modified to introduce a new kind of ESD, replacing the classical single point source by a family of point sources that are referred to as quantum sources. The proposed formulation with these quantum sources do not change the dimension of the global matrix to be inverted to solve the problem when compared with the classical point source-based DPSM formulation. To assess the performance of this new formulation, the ultrasonic field generated by a circular planer transducer was compared with the classical DPSM formulation and analytical solution. The results show a significant improvement in the near field computation.
Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Zahar, Jean Ralph; Harbarth, Stephan
2017-04-03
Contact precautions have been recommended for hospitalized patients colonized or infected with extendend-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. Despite such recommendations, a steady, worldwide increase of ESBL-E. coli has been reported. We discuss arguments in favor and against contact precautions for ESBL- E.coli-carriers.Healthcare settings with high ESBL-E.coli colonization pressure, extended hospital stay and close contact between vulnerable patients may serve as amplification platform further accelerating transmission. However, the evidence base for justifying the implementation of contact precautions for all ESBL-E.coli carriers remains weak.Until more high-level evidence is available, we support the attitude that hospitals and countries should carefully evaluate their decision on whether to implement contact precautions for ESBL-E.coli carriers. It is likely that a large majority of patients and wards do not need to rely on contact precautions for preventing nosocomial ESBL-E.coli transmission in non-epidemic settings, without harming patient-safety, providing sufficient compliance with standard precautions and ongoing surveillance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Lévy, F.; Sheikin, I.; Huxley, A.
2007-07-01
When a pure material is tuned to the point where a continuous phase-transition line is crossed at zero temperature, known as a quantum critical point (QCP), completely new correlated quantum ordered states can form. These phases include exotic forms of superconductivity. However, as superconductivity is generally suppressed by a magnetic field, the formation of superconductivity ought not to be possible at extremely high field. Here, we report that as we tune the ferromagnet, URhGe, towards a QCP by applying a component of magnetic field in the material's easy magnetic plane, superconductivity survives in progressively higher fields applied simultaneously along the material's magnetic hard axis. Thus, although superconductivity never occurs above a temperature of 0.5K, we find that it can survive in extremely high magnetic fields, exceeding 28T.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levy, F.; Huxley, A. [CEA, SPSMS, DRFMC, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Levy, F.; Sheikin, I. [CNRS, GHMFL, F-38042 Grenoble, (France); Huxley, A. [Univ Edinburgh, Scottish Univ Phys Alliance, Sch Phys, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Midlothian, (United Kingdom)
2007-07-01
When a pure material is tuned to the point where a continuous phase-transition line is crossed at zero temperature, known as a quantum critical point (QCP), completely new correlated quantum ordered states can form. These phases include exotic forms of superconductivity. However, as superconductivity is generally suppressed by a magnetic field, the formation of superconductivity ought not to be possible at extremely high field. Here, we report that as we tune the ferromagnet, URhGe, towards a QCP by applying a component of magnetic field in the material's easy magnetic plane, superconductivity survives in progressively higher fields applied simultaneously along the material's magnetic hard axis. Thus, although superconductivity never occurs above a temperature of 0.5 K, we find that it can survive in extremely high magnetic fields, exceeding 28 T. (authors)
Quantum Effects on all Lagrangian Points and Prospects to Measure Them in the Earth-Moon System
Battista, Emmanuele; Agnello, Simone Dell'; Simo, Jules
2015-01-01
The one-loop long distance quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential imply tiny but observable effects in the restricted three-body problem of celestial mechanics, i.e., both at the Lagrangian points of stable equilibrium and at those of unstable equilibrium the Newtonian values of planetoid's coordinates are changed by a few millimetres in the Earth-Moon system. First, we find that the equations governing the position of both noncollinear and collinear quantum libration points are algebraic fifth degree and ninth degree equations, respectively. Second, we discuss the prospects to measure, with the help of laser ranging, the above departure from the equilateral triangle picture, which is a challenging task. On the other hand, a modern version of the planetoid is the solar sail, and much progress has been made, in recent years, on the displaced periodic orbits of solar sails at all libration points. By taking into account the quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential, displaced periodic orbits of the...
Aharonov, D; Eban, E; Landau, Z; Aharonov, Dorit; Arad, Itai; Eban, Elad; Landau, Zeph
2007-01-01
In the first 36 pages of this paper, we provide polynomial quantum algorithms for additive approximations of the Tutte polynomial, at any point in the Tutte plane, for any planar graph. This includes as special cases the AJL algorithm for the Jones polynomial, the partition function of the Potts model for any weighted planer graph at any temperature, and many other combinatorial graph properties. In the second part of the paper we prove the quantum universality of many of the problems for which we provide an algorithm, thus providing a large set of new quantum-complete problems. Unfortunately, we do not know that this holds for the Potts model case; this is left as an important open problem. The main progress in this work is in our ability to handle non-unitary representations of the Temperley Lieb algebra, both when applying them in the algorithm, and, more importantly, in the proof of universality, when encoding quantum circuits using non-unitary operators. To this end we develop many new tools, that allow ...
Jaradat, Nour Jamal; Khanfar, Mohammad A; Habash, Maha; Taha, Mutasem Omar
2015-06-01
Check point kinase 1 (Chk1) is an important protein in G2 phase checkpoint arrest required by cancer cells to maintain cell cycle and to prevent cell death. Therefore, Chk1 inhibitors should have potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Docking-based comparative intermolecular contacts analysis (dbCICA) is a new three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship method that depends on the quality and number of contact points between docked ligands and binding pocket amino acid residues. In this presented work we implemented a novel combination of k-nearest neighbor/genetic function algorithm modeling coupled with dbCICA to select critical ligand-Chk1 contacts capable of explaining anti-Chk1 bioactivity among a long list of inhibitors. The finest set of contacts were translated into two valid pharmacophore hypotheses that were used as 3D search queries to screen the National Cancer Institute's structural database for new Chk1 inhibitors. Three potent Chk1 inhibitors were discovered with IC50 values ranging from 2.4 to 69.7 µM.
Reconstructing the formalism of quantum mechanics in the ``contextual objectivity" point of view
Grangier, P
2001-01-01
In a previous preprint (quant-ph/0012122) we introduced a ``contextual objectivity" formulation of quantum mechanics (QM). A central feature of this approach is to define the quantum state in physical rather than in mathematical terms, in such a way that it may be given an "objective reality". Here we use some ideas about the system dimensionality, taken from quant-ph/0101012, to propose a possible axiomatic approach to QM. In this approach the structure of QM appears as a direct consequence of the non-commutative character of the (classical geometrical) group of "knobs transformations", that relate between themselves the different positions of the measurement apparatus.
Gonnelli, R S; Ummarino, G A; Della Rocca, V; Calzolari, A; Stepanov, V A; Jun, J; Kazakov, S M; Karpinski, J; Dellarocca, Valeria
2004-01-01
The results of the first directional point-contact measurements in MgB2 single crystals, in the presence of magnetic fields up to 9 T either parallel or perpendicular to the ab planes, are presented. By applying suitable magnetic fields, we separated the partial contributions of the sigma and pi bands to the total Andreev-reflection conductance. Their fit with the BTK model allowed a very accurate determination of the temperature dependency of the gaps (Delta_sigma and Delta_pi), that resulted in close agreement with the predictions of the two-band models for MgB2. We also obtained, for the first time with point-contact spectroscopy, the temperature dependence of the (anisotropic) upper critical field of the sigma band and of the (isotropic) upper critical field of the pi band.
Gonnelli, R S; Daghero, D; Ummarino, G A; Stepanov, V A; Jun, J; Kazakov, S M; Karpinski, J
2002-12-01
We present the results of the first directional point-contact spectroscopy experiments in high-quality MgB2 single crystals. Because of the directionality of the current injection into the samples, the application of a magnetic field allowed us to separate the contributions of the sigma and pi bands to the total conductance of our point contacts. By using this technique, we were able to obtain the temperature dependency of each gap independent of the other. The consequent, strong reduction of the error on the value of the gap amplitude as a function of temperature allows a stricter test of the predictions of the two-band model for MgB2.
Point-contact spectroscopy on SmB/sub 6/, TmSe, LaB/sub 6/ and LaSe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frankowski, I.; Wachter, P. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik)
1982-02-01
The dynamic resistance DU/dI (U) and its derivative d/sup 2/U/dI/sup 2/ (U) of point contacts with intermediate valent SmB/sub 6/ and TmSe and their integer valent reference compounds LaB/sub 6/ and LaSe at liquid helium temperatures has been measured. While dU/dI (U) for point contacts with LaB/sub 6/ and LaSe did not show anomalous structures, for SmB/sub 6/ and TmSe a strong resistance peak at zero voltage was observed with a characteristic width of approximately 5 mV for SmB/sub 6/ and approximately 2.5 mV for TmSe.
Peng, Haibing; De, Debtanu; Wu, Zheng; Diaz-Pinto, Carlos
2012-01-01
We report a distinct experimental approach to point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy with diagnostic capability via a unique design of nano-scale normal metal/superconductor devices with excellent thermo-mechanical stability, and have employed this method to unveil the existence of two superconducting energy gaps in iron chalcogenide Fe1+yTe1-xSex which is crucial for understanding its pairing mechanism. This work opens up new opportunities to study gap structures in superconductors an...
Andreani, Carla; Senesi, Roberto
2016-01-01
This study presents the first direct and quantitative measurements of the nuclear momentum distribution anisotropy and the quantum kinetic energy tensor in stable and metastable (supercooled) water near its triple point using Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS). From the experimental spectra accurate lineshapes of the hydrogen momentum distributions are derived using an anisotropic Gaussian and a model independent framework. The experimental results, benchmarked with those obtained for the solid phase, provide the state of the art directional values of the hydrogen mean kinetic energy in metastable water. The determinations of the direction kinetic energies in the supercooled phase, benchmarked with ice at the same temperature, provide accurate and quantitative measurements of these dynamical observables in metastable and stable phases, {i.e.} key insight in the physical mechanisms of the hydrogen quantum state in both disordered and polycrystalline systems. The remarkable findings of this study establis...
3 d - 4 d hybridization anomaly in NixPd1-x alloys at quantum critical point
Swain, P.; Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Srivastava, Suneel K.
2017-07-01
First-principles density functional theory computations of electronic structure and local magnetic properties of the non-fluctuating ground state of NixPd1-x alloy system around its quantum critical point xc=0.026 have been performed. The density of states at the Fermi energy and certain other parameters characterizing the Ni 3 d - Pd 4 d hybridization apparently follow power-laws with x similar to that obeyed by the reported ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition temperature. The width of Pd 4 d density of states (DOS) and centroid of Ni 3 d DOS show peak-like anomalies in the neighbourhood of xc, and so indicate a possible scenario of the existence of a definite relation between the orbital hybridization and the emergence of quantum fluctuations in the system.
Editorial note to "The beginning of the world from the point of view of quantum theory"
Luminet, Jean-Pierre
2011-01-01
This is an editorial note to accompany reprinting as a Golden Oldie in the Journal of General Relativity and Gravitation of the famous note by Georges Lemaitre on the quantum birth of the universe, published in Nature in 1931. We explain why this short (457 words) article can be considered to be the true "Charter" of the modern Big Bang theory.
Quantum Chromodynamics, Antiferromagnets and XY Models from a Unified Point of View
Hofmann, Christoph P
2016-01-01
Antiferromagnets and quantum XY magnets in three space dimensions are described by an effective Lagrangian that exhibits the same structure as the effective Lagrangian of quantum chromodynamics with two light flavors. These systems all share a spontaneously broken internal symmetry O($N$) $\\to$ O($N$-1). Although the respective scales differ by many orders of magnitude, the general structure of the low-temperature expansion of the partition function is the same. In the nonabelian case, logarithmic terms of the form $T^8 \\ln T$ emerge at three-loop order, while for $N$=2 the series only involves powers of $T^2$. The manifestation of the Goldstone boson interaction in the pressure, order parameter, and susceptibility is explored in presence of an external field.
Quantum chromodynamics, antiferromagnets and XY models from a unified point of view
Hofmann, Christoph P.
2017-03-01
Antiferromagnets and quantum XY magnets in three space dimensions are described by an effective Lagrangian that exhibits the same structure as the effective Lagrangian of quantum chromodynamics with two light flavors. These systems all share a spontaneously broken internal symmetry O (N) → O (N - 1). Although the respective scales differ by many orders of magnitude, the general structure of the low-temperature expansion of the partition function is the same. In the nonabelian case (N ≥ 3), logarithmic terms of the form T8 ln T emerge at three-loop order, while for N = 2 the series only involves powers of T2. The manifestation of the Goldstone boson interaction in the pressure, order parameter, and susceptibility is explored in presence of an external field.
Quantum critical point of Dirac fermion mass generation without spontaneous symmetry breaking
He, Yuan-Yao; Wu, Han-Qing; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi
2016-12-01
We study a lattice model of interacting Dirac fermions in (2 +1 ) dimensions space-time with an SU(4) symmetry. While increasing the interaction strength, this model undergoes a continuous quantum phase transition from a weakly interacting Dirac semimetal to a fully gapped and nondegenerate phase without condensing any Dirac fermion bilinear mass operator. This unusual mechanism for mass generation is consistent with recent studies of interacting topological insulators/superconductors, and also consistent with recent progress in the lattice QCD community.
Quantum points in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub + sub x films with tetragonal structure
Okunev, V D; Isaev, V A; Klimov, A; Lewandowski, S J
2002-01-01
The evidence of presence of clusters with metallic conductivity in the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub + sub x epitaxial films with the tetragonal structure (x < 0.4) is presented. In spite of the dielectric properties of the samples the areas of absorption by free charge carriers are identified in their optical spectra. The availability of metallic clusters, which at low temperatures are transformed in quantum points, responsible for the rho(T) = const sections on the resistance temperature dependences, is proved by the data of the X-ray structural analysis
Chung, Jaehun; Hwang, Gwangseok; Kim, Hyeongkeun; Yang, Wooseok; Kwon, Ohmyoung
2015-11-01
In the development of graphene-based electronic devices, it is crucial to characterize the thermal contact resistance between the graphene and the substrate precisely. In this study, we demonstrate that the thermal contact resistance between CVD-grown graphene and SiO2 substrate can be obtained by measuring the temperature drop occurring at the graphene/SiO2 interface with null point scanning thermal microscopy (NP SThM), which profiles the temperature distribution quantitatively with nanoscale spatial resolution (-50 nm) without the shortcomings of the conventional SThM. The thermal contact resistance between the CVD-grown graphene and SiO2 substrate is measured as (1.7 ± 0.27) x 10(-6) M2K/W. This abnormally large thermal contact resistance seems to be caused by extrinsic factors such as ripples and metal-based contamination, which inevitably form in CVD-grown graphene during the production and transfer processes.
Quantum features derived from the classical model of a bouncer-walker coupled to a zero-point field
Schwabl, H.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Fussy, S.; Grössing, G.
2012-05-01
In our bouncer-walker model a quantum is a nonequilibrium steady-state maintained by a permanent throughput of energy. Specifically, we consider a "particle" as a bouncer whose oscillations are phase-locked with those of the energy-momentum reservoir of the zero-point field (ZPF), and we combine this with the random-walk model of the walker, again driven by the ZPF. Starting with this classical toy model of the bouncer-walker we were able to derive fundamental elements of quantum theory [1]. Here this toy model is revisited with special emphasis on the mechanism of emergence. Especially the derivation of the total energy hslashωo and the coupling to the ZPF are clarified. For this we make use of a sub-quantum equipartition theorem. It can further be shown that the couplings of both bouncer and walker to the ZPF are identical. Then we follow this path in accordance with Ref. [2], expanding the view from the particle in its rest frame to a particle in motion. The basic features of ballistic diffusion are derived, especially the diffusion constant D, thus providing a missing link between the different approaches of our previous works [1, 2].
Quantum features derived from the classical model of a bouncer-walker coupled to a zero-point field
Schwabl, Herbert; Fussy, Siegfried; Groessing, Gerhard; 10.1088/1742-6596/361/1/012021
2012-01-01
In our bouncer-walker model a quantum is a nonequilibrium steady-state maintained by a permanent throughput of energy. Specifically, we consider a "particle" as a bouncer whose oscillations are phase-locked with those of the energy-momentum reservoir of the zero-point field (ZPF), and we combine this with the random-walk model of the walker, again driven by the ZPF. Starting with this classical toy model of the bouncer-walker we were able to derive fundamental elements of quantum theory. Here this toy model is revisited with special emphasis on the mechanism of emergence. Especially the derivation of the total energy hbar.omega and the coupling to the ZPF are clarified. For this we make use of a sub-quantum equipartition theorem. It can further be shown that the couplings of both bouncer and walker to the ZPF are identical. Then we follow this path in accordance with previous work, expanding the view from the particle in its rest frame to a particle in motion. The basic features of ballistic diffusion are der...
Irreversible Behaviour and Collapse of Wave Packets in a Quantum System with Point Interactions
Guarneri, Italo
2011-01-01
A system of a particle and a harmonic oscillator, which have pure point spectrum if uncoupled, is known to acquire absolutely continuous spectrum when the particle and the oscillator are coupled by a sufficiently strong point interaction. Here the simple dynamical mechanism underlying this phenomenon is exposed. The energy of the oscillator is proven to exponentially diverge in time, while the spatial probability distribution of the particle collapses into a delta function in the interaction point. On account of this result, a generalized model with many oscillators which interact with the particle at different points is argued to provide a formal model for approximate measurement of position, and collapse of wave packets.
Irreversible behaviour and collapse of wave packets in a quantum system with point interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guarneri, Italo [Center for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Universita dell' Insubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)
2011-12-02
A system of a particle and a harmonic oscillator, which have pure point spectra if uncoupled, is known to acquire an absolutely continuous spectrum when they are coupled by a sufficiently strong point interaction. Here, the dynamical mechanism underlying this spectral phenomenon is exposed. The energy of the oscillator is proven to exponentially diverge in time, while the spatial probability distribution of the particle collapses into a {delta}-function at the interaction point. On account of this result, a generalized model with many oscillators which interact with the particle at different points is argued to provide a formal model for the approximate measurement of position and collapse of wave packets. (paper)
Evidence of a quantum critical point in Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 alloys at high Yb doping
Singh, Y. P.; Haney, D. J.; Huang, X. Y.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.; Dzero, M.; Almasan, C. C.
2015-03-01
We performed this study on single crystals of Ce1-xYbxCoIn5 alloys with the motivation to further explore some of the previously reported unusual behaviors such as robust coherence and superconductivity, non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior, and the possibility of quantum criticality in higher Yb doping. Our specific heat and electronic magneto-transport measurements on the alloy with x = 0.75 nominal doping down to temperatures (T) as low as 0.5 K and magnetic fields (H) as high as 14 T. Our analysis of both specific heat and resistivity data unveils the presence of a crossover from NFL behavior at high temperatures to Fermi-liquid (FL) behavior at lower temperatures. Our analysis also indicates that the origin of the NFL behavior is a result of quantum fluctuations of unknown origin. The H-T phase diagram extracted from resistivity and specific heat shows that the crossover from NFL to FL behavior at zero temperature occurs at H = 0. This implies that the alloy with x = 0.75 Yb concentration is quantum critical, i.e., xc = 0.75. This result of zero field quantum critical point at x = 0.75 is also confirmed from our analysis of magneto-resistance data. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant NSF DMR-1006606) and Ohio Board of Regents (Grant OBR-RIP-220573) at KSU, and by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG02- 04ER46105) at UCSD.
Point contact spectroscopy on electron doped Pr{sub 1-x}LaCe{sub x}CuO{sub 4-y}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cucolo, A.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via Allende, Baronissi (Italy); CNR-INFM Laboratorio Reg. SUPERMAT, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Piano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via Allende, Baronissi (Italy); School of Physics and Astr., University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Giubileo, F., E-mail: giubileo@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via Allende, Baronissi (Italy); CNR-INFM Laboratorio Reg. SUPERMAT, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Scarfato, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via Allende, Baronissi (Italy); Bobba, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via Allende, Baronissi (Italy); CNR-INFM Laboratorio Reg. SUPERMAT, Via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Di Bartolomeo, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, Via Allende, Baronissi (Italy)
2010-12-15
Point contact spectroscopy has been used to address the question of the symmetry of the order parameter in the superconducting Pr{sub 1-x}LaCe{sub x}CuO{sub 4-y} compound. We recorded a huge variety of data that were consistently interpreted by considering a d-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Despite the different features appearing in the tunneling conductance spectra, all data inferred a superconducting energy gap amplitude {Delta}{approx_equal}3.6{+-}0.2meV, with a conventional BCS temperature dependence and a ratio 2{Delta}/K{sub B}T{sub C{approx_equal}}3.5{+-}0.2. Also for the rare contacts showing a smaller gap value {Delta}{approx_equal}2.0meV we found the same BCS ratio confirming that we are probing a sample area with reduced superconductivity (T{sub C{approx_equal}}14K).
Malgras, Victor; Zhang, Guanran; Nattestad, Andrew; Clarke, Tracey M; Mozer, Attila J; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kim, Jung Ho
2015-12-09
This study reports evidence of dispersive transport in planar PbS colloidal quantum dot heterojunction-based devices as well as the effect of incorporating a MoO3 hole selective layer on the charge extraction behavior. Steady state and transient characterization techniques are employed to determine the complex recombination processes involved in such devices. The addition of a selective contact drastically improves the device efficiency up to 3.15% (especially due to increased photocurrent and decreased series resistance) and extends the overall charge lifetime by suppressing the main first-order recombination pathway observed in device without MoO3. The lifetime and mobility calculated for our sulfur-rich PbS-based devices are similar to previously reported values in lead-rich quantum dots-based solar cells. Nevertheless, strong Shockley-Read-Hall mechanisms appear to keep restricting charge transport, as the equilibrium voltage takes more than 1 ms to be established.
Normalizability analysis of the generalized quantum electrodynamics from the causal point of view
Bufalo, R; Soto, D E
2015-01-01
The causal perturbation theory is an axiomatic perturbative theory of the S-matrix. This formalism has as its essence the following axioms: causality, Lorentz invariance and asymptotic conditions. Any other property must be showed via the inductive method order-by-order and, of course, it depends on the particular physical model. In this work we shall study the normalizability of the generalized quantum electrodynamics in the framework of the causal approach. Furthermore, we analyse the implication of the gauge invariance onto the model and obtain the respective Ward-Takahashi-Fradkin identities.
EXAMPLES OF QUANTUM HOLONOMY WITH TOPOLOGY CHANGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taksu Cheon
2013-10-01
Full Text Available We study a family of closed quantum graphs described by one singular vertex of order n = 4. By suitable choice of the parameters specifying the singular vertex, we can construct a closed path in the parameter space that physically corresponds to the smooth interpolation of different topologies - a ring, separate two lines, separate two rings, two rings with a contact point. We find that the spectrum of a quantum particle on this family of graphs shows quantum holonomy.
Battista, Emmanuele; Esposito, Giampiero; Simo, Jules
2015-01-01
Recent work in the literature has shown that the leading long distance quantum corrections to the Newtonian potential imply tiny but observable effects in the restricted three-body problem of celestial mechanics, i.e., at the Lagrangian libration points of stable equilibrium the planetoid is not exactly at equal distance from the two bodies of large mass, but the Newtonian values of its coordinates are changed by a few millimeters in the Earth-Moon system. First, we assess such a theoretical calculation by exploiting the full theory of the quintic equation, i.e., its reduction to Bring-Jerrard form and the resulting expression of roots in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions. By performing the numerical analysis of the exact formulas for the roots, we confirm and slightly improve the theoretical evaluation of quantum corrected coordinates of Lagrangian libration points of stable equilibrium. Second, we discuss the prospects to measure, with the help of laser ranging, the above departure from the equi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolić Marko
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Operations on the common bile duct may lead to potentially serious complications such as biliary peritonitis. T-tube insertion is performed to reduce the risk of this occurring postoperatively. Biliary leakage at the point of insertion into the common bile duct, or along the fistula, can sometimes occur after T-tube removal and this has been reported extensively in the literature. We report a case where the site at which the T-tube fistula leaked proved to be the point of contact between the fistula and the anterior abdominal wall, a previously unreported complication. Case presentation A 36-year-old sub-Saharan African woman presented with gallstone-induced pancreatitis and, once her symptoms settled, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed, common bile duct stones were removed and a T-tube was inserted. Three weeks later, T-tube removal led to biliary peritonitis due to the disconnection of the T-tube fistula which was recannulated laparoscopically using a Latex drain. Conclusion This case highlights a previously unreported mechanism for bile leak following T-tube removal caused by detachment of a fistula tract at its contact point with the anterior abdominal wall. Hepatobiliary surgeons should be aware of this mechanism of biliary leakage and the use of laparoscopy to recannulate the fistula.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sigurbjörg Sigurgeirsdóttir
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This research is about ideas, interests and institutions in health care in Iceland. It describes how the idea of primary care centres as the first point of patients´ contact in health care, on one hand, and the idea of patients´ freedom to choose where to seek medical care, on the other, have been the competing views shaping the system for almost fifty years. The research seeks to shed lights on why the authorities have not succeeded in making primary care become the first point of contact in health care. It aims to create a better understanding about why and how such a gap between objectives and outcomes in public policy emerges. This study draws on published and unpublished findings from the author´s earlier research on the Icelandic health care system, and interviews with medical doctors, civil servants and politicians. Theories on policy implementation are applied in order to bring out a theoretical perspective on government´s policy implementation. Furthermore, the research brings out how issues in health care reach government´s agenda and why government´s attempts at change do sometimes succeed, but most often don´t. It concludes that better access to primary care services emphasized by the early 1970s legislation was first and foremost aimed at people living outside the two main urban areas. On the other hand, the idea of patients´ first point of contact as a goal of government policy emerged too late, its aim and implementation was too ambiguous and the tool of government applied too weak.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Ozaki, Nobuhiko; Childs, David T. D.; Sarma, Jayanta; Roberts, Timothy S.; Yasuda, Takuma; Shibata, Hiroshi; Ohsato, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Eiichiro; Ikeda, Naoki; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Hogg, Richard A.
2016-02-01
We report a broadband-gain superluminescent diode (SLD) based on self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) for application in a high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) light source. Four InAs QD layers, with sequentially shifted emission wavelengths achieved by varying the thickness of the In0.2Ga0.8As strain-reducing capping layers, were embedded in a conventional p-n heterojunction comprising GaAs and AlGaAs layers. A ridge-type waveguide with segmented contacts was formed on the grown wafer, and an as-cleaved 4-mm-long chip (QD-SLD) was prepared. The segmented contacts were effective in applying a high injection current density to the QDs and obtaining emission from excited states of the QDs, resulting in an extension of the bandwidth of the electroluminescence spectrum. In addition, gain spectra deduced with the segmented contacts indicated a broadband smooth positive gain region spanning 160 nm. Furthermore, OCT imaging with the fabricated QD-SLD was performed, and OCT images with an axial resolution of ˜4 μm in air were obtained. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the QD-SLD with segmented contacts as a high-resolution OCT light source.
Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Papadopoulos, Demetrios S.
1992-01-01
The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model, for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with the increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.
Binienda, W. K.; Roberts, G. D.; Papadopoulos, D. S.
1992-01-01
The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.
Binienda, W. K.; Roberts, G. D.; Papadopoulos, D. S.
1992-01-01
The results of in-plane four-point bend experiments on unidirectionally reinforced composite beams are presented for graphite/epoxy (T300/934) and graphite/polyimide (G30-500/PMR-15) composites. The maximum load and the location of cracks formed during failure were measured for testpieces with fibers oriented at various angles to the beam axis. Since most of the beams failed near one or more of the load points, the strength of the beams was evaluated in terms of a proposed model for the local stress distribution. In this model, an exact solution to the problem of a localized contact force acting on a unidirectionally reinforced half plane is used to describe the local stress field. The stress singularity at the load points is treated in a manner similar to the stress singularity at a crack tip in fracture mechanisms problems. Using this approach, the effect of fiber angle and elastic material properties on the strength of the beam is described in terms of a load intensity factor. For fiber angles less than 45 deg from the beam axis, a single crack is initiated near one of the load points at a critical value of the load intensity factor. The critical load intensity factor decreases with increasing fiber angle. For larger fiber angles, multiple cracks occur at locations both near and away from the load points, and the load intensity factor at failure increases sharply with increasing fiber angle.
Superconductivity around quantum critical point in P-doped iron arsenides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao Guanghan, E-mail: ghcao@zju.edu.c [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Jiang Shuai; Wang Cao; Li Yuke; Ren Zhi; Tao Qian; Dai Jianhui; Xu Zhuan [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2010-12-15
We demonstrate that, by the P/As substitution-without doping of charge carriers-in a FeAs-layer-based parent compound, superconductivity can be universally introduced. The maximum superconducting critical temperature (T{sub c}) of BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} achieves 30 K. The P doping in LnFeAsO system (Ln = La and Sm) produces superconductivity below 11 K. The normal-state resistivity obeys linear temperature dependence and the normal-state Hall coefficient shows strong temperature dependence. These non-Fermi liquid behaviors suggest magnetic quantum criticality. The maximum T{sub c} values in different systems correlates strongly with the diagonal bondangle of Fe-As-Fe, implying the important role of the next-nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange coupling in iron pnictide superconductors.
Fermi points and topological quantum phase transitions in a multi-band superconductor.
Puel, T O; Sacramento, P D; Continentino, M A
2015-10-28
The importance of models with an exact solution for the study of materials with non-trivial topological properties has been extensively demonstrated. The Kitaev model plays a guiding role in the search for Majorana modes in condensed matter systems. Also, the sp-chain with an anti-symmetric mixing among the s and p bands is a paradigmatic example of a topological insulator with well understood properties. Interestingly, these models share the same universality class for their topological quantum phase transitions. In this work we study a two-band model of spinless fermions with attractive inter-band interactions. We obtain its zero temperature phase diagram, which presents a rich variety of phases including a Weyl superconductor and a topological insulator. The transition from the topological to the trivial superconducting phase has critical exponents different from those of Kitaev's model.
Electronic and Quantum Transport Properties of Atomically Identified Si Point Defects in Graphene.
Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Zhou, Wu; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos
2014-05-15
We report high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images displaying a range of inclusions of isolated silicon atoms at the edges and inner zones of graphene layers. Whereas the incorporation of Si atoms to a graphene armchair edge involves no reconstruction of the neighboring carbon atoms, the inclusion of a Si atom to a zigzag graphene edge entails the formation of five-membered carbon rings. In all the observed atomic edge terminations, a Si atom is found bridging two C atoms in a 2-fold coordinated configuration. The atomic-scale observations are underpinned by first-principles calculations of the electronic and quantum transport properties of the structural anomalies. Experimental estimations of Si-doped graphene band gaps realized by means of transport measurements may be affected by a low doping rate of 2-fold coordinated Si atoms at the graphene edges, and 4-fold coordinated at inner zones due to the apparition of mobility gaps.
Directed Energy Transfer in Films of CdSe Quantum Dots: Beyond the Point Dipole Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zheng, Kaibo; Zídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed
2014-01-01
Understanding of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in thin films composed of quantum dots (QDs) is of fundamental and technological significance in optimal design of QD based optoelectronic devices. The separation between QDs in the densely packed films is usually smaller than the size...... dynamics of directed energy transfer in ordered multilayer QD films, which we also observe experimentally. The Monte Carlo simulations reveal that three ideal QD monolayers can provide exciton funneling efficiency above 80% from the most distant layer. Thereby, utilization of directed energy transfer can...... ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and theoretical modeling. Pairwise interdot transfer time was determined in the range of 1.5 to 2 ns by spectral analyses which enable separation of the FRET contribution from intrinsic exciton decay. A rational model is suggested by taking into account...
Quantum mechanics in a space with a finite number of points
Arik, Metin; Ildes, Medine
2016-04-01
We define a deformed kinetic energy operator for a discrete position space with a finite number of points. The structure may be either periodic or nonperiodic with well-defined end points. It is shown that for the nonperiodic case the translation operator becomes nonunitary due to the end points. This uniquely defines an algebra that has the desired unique representation. Energy eigenvalues and energy wave functions for both cases are found. As expected, in the continuum limit the solution for the nonperiodic case becomes the same as the solution of an infinite one-dimensional square well and the periodic case solution becomes the same as the solution of a particle in a box with periodic boundary conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, J.J. [Escuela Universitaria de Informática, Universidad de Valladolid, 40005 Segovia (Spain); Gadella, M., E-mail: manuelgadella1@gmail.com [Department of FTAO, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo Belén 7, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lara, L.P. [Departamento de Física, FCEIA, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avda. Pellegrini 250, Rosario (Argentina); Maldonado-Villamizar, F.H. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, 07360 México DF (Mexico)
2013-11-15
In the search for solvable or quasi-solvable models for resonances, we consider a one-dimensional potential, which is a harmonic oscillator for x<0, has a point potential at the origin of the form aδ(x)+bδ{sup ′}(x) and no interaction for x>0. After a study of this model, we add a mass jump at the origin and study the effect of the combination of the mass jump and the point potential. We obtain the behavior of resonances, bound and antibound states in terms of given parameters. In spite of the simplicity of the model, it shows quite interesting and unexpected features.
Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William; Merceret, Francis J.
2010-01-01
A technique has been developed to calculate the probability that any nearby lightning stroke is within any radius of any point of interest. In practice, this provides the probability that a nearby lightning stroke was within a key distance of a facility, rather than the error ellipses centered on the stroke. This process takes the current bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to get the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius. This new facility-centric technique will be much more useful to the space launch customers and may supersede the lightning error ellipse approach discussed in [5], [6].
Strong Coupling of a Quantum Oscillator to a Flux Qubit at Its Symmetry Point
Fedorov, A.; Feofanov, A.K.; Macha, P.; Forn-Díaz, P.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.
2010-01-01
A flux qubit biased at its symmetry point shows a minimum in the energy splitting (the gap), providing protection against flux noise. We have fabricated a qubit of which the gap can be tuned fast and have coupled this qubit strongly to an LC oscillator. We show full spectroscopy of the qubit-oscilla
Aramburu, José Antonio; García-Fernández, Pablo; García-Lastra, Juan María; Moreno, Miguel
2016-07-18
First-principle calculations together with analysis of the experimental data found for 3d(9) and 3d(7) ions in cubic oxides proved that the center found in irradiated CaO:Ni(2+) corresponds to Ni(+) under a static Jahn-Teller effect displaying a compressed equilibrium geometry. It was also shown that the anomalous positive g∥ shift (g∥ -g0 =0.065) measured at T=20 K obeys the superposition of the |3 z(2) -r(2) ⟩ and |x(2) -y(2) ⟩ states driven by quantum effects associated with the zero-point motion, a mechanism first put forward by O'Brien for static Jahn-Teller systems and later extended by Ham to the dynamic Jahn-Teller case. To our knowledge, this is the first genuine Jahn-Teller system (i.e. in which exact degeneracy exists at the high-symmetry configuration) exhibiting a compressed equilibrium geometry for which large quantum effects allow experimental observation of the effect predicted by O'Brien. Analysis of the calculated energy barriers for different Jahn-Teller systems allowed us to explain the origin of the compressed geometry observed for CaO:Ni(+) .
General properties of the n-point functions in local quantum field theory
Epstein, H; Stora, Raymond Félix
1976-01-01
One of the most satisfactory aspects of relativistic local quantum field theory is the asymptotic theory of Haag and Ruelle: starting from a few simple hypotheses (locality, relativistic invariance, and spectrum, including the explicit exclusion of zero-mass states) the existence of the scattering operator S and of scattering amplitudes is established: these amplitudes can then be expressed through the 'reduction formulae' of L.S.Z. (rigorously proved in the framework of the Haag-Ruelle theory by Hepp for Wightman fields, and by Araki for bounded local observables) as the restrictions to the mass-shell of the Fourier transforms of (amputated) chronological functions. The latter, through the interplay of locality and spectrum, can be shown to be boundary values of certain analytic functions (Green functions), and this is the origin of analyticity properties of the scattering amplitudes. The purpose of these lectures is to set the scene for the study of such analyticity properties by giving a description of the...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cong, P. T., E-mail: t.pham@hzdr.de [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Postulka, L.; Wolf, B.; Ritter, F.; Assmus, W.; Krellner, C.; Lang, M., E-mail: michael.lang@physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Well, N. van [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)
2016-10-14
Magneto-acoustic investigations of the frustrated triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} were performed for the longitudinal modes c{sub 11} and c{sub 33} in magnetic fields along the a-axis. The temperature dependence of the sound velocity at zero field shows a mild softening at low temperature and displays a small kink-like anomaly at T{sub N}. Isothermal measurements at T < T{sub N} of the sound attenuation α reveal two closely spaced features of different characters on approaching the material's quantum-critical point (QCP) at B{sub s} ≈ 8.5 T for B || a. The peak at slightly lower fields remains sharp down to the lowest temperature and can be attributed to the ordering temperature T{sub N}(B). The second anomaly, which is rounded and which becomes reduced in size upon cooling, is assigned to the material's spin-liquid properties preceding the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with decreasing temperature. These two features merge upon cooling suggesting a coincidence at the QCP. The elastic constant at lowest temperatures of our experiment at 32 mK can be well described by a Landau free energy model with a very small magnetoelastic coupling constant G/k{sub B} ≈ 2.8 K. The applicability of this classical model indicates the existence of a small gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum which drives the system away from quantum criticality.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔珊; 何兰坡; 洪晓晨; 朱相德; Cedomir Petrovic; 李世燕
2016-01-01
It was found that selenium doping can suppress the charge-density-wave (CDW) order and induce bulk supercon-ductivity in ZrTe3. The observed superconducting dome suggests the existence of a CDW quantum critical point (QCP) in ZrTe3−x Sex near x≈0.04. To elucidate the superconducting state near the CDW QCP, we measure the thermal conductivity of two ZrTe3−x Sex single crystals (x=0.044 and 0.051) down to 80 mK. For both samples, the residual linear termκ0/T at zero field is negligible, which is a clear evidence for nodeless superconducting gap. Furthermore, the field dependence ofκ0/T manifests a multigap behavior. These results demonstrate multiple nodeless superconducting gaps in ZrTe3−x Sex , which indicates conventional superconductivity despite of the existence of a CDW QCP.
Finite-temperature scaling close to Ising-nematic quantum critical points in two-dimensional metals
Punk, Matthias
2016-11-01
We study finite-temperature properties of metals close to an Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two spatial dimensions. In particular we show that at any finite temperature there is a regime where order parameter fluctuations are characterized by a dynamical critical exponent z =2 , in contrast to z =3 found at zero temperature. Our results are based on a simple Eliashberg-type approach, which gives rise to a boson self-energy proportional to Ω /γ (T ) at small momenta, where γ (T ) is the temperature dependent fermion scattering rate. These findings might shed some light on recent Monte Carlo simulations at finite temperature, where results consistent with z =2 were found.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawasaki, S; Tabuchi, T; Zheng Guoqing [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Wang, X F; Chen, X H [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2010-05-15
{sup 75}As-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements are performed on CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} under pressure. At P = 4.7 and 10.8 kbar, the temperature dependencies of nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T{sub 1}) measured in the tetragonal phase show no coherence peak just below T{sub c}(P) and decrease with decreasing temperature. The superconductivity is gapless at P = 4.7 kbar but evolves to that with multiple gaps at P = 10.8 kbar. We find that the superconductivity appears near a quantum critical point under pressures in the range 4.7 kbar {<=} P {<=} 10.8 kbar. Both electron correlation and superconductivity disappear in the collapsed tetragonal phase. A systematic study under pressure indicates that electron correlations play a vital role in forming Cooper pairs in this compound.
Fixed point structure of the conformal factor field in quantum gravity
Dietz, Juergen A.; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zoë H.
2016-12-01
The O (∂2) background-independent flow equations for conformally reduced gravity are shown to be equivalent to flow equations naturally adapted to scalar field theory with a wrong-sign kinetic term. This sign change is shown to have a profound effect on the renormalization group properties, broadly resulting in a continuum of fixed points supporting both a discrete and a continuous eigenoperator spectrum, the latter always including relevant directions. The properties at the Gaussian fixed point are understood in particular depth, but also detailed studies of the local potential approximation, and the full O (∂2) approximation are given. These results are related to evidence for asymptotic safety found by other authors.
Generalized One-Dimensional Point Interaction in Relativistic and Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Shigehara, T; Mishima, T; Cheon, T; Cheon, Taksu
1999-01-01
We first give the solution for the local approximation of a four parameter family of generalized one-dimensional point interactions within the framework of non-relativistic model with three neighboring $\\delta$ functions. We also discuss the problem within relativistic (Dirac) framework and give the solution for a three parameter family. It gives a physical interpretation for so-called high energy substantially differ between non-relativistic and relativistic cases.
Probing the quantum-classical connection with open quantum dots
Ferry, D. K.; Akis, R.; Brunner, R.
2015-10-01
Open quantum dots provide a natural system in which to study both classical and quantum features of transport. From the classical point of view these dots possess a mixed phase space which yields families of closed, regular orbits as well as an expansive sea of chaos. As a closed test bed, they provide a natural system with a very rich set of eigen-states. When coupled to the environment through a pair of quantum point contacts, each of which passes several modes, the original quantum environment evolves into a set of decoherent and coherent states, which eventually couple to the classical states discussed above. The manner of this connection is governed strongly by decoherence theory. The remaining coherent states possess all the properties of pointer states. Here, we discuss the quantum-classical connection and how it appears within the experimental world.
Points of Contact, Points of Distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jakob Isak
2016-01-01
of co-production set-ups by discussing two recent cases that involve American co-production partners, namely HBO and Netflix. The article highlights tension and resistance at media systemic, organisational and narrative/aesthetic levels prohibiting or undermining the ‘transnational dialogues’ between DR...... and TV2 on one hand, and HBO and Netflix on the other....
Management of Service Brand Contact Point based on Customer Experience%基于顾客体验的服务品牌接触点管理
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗选荣; 韩顺平
2013-01-01
品牌一直是营销研究领域关注的重点内容。而在现有的研究中，对于服务品牌的研究还远远不够。在顾客接受服务的过程中，顾客可能通过接触不同的人员或者服务体验，从而形成不同的服务品牌评价。这种服务品牌的感知和体验对于顾客的口碑和品牌传播具有深远的影响。本文旨在探究不同服务接触点对顾客服务品牌评价的影响，丰富和补充现有文献中对服务品牌的研究。以扎根理论为主导工具，通过收集分析顾客对经济型连锁酒店的网上评论帖子，构建了基于顾客体验的服务品牌接触点模型，探讨了影响顾客体验从而最后影响服务品牌的接触点。研究发现服务质量、服务价格、服务设施和周边情况四个品牌接触点会影响到顾客体验，从而最终影响到顾客的品牌评价。当然，文章也存在一些局限，扎根理论的研究方法在管理学营销学中的应用还不够成熟，本文的研究对象和样本数据的代表性也有些欠缺。% Brand has always been the focus of marketing research. In the existing research, however, investigations of the service brand are not enough. In the process of receiving services, customers can contact with different service stuffs or service ex-perience, thus to form different evaluation of service brand. This perception and experience of service brand has a profound effect on customers' word-of-mouth and brand communication. This article aims to explore the effect of different contact point on cus-tomers' evaluation of service brand, enrich and supplement the existing literature on service brand. Applying Grounded Theory ap-proach and analyzing the online comments for budget hotels, this paper constructs a contact point model of service brand based on customer experience, to investigate the contact points which affect the customer experience and finally influence the service brand. The study
Alvarez, J. J.; Gadella, M.; Lara, L. P.; Maldonado-Villamizar, F. H.
2013-11-01
In the search for solvable or quasi-solvable models for resonances, we consider a one-dimensional potential, which is a harmonic oscillator for x0. After a study of this model, we add a mass jump at the origin and study the effect of the combination of the mass jump and the point potential. We obtain the behavior of resonances, bound and antibound states in terms of given parameters. In spite of the simplicity of the model, it shows quite interesting and unexpected features.
Gomez-Rocha, Maria
2014-01-01
The point-form version of the Bakamjian-Thomas construction is applied to the description of several semileptonic decays of mesons. Weak form factors are extracted without ambiguity for pseudoscalar-to-pseudoscalar as well as for pseudoscalar-to-vector transitions of mesons from the most general covariant decomposition of the weak current. No manifestation of cluster-separability violation appears in the form of non-physical contributions to the structure of such a current, in contrast to what happens in the electromagnetic case. Moreover, no frame dependence is observed when we extract the form factors from the most general covariant decomposition of the current, which contrasts with analogous front-form calculations that involve vector mesons in the transition. We present our results for heavy-light meson decays, i.e. $B\\to D$, as well as for $B$ and $D$ mesons decaying into $\\pi$, $\\rho$ and $K^{(*)}$ and perform a numerical comparison with the analogous front-form approach. Differences between point and f...
Al-Hashimi, M H; Wiese, U -J
2014-01-01
We consider the Schr\\"odinger equation for a relativistic point particle in an external 1-dimensional $\\delta$-function potential. Using dimensional regularization, we investigate both bound and scattering states, and we obtain results that are consistent with the abstract mathematical theory of self-adjoint extensions of the pseudo-differential operator $H = \\sqrt{p^2 + m^2}$. Interestingly, this relatively simple system is asymptotically free. In the massless limit, it undergoes dimensional transmutation and it possesses an infra-red conformal fixed point. Thus it can be used to illustrate non-trivial concepts of quantum field theory in the simpler framework of relativistic quantum mechanics.
Quantum chemical calculations using the Floating Point Systems, Inc. Model 164 attached processor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shepard, R.; Bair, R.A.; Eades, R.A.; Wagner, A.F.; Davis, M.J.; Harding, L.B.; Dunning, T.H. Jr.
1983-01-01
The Theoretical Chemistry Group at Argonne National Laboratory has had a Floating Point System, Inc., Model 164 Attached Processor (FPS-164) for several months. Actual production calculations, as well as benchmark calculations, indicate that the FPS-164 is capable of performance comparable to large mainframe computers, the groups experience with the FPS-164 includes the conversion of a complete system of electronic structure codes, including integral evaluation programs, generalized valence bond programs, integral transformation programs, and unitary group configuration interaction programs, and two classical trajectory codes. Timings of these programs at various levels of optimization along with estimates of the amount of effort required to make the necessary program modifications are discussed. 10 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Atilola Olayinka
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of adverse social indicators and a predominantly youthful population puts Nigeria, and indeed many countries of sub-Sahara Africa, at the risk of explosion in the number of youth coming in contact with the juvenile justice system. Despite this risk, custodial childcare systems in the region are still poorly developed with both juvenile offenders and neglected adolescents coming in contact with the systems being kept in the same incarcerating facility. The needs of these different groups of adolescents may be different. Knowing their common and unique needs can inform common prevention strategies and ensure that specific service-needs of different categories of adolescents in institutional custody are met. Methods Data on the family background, pre-contact social circumstance, neurological and anthropometric profiles, and certain aspects of mental health of adolescents drawn from two juvenile justice institutions in Nigeria were obtained. The results for the adolescents on ‘criminal code’ and those admitted as a case of child neglect were compared using chi-square and odd ratios. Results Participants were 211 adolescents comprising of 158 on ‘criminal code’ and 53 declared as ‘neglected’. A lot of similarities were found. For instance, the prevalence of parental separation, family transition, experience of street-life and lifetime exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress was equally high among the two groups of adolescents. The adolescents on ‘criminal code’ however had significantly higher prevalence of conduct and alcohol/substance use disorders while the child neglect group had poorer anthropometric profiles and higher prevalence of neurological disorders. Conclusions Child neglect and juvenile delinquency in Nigeria may truly be different points of a continuum. There are however fundamental differences that can warrant specific prevention strategies and tailor-made service
Indjin, D.; Ikonić, Z.; Harrison, P.; Kelsall, R. W.
2003-09-01
Improved designs of surface plasmon waveguides for use in GaAs/AlGaAs terahertz quantum cascade lasers are presented. Modal losses and confinement factors are calculated for TM modes in metal-variably doped multilayer semiconductor and metal-intermetallic compound layer clad structures and compared with those obtained in recently realized metal-highly doped semiconductor clad layer structures. Considerable improvements of the mode confinement factors are predicted, and guidelines for choosing the confinement layer parameters are given.
Biswas, P K; Gogonea, Valentin
2008-10-21
We present an ab initio polarizable representation of classical molecular mechanics (MM) atoms by employing an angular momentum-based expansion scheme of the point charges into partial wave orbitals. The charge density represented by these orbitals can be fully polarized, and for hybrid quantum-mechanical-molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) calculations, mutual polarization within the QM/MM Hamiltonian can be obtained. We present the mathematical formulation and the analytical expressions for the energy and forces pertaining to the method. We further develop a variational scheme to appropriately determine the expansion coefficients and then validate the method by considering polarizations of ions by the QM system employing the hybrid GROMACS-CPMD QM/MM program. Finally, we present a simpler prescription for adding isotropic polarizability to MM atoms in a QM/MM simulation. Employing this simpler scheme, we present QM/MM energy minimization results for the classic case of a water dimer and a hydrogen sulfide dimer. Also, we present single-point QM/MM results with and without the polarization to study the change in the ionization potential of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) in water and the change in the interaction energy of solvated BH(4) (described by MM) with the P(450) heme described by QM. The model can be employed for the development of an extensive classical polarizable force-field.
Quesne, C.
2016-10-01
The quantum oscillator and Kepler-Coulomb problems in d-dimensional spaces with constant curvature are analyzed from several viewpoints. In a deformed supersymmetric framework, the corresponding nonlinear potentials are shown to exhibit a deformed shape invariance property. By using the point canonical transformation method, the two deformed Schrödinger equations are mapped onto conventional ones corresponding to some shape-invariant potentials, whose rational extensions are well known. The inverse point canonical transformations then provide some rational extensions of the oscillator and Kepler-Coulomb potentials in curved space. The oscillator on the sphere and the Kepler-Coulomb potential in a hyperbolic space are studied in detail and their extensions are proved to be consistent with already known ones in Euclidean space. The partnership between nonextended and extended potentials is interpreted in a deformed supersymmetric framework. Those extended potentials that are isospectral to some nonextended ones are shown to display deformed shape invariance, which in the Kepler-Coulomb case is enlarged by also translating the degree of the polynomial arising in the rational part denominator.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIU Lilan
2014-01-01
In the Tibet Autonomous Region , Lhasa and Shigatse are the two core cities in the region’ s development , and they play a leading role for the development of other counties and cit-ies.From the perspective of research on urban ag-glomeration and urban geography , the two cities have a relationship of interactive contact and com-mon development .Within the context of rapid ur-banization in China , the interactive development between Lhasa and Shigatse has become an inevita-ble research focus for the socio-economic construc-tion of Tibet . The intensity of economic contact is used tomeasure the degree of regional economic ties.Onthe one hand, it can reflect the city’ s economiccenter ability to radiate out to the surrounding areas.On the other hand, it can also reflect the levelof acceptance of the surrounding areas to the city’s economic center ability to radiate out tothem.According to the results of economic calculation,the intensity of economic contact betweenLhasa and Shigatse from 2007 to 2011 steadily increasedwith an annual rate of about 20%.Thecontinuous increase of the intensity of economiccontact also meant that the influence of Lhasa andShigatse on the surrounding cities is expanding .Moreover, comparative data show that due to restrictionson the population and level of economicdevelopment, there is still a big gap in Lhasa andShigatse if compared with other urbanized areas inChina.However, regarding the increasing speedof the intensity of contact with other core cities,Lhasa and Shigatse have achieved remarkable a -chievements. During the 1930’ s, William J.Reilly proposedthe Law of Retail Gravitation which was usedby P.D.Converse in the field of urban managementto differentiate the scope of influence ofneighboring cities.In 1949, he put forward theconcept of “Breaking Point” together with a relevantcomputational formula.The Breaking Point isnormally determined by the scale of two cities andthe distance between them.According to the
Multiple gaps in SmFeAsO{sub 0.9}F{sub 0.1} revealed by point-contact spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Yonglei; Shan Lei; Fang Lei; Cheng Peng; Ren Cong; Wen Haihu [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China)], E-mail: lshan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hhwen@aphy.iphy.ac.cn
2009-01-15
We report the observation of two gaps in the superconductor SmFeAsO{sub 0.9}F{sub 0.1} (F-SmFeAsO) with T{sub c} = 51.5 K as measured by point-contact spectroscopy. Both gaps decrease with temperature and vanish at T{sub c}, and the temperature dependence of the gaps is described by the theoretical prediction of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. A zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) was observed, indicating the presence of sign reversal of the gap function in F-SmFeAsO. Our results strongly suggest an unconventional superconductivity with multiple gaps in F-SmFeAsO.
Escudero, Roberto; López-Romero, Rodolfo E.
2015-10-01
The superconductor FeSe0.5Te0.5 was studied with Point Contact spectroscopy and specific heat in polycrystalline samples. The transition temperature determined by magnetic measurement was TC=14.5 K. The size of the energy gap measured by junctions is Δ = 1.9 meV, whereas the gap determined by the specific heat measurements was Δ = 2.3 meV. The gap evolution with temperature follows BCS, the ratio 2Δ/KBTC has values between 2.88 ≤ 2 Δ /KBTC ≤ 3.04. The compound was grown by solid state synthesis in quartz ampoules under vacuum at 950 °C. Crystal structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction. The superconducting properties were characterized by magnetization, resistivity and specific heat. This superconductor shows an isotropic energy gap as observed with the fitting of the specific heat at low temperature.
Yue, Q; Kang, K J; Cheng, J P; Li, Y J; Lin, S T; Chang, J P; Chen, N; Chen, Q H; Chen, Y H; Chuang, Y C; Deng, Z; Du, Q; Gong, H; Hao, X Q; He, H J; He, Q J; Huang, H X; Huang, T R; Jiang, H; Li, H B; Li, J M; Li, J; Li, X; Li, X Y; Li, Y L; Liao, H Y; Lin, F K; Liu, S K; Lv, L C; Ma, H; Mao, S J; Qin, J Q; Ren, J; Ruan, X C; Shen, M B; Singh, L; Singh, M K; Soma, A K; Su, J; Tang, C J; Tseng, C H; Wang, J M; Wang, L; Wang, Q; Wong, H T; Wu, S Y; Wu, Y C; Xianyu, Z Z; Xiao, R Q; Xing, H Y; Xu, F Z; Xu, Y; Xu, X J; Xue, T; Yang, L T; Yang, S W; Yi, N; Yu, C X; Yu, H; Yu, X Z; Zeng, X H; Zeng, Z; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y H; Zhao, M G; Zhou, Z Y; Zhu, J J; Zhu, W B; Zhu, X Z; Zhu, Z H
2014-01-01
We report results of a search for light Dark Matter WIMPs with CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jingping Underground Laboratory, based on 53.9 kg-days of data from a p-type point-contact germanium detector enclosed by a NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator as anti-Compton detector. All events above the analysis threshold of 475 eVee can be quantitatively accounted for with the understood background channels, and there is no excess of residual events. An order of magnitude improvement in the sensitivities of spin-independent elastic cross-section over our previous results is achieved. Part of the allowed regions at WIMP mass of 6-20 GeV are probed and excluded.
Yue, Q.; Zhao, W.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Liu, S. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wong, H. T.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration
2014-11-01
We report results of a search for light dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory, based on 53.9 kg-days of data from a p -type point-contact germanium detector enclosed by a NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator as anti-Compton detector. The event rate and spectrum above the analysis threshold of 475 eVee are consistent with the understood background model. Part of the allowed regions for WIMP-nucleus coherent elastic scattering at WIMP mass of 6-20 GeV are probed and excluded. Independent of interaction channels, this result contradicts the interpretation that the anomalous excesses of the CoGeNT experiment are induced by dark matter, since identical detector techniques are used in both experiments.
Rose, F.; Dupuis, N.
2017-01-01
Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization-group approach to the two-dimensional quantum O (N ) model, we compute the low-frequency limit ω →0 of the zero-temperature conductivity in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. Our results are obtained from a derivative expansion to second order of a scale-dependent effective action in the presence of an external (i.e., nondynamical) non-Abelian gauge field. While in the disordered phase the conductivity tensor σ (ω ) is diagonal, in the ordered phase it is defined, when N ≥3 , by two independent elements, σA(ω ) and σB(ω ) , respectively associated to SO (N ) rotations which do and do not change the direction of the order parameter. For N =2 , the conductivity in the ordered phase reduces to a single component σA(ω ) . We show that limω→0σ (ω ,δ ) σA(ω ,-δ ) /σq2 is a universal number, which we compute as a function of N (δ measures the distance to the quantum critical point, q is the charge, and σq=q2/h the quantum of conductance). On the other hand we argue that the ratio σB(ω →0 ) /σq is universal in the whole ordered phase, independent of N and, when N →∞ , equal to the universal conductivity σ*/σq at the quantum critical point.
Electromagnetic rho-meson form factors in point-form relativistic quantum mechanics
Biernat, Elmar P
2014-01-01
The relativistic point-form formalism which we proposed for the study of the electroweak structure of few-body bound states is applied to calculate the elastic form factors of spin-1 mesons, such as the rho, within constituent-quark models. We treat electron-meson scattering as a Poincare-invariant coupled-channel problem for a Bakamjian-Thomas mass operator and extract the meson current from the resulting invariant 1-photon-exchange amplitude. Wrong cluster properties inherent in the Bakamjian-Thomas framework are seen to cause spurious contributions in the current. These contributions, however, can be separated unambiguously from the physical ones and we end up with a meson current with all required properties. Numerical results for the rho-meson form factors are presented assuming a simple harmonic-oscillator bound-state wave function. The comparison with other approaches reveals a remarkable agreement of our results with those obtained within the covariant light-front scheme proposed by Carbonell et al.
Goh, S K; Tompsett, D A; Saines, P J; Chang, H C; Matsumoto, T; Imai, M; Yoshimura, K; Grosche, F M
2015-03-06
The quasiskutterudite superconductor Sr_{3}Rh_{4}Sn_{13} features a pronounced anomaly in electrical resistivity at T^{*}∼138 K. We show that the anomaly is caused by a second-order structural transition, which can be tuned to 0 K by applying physical pressure and chemical pressure via the substitution of Ca for Sr. A broad superconducting dome is centered around the structural quantum critical point. Detailed analysis of the tuning parameter dependence of T^{*} as well as insights from lattice dynamics calculations strongly support the existence of a structural quantum critical point at ambient pressure when the fraction of Ca is 0.9 (i.e., x_{c}=0.9). This establishes the (Ca_{x}Sr_{1-x})_{3}Rh_{4}Sn_{13} series as an important system for exploring the physics of structural quantum criticality without the need of applying high pressures.
Dissipative tunneling in structures with quantum dots and quantum molecules
Dahnovsky, Yu. I.; Krevchik, V. D.; Semenov, M. B.; Yamamoto, K.; Zhukovsky, V. Ch.; Aringazin, A. K.; Kudryashov, E. I.; Mayorov, V. G.
2005-01-01
The problem of tunneling control in systems "quantum dot - quantum well" (as well as "quantum dot - quantum dot" or quantum molecule) and "quantum dot - bulk contact" is studied as a quantum tunneling with dissipation process in the semiclassical (instanton) approximation. For these systems temperature and correlation between a quantum dot radius and a quantum well width (or another quantum dot radius) are considered to be control parameters. The condition for a single electron blockade is fo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emamipour, Hamidreza, E-mail: h_emamipour@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Ilam University, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrabzad, Narges [Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-07-15
We study tunneling conductance in a quantum wire–insulator–ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor junction. The results show that exchange field of superconductor has a strong impact on tunneling spectra depending on the junction parameters. We have found a gap like structure in the tunneling limit when we have an interface normal to the (100) axis of superconductor. In the case of (110) axis of superconductor, there is not any zero- bias conductance peaks in tunneling spectra. For a metallic junction the dips disappear.
Quantum Critical Point, Scaling, and Universality in High Tc [CaxLa(1-x)][Ba(2-c-x)La(c+x)]Cu3Oy
2005-01-01
Using charge transport observations on sintered ceramic samples of CLBLCO, we failed to observe the Quantum Critical Point (QCP) where it is expected. Experimental data relating Cooper pair density, electrical conductivity, and superconductivity critical temperature suggest that Homes' relation might need a more specific definition of 'sigma'. Transport observations on YBCO single crystals will resolve this question.
Nonradiative recombination due to Ar implantation induced point defects in GaInN/GaN quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langer, Torsten; Pietscher, Hans-Georg; Joenen, Holger; Rossow, Uwe; Bremers, Heiko; Hangleiter, Andreas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Menzel, Dirk [Institut fuer Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany)
2013-07-01
We quantitatively investigate nonradiative recombination at point defects via temperature dependent time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy on argon implanted MOVPE-grown GaInN/GaN single quantum wells (QW). An implantation dose dependent (doses: 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}-10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}) reduction of nonradiative lifetimes from several nanoseconds (unimplanted sample) to less than 100 ps at room temperature is observed. This shortening of nonradiative lifetimes is attributed to nonradiative recombination due to increased implantation induced defect densities. An effective hole capture coefficient can be estimated to about 10{sup 9} cm{sup 3}s{sup -1} via the measured nonradiative lifetimes and simulated (SRIM) defect densities. The thermal stability of the defects is analyzed using rapid thermal annealing at 800 {sup circle} C in order to recover the crystal from implantation damage. At high temperatures, nonradiative recombination in the barriers becomes dominant: defect density dependent losses with an activation energy equal to half the difference between the GaN band gap and the peak position of the QW luminescence are observed.
Kleine, Christian; Mußhoff, Julian; Anders, Frithjof B.
2014-12-01
The energy-dependent scattering of fermions from a localized orbital at an energy-dependent rate Γ (ɛ ) ∝|ɛ| r gives rise to quantum critical points (QCPs) in the pseudogap single-impurity Anderson model separating a local moment phase with an unscreened spin moment from a strong-coupling phase which slightly deviates from the screened phase of standard Kondo problem. Using the time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TD-NRG) approach we show that local dynamic properties always equilibrate towards a steady-state value even for quenches across the QCP but with systematic deviations from the thermal equilibrium depending on the distance to the critical coupling. Local nonequilibrium properties are presented for interaction quenches and hybridization quenches. We augment our numerical data by an analytical calculation that becomes exact at short times and find excellent agreement between the numerics and the analytical theory. For interaction quenches within the screened phase we find a universal function for the time-dependent local double occupancy. We trace back the discrepancy between our results and the data obtained by a time-dependent Gutzwiller variational approach to restrictions of the wave-function ansatz in the Gutzwiller theory: while the NRG ground states properly account for the formation of an extended spin moment which decouples from the system in the unscreened phase, the Gutzwiller ansatz only allows the formation of the spin moment on the local impurity orbital.
Viel, Alexandra; Coutinho-Neto, Maurício D; Manthe, Uwe
2007-01-14
Quantum dynamics calculations of the ground state tunneling splitting and of the zero point energy of malonaldehyde on the full dimensional potential energy surface proposed by Yagi et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 1154, 10647 (2001)] are reported. The exact diffusion Monte Carlo and the projection operator imaginary time spectral evolution methods are used to compute accurate benchmark results for this 21-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface. A tunneling splitting of 25.7+/-0.3 cm-1 is obtained, and the vibrational ground state energy is found to be 15 122+/-4 cm-1. Isotopic substitution of the tunneling hydrogen modifies the tunneling splitting down to 3.21+/-0.09 cm-1 and the vibrational ground state energy to 14 385+/-2 cm-1. The computed tunneling splittings are slightly higher than the experimental values as expected from the potential energy surface which slightly underestimates the barrier height, and they are slightly lower than the results from the instanton theory obtained using the same potential energy surface.
Habershon, Scott; Manolopoulos, David E
2009-12-28
The approximate quantum mechanical ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) methods are compared and contrasted in a study of the dynamics of the flexible q-TIP4P/F water model at room temperature. For this water model, a RPMD simulation gives a diffusion coefficient that is only a few percent larger than the classical diffusion coefficient, whereas a LSC-IVR simulation gives a diffusion coefficient that is three times larger. We attribute this discrepancy to the unphysical leakage of initially quantized zero point energy (ZPE) from the intramolecular to the intermolecular modes of the liquid as the LSC-IVR simulation progresses. In spite of this problem, which is avoided by construction in RPMD, the LSC-IVR may still provide a useful approximation to certain short-time dynamical properties which are not so strongly affected by the ZPE leakage. We illustrate this with an application to the liquid water dipole absorption spectrum, for which the RPMD approximation breaks down at frequencies in the O-H stretching region owing to contamination from the internal modes of the ring polymer. The LSC-IVR does not suffer from this difficulty and it appears to provide quite a promising way to calculate condensed phase vibrational spectra.
Isobe, Hiroki; Yang, Bohm-Jung; Chubukov, Andrey; Schmalian, Jörg; Nagaosa, Naoto
2016-02-19
We study the effects of Coulomb interaction between 2D Weyl fermions with anisotropic dispersion which displays relativistic dynamics along one direction and nonrelativistic dynamics along the other. Such a dispersion can be realized in phosphorene under electric field or strain, in TiO_{2}/VO_{2} superlattices, and, more generally, at the quantum critical point between a nodal semimetal and an insulator in systems with a chiral symmetry. Using the one-loop renormalization group approach in combination with the large-N expansion, we find that the system displays interaction-driven non-Fermi liquid behavior in a wide range of intermediate frequencies and marginal Fermi liquid behavior at the smallest frequencies. In the non-Fermi liquid regime, the quasiparticle residue Z at energy E scales as Z∝E^{a} with a>0, and the parameters of the fermionic dispersion acquire anomalous dimensions. In the marginal Fermi-liquid regime, Z∝(|logE|)^{-b} with universal b=3/2.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Svanidze
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A quantum critical point (QCP occurs upon chemical doping of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Sc_{3.1}In. Remarkable for a system with no local moments, the QCP is accompanied by non-Fermi liquid behavior, manifested in the logarithmic divergence of the specific heat both in the ferro-and the paramagnetic states, as well as linear temperature dependence of the low-temperature resistivity. With doping, critical scaling is observed close to the QCP, as the critical exponents δ, γ, and β have weak composition dependence, with δ nearly twice and β almost half of their respective mean-field values. The unusually large paramagnetic moment μ_{PM}∼1.3μ_{B}/F.U. is nearly composition independent. Evidence for strong spin fluctuations, accompanying the QCP at x_{c}=0.035±0.005, may be ascribed to the reduced dimensionality of Sc_{3.1}In, associated with the nearly one-dimensional Sc-In chains.
Hofer, H P; Wildburger, R; Szyszkowitz, R
2001-09-01
The recent trend in all surgical disciplines has been the development of techniques in minimally invasive surgery and the optimal maintenance of the blood supply to the bone fragments during osteosynthesis. Currently, the Point Contact Fixator (PC-Fix) has been introduced as a new implant for the stabilization of forearm bones. This plate-like splint and screw fixation system, which actually acts as an internal fixator, is characterized by minimized isolated contacts to the bone and proven angular stability of the monocortically locked screws. By using the PC-Fix, a further reduction of damage to the blood supply to the bone is achieved. Since 1994, 38 patients have been treated with this new device; we have reviewed the radiographs of 52 consolidated forearm fractures/osteotomies in accordance with the patterns of bone healing associated with the different methods of implant application according to the fracture type. In the groups in which traditionally precise reduction, interfragmentary compression and stable fixation was achieved (N=31), we found in 71% an absence of periosteal callus (direct bone healing). In the groups in which compression and adaptation were combined, or even main fragments adapted without compression, with wedges remaining unreduced in soft tissue connection (N=21), we found a visible external callus in 81% (indirect healing) (P = 0.002). Indirect healing after internal fixation is no longer regarded as a disturbance to healing, but is a goal in itself. The appearance of callus is a welcome sign indicating a prompt and positive reaction in the course of bone union which will lead to progressive fracture immobilization. When using the PC-Fix in a "biological way", callus formation and solid union take place earlier than in conventional plating. The new internal fixator offers substantial technical and mechanical advantages in fracture treatment. Therefore, it is an ideal implant to satisfy the requirements of modern biological
Yu, Shoukai; Lemos, Bernardo
2016-12-31
Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) account for >60% of all RNAs in eukaryotic cells and are encoded in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays. The rRNAs are produced from two sets of loci: the 5S rDNA array resides exclusively on human chromosome 1, whereas the 45S rDNA array resides on the short arm of five human acrocentric chromosomes. The 45S rDNA gives origin to the nucleolus, the nuclear organelle that is the site of ribosome biogenesis. Intriguingly, 5S and 45S rDNA arrays exhibit correlated copy number variation in lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs). Here we examined the genomic architecture and repeat content of the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays in multiple human genome assemblies (including PacBio MHAP assembly) and ascertained contacts between the rDNA arrays and the rest of the genome using Hi-C datasets from two human cell lines (erythroleukemia K562 and lymphoblastoid cells). Our analyses revealed that 5S and 45S arrays each have thousands of contacts in the folded genome, with rDNA-associated regions and genes dispersed across all chromosomes. The rDNA contact map displayed conserved and disparate features between two cell lines, and pointed to specific chromosomes, genomic regions, and genes with evidence of spatial proximity to the rDNA arrays; the data also showed a lack of direct physical interaction between the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays. Finally, the analysis identified an intriguing organization in the 5S array with Alu and 5S elements adjacent to one another and organized in opposite orientation along the array. Portraits of genome folding centered on the ribosomal DNA array could help understand the emergence of concerted variation, the control of 5S and 45S expression, as well as provide insights into an organelle that contributes to the spatial localization of human chromosomes during interphase. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Yu, Wing Chi; Cheung, Yiu Wing; Saines, Paul J; Imai, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takuya; Michioka, Chishiro; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Goh, Swee K
2015-11-13
The family of the superconducting quasiskutterudites (Ca(x)Sr(1-x))(3)Rh(4)Sn(13) features a structural quantum critical point at x(c)=0.9, around which a dome-shaped variation of the superconducting transition temperature T(c) is found. Using specific heat, we probe the normal and the superconducting states of the entire series straddling the quantum critical point. Our analysis indicates a significant lowering of the effective Debye temperature on approaching x(c), which we interpret as a result of phonon softening accompanying the structural instability. Furthermore, a remarkably large enhancement of 2Δ/k(B)T(c) and ΔC/γT(c) beyond the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer values is found in the vicinity of the structural quantum critical point. The phase diagram of (Ca(x)Sr(1-x))(3)Rh(4)Sn(13) thus provides a model system to study the interplay between structural quantum criticality and strong electron-phonon coupling superconductivity.
Ribeiro, Apoena A; Purger, Flávia; Rodrigues, Jonas A; Oliveira, Patrícia R A; Lussi, Adrian; Monteiro, Antonio Henrique; Alves, Haimon D L; Assis, Joaquim T; Vasconcellos, Adalberto B
2015-01-01
This in vivo study aimed to evaluate the influence of contact points on the approximal caries detection in primary molars, by comparing the performance of the DIAGNOdent pen and visual-tactile examination after tooth separation to bitewing radiography (BW). A total of 112 children were examined and 33 children were selected. In three periods (a, b, and c), 209 approximal surfaces were examined: (a) examiner 1 performed visual-tactile examination using the Nyvad criteria (EX1); examiner 2 used DIAGNOdent pen (LF1) and took BW; (b) 1 week later, after tooth separation, examiner 1 performed the second visual-tactile examination (EX2) and examiner 2 used DIAGNOdent again (LF2); (c) after tooth exfoliation, surfaces were directly examined using DIAGNOdent (LF3). Teeth were examined by computed microtomography as a reference standard. Analyses were based on diagnostic thresholds: D1: D 0 = health, D 1 –D 4 = disease; D2: D 0 , D 1 = health, D 2 –D 4 = disease; D3: D 0 –D 2 = health, D 3 , D 4 = disease. At D1, the highest sensitivity/specificity were observed for EX1 (1.00)/LF3 (0.68), respectively. At D2, the highest sensitivity/ specificity were observed for LF3 (0.69)/BW (1.00), respectively. At D3, the highest sensitivity/specificity were observed for LF3 (0.78)/EX1, EX2 and BW (1.00). EX1 showed higher accuracy values than LF1, and EX2 showed similar values to LF2. We concluded that the visual-tactile examination showed better results in detecting sound surfaces and approximal caries lesions without tooth separation. However, the effectiveness of approximal caries lesion detection of both methods was increased by the absence of contact points. Therefore, regardless of the method of detection, orthodontic separating elastics should be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of approximal noncavitated lesions in primary molars.
The emerging quantum the physics behind quantum mechanics
Pena, Luis de la; Valdes-Hernandez, Andrea
2014-01-01
This monograph presents the latest findings from a long-term research project intended to identify the physics behind Quantum Mechanics. A fundamental theory for quantum mechanics is constructed from first physical principles, revealing quantization as an emergent phenomenon arising from a deeper stochastic process. As such, it offers the vibrant community working on the foundations of quantum mechanics an alternative contribution open to discussion. The book starts with a critical summary of the main conceptual problems that still beset quantum mechanics. The basic consideration is then introduced that any material system is an open system in permanent contact with the random zero-point radiation field, with which it may reach a state of equilibrium. Working from this basis, a comprehensive and self-consistent theoretical framework is then developed. The pillars of the quantum-mechanical formalism are derived, as well as the radiative corrections of nonrelativistic QED, while revealing the underlying physi...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata – 700032 (India)
2015-06-24
Thin films of c-Si QDs embedded in a-SiO{sub x} dielectric matrix was achieved at a low temperature ∼400°C, from one step process by reactive rf magnetron co-sputtering of c-Si wafer and pure SiO{sub 2} targets, in the (H{sub 2}+Ar)- plasma. Formation of a double-barrier structure has been primarily identified from the SAX data and exclusively confirmed from the resonant tunneling current appearing in the J-E characteristic curve peaks, determined by the discrete energy levels of c-Si QDs, at which it could be used as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells.
Foo, Karen T; Blackstock, Anna J; Ochola, Elizabeth A; Matete, Daniel O; Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Montgomery, Susan P; Karanja, Diana M S; Secor, W Evan
2015-06-01
We evaluated the performance of a point-of-contact circulating cathodic antigen assay (POC-CCA) to detect schistosome infections in primary school children (N = 1,801) living in areas with low, moderate, and high Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in western Kenya. The commercially available assay (CCA-1) and a second, experimental formulation (CCA-2) were compared against Kato-Katz stool examinations and an anti-schistosome enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A latent class model based on the four tests was used to establish "true infection status" in three different zones based on their distance from Lake Victoria. As a screening tool for community treatment according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, the Kato-Katz examination was in closest agreement with the latent class model, followed by the experimental CCA-2, soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) ELISA, and CCA-1, which had high sensitivity compared with the other tests but was consistently the least specific. Our experience suggests that POC-CCA tests offer a field-friendly alternative to Kato-Katz, but need further interpretation for appropriate field use.
McCarthy, Kimberly Ann
1990-01-01
Divisions in definitions of creativity have centered primarily on the working definition of discontinuity and the inclusion of intrinsic features such as unconscious processing and intrinsic motivation and reinforcement. These differences generally result from Cohen's two world views underlying theories of creativity: Organismic, oriented toward holism; or mechanistic, oriented toward cause-effect reductionism. The quantum world view is proposed which theoretically and empirically unifies organismic and mechanistic elements of creativity. Based on Goswami's Idealistic Interpretation of quantum physics, the quantum view postulates the mind -brain as consisting of both classical and quantum structures and functions. The quantum domain accesses the transcendent order through coherent superpositions (a state of potentialities), while the classical domain performs the function of measuring apparatus through amplifying and recording the result of the collapse of the pure mental state. A theoretical experiment, based on the 1980 Marcel study of conscious and unconscious word-sense disambiguation, is conducted which compares the predictions of the quantum model with those of the 1975 Posner and Snyder Facilitation and Inhibition model. Each model agrees that while conscious access to information is limited, unconscious access is unlimited. However, each model differently defines the connection between these states: The Posner model postulates a central processing mechanism while the quantum model postulates a self-referential consciousness. Consequently, the two models predict differently. The strength of the quantum model lies in its ability to distinguish between classical and quantum definitions of discontinuity, as well as clarifying the function of consciousness, without added assumptions or ad-hoc analysis: Consciousness is an essential, valid feature of quantum mechanisms independent of the field of cognitive psychology. According to the quantum model, through a
Radio-frequency measurement in semiconductor quantum computation
Han, TianYi; Chen, MingBo; Cao, Gang; Li, HaiOu; Xiao, Ming; Guo, GuoPing
2017-05-01
Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted wide interest for the potential realization of quantum computation. To realize efficient quantum computation, fast manipulation and the corresponding readout are necessary. In the past few decades, considerable progress of quantum manipulation has been achieved experimentally. To meet the requirements of high-speed readout, radio-frequency (RF) measurement has been developed in recent years, such as RF-QPC (radio-frequency quantum point contact) and RF-DGS (radio-frequency dispersive gate sensor). Here we specifically demonstrate the principle of the radio-frequency reflectometry, then review the development and applications of RF measurement, which provides a feasible way to achieve high-bandwidth readout in quantum coherent control and also enriches the methods to study these artificial mesoscopic quantum systems. Finally, we prospect the future usage of radio-frequency reflectometry in scaling-up of the quantum computing models.
Quantum pumping in a ballistic graphene bilayer
Wakker, G.M.M.; Blaauboer, M.
2010-01-01
We investigate quantum pumping of massless Dirac fermions in an ideal (impurity free) double layer of graphene. The pumped current is generated by adiabatic variation in two gate voltages in the contact regions to a weakly doped double graphene sheet. At the Dirac point and for a wide bilayer with
Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps and detergents , ...
Wong, Kin-Yiu; Gao, Jiali
2008-09-09
In this paper, we describe an automated integration-free path-integral (AIF-PI) method, based on Kleinert's variational perturbation (KP) theory, to treat internuclear quantum-statistical effects in molecular systems. We have developed an analytical method to obtain the centroid potential as a function of the variational parameter in the KP theory, which avoids numerical difficulties in path-integral Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics simulations, especially at the limit of zero-temperature. Consequently, the variational calculations using the KP theory can be efficiently carried out beyond the first order, i.e., the Giachetti-Tognetti-Feynman-Kleinert variational approach, for realistic chemical applications. By making use of the approximation of independent instantaneous normal modes (INM), the AIF-PI method can readily be applied to many-body systems. Previously, we have shown that in the INM approximation, the AIF-PI method is accurate for computing the quantum partition function of a water molecule (3 degrees of freedom) and the quantum correction factor for the collinear H(3) reaction rate (2 degrees of freedom). In this work, the accuracy and properties of the KP theory are further investigated by using the first three order perturbations on an asymmetric double-well potential, the bond vibrations of H(2), HF, and HCl represented by the Morse potential, and a proton-transfer barrier modeled by the Eckart potential. The zero-point energy, quantum partition function, and tunneling factor for these systems have been determined and are found to be in excellent agreement with the exact quantum results. Using our new analytical results at the zero-temperature limit, we show that the minimum value of the computed centroid potential in the KP theory is in excellent agreement with the ground state energy (zero-point energy) and the position of the centroid potential minimum is the expectation value of particle position in wave mechanics. The fast convergent property
Essler, F H L; Its, A R; Korepin, V E; Essler, Fabian H L; Frahm, Holger; Its, Alexander R; Korepin, Vladimir E
1996-01-01
We consider quantum correlation functions of the antiferromagnetic spin-\\frac{1}{2} Heisenberg XXZ spin chain in a magnetic field. We show that for a magnetic field close to the critical field h_c (for the critical magnetic field the ground state is ferromagnetic) certain correlation functions can be expressed in terms of the solution of the Painlev\\'e V transcendent. This establishes a relation between solutions of Painlev\\'e differential equations and quantum correlation functions in models of {\\sl interacting} fermions. Painlev\\'e transcendents were known to describe correlation functions in models with free fermionic spectra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, PPGEPS, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br; Mariani, Viviana Cocco [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, PPGEM, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: viviana.mariani@pucpr.br
2008-11-15
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is population-based heuristic global search algorithm inspired by social behavior patterns of organisms that live and interact within large groups. The PSO is based on researches on swarms such as fish schooling and bird flocking. Inspired by the classical PSO method and quantum mechanics theories, this work presents a quantum-inspired version of the PSO (QPSO) using the harmonic oscillator potential well (HQPSO) to solve economic dispatch problems. A 13-units test system with incremental fuel cost function that takes into account the valve-point loading effects is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed HQPSO method compared with the simulation results based on the classical PSO, the QPSO, and other optimization algorithms reported in the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
dos Santos Coelho, Leandro [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, PPGEPS, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Mariani, Viviana Cocco [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, PPGEM, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)
2008-11-15
Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is population-based heuristic global search algorithm inspired by social behavior patterns of organisms that live and interact within large groups. The PSO is based on researches on swarms such as fish schooling and bird flocking. Inspired by the classical PSO method and quantum mechanics theories, this work presents a quantum-inspired version of the PSO (QPSO) using the harmonic oscillator potential well (HQPSO) to solve economic dispatch problems. A 13-units test system with incremental fuel cost function that takes into account the valve-point loading effects is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed HQPSO method compared with the simulation results based on the classical PSO, the QPSO, and other optimization algorithms reported in the literature. (author)
Coulomb drag in quantum circuits
Levchenko, Alex; Kamenev, Alex
2008-01-01
We study drag effect in a system of two electrically isolated quantum point contacts (QPC), coupled by Coulomb interactions. Drag current exhibits maxima as a function of QPC gate voltages when the latter are tuned to the transitions between quantized conductance plateaus. In the linear regime this behavior is due to enhanced electron-hole asymmetry near an opening of a new conductance channel. In the non-linear regime the drag current is proportional to the shot noise of the driving circuit,...
Coherent States, Dynamics and Semiclassical Limit on Quantum Groups
Aref'eva, I Ya; Viswanathan, K S; Volovich, I V
1994-01-01
Coherent states on the quantum group $SU_q(2)$ are defined by using harmonic analysis and representation theory of the algebra of functions on the quantum group. Semiclassical limit $q\\rightarrow 1$ is discussed and the crucial role of special states on the quantum algebra in an investigation of the semiclassical limit is emphasized. An approach to $q$-deformation as a $q$-Weyl quantization and a relavence of contact geometry in this context is pointed out. Dynamics on the quantum group parametrized by a real time variable and corresponding to classical rotations is considered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Böyükata M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Quantum phase transitions in odd-nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model with a description based on the concept of intrinsic states. We consider the case of a single j=9/2 odd-particle coupled to an even-even boson core that performs a transition from spherical to deformed prolate and to deformed gamma-unstable shapes varying a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core is discussed along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point.
Nelde, Peter Hans
1995-01-01
Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)
Hatmal, Ma'mon M; Jaber, Shadi; Taha, Mutasem O
2016-12-01
Ligand-based pharmacophore modeling require relatively long lists of active compounds, while a pharmacophore based on a single ligand-receptor crystallographic structure is often promiscuous. These problems prompted us to combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with ligand-receptor contacts analysis as means to develop valid pharmacophore model(s). The particular ligand-receptor complex is allowed to perturb over a few nano-seconds using MD simulation. Subsequently, ligand-receptor contact points (≤2.5 Å) are identified. Ligand-receptor contacts maintained above certain threshold during molecular dynamics simulation are considered critical and used to guide pharmacophore development. We termed this method as Molecular-Dynamics Based Ligand-Receptor Contact Analysis. We implemented this new methodology to develop valid pharmacophore models for check point kinase 1 (Chk1) and beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) inhibitors as case studies. The resulting pharmacophore models were validated by receiver operating characteristic curved analysis against inhibitors obtained from CHEMBL database.
Hatmal, Ma'mon M.; Jaber, Shadi; Taha, Mutasem O.
2016-12-01
Ligand-based pharmacophore modeling require relatively long lists of active compounds, while a pharmacophore based on a single ligand-receptor crystallographic structure is often promiscuous. These problems prompted us to combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with ligand-receptor contacts analysis as means to develop valid pharmacophore model(s). The particular ligand-receptor complex is allowed to perturb over a few nano-seconds using MD simulation. Subsequently, ligand-receptor contact points (≤2.5 Å) are identified. Ligand-receptor contacts maintained above certain threshold during molecular dynamics simulation are considered critical and used to guide pharmacophore development. We termed this method as Molecular-Dynamics Based Ligand-Receptor Contact Analysis. We implemented this new methodology to develop valid pharmacophore models for check point kinase 1 (Chk1) and beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) inhibitors as case studies. The resulting pharmacophore models were validated by receiver operating characteristic curved analysis against inhibitors obtained from CHEMBL database.
Tortello, M; Daghero, D; Ummarino, G A; Stepanov, V A; Jiang, J; Weiss, J D; Hellstrom, E E; Gonnelli, R S
2010-12-03
Directional point-contact Andreev-reflection measurements in Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))2As2 single crystals (T(c) = 24.5 K) indicate the presence of two superconducting gaps with no line nodes on the Fermi surface. The point-contact Andreev-reflection spectra also feature additional structures related to the electron-boson interaction, from which the characteristic boson energy Ω(b)(T) is obtained, very similar to the spin-resonance energy observed in neutron scattering experiments. Both the gaps and the additional structures can be reproduced within a three-band s ± Eliashberg model by using an electron-boson spectral function peaked at Ω(0) = 12 meV ≃ Ω(b)(0).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
干锋; 戴焕云
2015-01-01
A new geometric wheel-rail contact algorithm,the space vector mapping method, is presented to solve the railway vehicle dynamic wheel-rail contact problem. Based on the space vector mapping principle and the basic characteristics of wheel-rail shape, this method regards the wheel-rail contact as space surface contact, chooses the track cross-section as a reference and views the track surface width as the possible maximum contact range of the wheel-rail. Then it adopts certain contact point search and verifying principles so that the dynamic contact point of the wheel in postures of different lateral displacement and yaw angle can be accurately located. With a set of self-composed wheel-rail interaction software TPLWRSim, taking LMA wheel tread as an example, a three-dimensional models of wheel/rail, wheel/roller and wheel/trough type rail are established respectively, which can simulate the wheel-rail contact state under different conditions. Comparing the results with the geometry shape of wheel-rail contact and the geometry contact relationship of worn tread verifies the accuracy and effectiveness of the algorithm. Simulation results show that this algorithm can solve the problem of wheel-rail and wheel-wheel contact and quickly and accurately determine the contact point between the wheel and the track in any postures, and also verify a good adaptability to treads and rail with different shapes.%针对铁道车辆动态轮轨接触问题提出一种新的轮轨几何接触算法——空间矢量映射法.空间矢量映射法根据空间矢量映射原理和轮轨外形的基本特征,将轮轨接触视为空间曲面接触,以轨道截面为基准,以轨面宽度作为轮轨可能接触的最大范围,采用一定的接触点寻找和判定原则,准确地找到车轮在不同横移量和摇头角下的轮轨接触点.并自编一套轮轨关系软件TPLWRSim,以LMA型车轮踏面为例,分别建立轮对与轨道、轮对与滚轮和轮对与槽型轨的三
Free spin quantum computation with semiconductor nanostructures
Zhang, W M; Soo, C; Zhang, Wei-Min; Wu, Yin-Zhong; Soo, Chopin
2005-01-01
Taking the excess electron spin in a unit cell of semiconductor multiple quantum-dot structure as a qubit, we can implement scalable quantum computation without resorting to spin-spin interactions. The technique of single electron tunnelings and the structure of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are used to create a charge entangled state of two electrons which is then converted into spin entanglement states by using single spin rotations. Deterministic two-qubit quantum gates can also be manipulated using only single spin rotations with help of QCA. A single-short read-out of spin states can be realized by coupling the unit cell to a quantum point contact.
What is novel in quantum transport for mesoscopics?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mukunda P Das; Frederick Green
2006-07-01
The understanding of mesoscopic transport has now attained an ultimate simplicity. Indeed, orthodox quantum kinetics would seem to say little about mesoscopics that has not been revealed – nearly effortlessly – by more popular means. Such is far from the case, however. The fact that kinetic theory remains very much in charge is best appreciated through the physics of a quantum point contact. While discretization of its conductance is viewed as the exclusive result of coherent, single-electron-wave transmission, this does not begin to address the paramount feature of all metallic conduction: dissipation. A perfect quantum point contact still has finite resistance, so its ballistic carriers must dissipate the energy gained from the applied field. How do they manage that? The key is in standard many-body quantum theory, and its conservation principles.
Screw bondgraph contact dynamics
Visser, Martijn; Stramigioli, Stefano; Heemskerk, Cock
2002-01-01
This paper presents an elegant contact dynamics model in screw bondgraph form. It can model the contact between any two objects of finite curvature. It does so by defining a Gauss frame on the surfaces of both objects in the points that are closest to each other. Then it describes how the Gauss fram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khots, Boris, E-mail: bkhots@cccglobal.com [Compressor Controls Corp., Des Moines, Iowa (United States); Khots, Dmitriy, E-mail: dkhots@imathconsulting.com [iMath Consulting LLC Omaha, Nebraska (United States)
2014-12-10
Certain results that have been predicted by Quantum Mechanics (QM) theory are not always supported by experiments. This defines a deep crisis in contemporary physics and, in particular, quantum mechanics. We believe that, in fact, the mathematical apparatus employed within today's physics is a possible reason. In particular, we consider the concept of infinity that exists in today's mathematics as the root cause of this problem. We have created Observer's Mathematics that offers an alternative to contemporary mathematics. This paper is an attempt to relay how Observer's Mathematics may explain some of the contradictions in QM theory results. We consider the Hamiltonian Mechanics, Newton equation, Schrodinger equation, two slit interference, wave-particle duality for single photons, uncertainty principle, Dirac equations for free electron in a setting of arithmetic, algebra, and topology provided by Observer's Mathematics (see www.mathrelativity.com). Certain results and communications pertaining to solution of these problems are provided.
Arnold, Michael; Langenbruch, Tobias; Kroha, Johann
2007-11-02
We propose a physical realization of the two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect, where a dynamical defect in a metal has a unique ground state and twofold degenerate excited states. In a wide range of parameters the interactions with the electrons renormalize the excited doublet downward below the bare defect ground state, thus stabilizing the 2CK fixed point. In addition to the Kondo temperature T(K) the three-state defect exhibits another low-energy scale, associated with ground-to-excited-state transitions, which can be exponentially smaller than T(K). Using the perturbative nonequilibrium renormalization group we demonstrate that this can provide the long-sought explanation of the sharp conductance spikes observed by Ralph and Buhrman in ultrasmall metallic point contacts.
Fröb, Markus B
2016-01-01
We derive the leading quantum corrections to the gravitational potentials in a de Sitter background, due to the vacuum polarization from loops of conformal fields. Our results are valid for arbitrary conformal theories, even strongly interacting ones, and are expressed using the coefficients $b$ and $b'$ appearing in the trace anomaly. Apart from the de Sitter generalization of the known flat-space results, we find two additional contributions: one which depends on the finite coefficients of terms quadratic in the curvature appearing in the renormalized effective action, and one which grows logarithmically with physical distance. While the first contribution corresponds to a rescaling of the effective mass, the second contribution leads to a faster fall-off of the Newton potential at large distances, and is potentially measurable.
Reprint of : Heat pump driven by the shot noise of a tunnel contact
Hussein, Robert; Kohler, Sigmund; Sols, Fernando
2016-08-01
We investigate a mechanism for cooling a lead based on a process that replaces hot electrons by cold ones. The central idea is that a double quantum dot with an inhomogeneous Zeeman splitting acts as energy filter for the transported electrons. The setup is such that hot electrons with spin up are removed, while cold electrons with spin down are added. The required non-equilibrium condition is provided by the capacitive coupling of one quantum dot to the shot noise of a strongly biased quantum point contact in the tunneling limit. Special attention is paid to the identification of an operating regime in which the net electrical current vanishes.
Heat pump driven by the shot noise of a tunnel contact
Hussein, Robert; Kohler, Sigmund; Sols, Fernando
2016-03-01
We investigate a mechanism for cooling a lead based on a process that replaces hot electrons by cold ones. The central idea is that a double quantum dot with an inhomogeneous Zeeman splitting acts as energy filter for the transported electrons. The setup is such that hot electrons with spin up are removed, while cold electrons with spin down are added. The required non-equilibrium condition is provided by the capacitive coupling of one quantum dot to the shot noise of a strongly biased quantum point contact in the tunneling limit. Special attention is paid to the identification of an operating regime in which the net electrical current vanishes.
Free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory: Application to quantum computing
Mishima, K.; Yamashita, K.
2011-01-01
An extension of free-time and fixed end-point optimal control theory (FRFP-OCT) to monotonically convergent free-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FRFP-MTOCT) is presented. The features of our theory include optimization of the external time-dependent perturbations with high transition probabilities, that of the temporal duration, the monotonic convergence, and the ability to optimize multiple-laser pulses simultaneously. The advantage of the theory and a comparison with conventional fixed-time and fixed end-point multi-target optimal control theory (FIFP-MTOCT) are presented by comparing data calculated using the present theory with those published previously [K. Mishima, K. Yamashita, Chem. Phys. 361, (2009), 106]. The qubit system of our interest consists of two polar NaCl molecules coupled by dipole-dipole interaction. The calculation examples show that our theory is useful for minor adjustment of the external fields.
Hechster, Elad; Sarusi, Gabby
2017-07-01
The complex dielectric function ɛ(E )=ɛR(E )+i ɛI(E ) of a semiconductor is a key parameter that dictates the material's optical and electrical properties. Surprisingly, the ɛ(E ) of Lead Sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) has not been widely studied. In the present work, we develop a new model that aims to simulate the ɛ(E ) of QDs. Our model is based on the fact that the quantum confinement in the nano regime affects all the electronic transitions throughout the entire Brillouin zone. Hence, as a first approximation, we attribute an equal contribution of energy, equivalent to the bandgap broadening, to each critical point (CP) in the E-k diagram. This is mathematically realized by adding these energy contributions to the central energy parameters of the Lorentz oscillator model. In order to validate our model, we used the CP parameters of bulk PbS to simulate the ɛ(E ) of PbS QDs. Next, we use Maxwell Relations to calculate the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of PbS QDs from ɛ(" separators="|E ). Our results were compared with those published in the previous literature and showed good agreement. Our findings open a new avenue that may enable the calculation of the ɛ(" separators="|E ) for nanoparticle systems.
Squire, Richard H.; March, Norman H.; Booth, Michael L.
There has been considerable effort expended toward understanding high temperature superconductors (HTSC), and more specifically the cuprate phase diagram as a function of doping level. Yet, the only agreement seems to be that HTSC is an example of a strongly correlated material where Coulomb repulsion plays a major role. This manuscript proposes a model based on a Feshbach resonance pairing mechanism and competing orders. An initial BCS-type superconductivity at high doping is suppressed in the two particle channel by a localized preformed pair (PP) (Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink, J Low Temp Phys, 1985, 59, 980) (circular density wave) creating a quantum critical point. As doping continues to diminish, the PP then participates in a Feshbach resonance complex that creates a new electron (hole) pair that delocalizes and constitutes HTSC and the characteristic dome (Squire and March, Int J Quantum Chem, 2007, 107, 3013; 2008, 108, 2819). The resonant nature of the new pair contributes to its short coherence length. The model we propose also suggests an explanation (and necessity) for an experimentally observed correlated lattice that could restrict energy dissipation to enable the resonant Cooper pair to move over several correlation lengths, or essentially free. The PP density wave is responsible for the pseudogap as it appears as a "localized superconductor" since its density of states and quasiparticle spectrum are similar to those of a superconductor (Peierls-Fröhlich theory), but with no phase coherence between the PP.
Rose, Félix
2016-01-01
Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization-group approach to the two-dimensional quantum O($N$) model, we compute the low-frequency limit $\\omega\\to 0$ of the zero-temperature conductivity in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. Our results are obtained from a derivative expansion to second order of a scale-dependent effective action in the presence of an external (i.e., non-dynamical) non-Abelian gauge field. While in the disordered phase the conductivity tensor $\\sigma(\\omega)$ is diagonal, in the ordered phase it is defined, when $N\\geq 3$, by two independent elements, $\\sigma_{\\rm A}(\\omega)$ and $\\sigma_{\\rm B}(\\omega)$, respectively associated to SO($N$) rotations which do and do not change the direction of the order parameter. For $N=2$, the conductivity in the ordered phase reduces to a single component $\\sigma_{\\rm A}(\\omega)$. We show that $\\lim_{\\omega\\to 0}\\sigma(\\omega,\\delta)\\sigma_{\\rm A}(\\omega,-\\delta)/\\sigma_q^2$ is a universal number which we compute as a function of $N$ ($\\d...
Quantum motion of a point particle in the presence of the Aharonov–Bohm potential in curved space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Edilberto O., E-mail: edilbertoo@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil); Ulhoa, Sérgio C., E-mail: sc.ulhoa@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900, Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil); Andrade, Fabiano M., E-mail: f.andrade@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Computer Science, University College London, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, Paraná (Brazil); Filgueiras, Cleverson, E-mail: cleversonfilgueiras@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970, Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Departamento de Física (DFI), Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Caixa Postal 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Amorim, R.G.G., E-mail: ronniamorim@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900, Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil); Faculdade Gama, Universidade de Brasília, Setor Leste (Gama), 72444-240, Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil)
2015-11-15
The nonrelativistic quantum dynamics of a spinless charged particle in the presence of the Aharonov–Bohm potential in curved space is considered. We chose the surface as being a cone defined by a line element in polar coordinates. The geometry of this line element establishes that the motion of the particle can occur on the surface of a cone or an anti-cone. As a consequence of the nontrivial topology of the cone and also because of two-dimensional confinement, the geometric potential should be taken into account. At first, we establish the conditions for the particle describing a circular path in such a context. Because of the presence of the geometric potential, which contains a singular term, we use the self-adjoint extension method in order to describe the dynamics in all space including the singularity. Expressions are obtained for the bound state energies and wave functions. -- Highlights: •Motion of particle under the influence of magnetic field in curved space. •Bound state for Aharonov–Bohm problem. •Particle describing a circular path. •Determination of the self-adjoint extension parameter.
Modeling Thermal Contact Resistance
Kittel, Peter; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
One difficulty in using cryocoolers is making good thermal contact between the cooler and the instrument being cooled. The connection is often made through a bolted joint. The temperature drop associated with this joint has been the subject of many experimental and theoretical studies. The low temperature behavior of dry joints have shown some anomalous dependence on the surface condition of the mating parts. There is also some doubts on how well one can extrapolate from the test samples to predicting the performance of a real system. Both finite element and analytic models of a simple contact system have been developed. The model assumes (a) the contact is dry (contact limited to a small portion of the total available area and the spaces in-between the actual contact patches are perfect insulators), (b) contacts are clean (conductivity of the actual contact is the same as the bulk), (c) small temperature gradients (the bulk conductance may be assumed to be temperature independent), (d) the absolute temperature is low (thermal radiation effects are ignored), and (e) the dimensions of the nominal contact area are small compared to the thickness of the bulk material (the contact effects are localized near the contact). The models show that in the limit of actual contact area much less than the nominal area (a much less than A), that the excess temperature drop due to a single point of contact scales as a(exp -1/2). This disturbance only extends a distance approx. A(exp 1/2) into the bulk material. A group of identical contacts will result in an excess temperature drop that scales as n(exp -1/2), where n is the number of contacts and n dot a is constant. This implies that flat rough surfaces will have a lower excess temperature drop than flat polished surfaces.
Schmidt, Robert; Krasselt, Cornelius; von Borczyskowski, Christian
2012-10-01
Blinking dynamics of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are analyzed by change point analysis, which gives access to intermediate photoluminescence (PL) intensities observed during PL intermittency. The on-times show systematic deviations from a (truncated) power law. This deviation is manifested in variations of the PL intensity distribution and is related with well defined PL intensity jumps. Varying the matrix from polystyrene (PS) to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) changes the on-time blinking dynamics and reveals coupling of the QDs either to OH-groups of the SiOx interface or to OH-groups of PVA. Analysis of dwell times in respective intensity correlated traps reveals that OH-related traps are strongly stabilized with much longer dwell times as compared to otherwise broadly distributed trap states.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王大奎; 张军; 王春艳; 郭璇
2013-01-01
针对动车组、机车车轮与高速道岔的磨耗问题,测量运行线路上磨耗后的车轮与道岔的实际几何尺寸,应用有限元方法求解车轮与道岔长短心轨的接触问题.计算了车轮与高速道岔的长短心轨部分在不同位置的接触状态,分析得出了不同工况下车轮与心轨接触斑、等效应力以及接触法向力的分布和变化规律,为道岔结构的合理设计和型面尺寸的优化提供了一定的理论依据.结果表明:JM3型机车车轮与18号高速道岔的心轨型面匹配不合理;动车组和机车车轮与心轨间的最大应力值都超过了轮轨材料的屈服极限,发生塑性变形；车轮在钢轨上的横移量影响轮岔之间的磨耗,向心轨外侧的横移量越大,磨耗越严重.%In view of the wearing problem happened when a multiple unit train and locomotive wheels contact with high-speed turnout, the actual geometry size of worn wheels and worn turnout on the running line have been measured. The finite element method is applied to solve the wheel-turnout contact problems. The contact states in different locations between the wheels and the long/short point rail of the high-speed turnout are calculated. The distribution and varying rules of a contact patch, the equivalent stress and contact normal forces under different operating conditions are analyzed. The results provide theoretical basis for the rational design of turnouts and wheels. The results demonstrate: the match relation is not reasonable between the JM3 wheels and the point rail of the No. 18 high-speed turnout; the maximum stress value of aforesaid conditions exceeds the yield limit of the materials, and the plastic deformation of the materials occurs; the horizontal shift of wheel affects the wear between wheels and turnouts. The bigger horizontal shift towards the lateral of point rail is, the more serious the wear is.
Kuraptsev, A S
2016-01-01
On the basis of general theoretical results developed previously in [JETP 112, 246 (2011)], we analyze the reflection of quasiresonant light from a plane surface of dense and disordered ensemble of motionless point scatters. Angle distribution of the scattered light is calculated both for s and p polarizations of the probe radiation. The ratio between coherent and incoherent (diffuse) components of scattered light is calculated. We analyze the contributions of scatters located at different distances from the surface and determine on this background the thickness of surface layer responsible for reflected beam generation. The inhomogeneity of dipole-dipole interaction near the surface is discussed.We study also dependence of total reflected light power on the incidence angle and compare the results of the microscopic approach with predictions of the Fresnel reflection theory. The calculations are performed for different densities of scatters and different frequencies of a probe radiation.
Pavšič, Matej
2014-01-01
It is shown how a string living in a higher dimensional space can be approximated as a point particle with squared extrinsic curvature. We consider a generalized Howe-Tucker action for such a "rigid particle" and consider its classical equations of motion and constraints. We find that the algebra of the Dirac brackets between the dynamical variables associated with velocity and acceleration contains the spin tensor. After quantization, the corresponding operators can be represented by the Dirac matrices, projected onto the hypersurface that is orthogonal to the direction of 4-momentum. A condition for the consistency of such a representation is that the states must satisfy the Dirac equation with a suitable effective mass. The Pauli-Lubanski vector composed with such projected Dirac matrices is equal to the Pauli-Lubanski vector composed with the usual, non projected, Dirac matrices, and its eigenvalues thus correspond to spin one half states.
Peschanski, R
1993-01-01
Phenomenological and theoretical aspects of fragmentation for elementary particles (resp. nuclei) are discussed. It is shown that some concepts of classical fragmentation remain relevant in a microscopic framework, exhibiting non-trivial properties of quantum relativistic field theory (resp. lattice percolation). Email contact: pesch@amoco.saclay.cea.fr
Cheng, Jie; Dong, Peng; Xu, Wei; Liu, Shengli; Chu, Wangsheng; Chen, Xianhui; Wu, Ziyu
2015-07-01
Many researchers have pointed out that there is a quantum critical point (QCP) in the F-doped SmOFeAs system. In this paper, the electronic structure and local structure of the superconductive FeAs layer in SmO(1-x)FxFeAs as a function of the F-doping concentration have been investigated using Fe and As K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Experiments performed on the X-ray absorption near-edge structure showed that in the vicinity of the QCP the intensity of the pre-edge feature at the Fe-edge decreases continuously, while there is a striking rise of the shoulder-peak at the As edge, suggesting the occurrence of charge redistribution near the QCP. Further analysis on the As K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure demonstrated that the charge redistribution originates mostly from a shortening of the Fe-As bond at the QCP. An evident relationship between the mysterious QCP and the fundamental Fe-As bond was established, providing new insights on the interplay between QCP, charge dynamics and the local structural Fe-As bond in Fe-based superconductors.
Quantum conductance staircase of holes in silicon nanosandwiches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolay T. Bagraev
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The results of studying the quantum conductance staircase of holes in one-dimensional channels obtained by the split-gate method inside silicon nanosandwiches that are the ultra-narrow quantum well confined by the delta barriers heavily doped with boron on the n-type Si (100 surface are reported. Since the silicon quantum wells studied are ultra-narrow (~2 nm and confined by the delta barriers that consist of the negative-U dipole boron centers, the quantized conductance of one-dimensional channels is observed at relatively high temperatures (T>77 K. Further, the current-voltage characteristic of the quantum conductance staircase is studied in relation to the kinetic energy of holes and their sheet density in the quantum wells. The results show that the quantum conductance staircase of holes in p-Si quantum wires is caused by independent contributions of the one-dimensional (1D subbands of the heavy and light holes. In addition, the field-related inhibition of the quantum conductance staircase is demonstrated in the situation when the energy of the field-induced heating of the carriers become comparable to the energy gap between the 1D subbands. The use of the split-gate method made it possible to detect the effect of a drastic increase in the height of the quantum conductance steps when the kinetic energy of holes is increased; this effect is most profound for quantum wires of finite length, which are not described under conditions of a quantum point contact. In the concluding section of this paper we present the findings for the quantum conductance staircase of holes that is caused by the edge channels in the silicon nanosandwiches prepared within frameworks of the Hall geometry. This longitudinal quantum conductance staircase, Gxx, is revealed by the voltage applied to the Hall contacts, with the plateaus and steps that bring into correlation respectively with the odd and even fractional values.
Contact of surfaces and contact characteristics of offset surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lixin CAO; Hu GONG; Jian LIU
2008-01-01
Based on differential geometry, the contact problems of two surfaces are discussed in this paper. The relationship between the contact status of two sur-faces and that of offset surfaces are also analyzed. For a 5-axis NC machining, some research such as optimization of cutter location and calculation of the geometrical cusp height are important. The research results indicate that the relative normal curvature is an important geometrical invariant for describing the contact state of two surfaces. For point contact two surfaces, the calculation equation for the second order remained error is given. For line contact two surfaces, the condition of the second order line contact is that the principal directions and curvatures of the two surfaces are the same along the contact curve. If two surfaces keep the second order line contact, their two offset surfaces will also keep the second order line contact, and their third order remained errors are also uniform with that of the two offset surfaces.
Bonhommeau, David; Truhlar, Donald G
2008-07-07
The photodissociation dynamics of ammonia upon excitation of the out-of-plane bending mode (mode nu(2) with n(2)=0,[ellipsis (horizontal)],6 quanta of vibration) in the A electronic state is investigated by means of several mixed quantum/classical methods, and the calculated final-state properties are compared to experiments. Five mixed quantum/classical methods are tested: one mean-field approach (the coherent switching with decay of mixing method), two surface-hopping methods [the fewest switches with time uncertainty (FSTU) and FSTU with stochastic decay (FSTU/SD) methods], and two surface-hopping methods with zero-point energy (ZPE) maintenance [the FSTUSD+trajectory projection onto ZPE orbit (TRAPZ) and FSTUSD+minimal TRAPZ (mTRAPZ) methods]. We found a qualitative difference between final NH(2) internal energy distributions obtained for n(2)=0 and n(2)>1, as observed in experiments. Distributions obtained for n(2)=1 present an intermediate behavior between distributions obtained for smaller and larger n(2) values. The dynamics is found to be highly electronically nonadiabatic with all these methods. NH(2) internal energy distributions may have a negative energy tail when the ZPE is not maintained throughout the dynamics. The original TRAPZ method was designed to maintain ZPE in classical trajectories, but we find that it leads to unphysically high internal vibrational energies. The mTRAPZ method, which is new in this work and provides a general method for maintaining ZPE in either single-surface or multisurface trajectories, does not lead to unphysical results and is much less time consuming. The effect of maintaining ZPE in mixed quantum/classical dynamics is discussed in terms of agreement with experimental findings. The dynamics for n(2)=0 and n(2)=6 are also analyzed to reveal details not available from experiment, in particular, the time required for quenching of electronic excitation and the adiabatic energy gap and geometry at the time of quenching.
Quantum physics in the nanoworld Schrödinger's cat and the dwarfs
Lüth, Hans
2015-01-01
The second edition deals with all essential aspects of non-relativistic quantum physics up to the quantisation of fields. In contrast to common textbooks of quantum mechanics, modern experiments are described both for the purpose of foundation of the theory and in relation to recent applications. Links are made to important research fields and applications such as elementary particle physics, solid state physics and nuclear magnetic resonance in medicine, biology and material science. Special emphasis is paid to quantum physics in nanoelectronics such as resonant tunnelling, Coulomb blockade and the realisation of quantum bits. This second edition also considers quantum transport through quantum point contacts and its application as charge detectors in nanoelectronic circuits. Also the realization and the study of electronic properties of an artificial quantum dot molecule are presented. Because of its recent interest a brief discussion of Bose-Einstein condensation has been included, as well as the rece...
Zimmermann, Katrin; Jordan, Anna; Gay, Frédéric; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Han, Zheng; Bouchiat, Vincent; Sellier, Hermann; Sacépé, Benjamin
2017-04-13
Charge carriers in the quantum Hall regime propagate via one-dimensional conducting channels that form along the edges of a two-dimensional electron gas. Controlling their transmission through a gate-tunable constriction, also called quantum point contact, is fundamental for many coherent transport experiments. However, in graphene, tailoring a constriction with electrostatic gates remains challenging due to the formation of p-n junctions below gate electrodes along which electron and hole edge channels co-propagate and mix, short circuiting the constriction. Here we show that this electron-hole mixing is drastically reduced in high-mobility graphene van der Waals heterostructures thanks to the full degeneracy lifting of the Landau levels, enabling quantum point contact operation with full channel pinch-off. We demonstrate gate-tunable selective transmission of integer and fractional quantum Hall edge channels through the quantum point contact. This gate control of edge channels opens the door to quantum Hall interferometry and electron quantum optics experiments in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes of graphene.
Shrestha, Santosh; Chung, Simon; Liao, Yuanxun; Wang, Pei; Cao, Wenkai; Wen, Xiaoming; Gupta, Neeti; Conibeer, Gavin
2017-08-01
The hot carrier (HC) solar cell is one of the most promising advanced photovoltaic concepts. It aims to minimise two major losses in single junction solar cells due to sub-band gap loss and thermalisation of above band gap photons by using a small bandgap absorber, and, importantly, collecting the photo-generated carriers before they thermalise. In this paper we will present recent development of the two critical components of the HC solar cell, i.e., the absorber and energy selective contacts (ESCs). For absorber, fabrication and carrier cooling rates in potential bulk materials — hafnium nitride, zirconium nitride, and titanium hydride are presented. Results of ESCs employing double barrier resonant tunneling structures Al2O3/Ge quantum well (QW)/Al2O3 and Al2O3/PbS quantum dots (QDs)/Al2O3 are also presented. These results are expected to guide further development of practical HC solar cell devices.
Quantum optics for experimentalists
Ou, Zhe-Yu Jeff
2017-01-01
This book on quantum optics is from the point of view of an experimentalist. It approaches the theory of quantum optics with the language of optical modes of classical wave theory, with which experimentalists are most familiar.
Cheon, Taksu; Tsutsui, Izumi; Fülöp, Tamás
2004-09-01
We show that the point interactions on a line can be utilized to provide U(2) family of qubit operations for quantum information processing. Qubits are realized as states localized in either side of the point interaction which represents a controllable gate. The qubit manipulation proceeds in a manner analogous to the operation of an abacus.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakanishi, Y; Kamiyama, T; Ito, K; Nakamura, M; Yoshizawa, M [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Saiga, Y [Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, HigashiHiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Kosaka, M [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Uwatoko, Y, E-mail: yoshiki@iwate-u.ac.j [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 227-8581 (Japan)
2010-01-15
We performed ultrasonic measurements on high quality single crystals of the Yb-based heavy fermion compounds YbTr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} (Tr: Co, Rh and Ir) over a temperature range from 200 K to 0.5 K, which seem to be close to a quantum critical point (QCP). A sharp contrast of the temperature dependence of elastic constants was found at low temperature among the three compounds, reflecting the 4f electronic state stemmed from Yb ion. The results indicate that a crystalline electric field (CEF) effect seems to be dominant in the systems YbRh{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} and YbIr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} at low temperatures. On the other hand, the CEF effect is much less, but an additional effect would be dominant which is most probably ascribable to non Fermi liquid characteristics formed close to the QCP. We discuss briefly each 4f electronic state developed at the low temperatures and physical parameters relating to a renormalized band model in YbTr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} in the framework of a deformation potential approximation.
Indications of a Quantum Critical Point in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ Using a Local Kondo Effect
Calleja, Eduardo; Dai, Jixia; Arnold, Gerald; Gu, Genda; McElroy, Kyle
2014-03-01
A complete understanding of the complex phase diagrams that are present in high temperature superconductors remains elusive. While there is an overwhelming amount of experimental data on the existence and interplay of the phases present in high Tc superconductors from local probes, much of the existing data only looks at the charge degree of freedom of the material. By substituting Fe atoms for Cu atoms in the CuO plane of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212), we gain the ability to access the spin degree of freedom since the Fe atoms retain their magnetization below the superconducting transition temperature. This leads to a local Kondo effect which can be observed using Spectroscopic-Imaging Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (SI-STM) and the local Kondo temperature can be extracted from spectra via a theoretical model. We show that the examination of this local Kondo temperature across local and sample average doping leads to the observation of a change in the quasiparticle spin degree of freedom at a quantum critical point (QCP) with a nominal hole doping of roughly 0.22, in agreement with other probes. The observation of the QCP in Bi2212 with this new method to access the spin degree of freedom helps to unravel some of the mystery behind the complex phase diagram of Bi2212.
Quantum critical point in SmO(1-x)F(x)FeAs and oxygen vacancy induced by high fluorine dopant.
Cheng, Jie; Chu, Shengqi; Chu, Wangsheng; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Linjuan; Zhao, Haifeng; Liu, Ronghua; Chen, Xianhui; Marcelli, Augusto; Wu, Ziyu
2011-09-01
The local lattice and electronic structure of the high-T(c) superconductor SmO(1-x)F(x)FeAs as a function of F-doping have been investigated by Sm L(3)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure and multiple-scattering calculations. Experiments performed at the L(3)-edge show that the white line (WL) is very sensitive to F-doping. In the under-doped region (x ≤ 0.12) the WL intensity increases with doping and then it suddenly starts decreasing at x = 0.15. Meanwhile, the trend of the WL linewidth versus F-doping levels is just contrary to that of the intensity. The phenomenon is almost coincident with the quantum critical point occurring in SmO(1-x)F(x)FeAs at x ≃ 0.14. In the under-doped region the increase of the intensity is related to the localization of Sm-5d states, while theoretical calculations show that both the decreasing intensity and the consequent broadening of linewidth at high F-doping are associated with the content and distribution of oxygen vacancies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstandinos G. Raptis
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose of this study is the consideration of loading and contact problems encountered at rotating machine elements and especially at toothed gears. The later are some of the most commonly used mechanical components for rotary motion and power transmission. This fact proves the necessity for improved reliability and enhanced service life, which require precise and clear knowledge of the stress field at gear tooth. This study investigates the maximum allowable stresses occurring during spur gear tooth meshing computed using Niemannâs formulas at Highest Point of Single Tooth Contact (HPSTC. Gear material, module, power rating and number of teeth are considered as variable parameters. Furthermore, the maximum allowable stresses for maximum power transmission conditions are considered keeping the other parameters constant. After the application of Niemannâs formulas to both loading cases, the derived results are compared to the respective estimations of Finite Element Method (FEM using ANSYS software. Comparison of the results derived from Niemannâs formulas and FEM show that deviations between the two methods are kept at low level for both loading cases independently of the applied power (either random or maximum and the respective tangential load.
Quantum Discord for Investigating Quantum Correlations without Entanglement in Solids
Rong, Xing; Jin, Fangzhou; Geng, Jianpei; Feng, Pengbo; Xu, Nanyang; Wang, Ya; Ju, Chenyong; Shi, Mingjun; Du, Jiangfeng
2012-01-01
Quantum systems unfold diversified correlations which have no classical counterparts. These quantum correlations have various different facets. Quantum entanglement, as the most well known measure of quantum correlations, plays essential roles in quantum information processing. However, it has recently been pointed out that quantum entanglement cannot describe all the nonclassicality in the correlations. Thus the study of quantum correlations in separable states attracts widely attentions. Herein, we experimentally investigate the quantum correlations of separable thermal states in terms of quantum discord. The sudden change of quantum discord is observed, which captures ambiguously the critical point associated with the behavior of Hamiltonian. Our results display the potential applications of quantum correlations in studying the fundamental properties of quantum system, such as quantum criticality of non-zero temperature.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄永斌; 王军起; 聂锐志; 张海涛; 刘兆飞; 徐向军; 黄金辉
2015-01-01
目的:探讨点触式探针与平面探针超声碎石清石效率的安全性和点触式探针的优越性.方法:将72例含钙尿路结石随即分成2组,观察组35例,对照组37例.两组分别用点触式超声探针和原平面超声探针行经皮肾镜和经尿道超声碎石清石术.对坚硬结石,先用气压弹道将结石碎成小块,再用超声探针碎石清石.术中准确记录碎石时间,并观察两种探针对尿路黏膜损伤情况.术后测量每例结石的体积,并计算各探针的碎石速度.结果:平面探针对坚硬结石击碎困难,8例需要先用气压弹道将结石碎成小块后,再行超声碎石清石.点触式探针对坚硬结石仍可击碎,其碎石清石速度明显高于平面探针(P<0.05),是原超声探针的2.2倍.对照组出现多例轻微的黏膜吸附伤,无需处理,观察组未出现尿路黏膜吸附伤和刺伤.结论:点触式探针比平面探针碎石清石速度快,可不借助于气压弹道辅助碎石,碎石清石效率高,安全性好,值得推广应用.%Objective: The objective of this research is to examine the safety of lithotripsy using ultrasound sector probe and the superiority of point contact probe.Method In the study, 72 patients with calcium urolithiasis were divided into 2 groups, of which 35 cases are in the observation group. Patients in both groups are treated with point contact probe and sector probe through percutaneous nephrolithotomy and transurethral. For hard stone, they are broken into small fragments with pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy at first, following ultrasound probe lithotripsy. The exact time in every treatment was recorded, and urinary mucosa injury was examined. The volumes of stone were measured and speeds of probe were calculated. Results It is found that sector probe is less effective treating hard stones, with 8 cases pneumatic ballistic lithotripsy being conducted at first. Compare to this, operations using point contact probe can break hard stones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borisov, K., E-mail: borisovk@tcd.ie; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, P. [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Alaria, J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)
2014-05-07
Single crystals of the metallically degenerate fully magnetic semiconductors CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br have been prepared by the Chemical Vapour Transport method, using either Se or Br as transport agents. The high-quality, millimetre-sized, octahedrally faceted, needle- and platelet-shaped crystals are characterised by means of high field magnetotransport (μ{sub 0}H≤ 14 T) and Point Contact Andreev Reflection. The relatively high spin polarisation observed |P|>0.56, together with the relatively low minority carrier effective mass of 0.25 m{sub e}, and long scattering time 10{sup −13} s, could poise these materials for integration in low- and close-to-room temperature minority injection bipolar heterojunction transistor demonstrations.
Interfacial properties of stanene-metal contacts
Guo, Ying; Pan, Feng; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Pan, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiuying; Li, Jingzhen; Zhang, Han; Lu, Jing
2016-09-01
Recently, two-dimensional buckled honeycomb stanene has been manufactured by molecular beam epitaxy growth. Free-standing stanene is predicted to have a sizable opened band gap of 100 meV at the Dirac point due to spin-orbit coupling (SOC), resulting in many fascinating properties such as quantum spin Hall effect, quantum anomalous Hall effect, and quantum valley Hall effect. In the first time, we systematically study the interfacial properties of stanene-metal interfaces (metals = Ag, Au, Cu, Al, Pd, Pt, Ir, and Ni) by using ab initio electronic structure calculations considering the SOC effects. The honeycomb structure of stanene is preserved on the metal supports, but the buckling height is changed. The buckling of stanene on the Au, Al, Ag, and Cu metal supports is higher than that of free-standing stanene. By contrast, a planar graphene-like structure is stabilized for stanene on the Ir, Pd, Pt, and Ni metal supports. The band structure of stanene is destroyed on all the metal supports, accompanied by a metallization of stanene because the covalent bonds between stanene and the metal supports are formed and the structure of stanene is distorted. Besides, no tunneling barrier exists between stanene and the metal supports. Therefore, stanene and the eight metals form a good vertical Ohmic contact.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Obermair
2011-11-01
Full Text Available We study the crossover of quantum point contacts from (i individual-atom contacts to (ii electronic-shell effects and finally to (iii geometric-shell effects in electrochemically deposited silver contacts. The method allows the fabrication of mechanically unstrained structures, which is a requirement for determining the individual atomic configuration by means of a detailed lifetime analysis of their conductance. Within the geometric-shell model, the sequence of conductance maxima is explained quantitatively based on the crystal structure data of silver, and the growth mechanism of the nanowires is discussed.
Quantum criticality from Fisher information
Song, Hongting; Luo, Shunlong; Fu, Shuangshuang
2017-04-01
Quantum phase transition is primarily characterized by a qualitative sudden change in the ground state of a quantum system when an external or internal parameter of the Hamiltonian is continuously varied. Investigating quantum criticality using information-theoretic methods has generated fruitful results. Quantum correlations and fidelity have been exploited to characterize the quantum critical phenomena. In this work, we employ quantum Fisher information to study quantum criticality. The singular or extremal point of the quantum Fisher information is adopted as the estimated thermal critical point. By a significant model constructed in Quan et al. (Phys Rev Lett 96: 140604, 2006), the effectiveness of this method is illustrated explicitly.
Goyal, Ketan; Kawai, Ryoichi
As nanotechnology advances, understanding of the thermodynamic properties of small systems becomes increasingly important. Such systems are found throughout physics, biology, and chemistry manifesting striking properties that are a direct result of their small dimensions where fluctuations become predominant. The standard theory of thermodynamics for macroscopic systems is powerless for such ever fluctuating systems. Furthermore, as small systems are inherently quantum mechanical, influence of quantum effects such as discreteness and quantum entanglement on their thermodynamic properties is of great interest. In particular, the quantum fluctuations due to quantum uncertainty principles may play a significant role. In this talk, we investigate thermodynamic properties of an autonomous quantum heat engine, resembling a quantum version of the Feynman Ratchet, in non-equilibrium condition based on the theory of open quantum systems. The heat engine consists of multiple subsystems individually contacted to different thermal environments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Utko, Pawel; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Lindelof, Poul Erik;
2007-01-01
We have investigated the response of the acoustoelectric-current driven by a surface-acoustic wave through a quantum point contact in the closed-channel regime. Under proper conditions, the current develops plateaus at integer multiples of ef when the frequency f of the surface-acoustic wave or t...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谈佳佳; 赵俊
2014-01-01
目的：通过调查住院患者关注的就医关键接触点和对各接触点的感受，为提升患者的就医满意度，提供更加优质的医疗服务，树立良好的医院品牌形象提供依据。方法：采用分层随机抽样的方法，对2014年4－6月江苏省南京市某医院共280例住院患者进行问卷调查。结果：患者主要通过亲友介绍、亲身经历了解医院，通过媒体了解的比较少；治疗费用的性价比、床的舒适和床单等用物的整洁、各项检查安排的合理性是患者关注度高但满意度较低的关键接触点。住院患者的总体就医感受程度与医护人员对病情的关注程度的相关性最高，变量重要性为17．37％。结论：整合传播媒体，加强品牌宣传力度；树立以患者为中心的护理服务理念，提供人性化服务；优化病房环境，时刻关注患者病情发展；合理安排检查项目，维护患者健康权益；关注术后护理，保障身心康复。%Objective:To understand the hospitalization concern and the point of contact to enhance feelings, perceptions of patients, under-stand of the hospital in the management of existing key point of contact problems and put forward corresponding countermeasures to provide high quality medical service.Methods:Using cluster random sampling method, questionnaire survey was carried out in 280 patients for 4-6 months of 2014 and the surgical department of internal medicine.Results:The patients mainly through the introduction of relatives and friends, personal ex-perience to understand the hospital, through the Internet and other media to understand less.The price of the cost of treatment, the bed comforta-ble and linens with rationality, the inspection object neat arrangement is the patients with the high degree of concern but feel the key points of con-tact with a low degree.Conclusion:The integration of media, strengthen the brand propaganda.Establish the patient-centered care
2015-07-15
Progress Report (ONR Award No. N00014-14-1-0804) Quantum Spin Gyroscope August 2014-July 2015 Report Type: Annual Report Primary Contact E-mail... Quantum Spin Gyroscope Grant/Contract Number: N00014-14-1-0804 Principal Investigator Name: Paola Cappellaro Program Manager: Richard Tommy Willis...required large volumes. Our project aims at overcoming these drawbacks by developing a novel solid-state quantum spin gyro- scope associated with the