Localization in a quantum spin Hall system.
Onoda, Masaru; Avishai, Yshai; Nagaosa, Naoto
2007-02-16
The localization problem of electronic states in a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall system (that is, a symplectic ensemble with topological term) is studied by the transfer matrix method. The phase diagram in the plane of energy and disorder strength is exposed, and demonstrates "levitation" and "pair annihilation" of the domains of extended states analogous to that of the integer quantum Hall system. The critical exponent nu for the divergence of the localization length is estimated as nu congruent with 1.6, which is distinct from both exponents pertaining to the conventional symplectic and the unitary quantum Hall systems. Our analysis strongly suggests a different universality class related to the topology of the pertinent system.
The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltukov, Y M; Greshnov, A A
2014-01-01
It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given
Quantum energy teleportation in a quantum Hall system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yusa, Go; Izumida, Wataru; Hotta, Masahiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2011-09-15
We propose an experimental method for a quantum protocol termed quantum energy teleportation (QET), which allows energy transportation to a remote location without physical carriers. Using a quantum Hall system as a realistic model, we discuss the physical significance of QET and estimate the order of energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters.
Josephson tunneling in bilayer quantum Hall system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezawa, Z.F.; Tsitsishvili, G.; Sawada, A.
2012-01-01
A Bose–Einstein condensation is formed by composite bosons in the quantum Hall state. A composite boson carries the fundamental charge (−e). We investigate Josephson tunneling of such charges in the bilayer quantum Hall system at the total filling ν=1. We show the existence of the critical current for the tunneling current to be coherent and dissipationless. Our results explain recent experiments due to [L. Tiemann, Y. Yoon, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, W. Wegscheider, Phys. Rev. B 80 (2009) 165120] and due to [Y. Yoon, L. Tiemann, S. Schmult, W. Dietsche, K. von Klitzing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 116802]. We predict also how the critical current changes as the sample is tilted in the magnetic field. -- Highlights: ► Composite bosons undergo Bose–Einstein condensation to form the bilayer quantum Hall state. ► A composite boson is a single electron bound to a flux quantum and carries one unit charge. ► Quantum coherence develops due to the condensation. ► Quantum coherence drives the supercurrent in each layer and the tunneling current. ► There exists the critical input current so that the tunneling current is coherent and dissipationless.
Novel optical probe for quantum Hall system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
to explore Landau levels of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in modulation doped ... Keywords. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy; quantum Hall effect; Landau levels; edge states. ... An optical fibre carries light from tunable diode laser.
Quantum Hall Ferroelectrics and Nematics in Multivalley Systems
Sodemann, Inti; Zhu, Zheng; Fu, Liang
2017-10-01
We study broken symmetry states at integer Landau-level fillings in multivalley quantum Hall systems whose low-energy dispersions are anisotropic. When the Fermi surface of individual pockets lacks twofold rotational symmetry, like in bismuth (111) [Feldman et al. , Observation of a Nematic Quantum Hall Liquid on the Surface of Bismuth, Science 354, 316 (2016), 10.1126/science.aag1715] and in Sn1 -xPbxSe (001) [Dziawa et al., Topological Crystalline Insulator States in Pb1 -xSnxSe , Nat. Mater. 11, 1023 (2012), 10.1038/nmat3449] surfaces, interactions tend to drive the formation of quantum Hall ferroelectric states. We demonstrate that the dipole moment in these states has an intimate relation to the Fermi surface geometry of the parent metal. In quantum Hall nematic states, like those arising in AlAs quantum wells, we demonstrate the existence of unusually robust Skyrmion quasiparticles.
Detection of fractional solitons in quantum spin Hall systems
Fleckenstein, C.; Traverso Ziani, N.; Trauzettel, B.
2018-03-01
We propose two experimental setups that allow for the implementation and the detection of fractional solitons of the Goldstone-Wilczek type. The first setup is based on two magnetic barriers at the edge of a quantum spin Hall system for generating the fractional soliton. If then a quantum point contact is created with the other edge, the linear conductance shows evidence of the fractional soliton. The second setup consists of a single magnetic barrier covering both edges and implementing a long quantum point contact. In this case, the fractional soliton can unambiguously be detected as a dip in the conductance without the need to control the magnetization of the barrier.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Arabi, N. M.
1993-01-01
Transport phenomena in two dimensional semiconductors have revealed unusual properties. In this thesis these systems are considered and discussed. The theories explain the Integral Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). The thesis is composed of five chapters. The first and the second chapters lay down the theory of the IQHE, the third and fourth consider the theory of the FQHE. Chapter five deals with the statistics of particles in two dimension. (author). Refs
Synthetic Topological Qubits in Conventional Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maissam Barkeshli
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The idea of topological quantum computation is to build powerful and robust quantum computers with certain macroscopic quantum states of matter called topologically ordered states. These systems have degenerate ground states that can be used as robust “topological qubits” to store and process quantum information. In this paper, we propose a new experimental setup that can realize topological qubits in a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with proper electric gate configurations. Our proposal is accessible with current experimental techniques, involves well-established topological states, and, moreover, can realize a large class of topological qubits, generalizing the Majorana zero modes studied in recent literature to more computationally powerful possibilities. We propose three tunneling and interferometry experiments to detect the existence and nonlocal topological properties of the topological qubits.
Levitation and percolation in quantum Hall systems with correlated disorder
Song, Hui; Maruyama, Isao; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro
2007-01-01
We investigate the integer quantum Hall system in a two dimensional lattice model with spatially correlated disorder by using the efficient method to calculate the Chern number proposed by Fukui et al. [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74, 1674 (2005)]. Distribution of charge density indicates that the extended states at the center of each Landau band have percolating current paths, which are topologically equivalent to the edge states that exist in a system with boundaries. As increasing the strength of d...
Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems
Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.
2010-03-01
We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.
Theory of the quantum hall effects in lattice systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kliros, G.S.
1990-06-01
The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is identified as an Integral Quantum Hall Effect of electrons on a lattice with an even number of statistical flux quanta. A variational wavefunction in terms of the Hofstadter lattice eigenstates is proposed. (author). 21 refs
Experimental probes of emergent symmetries in the quantum Hall system
Lutken, C A
2011-01-01
Experiments studying renormalization group flows in the quantum Hall system provide significant evidence for the existence of an emergent holomorphic modular symmetry Gamma(0)(2). We briefly review this evidence and show that, for the lowest temperatures, the experimental determination of the position of the quantum critical points agrees to the parts per mille level with the prediction from Gamma(0)(2). We present evidence that experiments giving results that deviate substantially from the symmetry predictions are not cold enough to be in the quantum critical domain. We show how the modular symmetry extended by a non-holomorphic particle hole duality leads to an extensive web of dualities related to those in plateau insulator transitions, and we derive a formula relating dual pairs (B, B(d)) of magnetic field strengths across any transition. The experimental data obtained for the transition studied so far is in excellent agreement with the duality relations following from this emergent symmetry, and rule out...
Quantum hall effect. A perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Hideo
2006-01-01
Novel concepts and phenomena are emerging recently in the physics of quantum Hall effect. This article gives an overview, which starts from the fractional quantum Hall system viewed as an extremely strongly correlated system, and move on to present various phenomena involving internal degrees of freedom (spin and layer), non-equilibrium and optical properties, and finally the spinoff to anomalous Hall effect and the rotating Bose-Einstein condensate. (author)
Theory of activated transport in bilayer quantum Hall systems.
Roostaei, B; Mullen, K J; Fertig, H A; Simon, S H
2008-07-25
We analyze the transport properties of bilayer quantum Hall systems at total filling factor nu=1 in drag geometries as a function of interlayer bias, in the limit where the disorder is sufficiently strong to unbind meron-antimeron pairs, the charged topological defects of the system. We compute the typical energy barrier for these objects to cross incompressible regions within the disordered system using a Hartree-Fock approach, and show how this leads to multiple activation energies when the system is biased. We then demonstrate using a bosonic Chern-Simons theory that in drag geometries current in a single layer directly leads to forces on only two of the four types of merons, inducing dissipation only in the drive layer. Dissipation in the drag layer results from interactions among the merons, resulting in very different temperature dependences for the drag and drive layers, in qualitative agreement with experiment.
Quantum critical Hall exponents
Lütken, C A
2014-01-01
We investigate a finite size "double scaling" hypothesis using data from an experiment on a quantum Hall system with short range disorder [1-3]. For Hall bars of width w at temperature T the scaling form is w(-mu)T(-kappa), where the critical exponent mu approximate to 0.23 we extract from the data is comparable to the multi-fractal exponent alpha(0) - 2 obtained from the Chalker-Coddington (CC) model [4]. We also use the data to find the approximate location (in the resistivity plane) of seven quantum critical points, all of which closely agree with the predictions derived long ago from the modular symmetry of a toroidal sigma-model with m matter fields [5]. The value nu(8) = 2.60513 ... of the localisation exponent obtained from the m = 8 model is in excellent agreement with the best available numerical value nu(num) = 2.607 +/- 0.004 derived from the CC-model [6]. Existing experimental data appear to favour the m = 9 model, suggesting that the quantum Hall system is not in the same universality class as th...
Tunneling between edge states in a quantum spin Hall system.
Ström, Anders; Johannesson, Henrik
2009-03-06
We analyze a quantum spin Hall device with a point contact connecting two of its edges. The contact supports a net spin tunneling current that can be probed experimentally via a two-terminal resistance measurement. We find that the low-bias tunneling current and the differential conductance exhibit scaling with voltage and temperature that depend nonlinearly on the strength of the electron-electron interaction.
Quantum Hall Electron Nematics
MacDonald, Allan
In 2D electron systems hosted by crystals with hexagonal symmetry, electron nematic phases with spontaneously broken C3 symmetry are expected to occur in the quantum Hall regime when triplets of Landau levels associated with three different Fermi surface pockets are partially filled. The broken symmetry state is driven by intravalley Coulombic exchange interactions that favor spontaneously polarized valley occupations. I will discuss three different examples of 2D electron systems in which this type of broken symmetry state is expected to occur: i) the SnTe (111) surface, ii) the Bi (111) surface. and iii) unbalanced bilayer graphene. This type of quantum Hall electron nematic state has so far been confirmed only in the Bi (111) case, in which the anisotropic quasiparticle wavefunctions of the broken symmetry state were directly imaged. In the SnTe case the nematic state phase boundary is controlled by a competition between intravalley Coulomb interactions and intervalley scattering processes that increase in relative strength with magnetic field. An in-plane Zeeman field alters the phase diagram by lifting the three-fold Landau level degeneracy, yielding a ground state energy with 2 π/3 periodicity as a function of Zeeman-field orientation angle. I will comment on the possibility of observing similar states in the absence of a magnetic field. Supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Grant DE-FG03-02ER45958.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joynt, R.J.
1982-01-01
A general investigation of the electronic structure of two dimensional systems is undertaken with a view towards understanding the quantum Hall effect. The work is limited to the case of a strong perpendicular magnetic field, with a disordered potential and an externally applied electric field. The electrons are treated as noninteracting. First, the scattering theory of the system is worked out. The surprising result is found that a wavepacket will reform after scattering from an isolated potential. Also it will tend to be accelerated in the neighborhood of the scatterer if the potential has bound states. Fredholm theory can then be used to show that the extended states carry an additional current which compensates for the zero current of the bound states. Together, these give the quantized conductance. The complementary case of a smooth random potential is treated by a path-integral approach which exploits the analogies to the classical equations of motion. The Green's function can be calculated approximately, which gives the general character of both the bound and extended states. Also the ratio of these two types of states can be computed for a given potential. The charge density is uniform in first approximation, and the Hall conductance is quantized. Higher-order corrections for more rapidly fluctuating potential are calculated. The most general conditions under which the conductance is quantized are discussed. Because of the peculiar scattering properties of the system, numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation is of interest, both to confirm the analytical results, and for pedagogical reasons. The stability and convergence problems inherent in the computer solution of the problem are analyzed. Results for some model scattering potentials are presented
Quantum Computing With Quasiparticles of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Averin, Dmitri
2001-01-01
The focus of this project was the theoretical study of quantum computation based on controlled transfer of individual quasiparticles in systems of quantum antidots in the regime of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE...
Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avetissian, H.K.; Mkrtchian, G.F.
2016-01-01
We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility. - Highlights: • Nonlinear optical response of a quantum Hall system has specific plateaus feature. • This effect remains robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. • It can be observed via the third harmonic signal and the nonlinear Faraday effect.
Universal conductance and conductivity at critical points in integer quantum Hall systems.
Schweitzer, L; Markos, P
2005-12-16
The sample averaged longitudinal two-terminal conductance and the respective Kubo conductivity are calculated at quantum critical points in the integer quantum Hall regime. In the limit of large system size, both transport quantities are found to be the same within numerical uncertainty in the lowest Landau band, and , respectively. In the second-lowest Landau band, a critical conductance is obtained which indeed supports the notion of universality. However, these numbers are significantly at variance with the hitherto commonly believed value . We argue that this difference is due to the multifractal structure of critical wave functions, a property that should generically show up in the conductance at quantum critical points.
Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penin, Alexander A.
2009-01-01
We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted
DC resistance comparison between a current comparator bridge and the quantum Hall system at Inmetro
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Silva, M C; Vasconcellos, R T B; Carvalho, H R
2016-01-01
This paper presents a comparison results between the Quantum Hall System (QHS) under development at the Quantum Electrical Metrology Laboratory (Lameq) and the current comparator calibration system, traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), at the Electrical Standardization Metrology Laboratory (Lampe), both part of the Electrical Metrology Division, at Inmetro. Comparisons were performed with 1 Ω, 10 Ω, 100 Ω, 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ resistors. The results obtained over two years of work are presented here, showing that the comparison contributed to improve the calibration systems of both Lampe and Lameq. (paper)
Post, Evert Jan
1999-05-01
This essay presents conclusive evidence of the impermissibility of Copenhagen's single system interpretation of the Schroedinger process. The latter needs to be viewed as a tool exclusively describing phase and orientation randomized ensembles and is not be used for isolated single systems. Asymptotic closeness of single system and ensemble behavior and the rare nature of true single system manifestations have prevented a definitive identification of this Copenhagen deficiency over the past three quarter century. Quantum uncertainty so becomes a basic trade mark of phase and orientation disordered ensembles. The ensuing void of usable single system tools opens a new inquiry for tools without statistical connotations. Three, in part already known, period integrals here identified as flux, charge and action counters emerge as diffeo-4 invariant tools fully compatible with the demands of the general theory of relativity. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect has been instrumental in forcing a distinction between ensemble disorder as in the normal Hall effect versus ensemble order in the plateau states. Since the order of the latter permits a view of the plateau states as a macro- or meso-scopic single system, the period integral description applies, yielding a straightforward unified description of integer and fractional quantum Hall effects.
A constricted quantum Hall system as a beam-splitter: understanding ballistic transport on the edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lal, Siddhartha
2007-09-01
We study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained from a Landauer- Buttiker analysis as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk (ν 1 ) and constriction(ν 2 ) quantum Hall fluid regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model. The constriction region splits the incident long-wavelength chiral edge density-wave excitations among the transmitting and reflecting edge states encircling it. These findings provide satisfactory explanations for several puzzling recent experimental results. These results are confirmed by computing various correlators and chiral linear conductances of the system. In this way, our results find excellent agreement with some of the recent puzzling experimental results for the cases of ν 1 = 1/3, 1. (author)
Hall viscosity of hierarchical quantum Hall states
Fremling, M.; Hansson, T. H.; Suorsa, J.
2014-03-01
Using methods based on conformal field theory, we construct model wave functions on a torus with arbitrary flat metric for all chiral states in the abelian quantum Hall hierarchy. These functions have no variational parameters, and they transform under the modular group in the same way as the multicomponent generalizations of the Laughlin wave functions. Assuming the absence of Berry phases upon adiabatic variations of the modular parameter τ, we calculate the quantum Hall viscosity and find it to be in agreement with the formula, given by Read, which relates the viscosity to the average orbital spin of the electrons. For the filling factor ν =2/5 Jain state, which is at the second level in the hierarchy, we compare our model wave function with the numerically obtained ground state of the Coulomb interaction Hamiltonian in the lowest Landau level, and find very good agreement in a large region of the complex τ plane. For the same example, we also numerically compute the Hall viscosity and find good agreement with the analytical result for both the model wave function and the numerically obtained Coulomb wave function. We argue that this supports the notion of a generalized plasma analogy that would ensure that wave functions obtained using the conformal field theory methods do not acquire Berry phases upon adiabatic evolution.
Post, E J
1999-01-01
This essay presents conclusive evidence of the impermissibility of Copenhagen's single system interpretation of the Schroedinger process. The latter needs to be viewed as a tool exclusively describing phase and orientation randomized ensembles and is not be used for isolated single systems. Asymptotic closeness of single system and ensemble behavior and the rare nature of true single system manifestations have prevented a definitive identification of this Copenhagen deficiency over the past three quarter century. Quantum uncertainty so becomes a basic trade mark of phase and orientation disordered ensembles. The ensuing void of usable single system tools opens a new inquiry for tools without statistical connotations. Three, in part already known, period integrals here identified as flux, charge and action counters emerge as diffeo-4 invariant tools fully compatible with the demands of the general theory of relativity. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect has been instrumental in forcing a distinction betw...
Anti-levitation in integer quantum Hall systems
Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.
2014-01-01
The evolution of extended states of two-dimensional electron gas with white-noise randomness and field is numerically investigated by using the Anderson model on square lattices. Focusing on the lowest Landau band we establish an anti-levitation scenario of the extended states: As either the disorder strength W increases or the magnetic field strength B decreases, the energies of the extended states move below the Landau energies pertaining to a clean system. Moreover, for strong enough disorder, there is a disorder-dependent critical magnetic field Bc(W) below which there are no extended states at all. A general phase diagram in the W-1/B plane is suggested with a line separating domains of localized and delocalized states.
Transport in constricted quantum Hall systems: beyond the Kane-Fisher paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lal, Siddhartha
2007-08-01
A simple model of edge transport in a constricted quantum Hall system with a lowered local fi lling factor is studied. The current backscattered from the constriction is explained from a matching of the properties of the edge-current excitations in the constriction (ν 2 ) and bulk (ν 1 ) regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model, stressing the importance of boundary conditions in elucidating the nature of current transport. By invoking a generalised quasiparticle-quasihole symmetry of the quantum Hall circuit system, we fi nd that a competition between two tunneling process determines the fate of the low-bias transmission conductance. A novel generalisation of the Kane-Fisher quantum impurity model is found, describing transitions from a weak-coupling theory at partial transmission to strong- coupling theories for perfect transmission and reflection as well as a new symmetry dictated fixed point. These results provide satisfactory explanations for recent experimental results at fi lling-factors of 1/3 and 1. (author)
Numerical studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect in systems with tunable interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papić, Z; Bhatt, R N; Abanin, D A; Barias, Y
2012-01-01
The discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect in GaAs-based semiconductor devices has lead to new advances in condensed matter physics, in particular the possibility for exotic, topological phases of matter that possess fractional, and even non-Abelian, statistics of quasiparticles. One of the main limitations of the experimental systems based on GaAs has been the lack of tunability of the effective interactions between two-dimensional electrons, which made it difficult to stabilize some of the more fragile states, or induce phase transitions in a controlled manner. Here we review the recent studies that have explored the effects of tunability of the interactions offered by alternative two-dimensional systems, characterized by non-trivial Berry phases and including graphene, bilayer graphene and topological insulators. The tunability in these systems is achieved via external fields that change the mass gap, or by screening via dielectric plate in the vicinity of the device. Our study points to a number of different ways to manipulate the effective interactions, and engineer phase transitions between quantum Hall liquids and compressible states in a controlled manner.
Composite fermions in the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, B.L.; Kirczenow, G.
1997-01-01
The quantum Hall effect and associated quantum transport phenomena in low-dimensional systems have been the focus of much attention for more than a decade. Recent theoretical development of interesting quasiparticles - 'composite fermions' - has led to significant advances in understanding and predicting the behaviour of two-dimensional electron systems under high transverse magnetic fields. Composite fermions may be viewed as fermions carrying attached (fictitious) magnetic flux. Here we review models of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, including the development of a unified picture of the integer and fractional effects based upon composite fermions. The composite fermion picture predicts remarkable new physics: the formation of a Fermi surface at high magnetic fields, and anomalous ballistic transport, thermopower, and surface acoustic wave behaviour. The specific theoretical predictions of the model, as well as the body of experimental evidence for these phenomena are reviewed. We also review recent edge-state models for magnetotransport in low-dimensional devices based on the composite fermion picture. These models explain the fractional quantum Hall effect and transport phenomena in nanoscale devices in a unified framework that also includes edge state models of the integer quantum Hall effect. The features of the composite fermion edge-state model are compared and contrasted with those of other recent edge-state models of the fractional quantum Hall effect. (author)
The fractional quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stormer, H.L.
1988-01-01
The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), is the manifestation of a new, highly correlated, many-particle ground state that forms in a two-dimensional electron system at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields. It is an example of the new physics that has grown out of the tremendous recent advances in semiconductor material science, which has provided us with high-quality, lower-dimensional carrier systems. The novel electronic state exposes itself in transport experiments through quantization of the Hall resistance to an exact rational fraction of h/e, and concomitantly vanishing longitudinal resistivity. Its relevant energy scale is only a few degrees kelvin. The quantization is a consequence of the spontaneous formation of an energy gap separating the condensed ground state from its rather elusive quasiparticle excitations. The theoretical understanding of the novel quantum liquids which underlie the FQHE has predominantly emerged from an ingenious many-particle wave function strongly supported by numerous few-particle simulations. Theory has now constructed a complex model for ideal two-dimensional electron systems in the presence of high magnetic fields and makes definitive, often fascinating predictions. Experiments have successively uncovered odd-denominator fractional states reaching presently to 7/13. The application of new experimental tools to the FQHE, such as optics, microwaves, and phonon techniques promises the direct observation of such parameters as the gap energy and possibly even some of the more elusive quantities in the future. While theory and experiment in the FQHE appear to be converging, there remains considerable room for challenging surprises. This paper provides a concise overview of the FQHE. It focuses on the experimental aspects and states, but does not expand on the theoretical advances. 70 refs., 11 figs
The effective action for edge states in higher-dimensional quantum Hall systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karabali, Dimitra; Nair, V.P.
2004-01-01
We show that the effective action for the edge excitations of a quantum Hall droplet of fermions in higher dimensions is generically given by a chiral bosonic action. We explicitly analyze the quantum Hall effect on complex projective spaces CP k , with a U(1) background magnetic field. The edge excitations are described by Abelian bosonic fields on S 2k-1 with only one spatial direction along the boundary of the droplet relevant for the dynamics. Our analysis also leads to an action for edge excitations for the case of the Zhang-Hu four-dimensional quantum Hall effect defined on S 4 with an SU(2) background magnetic field, using the fact that CP 3 is an S 2 -bundle over S 4
Interactions, Disorder and Dephasing in Superconducting Films and Quantum Hall Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auerbach, A.
1999-01-01
It is shown that a large class of two dimensional Superconductor to Insulator (SC-I), and (Quantum Hall to Insulator (QH-I) transitions can be understood by assuming that the thermodynamic transition in the clean system is first order. The finite correlation lengths at that transition yield a natural separation of the disorder into short and long wavelengths which are then straightforward to incorporate perturbatively and semi classically respectively. This approach reduces problems of disorder+interactions to puddle network models, whose studies have already yielded insight into experiments of QH-I and SC-I. For the CQH-I, the difference between Landauer-Buttiker and Boltzman theories highlights effects of dephasing
Large quantum rings in the ν > 1 quantum Hall regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raesaenen, E; Aichinger, M
2009-01-01
We study computationally the ground-state properties of large quantum rings in the filling-factor ν>1 quantum Hall regime. We show that the arrangement of electrons into different Landau levels leads to clear signatures in the total energies as a function of the magnetic field. In this context, we discuss possible approximations for the filling factor ν in the system. We are able to characterize integer-ν states in quantum rings in an analogy with conventional quantum Hall droplets. We also find a partially spin-polarized state between ν = 2 and 3. Despite the specific topology of a quantum ring, this state is strikingly reminiscent of the recently found ν = 5/2 state in a quantum dot.
Large quantum rings in the ν > 1 quantum Hall regime.
Räsänen, E; Aichinger, M
2009-01-14
We study computationally the ground-state properties of large quantum rings in the filling-factor ν>1 quantum Hall regime. We show that the arrangement of electrons into different Landau levels leads to clear signatures in the total energies as a function of the magnetic field. In this context, we discuss possible approximations for the filling factor ν in the system. We are able to characterize integer-ν states in quantum rings in an analogy with conventional quantum Hall droplets. We also find a partially spin-polarized state between ν = 2 and 3. Despite the specific topology of a quantum ring, this state is strikingly reminiscent of the recently found ν = 5/2 state in a quantum dot.
Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure
Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.
2016-05-01
We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.
Fundamental relation between longitudinal and transverse conductivities in the quantum Hall system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endo, Akira; Hatano, Naomichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Shirasaki, Ryoen
2009-07-01
We investigate the relation between the diagonal (σ xx ) and off-diagonal (σ xy ) components of the conductivity tensor in the quantum Hall system. We calculate the conductivity components for a short-range impurity potential using the linear response theory, employing an approximation that simply replaces the self-energy by a constant value -iℎ/(2τ) with τ the scattering time. The approximation is equivalent to assuming that the broadening of a Landau level due to disorder is represented by a Lorentzian with the width Γ = ℎ/(2τ). Analytic formulas are obtained for both σ xx and σ xy within the framework of this simple approximation at low temperatures. By examining the leading terms in σ xx and σ xy , we find a proportional relation between dσ xy =dB and Bσ 2 xx . The relation, after slight modification to account for the long-range nature of the impurity potential, is shown to be in quantitative agreement with experimental results obtained in the GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron system at the low magnetic-field regime where spin splitting is negligibly small. (author)
Tuning the effects of Landau level mixing on anisotropic transport in quantum Hall systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Peter M; Kennett, Malcolm P
2012-01-01
Electron-electron interactions in half-filled high Landau levels in two-dimensional electron gases in a strong perpendicular magnetic field can lead to states with anisotropic longitudinal resistance. This longitudinal resistance is generally believed to arise from broken rotational invariance, which is indicated by charge density wave order in Hartree-Fock calculations. We use the Hartree-Fock approximation to study the influence of externally tuned Landau level mixing on the formation of interaction-induced states that break rotational invariance in two-dimensional electron and hole systems. We focus on the situation when there are two non-interacting states in the vicinity of the Fermi level and construct a Landau theory to study coupled charge density wave order that can occur as interactions are tuned and the filling or mixing are varied. We consider numerically a specific example where mixing is tuned externally through Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We calculate the phase diagram and find the possibility of ordering involving coupled striped or triangular charge density waves in the two levels. Our results may be relevant to recent transport experiments on quantum Hall nematics in which Landau level mixing plays an important role. (paper)
The quantum Hall's effect: A quantum electrodynamic phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbab, A. I.
2012-01-01
We have applied Maxwell's equations to study the physics of quantum Hall's effect. The electromagnetic properties of this system are obtained. The Hall's voltage, V H = 2πħ 2 n s /em, where n s is the electron number density, for a 2-dimensional system, and h = 2πħ is the Planck's constant, is found to coincide with the voltage drop across the quantum capacitor. Consideration of the cyclotronic motion of electrons is found to give rise to Hall's resistance. Ohmic resistances in the horizontal and vertical directions have been found to exist before equilibrium state is reached. At a fundamental level, the Hall's effect is found to be equivalent to a resonant LCR circuit with L H = 2π m/e 2 n s and C H = me 2 /2πħ 2 n s satisfying the resonance condition with resonant frequency equal to the inverse of the scattering (relaxation) time, τ s . The Hall's resistance is found to be R H = √L H /C H . The Hall's resistance may be connected with the impedance that the electron wave experiences when it propagates in the 2-dimensional gas. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Theory of fractional quantum hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostadinov, I.Z.
1985-08-01
A theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is constructed based on magnetic flux fractionization, which lead to instability of the system against selfcompression. A theorem is proved stating that arbitrary potentials fail to lift a specific degeneracy of the Landau level. For the case of 1/3 fractional filling a model 3-particles interaction is constructed breaking the symmetry. The rigid 3-particles wave function plays the role of order parameter. In a BCS type of theory the gap in the single particles spectrum is produced by the 3-particles interaction. The mean field critical behaviour and critical parameters are determined as well as the Ginsburg-Landau equation coefficients. The Hall conductivity is calculated from the first principles and its temperature dependence is found. The simultaneous tunnelling of 3,5,7 etc. electrons and quantum interference effects are predicted. (author)
The quantum Hall effect helicity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shrivastava, Keshav N., E-mail: keshav1001@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)
2015-04-16
The quantum Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures is explained by two signs in the angular momentum j=l±s and g=(2j+1)/(2l+1) along with the Landau factor (n+1/2). These modifications in the existing theories explain all of the fractional charges. The helicity which is the sign of the product of the linear momentum with the spin p.s plays an important role for the understanding of the data at high magnetic fields. In particular it is found that particles with positive sign in the spin move in one direction and those with negative sign move in another direction which explains the up and down stream motion of the particles.
Graphene and the universality of the quantum Hall effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tzalenchuk, A.; Janssen, T. J.B.M.; Kazakova, O.
2013-01-01
The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J....... the unconventional quantum Hall effect and then present in detail the route, which led to the most precise quantum Hall resistance universality test ever performed.......The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J....... et al., Rev. Mod. Phys., 84 (2012) 1527), the resistance quantum. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology, a few parts per billion, has been achieved only in silicon and III-V heterostructure devices. In this lecture we show...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhongshui; Su Zhaobin.
1992-09-01
By applying the Dirac quantization method, we build the constraint that all electrons are in the lowest Landau level into the Chern-Simons field theory approach for the fractional quantum Hall system and show that the constraint can be transmuted from hierarchy to hierarchy. For a finite system, we derive that the action for each hierarchy can be split into two parts: a surface part provides the action for the edge excitations while the remaining part is precisely the bulk action for the next hierarchy. An the action for the edge could be decoupled from the bulk only at the hierarchy filling. (author). 16 refs
The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach
Lederer, P.
2015-05-01
The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morimoto, Takahiro; Aoki, Hideo; Avishai, Yshai
2011-01-01
Dynamical scaling of the optical Hall conductivity σ xy (ε F , ω) at the n = 0 Landau level in graphene is analyzed for the 2D effective Dirac fermion and honeycomb lattice models with various types of disorder. In the Dirac fermion model with potential disorder, σ xy (ε F , ω) obeys a well-defined dynamical scaling, characterized by the localization exponent ν and the dynamical critical exponent z. In sharp distinction, scaling behavior of σ xy (ε F , ω) in the honeycomb lattice model with bond disorder (preserving chiral symmetry), becomes anomalous.
Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems
Han, Yulei; Qiao, Zhenhua
In this talk, we theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization.
Nguyen, Dung Xuan; Gromov, Andrey; Son, Dam Thanh
2018-05-01
We perform a detailed comparison of the Dirac composite fermion and the recently proposed bimetric theory for a quantum Hall Jain states near half filling. By tuning the composite Fermi liquid to the vicinity of a nematic phase transition, we find that the two theories are equivalent to each other. We verify that the single mode approximation for the response functions and the static structure factor becomes reliable near the phase transition. We show that the dispersion relation of the nematic mode near the phase transition can be obtained from the Dirac brackets between the components of the nematic order parameter. The dispersion is quadratic at low momenta and has a magnetoroton minimum at a finite momentum, which is not related to any nearby inhomogeneous phase.
Real-space mapping of a disordered two-dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashimoto, K; Hirayama, Y; Wiebe, J; Wiesendanger, R; Inaoka, T; Morgenstern, M
2011-01-01
By using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, we study the influence of potential disorder on an adsorbate-induced two-dimensional electron system in the integer quantum Hall regime. The real-space imaged local density of states exhibits transition from localized drift states encircling the potential minima to another type of localized drift states encircling the potential maxima. While the former states show regular round shapes, the latter have irregular-shaped patterns. This difference is induced by different sources for the potential minima and maxima, i.e., substrate donors and an inhomogeneous distribution of the adsorbates, respectively.
Mesoscopic effects in the quantum Hall regime
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. When band mixing between multiple Landau levels is present, mesoscopic effects cause a crossover from a sequence of quantum Hall transitions for weak disorder to classical behavior for strong disorder. This behavior may be of relevance ...
Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter Superconductivity and Quantum Hall Effect
Fujita, Shigeji; Godoy, Salvador
2009-01-01
Explains major superconducting properties including zero resistance, Meissner effect, sharp phase change, flux quantization, excitation energy gap, and Josephson effects using quantum statistical mechanical calculations. This book covers the 2D superconductivity and the quantum Hall effects
Excitons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Laughlin, R. B.
1984-09-01
Quasiparticles of charge 1/m in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect form excitons, which are collective excitations physically similar to the transverse magnetoplasma oscillations of a Wigner crystal. A variational exciton wavefunction which shows explicitly that the magnetic length is effectively longer for quasiparticles than for electrons is proposed. This wavefunction is used to estimate the dispersion relation of these excitons and the matrix elements to generate them optically out of the ground state. These quantities are then used to describe a type of nonlinear conductivity which may occur in these systems when they are relatively clean.
The fractional quantum Hall effect goes organic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smet, Jurgen
2000-01-01
Physicists have been fascinated by the behaviour of two-dimensional electron gases for the past two decades. All of these experiments were performed on inorganic semiconductor devices, most of them based on gallium arsenide. Indeed, until recently it was thought that the subtle effects that arise due to electron-electron interactions in these devices required levels of purity that could not be achieved in other material systems. However, Hendrik Schoen, Christian Kloc and Bertram Batlogg of Bell Laboratories in the US have now observed the fractional quantum Hall effect - the most dramatic signature of electron-electron interactions - in two organic semiconductors. (U.K.)
On-Chip Microwave Quantum Hall Circulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. C. Mahoney
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Circulators are nonreciprocal circuit elements that are integral to technologies including radar systems, microwave communication transceivers, and the readout of quantum information devices. Their nonreciprocity arises from the interference of microwaves over the centimeter scale of the signal wavelength, in the presence of bulky magnetic media that breaks time-reversal symmetry. Here, we realize a completely passive on-chip microwave circulator with size 1/1000th the wavelength by exploiting the chiral, “slow-light” response of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. For an integrated GaAs device with 330 μm diameter and about 1-GHz center frequency, a nonreciprocity of 25 dB is observed over a 50-MHz bandwidth. Furthermore, the nonreciprocity can be dynamically tuned by varying the voltage at the port, an aspect that may enable reconfigurable passive routing of microwave signals on chip.
A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lippert, Matthew [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meyer, René [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Taliotis, Anastasios [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel andThe International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2015-01-08
Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a Γ{sub 0}(2) modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an SL(2,ℤ)-invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: we specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the SL(2,ℤ) action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.
A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
Lippert, Matthew; Meyer, René; Taliotis, Anastasios
2015-01-01
Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a Γ0(2) modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an -invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: we specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.
Infinite symmetry in the quantum Hall effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lütken C.A.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The new states of matter and concomitant quantum critical phenomena revealed by the quantum Hall effect appear to be accompanied by an emergent modular symmetry. The extreme rigidity of this infinite symmetry makes it easy to falsify, but two decades of experiments have failed to do so, and the location of quantum critical points predicted by the symmetry is in increasingly accurate agreement with scaling experiments. The symmetry severely constrains the structure of the effective quantum field theory that encodes the low energy limit of quantum electrodynamics of 1010 charges in two dirty dimensions. If this is a non-linear σ-model the target space is a torus, rather than the more familiar sphere. One of the simplest toroidal models gives a critical (correlation length exponent that agrees with the value obtained from numerical simulations of the quantum Hall effect.
Elementary theory of quantum Hall effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keshav N. Shrivastava
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The Hall effect is the generation of a current perpendicular to both the direction of the applied electric as well as magnetic field in a metal or in a semiconductor. It is used to determine the concentration of electrons. The quantum Hall effect with integer quantization was discovered by von Klitzing and fractionally charged states were found by Tsui, Stormer and Gossard. Robert Laughlin explained the quantization of Hall current by using “flux quantization” and introduced incompressibility to obtain the fractional charge. We have developed the theory of the quantum Hall effect by using the theory of angular momentum. Our predicted fractions are in accord with those measured. We emphasize our explanation of the observed phenomena. We use spin to explain the fractional charge and hence we discover spin-charge locking.
Properties of Nonabelian Quantum Hall States
Simon, Steven H.
2004-03-01
The quantum statistics of particles refers to the behavior of a multiparticle wavefunction under adiabatic interchange of two identical particles. While a three dimensional world affords the possibilities of Bosons or Fermions, the two dimensional world has more exotic possibilities such as Fractional and Nonabelian statistics (J. Frölich, in ``Nonperturbative Quantum Field Theory", ed, G. t'Hooft. 1988). The latter is perhaps the most interesting where the wavefunction obeys a ``nonabelian'' representation of the braid group - meaning that braiding A around B then B around C is not the same as braiding B around C then A around B. This property enables one to think about using these exotic systems for robust topological quantum computation (M. Freedman, A. Kitaev, et al, Bull Am Math Soc 40, 31 (2003)). Surprisingly, it is thought that quasiparticles excitations with such nonabelian statistics may actually exist in certain quantum Hall states that have already been observed. The most likely such candidate is the quantum Hall ν=5/2 state(R. L. Willett et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1776-1779 (1987)), thought to be a so-called Moore-Read Pfaffian state(G. Moore and N. Read, Nucl Phys. B360 362 (1991)), which can be thought of as a p-wave paired superconducting state of composite fermions(M. Greiter, X. G. Wen, and F. Wilczek, PRL 66, 3205 (1991)). Using this superconducting analogy, we use a Chern-Simons field theory approach to make a number of predictions as to what experimental signatures one should expect for this state if it really is this Moore-Read state(K. Foster, N. Bonesteel, and S. H. Simon, PRL 91 046804 (2003)). We will then discuss how the nonabelian statistics can be explored in detail using a quantum monte-carlo approach (Y. Tserkovnyak and S. H. Simon, PRL 90 106802 (2003)), (I. Finkler, Y. Tserkovnyak, and S. H. Simon, work in progress.) that allows one to explicitly drag one particle around another and observe the change in the wavefunctions
Anisotropic intrinsic spin Hall effect in quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cummings, A W; Akis, R; Ferry, D K
2011-01-01
We use numerical simulations to investigate the spin Hall effect in quantum wires in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that the intrinsic spin Hall effect is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the wire, and that the nature of this anisotropy depends strongly on the electron density and the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, at low densities, when only one subband of the quantum wire is occupied, the spin Hall effect is strongest for electron momentum along the [1-bar 10] axis, which is the opposite of what is expected for the purely 2D case. In addition, when more than one subband is occupied, the strength and anisotropy of the spin Hall effect can vary greatly over relatively small changes in electron density, which makes it difficult to predict which wire orientation will maximize the strength of the spin Hall effect. These results help to illuminate the role of quantum confinement in spin-orbit-coupled systems, and can serve as a guide for future experimental work on the use of quantum wires for spin-Hall-based spintronic applications. (paper)
Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser
2016-05-17
Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.
Geometrical Description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles
Park, Yeje; Yang, Bo; Haldane, F. D. M.
2012-02-01
We examine a description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles and quasiholes suggested by a recent geometrical approach (F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 116801 (2011)) to FQH systems, where the local excess electric charge density in the incompressible state is given by a topologically-quantized ``guiding-center spin'' times the Gaussian curvature of a ``guiding-center metric tensor'' that characterizes the local shape of the correlation hole around electrons in the fluid. We use a phenomenological energy function with two ingredients: the shear distortion energy of area-preserving distortions of the fluid, and a local (short-range) approximation to the Coulomb energy of the fluctuation of charge density associated with the Gaussian curvature. Quasiparticles and quasiholes of the 1/3 Laughlin state are modeled as ``punctures'' in the incompressible fluid which then relax by geometric distortion which generates Gaussian curvature, giving rise to the charge-density profile around the topological excitation.
Ciftja, Orion
2018-05-01
It has now become evident that interplay between internal anisotropy parameters (such as electron mass anisotropy and/or anisotropic coupling of electrons to the substrate) and electron-electron correlation effects can create a rich variety of possibilities especially in quantum Hall systems. The electron mass anisotropy or material substrate effects (for example, the piezoelectric effect in GaAs) can lead to an effective anisotropic interaction potential between electrons. For lack of knowledge of realistic ab-initio potentials that may describe such effects, we adopt a phenomenological approach and assume that an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential mimics the internal anisotropy of the system. In this work we investigate the emergence of liquid crystalline order at filling factor ν = 1/6 of the lowest Landau level, a state very close to the point where a transition from the liquid to the Wigner solid happens. We consider small finite systems of electrons interacting with an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential and study the energy stability of an anisotropic liquid crystalline state relative to its isotropic Fermi-liquid counterpart. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation results in disk geometry show stabilization of liquid crystalline order driven by an anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential at all values of the interaction anisotropy parameter studied.
Spin-singlet hierarchy in the fractional quantum Hall effect
Ino, Kazusumi
1999-01-01
We show that the so-called permanent quantum Hall states are formed by the integer quantum Hall effects on the Haldane-Rezayi quantum Hall state. Novel conformal field theory description along with this picture is deduced. The odd denominator plateaux observed around $\
Quantum Hall Conductivity and Topological Invariants
Reyes, Andres
2001-04-01
A short survey of the theory of the Quantum Hall effect is given emphasizing topological aspects of the quantization of the conductivity and showing how topological invariants can be derived from the hamiltonian. We express these invariants in terms of Chern numbers and show in precise mathematical terms how this relates to the Kubo formula.
Pseudospin anisotropy classification of quantum Hall ferromagnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.
2000-01-01
Roč. 63, č. 3 (2000), s. 035305-1 - 035305-9 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/98/0085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : quantum Hall ferromagnets * anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2000
Magnus force on quantum Hall skyrmions and vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, S.; Basu, B.; Bandyopadhyay, P.
2003-01-01
We have discussed here the Magnus force acting on the vortices and skyrmions in the quantum Hall systems. We have found that it is generated by the chirality of the system which is associated with the Berry phase and is same for both the cases
Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene.
Bolotin, Kirill I; Ghahari, Fereshte; Shulman, Michael D; Stormer, Horst L; Kim, Philip
2009-11-12
When electrons are confined in two dimensions and subject to strong magnetic fields, the Coulomb interactions between them can become very strong, leading to the formation of correlated states of matter, such as the fractional quantum Hall liquid. In this strong quantum regime, electrons and magnetic flux quanta bind to form complex composite quasiparticles with fractional electronic charge; these are manifest in transport measurements of the Hall conductivity as rational fractions of the elementary conductance quantum. The experimental discovery of an anomalous integer quantum Hall effect in graphene has enabled the study of a correlated two-dimensional electronic system, in which the interacting electrons behave like massless chiral fermions. However, owing to the prevailing disorder, graphene has so far exhibited only weak signatures of correlated electron phenomena, despite intense experimental and theoretical efforts. Here we report the observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in ultraclean, suspended graphene. In addition, we show that at low carrier density graphene becomes an insulator with a magnetic-field-tunable energy gap. These newly discovered quantum states offer the opportunity to study correlated Dirac fermions in graphene in the presence of large magnetic fields.
Observation of the Zero Hall Plateau in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Ou, Yunbo; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Liguo; Zhao, Dongyang; Jiang, Gaoyuan; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Yayu
2015-09-16
We report experimental investigations on the quantum phase transition between the two opposite Hall plateaus of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator. We observe a well-defined plateau with zero Hall conductivity over a range of magnetic field around coercivity when the magnetization reverses. The features of the zero Hall plateau are shown to be closely related to that of the quantum anomalous Hall effect, but its temperature evolution exhibits a significant difference from the network model for a conventional quantum Hall plateau transition. We propose that the chiral edge states residing at the magnetic domain boundaries, which are unique to a quantum anomalous Hall insulator, are responsible for the novel features of the zero Hall plateau.
Field theory of anyons and the fractional quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viefers, S.F.
1997-11-01
The thesis is devoted to a theoretical study of anyons, i.e. particles with fractional statistics moving in two space dimensions, and the quantum Hall effect. The latter constitutes the only known experimental realization of anyons in that the quasiparticle excitations in the fractional quantum Hall system are believed to obey fractional statistics. First, the properties of ideal quantum gases in two dimensions and in particular the equation of state of the free anyons gas are discussed. Then, a field theory formulation of anyons in a strong magnetic field is presented and later extended to a system with several species of anyons. The relation of this model to fractional exclusion statistics, i.e. intermediate statistics introduced by a generalization of the Pauli principle, and to the low-energy excitations at the edge of the quantum Hall system is discussed. Finally, the Chern-Simons-Landau-Ginzburg theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect is studied, mainly focusing on edge effects; both the ground state and the low-energy edge excitations are examined in the simple one-component model and in an extended model which includes spin effects
Local Thermometry of Neutral Modes on the Quantum Hall Edge
Hart, Sean; Venkatachalam, Vivek; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Yacoby, Amir
2012-02-01
A system of electrons in two dimensions and strong magnetic fields can be tuned to create a gapped 2D system with one dimensional channels along the edge. Interactions among these edge modes can lead to independent transport of charge and heat, even in opposite directions. Measuring the chirality and transport properties of these charge and heat modes can reveal otherwise hidden structure in the edge. Here, we heat the outer edge of such a quantum Hall system using a quantum point contact. By placing quantum dots upstream and downstream along the edge of the heater, we can measure both the chemical potential and temperature of that edge to study charge and heat transport, respectively. We find that charge is transported exclusively downstream, but heat can be transported upstream when the edge has additional structure related to fractional quantum Hall physics.
Theory of fractional quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostadinov, I.Z.
1984-09-01
A theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect is constructed by introducing 3-particle interactions breaking the symmetry for ν=1/3 according to a degeneracy theorem proved here. An order parameter is introduced and a gap in the single particle spectrum is found. The critical temperature, critical filling number and critical behaviour are determined as well as the Ginzburg-Landau equation coefficients. A first principle calculation of the Hall current is given. 3, 5, 7 electron tunneling and Josephson interference effects are predicted. (author)
Single-electron quantum tomography in quantum Hall edge channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grenier, Ch; Degiovanni, P; Herve, R; Bocquillon, E; Parmentier, F D; Placais, B; Berroir, J M; Feve, G
2011-01-01
We propose a quantum tomography protocol to measure single-electron coherence in quantum Hall edge channels, and therefore access for the first time the wavefunction of single-electron excitations propagating in ballistic quantum conductors. Its implementation would open the way to quantitative studies of single-electron decoherence and would provide a quantitative tool for analyzing single- to few-electron sources. We show how this protocol could be implemented using ultrahigh-sensitivity noise measurement schemes.
Magnetoresistance in quantum Hall metals due to Pancharatnam ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We derive the trial Hall resistance formula for the quantum Hall metals to address both the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. Within the degenerate (and crossed) Landau levels, and in the presence of changing magnetic field strength, one can invoke two physical processes responsible for the electron ...
Destruction of the fractional quantum Hall effect by disorder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laughlin, R.B.
1985-07-01
It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs
Quantum Hall Valley Nematics: From Field Theories to Microscopic Models
Parameswaran, Siddharth
The interplay between quantum Hall ordering and spontaneously broken ``internal'' symmetries in two-dimensional electron systems with spin or pseudospin degrees of freedom gives rise to a variety of interesting phenomena, including novel phases, phase transitions, and topological excitations. I will discuss a theory of broken-symmetry quantum Hall states, applicable to a class of multivalley systems, where the symmetry at issue is a point-group element that combines a spatial rotation with a permutation of valley indices. I will explore its ramifications for the phase diagram of a variety of experimental systems, such as AlAs and Si quantum wells and the surface states of bismuth. I will also discuss unconventional transport phenomena in these phases in the presence of quenched randomness, and the possible mechanisms of selection between degenerate broken-symmetry phases in clean systems. I acknowledge support from NSF DMR-1455366.
Fractional quantization and the quantum hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerrero, J.; Calixto, M.; Aldaya, V.
1998-01-01
Quantization with constrains is considered in a group-theoretical framework, providing a precise characterization of the set of good operators, i.e., those preserving the constrained Hilbert space, in terms of the representation of the subgroup of constraints. This machinery is applied to the quantization of the torus as symplectic manifold, obtaining that fractional quantum numbers are permitted, provided that we allow for vector valued representations. The good operators turn out to be the Wilson loops and, for certain representations of the subgroup of constraints, the modular transformations. These results are applied to the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, where interesting implications are derived
Dynamical quantum Hall effect in the parameter space.
Gritsev, V; Polkovnikov, A
2012-04-24
Geometric phases in quantum mechanics play an extraordinary role in broadening our understanding of fundamental significance of geometry in nature. One of the best known examples is the Berry phase [M.V. Berry (1984), Proc. Royal. Soc. London A, 392:45], which naturally emerges in quantum adiabatic evolution. So far the applicability and measurements of the Berry phase were mostly limited to systems of weakly interacting quasi-particles, where interference experiments are feasible. Here we show how one can go beyond this limitation and observe the Berry curvature, and hence the Berry phase, in generic systems as a nonadiabatic response of physical observables to the rate of change of an external parameter. These results can be interpreted as a dynamical quantum Hall effect in a parameter space. The conventional quantum Hall effect is a particular example of the general relation if one views the electric field as a rate of change of the vector potential. We illustrate our findings by analyzing the response of interacting spin chains to a rotating magnetic field. We observe the quantization of this response, which we term the rotational quantum Hall effect.
Coulomb blockade in hierarchical quantum Hall droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cappelli, Andrea; Georgiev, Lachezar S; Zemba, Guillermo R
2009-01-01
The degeneracy of energy levels in a quantum dot of Hall fluid, leading to conductance peaks, can be readily derived from the partition functions of conformal field theory. Their complete expressions can be found for Hall states with both Abelian and non-Abelian statistics, upon adapting known results for the annulus geometry. We analyze the Abelian states with hierarchical filling fractions, ν = m/(mp ± 1), and find a non-trivial pattern of conductance peaks. In particular, each one of them occurs with a characteristic multiplicity, which is due to the extended symmetry of the m-folded edge. Experimental tests of the multiplicity can shed more light on the dynamics of this composite edge. (fast track communication)
Topologically induced fractional Hall steps in the integer quantum Hall regime of MoS 2
Firoz Islam, SK; Benjamin, Colin
2016-09-01
The quantum magnetotransport properties of a monolayer of molybdenum disulfide are derived using linear response theory. In particular, the effect of topological terms on longitudinal and Hall conductivity is analyzed. The Hall conductivity exhibits fractional steps in the integer quantum Hall regime. Further complete spin and valley polarization of the longitudinal conductivitity is seen in presence of these topological terms. Finally, the Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations are suppressed or enhanced contingent on the sign of these topological terms.
Fractional Quantum Hall States in a Ge Quantum Well.
Mironov, O A; d'Ambrumenil, N; Dobbie, A; Leadley, D R; Suslov, A V; Green, E
2016-04-29
Measurements of the Hall and dissipative conductivity of a strained Ge quantum well on a SiGe/(001)Si substrate in the quantum Hall regime are reported. We analyze the results in terms of thermally activated quantum tunneling of carriers from one internal edge state to another across saddle points in the long-range impurity potential. This shows that the gaps for different filling fractions closely follow the dependence predicted by theory. We also find that the estimates of the separation of the edge states at the saddle are in line with the expectations of an electrostatic model in the lowest spin-polarized Landau level (LL), but not in the spin-reversed LL where the density of quasiparticle states is not high enough to accommodate the carriers required.
Field theory approach to quantum hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabo, A.; Chaichian, M.
1990-07-01
The Fradkin's formulation of statistical field theory is applied to the Coulomb interacting electron gas in a magnetic field. The electrons are confined to a plane in normal 3D-space and also interact with the physical 3D-electromagnetic field. The magnetic translation group (MTG) Ward identities are derived. Using them it is shown that the exact electron propagator is diagonalized in the basis of the wave functions of the free electron in a magnetic field whenever the MTG is unbroken. The general tensor structure of the polarization operator is obtained and used to show that the Chern-Simons action always describes the Hall effect properties of the system. A general proof of the Streda formula for the Hall conductivity is presented. It follows that the coefficient of the Chern-Simons terms in the long-wavelength approximation is exactly given by this relation. Such a formula, expressing the Hall conductivity as a simple derivative, in combination with diagonal form of the full propagator allows to obtain a simple expressions for the filling factor and the Hall conductivity. Indeed, these results, after assuming that the chemical potential lies in a gap of the density of states, lead to the conclusion that the Hall conductivity is given without corrections by σ xy = νe 2 /h where ν is the filling factor. In addition it follows that the filling factor is independent of the magnetic field if the chemical potential remains in the gap. (author). 21 ref, 1 fig
An edge index for the quantum spin-Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prodan, Emil
2009-01-01
Quantum spin-Hall systems are topological insulators displaying dissipationless spin currents flowing at the edges of the samples. In contradistinction to the quantum Hall systems where the charge conductance of the edge modes is quantized, the spin conductance is not and it remained an open problem to find the observable whose edge current is quantized. In this paper, we define a particular observable and the edge current corresponding to this observable. We show that this current is quantized and that the quantization is given by the index of a certain Fredholm operator. This provides a new topological invariant that is shown to take the generic values 0 and 2, in line with the Z 2 topological classification of time-reversal invariant systems. The result gives an effective tool for the investigation of the edge structure in quantum spin-Hall systems. Based on a reasonable assumption, we also show that the edge conducting channels are not destroyed by a random edge. (fast track communication)
OPTICS. Quantum spin Hall effect of light.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Smirnova, Daria; Nori, Franco
2015-06-26
Maxwell's equations, formulated 150 years ago, ultimately describe properties of light, from classical electromagnetism to quantum and relativistic aspects. The latter ones result in remarkable geometric and topological phenomena related to the spin-1 massless nature of photons. By analyzing fundamental spin properties of Maxwell waves, we show that free-space light exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall effect—surface modes with strong spin-momentum locking. These modes are evanescent waves that form, for example, surface plasmon-polaritons at vacuum-metal interfaces. Our findings illuminate the unusual transverse spin in evanescent waves and explain recent experiments that have demonstrated the transverse spin-direction locking in the excitation of surface optical modes. This deepens our understanding of Maxwell's theory, reveals analogies with topological insulators for electrons, and offers applications for robust spin-directional optical interfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime
Goldmann, Eyal
We present two studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime. In the first study, presented in Chapter 3, we investigate the edge reconstruction phenomenon believed to occur when the quantum dot filling fraction is n≲1 . Our approach involves the examination of large dots (≤40 electrons) using a partial diagonalization technique in which the occupancies of the deep interior orbitals are frozen. To interpret the results of this calculation, we evaluate the overlap between the diagonalized ground state and a set of trial wavefunctions which we call projected necklace (PN) states. A PN state is simply the angular momentum projection of a maximum density droplet surrounded by a ring of localized electrons. Our calculations reveal that PN states have up to 99% overlap with the diagonalized ground states, and are lower in energy than the states identified in Chamon and Wen's study of the edge reconstruction. In the second study, presented in Chapter 4, we investigate quantum dots in the fractional quantum Hall regime using a Hartree formulation of composite fermion theory. We find that under appropriate conditions, the chemical potential of the dots oscillates periodically with B due to the transfer of composite fermions between quasi-Landau bands. This effect is analogous the addition spectrum oscillations which occur in quantum dots in the integer quantum Hall regime. Period f0 oscillations are found in sharply confined dots with filling factors nu = 2/5 and nu = 2/3. Period 3 f0 oscillations are found in a parabolically confined nu = 2/5 dot. More generally, we argue that the oscillation period of dots with band pinning should vary continuously with B, whereas the period of dots without band pinning is f0 .
Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in n = 0 Landau Band of Graphene with Chern Number Matrix
Kudo, Koji; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro
2018-06-01
Fully taking into account the honeycomb lattice structure, fractional quantum Hall states of graphene are considered by a pseudopotential projected into the n = 0 Landau band. By using chirality as an internal degree of freedom, the Chern number matrices are defined and evaluated numerically. Quantum phase transition induced by changing a range of the interaction is demonstrated that is associated with chirality ferromagnetism. The chirality-unpolarized ground state is consistent with the Halperin 331 state of the bilayer quantum Hall system.
Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect
Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D. -H.
1996-01-01
The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.
Vortices in superconducting films: Statistics and fractional quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dziarmaga, J.
1996-01-01
We present a derivation of the Berry phase picked up during exchange of parallel vortices. This derivation is based on the Bogolubov endash de Gennes formalism. The origin of the Magnus force is also critically reanalyzed. The Magnus force can be interpreted as an interaction with the effective magnetic field. The effective magnetic field may be even of the order 10 6 T/A. We discuss a possibility of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in vortex systems. As the real magnetic field is varied to drive changes in vortex density, the vortex density will prefer to stay at some quantized values. The mere existence of the FQHE does not depend on vortex quantum statistics, although the pattern of the plateaux does. We also discuss how the density of anyonic vortices can lower the effective strengh of the Magnus force, what might be observable in measurements of Hall resistivity. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Quantum Hall effect and hopping conductivity in n-InGaAs/InAlAs nanoheterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudina, S. V., E-mail: svpopova@imp.uran.ru; Arapov, Yu. G.; Saveliev, A. P.; Neverov, V. N.; Podgornykh, S. M.; Shelushinina, N. G.; Yakunin, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Vasil’evskii, I. S.; Vinichenko, A. N. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
The longitudinal and Hall magnetoresistances are measured in the quantum Hall effect regime in the n-InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures at temperatures of T = (1.8–30) K in magnetic fields up to B = 9 T. Temperature-induced transport in the region of the longitudinal resistance minima, corresponding to the plateau regions at Hall resistance, is investigated within the framework of the concept of hopping conductivity in a strongly localized electron system. The analysis of variable-range hopping conductivity in the region of the second, third, and fourth plateau of the quantum Hall effect provides the possibility of determining the localization length exponent.
Morimoto, Takahiro; Furusaki, Akira; Nagaosa, Naoto
2015-04-10
Three-dimensional topological insulators of finite thickness can show the quantum Hall effect (QHE) at the filling factor ν=0 under an external magnetic field if there is a finite potential difference between the top and bottom surfaces. We calculate energy spectra of surface Weyl fermions in the ν=0 QHE and find that gapped edge states with helical spin structure are formed from Weyl fermions on the side surfaces under certain conditions. These edge channels account for the nonlocal charge transport in the ν=0 QHE which is observed in a recent experiment on (Bi_{1-x}Sb_{x})_{2}Te_{3} films. The edge channels also support spin transport due to the spin-momentum locking. We propose an experimental setup to observe various spintronics functions such as spin transport and spin conversion.
Experiments on Quantum Hall Topological Phases in Ultra Low Temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, Rui-Rui
2015-01-01
This project is to cool electrons in semiconductors to extremely low temperatures and to study new states of matter formed by low-dimensional electrons (or holes). At such low temperatures (and with an intense magnetic field), electronic behavior differs completely from ordinary ones observed at room temperatures or regular low temperature. Studies of electrons at such low temperatures would open the door for fundamental discoveries in condensed matter physics. Present studies have been focused on topological phases in the fractional quantum Hall effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructures, and the newly discovered (by this group) quantum spin Hall effect in InAs/GaSb materials. This project consists of the following components: 1) Development of efficient sample cooling techniques and electron thermometry: Our goal is to reach 1 mK electron temperature and reasonable determination of electron temperature; 2) Experiments at ultra-low temperatures: Our goal is to understand the energy scale of competing quantum phases, by measuring the temperature-dependence of transport features. Focus will be placed on such issues as the energy gap of the 5/2 state, and those of 12/5 (and possible 13/5); resistive signature of instability near 1/2 at ultra-low temperatures; 3) Measurement of the 5/2 gaps in the limit of small or large Zeeman energies: Our goal is to gain physics insight of 5/2 state at limiting experimental parameters, especially those properties concerning the spin polarization; 4) Experiments on tuning the electron-electron interaction in a screened quantum Hall system: Our goal is to gain understanding of the formation of paired fractional quantum Hall state as the interaction pseudo-potential is being modified by a nearby screening electron layer; 5) Experiments on the quantized helical edge states under a strong magnetic field and ultralow temperatures: our goal is to investigate both the bulk and edge states in a quantum spin Hall insulator under
Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey Gromov
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k^{6} order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.
Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States
Gromov, Andrey; Son, Dam Thanh
2017-10-01
We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP) mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k6 order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH) transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.
Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators
Tahir, M.
2016-07-27
We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.
Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators
Tahir, M.; Vasilopoulos, P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2016-01-01
We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.
Hall conductance and topological invariant for open systems.
Shen, H Z; Wang, W; Yi, X X
2014-09-24
The Hall conductivity given by the Kubo formula is a linear response of quantum transverse transport to a weak electric field. It has been intensively studied for quantum systems without decoherence, but it is barely explored for systems subject to decoherence. In this paper, we develop a formulism to deal with this issue for topological insulators. The Hall conductance of a topological insulator coupled to an environment is derived, the derivation is based on a linear response theory developed for open systems in this paper. As an application, the Hall conductance of a two-band topological insulator and a two-dimensional lattice is presented and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, C F; Chang, Y H; Cheng, H H; Yang, Z P; Yeh, H D; Hsu, C H; Liang, C-T; Hang, D R; Lin, H H
2007-01-01
Magnetic-field-induced phase transitions were studied with a two-dimensional electron AlGaAs/GaAs system. The temperature-driven flow diagram shows features of the Γ(2) modular symmetry, which includes distorted flowlines and a shifted critical point. The deviation of the critical conductivities is attributed to a small but resolved spin splitting, which reduces the symmetry in Landau quantization (Dolan 2000 Phys. Rev. B 62 10278). Universal scaling is found under the reduction of the modular symmetry. It is also shown that the Hall conductivity can still be governed by the scaling law when the semicircle law and the scaling on the longitudinal conductivity are invalid
Strong quasi-particle tunneling study in the paired quantum Hall states
Nomura, Kentaro; Yoshioka, Daijiro
2001-01-01
The quasi-particle tunneling phenomena in the paired fractional quantum Hall states are studied. A single point-contact system is first considered. Because of relevancy of the quasi-particle tunneling term, the strong tunneling regime should be investigated. Using the instanton method it is shown that the strong quasi-particle tunneling regime is described as the weak electron tunneling regime effectively. Expanding to the network model the paired quantum Hall liquid to insulator transition i...
Characterization of the Quantized Hall Insulator Phase in the Quantum Critical Regime
Song, Juntao; Prodan, Emil
2013-01-01
The conductivity $\\sigma$ and resistivity $\\rho$ tensors of the disordered Hofstadter model are mapped as functions of Fermi energy $E_F$ and temperature $T$ in the quantum critical regime of the plateau-insulator transition (PIT). The finite-size errors are eliminated by using the non-commutative Kubo-formula. The results reproduce all the key experimental characteristics of this transition in Integer Quantum Hall (IQHE) systems. In particular, the Quantized Hall Insulator (QHI) phase is det...
Critical current in the Integral Quantum Hall Effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostadinov, I.Z.
1985-11-01
A multiparticle theory of the Integral Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) was constructed operating with pairs wave function as an order parameter. The IQHE is described with bosonic macroscopic states while the fractional QHE with fermionic ones. The calculation of the critical current and Hall conductivity temperature dependence is presented. (author)
Higher (odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazuki Hasebe
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S2k−1 in the SO(2k−1 monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S2k−1 to the one-dimension higher SO(2k gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah–Patodi–Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.
Nobel Prize in physics 1985: Quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrmann, R.
1986-01-01
The conditions (like very strong magnetic fields, ultralow temperatures, and occurrence of a two-dimensional electron gas in microelectronic structures) for the measurement of the quantum Hall effect are explained. Two possible measuring methods are described. Measuring results for p-Si-MOSFET, GaAs/AlGaAs heterojuntions and grain boundaries in InSb crystals are reported. Differences between normal (integer) and fractional quantum Hall effect are discussed. One of the important consequences is that by means of the quantum Hall effect the value h/e 2 can be determined with very high accuracy. In 1985 Klaus von Klitzing was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the quantum Hall effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manger, Matthias
2008-07-01
This thesis is dedicated to the long wavelength collective excitations of quasi two-dimensional electron systems (Q2DEG) in GaAs under the influence of high magnetic fields. These excitations, which are classified into cyclotron resonances and magneto intersubband resonances, were experimentally investigated by means of far infrared Fourier spectroscopy. Cyclotron resonances were studied in a magnetic field range 0Quantum Hall Effects (FQHE) as well as to the regime of prominent polaron coupling at high temperatures. For the analysis and the interpretation of the experimental data, various theoretical models were presented and applied to the data. The theory took into account the multi-component character of cyclotron resonance in the presence of polaron coupling, bands nonparabolicity, and disorder under the combined influence of electronic screening and electron-electron coupling. The magneto intersubband resonances were investigated in the regime of the Integral Quantum Hall Effect. The grating coupler technique was used in order to couple the electromagnetic field to these collective excitations. Self consistent calculations of the subband structure and the collective modes were performed in the framework of the Hartree-Fock approximation scheme. These calculations were used for an interpretation of the experimental observations. (orig.)
Testing the Topological Nature of the Fractional Quantum Hall Edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jolad, Shivakumar; Jain, Jainendra K.
2009-01-01
We carry out numerical diagonalization for much larger systems than before by restricting the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) edge excitations to a basis that is exact for a short-range interaction and very accurate for the Coulomb interaction. This enables us to perform substantial tests of the predicted universality of the edge physics. Our results suggest the possibility that the behavior of the FQH edge is intrinsically nonuniversal, even in the absence of edge reconstruction, and therefore may not bear a sharp and unique relation to the nature of the bulk FQH state
On-chip microwave circulators using quantum Hall plasmonics
Mahoney, Alice; Colless, James; Pauka, Sebastian; Hornibrook, John; Doherty, Andrew; Reilly, David; Peeters, Lucas; Fox, Eli; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Kou, Xuefeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang; Watson, John; Gardner, Geoffrey; Manfra, Michael
Circulators are directional circuit elements integral to technologies including radar systems, microwave communication transceivers and the readout of quantum information devices. Their non-reciprocity commonly arises from the interference of microwaves over the centimetre-scale of the signal wavelength in the presence of bulky magnetic media that breaks time-reversal symmetry. We present a completely passive on-chip microwave circulator with size 1/1000th the wavelength by exploiting the chiral, `slow-light' response of a GaAs/AlGaAs 2-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. Further, by implementing this circulator design on a thin film of a magnetic topological insulator (Cr0.12(Bi0.26Sb0.62)2Te3), we show that similar non-reciprocity can be achieved at zero magnetic field. This additional mode of operation serves as a non-invasive probe of edge states in the quantum anomalous Hall effect, while also extending the possibility for integration with superconducting devices.
Quantum Hall effects recent theoretical and experimental developments
Ezawa, Zyun Francis
2013-01-01
Enthusiasm for research on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) is unbounded. The QHE is one of the most fascinating and beautiful phenomena in all branches of physics. Tremendous theoretical and experimental developments are still being made in this sphere. Composite bosons, composite fermions and anyons were among distinguishing ideas in the original edition. In the 2nd edition, fantastic phenomena associated with the interlayer phase coherence in the bilayer system were extensively described. The microscopic theory of the QHE was formulated based on the noncommutative geometry. Furthermore, the unconventional QHE in graphene was reviewed, where the electron dynamics can be treated as relativistic Dirac fermions and even the supersymmetric quantum mechanics plays a key role. In this 3rd edition, all chapters are carefully reexamined and updated. A highlight is the new chapter on topological insulators. Indeed, the concept of topological insulator stems from the QHE. Other new topics are recent prominent experime...
Deformed Calogero-Sutherland model and fractional quantum Hall effect
Atai, Farrokh; Langmann, Edwin
2017-01-01
The deformed Calogero-Sutherland (CS) model is a quantum integrable system with arbitrary numbers of two types of particles and reducing to the standard CS model in special cases. We show that a known collective field description of the CS model, which is based on conformal field theory (CFT), is actually a collective field description of the deformed CS model. This provides a natural application of the deformed CS model in Wen's effective field theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with the two kinds of particles corresponding to electrons and quasi-hole excitations. In particular, we use known mathematical results about super-Jack polynomials to obtain simple explicit formulas for the orthonormal CFT basis proposed by van Elburg and Schoutens in the context of the FQHE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riess, J.; Duport, C.
1991-01-01
We report the first numerical results (with realistic parameter values) for the time evolution of a scattered Landau function in a model system. They give a striking illustration for the Hall velocity increase beyond the classical value of the conduction electrons in the quantum Hall regime. This phenomenon, which is crucial for the integer quantum Hall effect, is caused by a special kind of nonclassical particle dynamics induced by disorder and cannot be described by linear response theory
Hong, Changki; Park, Jinhong; Chung, Yunchul; Choi, Hyungkook; Umansky, Vladimir
2017-11-01
Transmission through a quantum point contact (QPC) in the quantum Hall regime usually exhibits multiple resonances as a function of gate voltage and high nonlinearity in bias. Such behavior is unpredictable and changes sample by sample. Here, we report the observation of a sharp transition of the transmission through an open QPC at finite bias, which was observed consistently for all the tested QPCs. It is found that the bias dependence of the transition can be fitted to the Fermi-Dirac distribution function through universal scaling. The fitted temperature matches quite nicely to the electron temperature measured via shot-noise thermometry. While the origin of the transition is unclear, we propose a phenomenological model based on our experimental results that may help to understand such a sharp transition. Similar transitions are observed in the fractional quantum Hall regime, and it is found that the temperature of the system can be measured by rescaling the quasiparticle energy with the effective charge (e*=e /3 ). We believe that the observed phenomena can be exploited as a tool for measuring the electron temperature of the system and for studying the quasiparticle charges of the fractional quantum Hall states.
Quantum Hall Effect: proposed multi-electron tunneling experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostadinov, I.Z.
1985-11-01
Here we propose a tunneling experiment for the fractional and Integral Quantum Hall Effect. It may demonstrate multi-electron tunneling and may provide information about the nature of the macroscopic quantum states of 2D electronic liquid or solid. (author)
Complex scattering dynamics and the quantum Hall effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trugman, S.A.
1994-01-01
We review both classical and quantum potential scattering in two dimensions in a magnetic field, with applications to the quantum Hall effect. Classical scattering is complex, due to the approach of scattering states to an infinite number of dynamically bound states. Quantum scattering follows the classical behavior rather closely, exhibiting sharp resonances in place of the classical bound states. Extended scatterers provide a quantitative explanation for the breakdown of the QHE at a comparatively small Hall voltage as seen by Kawaji et al., and possibly for noise effects
Complex dynamics of the integer quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trugman, S.A.; Nicopoulos, V.N.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL
1991-01-01
We investigate both classical and quantum potential scattering in two dimensions in a magnetic field, with applications to the integer quantum Hall effect. Classical scattering is complex, due in one case to the approach of scattering states to an infinite number of bound states. We show that bound states are generic, and occur for all but extremely smooth scattering potentials (|rvec ∇| → 0). Quantum scattering follows the classical behavior rather closely, exhibiting sharp resonances rather than classical bound states. Extended scatterers provide an explanation for the breakdown of the QHE at a comparatively small Hall voltage. 16 refs., 14 figs
Exploring 4D quantum Hall physics with a 2D topological charge pump
Lohse, Michael; Schweizer, Christian; Price, Hannah M.; Zilberberg, Oded; Bloch, Immanuel
2018-01-01
The discovery of topological states of matter has greatly improved our understanding of phase transitions in physical systems. Instead of being described by local order parameters, topological phases are described by global topological invariants and are therefore robust against perturbations. A prominent example is the two-dimensional (2D) integer quantum Hall effect: it is characterized by the first Chern number, which manifests in the quantized Hall response that is induced by an external electric field. Generalizing the quantum Hall effect to four-dimensional (4D) systems leads to the appearance of an additional quantized Hall response, but one that is nonlinear and described by a 4D topological invariant—the second Chern number. Here we report the observation of a bulk response with intrinsic 4D topology and demonstrate its quantization by measuring the associated second Chern number. By implementing a 2D topological charge pump using ultracold bosonic atoms in an angled optical superlattice, we realize a dynamical version of the 4D integer quantum Hall effect. Using a small cloud of atoms as a local probe, we fully characterize the nonlinear response of the system via in situ imaging and site-resolved band mapping. Our findings pave the way to experimentally probing higher-dimensional quantum Hall systems, in which additional strongly correlated topological phases, exotic collective excitations and boundary phenomena such as isolated Weyl fermions are predicted.
Exploring 4D quantum Hall physics with a 2D topological charge pump.
Lohse, Michael; Schweizer, Christian; Price, Hannah M; Zilberberg, Oded; Bloch, Immanuel
2018-01-03
The discovery of topological states of matter has greatly improved our understanding of phase transitions in physical systems. Instead of being described by local order parameters, topological phases are described by global topological invariants and are therefore robust against perturbations. A prominent example is the two-dimensional (2D) integer quantum Hall effect: it is characterized by the first Chern number, which manifests in the quantized Hall response that is induced by an external electric field. Generalizing the quantum Hall effect to four-dimensional (4D) systems leads to the appearance of an additional quantized Hall response, but one that is nonlinear and described by a 4D topological invariant-the second Chern number. Here we report the observation of a bulk response with intrinsic 4D topology and demonstrate its quantization by measuring the associated second Chern number. By implementing a 2D topological charge pump using ultracold bosonic atoms in an angled optical superlattice, we realize a dynamical version of the 4D integer quantum Hall effect. Using a small cloud of atoms as a local probe, we fully characterize the nonlinear response of the system via in situ imaging and site-resolved band mapping. Our findings pave the way to experimentally probing higher-dimensional quantum Hall systems, in which additional strongly correlated topological phases, exotic collective excitations and boundary phenomena such as isolated Weyl fermions are predicted.
3D Quantum Hall Effect of Fermi Arc in Topological Semimetals
Wang, C. M.; Sun, Hai-Peng; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Xie, X. C.
2017-09-01
The quantum Hall effect is usually observed in 2D systems. We show that the Fermi arcs can give rise to a distinctive 3D quantum Hall effect in topological semimetals. Because of the topological constraint, the Fermi arc at a single surface has an open Fermi surface, which cannot host the quantum Hall effect. Via a "wormhole" tunneling assisted by the Weyl nodes, the Fermi arcs at opposite surfaces can form a complete Fermi loop and support the quantum Hall effect. The edge states of the Fermi arcs show a unique 3D distribution, giving an example of (d -2 )-dimensional boundary states. This is distinctly different from the surface-state quantum Hall effect from a single surface of topological insulator. As the Fermi energy sweeps through the Weyl nodes, the sheet Hall conductivity evolves from the 1 /B dependence to quantized plateaus at the Weyl nodes. This behavior can be realized by tuning gate voltages in a slab of topological semimetal, such as the TaAs family, Cd3 As2 , or Na3Bi . This work will be instructive not only for searching transport signatures of the Fermi arcs but also for exploring novel electron gases in other topological phases of matter.
Quantum Hall bilayers and the chiral sine-Gordon equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naud, J.D.; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Sondhi, S.L.
2000-01-01
The edge state theory of a class of symmetric double-layer quantum Hall systems with interlayer electron tunneling reduces to the sum of a free field theory and a field theory of a chiral Bose field with a self-interaction of the sine-Gordon form. We argue that the perturbative renormalization group flow of this chiral sine-Gordon theory is distinct from the standard (non-chiral) sine-Gordon theory, contrary to a previous assertion by Renn, and that the theory is manifestly sensible only at a discrete set of values of the inverse period of the cosine interaction (β-circumflex). We obtain exact solutions for the spectra and correlation functions of the chiral sine-Gordon theory at the two values of β-circumflex at which electron tunneling in bilayers is not irrelevant. Of these, the marginal case (β-circumflex 2 =4) is of greatest interest: the spectrum of the interacting theory is that of two Majorana fermions with different, dynamically generated, velocities. For the experimentally observed bilayer 331 state at filling factor 1/2, this implies the trifurcation of electrons added to the edge. We also present a method for fermionizing the theory at the discrete points (β-circumflex 2 is an element of Z + ) by the introduction of auxiliary degrees of freedom that could prove useful in other problems involving quantum Hall multi-layers
Fragility of the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in quantum gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fialko, O; Brand, J; Zülicke, U
2014-01-01
We consider the effect of contact interaction in a prototypical quantum spin Hall system of pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. A strong effective magnetic field with opposite directions for the two spin states restricts two-dimensional particle motion to the lowest Landau level. While interaction between same-spin particles leads to incompressible correlated states at fractional filling factors as known from the fractional quantum Hall effect, these states are destabilized by interactions between opposite spin particles. Exact results for two particles with opposite spin reveal a quasi-continuous spectrum of extended states with a large density of states at low energy. This has implications for the prospects of realizing the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in electronic or ultra-cold atom systems. Numerical diagonalization is used to extend the two-particle results to many bosonic particles and trapped systems. The interplay between an external trapping potential and spin-dependent interactions is shown to open up new possibilities for engineering exotic correlated many-particle states with ultra-cold atoms. (paper)
Modular invariance, universality and crossover in the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, Brian P.
1999-01-01
An analytic form for the conductivity tensor in crossover between two quantum Hall plateaux is derived, which appears to be in good agreement with existing experimental data. The derivation relies on an assumed symmetry between quantum Hall states, a generalisation of the law of corresponding states from rational filling factors to complex conductivity, which has a mathematical expression in terms of an action of the modular group on the upper-half complex conductivity plane. This symmetry implies universality in quantum Hall crossovers. The assumption that the β-function for the complex conductivity is a complex analytic function, together with some experimental constraints, results in an analytic expression for the crossover, as a function of the external magnetic field
AdS/QHE: towards a holographic description of quantum Hall experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayntun, Allan; Burgess, C P; Lee, Sung-Sik; Dolan, Brian P
2011-01-01
Transitions among quantum Hall plateaux share a suite of remarkable experimental features, such as semicircle laws and duality relations, whose accuracy and robustness are difficult to explain directly in terms of the detailed dynamics of the microscopic electrons. They would naturally follow if the low-energy transport properties were governed by an emergent discrete duality group relating the different plateaux, but no explicit examples of interacting systems having such a group are known. Recent progress using the AdS/CFT correspondence has identified examples with similar duality groups, but without the dc ohmic conductivity characteristic of quantum Hall experiments. We use this to propose a simple holographic model for low-energy quantum Hall systems, with a nonzero dc conductivity that automatically exhibits all of the observed consequences of duality, including the existence of the plateaux and the semicircle transitions between them. The model can be regarded as a strongly coupled analogue of the old 'composite boson' picture of quantum Hall systems. Non-universal features of the model can be used to test whether it describes actual materials, and we comment on some of these in our proposed model. In particular, the model indicates the value 2/5 for low-temperature scaling exponents for transitions among quantum Hall plateaux, in agreement with the measured value 0.42±0.01.
Fractional quantum Hall states of atoms in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soerensen, Anders S.; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2005-01-01
We describe a method to create fractional quantum Hall states of atoms confined in optical lattices. We show that the dynamics of the atoms in the lattice is analogous to the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field if an oscillating quadrupole potential is applied together with a periodic modulation of the tunneling between lattice sites. In a suitable parameter regime the ground state in the lattice is of the fractional quantum Hall type, and we show how these states can be reached by melting a Mott-insulator state in a superlattice potential. Finally, we discuss techniques to observe these strongly correlated states
Breakdown of Counterflow Superfluidity in a Disordered Quantum Hall Bilayer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, D.K.K.; Eastham, P.R.; Cooper, N.R.
2011-01-01
We present a theory for the regime of coherent interlayer tunneling in a disordered quantum Hall bilayer at total filling factor one, allowing for the effect of static vortices. We find that the system consists of domains of polarized superfluid phase. Injected currents introduce phase slips between the polarized domains which are pinned by disorder. We present a model of saturated tunneling domains that predicts a critical current for the breakdown of coherent tunneling that is extensive in the system size. This theory is supported by numerical results from a disordered phase model in two dimensions. We also discuss how our picture might be used to interpret experiments in the counterflow geometry and in two-terminal measurements
Breakdown of Counterflow Superfluidity in a Disordered Quantum Hall Bilayer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. K. K. Lee
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present a theory for the regime of coherent interlayer tunneling in a disordered quantum Hall bilayer at total filling factor one, allowing for the effect of static vortices. We find that the system consists of domains of polarized superfluid phase. Injected currents introduce phase slips between the polarized domains which are pinned by disorder. We present a model of saturated tunneling domains that predicts a critical current for the breakdown of coherent tunneling that is extensive in the system size. This theory is supported by numerical results from a disordered phase model in two dimensions. We also discuss how our picture might be used to interpret experiments in the counterflow geometry and in two-terminal measurements.
A review of the quantum Hall effects in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures
Falson, Joseph; Kawasaki, Masashi
2018-05-01
This review visits recent experimental efforts on high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) hosted at the Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO heterointerface. We begin with the growth of these samples, and highlight the key characteristics of ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy required for their production. The transport characteristics of these structures are found to rival that of traditional semiconductor material systems, as signified by the high electron mobility (μ > 1000 000 cm2 Vs‑1) and rich quantum Hall features. Owing to a large effective mass and small dielectric constant, interaction effects are an order of magnitude stronger in comparison with the well studied GaAs-based 2DES. The strong correlation physics results in robust Fermi-liquid renormalization of the effective mass and spin susceptibility of carriers, which in turn dictates the parameter space for the quantum Hall effect. Finally, we explore the quantum Hall effect with a particular emphasis on the spin degree of freedom of carriers, and how their large spin splitting allows control of the ground states encountered at ultra-low temperatures within the fractional quantum Hall regime. We discuss in detail the physics of even-denominator fractional quantum Hall states, whose observation and underlying character remain elusive and exotic.
Interaction Induced Quantum Valley Hall Effect in Graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. C. Marino
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We use pseudo-quantum electrodynamics in order to describe the full electromagnetic interaction of the p electrons in graphene in a consistent 2D formulation. We first consider the effect of this interaction in the vacuum polarization tensor or, equivalently, in the current correlator. This allows us to obtain the T→0 conductivity after a smooth zero-frequency limit is taken in Kubo’s formula. Thereby, we obtain the usual expression for the minimal conductivity plus corrections due to the interaction that bring it closer to the experimental value. We then predict the onset of an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum valley Hall effect below an activation temperature of the order of 2 K. The transverse (Hall valley conductivity is evaluated exactly and shown to coincide with the one in the usual quantum Hall effect. Finally, by considering the effects of pseudo-quantum electrodynamics, we show that the electron self-energy is such that a set of P- and T-symmetric gapped electron energy eigenstates are dynamically generated, in association with the quantum valley Hall effect.
A programmable quantum current standard from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poirier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.poirier@lne.fr; Lafont, F.; Djordjevic, S.; Schopfer, F.; Devoille, L. [Quantum metrology group, Laboratoire National de métrologie et d' Essais, 29 avenue Roger Hennequin, 78197 Trappes (France)
2014-01-28
We propose a way to realize a programmable quantum current standard (PQCS) from the Josephson voltage standard and the quantum Hall resistance standard (QHR) exploiting the multiple connection technique provided by the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and the exactness of the cryogenic current comparator. The PQCS could lead to breakthroughs in electrical metrology like the realization of a programmable quantum current source, a quantum ampere-meter, and a simplified closure of the quantum metrological triangle. Moreover, very accurate universality tests of the QHE could be performed by comparing PQCS based on different QHRs.
Superconducting Analogue of the Parafermion Fractional Quantum Hall States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abolhassan Vaezi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Read-Rezayi Z_{k} parafermion wave functions describe ν=2+(k/kM+2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH states. These states support non-Abelian excitations from which protected quantum gates can be designed. However, there is no experimental evidence for these non-Abelian anyons to date. In this paper, we study the ν=2/k FQH-superconductor heterostructure and find the superconducting analogue of the Z_{k} parafermion FQH state. Our main tool is the mapping of the FQH into coupled one-dimensional chains, each with a pair of counterpropagating modes. We show that by inducing intrachain pairing and charge preserving backscattering with identical couplings, the one-dimensional chains flow into gapless Z_{k} parafermions when k<4. By studying the effect of interchain coupling, we show that every parafermion mode becomes massive except for the two outermost ones. Thus, we achieve a fractional topological superconductor whose chiral edge state is described by a Z_{k} parafermion conformal field theory. For instance, we find that a ν=2/3 FQH in proximity to a superconductor produces a Z_{3} parafermion superconducting state. This state is topologically indistinguishable from the non-Abelian part of the ν=12/5 Read-Rezayi state. Both of these systems can host Fibonacci anyons capable of performing universal quantum computation through braiding operations.
Quantum Hall conductivity in a Landau type model with a realistic geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandelier, F.; Georgelin, Y.; Masson, T.; Wallet, J.-C.
2003-01-01
In this paper, we revisit some quantum mechanical aspects related to the quantum Hall effect. We consider a Landau type model, paying a special attention to the experimental and geometrical features of quantum Hall experiments. The resulting formalism is then used to compute explicitly the Hall conductivity from a Kubo formula
Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C.; Degiovanni, P.
2014-01-01
We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor
Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernández, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Carrera 11 101-80 Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C., E-mail: christophe.chaubet@univ-montp2.fr [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR5221, F-34095 Montpellier, France and CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Degiovanni, P. [Université de Lyon, Fédération de Physique Andrée Marie Ampère, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)
2014-03-28
We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor.
Zero field Quantum Hall Effect in QED3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raya, K; Sánchez-Madrigal, S; Raya, A
2013-01-01
We study analytic structure of the fermion propagator in the Quantum Electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions (QED3) in the Landau gauge, both in perturbation theory and nonperturbatively, by solving the corresponding Schwinger-Dyson equation in rainbow approximation. In the chiral limit, we found many nodal solutions, which could be interpreted as vacuum excitations. Armed with these solutions, we use the Kubo formula and calculate the filling factor for the zero field Quantum Hall Effect
A conformal field theory description of fractional quantum Hall states
Ardonne, E.
2002-01-01
In this thesis, we give a description of fractional quantum Hall states in terms of conformal field theory (CFT). As was known for a long time, the Laughlin states could be written in terms of correlators of chiral vertex operators of a c=1 CFT. It was shown by G. Moore and N. Read that more general
Imaging of Coulomb-Driven Quantum Hall Edge States
Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Shabani, Javad; Shayegan, Mansour
2011-01-01
The edges of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime are divided into alternating metallic and insulating strips, with their widths determined by the energy gaps of the QHE states and the electrostatic Coulomb
Composite fermions a unified view of the quantum Hall regime
1998-01-01
One of the most exciting recent developments to have emerged from the quantum Hall effect is the subject of composite fermions. This important volume gives a self-contained, comprehensive description of the subject, including fundamentals, more advanced theoretical work, and results from experimental observations of composite fermions.
Parity effect of bipolar quantum Hall edge transport around graphene antidots.
Matsuo, Sadashige; Nakaharai, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke
2015-06-30
Parity effect, which means that even-odd property of an integer physical parameter results in an essential difference, ubiquitously appears and enables us to grasp its physical essence as the microscopic mechanism is less significant in coarse graining. Here we report a new parity effect of quantum Hall edge transport in graphene antidot devices with pn junctions (PNJs). We found and experimentally verified that the bipolar quantum Hall edge transport is drastically affected by the parity of the number of PNJs. This parity effect is universal in bipolar quantum Hall edge transport of not only graphene but also massless Dirac electron systems. These results offer a promising way to design electron interferometers in graphene.
Quantum simulation of conductivity plateaux and fractional quantum Hall effect using ultracold atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barberán, Nuria; García-March, Miguel Angel; Taron, Josep; Dagnino, Daniel; Trombettoni, Andrea; Lewenstein, Maciej
2015-01-01
We analyze the role of impurities in the fractional quantum Hall effect using a highly controllable system of ultracold atoms. We investigate the mechanism responsible for the formation of plateaux in the resistivity/conductivity as a function of the applied magnetic field in the lowest Landau level regime. To this aim, we consider an impurity immersed in a small cloud of an ultracold quantum Bose gas subjected to an artificial magnetic field. We consider scenarios corresponding to experimentally realistic systems with gauge fields induced by rotation of the trapping parabolic potential. Systems of this kind are adequate to simulate quantum Hall effects in ultracold atom setups. We use exact diagonalization for few atoms and to emulate transport equations, we analyze the time evolution of the system under a periodic perturbation. We provide a theoretical proposal to detect the up-to-now elusive presence of strongly correlated states related to fractional filling factors in the context of ultracold atoms. We analyze the conditions under which these strongly correlated states are associated with the presence of the resistivity/conductivity plateaux. Our main result is the presence of a plateau in a region, where the transfer between localized and non-localized particles takes place, as a necessary condition to maintain a constant value of the resistivity/conductivity as the magnetic field increases. (paper)
Effect of quantum tunneling on spin Hall magnetoresistance.
Ok, Seulgi; Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Manske, Dirk
2017-02-22
We present a formalism that simultaneously incorporates the effect of quantum tunneling and spin diffusion on the spin Hall magnetoresistance observed in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator bilayers (such as Pt/Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 ) and normal metal/ferromagnetic metal bilayers (such as Pt/Co), in which the angle of magnetization influences the magnetoresistance of the normal metal. In the normal metal side the spin diffusion is known to affect the landscape of the spin accumulation caused by spin Hall effect and subsequently the magnetoresistance, while on the ferromagnet side the quantum tunneling effect is detrimental to the interface spin current which also affects the spin accumulation. The influence of generic material properties such as spin diffusion length, layer thickness, interface coupling, and insulating gap can be quantified in a unified manner, and experiments that reveal the quantum feature of the magnetoresistance are suggested.
Signatures of lattice geometry in quantum and topological Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Göbel, Börge; Mook, Alexander; Mertig, Ingrid; Henk, Jürgen
2017-01-01
The topological Hall effect (THE) of electrons in skyrmion crystals (SkXs) is strongly related to the quantum Hall effect (QHE) on lattices. This relation suggests to revisit the QHE because its Hall conductivity can be unconventionally quantized. It exhibits a jump and changes sign abruptly if the Fermi level crosses a van Hove singularity. In this Paper, we investigate the unconventional QHE features by discussing band structures, Hall conductivities, and topological edge states for square and triangular lattices; their origin are Chern numbers of bands in the SkX (THE) or of the corresponding Landau levels (QHE). Striking features in the energy dependence of the Hall conductivities are traced back to the band structure without magnetic field whose properties are dictated by the lattice geometry. Based on these findings, we derive an approximation that allows us to determine the energy dependence of the topological Hall conductivity on any two-dimensional lattice. The validity of this approximation is proven for the honeycomb lattice. We conclude that SkXs lend themselves for experiments to validate our findings for the THE and—indirectly—the QHE. (paper)
Mini array of quantum Hall devices based on epitaxial graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, S.; Lebedeva, N.; Hämäläinen, J.; Iisakka, I.; Immonen, P.; Manninen, A. J.; Satrapinski, A.
2016-01-01
Series connection of four quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices based on epitaxial graphene films was studied for realization of a quantum resistance standard with an up-scaled value. The tested devices showed quantum Hall plateaux R H,2 at a filling factor v = 2 starting from a relatively low magnetic field (between 4 T and 5 T) when the temperature was 1.5 K. The precision measurements of quantized Hall resistance of four QHE devices connected by triple series connections and external bonding wires were done at B = 7 T and T = 1.5 K using a commercial precision resistance bridge with 50 μA current through the QHE device. The results showed that the deviation of the quantized Hall resistance of the series connection of four graphene-based QHE devices from the expected value of 4×R H,2 = 2 h/e 2 was smaller than the relative standard uncertainty of the measurement (<1 × 10 −7 ) limited by the used resistance bridge.
Quantum hall fluid on fuzzy two dimensional sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Xudong; Peng Dantao
2004-01-01
After reviewing the Haldane's description about the quantum Hall effect on the fuzzy two-sphere S 2 , authors construct the noncommutative algebra on the fuzzy sphere S 2 and the Moyal structure of the Hilbert space. By constructing noncommutative Chern-Simons theory of the incompressible Hall fluid on the fuzzy sphere and solving the Gaussian constraint with quasiparticle source, authors find the Calogero matrix on S 2 and the complete set of the Laughlin wave function for the lowest Landau level, and this wave function is expressed by the generalized Jack polynomials in terms of spinor coordinates. (author)
Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces
Tejero Prieto, Carlos
2009-06-01
We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.
Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tejero Prieto, Carlos
2009-01-01
We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.
Nonadiabatic effects in the Quantum Hall regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, D.A.; Brown, E.
1993-01-01
The authors consider the effect of a finite electric field on the states of a Bloch electron in two dimensions, with a uniform magnetic field present. They make use of the concept of electric time translation symmetry and treat the electric and magnetic fields symmetrically in a time dependent formalism. In addition to a wave vector k, the states are characterized by a frequency specifying the behavior under electric time translations. An effective Hamiltonian is employed to obtain the splitting of an isolated Bloch band into open-quotes frequencyclose quotes subbands. The time-averaged velocity and energy of the states are expressed in terms of the frequency dispersion. The relationship to the Stark ladder eigenstates in a scalar potential representation of the electric field is examined. This is seen to justify the use of the averaged energy in determining occupation of the states. In the weak electric field (adiabatic) limit, an expression is recovered for the quantized Hall conductivity of a magnetic subband as a topological invariant. A numerical procedure is outlined and results obtained over a range of electric field strengths. A transition between strong and weak field regimes is seen, with level repulsions between the frequencies playing an important role. The numerical results show how the magnetic subband structure and quantized Hall conductivity emerge as the electric field becomes weaker. In this regime, the behavior can be understood by comparison to the predictions of the adiabatic approximation. The latter predicts crossings in the frequencies at certain locations in wave vector space. Nonadiabatic effects are seen to produce gaps in the frequency spectrum at these locations. 35 refs., 14 figs
Induced Superconductivity in the Quantum Spin Hall Edge
Ren, Hechen; Hart, Sean; Wagner, Timo; Leubner, Philipp; Muehlbauer, Mathias; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; Yacoby, Amir
2014-03-01
Two-dimensional topological insulators have a gapped bulk and helical edge states, making it a quantum spin Hall insulator. Combining such edge states with superconductivity can be an excellent platform for observing and manipulating localized Majorana fermions. In the context of condensed matter, these are emergent electronic states that obey non-Abelian statistics and hence support fault-tolerant quantum computing. To realize such theoretical constructions, an essential step is to show these edge channels are capable of carrying coherent supercurrent. In our experiment, we fabricate Josephson junctions with HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells, a two-dimensional material that becomes a quantum spin Hall insulator when the quantum well is thicker than 6.3 nm and the bulk density is depleted. In this regime, we observe supercurrents whose densities are confined to the edges of the junctions, with edge widths ranging from 180 nm to 408 nm. To verify the topological nature of these edges, we measure identical junctions with HgTe/HgCdTe quantum wells thinner than 6.3 nm and observe only uniform supercurrent density across the junctions. This research is supported by Microsoft Corporation Project Q, the NSF DMR-1206016, the DOE SCGF Program, the German Research Foundation, and EU ERC-AG program.
Contactless measurement of alternating current conductance in quantum Hall structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drichko, I. L.; Diakonov, A. M.; Malysh, V. A.; Smirnov, I. Yu.; Ilyinskaya, N. D.; Usikova, A. A. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Galperin, Y. M. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kummer, M.; Känel, H. von [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2014-10-21
We report a procedure to determine the frequency-dependent conductance of quantum Hall structures in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is based on the combination of two known probeless methods—acoustic spectroscopy and microwave spectroscopy. By using the acoustic spectroscopy, we study the low-frequency attenuation and phase shift of a surface acoustic wave in a piezoelectric crystal in the vicinity of the electron (hole) layer. The electronic contribution is resolved using its dependence on a transverse magnetic field. At high frequencies, we study the attenuation of an electromagnetic wave in a coplanar waveguide. To quantitatively calibrate these data, we use the fact that in the quantum-Hall-effect regime the conductance at the maxima of its magnetic field dependence is determined by extended states. Therefore, it should be frequency independent in a broad frequency domain. The procedure is verified by studies of a well-characterized p-SiGe/Ge/SiGe heterostructure.
Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets.
Parmentier, F D; Cazimajou, T; Sekine, Y; Hibino, H; Irie, H; Glattli, D C; Kumada, N; Roulleau, P
2016-12-06
We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.
Matrix effective theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cappelli, Andrea; Rodriguez, Ivan D
2009-01-01
The present understanding of nonperturbative ground states in the fractional quantum Hall effect is based on effective theories of the Jain 'composite fermion' excitations. We review the approach based on matrix variables, i.e. D0 branes, originally introduced by Susskind and Polychronakos. We show that the Maxwell-Chern-Simons matrix gauge theory provides a matrix generalization of the quantum Hall effect, where the composite-fermion construction naturally follows from gauge invariance. The matrix ground states obtained by suitable projections of higher Landau levels are found to be in one-to-one correspondence with the Laughlin and Jain hierarchical states. The matrix theory possesses a physical limit for commuting matrices that could be reachable while staying in the same phase.
Quasiparticle Aggregation in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Laughlin, R. B.
1984-10-10
Quasiparticles in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect behave qualitatively like electrons confined to the lowest landau level, and can do everything electrons can do, including condense into second generation Fractional Quantum Hall ground states. I review in this paper the reasoning leading to variational wavefunctions for ground state and quasiparticles in the 1/3 effect. I then show how two-quasiparticle eigenstates are uniquely determined from symmetry, and how this leads in a natural way to variational wavefunctions for composite states which have the correct densities (2/5, 2/7, ...). I show in the process that the boson, anyon and fermion representations for the quasiparticles used by Haldane, Halperin, and me are all equivalent. I demonstrate a simple way to derive Halperin`s multiple-valued quasiparticle wavefunction from the correct single-valued electron wavefunction. (auth)
Error modelling of quantum Hall array resistance standards
Marzano, Martina; Oe, Takehiko; Ortolano, Massimo; Callegaro, Luca; Kaneko, Nobu-Hisa
2018-04-01
Quantum Hall array resistance standards (QHARSs) are integrated circuits composed of interconnected quantum Hall effect elements that allow the realization of virtually arbitrary resistance values. In recent years, techniques were presented to efficiently design QHARS networks. An open problem is that of the evaluation of the accuracy of a QHARS, which is affected by contact and wire resistances. In this work, we present a general and systematic procedure for the error modelling of QHARSs, which is based on modern circuit analysis techniques and Monte Carlo evaluation of the uncertainty. As a practical example, this method of analysis is applied to the characterization of a 1 MΩ QHARS developed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Software tools are provided to apply the procedure to other arrays.
From rotating atomic rings to quantum Hall states.
Roncaglia, M; Rizzi, M; Dalibard, J
2011-01-01
Considerable efforts are currently devoted to the preparation of ultracold neutral atoms in the strongly correlated quantum Hall regime. However, the necessary angular momentum is very large and in experiments with rotating traps this means spinning frequencies extremely near to the deconfinement limit; consequently, the required control on parameters turns out to be too stringent. Here we propose instead to follow a dynamic path starting from the gas initially confined in a rotating ring. The large moment of inertia of the ring-shaped fluid facilitates the access to large angular momenta, corresponding to giant vortex states. The trapping potential is then adiabatically transformed into a harmonic confinement, which brings the interacting atomic gas in the desired quantum-Hall regime. We provide numerical evidence that for a broad range of initial angular frequencies, the giant-vortex state is adiabatically connected to the bosonic ν = 1/2 Laughlin state.
Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets
Parmentier, F. D.; Cazimajou, T.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Irie, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Kumada, N.; Roulleau, P.
2016-12-01
We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.
Edge states in quantum Hall effect in graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gusynin, V.P.; Miransky, V.A.; Sharapov, S.G.; Shovkovy, I.A.
2008-01-01
We review recent results concerning the spectrum of edge states in the quantum Hall effect in graphene. In particular, special attention is paid to the derivation of the conditions under which gapless edge states exist in the spectrum of graphene with 'zigzag' and 'armchair' edges. It is found that in the case of a half-plane or a ribbon with zigzag edges, there are gapless edge states only when a spin gap dominates over a Dirac mass gap. In the case of a half-plane with an armchair edge, the existence of the gapless edge states depends on the specific type of Dirac mass gaps. The implications of these results for the dynamics in the quantum Hall effect in graphene are discussed
Two-dimensional Ising physics in quantum Hall ferromagnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.; Rezayi, E. H.
2002-01-01
Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 1-7 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754; GA MŠk OC 514.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : quantum Hall ferromagnets * higher Landau levels * domain walls Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2002
The integer quantum hall effect revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michalakis, Spyridon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hastings, Matthew [Q STATION, CALIFORNIA
2009-01-01
For T - L x L a finite subset of Z{sup 2}, let H{sub o} denote a Hamiltonian on T with periodic boundary conditions and finite range, finite strength intetactions and a unique ground state with a nonvanishing spectral gap. For S {element_of} T, let q{sub s} denote the charge at site s and assume that the total charge Q = {Sigma}{sub s {element_of} T} q{sub s} is conserved. Using the local charge operators q{sub s}, we introduce a boundary magnetic flux in the horizontal and vertical direction and allow the ground state to evolve quasiadiabatically around a square of size one magnetic flux, in flux space. At the end of the evolution we obtain a trivial Berry phase, which we compare, via a method reminiscent of Stokes Theorem. to the Berry phase obtained from an evolution around an exponentially small loop near the origin. As a result, we show, without any averaging assumption, that the Hall conductance is quantized in integer multiples of e{sup 2}/h up to exponentially small corrections of order e{sup -L/{zeta}}, where {zeta}, is a correlation length that depends only on the gap and the range and strength of the interactions.
AC conductivity of a quantum Hall line junction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agarwal, Amit; Sen, Diptiman
2009-01-01
We present a microscopic model for calculating the AC conductivity of a finite length line junction made up of two counter- or co-propagating single mode quantum Hall edges with possibly different filling fractions. The effect of density-density interactions and a local tunneling conductance (σ) between the two edges is considered. Assuming that σ is independent of the frequency ω, we derive expressions for the AC conductivity as a function of ω, the length of the line junction and other parameters of the system. We reproduce the results of Sen and Agarwal (2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 085430) in the DC limit (ω→0), and generalize those results for an interacting system. As a function of ω, the AC conductivity shows significant oscillations if σ is small; the oscillations become less prominent as σ increases. A renormalization group analysis shows that the system may be in a metallic or an insulating phase depending on the strength of the interactions. We discuss the experimental implications of this for the behavior of the AC conductivity at low temperatures.
W∞ gauge theory and the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shizuya, K.
1994-05-01
It is shown that a planar system of Hall electrons coupled to an applied electromagnetic field is written in the form of a W ∞ gauge theory. The associated W ∞ gauge field is expressed nonlinearly in terms of an infinite set of multipoles of the electromagnetic field. The W ∞ transformations generate mixing among the Landau levels. They provide a systematic way to classify the electromagnetic characteristics of the Hall system according to the resolution of external probes. In particular, an exact long-wavelength connection is derived between the carrier density and the Hall conductance in the presence of electron-electron interactions. Our approach is complementary to an earlier one and reveals a dual role the W ∞ gauge symmetry plays in the Hall dynamics. (author)
Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin
2016-04-13
On the surface of 2D topological insulators, 1D quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge modes occur with Dirac-like dispersion. Unlike quantum Hall (QH) edge modes, which occur at high magnetic fields in 2D electron gases, the occurrence of QSH edge modes is due to spin-orbit scattering in the bulk of the material. These QSH edge modes are spin-dependent, and chiral-opposite spins move in opposing directions. Electronic spin has a larger decoherence and relaxation time than charge. In view of this, it is expected that QSH edge modes will be more robust to disorder and inelastic scattering than QH edge modes, which are charge-dependent and spin-unpolarized. However, we notice no such advantage accrues in QSH edge modes when subjected to the same degree of contact disorder and/or inelastic scattering in similar setups as QH edge modes. In fact we observe that QSH edge modes are more susceptible to inelastic scattering and contact disorder than QH edge modes. Furthermore, while a single disordered contact has no effect on QH edge modes, it leads to a finite charge Hall current in the case of QSH edge modes, and thus a vanishing of the pure QSH effect. For more than a single disordered contact while QH states continue to remain immune to disorder, QSH edge modes become more susceptible--the Hall resistance for the QSH effect changes sign with increasing disorder. In the case of many disordered contacts with inelastic scattering included, while quantization of Hall edge modes holds, for QSH edge modes a finite charge Hall current still flows. For QSH edge modes in the inelastic scattering regime we distinguish between two cases: with spin-flip and without spin-flip scattering. Finally, while asymmetry in sample geometry can have a deleterious effect in the QSH case, it has no impact in the QH case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin
2016-01-01
On the surface of 2D topological insulators, 1D quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge modes occur with Dirac-like dispersion. Unlike quantum Hall (QH) edge modes, which occur at high magnetic fields in 2D electron gases, the occurrence of QSH edge modes is due to spin–orbit scattering in the bulk of the material. These QSH edge modes are spin-dependent, and chiral-opposite spins move in opposing directions. Electronic spin has a larger decoherence and relaxation time than charge. In view of this, it is expected that QSH edge modes will be more robust to disorder and inelastic scattering than QH edge modes, which are charge-dependent and spin-unpolarized. However, we notice no such advantage accrues in QSH edge modes when subjected to the same degree of contact disorder and/or inelastic scattering in similar setups as QH edge modes. In fact we observe that QSH edge modes are more susceptible to inelastic scattering and contact disorder than QH edge modes. Furthermore, while a single disordered contact has no effect on QH edge modes, it leads to a finite charge Hall current in the case of QSH edge modes, and thus a vanishing of the pure QSH effect. For more than a single disordered contact while QH states continue to remain immune to disorder, QSH edge modes become more susceptible—the Hall resistance for the QSH effect changes sign with increasing disorder. In the case of many disordered contacts with inelastic scattering included, while quantization of Hall edge modes holds, for QSH edge modes a finite charge Hall current still flows. For QSH edge modes in the inelastic scattering regime we distinguish between two cases: with spin-flip and without spin-flip scattering. Finally, while asymmetry in sample geometry can have a deleterious effect in the QSH case, it has no impact in the QH case. (paper)
Paired quantum Hall states on noncommutative two-tori
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele, E-mail: naddeo@sa.infn.i [CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)
2010-08-01
By exploiting the notion of Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative tori and choosing rational values of the noncommutativity parameter theta (in appropriate units), a one-to-one correspondence between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space can be established. Starting from this general result, we focus on the conformal field theory (CFT) describing a quantum Hall fluid (QHF) at paired states fillings nu=m/(pm+2) Cristofano et al. (2000) , recently obtained by means of m-reduction procedure, and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. In this way we extend the construction proposed in Marotta and Naddeo (2008) for the Jain series nu=m/(2pm+1) . The case m=2 is explicitly discussed and the role of noncommutativity in the physics of quantum Hall bilayers is emphasized. Our results represent a step forward the construction of a new effective low energy description of certain condensed matter phenomena and help to clarify the relationship between noncommutativity and quantum Hall fluids.
ADHM and the 4d quantum Hall effect
Barns-Graham, Alec; Dorey, Nick; Lohitsiri, Nakarin; Tong, David; Turner, Carl
2018-04-01
Yang-Mills instantons are solitonic particles in d = 4 + 1 dimensional gauge theories. We construct and analyse the quantum Hall states that arise when these particles are restricted to the lowest Landau level. We describe the ground state wavefunctions for both Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states. Although our model is purely bosonic, we show that the excitations of this 4d quantum Hall state are governed by the Nekrasov partition function of a certain five dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory with Chern-Simons term. The partition function can also be interpreted as a variant of the Hilbert series of the instanton moduli space, counting holomorphic sections rather than holomorphic functions. It is known that the Hilbert series of the instanton moduli space can be rewritten using mirror symmetry of 3d gauge theories in terms of Coulomb branch variables. We generalise this approach to include the effect of a five dimensional Chern-Simons term. We demonstrate that the resulting Coulomb branch formula coincides with the corresponding Higgs branch Molien integral which, in turn, reproduces the standard formula for the Nekrasov partition function.
Magnon Spin Hall Magnetoresistance of a Gapped Quantum Paramagnet
Ulloa, Camilo; Duine, R. A.
2018-04-01
Motivated by recent experimental work, we consider spin transport between a normal metal and a gapped quantum paramagnet. We model the latter as the magnonic Mott-insulating phase of an easy-plane ferromagnetic insulator. We evaluate the spin current mediated by the interface exchange coupling between the ferromagnet and the adjacent normal metal. For the strongly interacting magnons that we consider, this spin current gives rise to a spin Hall magnetoresistance that strongly depends on the magnitude of the magnetic field, rather than its direction. This Letter may motivate electrical detection of the phases of quantum magnets and the incorporation of such materials into spintronic devices.
Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address
The quantum anomalous Hall effect on a star lattice with spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Mengsu; Wan Shaolong
2012-01-01
We study a star lattice with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field and find that there is a quantum anomalous Hall effect in this system, and that there are five energy gaps at Dirac points and quadratic band crossing points. We calculate the Berry curvature distribution and obtain the Hall conductivity (Chern number ν) quantized as integers, and find that ν =- 1,2,1,1,2 when the Fermi level lies in these five gaps. Our model can be viewed as a general quantum anomalous Hall system and, in limit cases, can give what the honeycomb lattice and kagome lattice give. We also find that there is a nearly flat band with ν = 1 which may provide an opportunity for realizing the fractional quantum anomalous Hall effect. Finally, the chiral edge states on a zigzag star lattice are given numerically, to confirm the topological property of this system. (paper)
Real-space imaging of fractional quantum Hall liquids
Hayakawa, Junichiro; Muraki, Koji; Yusa, Go
2013-01-01
Electrons in semiconductors usually behave like a gas--as independent particles. However, when confined to two dimensions under a perpendicular magnetic field at low temperatures, they condense into an incompressible quantum liquid. This phenomenon, known as the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect, is a quantum-mechanical manifestation of the macroscopic behaviour of correlated electrons that arises when the Landau-level filling factor is a rational fraction. However, the diverse microscopic interactions responsible for its emergence have been hidden by its universality and macroscopic nature. Here, we report real-space imaging of FQH liquids, achieved with polarization-sensitive scanning optical microscopy using trions (charged excitons) as a local probe for electron spin polarization. When the FQH ground state is spin-polarized, the triplet/singlet intensity map exhibits a spatial pattern that mirrors the intrinsic disorder potential, which is interpreted as a mapping of compressible and incompressible electron liquids. In contrast, when FQH ground states with different spin polarization coexist, domain structures with spontaneous quasi-long-range order emerge, which can be reproduced remarkably well from the disorder patterns using a two-dimensional random-field Ising model. Our results constitute the first reported real-space observation of quantum liquids in a class of broken symmetry state known as the quantum Hall ferromagnet.
Bhakta, S.; Prajapati, R. P.
2018-02-01
The effects of Hall current and finite electrical resistivity are studied on the stability of uniformly rotating and self-gravitating anisotropic quantum plasma. The generalized Ohm's law modified by Hall current and electrical resistivity is used along with the quantum magnetohydrodynamic fluid equations. The general dispersion relation is derived using normal mode analysis and discussed in the parallel and perpendicular propagations. In the parallel propagation, the Jeans instability criterion, expression of critical Jeans wavenumber, and Jeans length are found to be independent of non-ideal effects and uniform rotation but in perpendicular propagation only rotation affects the Jeans instability criterion. The unstable gravitating mode modified by Bohm potential and the stable Alfven mode modified by non-ideal effects are obtained separately. The criterion of firehose instability remains unaffected due to the presence of non-ideal effects. In the perpendicular propagation, finite electrical resistivity and quantum pressure anisotropy modify the dispersion relation, whereas no effect of Hall current was observed in the dispersion characteristics. The Hall current, finite electrical resistivity, rotation, and quantum corrections stabilize the growth rate. The stability of the dynamical system is analyzed using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion.
Parity Anomaly and Spin Transmutation in Quantum Spin Hall Josephson Junctions.
Peng, Yang; Vinkler-Aviv, Yuval; Brouwer, Piet W; Glazman, Leonid I; von Oppen, Felix
2016-12-23
We study the Josephson effect in a quantum spin Hall system coupled to a localized magnetic impurity. As a consequence of the fermion parity anomaly, the spin of the combined system of impurity and spin-Hall edge alternates between half-integer and integer values when the superconducting phase difference across the junction advances by 2π. This leads to characteristic differences in the splittings of the spin multiplets by exchange coupling and single-ion anisotropy at phase differences, for which time-reversal symmetry is preserved. We discuss the resulting 8π-periodic (or Z_{4}) fractional Josephson effect in the context of recent experiments.
Shot-noise evidence of fractional quasiparticle creation in a local fractional quantum Hall state.
Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Muraki, Koji; Fujisawa, Toshimasa
2015-02-06
We experimentally identify fractional quasiparticle creation in a tunneling process through a local fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. The local FQH state is prepared in a low-density region near a quantum point contact in an integer quantum Hall (IQH) system. Shot-noise measurements reveal a clear transition from elementary-charge tunneling at low bias to fractional-charge tunneling at high bias. The fractional shot noise is proportional to T(1)(1-T(1)) over a wide range of T(1), where T(1) is the transmission probability of the IQH edge channel. This binomial distribution indicates that fractional quasiparticles emerge from the IQH state to be transmitted through the local FQH state. The study of this tunneling process enables us to elucidate the dynamics of Laughlin quasiparticles in FQH systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Netanel H. Lindner
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We study the non-Abelian statistics characterizing systems where counterpropagating gapless modes on the edges of fractional quantum Hall states are gapped by proximity coupling to superconductors and ferromagnets. The most transparent example is that of a fractional quantum spin Hall state, in which electrons of one spin direction occupy a fractional quantum Hall state of ν=1/m, while electrons of the opposite spin occupy a similar state with ν=-1/m. However, we also propose other examples of such systems, which are easier to realize experimentally. We find that each interface between a region on the edge coupled to a superconductor and a region coupled to a ferromagnet corresponds to a non-Abelian anyon of quantum dimension sqrt[2m]. We calculate the unitary transformations that are associated with the braiding of these anyons, and we show that they are able to realize a richer set of non-Abelian representations of the braid group than the set realized by non-Abelian anyons based on Majorana fermions. We carry out this calculation both explicitly and by applying general considerations. Finally, we show that topological manipulations with these anyons cannot realize universal quantum computation.
Quantum hall conductivity in a Landau type model with a realistic geometry II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandelier, F.; Georgelin, Y.; Masson, T.; Wallet, J.-C.
2004-01-01
We use a mathematical framework that we introduced in a previous paper to study geometrical and quantum mechanical aspects of a Hall system with finite size and general boundary conditions. Geometrical structures control possibly the integral or fractional quantization of the Hall conductivity depending on the value of NB/2π (N is the number of charge carriers and B is the magnetic field). When NB/2π is irrational, we show that monovaluated wave functions can be constructed only on the graph of a free group with two generators. When NB/2π is rational, the relevant space becomes a punctured Riemann surface. We finally discuss our results from a phenomenological viewpoint
Giant anisotropic magnetoresistance in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator
Kandala, Abhinav; Richardella, Anthony; Kempinger, Susan; Liu, Chao-Xing; Samarth, Nitin
2015-01-01
When a three-dimensional ferromagnetic topological insulator thin film is magnetized out-of-plane, conduction ideally occurs through dissipationless, one-dimensional (1D) chiral states that are characterized by a quantized, zero-field Hall conductance. The recent realization of this phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, provides a conceptually new platform for studies of 1D transport, distinct from the traditionally studied quantum Hall effects that arise from Landau level formation. An important question arises in this context: how do these 1D edge states evolve as the magnetization is changed from out-of-plane to in-plane? We examine this question by studying the field-tilt-driven crossover from predominantly edge-state transport to diffusive transport in Crx(Bi,Sb)2−xTe3 thin films. This crossover manifests itself in a giant, electrically tunable anisotropic magnetoresistance that we explain by employing a Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Our methodology provides a powerful means of quantifying dissipative effects in temperature and chemical potential regimes far from perfect quantization. PMID:26151318
A system for pulse Hall effect measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orzechowski, T.; Kupczak, R.
1975-01-01
Measuring system for fast Hall-voltage changes in an n-type germanium sample irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature with a high-energy electron-beam from the Van de Graaff accelerator is described. (author)
Tunneling Spectroscopy of Quantum Hall States in Bilayer Graphene
Wang, Ke; Harzheim, Achim; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kim, Philip
In the quantum Hall (QH) regime, ballistic conducting paths along the physical edges of a sample appear, leading to quantized Hall conductance and vanishing longitudinal magnetoconductance. These QH edge states are often described as ballistic compressible strips separated by insulating incompressible strips, the spatial profiles of which can be crucial in understanding the stability and emergence of interaction driven QH states. In this work, we present tunneling transport between two QH edge states in bilayer graphene. Employing locally gated device structure, we guide and control the separation between the QH edge states in bilayer graphene. Using resonant Landau level tunneling as a spectroscopy tool, we measure the energy gap in bilayer graphene as a function of displacement field and probe the emergence and evolution of incompressible strips.
Admittance measurements in the quantum Hall effect regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernández, C., E-mail: carlos.hernandezr@unimilitar.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Carrera 11 # 101-80, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, A.A. 4976, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb L2C, Université Montpellier II, Pl. E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)
2014-11-15
In this work we present an admittance study of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We have studied several Hall bars in different contacts configurations in the frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz. Our interpretation is based on the Landauer–Büttiker theory and takes into account both the capacitance and the topology of the coaxial cables which are connected to the sample holder. We show that we always observe losses through the capacitive impedance of the coaxial cables, except in the two contacts configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the 2DEG and show its dependence with the filling factor ν.
Photonic topological boundary pumping as a probe of 4D quantum Hall physics.
Zilberberg, Oded; Huang, Sheng; Guglielmon, Jonathan; Wang, Mohan; Chen, Kevin P; Kraus, Yaacov E; Rechtsman, Mikael C
2018-01-03
When a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas is placed in a perpendicular magnetic field, its in-plane transverse conductance becomes quantized; this is known as the quantum Hall effect. It arises from the non-trivial topology of the electronic band structure of the system, where an integer topological invariant (the first Chern number) leads to quantized Hall conductance. It has been shown theoretically that the quantum Hall effect can be generalized to four spatial dimensions, but so far this has not been realized experimentally because experimental systems are limited to three spatial dimensions. Here we use tunable 2D arrays of photonic waveguides to realize a dynamically generated four-dimensional (4D) quantum Hall system experimentally. The inter-waveguide separation in the array is constructed in such a way that the propagation of light through the device samples over momenta in two additional synthetic dimensions, thus realizing a 2D topological pump. As a result, the band structure has 4D topological invariants (known as second Chern numbers) that support a quantized bulk Hall response with 4D symmetry. In a finite-sized system, the 4D topological bulk response is carried by localized edge modes that cross the sample when the synthetic momenta are modulated. We observe this crossing directly through photon pumping of our system from edge to edge and corner to corner. These crossings are equivalent to charge pumping across a 4D system from one three-dimensional hypersurface to the spatially opposite one and from one 2D hyperedge to another. Our results provide a platform for the study of higher-dimensional topological physics.
Photonic topological boundary pumping as a probe of 4D quantum Hall physics
Zilberberg, Oded; Huang, Sheng; Guglielmon, Jonathan; Wang, Mohan; Chen, Kevin P.; Kraus, Yaacov E.; Rechtsman, Mikael C.
2018-01-01
When a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas is placed in a perpendicular magnetic field, its in-plane transverse conductance becomes quantized; this is known as the quantum Hall effect. It arises from the non-trivial topology of the electronic band structure of the system, where an integer topological invariant (the first Chern number) leads to quantized Hall conductance. It has been shown theoretically that the quantum Hall effect can be generalized to four spatial dimensions, but so far this has not been realized experimentally because experimental systems are limited to three spatial dimensions. Here we use tunable 2D arrays of photonic waveguides to realize a dynamically generated four-dimensional (4D) quantum Hall system experimentally. The inter-waveguide separation in the array is constructed in such a way that the propagation of light through the device samples over momenta in two additional synthetic dimensions, thus realizing a 2D topological pump. As a result, the band structure has 4D topological invariants (known as second Chern numbers) that support a quantized bulk Hall response with 4D symmetry. In a finite-sized system, the 4D topological bulk response is carried by localized edge modes that cross the sample when the synthetic momenta are modulated. We observe this crossing directly through photon pumping of our system from edge to edge and corner to corner. These crossings are equivalent to charge pumping across a 4D system from one three-dimensional hypersurface to the spatially opposite one and from one 2D hyperedge to another. Our results provide a platform for the study of higher-dimensional topological physics.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-08-25
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
Hao, Tian
2017-02-22
The Hall effects, especially the integer, fractional and anomalous quantum Hall effects, have been addressed using Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept. The basic assumptions are that the conduction process is a common rate controlled "reaction" process that can be described with Eyring's absolute rate process theory; the mobility of electrons should be dependent on the free volume available for conduction electrons. The obtained Hall conductivity is clearly quantized as with prefactors related to both the magnetic flux quantum number and the magnetic quantum number via the azimuthal quantum number, with and without an externally applied magnetic field. This article focuses on two dimensional (2D) systems, but the approaches developed in this article can be extended to 3D systems.
Unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene
Jacak, Janusz; Jacak, Lucjan
2016-01-01
The commensurability condition is applied to determine the hierarchy of fractional fillings of Landau levels in monolayer and in bilayer graphene. The filling rates for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in graphene are found in the first three Landau levels in one-to-one agreement with the experimental data. The presence of even denominator filling fractions in the hierarchy for FQHE in bilayer graphene is explained. Experimentally observed hierarchy of FQHE in the first and second Landau levels in monolayer graphene and in the zeroth Landau level in bilayer graphene is beyond the conventional composite fermion interpretation but fits to the presented nonlocal topology commensurability condition. PMID:27877866
Complex scattering dynamics and the integer quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trugman, S.A.; Waugh, F.R.
1987-01-01
The effect of a magnetic field on potential scattering is investigated microscopically. A magnetic field renders the scattering of a classical charged particle far more complex than previously suspected. Consequences include possible 1/f noise and an explanation of the observed breakdown of the quantum Hall effect at large currents. A particular scatterer is described by a discontinuous one dimensional Hamiltonian map, a class of maps that has not previously been studied. A renormalization group analysis indicates that singular behavior arises from the interplay of electron orbits that are periodic and orbits that are quasiperiodic
Composite fermion theory for bosonic quantum Hall states on lattices.
Möller, G; Cooper, N R
2009-09-04
We study the ground states of the Bose-Hubbard model in a uniform magnetic field, motivated by the physics of cold atomic gases on lattices at high vortex density. Mapping the bosons to composite fermions (CF) leads to the prediction of quantum Hall fluids that have no counterpart in the continuum. We construct trial states for these phases and test numerically the predictions of the CF model. We establish the existence of strongly correlated phases beyond those in the continuum limit and provide evidence for a wider scope of the composite fermion approach beyond its application to the lowest Landau level.
Gaussian free fields at the integer quantum Hall plateau transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bondesan, R., E-mail: roberto.bondesan@phys.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Wieczorek, D.; Zirnbauer, M.R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln (Germany)
2017-05-15
In this work we put forward an effective Gaussian free field description of critical wavefunctions at the transition between plateaus of the integer quantum Hall effect. To this end, we expound our earlier proposal that powers of critical wave intensities prepared via point contacts behave as pure scaling fields obeying an Abelian operator product expansion. Our arguments employ the framework of conformal field theory and, in particular, lead to a multifractality spectrum which is parabolic. We also derive a number of old and new identities that hold exactly at the lattice level and hinge on the correspondence between the Chalker–Coddington network model and a supersymmetric vertex model.
Current Percolation in Medium with Boundaries under Quantum Hall Effect Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. U. Malakeeva
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The current percolation has been considered in the medium with boundaries under quantum Hall effect conditions. It has been shown that in that case the effective Hall conductivity has a nonzero value due to percolation of the Hall current through the finite number of singular points (in our model these are corners at the phase joints.
Single electron probes of fractional quantum hall states
Venkatachalam, Vivek
When electrons are confined to a two dimensional layer with a perpendicular applied magnetic field, such that the ratio of electrons to flux quanta (nu) is a small integer or simple rational value, these electrons condense into remarkable new phases of matter that are strikingly different from the metallic electron gas that exists in the absence of a magnetic field. These phases, called integer or fractional quantum Hall (IQH or FQH) states, appear to be conventional insulators in their bulk, but behave as a dissipationless metal along their edge. Furthermore, electrical measurements of such a system are largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of how the system is contacted or even how large the system is... only the order in which contacts are made appears to matter. This insensitivity to local geometry has since appeared in a number of other two and three dimensional systems, earning them the classification of "topological insulators" and prompting an enormous experimental and theoretical effort to understand their properties and perhaps manipulate these properties to create robust quantum information processors. The focus of this thesis will be two experiments designed to elucidate remarkable properties of the metallic edge and insulating bulk of certain FQH systems. To study such systems, we can use mesoscopic devices known as single electron transistors (SETs). These devices operate by watching single electrons hop into and out of a confining box and into a nearby wire (for measurement). If it is initially unfavorable for an electron to leave the box, it can be made favorable by bringing another charge nearby, modifying the energy of the confined electron and pushing it out of the box and into the nearby wire. In this way, the SET can measure nearby charges. Alternatively, we can heat up the nearby wire to make it easier for electrons to enter and leave the box. In this way, the SET is a sensitive thermometer. First, by operating the SET as an
Gate-controlled tunneling of quantum Hall edge states in bilayer graphene
Zhu, Jun; Li, Jing; Wen, Hua
Controlled tunneling of integer and fractional quantum Hall edge states provides a powerful tool to probe the physics of 1D systems and exotic particle statistics. Experiments in GaAs 2DEGs employ either a quantum point contact or a line junction tunnel barrier. It is generally difficult to independently control the filling factors νL and νR on the two sides of the barrier. Here we show that in bilayer graphene both νL and νR as well as their Landau level structures can be independently controlled using a dual-split-gate structure. In addition, the height of the line-junction tunnel barrier implemented in our experiments is tunable via a 5th gate. By measuring the tunneling resistance across the junction RT we examine the equilibration of the edge states in a variety of νL/νR scenarios and under different barrier heights. Edge states from both sides are fully mixed in the case of a low barrier. As the barrier height increases, we observe plateaus in RT that correspond to sequential complete backscattering of edge states. Gate-controlled manipulation of edge states offers a new angle to the exploration of quantum Hall magnetism and fractional quantum Hall effect in bilayer graphene.
Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.
2013-04-26
We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.
Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Sabeeh, K.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.
Scaling behavior and variable hopping conductivity in the quantum Hall plateau transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tu, Tao; Zhao, Yong-Jie; Guo, Guo-Ping; Hao, Xiao-Jie; Guo, Guang-Can
2007-01-01
We have measured the temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistivity ρ xx of a two-dimensional electron system in the regime of the quantum Hall plateau transition. We extracted the quantitative form of scaling function for ρ xx and compared it with the results of ordinary scaling theory and variable range hopping based theory. We find that the two alternative theoretically proposed scaling functions are valid in different regions
Edge physics of the quantum spin Hall insulator from a quantum dot excited by optical absorption.
Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E
2014-04-11
The gapless edge modes of the quantum spin Hall insulator form a helical liquid in which the direction of motion along the edge is determined by the spin orientation of the electrons. In order to probe the Luttinger liquid physics of these edge states and their interaction with a magnetic (Kondo) impurity, we consider a setup where the helical liquid is tunnel coupled to a semiconductor quantum dot that is excited by optical absorption, thereby inducing an effective quantum quench of the tunneling. At low energy, the absorption spectrum is dominated by a power-law singularity. The corresponding exponent is directly related to the interaction strength (Luttinger parameter) and can be computed exactly using boundary conformal field theory thanks to the unique nature of the quantum spin Hall edge.
Integer Quantum Magnon Hall Plateau-Plateau Transition in a Spin Ice Model
Xu, Baolong; Ohtsuki, Tomi; Shindou, Ryuichi
2016-01-01
Low-energy magnon bands in a two-dimensional spin ice model become integer quantum magnon Hall bands. By calculating the localization length and the two-terminal conductance of magnon transport, we show that the magnon bands with disorders undergo a quantum phase transition from an integer quantum magnon Hall regime to a conventional magnon localized regime. Finite size scaling analysis as well as a critical conductance distribution shows that the quantum critical point belongs to the same un...
Pinning mode of integer quantum Hall Wigner crystal of skyrmions
Zhu, Han; Sambandamurthy, G.; Chen, Y. P.; Jiang, P.-H.; Engel, L. W.; Tsui, D. C.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2009-03-01
Just away from integer Landau level (LL) filling factors ν, the dilute quasi-particles/holes at the partially filled LL form an integer-quantum-Hall Wigner crystal, which exhibits microwave pinning mode resonances [1]. Due to electron-electron interaction, it was predicted that the elementary excitation around ν= 1 is not a single spin flip, but a larger-scale spin texture, known as a skyrmion [2]. We have compared the pinning mode resonances [1] of integer quantum Hall Wigner crystals formed in the partly filled LL just away from ν= 1 and ν= 2, in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. As an in-plane field is applied, the peak frequencies of the resonances near ν= 1 increase, while the peak frequencies below ν= 2 show neligible dependence on in-plane field. We interpret this observation as due to a skyrmion crystal phase around ν= 1 and a single-hole Wigner crystal phase below ν= 2. The in-plane field increases the Zeeman gap and causes shrinking of the skyrmion size toward single spin flips. [1] Yong P. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016801 (2003). [2] S. L. Sondhi et al., Phys. Rev. B 47, 16 419 (1993); L. Brey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2562 (1995).
Prediction of a Large-Gap and Switchable Kane-Mele Quantum Spin Hall Insulator
Marrazzo, Antimo; Gibertini, Marco; Campi, Davide; Mounet, Nicolas; Marzari, Nicola
2018-03-01
Fundamental research and technological applications of topological insulators are hindered by the rarity of materials exhibiting a robust topologically nontrivial phase, especially in two dimensions. Here, by means of extensive first-principles calculations, we propose a novel quantum spin Hall insulator with a sizable band gap of ˜0.5 eV that is a monolayer of jacutingaite, a naturally occurring layered mineral first discovered in 2008 in Brazil and recently synthesized. This system realizes the paradigmatic Kane-Mele model for quantum spin Hall insulators in a potentially exfoliable two-dimensional monolayer, with helical edge states that are robust and that can be manipulated exploiting a unique strong interplay between spin-orbit coupling, crystal-symmetry breaking, and dielectric response.
Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.
2013-01-25
The electronic properties of silicene are distinct from both the conventional two dimensional electron gas and the famous graphene due to strong spin orbit interaction and the buckled structure. Silicene has the potential to overcome limitations encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address the longitudinal conductivity for elastic impurity scattering in the first Born approximation. We show that the combination of an electric field with intrinsic spin orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state. Silicene constitutes a model system for exploring the spin and valley physics not accessible in graphene due to the small spin orbit interaction.
Anomalous Integer Quantum Hall Effect in the Ballistic Regime with Quantum Point Contacts
Wees, B.J. van; Willems, E.M.M.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Houten, H. van; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.
1989-01-01
The Hall conductance of a wide two-dimensional electron gas has been measured in a geometry in which two quantum point contacts form controllable current and voltage probes, separated by less than the transport mean free path. Adjustable barriers in the point contacts allow selective population and
Hall Conductivity in a Quasi-Two-Dimensional Disordered Electron System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Yong-Hong; WANG Yong-Gang; LIU Mei
2002-01-01
By making use of the diagrammatic techniques in perturbation theory,we have investigated the Hall effect in a quasi-two-dimensional disordered electron system.In the weakly localized regime,the analytical expression for quantum correction to Hall conductivity has been obtained using the Kubo formalism and quasiclassical approximation.The relevant dimensional crossover behavior from three dimensions to two dimensions with decreasing the interlayer hopping energy is discussed.The quantum interference effect is shown to have a vanishing correction t,o the Hall coefficient.
Hyperspherical Slater determinant approach to few-body fractional quantum Hall states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Bin, E-mail: yanbin@purdue.edu; Wooten, Rachel E.; Daily, Kevin M.; Greene, Chris H.
2017-05-15
In a recent study (Daily et al., 2015), a hyperspherical approach has been developed to study few-body fractional quantum Hall states. This method has been successfully applied to the exploration of few boson and fermion problems in the quantum Hall region, as well as the study of inter-Landau level collective excitations (Rittenhouse et al., 2016; Wooten et al., 2016). However, the hyperspherical method as it is normally implemented requires a subsidiary (anti-)symmetrization process, which limits its computational effectiveness. The present work overcomes these difficulties and extends the power of this method by implementing a representation of the hyperspherical many-body basis space in terms of Slater determinants of single particle eigenfunctions. A clear connection between the hyperspherical representation and the conventional single particle picture is presented, along with a compact operator representation of the theoretical framework. - Highlights: • A hyperspherical method has been implemented to study the quantum Hall effect. • The hyperspherical many-body basis space is represented with Slater determinants. • Example numerical studies of the 4- and 8-electron systems are presented.
Sahasrabudhe, Harshad; Fallahi, Saeed; Nakamura, James; Povolotskyi, Michael; Novakovic, Bozidar; Rahman, Rajib; Manfra, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard
Quantum Point Contacts (QPCs) are extensively used in semiconductor devices for charge sensing, tunneling and interference experiments. Fabry-Pérot interferometers containing 2 QPCs have applications in quantum computing, in which electrons/quasi-particles undergo interference due to back-scattering from the QPCs. Such experiments have turned out to be difficult because of the complex structure of edge states near the QPC boundary. We present realistic simulations of the edge states in QPCs based on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, which can be used to predict conductance and edge state velocities. Conduction band profile is obtained by solving decoupled effective mass Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently on a finite element mesh of a realistic geometry. In the integer quantum Hall regime, we obtain compressible and in-compressible regions near the edges. We then use the recursive Green`s function algorithm to solve Schrödinger equation with open boundary conditions for calculating transmission and local current density in the QPCs. Impurities are treated by inserting bumps in the potential with a Gaussian distribution. We compare observables with experiments for fitting some adjustable parameters. The authors would like to thank Purdue Research Foundation and Purdue Center for Topological Materials for their support.
Topological superconductivity, topological confinement, and the vortex quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.
2011-01-01
Topological matter is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. Topological defects due to the compactness of the U(1) gauge fields induce quantum phase transitions between topological insulators, topological superconductors, and topological confinement. In conventional superconductivity, because of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the photon acquires a mass due to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. In this paper we derive the corresponding effective actions for the electromagnetic field in topological superconductors and topological confinement phases. In topological superconductors magnetic flux is confined and the photon acquires a topological mass through the BF mechanism: no symmetry breaking is involved, the ground state has topological order, and the transition is induced by quantum fluctuations. In topological confinement, instead, electric charge is linearly confined and the photon becomes a massive antisymmetric tensor via the Stueckelberg mechanism. Oblique confinement phases arise when the string condensate carries both magnetic and electric flux (dyonic strings). Such phases are characterized by a vortex quantum Hall effect potentially relevant for the dissipationless transport of information stored on vortices.
Robust integer and fractional helical modes in the quantum Hall effect
Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Banitt, Daniel; Heiblum, Moty; Umansky, Vladimir
2018-04-01
Electronic systems harboring one-dimensional helical modes, where spin and momentum are locked, have lately become an important field of their own. When coupled to a conventional superconductor, such systems are expected to manifest topological superconductivity; a unique phase hosting exotic Majorana zero modes. Even more interesting are fractional helical modes, yet to be observed, which open the route for realizing generalized parafermions. Possessing non-Abelian exchange statistics, these quasiparticles may serve as building blocks in topological quantum computing. Here, we present a new approach to form protected one-dimensional helical edge modes in the quantum Hall regime. The novel platform is based on a carefully designed double-quantum-well structure in a GaAs-based system hosting two electronic sub-bands; each tuned to the quantum Hall effect regime. By electrostatic gating of different areas of the structure, counter-propagating integer, as well as fractional, edge modes with opposite spins are formed. We demonstrate that, due to spin protection, these helical modes remain ballistic over large distances. In addition to the formation of helical modes, this platform can serve as a rich playground for artificial induction of compounded fractional edge modes, and for construction of edge-mode-based interferometers.
Imaging of Coulomb-Driven Quantum Hall Edge States
Lai, Keji
2011-10-01
The edges of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime are divided into alternating metallic and insulating strips, with their widths determined by the energy gaps of the QHE states and the electrostatic Coulomb interaction. Local probing of these submicrometer features, however, is challenging due to the buried 2DEG structures. Using a newly developed microwave impedance microscope, we demonstrate the real-space conductivity mapping of the edge and bulk states. The sizes, positions, and field dependence of the edge strips around the sample perimeter agree quantitatively with the self-consistent electrostatic picture. The evolution of microwave images as a function of magnetic fields provides rich microscopic information around the ν=2 QHE state. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Signatures of a Nonthermal Metastable State in Copropagating Quantum Hall Edge Channels
Itoh, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Ryo; Ota, Tomoaki; Hashisaka, Masayuki; Muraki, Koji; Fujisawa, Toshimasa
2018-05-01
A Tomonaga-Luttinger (TL) liquid is known as an integrable system, in which a nonequilibrium many-body state survives without relaxing to a thermalized state. This intriguing characteristic is tested experimentally in copropagating quantum Hall edge channels at bulk filling factor ν =2 . The unidirectional transport allows us to investigate the time evolution by measuring the spatial evolution of the electronic states. The initial state is prepared with a biased quantum point contact, and its spatial evolution is measured with a quantum-dot energy spectrometer. We find strong evidence for a nonthermal metastable state in agreement with the TL theory before the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium with coupling to the environment.
The quantum Hall effect at 5/2 filling factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willett, R L
2013-01-01
Experimental discovery of a quantized Hall state at 5/2 filling factor presented an enigmatic finding in an established field of study that has remained an open issue for more than twenty years. In this review we first examine the experimental requirements for observing this state and outline the initial theoretical implications and predictions. We will then follow the chronology of experimental studies over the years and present the theoretical developments as they pertain to experiments, directed at sets of issues. These topics will include theoretical and experimental examination of the spin properties at 5/2; is the state spin polarized? What properties of the higher Landau levels promote development of the 5/2 state, what other correlation effects are observed there, and what are their interactions with the 5/2 state? The 5/2 state is not a robust example of the fractional quantum Hall effect: what experimental and material developments have allowed enhancement of the effect? Theoretical developments from initial pictures have promoted the possibility that 5/2 excitations are exceptional; do they obey non-abelian statistics? The proposed experiments to determine this and their executions in various forms will be presented: this is the heart of this review. Experimental examination of the 5/2 excitations through interference measurements will be reviewed in some detail, focusing on recent results that demonstrate consistency with the picture of non-abelian charges. The implications of this in the more general physics picture is that the 5/2 excitations, shown to be non-abelian, should exhibit the properties of Majorana operators. This will be the topic of the last review section. (review article)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandelier, F.
2003-12-01
The quantum Hall effect appears in low temperature electron systems submitted to intense magnetic fields. Electrons are trapped in a thin layer (∼ 100.10 -8 cm thick) at the interface between 2 semiconductors or between a semiconductor and an insulating material. This thesis presents 3 personal contributions to the physics of plane systems and particularly to quantum Hall effect systems. The first contribution is a topological approach, it involves the study of Landau's problem in a geometry nearing that of Hall effect experiments. A mathematical formalism has been defined and by using the Kubo's formula, the quantification of the Hall conductivity can be linked to the Chern class of threaded holes. The second contribution represents a phenomenological approach based on dual symmetries and particularly on modular symmetries. This contribution uses visibility diagrams that have already produced right predictions concerning resistivity curves or band structures. The introduction of a physical equivalence has allowed us to build a phase diagram for the quantum Hall effect at zero temperature. This phase diagram agrees with the experimental facts concerning : -) the existence of 2 insulating phases, -) direct transitions between an insulating phase and any Hall phase through integer or fractionary values of the filling factor (ν), -) selection rules, and -) classification of the Hall states and their distribution around a metal state. The third contribution concerns another phenomenological approach based on duality symmetries. We have considered a class of (2+1)-dimensional effective models with a Maxwell-Chern-Simons part that includes a non-locality. This non-locality implies the existence of a hidden duality symmetry with a Z 2 component: z → 1/z. This symmetry has allowed us to meet the results of the Fisher's law concerning the components of the resistivity tensor. (A.C.)
Extreme Soft Limit Observation of Quantum Hall Effect in a 3-d Semiconductor
Bleiweiss, Michael; Yin, Ming; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Preston, Harry; Datta, Timir
2004-03-01
We report on the evidence for quantum hall effect at 38K and in magnetic fields (B) as low as 1k-Orsted. Our specimens were semiconducting, carbon replica opal (CRO) structures. CRO are three dimensional bulk systems where the carbon is grown by CVD into the porous regions in artificial silica opals. The carbon forms layers on top of the silica spheres as eggshells. The shells are of uneven thickness and are perforated at the contacts points of the opal spheres and form a closed packed, three dimensional crystal structure. Plateaus in inverse R_xy that are conjugated with well-defined Subnikov-deHass modulations in R_xx were observed. The quantum steps that are particularly prominent were the states with fill factors v = p/q (p,q are integers) were the well know fractions, 1/3, 1/2, 3/5, 1 and 5/2. QHE steps indicate that the carriers are localized in two-dimensional regions, which may be due to the extremely large surface to volume ratio associated with replica opal structure. From the B-1 vs v straight line, the effective surface carrier density, ns = 2.2 x 10^14 m-2. To the best of our knowledge, the current work is the first to report fractional quantum hall plateaus in a bulk system.
Exotic quantum order in low-dimensional systems
Girvin, S. M.
1998-08-01
Strongly correlated quantum systems in low dimensions often exhibit novel quantum ordering. This ordering is sometimes hidden and can be revealed only by examining new "dual" types of correlations. Such ordering leads to novel collection modes and fractional quantum numbers. Examples will be presented from quantum spin chains and the quantum Hall effect.
Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development
Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela
This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall
Carpentier, David
1998-01-01
Using the renormalisation group (RG) we study two dimensional electromagnetic coulomb gas and extended Sine-Gordon theories invariant under the modular group SL(2,Z). The flow diagram is established from the scaling equations, and we derive the critical behaviour at the various transition points of the diagram. Following proposal for a SL(2,Z) duality between different quantum Hall fluids, we discuss the analogy between this flow and the global quantum Hall phase diagram.
Prediction of a quantum anomalous Hall state in Co-decorated silicene
Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.
2014-01-09
Based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that Co-decorated silicene can host a quantum anomalous Hall state. The exchange field induced by the Co atoms combined with the strong spin-orbit coupling of the silicene opens a nontrivial band gap at the K point. As compared to other transition metals, Co-decorated silicene is unique in this respect, since usually hybridization and spin-polarization induced in the silicene suppress a quantum anomalous Hall state.
Prediction of a quantum anomalous Hall state in Co-decorated silicene
Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Singh, Nirpendra
2014-01-01
Based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that Co-decorated silicene can host a quantum anomalous Hall state. The exchange field induced by the Co atoms combined with the strong spin-orbit coupling of the silicene opens a nontrivial band gap at the K point. As compared to other transition metals, Co-decorated silicene is unique in this respect, since usually hybridization and spin-polarization induced in the silicene suppress a quantum anomalous Hall state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezawa, Z.F.; Iwazaki, A.
1991-01-01
It is shown that Chern-Simons gauge theories describe both the fractional-quantum-Hall-effect (FQHE) hierarchy and anyon superconductivity, simply by field-theoretically extracting the effects of vortex excitations. Vortices correspond to Laughlin's quasiparticles or bound states of anyons. Both of these phenomena are explained by the condensations of these vortices. We clarify why the anyon systems become incompressible (FQHE) or compressible (anyon superconductivity) depending on the statistics. It is to be emphasized that we can derive an effective Lagrangian describing fully the FQHE hierarchy from a basic Chern-Simons gauge theory
Non-adiabatic effect on Laughlin's argument of the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, I; Hatsugai, Y
2009-01-01
We have numerically studied a non-adiabatic charge transport in the quantum Hall system pumped by a magnetic flux, as one of the simplest theoretical realizations of non-adiabatic Thouless pumping. In the adiabatic limit, a pumped charge is quantized, known as Laughlin's argument in a cylindrical lattice. In a uniform electric field, we obtained a formula connecting quantized pumping in the adiabatic limit and no-pumping in the sudden limit. The intermediate region between the two limits is determined by the Landau gap. A randomness or impurity effect is also discussed.
The self-consistent calculation of the edge states in bilayer quantum Hall bar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kavruk, A E; Orzturk, T; Orzturk, A; Atav, U; Yuksel, H
2011-01-01
In this study, we present the spatial distributions of the edge channels for each layer in bilayer quantum Hall bar geometry for a wide range of applied magnetic fields. For this purpose, we employ a self-consistent Thomas-Fermi-Poisson approach to obtain the electron density distributions and related screened potential distributions. In order to have a more realistic description of the system we solve three dimensional Poisson equation numerically in each iteration step to obtain self consistency in the Thomas-Fermi-Poisson approach instead of employing a 'frozen gate' approximation.
The Josephson and Quantum Hall effect in metrology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lifka, E.
1990-01-01
This first generation of DC voltage standards based upon the Josephson effect made use of one tunnel junction coupled with microwaves via an external resonator. The needed output voltage level of 1 V was derived either by means of room temperature resistive divider or the cryogenic current comparator from the quantized microwave-induced voltage drop on the Josephson tunnel junction. In order to increase the accuracy of th standard, series arrays of Josephson tunnel junctions, in which the quantized voltage drops are added together thus providing reference voltage of several hundreds mV, are commonly used in some national laboratories. As the radiating frequency used is 70 GHz or higher the actual sample containing tunnel junction array takes form of an millimeter wave integrated circuit feeded by the thin film fin-line. This improved DC voltage standard has relative uncertainty lower by an amount which equals to the contribution of the resistive divider and allied measuring circuitry. This paper traces the present and future of studies involving the use of the Josephson and Quantum Hall Effect in meteorology
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro
2002-01-01
It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.
Exotic Non-Abelian Topological Defects in Lattice Fractional Quantum Hall States
Liu, Zhao; Möller, Gunnar; Bergholtz, Emil J.
2017-09-01
We investigate extrinsic wormholelike twist defects that effectively increase the genus of space in lattice versions of multicomponent fractional quantum Hall systems. Although the original band structure is distorted by these defects, leading to localized midgap states, we find that a new lowest flat band representing a higher genus system can be engineered by tuning local single-particle potentials. Remarkably, once local many-body interactions in this new band are switched on, we identify various Abelian and non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states, whose ground-state degeneracy increases with the number of defects, i.e, with the genus of space. This sensitivity of topological degeneracy to defects provides a "proof of concept" demonstration that genons, predicted by topological field theory as exotic non-Abelian defects tied to a varying topology of space, do exist in realistic microscopic models. Specifically, our results indicate that genons could be created in the laboratory by combining the physics of artificial gauge fields in cold atom systems with already existing holographic beam shaping methods for creating twist defects.
Time and angle resolved phonon absorption in the fractional quantum hall regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devitt, A.M.
2000-09-01
The work described in this thesis is a study of the phonon absorption by a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in the fractional quantum Hall regime and also at ν = 1/2. The fractional quantum Hall effect arises in 2DES's in high magnetic fields and is characterised by the quantisation of the transverse or Hall resistance and the vanishing longitudinal conductivity. The filling factor denotes the number of filled Landau levels and the quantum Hall effect occurs when this ratio is at certain rational odd denominator filling factors. The phenomenology of the effect arises due to the existence of an energy gap between the ground state and the lowest excited state. This energy gap is characterised by a deep minimum, or minima, at finite in-plane wavevector. Acoustic phonon absorption is expected to probe the energy gap at wavevectors close to or at the minimum in the dispersion curve. The experiments reported here incorporate the use of a thin film heater to produce a pulse of phonons of which a fraction are absorbed by the 2DES. A fast amplifier and signal averaging board enable detection of small signals due to absorption of phonons. The technique used allows time resolution of the phonon signal which typically takes place over a period of 10 μs or so. The time resolution enables different phonon modes to be studied. By altering the position of the heater relative to the 2DES angular resolution is also possible. The phonon absorption at several different filling factors has been investigated and the energy gaps found are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. The absorption at ν 1/2 has also been investigated. Here the composite fermions are expected to have a well defined Fermi wavevector. The absorption at ν = 1/2 and the fractional quantum Hall states is found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different. We see that the change in electron temperature atν = 1/2 is much less than at ν = 1/3 due to the larger heat capacity. At ν = 1
Quasi-particle properties from tunneling in the v = 5/2 fractional quantum Hall state.
Radu, Iuliana P; Miller, J B; Marcus, C M; Kastner, M A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W
2008-05-16
Quasi-particles with fractional charge and statistics, as well as modified Coulomb interactions, exist in a two-dimensional electron system in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Theoretical models of the FQH state at filling fraction v = 5/2 make the further prediction that the wave function can encode the interchange of two quasi-particles, making this state relevant for topological quantum computing. We show that bias-dependent tunneling across a narrow constriction at v = 5/2 exhibits temperature scaling and, from fits to the theoretical scaling form, extract values for the effective charge and the interaction parameter of the quasi-particles. Ranges of values obtained are consistent with those predicted by certain models of the 5/2 state.
Interplay of Chiral and Helical States in a Quantum Spin Hall Insulator Lateral Junction
Calvo, M. R.; de Juan, F.; Ilan, R.; Fox, E. J.; Bestwick, A. J.; Mühlbauer, M.; Wang, J.; Ames, C.; Leubner, P.; Brüne, C.; Zhang, S. C.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2017-12-01
We study the electronic transport across an electrostatically gated lateral junction in a HgTe quantum well, a canonical 2D topological insulator, with and without an applied magnetic field. We control the carrier density inside and outside a junction region independently and hence tune the number and nature of 1D edge modes propagating in each of those regions. Outside the bulk gap, the magnetic field drives the system to the quantum Hall regime, and chiral states propagate at the edge. In this regime, we observe fractional plateaus that reflect the equilibration between 1D chiral modes across the junction. As the carrier density approaches zero in the central region and at moderate fields, we observe oscillations in the resistance that we attribute to Fabry-Perot interference in the helical states, enabled by the broken time reversal symmetry. At higher fields, those oscillations disappear, in agreement with the expected absence of helical states when band inversion is lifted.
Spectral sum rules and magneto-roton as emergent graviton in fractional quantum Hall effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golkar, Siavash; Nguyen, Dung X.; Son, Dam T. [Enrico Fermi Institute, James Franck Institute and Department of Physics,University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2016-01-05
We consider gapped fractional quantum Hall states on the lowest Landau level when the Coulomb energy is much smaller than the cyclotron energy. We introduce two spectral densities, ρ{sub T}(ω) and ρ̄{sub T}(ω), which are proportional to the probabilities of absorption of circularly polarized gravitons by the quantum Hall system. We prove three sum rules relating these spectral densities with the shift S, the q{sup 4} coefficient of the static structure factor S{sub 4}, and the high-frequency shear modulus of the ground state μ{sub ∞}, which is precisely defined. We confirm an inequality, first suggested by Haldane, that S{sub 4} is bounded from below by |S−1|/8. The Laughlin wavefunction saturates this bound, which we argue to imply that systems with ground state wavefunctions close to Laughlin’s absorb gravitons of predominantly one circular polarization. We consider a nonlinear model where the sum rules are saturated by a single magneto-roton mode. In this model, the magneto-roton arises from the mixing between oscillations of an internal metric and the hydrodynamic motion. Implications for experiments are briefly discussed.
Quantum phase transitions and anomalous Hall effect in a pyrochlore Kondo lattice
Grefe, Sarah; Ding, Wenxin; Si, Qimiao
The metallic variant of the pyrochlore iridates Pr2Ir2O7 has shown characteristics of a possible chiral spin liquid state [PRL 96 087204 (2006), PRL 98, 057203 (2007), Nature 463, 210 (2010)] and quantum criticality [Nat. Mater. 13, 356 (2014)]. An important question surrounding the significant anomalous Hall response observed in Pr2Ir2O7 is the nature of the f-electron local moments, including their Kondo coupling with the conduction d-electrons. The heavy effective mass and related thermodynamic characteristics indicate the involvement of the Kondo effect in this system's electronic properties. In this work, we study the effects of Kondo coupling on candidate time-reversal-symmetry-breaking spin liquid states on the pyrochlore lattice. Representing the f-moments as slave fermions Kondo-coupled to conduction electrons, we study the competition between Kondo-singlet formation and chiral spin correlations and determine the zero-temperature phase diagram. We derive an effective chiral interaction between the local moments and the conduction electrons and calculate the anomalous Hall response across the quantum phase transition from the Kondo destroyed phase to the Kondo screened phase. We discuss our results' implications for Pr2Ir2O7 and related frustrated Kondo-lattice systems.
Quantum phase transitions and anomalous Hall effect in frustrated Kondo lattices
Paschen, Silke; Grefe, Sarah Elaine; Ding, Wenxin; Si, Qimiao
Among the pyrochlore iridates, the metallic compound Pr2 Ir2O7 (Pr-227) has shown characteristics of a possible chiral spin liquid state and quantum criticality. An important question surrounding the significant anomalous Hall response observed in Pr-227 is the nature of the f-electron local moments, including their Kondo coupling with the conduction d-electrons. The heavy effective mass and related thermodynamic characteristics indicate the involvement of the Kondo effect in this system's electronic properties. In this work, we study the effects of Kondo coupling on candidate time-reversal-symmetry-breaking spin liquid states on frustrated lattices. Representing the f-moments as slave fermions Kondo-coupled to conduction electrons, we study the competition between Kondo-singlet formation and chiral spin correlations. We derive an effective chiral interaction between the local moments and the conduction electrons and calculate the anomalous Hall response across the quantum phase transition from the Kondo destroyed phase to the Kondo screened phase. We discuss our results' implications for Pr-227 and related frustrated Kondo-lattice systems.
Non-commutative algebra of functions of 4-dimensional quantum Hall droplet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yixin; Hou Boyu; Hou Boyuan
2002-01-01
We develop the description of non-commutative geometry of the 4-dimensional quantum Hall fluid's theory proposed recently by Zhang and Hu. The non-commutative structure of fuzzy S 4 , which is the base of the bundle S 7 obtained by the second Hopf fibration, i.e., S 7 /S 3 =S 4 , appears naturally in this theory. The fuzzy monopole harmonics, which are the essential elements in the non-commutative algebra of functions on S 4 , are explicitly constructed and their obeying the matrix algebra is obtained. This matrix algebra is associative. We also propose a fusion scheme of the fuzzy monopole harmonics of the coupling system from those of the subsystems, and determine the fusion rule in such fusion scheme. By products, we provide some essential ingredients of the theory of SO(5) angular momentum. In particular, the explicit expression of the coupling coefficients, in the theory of SO(5) angular momentum, are given. We also discuss some possible applications of our results to the 4-dimensional quantum Hall system and the matrix brane construction in M-theory
Quantum Hall states of atomic Bose gases: Density profiles in single-layer and multilayer geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, N. R.; Lankvelt, F. J. M. van; Reijnders, J. W.; Schoutens, K.
2005-01-01
We describe the density profiles of confined atomic Bose gases in the high-rotation limit, in single-layer and multilayer geometries. We show that, in a local-density approximation, the density in a single layer shows a landscape of quantized steps due to the formation of incompressible liquids, which are analogous to fractional quantum Hall liquids for a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field. In a multilayered setup we find different phases, depending on the strength of the interlayer tunneling t. We discuss the situation where a vortex lattice in the three-dimensional condensate (at large tunneling) undergoes quantum melting at a critical tunneling t c 1 . For tunneling well below t c 1 one expects weakly coupled or isolated layers, each exhibiting a landscape of quantum Hall liquids. After expansion, this gives a radial density distribution with characteristic features (cusps) that provide experimental signatures of the quantum Hall liquids
Jacak, Janusz; Łydżba, Patrycja; Jacak, Lucjan
2017-05-01
In this paper the topological approach to quantum Hall effects is carefully described. Commensurability conditions together with proposed generators of a system braid group are employed to establish the fractional quantum Hall effect hierarchies of conventional semiconductors, monolayer and bilayer graphene structures. Obtained filling factors are compared with experimental data and a very good agreement is achieved. Preliminary constructions of ground-state wave functions in the lowest Landau level are put forward. Furthermore, this work explains why pyramids of fillings from higher bands are not counterparts of the well-known composite-fermion hierarchy - it provides with the cause for an intriguing robustness of ν = 7/3 , 8/3 and 5/2 states (also in graphene). The argumentation why paired states can be developed in two-subband systems (wide quantum wells) only when the Fermi energy lies in the first Landau level is specified. Finally, the paper also clarifies how an additional surface in bilayer systems contributes to an observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect near half-filling, ν = 1/2 .
Quantum critical behaviour of the plateau-insulator transition in the quantum Hall regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, A de; Ponomarenko, L A; Galistu, G; Lang, D T N de; Pruisken, A M M; Zeitler, U; Maude, D
2006-01-01
High-field magnetotransport experiments provide an excellent tool to investigate the plateau-insulator phase transition in the integral quantum Hall effect. Here we review recent low-temperature high-field magnetotransport studies carried out on several InGaAs/InP heterostructures and an InGaAs/GaAs quantum well. We find that the longitudinal resistivity ρ xx near the critical filling factor ν c ∼ 0.5 follows the universal scaling law ρ xx (ν, T) ∝ exp(-Δν/(T/T 0 ) κ ), where Δν = ν-ν c . The critical exponent κ equals 0.56 ± 0.02, which indicates that the plateau-insulator transition falls in a non-Fermi liquid universality class
Quantum anomalous Hall phase in a one-dimensional optical lattice
Liu, Sheng; Shao, L. B.; Hou, Qi-Zhe; Xue, Zheng-Yuan
2018-03-01
We propose to simulate and detect quantum anomalous Hall phase with ultracold atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice, with the other synthetic dimension being realized by modulating spin-orbit coupling. We show that the system manifests a topologically nontrivial phase with two chiral edge states which can be readily detected in this synthetic two-dimensional system. Moreover, it is interesting that at the phase transition point there is a flat energy band and this system can also be in a topologically nontrivial phase with two Fermi zero modes existing at the boundaries by considering the synthetic dimension as a modulated parameter. We also show how to measure these topological phases experimentally in ultracold atoms. Another model with a random Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling strength is also found to exhibit topological nontrivial phase, and the impact of the disorder to the system is revealed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eaves, L.
2001-01-01
The breakdown of the integer quantum Hall effect at high currents sometimes occurs a series of regular steps in the dissipative voltage drop bars used to maintain the US Resistance Standard, but have also been reported in other devices. It is proposed that the origin of the steps can be understood in terms of instability in the dissipationless flow at high electron drift velocities. The instability is induced by impurity- or defect- related inter-Landau level scattering processes in local macroscopic regions of the Hall bar. Electron-hole pairs (magneto-excitons) are generated in the quantum Hall fluid in these regions and that the electronic motion can be envisaged as a quantum analogue of the Karman vortex street which forms when a classical fluid flows past an obstacle. (author)
Engineering the quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene with uniaxial strains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diniz, G. S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, M. R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, F. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2013-12-28
We theoretically investigate the manipulation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in graphene by means of the uniaxial strain. The values of Chern number and Hall conductance demonstrate that the strained graphene in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange field, for vanishing intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, possesses non-trivial topological phase, which is robust against the direction and modulus of the strain. Besides, we also find that the interplay between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit couplings results in a topological phase transition in the strained graphene. Remarkably, as the strain strength is increased beyond approximately 7%, the critical parameters of the exchange field for triggering the quantum anomalous Hall phase transition show distinct behaviors—decrease (increase) for strains along zigzag (armchair) direction. Our findings open up a new platform for manipulation of the QAHE by an experimentally accessible strain deformation of the graphene structure, with promising application on novel quantum electronic devices with high efficiency.
Engineering the quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene with uniaxial strains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diniz, G. S.; Guassi, M. R.; Qu, F.
2013-01-01
We theoretically investigate the manipulation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in graphene by means of the uniaxial strain. The values of Chern number and Hall conductance demonstrate that the strained graphene in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange field, for vanishing intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, possesses non-trivial topological phase, which is robust against the direction and modulus of the strain. Besides, we also find that the interplay between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit couplings results in a topological phase transition in the strained graphene. Remarkably, as the strain strength is increased beyond approximately 7%, the critical parameters of the exchange field for triggering the quantum anomalous Hall phase transition show distinct behaviors—decrease (increase) for strains along zigzag (armchair) direction. Our findings open up a new platform for manipulation of the QAHE by an experimentally accessible strain deformation of the graphene structure, with promising application on novel quantum electronic devices with high efficiency
Fabry-Perot Interferometry in the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Regimes
McClure, Douglas; Chang, Willy; Kou, Angela; Marcus, Charles; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken
2011-03-01
We present measurements of electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes. Two classes of resistance oscillations may be seen as a function of magnetic field and gate voltage, as we have previously reported. In small interferometers in the integer regime, oscillations of the type associated with Coulomb interaction are ubiquitous, while those consistent with single-particle Aharonov-Bohm interference are seen to co-exist in some configurations. The amplitude scaling of both types with temperature and device size is consistent with a theoretical model. Oscillations are further observed in the fractional quantum Hall regime. Here the dependence of the period on the filling factors in the constrictions and bulk of the interferometer can shed light on the effective charge of the interfering quasiparticles, but care is needed to distinguish these oscillations from those associated with integer quantum Hall states. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Project Q and IBM.
Helical edge states and fractional quantum Hall effect in a graphene electron-hole bilayer.
Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier D; Luo, Jason Y; Young, Andrea F; Hunt, Benjamin M; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ashoori, Raymond C; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo
2017-02-01
Helical 1D electronic systems are a promising route towards realizing circuits of topological quantum states that exhibit non-Abelian statistics. Here, we demonstrate a versatile platform to realize 1D systems made by combining quantum Hall (QH) edge states of opposite chiralities in a graphene electron-hole bilayer at moderate magnetic fields. Using this approach, we engineer helical 1D edge conductors where the counterpropagating modes are localized in separate electron and hole layers by a tunable electric field. These helical conductors exhibit strong non-local transport signals and suppressed backscattering due to the opposite spin polarizations of the counterpropagating modes. Unlike other approaches used for realizing helical states, the graphene electron-hole bilayer can be used to build new 1D systems incorporating fractional edge states. Indeed, we are able to tune the bilayer devices into a regime hosting fractional and integer edge states of opposite chiralities, paving the way towards 1D helical conductors with fractional quantum statistics.
Gate-Controlled Transmission of Quantum Hall Edge States in Bilayer Graphene.
Li, Jing; Wen, Hua; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Zhu, Jun
2018-02-02
The edge states of the quantum Hall and fractional quantum Hall effect of a two-dimensional electron gas carry key information of the bulk excitations. Here we demonstrate gate-controlled transmission of edge states in bilayer graphene through a potential barrier with tunable height. The backscattering rate is continuously varied from 0 to close to 1, with fractional quantized values corresponding to the sequential complete backscattering of individual modes. Our experiments demonstrate the feasibility to controllably manipulate edge states in bilayer graphene, thus opening the door to more complex experiments.
Gate-Controlled Transmission of Quantum Hall Edge States in Bilayer Graphene
Li, Jing; Wen, Hua; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Zhu, Jun
2018-02-01
The edge states of the quantum Hall and fractional quantum Hall effect of a two-dimensional electron gas carry key information of the bulk excitations. Here we demonstrate gate-controlled transmission of edge states in bilayer graphene through a potential barrier with tunable height. The backscattering rate is continuously varied from 0 to close to 1, with fractional quantized values corresponding to the sequential complete backscattering of individual modes. Our experiments demonstrate the feasibility to controllably manipulate edge states in bilayer graphene, thus opening the door to more complex experiments.
Analytical theory and possible detection of the ac quantum spin Hall effect.
Deng, W Y; Ren, Y J; Lin, Z X; Shen, R; Sheng, L; Sheng, D N; Xing, D Y
2017-07-11
We develop an analytical theory of the low-frequency ac quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect based upon the scattering matrix formalism. It is shown that the ac QSH effect can be interpreted as a bulk quantum pumping effect. When the electron spin is conserved, the integer-quantized ac spin Hall conductivity can be linked to the winding numbers of the reflection matrices in the electrodes, which also equal to the bulk spin Chern numbers of the QSH material. Furthermore, a possible experimental scheme by using ferromagnetic metals as electrodes is proposed to detect the topological ac spin current by electrical means.
Analytic calculations of trial wave functions of the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza Batista, C.L. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dingping Li [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica
1996-07-01
We present a framework for the analytic calculations of the hierarchical wave functions and the composite fermion wave functions in the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere by using projective coordinates. Then we calculate the overlaps between these two wave functions at various fillings and small numbers of electrons. We find that the overlaps are most equal to one. This gives a further evidence that two theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect, the hierarchical theory, are physically equivalent. (author). 31 refs., 2 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomimatsu, Toru; Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi; Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro
2015-01-01
Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs
Brueckner, Reinhold
2000-01-01
We propose an experiment using a three-gate quantum Hall device to probe the dependence of the integral quantum Hall effect (IQHE) on the shape of the lateral confining potential in edge regions. This shape can, in a certain configuration determine whether or not the IQHE occurs.
Hořava-Lifshitz gravity and effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Chaolun [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Wu, Shao-Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai University,Shanghai 200444 (China); Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2015-01-22
We show that Hořava-Lifshitz gravity theory can be employed as a covariant framework to build an effective field theory for the fractional quantum Hall effect that respects all the spacetime symmetries such as non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance and anisotropic Weyl invariance as well as the gauge symmetry. The key to this formalism is a set of correspondence relations that maps all the field degrees of freedom in the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity theory to external background (source) fields among others in the effective action of the quantum Hall effect, according to their symmetry transformation properties. We originally derive the map as a holographic dictionary, but its form is independent of the existence of holographic duality. This paves the way for the application of Hořava-Lifshitz holography on fractional quantum Hall effect. Using the simplest holographic Chern-Simons model, we compute the low energy effective action at leading orders and show that it captures universal electromagnetic and geometric properties of quantum Hall states, including the Wen-Zee shift, Hall viscosity, angular momentum density and their relations. We identify the shift function in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity theory as minus of guiding center velocity and conjugate to guiding center momentum. This enables us to distinguish guiding center angular momentum density from the internal one, which is the sum of Landau orbit spin and intrinsic (topological) spin of the composite particles. Our effective action shows that Hall viscosity is minus half of the internal angular momentum density and proportional to Wen-Zee shift, and Hall bulk viscosity is half of the guiding center angular momentum density.
Electronic transport in the quantum spin Hall state due to the presence of adatoms in graphene
Lima, Leandro; Lewenkopf, Caio
Heavy adatoms, even at low concentrations, are predicted to turn a graphene sheet into a topological insulator with substantial gap. The adatoms mediate the spin-orbit coupling that is fundamental to the quantum spin Hall effect. The adatoms act as local spin-orbit scatterer inducing hopping processes between distant carbon atoms giving origin to transverse spin currents. Although there are effective models that describe spectral properties of such systems with great detail, quantitative theoretical work for the transport counterpart is still lacking. We developed a multiprobe recursive Green's function technique with spin resolution to analyze the transport properties for large geometries. We use an effective tight-binding Hamiltonian to describe the problem of adatoms randomly placed at the center of the honeycomb hexagons, which is the case for most transition metals. Our choice of current and voltage probes is favorable to experiments since it filters the contribution of only one spin orientation, leading to a quantized spin Hall conductance of e2 / h . We also discuss the electronic propagation in the system by imaging the local density of states and the electronic current densities. The authors acknowledge the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gvozdikov, V M; Taut, M
2009-01-01
We report on analytical and numerical studies of the magnetic quantum oscillations of the diagonal conductivity σ xx in a two-dimensional conductor with a weak square superlattice modulation under conditions of the integer quantum Hall (IQHE) effect. The quantum Hall effect in such a system differs from the conventional IQHE, in which the finite width of the Landau bands is due to disorder only. The superlattice modulation potential yields a fractal splitting of the Landau levels into Hofstadter minibands. For rational flux through a unit cell, the minibands have a finite width and intrinsic dispersion relations. We consider a regime, now accessible experimentally, in which disorder does not wash out the fractal internal gap structure of the Landau bands completely. We found the following distinctions from the conventional IQHE produced by the superlattice: (i) the peaks in diagonal conductivity are split due to the Hofstadter miniband structure of Landau bands; (ii) the number of split peaks in the bunch, their positions and heights depend irregularly on the magnetic field and the Fermi energy; (iii) the gaps between the split Landau bands (and related quantum Hall plateaus) become narrower with the superlattice modulation than without it.
Mechanism of plateau formation in the fractional quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruus, H.; Hansen, O.P.; Hansen, E.B.
1988-01-01
Laughlin's fractionally charged quasi-holes and quasi-electrons are assumed to be pinned, and to be subject to a force j vectorxΦ 0 vector from the transport current. A force balance argument then explains the existence of Hall plateaus. (orig.)
Structure of edge-state inner products in the fractional quantum Hall effect
Fern, R.; Bondesan, R.; Simon, S. H.
2018-04-01
We analyze the inner products of edge state wave functions in the fractional quantum Hall effect, specifically for the Laughlin and Moore-Read states. We use an effective description for these inner products given by a large-N expansion ansatz proposed in a recent work by J. Dubail, N. Read, and E. Rezayi [Phys. Rev. B 86, 245310 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.245310]. As noted by these authors, the terms in this ansatz can be constrained using symmetry, a procedure we perform to high orders. We then check this conjecture by calculating the overlaps exactly for small system sizes and compare the numerics with our high-order expansion. We find the effective description to be very accurate.
Mandal, Sudhansu S.; Mukherjee, Sutirtha; Ray, Koushik
2018-03-01
A method for determining the ground state of a planar interacting many-electron system in a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane is described. The ground state wave-function is expressed as a linear combination of a set of basis functions. Given only the flux and the number of electrons describing an incompressible state, we use the combinatorics of partitioning the flux among the electrons to derive the basis wave-functions as linear combinations of Schur polynomials. The procedure ensures that the basis wave-functions form representations of the angular momentum algebra. We exemplify the method by deriving the basis functions for the 5/2 quantum Hall state with a few particles. We find that one of the basis functions is precisely the Moore-Read Pfaffian wave function.
Wave Function and Emergent SU(2) Symmetry in the ν_{T}=1 Quantum Hall Bilayer.
Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2018-02-16
We propose a trial wave function for the quantum Hall bilayer system of total filling factor ν_{T}=1 at a layer distance d to magnetic length ℓ ratio d/ℓ=κ_{c1}≈1.1, where the lowest charged excitation is known to have a level crossing. The wave function has two-particle correlations, which fit well with those in previous numerical studies, and can be viewed as a Bose-Einstein condensate of free excitons formed by composite bosons and anticomposite bosons in different layers. We show the free nature of these excitons indicating an emergent SU(2) symmetry for the composite bosons at d/ℓ=κ_{c1}, which leads to the level crossing in low-lying charged excitations. We further show the overlap between the trial wave function, and the ground state of a small size exact diagonalization is peaked near d/ℓ=κ_{c1}, which supports our theory.
Framing anomaly in the effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-01-09
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.
Topological phase transitions and quantum Hall effect in the graphene family
Ledwith, P.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.
2018-04-01
Monolayer staggered materials of the graphene family present intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and can be driven through several topological phase transitions using external circularly polarized lasers and static electric or magnetic fields. We show how topological features arising from photoinduced phase transitions and the magnetic-field-induced quantum Hall effect coexist in these materials and simultaneously impact their Hall conductivity through their corresponding charge Chern numbers. We also show that the spectral response of the longitudinal conductivity contains signatures of the various phase-transition boundaries, that the transverse conductivity encodes information about the topology of the band structure, and that both present resonant peaks which can be unequivocally associated with one of the four inequivalent Dirac cones present in these materials. This complex optoelectronic response can be probed with straightforward Faraday rotation experiments, allowing the study of the crossroads between quantum Hall physics, spintronics, and valleytronics.
The enigma of the ν=2+3/8 fractional quantum Hall effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hutasoit, Jimmy; nrc762, nrc762; Mukherjee, Sutirtha
2017-01-01
The fractional quantum Hall effect at ν=2+3/8, which has been definitively observed, is one of the last fractions for which no viable explanation has so far been demonstrated. Our detailed study suggests that it belongs to a new class of exotic states described by the Bonderson-Slingerland wave...
A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph
2013-01-01
Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented
Can Hall drag be observed in Coulomb coupled quantum wells in a magnetic field?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1997-01-01
We study the transresistivity rho(21) (or equivalently, the drag rate) of two Coulomb-coupled quantum wells in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, using semi-classical transport theory. Elementary arguments seem to preclude any possibility of observation of ''Hall drag'' (i.e., a non...
Edge modes in the fractional quantum Hall effect without extra edge fermions
Lima, G. L. S.; Dias, S. A.
2011-05-01
We show that the Chern-Simons-Landau-Ginsburg theory that describes the quantum Hall effect on a bounded sample is anomaly free and thus does not require the addition of extra chiral fermions on the boundary to restore local gauge invariance.
Exact diagonalization study of domain structures in integer filling factor quantum Hall ferromagnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rezayi, E. H.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.; Haldane, F. D. M.
2003-01-01
Roč. 67, č. 20 (2003), s. 201305-1 - 201305-4 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : domain structure * integer filling factor * quantum Hall ferromagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2003
Charged spin textures over the Moore-Read quantum Hall state
Romers, J.C.; Huijse, L.; Schoutens, K.
2011-01-01
We study the composite Charged Spin Texture (CST) over the Moore-Read quantum Hall state that arises when a collection of elementary CSTs are moved to the same location. Following an algebraic approach based on the characteristic pair correlations of the Moore- Read state, we and that the resulting
On the conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge states of the fractional quantum hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhongshui; Chen Yixin; Su Zhaobin.
1993-09-01
The conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge channel currents of a Fractional Quantum Hall Effect state is derived analytically within the Haldane-Halperin hierarchy scheme. We provide also an intuitive interpretation for the hierarchical drift velocities of the edge excitations. (author). 12 refs
The role of localization within the vortex picture of the fractional quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruus, H.; Hansen, O.P.; Hansen, E.B.
1988-01-01
Plateau formation in the fractional quantum Hall effect is shown to arise because, by pinning of vortices in the incompressible electron liquid, the canonical filling factor can be stationarily maintained in the interconnected region between the vortices. The crucial role of localization is demonstrated by considering the idealized limit where pinning centres are absent. (orig.)
Kim, Bom Soo
2018-05-01
We discuss the contribution of magnetic Skyrmions to the Hall viscosity and propose a simple way to identify it in experiments. The topological Skyrmion charge density has a distinct signature in the electric Hall conductivity that is identified in existing experimental data. In an electrically neutral system, the Skyrmion charge density is directly related to the thermal Hall conductivity. These results are direct consequences of the field theory Ward identities, which relate various physical quantities based on symmetries and have been previously applied to quantum Hall systems.
Quantum Hall effect in InAs/AlSb double quantum well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yakunin, M.V.; Podgornykh, S.M.; Sadof'ev, Yu.G.
2009-01-01
Double quantum wells (DQWs) were first implemented in the InAs/AlSb heterosystem, which is characterized by a large Lande g factor |g|=15 of the InAs layers forming the well, much larger than the bulk g factor |g|=0.4 of the GaAs in conventional GaAs/AlGaAs DQWs. The quality of the samples is good enough to permit observation of a clear picture of the quantum Hall effect (QHE). Despite the small tunneling gap, which is due to the large barrier height (1.4 eV), features with odd filling factors ν=3,5,7, ... are present in the QHE, due to collectivized interlayer states of the DQW. When the field is rotated relative to the normal to the layers, the ν=3 state is suppressed, confirming the collectivized nature of that state and denying that it could owe its existence to a strong asymmetry of the DQW. Previously the destruction of the collectivized QHE states by a parallel field had been observed only for the ν=1 state. The observation of a similar effect for ν=3 in an InAs/AlSb DQW may be due to the large bulk g factor of InAs
General topological features and instanton vacuum in quantum Hall and spin liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruisken, A.M.M.; Shankar, R.; Surendran, Naveen
2005-01-01
We introduce the concept of superuniversality in quantum Hall liquids and spin liquids. This concept has emerged from previous studies of the quantum Hall effect and states that all the fundamental features of the quantum Hall effect are generically displayed as general topological features of the θ parameter in nonlinear σ models in two dimensions. To establish superuniversality in spin liquids we revisit the mapping by Haldane who argued that the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-s chain in 1+1 space-time dimensions is effectively described by the O(3) nonlinear σ model with a θ term. By combining the path integral representation for the dimerized spin s=1/2 chain with renormalization-group decimation techniques we generalize the Haldane approach to include a more complicated theory, the fermionic rotor chain, involving four different renormalization-group parameters. We show how the renormalization-group calculation technique can be used to build a bridge between the fermionic rotor chain and the O(3) nonlinear σ model with the θ term. As an integral and fundamental aspect of the mapping we establish the topological significance of the dangling spin at the edge of the chain. The edge spin in spin liquids is in all respects identical to the massless chiral edge excitations in quantum Hall liquids. We consider various different geometries of the spin chain such as open and closed chains, chains with an even and odd number of sides. We show that for each of the different geometries the θ term has a distinctly different physical meaning. We compare each case with a topologically equivalent quantum Hall liquid
Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation being developed in this program is a Mg Hall Effect Thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization based solar system...
Quantum Hall effect with small numbers of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates
Byrnes, Tim; Dowling, Jonathan P.
2015-08-01
When vortices are displaced in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), the Magnus force gives the system a momentum transverse in the direction to the displacement. We show that BECs in long channels with vortices exhibit a quantization of the current response with respect to the spatial vortex distribution. The quantization originates from the well-known topological property of the phase around a vortex; it is an integer multiple of 2 π . In a way similar to that of the integer quantum Hall effect, the current along the channel is related to this topological phase and can be extracted from two experimentally measurable quantities: the total momentum of the BEC and the spatial distribution. The quantization is in units of m /2 h , where m is the mass of the atoms and h is Planck's constant. We derive an exact vortex momentum-displacement relation for BECs in long channels under general circumstances. Our results present the possibility that the configuration described here can be used as a novel way of measuring the mass of the atoms in the BEC using a topological invariant of the system. If an accurate determination of the plateaus are experimentally possible, this gives the possibility of a topological quantum mass standard and precise determination of the fine structure constant.
Zhou, Jian; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru
2016-06-07
Exploring a two-dimensional intrinsic quantum spin Hall state with a large band gap as well as an anomalous Hall state in realizable materials is one of the most fundamental and important goals for future applications in spintronics, valleytronics, and quantum computing. Here, by combining first-principles calculations with a tight-binding model, we predict that Sb or Bi can epitaxially grow on a stable and ferromagnetic MnO2 thin film substrate, forming a flat honeycomb sheet. The flatness of Sb or Bi provides an opportunity for the existence of Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, with its position effectively tuned by surface hydrogenation. The Dirac points in spin up and spin down channels split due to the proximity effects induced by MnO2. In the presence of both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit coupling, we find two band gaps exhibiting a large band gap quantum spin Hall state and a nearly quantized anomalous Hall state which can be tuned by adjusting the Fermi level. Our findings provide an efficient way to realize both quantized intrinsic spin Hall conductivity and anomalous Hall conductivity in a single material.
Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.
Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro
2015-04-08
We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.
Effective-field-theory model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, S.C.; Hansson, T.H.; Kivelson, S.
1989-01-01
Starting directly from the microscopic Hamiltonian, we derive a field-theory model for the fractional quantum hall effect. By considering an approximate coarse-grained version of the same model, we construct a Landau-Ginzburg theory similar to that of Girvin. The partition function of the model exhibits cusps as a function of density and the Hall conductance is quantized at filling factors ν = (2k-1)/sup -1/ with k an arbitrary integer. At these fractions the ground state is incompressible, and the quasiparticles and quasiholes have fractional charge and obey fractional statistics. Finally, we show that the collective density fluctuations are massive
Levitation of current carrying states in the lattice model for the integer quantum Hall effect.
Koschny, T; Potempa, H; Schweitzer, L
2001-04-23
The disorder driven quantum Hall to insulator transition is investigated for a two-dimensional lattice model. The Hall conductivity and the localization length are calculated numerically near the transition. For uncorrelated and weakly correlated disorder potentials the current carrying states are annihilated by the negative Chern states originating from the band center. In the presence of correlated disorder potentials with correlation length larger than approximately half the lattice constant the floating up of the critical states in energy without merging is observed. This behavior is similar to the levitation scenario proposed for the continuum model.
Yang, Kun
2017-12-01
We consider an interface separating the Moore-Read state and Halperin 331 state in a half-filled Landau level, which can be realized in a double quantum well system with varying interwell tunneling and/or interaction strengths. In the presence of electron tunneling and strong Coulomb interactions across the interface, we find that all charge modes localize and the only propagating mode left is a chiral Majorana fermion mode. Methods to probe this neutral mode are proposed. A quantum phase transition between the Moore-Read and Halperin 331 states is described by a network of such Majorana fermion modes. In addition to a direct transition, they may also be separated by a phase in which the Majorana fermions are delocalized, realizing an incompressible state which exhibits quantum Hall charge transport and bulk heat conduction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, R.; I.N.F.N., Trento
1994-01-01
The formalism introduced in a previous paper is used for discussing the Coulomb interaction of many electrons moving in two space-dimensions in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The matrix element of the coulomb interaction is evaluated in the new basis, whose states are invariant under discrete translations. This paper is devoted to the case of low filling factor, thus the authors limit themselves to the lowest Landau level and to spins all oriented along the magnetic field. For the case of filling factor ν f = 1/u they give an Ansatz on the state of many electrons which provides a good approximated solution of the Hartree-Fock equation. For general filling factor ν f = u'/u a trial state is given which converges very rapidly to a solution of the self-consistent equation. They generalize the Hartree-Fock equation by considering some correlation: all quantum states are allowed for the u' electrons with the same translation quantum numbers. Numerical results are given for the mean energy and the energy bands, for some values of the filling factor (ν f = 1/2, 1/3, 2/3, 1/4, 3/4, 1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5). The results agree numerically with the Charge Density Wave approach. The boundary conditions are shown to be very important: only large systems (degeneracy of Landau level over 200) are not affected by the boundaries. Therefore results obtained on small scale systems are somewhat unreliable. The relevance of the results for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is briefly discussed
Scaling of anomalous hall effect in amorphous CoFeB Films with accompanying quantum correction
Zhang, Yan
2015-05-08
Scaling of anomalous Hall effect in amorphous CoFeB films with thickness ranging from 2 to 160 nm have been investigated. We have found that the scaling relationship between longitudinal (ρxx) and anomalous Hall (ρAH) resistivity is distinctly different in the Bloch and localization regions. For ultrathin CoFeB films, the sheet resistance (Rxx) and anomalous Hall conductance (GAH) received quantum correction from electron localization showing two different scaling relationships at different temperature regions. In contrast, the thicker films show a metallic conductance, which have only one scaling relationship in the entire temperature range. Furthermore, in the dirty regime of localization regions, an unconventional scaling relationship View the MathML sourceσAH∝σxxα with α=1.99 is found, rather than α=1.60 predicted by the unified theory.
Magnon spin Hall magnetoresistance of a gapped quantum paramagnet
Ulloa, Camilo; Duine, R.A.
2018-01-01
Motivated by recent experimental work, we consider spin transport between a normal metal and a gapped quantum paramagnet. We model the latter as the magnonic Mott-insulating phase of an easy-plane ferromagnetic insulator. We evaluate the spin current mediated by the interface exchange coupling
Spin-singlet quantum Hall states and Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estienne, Benoit; Bernevig, B. Andrei
2012-01-01
We show that a large class of bosonic spin-singlet Fractional Quantum Hall model wavefunctions and their quasihole excitations can be written in terms of Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry. Our approach describes new spin-singlet quantum Hall states at filling fraction ν=(2k)/(2r-1) and generalizes the (k,r) spin-polarized Jack polynomial states. The NASS and Halperin spin-singlet states emerge as specific cases of our construction. The polynomials express many-body states which contain configurations obtained from a root partition through a generalized squeezing procedure involving spin and orbital degrees of freedom. The corresponding generalized Pauli principle for root partitions is obtained, allowing for counting of the quasihole states. We also extract the central charge and quasihole scaling dimension, and propose a conjecture for the underlying CFT of the (k,r) spin-singlet Jack states.
Realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect from a magnetic Weyl semimetal
Muechler, Lukas; Liu, Enke; Xu, Qiunan; Felser, Claudia; Sun, Yan
2017-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) and magnetic Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are topological states induced by intrinsic magnetic moments and spin-orbital coupling. Their similarity suggests the possibility of achieving the QAHE by dimensional confinement of a magnetic WSM along one direction. In this study, we investigate the emergence of the QAHE in the two dimensional (2D) limit of magnetic WSMs due to finite size effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with effective mode...
Quantum spin Hall states in graphene interacting with WS2 or WSe2
Kaloni, T. P.
2014-12-08
In the framework of first-principles calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of graphene in contact with as well as sandwiched between WS2 and WSe2 monolayers. We report the modification of the band characteristics due to the interaction at the interface and demonstrate that the presence of the dichalcogenide results in quantum spin Hall states in the absence of a magnetic field.
Wuertz, A.; Wildfeuer, R.; Lorke, A.; Deviatov, E. V.; Dolgopolov, V. T.
2001-01-01
Using an innovative combination of a quasi-Corbino sample geometry and the cross-gate technique, we have developed a method that enables us to separately contact single edge channels in the quantum Hall regime and investigate equilibration among them. Performing 4-point resistance measurements, we directly obtain information on the energetic and geometric structure of the edge region and the equilibration-length for current transport across the Landau- as well as the spin-gap. Based on an alm...
Resistance spikes and domain wall loops in Ising quantum Hall ferromagnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.
2001-01-01
Roč. 87, č. 21 (2001), s. 236801-1 - 216501-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC P5.10; GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : quantum Hall ferromagnet * domains Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.668, year: 2001
Quantum spin Hall states in graphene interacting with WS2 or WSe2
Kaloni, T. P.; Kou, L.; Frauenheim, T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2014-01-01
In the framework of first-principles calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of graphene in contact with as well as sandwiched between WS2 and WSe2 monolayers. We report the modification of the band characteristics due to the interaction at the interface and demonstrate that the presence of the dichalcogenide results in quantum spin Hall states in the absence of a magnetic field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coimbatore Balram, Ajit; Jain, Jainendra
2017-01-01
The particle-hole (PH) symmetry of {\\em electrons} is an exact symmetry of the electronic Hamiltonian confined to a specific Landau level, and its interplay with the formation of composite fermions has attracted much attention of late. This article investigates an emergent symmetry...... in the fractional quantum Hall effect, namely the PH symmetry of {\\em composite fermions}, which relates states at composite fermion filling factors $\
The Two-Dimensional MnO2/Graphene Interface: Half-metallicity and Quantum Anomalous Hall State
Gan, Liyong
2015-10-07
We explore the electronic properties of the MnO2/graphene interface by first-principles calculations, showing that MnO2 becomes half-metallic. MnO2 in the MnO2/graphene/MnO2 system provides time-reversal and inversion symmetry breaking. Spin splitting by proximity occurs at the Dirac points and a topologically nontrivial band gap is opened, enabling a quantum anomalous Hall state. The half-metallicity, spin splitting, and size of the band gap depend on the interfacial interaction, which can be tuned by strain engineering.
The Two-Dimensional MnO2/Graphene Interface: Half-metallicity and Quantum Anomalous Hall State
Gan, Liyong; Zhang, Qingyun; Guo, Chun-Sheng; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhao, Yong
2015-01-01
We explore the electronic properties of the MnO2/graphene interface by first-principles calculations, showing that MnO2 becomes half-metallic. MnO2 in the MnO2/graphene/MnO2 system provides time-reversal and inversion symmetry breaking. Spin splitting by proximity occurs at the Dirac points and a topologically nontrivial band gap is opened, enabling a quantum anomalous Hall state. The half-metallicity, spin splitting, and size of the band gap depend on the interfacial interaction, which can be tuned by strain engineering.
Assessment of bilayer silicene to probe as quantum spin and valley Hall effect
Rehman, Majeed Ur; Qiao, Zhenhua
2018-02-01
Silicene takes precedence over graphene due to its buckling type structure and strong spin orbit coupling. Motivated by these properties, we study the silicene bilayer in the presence of applied perpendicular electric field and intrinsic spin orbit coupling to probe as quantum spin/valley Hall effect. Using analytical approach, we calculate the spin Chern-number of bilayer silicene and then compare it with monolayer silicene. We reveal that bilayer silicene hosts double spin Chern-number as compared to single layer silicene and therefore accordingly has twice as many edge states in contrast to single layer silicene. In addition, we investigate the combined effect of intrinsic spin orbit coupling and the external electric field, we find that bilayer silicene, likewise single layer silicene, goes through a phase transitions from a quantum spin Hall state to a quantum valley Hall state when the strength of the applied electric field exceeds the intrinsic spin orbit coupling strength. We believe that the results and outcomes obtained for bilayer silicene are experimentally more accessible as compared to bilayer graphene, because of strong SO coupling in bilayer silicene.
SO(8) fermion dynamical symmetry and strongly correlated quantum Hall states in monolayer graphene
Wu, Lian-Ao; Murphy, Matthew; Guidry, Mike
2017-03-01
A formalism is presented for treating strongly correlated graphene quantum Hall states in terms of an SO(8) fermion dynamical symmetry that includes pairing as well as particle-hole generators. The graphene SO(8) algebra is isomorphic to an SO(8) algebra that has found broad application in nuclear physics, albeit with physically very different generators, and exhibits a strong formal similarity to SU(4) symmetries that have been proposed to describe high-temperature superconductors. The well-known SU(4) symmetry of quantum Hall ferromagnetism for single-layer graphene is recovered as one subgroup of SO(8), but the dynamical symmetry structure associated with the full set of SO(8) subgroup chains extends quantum Hall ferromagnetism and allows analytical many-body solutions for a rich set of collective states exhibiting spontaneously broken symmetry that may be important for the low-energy physics of graphene in strong magnetic fields. The SO(8) symmetry permits a natural definition of generalized coherent states that correspond to symmetry-constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solutions, or equivalently a microscopically derived Ginzburg-Landau formalism, exhibiting the interplay between competing spontaneously broken symmetries in determining the ground state.
Interplay between snake and quantum edge states in a graphene Hall bar with a pn-junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@uantwerpen.be; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600 Austin, Texas 78712-1192 (United States)
2014-09-22
The magneto- and Hall resistance of a locally gated cross shaped graphene Hall bar is calculated. The edge of the top gate is placed diagonally across the center of the Hall cross. Four-probe resistance is calculated using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, while the transmission coefficients are obtained using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The interplay between transport due to edge channels and snake states is investigated. When two edge channels are occupied, we predict oscillations in the Hall and the bend resistance as function of the magnetic field, which are a consequence of quantum interference between the occupied snake states.
Hall conductivity for two dimensional magnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desbois, J.; Ouvry, S.; Texier, C.
1996-01-01
A Kubo inspired formalism is proposed to compute the longitudinal and transverse dynamical conductivities of an electron in a plane (or a gas of electrons at zero temperature) coupled to the potential vector of an external local magnetic field, with the additional coupling of the spin degree of freedom of the electron to the local magnetic field (Pauli Hamiltonian). As an example, the homogeneous magnetic field Hall conductivity is rederived. The case of the vortex at the origin is worked out in detail. A perturbative analysis is proposed for the conductivity in the random magnetic impurity problem (Poissonian vortices in the plane). (author)
Diaphragm Effect of Steel Space Roof Systems in Hall Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet FENKLİ
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Hall structures have been used widely for different purposes. They have are reinforced concrete frames and shear wall with steel space roof systems. Earthquake response of hall structures is different from building type structures. One of the most critical nodes is diaphragm effect of steel space roof on earthquake response of hall structures. Diaphragm effect is depending on lateral stiffness capacity of steel space roof system. Lateral stiffness of steel space roof system is related to modulation geometry, support conditions, selected sections and system geometry. In current paper, three representative models which are commonly used in Turkey were taken in to account for investigation. Results of numerical tests were present comparatively
Frequencies of the Edge-Magnetoplasmon Excitations in Gated Quantum Hall Edges
Endo, Akira; Koike, Keita; Katsumoto, Shingo; Iye, Yasuhiro
2018-06-01
We have investigated microwave transmission through the edge of quantum Hall systems by employing a coplanar waveguide (CPW) fabricated on the surface of a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) wafer. An edge is introduced to the slot region of the CPW by applying a negative bias Vg to the central electrode (CE) and depleting the 2DEG below the CE. We observe peaks attributable to the excitation of edge magnetoplasmons (EMP) at a fundamental frequency f0 and at its harmonics if0 (i = 2,3, \\ldots ). The frequency f0 increases with decreasing Vg, indicating that EMP propagates with higher velocity for more negative Vg. The dependence of f0 on Vg is interpreted in terms of the variation in the distance between the edge state and the CE, which alters the velocity by varying the capacitive coupling between them. The peaks are observed to continue, albeit with less clarity, up to the regions of Vg where 2DEG still remains below the CE.
Chowdhury, Debanjan; Skinner, Brian; Lee, Patrick A.
2018-05-01
Electron tunneling into a system with strong interactions is known to exhibit an anomaly, in which the tunneling conductance vanishes continuously at low energy due to many-body interactions. Recent measurements have probed this anomaly in a quantum Hall bilayer of the half-filled Landau level, and shown that the anomaly apparently gets stronger as the half-filled Landau level is increasingly spin polarized. Motivated by this result, we construct a semiclassical hydrodynamic theory of the tunneling anomaly in terms of the charge-spreading action associated with tunneling between two copies of the Halperin-Lee-Read state with partial spin polarization. This theory is complementary to our recent work (D. Chowdhury, B. Skinner, and P. A. Lee, arXiv:1709.06091) where the electron spectral function was computed directly using an instanton-based approach. Our results show that the experimental observation cannot be understood within conventional theories of the tunneling anomaly, in which the spreading of the injected charge is driven by the mean-field Coulomb energy. However, we identify a qualitatively new regime, in which the mean-field Coulomb energy is effectively quenched and the tunneling anomaly is dominated by the finite compressibility of the composite Fermion liquid.
Propagation of superconducting coherence via chiral quantum-Hall edge channels.
Park, Geon-Hyoung; Kim, Minsoo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lee, Hu-Jong
2017-09-08
Recently, there has been significant interest in superconducting coherence via chiral quantum-Hall (QH) edge channels at an interface between a two-dimensional normal conductor and a superconductor (N-S) in a strong transverse magnetic field. In the field range where the superconductivity and the QH state coexist, the coherent confinement of electron- and hole-like quasiparticles by the interplay of Andreev reflection and the QH effect leads to the formation of Andreev edge states (AES) along the N-S interface. Here, we report the electrical conductance characteristics via the AES formed in graphene-superconductor hybrid systems in a three-terminal configuration. This measurement configuration, involving the QH edge states outside a graphene-S interface, allows the detection of the longitudinal and QH conductance separately, excluding the bulk contribution. Convincing evidence for the superconducting coherence and its propagation via the chiral QH edge channels is provided by the conductance enhancement on both the upstream and the downstream sides of the superconducting electrode as well as in bias spectroscopy results below the superconducting critical temperature. Propagation of superconducting coherence via QH edge states was more evident as more edge channels participate in the Andreev process for high filling factors with reduced valley-mixing scattering.
Quantum correlations in multipartite quantum systems
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Heshmati, A.; Karimi, N.; Yahyavi, M.
2018-03-01
Quantum entanglement is the most famous type of quantum correlation between elements of a quantum system that has a basic role in quantum communication protocols like quantum cryptography, teleportation and Bell inequality detection. However, it has already been shown that various applications in quantum information theory do not require entanglement. Quantum discord as a new kind of quantum correlations beyond entanglement, is the most popular candidate for general quantum correlations. In this paper, first we find the entanglement witness in a particular multipartite quantum system which consists of a N-partite system in 2 n -dimensional space. Then we give an exact analytical formula for the quantum discord of this system. At the end of the paper, we investigate the additivity relation of the quantum correlation and show that this relation is satisfied for a N-partite system with 2 n -dimensional space.
Optimization of edge state velocity in the integer quantum Hall regime
Sahasrabudhe, H.; Novakovic, B.; Nakamura, J.; Fallahi, S.; Povolotskyi, M.; Klimeck, G.; Rahman, R.; Manfra, M. J.
2018-02-01
Observation of interference in the quantum Hall regime may be hampered by a small edge state velocity due to finite phase coherence time. Therefore designing two quantum point contact (QPCs) interferometers having a high edge state velocity is desirable. Here we present a new simulation method for designing heterostructures with high edge state velocity by realistically modeling edge states near QPCs in the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) regime. Using this simulation method, we also predict the filling factor at the center of QPCs and their conductance at different gate voltages. The 3D Schrödinger equation is split into 1D and 2D parts. Quasi-1D Schrödinger and Poisson equations are solved self-consistently in the IQHE regime to obtain the potential profile, and quantum transport is used to solve for the edge state wave functions. The velocity of edge states is found to be /B , where is the expectation value of the electric field for the edge state. Anisotropically etched trench gated heterostructures with double-sided delta doping have the highest edge state velocity among the structures considered.
Overview of NASA Iodine Hall Thruster Propulsion System Development
Smith, Timothy D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Haag, Thomas; Dankanich, John; Polzin, Kurt; Byrne, Lawrence; Szabo, James
2016-01-01
NASA is continuing to invest in advancing Hall thruster technologies for implementation in commercial and government missions. The most recent focus has been on increasing the power level for large-scale exploration applications. However, there has also been a similar push to examine applications of electric propulsion for small spacecraft in the range of 300 kg or less. There have been several recent iodine Hall propulsion system development activities performed by the team of the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and Busek Co. Inc. In particular, the work focused on qualification of the Busek 200-W BHT-200-I and development of the 600-W BHT-600-I systems. This paper discusses the current status of iodine Hall propulsion system developments along with supporting technology development efforts.
Role of helical edge modes in the chiral quantum anomalous Hall state.
Mani, Arjun; Benjamin, Colin
2018-01-22
Although indications are that a single chiral quantum anomalous Hall(QAH) edge mode might have been experimentally detected. There have been very many recent experiments which conjecture that a chiral QAH edge mode always materializes along with a pair of quasi-helical quantum spin Hall (QSH) edge modes. In this work we deal with a substantial 'What If?' question- in case the QSH edge modes, from which these QAH edge modes evolve, are not topologically-protected then the QAH edge modes wont be topologically-protected too and thus unfit for use in any applications. Further, as a corollary one can also ask if the topological-protection of QSH edge modes does not carry over during the evolution process to QAH edge modes then again our 'What if?' scenario becomes apparent. The 'how' of the resolution of this 'What if?' conundrum is the main objective of our work. We show in similar set-ups affected by disorder and inelastic scattering, transport via trivial QAH edge mode leads to quantization of Hall resistance and not that via topological QAH edge modes. This perhaps begs a substantial reinterpretation of those experiments which purported to find signatures of chiral(topological) QAH edge modes albeit in conjunction with quasi helical QSH edge modes.
Field effect in the quantum Hall regime of a high mobility graphene wire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barraud, C., E-mail: cbarraud@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: clement.barraud@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Choi, T.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Butti, P.; Shorubalko, I. [Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Science and Technologies, EMPA Elect. Metrol. Reliabil. Lab., CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)
2014-08-21
In graphene-based electronic devices like in transistors, the field effect applied thanks to a gate electrode allows tuning the charge density in the graphene layer and passing continuously from the electron to the hole doped regime across the Dirac point. Homogeneous doping is crucial to understand electrical measurements and for the operation of future graphene-based electronic devices. However, recently theoretical and experimental studies highlighted the role of the electrostatic edge due to fringing electrostatic field lines at the graphene edges [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008); F. T. Vasko and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 092115 (2010)]. This effect originates from the particular geometric design of the samples. A direct consequence is a charge accumulation at the graphene edges giving a value for the density, which deviates from the simple picture of a plate capacitor and also varies along the width of the graphene sample. Entering the quantum Hall regime would, in principle, allow probing this accumulation thanks to the extreme sensitivity of this quantum effect to charge density and the charge distribution. Moreover, the presence of an additional and counter-propagating edge channel has been predicted [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008)] giving a fundamental aspect to this technological issue. In this article, we investigate this effect by tuning a high mobility graphene wire into the quantum Hall regime in which charge carriers probe the electrostatic potential at high magnetic field close to the edges. We observe a slight deviation to the linear shift of the quantum Hall plateaus with magnetic field and we study its evolution for different filling factors, which correspond to different probed regions in real space. We discuss the possible origins of this effect including an increase of the charge density towards the edges.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lal, Siddhartha
2007-09-01
Motivated by surprises in recent experimental findings, we study transport in a model of a quantum Hall edge system with a gate-voltage controlled constriction. A finite backscattered current at finite edge-bias is explained as arising from the splitting of edge current caused by the difference in the filling fractions of the bulk (ν 1 ) and constriction (ν 2 ) quantum Hall fluid regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model. The constriction region splits the incident long-wavelength chiral edge density-wave excitations among the transmitting and reflecting edge states encircling it. The competition between two interedge tunneling processes taking place inside the constriction, related by a quasiparticle-quasihole (qp-qh) symmetry, is accounted for by computing the boundary theories of the system. This competition is found to determine the strong coupling configuration of the system. A separatrix of qp-qh symmetric gapless critical states is found to lie between the relevant RG flows to a metallic and an insulating configuration of the constriction system. This constitutes an interesting generalisation of the Kane-Fisher quantum impurity model. The features of the RG phase diagram are also confirmed by computing various correlators and chiral linear conductances of the system. In this way, our results find excellent agreement with many recent puzzling experimental results for the cases of ν 1 = 1/3, 1. We also discuss and make predictions for the case of a constriction system with ν 2 = 5/2. (author)
Georgiev, Lachezar S.
2006-12-01
We extend the topological quantum computation scheme using the Pfaffian quantum Hall state, which has been recently proposed by Das Sarma , in a way that might potentially allow for the topologically protected construction of a universal set of quantum gates. We construct, for the first time, a topologically protected controlled-NOT gate, which is entirely based on quasihole braidings of Pfaffian qubits. All single-qubit gates, except for the π/8 gate, are also explicitly implemented by quasihole braidings. Instead of the π/8 gate we try to construct a topologically protected Toffoli gate, in terms of the controlled-phase gate and CNOT or by a braid-group-based controlled-controlled- Z precursor. We also give a topologically protected realization of the Bravyi-Kitaev two-qubit gate g3 .
Circuit models and SPICE macro-models for quantum Hall effect devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortolano, Massimo; Callegaro, Luca
2015-01-01
Precise electrical measurement technology based on the quantum Hall effect is one of the pillars of modern quantum electrical metrology. Electrical networks including one or more QHE elements can be used as quantum resistance and impedance standards. The analysis of these networks allows metrologists to evaluate the effect of the inevitable parasitic parameters on their performance as standards. This paper presents a concise review of the various circuit models for QHE elements proposed in the literature, and the development of a new model. This last model is particularly suited to be employed with the analogue electronic circuit simulator SPICE. The SPICE macro-model and examples of SPICE simulations, validated by comparison with the corresponding analytical solution and/or experimental data, are provided. (paper)
Evidence of a fractional quantum Hall nematic phase in a microscopic model
Regnault, N.; Maciejko, J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.
2017-07-01
At small momenta, the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman (GMP) mode in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect can be identified with gapped nematic fluctuations in the isotropic FQH liquid. This correspondence would be exact as the GMP mode softens upon approach to the putative point of a quantum phase transition to a FQH nematic. Motivated by these considerations as well as by suggestive evidence of an FQH nematic in tilted field experiments, we have sought evidence of such a nematic FQHE in a microscopic model of interacting electrons in the lowest Landau level at filling factor 1/3. Using a family of anisotropic Laughlin states as trial wave functions, we find a continuous quantum phase transition between the isotropic Laughlin liquid and the FQH nematic. Results of numerical exact diagonalization also suggest that rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken, and that the phase diagram of the model contains both a nematic and a stripe phase.
Intrinsic quantum anomalous hall effect in a two-dimensional anilato-based lattice.
Ni, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Huaqing; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Liu, Feng
2018-06-13
Using first-principles calculations, we predict an intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state in a monolayer anilato-based metal-organic framework M2(C6O4X2)3 (M = Mn and Tc, X = F, Cl, Br and I). The spin-orbit coupling of M d orbitals opens a nontrivial band gap up to 18 meV at the Dirac point. The electron counting rule is used to explain the intrinsic nature of the QAH state. The calculated nonzero Chern number, gapless edge states and quantized Hall conductance all confirm the nontrivial topological properties in the anilato-based lattice. Our findings provide an organic materials platform for the realization of the QAH effect without the need for magnetic and charge doping, which are highly desirable for the development of low-energy-consumption spintronic devices.
Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2
Tahir, M.
2014-09-22
We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.
Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2
Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2014-01-01
We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.
Higher dimensional quantum Hall effect as A-class topological insulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasebe, Kazuki, E-mail: khasebe@stanford.edu
2014-09-15
We perform a detail study of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects and A-class topological insulators with emphasis on their relations to non-commutative geometry. There are two different formulations of non-commutative geometry for higher dimensional fuzzy spheres: the ordinary commutator formulation and quantum Nambu bracket formulation. Corresponding to these formulations, we introduce two kinds of monopole gauge fields: non-abelian gauge field and antisymmetric tensor gauge field, which respectively realize the non-commutative geometry of fuzzy sphere in the lowest Landau level. We establish connection between the two types of monopole gauge fields through Chern–Simons term, and derive explicit form of tensor monopole gauge fields with higher string-like singularity. The connection between two types of monopole is applied to generalize the concept of flux attachment in quantum Hall effect to A-class topological insulator. We propose tensor type Chern–Simons theory as the effective field theory for membranes in A-class topological insulators. Membranes turn out to be fractionally charged objects and the phase entanglement mediated by tensor gauge field transforms the membrane statistics to be anyonic. The index theorem supports the dimensional hierarchy of A-class topological insulator. Analogies to D-brane physics of string theory are discussed too.
Non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states for hard-core bosons in one dimension
Paredes, Belén
2012-05-01
I present a family of one-dimensional bosonic liquids analogous to non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states. A new quantum number is introduced to characterize these liquids, the chiral momentum, which differs from the usual angular or linear momentum in one dimension. As their two-dimensional counterparts, these liquids minimize a k-body hard-core interaction with the minimum total chiral momentum. They exhibit global order, with a hidden organization of the particles in k identical copies of a one-dimensional Laughlin state. For k=2 the state is a p-wave paired phase corresponding to the Pfaffian quantum Hall state. By imposing conservation of the total chiral momentum, an exact parent Hamiltonian is derived which involves long-range tunneling and interaction processes with an amplitude decaying with the chord distance. This family of non-Abelian liquids is shown to be in formal correspondence with a family of spin-(k)/(2) liquids which are total singlets made out of k indistinguishable resonating valence bond states. The corresponding spin Hamiltonians are obtained.
Novel Hall sensors developed for magnetic field imaging systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cambel, Vladimir; Karapetrov, Goran; Novosad, Valentyn; Bartolome, Elena; Gregusova, Dagmar; Fedor, Jan; Kudela, Robert; Soltys, Jan
2007-01-01
We report here on the fabrication and application of novel planar Hall sensors based on shallow InGaP/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure with a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) as an active layer. The sensors are developed for two kinds of experiments. In the first one, magnetic samples are placed directly on the Hall sensor. Room temperature experiments of permalloy objects evaporated onto the sensor are presented. In the second experiment, the sensor scans close over a multigranular superconducting sample prepared on a YBCO thin film. Large-area and high-resolution scanning experiments were performed at 4.2 K with the Hall probe scanning system in a liquid helium flow cryostat
Conductance quantization suppression in the quantum Hall regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caridad, José M.; Power, Stephen R.; Lotz, Mikkel R.
2018-01-01
Conductance quantization is the quintessential feature of electronic transport in non-interacting mesoscopic systems. This phenomenon is observed in quasi one-dimensional conductors at zero magnetic field B, and the formation of edge states at finite magnetic fields results in wider conductance...... conduction channels. Despite being a universal effect, this regime has proven experimentally elusive because of difficulties in realizing one-dimensional systems with sufficiently hard-walled, disorder-free confinement. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the suppression of conductance quantization within...
Strong Bulk-Edge Coupling in the Compressible Half-Filled Quantum Hall State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milovanovic, M.V.; Shimshoni, E.
1999-01-01
We studied analytically static correlators in the compressible half-filled quantum Hall state, which characterize the nature of charged excitations in the bulk and on the edge of the system. We employ a modified version of the plasma analogy - namely, a mapping to a classical two-dimensional system of interacting particles - similarly to what has been done in studies of the incompressible (Laughlin) states. However, the 'fake plasma' corresponding to the half-filled state is found to have anomalously weak screening properties. As a consequence, the correlations along the edge do not decay algebraically as in the incompressible case, thus indicating the breakdown of Wen's edge theory. On the other hand, the bulk correlator (which parallels the Girvin-MacDonald algebraic off-diagonal long range order) decays algebraically in a similar way as in the incompressible states, signifying the presence of some kind of bosonic order even in the compressible state. The above results suggest that due to the strong coupling between charged modes on the edge and the neutral Fermions (dipoles) in the bulk, the (attractive) correlation hole is not well defined on the edge. Hence, the system there can be modeled as a free Fermi gas of electrons (with an appropriate boundary condition). A possible experimental indication of a strong bulk-edge coupling at half-filling has been indeed observed in non-local resistance measurements [1]. We also suggest, that while our results contradict the validity of an effective one-dimensional description of the edge excitations on the static level, the dynamics may decouple the edge and bulk so as to recover the Laughlin-like behavior apparent in the experiment of Grayson et al
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clark, R.G.; Ford, R.A.; Haynes, S.R.; Ryan, J.F.; Turberfield, A.J.; Wright, P.A. (Clarendon Lab., Univ. of Oxford (UK)); Williams, F.I.B.; Deville, G.; Glattli, D.C. (CEN de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Mallett, J.R.; Oswald, P.M.W. (Clarendon Lab., Univ. of Oxford (UK) Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium)); Burgt, M. van der; Herlach, F. (Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium)); Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J. (Philips Research Labs., Redhill (UK))
1991-02-01
Our recent optical detection of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects in GaAs, by intrinsic band-gap photoluminescence at dilution refrigerator temperatures, is reviewed. This work has been extended to the extreme quantum limit where a photoluminescence peak develops close to Landau level filling factor {nu}=1/5 which correlates both with the onset of threshold behaviour in current-voltage characteristics of the two-dimensional electron system and a resonant radio-frequency absorption; the latter are quantitatively accounted for by a model of crystalline electronic structure broken up into domains. Preliminary mK transport experiments in intense, pulsed magnetic fields are also described, which establish a basis to access the electron solid phase transition in a hitherto unattainable region of the (B,T) plane. (orig.).
Levitation of the quantum Hall extended states in the $B\\to$ 0 limit
Koschny, Th.; Schweitzer, L.
2004-01-01
We investigate the fate of the quantum Hall extended states within a continuum model with spatially correlated disorder potentials. The model can be projected onto a couple of the lowest Landau bands. Levitation of the $n=0$ critical states is observed if at least the two lowest Landau bands are considered. The dependence on the magnetic length $l_B=(\\hbar/(eB))^{1/2}$ and on the correlation length of the disorder potential $\\eta$ is combined into a single dimensionless parameter $\\hat\\eta=\\e...
Current distribution and conductance quantization in the integer quantum Hall regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cresti, Alessandro; Farchioni, Riccardo; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori
2003-01-01
Charge transport of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of a magnetic field is studied by means of the Keldysh-Green function formalism and the tight-binding method. We evaluate the spatial distributions of persistent (equilibrium) and transport (nonequilibrium) currents, and give a vivid picture of their profiles. In the quantum Hall regime, we find exact conductance quantization both for persistent currents and for transport currents, even in the presence of impurity scattering centres and moderate disorder. (letter to the editor)
Current distribution and conductance quantization in the integer quantum Hall regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cresti, Alessandro [NEST-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, via F Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Farchioni, Riccardo [NEST-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, via F Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Grosso, Giuseppe [NEST-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, via F Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori [NEST-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' A Volta' , Universita di Pavia, via A Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)
2003-06-25
Charge transport of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of a magnetic field is studied by means of the Keldysh-Green function formalism and the tight-binding method. We evaluate the spatial distributions of persistent (equilibrium) and transport (nonequilibrium) currents, and give a vivid picture of their profiles. In the quantum Hall regime, we find exact conductance quantization both for persistent currents and for transport currents, even in the presence of impurity scattering centres and moderate disorder. (letter to the editor)
Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.
Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun
2017-05-10
Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
JOHNSON, B.L.; MOON, JEONG-SUN; RENO, JOHN L.; SIMMONS, JERRY A.
1999-01-01
The propagation direction of fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) edge states has been investigated experimentally via the symmetry properties of the multi-terminal capacitances of a two dimensional electron gas. Although strong asymmetries with respect to zero magnetic field appear, no asymmetries with respect to even denominator Landau level filling factor ν are seen. This indicates that current-carrying FQHE edge states propagate in the same direction as integer QHE edge states. In addition, anomalous capacitance features, indicative of enhanced bulk conduction, are observed at ν = 1/2 and 3/2
Nonlocal superconducting correlations in graphene in the quantum Hall regime
Beconcini, Michael; Polini, Marco; Taddei, Fabio
2018-05-01
We study Andreev processes and nonlocal transport in a three-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system under a quantizing perpendicular magnetic field [G.-H. Lee et al., Nat. Phys. 13, 693 (2017), 10.1038/nphys4084]. We find that the amplitude of the crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) processes crucially depends on the orientation of the lattice. By employing Landauer-Büttiker scattering theory, we find that CAR is generally very small for a zigzag edge, while for an armchair edge it can be larger than the normal transmission, thereby resulting in a negative nonlocal resistance. In the case of an armchair edge and with a wide superconducting region (as compared to the superconducting coherence length), CAR exhibits large oscillations as a function of the magnetic field due to interference effects. This results in sign changes of the nonlocal resistance.
Resonant scattering on impurities in the quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurvitz, A.
1994-06-01
We developed a new approach to carrier transport between the edge states via resonant scattering on impurities, which is applicable both for short and long range impurities. A detailed analysis of resonant scattering on a single impurity is performed. The results used for study of the inter-edge transport by multiple resonant hopping via different impurities' site. We found the total conductance can be obtained from an effective Schroedinger equation with constant diagonal matrix elements in the Hamiltonian, where the complex non-diagonal matrix elements are the amplitudes of a carrier hopping between different impurities. It is explicitly shown how the complex phase leads to Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the total conductance. Neglecting the contribution of self-crossing resonant-percolation trajectories, we found that the inter-edge carrier transport is similar to propagation in one-dimensional system with off-diagonal disorder. Then we demonstrated that each Landau band has an extended state Ε Ν , while all other states are localized, and the localization length behaves as L - 1 Ν (Ε) ∼ (Ε - Ε Ν ) 2 . (author)
Theory of the disordered ν =5/2 quantum thermal Hall state: Emergent symmetry and phase diagram
Lian, Biao; Wang, Juven
2018-04-01
Fractional quantum Hall (FQH) system at Landau level filling fraction ν =5 /2 has long been suggested to be non-Abelian, either Pfaffian (Pf) or antiPfaffian (APf) states by numerical studies, both with quantized Hall conductance σx y=5 e2/2 h . Thermal Hall conductances of the Pf and APf states are quantized at κx y=7 /2 and κx y=3 /2 , respectively, in a proper unit. However, a recent experiment shows the thermal Hall conductance of ν =5 /2 FQH state is κx y=5 /2 . It has been speculated that the system contains random Pf and APf domains driven by disorders, and the neutral chiral Majorana modes on the domain walls may undergo a percolation transition to a κx y=5 /2 phase. In this paper, we do perturbative and nonperturbative analyses on the domain walls between Pf and APf. We show the domain wall theory possesses an emergent SO(4) symmetry at energy scales below a threshold Λ1, which is lowered to an emergent U (1 )×U (1) symmetry at energy scales between Λ1 and a higher value Λ2, and is finally lowered to the composite fermion parity symmetry Z2F above Λ2. Based on the emergent symmetries, we propose a phase diagram of the disordered ν =5 /2 FQH system and show that a κx y=5 /2 phase arises at disorder energy scales Λ >Λ1 . Furthermore, we show the gapped double-semion sector of ND compact domain walls contributes nonlocal topological degeneracy 2ND-1, causing a low-temperature peak in the heat capacity. We implement a nonperturbative method to bootstrap generic topological 1 +1 D domain walls (two-surface defects) applicable to any 2 +1 D non-Abelian topological order. We also identify potentially relevant spin topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) for various ν =5 /2 FQH states in terms of fermionic version of U (1) ±8 Chern-Simons theory ×Z8 -class TQFTs.
Realization of the Axion Insulator State in Quantum Anomalous Hall Sandwich Heterostructures
Xiao, Di; Jiang, Jue; Shin, Jae-Ho; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Liu, Chaoxing; Wu, Weida; Chan, Moses H. W.; Samarth, Nitin; Chang, Cui-Zu
2018-02-01
The "magnetoelectric effect" arises from the coupling between magnetic and electric properties in materials. The Z2 invariant of topological insulators (TIs) leads to a quantized version of this phenomenon, known as the topological magnetoelectric (TME) effect. This effect can be realized in a new topological phase called an "axion insulator" whose surface states are all gapped but the interior still obeys time reversal symmetry. We demonstrate such a phase using electrical transport measurements in a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) sandwich heterostructure, in which two compositionally different magnetic TI layers are separated by an undoped TI layer. Magnetic force microscopy images of the same sample reveal sequential magnetization reversals of the top and bottom layers at different coercive fields, a consequence of the weak interlayer exchange coupling due to the spacer. When the magnetization is antiparallel, both the Hall resistance and Hall conductance show zero plateaus, accompanied by a large longitudinal resistance and vanishing longitudinal conductance, indicating the realization of an axion insulator state. Our findings thus show evidence for a phase of matter distinct from the established QAH state and provide a promising platform for the realization of the TME effect.
Optical probing of quantum Hall effect of composite fermions and of the liquid-insulator transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossella, F; Bellani, V; Dionigi, F; Amado, M; Diez, E; Kowalik, K; Biasiol, G; Sorba, L
2011-01-01
In the photoluminescence spectra of a two-dimensional electron gas in the fractional quantum Hall regime we observe the states at filling factors ν = 4/5, 5/7, 4/11 and 3/8 as clear minima in the intensity or area emission peak. The first three states are described as interacting composite fermions in fractional quantum Hall regime. The minimum in the intensity at ν 3/8, which is not explained within this picture, can be an evidence of a suppression of the screening of the Coulomb interaction among the effective quasi-particles involved in this intriguing state. The magnetic field energy dispersion at very low temperatures is also discussed. At low field the emission follows a Landau dispersion with a screened magneto-Coulomb contribution. At intermediate fields the hidden symmetry manifests. At high field above ν = 1/3 the electrons correlate into an insulating phase, and the optical emission behaviour at the liquid-insulator transition is coherent with a charge ordering driven by Coulomb correlations.
Imaging the Conductance of Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Edge States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Pascher
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We measure the conductance of a quantum point contact while the biased tip of a scanning probe microscope induces a depleted region in the electron gas underneath. At a finite magnetic field, we find plateaus in the real-space maps of the conductance as a function of tip position at integer (ν=1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and fractional (ν=1/3, 2/3, 5/3, 4/5 values of transmission. They resemble theoretically predicted compressible and incompressible stripes of quantum Hall edge states. The scanning tip allows us to shift the constriction limiting the conductance in real space over distances of many microns. The resulting stripes of integer and fractional filling factors are rugged on scales of a few hundred nanometers, i.e., on a scale much smaller than the zero-field elastic mean free path of the electrons. Our experiments demonstrate that microscopic inhomogeneities are relevant even in high-quality samples and lead to locally strongly fluctuating widths of incompressible regions even down to their complete suppression for certain tip positions. The macroscopic quantization of the Hall resistance measured experimentally in a nonlocal contact configuration survives in the presence of these inhomogeneities, and the relevant local energy scale for the ν=2 state turns out to be independent of tip position.
Quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices under relaxed experimental conditions
Schopfer, F.; Ribeiro-Palau, R.; Lafont, F.; Brun-Picard, J.; Kazazis, D.; Michon, A.; Cheynis, F.; Couturaud, O.; Consejo, C.; Jouault, B.; Poirier, W.
Large-area and high-quality graphene devices synthesized by CVD on SiC are used to develop reliable electrical resistance standards, based on the quantum Hall effect (QHE), with state-of-the-art accuracy of 1x10-9 and under an extended range of experimental conditions of magnetic field (down to 3.5 T), temperature (up to 10 K) or current (up to 0.5 mA). These conditions are much relaxed as compared to what is required by GaAs/AlGaAs standards and will enable to broaden the use of the primary quantum electrical standards to the benefit of Science and Industry for electrical measurements. Furthermore, by comparison of these graphene devices with GaAs/AlGaAs standards, we demonstrate the universality of the QHE within an ultimate uncertainty of 8.2x10-11. This suggests the exact relation of the quantized Hall resistance with the Planck constant and the electron charge, which is crucial for the new SI to be based on fixing such fundamental constants. These results show that graphene realizes its promises and demonstrates its superiority over other materials for a demanding application. Nature Nanotech. 10, 965-971, 2015, Nature Commun. 6, 6806, 2015
Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan
2018-04-01
Recently topological materials have attracted much attention due to their quantization transports as well as edge states. It will be excellent to realize the robust quantum anomalous Hall transports in graphene-based devices. Using density-functional theory and tight-binding method, we investigated the structural, magnetic and topological properties for the boron-doped graphene with Re-adsorption. A large band-gap of 32.5 meV is opened by the Rashba spin-orbital coupling, and the band-gap is robust against the shape deformation of ± 4% along the zigzag direction. Giant magnetic anisotropy emerges in this adsorption system together with the Fermi level lying in the band gap. Both the magnetic anisotropy and the band gap can be tuned by a moderate electric field. Calculations reveal that the system exhibits the quantization transports with the Chern number C=2 .
Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system
Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795
Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters
Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani
2014-01-01
The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.
Interlayer Hall effect in double quantum wells subject to in-plane magnetic fields
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolorenč, Jindřich; Smrčka, Ludvík; Středa, Pavel
2002-01-01
Roč. 66, č. 8 (2002), s. 085301-1 - 085301-7 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754; GA ČR GA202/01/0764 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : double - layer two-dimensional electron system * magnetotransport * Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002
Probing bulk physics in the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect using the Corbino geometry
Schmidt, Benjamin; Bennaceur, Keyan; Bilodeau, Simon; Gaucher, Samuel; Lilly, Michael; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Reulet, Bertrand; Gervais, Guillaume
We present two- and four-point Corbino geometry transport measurements in the second Landau level in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. By avoiding edge transport, we are able to directly probe the physics of the bulk quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states including 5/2. Our highest-quality sample shows stripe and bubble phases in high Landau levels, and most importantly well-resolved FQH minima in the second Landau level. We report Arrhenius-type fits to the activated conductance, and find that σ0 agrees well with theory and existing Hall geometry data in the first Landau level, but not in the second Landau level. We will discuss the advantages the Corbino geometry could bring to various experiments designed to detect the non-Abelian entropy at 5/2, and our progress towards realizing those schemes. The results of these experiments could complement interferometry and other edge-based measurements by providing direct evidence for non-Abelian behaviour of the bulk quasiparticles. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.
Investigation of Supercurrent in the Quantum Hall Regime in Graphene Josephson Junctions
Draelos, Anne W.; Wei, Ming Tso; Seredinski, Andrew; Ke, Chung Ting; Mehta, Yash; Chamberlain, Russell; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Tarucha, Seigo; Borzenets, Ivan V.; Amet, François; Finkelstein, Gleb
2018-06-01
In this study, we examine multiple encapsulated graphene Josephson junctions to determine which mechanisms may be responsible for the supercurrent observed in the quantum Hall (QH) regime. Rectangular junctions with various widths and lengths were studied to identify which parameters affect the occurrence of QH supercurrent. We also studied additional samples where the graphene region is extended beyond the contacts on one side, making that edge of the mesa significantly longer than the opposite edge. This is done in order to distinguish two potential mechanisms: (a) supercurrents independently flowing along both non-contacted edges of graphene mesa, and (b) opposite sides of the mesa being coupled by hybrid electron-hole modes flowing along the superconductor/graphene boundary. The supercurrent appears suppressed in extended junctions, suggesting the latter mechanism.
Competing Quantum Hall Phases in the Second Landau Level in Low Density Limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Serafin, A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Xia, J. S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Liang, Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Sullivan, N. S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Baldwin, K. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); West, K. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Tsui, D. C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
2015-01-01
Up to date, studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) states in the second Landau level have mainly been carried out in the high electron density regime, where the electron mobility is the highest. Only recently, with the advance of high quality low density MBE growth, experiments have been pushed to the low density regime [1], where the electron-electron interactions are strong and the Landau level mixing parameter, defined by κ = e^{2}/εI_{B}/ℏω_{e}, is large. Here, l_{B} = (ℏe/B)^{1/2} is the magnetic length and ω_{c} = eB/m the cyclotron frequency. All other parameters have their normal meanings. It has been shown that a large Landau level mixing effect strongly affects the electron physics in the second Landau level [2].
Pikus, F. G.; Efros, A. L.
1993-06-01
A two-dimensional electron liquid (TDEL), subjected to a smooth random potential, is studied in the regime of the fractional quantum Hall effect. An analytical theory of the nonlinear screening is presented for the case when the fractional gap is much less than the magnitude of the unscreened random potential. In this ``narrow-gap approximation'' (NGA), we calculate the electron density distribution function, the fraction of the TDEL which is in the incompressible state, and the thermodynamic density of states. The magnetocapacitance is calculated to compare with the recent experiments. The NGA is found to be not accurate enough to describe the data. The results for larger fractional gaps are obtained by computer modeling. To fit the recent experimental data we have also taken into account the anyon-anyon interaction in the vicinity of a fractional singularity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braggio, A; Ferraro, D; Sassetti, M; Carrega, M; Magnoli, N
2012-01-01
We propose a general mechanism for the renormalization of the tunnelling exponents in edge states of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Mutual effects of the coupling with out-of-equilibrium 1/f noise and dissipation are considered for both the Laughlin sequence and the composite co- and counter-propagating edge states with Abelian or non-Abelian statistics. For states with counter-propagating modes, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed mechanism in the so-called disorder-dominated phase. Prototypes of these states, such as ν = 2/3 and ν = 5/2, are discussed in detail, and the rich phenomenology induced by the presence of a noisy environment is presented. The proposed mechanism could help justify the strong renormalizations reported in many experimental observations carried out at low temperatures. We show how environmental effects could affect the relevance of the tunnelling excitations, leading to important implications, in particular for the ν = 5/2 case. (paper)
Quantum Hall Effect and Semimetallic Behavior of Dual-Gated ABA-Stacked Trilayer Graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Henriksen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The electronic structure of multilayer graphenes depends strongly on the number of layers as well as the stacking order. Here we explore the electronic transport of purely ABA-stacked trilayer graphenes in a dual-gated field-effect device configuration. We find both that the zero-magnetic-field transport and the quantum Hall effect at high magnetic fields are distinctly different from the monolayer and bilayer graphenes, and that they show electron-hole asymmetries that are strongly suggestive of a semimetallic band overlap. When the ABA trilayers are subjected to an electric field perpendicular to the sheet, Landau-level splittings due to a lifting of the valley degeneracy are clearly observed.
Particle-hole symmetry and composite fermions in fractional quantum Hall states
Nguyen, Dung Xuan; Golkar, Siavash; Roberts, Matthew M.; Son, Dam Thanh
2018-05-01
We study fractional quantum Hall states at filling fractions in the Jain sequences using the framework of composite Dirac fermions. Synthesizing previous work, we write an effective field theory consistent with all symmetry requirements, including Galilean invariance and particle-hole symmetry. Employing a Fermi-liquid description, we demonstrate the appearance of the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman algebra and compute the dispersion relation of neutral excitations and various response functions. Our results satisfy requirements of particle-hole symmetry. We show that while the dispersion relation obtained from the modified random-phase approximation (MRPA) of the Halperin-Lee-Read (HLR) theory is particle-hole symmetric, correlation functions obtained from this scheme are not. The results of the Dirac theory are shown to be consistent with the Haldane bound on the projected structure factor, while those of the MPRA of the HLR theory violate it.
Xu, Yong; Uddin, Salah; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jiansheng; Liu, Jun-Feng
2017-08-08
We have studied numerically the penetration depth of quantum spin hall edge states in chiral honeycomb nanoribbons based on the Green's function method. The changing of edge orientation from armchair to zigzag direction decreases the penetration depth drastically. The penetration depth is used to estimate the gap opened for the finite-size effect. Beside this, we also proposed a nonlocal transistor based on the zigzag-like chiral ribbons in which the current is carried at one edge and the manipulation is by the edge magnetization at the other edge. The difficulty that the edge magnetization is unstable in the presence of a ballistic current can be removed by this nonlocal manipulation.
Terahertz spectroscopy on Faraday and Kerr rotations in a quantum anomalous Hall state.
Okada, Ken N; Takahashi, Youtarou; Mogi, Masataka; Yoshimi, Ryutaro; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kei S; Ogawa, Naoki; Kawasaki, Masashi; Tokura, Yoshinori
2016-07-20
Electrodynamic responses from three-dimensional topological insulators are characterized by the universal magnetoelectric term constituent of the Lagrangian formalism. The quantized magnetoelectric coupling, which is generally referred to as topological magnetoelectric effect, has been predicted to induce exotic phenomena including the universal low-energy magneto-optical effects. Here we report the experimental indication of the topological magnetoelectric effect, which is exemplified by magneto-optical Faraday and Kerr rotations in the quantum anomalous Hall states of magnetic topological insulator surfaces by terahertz magneto-optics. The universal relation composed of the observed Faraday and Kerr rotation angles but not of any material parameters (for example, dielectric constant and magnetic susceptibility) well exhibits the trajectory towards the fine structure constant in the quantized limit.
Effective field theory and tunneling currents in the fractional quantum Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bieri, Samuel; Fröhlich, Jürg
2012-01-01
We review the construction of a low-energy effective field theory and its state space for “abelian” quantum Hall fluids. The scaling limit of the incompressible fluid is described by a Chern–Simons theory in 2+1 dimensions on a manifold with boundary. In such a field theory, gauge invariance implies the presence of anomalous chiral modes localized on the edge of the sample. We assume a simple boundary structure, i.e., the absence of a reconstructed edge. For the bulk, we consider a multiply connected planar geometry. We study tunneling processes between two boundary components of the fluid and calculate the tunneling current to lowest order in perturbation theory as a function of dc bias voltage. Particular attention is paid to the special cases when the edge modes propagate at the same speed, and when they exhibit two significantly distinct propagation speeds. We distinguish between two “geometries” of interference contours corresponding to the (electronic) Fabry–Perot and Mach–Zehnder interferometers, respectively. We find that the interference term in the current is absent when exactly one hole in the fluid corresponding to one of the two edge components involved in the tunneling processes lies inside the interference contour (i.e., in the case of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer). We analyze the dependence of the tunneling current on the state of the quantum Hall fluid and on the external magnetic flux through the sample. - Highlights: ► We review and extend on the field theoretic construction of the FQHE. ► We calculate tunneling currents between different edge components of a sample. ► We find an absence of interference terms in the currents for some sample geometries. ► No observable Aharonov–Bohm effect is found as the magnetic field is varied. ► Deformation of the edge leads to observable Aharonov–Bohm effect in the currents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kramer, T.
2006-01-01
I review some aspects of an alternative model of the quantum Hall effect, which is not based on the presence of disorder potentials. Instead, a quantization of the electronic drift current in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is employed to construct a non-linear transport theory. Another important ingredient of the alternative theory is the coupling of the two-dimensional electron gas to the leads and the applied voltages. By working in a picture where the external voltages fix the chemical potential in the 2D subsystem, the experimentally observed linear relation between the voltage and the location of the quantum Hall plateaus finds an natural explanation. Also, the classical Hall effect emerges as a natural limit of the quantum Hall effect. For low temperatures (or high currents), a non-integer substructure splits higher Landau levels into sublevels. The appearance of substructure and non-integer plateaus in the resistivity is not linked to electron-electron interactions, but caused by the presence of a (linear) electric field. Some of the resulting fractions correspond exactly to half-integer plateaus. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pokhabov, D. A., E-mail: pokhabov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Bakarov, A. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2016-08-15
The nonequilibrium state of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum-Hall-effect regime is studied in Hall bars equipped with additional inner contacts situated within the bar. The magnetic-field dependence of the voltage drop between different contact pairs are studied at various temperatures. It was found that the voltage between the inner and outer contacts exhibits peaks of significant amplitude in narrow magnetic-field intervals near integer filling factors. Furthermore, the magnetic-field dependence of the voltage in these intervals exhibits a hysteresis, whereas the voltage between the outer contacts remains zero in the entire magnetic-field range. The appearance of the observed voltage peaks and their hysteretic behavior can be explained by an imbalance between the chemical potentials of edge and bulk states, resulting from nonequilibrium charge redistribution between the edge and bulk states when the magnetic field sweeps under conditions of the quantum Hall effect. The results of the study significantly complement the conventional picture of the quantum Hall effect, explicitly indicating the existence of a significant imbalance at the edge of the two-dimensional electron gas: the experimentally observed difference between the electrochemical potentials of the edge and bulk exceeds the distance between Landau levels by tens of times.
Prediction of giant intrinsic spin-Hall effect in strained p-GaAs quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schindler, Christoph; Kubis, Tillmann; Vogl, Peter [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
2009-07-01
We present a systematic study of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various two dimensional nanostructures using the non-equilibrium Green's function technique. We include elastic impurity scattering as well as inelastic acoustical phonon scattering. The parameters for the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling are obtained from an atomistic tight binding calculation. We predict exceptionally large spin polarization effects in specially band engineered and geometrically designed nanostructures. In strained p-GasAs, we find a k-linear spin splitting that is enhanced by a factor of 50 compared to the unstrained case. We propose a T shaped three-terminal device that acts as a spin polarizer without external magnetic field. Optimizing the geometry with respect to the spin-precession length results in a spin accumulation at the drain contacts of up to 25%. We also study the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect. In a four-terminal ''H'' shaped structure it can be used to measure the direct spin-Hall effect by simply applying a gate voltage. For such a measurement, we predict a threshold value for the spin-orbit coupling strength that cannot be met by simple n-GaAs systems.
Deep learning the quantum phase transitions in random two-dimensional electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtsuki, Tomoki; Ohtsuki, Tomi
2016-01-01
Random electron systems show rich phases such as Anderson insulator, diffusive metal, quantum Hall and quantum anomalous Hall insulators, Weyl semimetal, as well as strong/weak topological insulators. Eigenfunctions of each matter phase have specific features, but owing to the random nature of systems, determining the matter phase from eigenfunctions is difficult. Here, we propose the deep learning algorithm to capture the features of eigenfunctions. Localization-delocalization transition, as well as disordered Chern insulator-Anderson insulator transition, is discussed. (author)
Integration Test of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator System Components
Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John
2013-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 4 kilowatt-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. NASA science mission performance analysis was completed using the latest high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) and Aerojet-Rocketdyne's state-of-the-art BPT-4000 Hall thruster performance curves. Mission analysis results indicated that the HiVHAc thruster out performs the BPT-4000 thruster for all but one of the missions studied. Tests of the HiVHAc system major components were performed. Performance evaluation of the HiVHAc thruster at NASA Glenn's vacuum facility 5 indicated that thruster performance was lower than performance levels attained during tests in vacuum facility 12 due to the lower background pressures attained during vacuum facility 5 tests when compared to vacuum facility 12. Voltage-Current characterization of the HiVHAc thruster in vacuum facility 5 showed that the HiVHAc thruster can operate stably for a wide range of anode flow rates for discharge voltages between 250 and 600 volts. A Colorado Power Electronics enhanced brassboard power processing unit was tested in vacuum for 1,500 hours and the unit demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96.3% at 3.9 kilowatts and 650 volts. Stand-alone open and closed loop tests of a VACCO TRL 6 xenon flow control module were also performed. An integrated test of the HiVHAc thruster, brassboard power processing unit, and xenon flow control module was performed and confirmed that integrated operation of the HiVHAc system major components. Future plans include continuing the maturation of the HiVHAc system major components and the performance of a single-string integration test.
High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis
Berkun, Isil
A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandelier, F
2003-12-01
The quantum Hall effect appears in low temperature electron systems submitted to intense magnetic fields. Electrons are trapped in a thin layer ({approx} 100.10{sup -8} cm thick) at the interface between 2 semiconductors or between a semiconductor and an insulating material. This thesis presents 3 personal contributions to the physics of plane systems and particularly to quantum Hall effect systems. The first contribution is a topological approach, it involves the study of Landau's problem in a geometry nearing that of Hall effect experiments. A mathematical formalism has been defined and by using the Kubo's formula, the quantification of the Hall conductivity can be linked to the Chern class of threaded holes. The second contribution represents a phenomenological approach based on dual symmetries and particularly on modular symmetries. This contribution uses visibility diagrams that have already produced right predictions concerning resistivity curves or band structures. The introduction of a physical equivalence has allowed us to build a phase diagram for the quantum Hall effect at zero temperature. This phase diagram agrees with the experimental facts concerning : -) the existence of 2 insulating phases, -) direct transitions between an insulating phase and any Hall phase through integer or fractionary values of the filling factor ({nu}), -) selection rules, and -) classification of the Hall states and their distribution around a metal state. The third contribution concerns another phenomenological approach based on duality symmetries. We have considered a class of (2+1)-dimensional effective models with a Maxwell-Chern-Simons part that includes a non-locality. This non-locality implies the existence of a hidden duality symmetry with a Z{sub 2} component: z {yields} 1/z. This symmetry has allowed us to meet the results of the Fisher's law concerning the components of the resistivity tensor. (A.C.)
Quantum Hall effect and anomalous transport in (TMTSF)2PF6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eom, J.; Cho, H.; Kang, W.; Chicago Univ., IL
1999-01-01
Under low temperatures and high magnetic fields, quasi-one dimensional organic conductor (TMTSFP) 2 PF 6 exhibits a series of transitions to field-induced spin density wave (FISDW). Slightly above the onset of superconductivity in (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 , we observe a series of intervening phases that interrupt the sequence of FISDW that gives rise to the quantum Hall effect. These phases can be identified either as negative quantum numbered FISDW states or a puzzling arboresecent phase. Detailed study of the QHE in (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 reveals that the transport in the FISDW phases is dominated by anomalous longitudinal resistivities ρ xx and ρ yy that remain finite at low temperatures. While the quantization of σ xy is not adversely affected at high magnetic fields, the transport in the intermediate magnetic field remains complicated. In addition, the conductivity along applied magnetic field, σ zz , cannot be easily understood in terms of three-dimensional QHE and is suggestive of the importance of inter-layer coupling. (orig.)
Spin valley and giant quantum spin Hall gap of hydrofluorinated bismuth nanosheet.
Gao, Heng; Wu, Wei; Hu, Tao; Stroppa, Alessandro; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng; Ren, Wei
2018-05-09
Spin-valley and electronic band topological properties have been extensively explored in quantum material science, yet their coexistence has rarely been realized in stoichiometric two-dimensional (2D) materials. We theoretically predict the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) in the hydrofluorinated bismuth (Bi 2 HF) nanosheet where the hydrogen (H) and fluorine (F) atoms are functionalized on opposite sides of bismuth (Bi) atomic monolayer. Such Bi 2 HF nanosheet is found to be a 2D topological insulator with a giant band gap of 0.97 eV which might host room temperature QSHE. The atomistic structure of Bi 2 HF nanosheet is noncentrosymmetric and the spontaneous polarization arises from the hydrofluorinated morphology. The phonon spectrum and ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD) calculations reveal that the proposed Bi 2 HF nanosheet is dynamically and thermally stable. The inversion symmetry breaking together with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) leads to the coupling between spin and valley in Bi 2 HF nanosheet. The emerging valley-dependent properties and the interplay between intrinsic dipole and SOC are investigated using first-principles calculations combined with an effective Hamiltonian model. The topological invariant of the Bi 2 HF nanosheet is confirmed by using Wilson loop method and the calculated helical metallic edge states are shown to host QSHE. The Bi 2 HF nanosheet is therefore a promising platform to realize room temperature QSHE and valley spintronics.
Weiss, Ulrich
2008-01-01
Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi
Wendelstein 7-X Torus Hall Layout and System Integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartmann, D.; Damiani, C.; Hartfuss, H.-J.; Krampitz, R.; Neuner, U.
2006-01-01
Wendelstein 7-X is an experimental fusion device presently under construction in Greifswald, Germany, to study the stellarator concept at reactor relevant parameters und steady-state conditions. The heart of the machine consists of the torus that houses the superconducting coils and the plasma vacuum vessel. It is located nearly in the center of a 30 m x 30 m x 20 m hall. A large number of components need to be placed in close proximity of the torus to provide the system with the required means, e.g. cryogenic gases, cooling water, electricity, and to integrate it with the peripheral diagnostic and heating components. The arrangement of these components has to be supported by suitable structures, and has to be optimized to allow for installation, maintenance, and repair. In addition, space has to be provided for escape routes and for sufficient distance between components that could negatively influence each other's performance, etc. The layout of the components has been done over many years using 3D CAD software. It was based on simple geometric models of the components and of the additionally required space. Presently the layout design is being detailed and updated by replacing the original coarse models with more refined estimates or - in some cases - with as-built models. All interface requirements are carefully taken into account. Detailed routing was specified for the cryo and cooling water supply lines whose design and installation is outsourced. Due to the limited space available and severely restricted access during experimental campaigns, the requirement to put auxiliary components like electronic racks into the torus hall is being queried. The paper summarizes the present state of the component layout in the torus hall, and how the peripheral supply, diagnostics, and heating systems are integrated into the machine. (author)
Finite and profinite quantum systems
Vourdas, Apostolos
2017-01-01
This monograph provides an introduction to finite quantum systems, a field at the interface between quantum information and number theory, with applications in quantum computation and condensed matter physics. The first major part of this monograph studies the so-called `qubits' and `qudits', systems with periodic finite lattice as position space. It also discusses the so-called mutually unbiased bases, which have applications in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Quantum logic and its applications to quantum gates is also studied. The second part studies finite quantum systems, where the position takes values in a Galois field. This combines quantum mechanics with Galois theory. The third part extends the discussion to quantum systems with variables in profinite groups, considering the limit where the dimension of the system becomes very large. It uses the concepts of inverse and direct limit and studies quantum mechanics on p-adic numbers. Applications of the formalism include quantum optics and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klitzing von, K.
1989-01-01
The quantized Hall effect is theoretically explained in detail as are its basic properties. The explanation is completed with the pertinent mathematical relations and illustrative figures. Experimental data are critically assessed obtained by quantum transport measurement in a magnetic field on two-dimensional systems. The results are reported for a MOSFET silicon transistor and for GaAs-Al x Ga 1-x As heterostructures. The application is discussed of the quantized Hall effect in determining the fine structure constant or in implementing the resistance standard. (M.D.). 27 figs., 57 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiu-Ming, Zhang; Yi-Shi, Duan
2010-01-01
In the light of the decomposition of the SU(2) gauge potential for I = 1/2, we obtain the SU(2) Chern-Simons current over S 4 , i.e. the vortex current in the effective field for the four-dimensional quantum Hall effect. Similar to the vortex excitations in the two-dimensional quantum Hall effect (2D FQH) which are generated from the zero points of the complex scalar field, in the 4D FQH, we show that the SU(2) Chern–Simons vortices are generated from the zero points of the two-component wave functions Ψ, and their topological charges are quantized in terms of the Hopf indices and Brouwer degrees of φ-mapping under the condition that the zero points of field Ψ are regular points. (condensed matter: electronicstructure, electrical, magnetic, and opticalproperties)
Q-balls of quasi-particles in a (2,0)-theory model of the fractional quantum Hall effect
Ganor, O.J.; Hong, Y.P.; Moore, N.; Sun, H.Y.; Tan, H.S.; Torres-Chicon, N.R.
2015-01-01
A toy model of the fractional quantum Hall effect appears as part of the low-energy description of the Coulomb branch of the A(1) (2, 0)-theory formulated on (S-1 x R-2)/Z(k), where the generator of Z(k) acts as a combination of translation on S-1 and rotation by 2 pi/k on R-2. At low energy the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.
1988-01-01
We generalize the classical notion of a K-system to a non-commutative dynamical system by requiring that an invariantly defined memory loss be 100%. We give some examples of quantum K-systems and show that they cannot contain any quasi-periodic subsystem. 13 refs. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kjoensberg, H.; Leinaas, J.M.
1999-01-01
We present Monte Carlo studies of charge expectation values and charge fluctuations for quasi-particles in the quantum Hall system. We have studied the Laughlin wave functions for quasi-hole and quasi-electron, and also Jain's definition of the quasi-electron wave function. The considered systems consist of from 50 to 200 electrons, and the filling fraction is 1/3. For all quasi-particles our calculations reproduce well the expected values of charge; ((-1)/(3)) times the electron charge for the quasi-hole, and 1/3 for the quasi-electron. Regarding fluctuations in the charge, our results for the quasi-hole and Jain quasi-electron are consistent with the expected value zero in the bulk of the system, but for the Laughlin quasi-electron we find small, but significant, deviations from zero throughout the whole electron droplet. We also present Berry phase calculations of charge and statistics parameter for the Jain quasi-electron, calculations which supplement earlier studies for the Laughlin quasi-particles. We find that the statistics parameter, calculated as a function of distance, is more well behaved for the Jain quasi-electron than it is for the Laughlin quasi-electron. However, the sign of the parameter is opposite of what is expected from qualitative arguments
Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states
Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen, Xiao-Gang
2009-05-01
It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.
Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang
2009-01-01
It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.
Stacked bilayer phosphorene: strain-induced quantum spin Hall state and optical measurement
Zhang, Tian; Lin, Jia-He; Yu, Yan-Mei; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Wu-Ming
2015-01-01
Bilayer phosphorene attracted considerable interest, giving a potential application in nanoelectronics owing to its natural bandgap and high carrier mobility. However, very little is known regarding the possible usefulness in spintronics as a quantum spin Hall (QSH) state of material characterized by a bulk energy gap and gapless spin-filtered edge states. Here, we report a strain-induced topological phase transition from normal to QSH state in bilayer phosphorene, accompanied by band-inversion that changes number from 0 to 1, which is highly dependent on interlayer stacking. When the bottom layer is shifted by 1/2 unit-cell along zigzag/armchair direction with respect to the top layer, the maximum topological bandgap 92.5 meV is sufficiently large to realize QSH effect even at room-temperature. An optical measurement of QSH effect is therefore suggested in view of the wide optical absorption spectrum extending to far infra-red, making bilayer phosphorene a promising candidate for opto-spintronic devices. PMID:26370771
Quantum spin Hall effect in IV-VI topological crystalline insulators
Safaei, S.; Galicka, M.; Kacman, P.; Buczko, R.
2015-06-01
We envision that the quantum spin Hall effect should be observed in (111)-oriented thin films of SnSe and SnTe topological crystalline insulators. Using a tight-binding approach supported by first-principles calculations of the band structures, we demonstrate that in these films the energy gaps in the two-dimensional band spectrum depend in an oscillatory fashion on the layer thickness. These results as well as the calculated topological invariant indexes and edge state spin polarizations show that for films ˜20-40 monolayers thick a two-dimensional topological insulator phase appears. In this range of thicknesses in both SnSe and SnTe, (111)-oriented films edge states with Dirac cones with opposite spin polarization in their two branches are obtained. While in the SnTe layers a single Dirac cone appears at the projection of the {\\boldsymbol{}}\\bar{Γ } point of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone, in the SnSe (111)-oriented layers three Dirac cones at {\\boldsymbol{}}\\bar{M} points projections are predicted.
Spin Singlet Quantum Hall Effect and nonabelian Landau-Ginzburg theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balatsky, A.
1991-01-01
In this paper we present a theory of Singlet Quantum Hall Effect (SQHE). We show that the Halperin-Haldane SQHE wave function can be written in the form of a product of a wave function for charged semions in a magnetic field and a wave function for the Chiral Spin Liquid of neutral spin-1/2 semions. We introduce field-theoretic model in which the electron operators are factorized in terms of charged spinless semions (holons) and neutral spin-1/2 semions (spinons). Broken time reversal symmetry and short ranged spin correlations lead to Su(2) κ=1 Chern-Simons term in Landau-Ginzburg action for SQHE phase. We construct appropriate coherent states for SQHE phase and show the existence of SU(2) valued gauge potential. This potential appears as a result of ''spin rigidity'' of the ground state against any displacements of nodes of wave function from positions of the particles and reflects the nontrivial monodromy in the presence of these displacenmants. We argue that topological structure of Su(2) κ=1 Chern-Simons theory unambiguously dictates semion statistics of spinons. 19 refs
The Quasi-Electron Shell Structure of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Haxton, Wick; Haxton, Daniel
2015-04-01
The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) formulated on a sphere resembles the nuclear shell model, with the desired translationally invariant states having total angular momentum zero. This property was exploited by Ginocchio and Haxton (GH) to derive a new set of scalar operators and a first-Landau-level representation of the full set of hierarchy states (fillings 1/3, 2/5, 3/7, etc.), with overlaps identical to those of Jain, who used unphysical higher Landau levels excitations followed by numerical projection. We demonstrate that the GH operators produce an appealing description of the FQHE as shells filled by non-interacting quasi-electrons, or composite fermions. These are explicitly constructed, and their planar forms are also found. The evolution of the shells and their quasi-electrons is quite unusual. The connections with electron correlations and Laughlin's variational arguments are described. We discuss how ``new states'' found experimentally at fillings such as 4/11 and 5/13 fit into this scheme. Work support in part by the US DOE Offices of Nuclear Physics and Basic Energy Sciences.
Yang, Wei-Wei; Li, Lei; Zhao, Jing-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Xiong; Deng, Jian-Bo; Tao, Xiao-Ma; Hu, Xian-Ru
2018-05-01
By doing calculations based on density functional theory, we predict that the two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) NiOsCl6 as a Chern insulator can realize the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. We investigate the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in different magnetic configurations and the Néel AFM configuration is proved to be ground state. When considering spin–orbit coupling (SOC), this layered material with spins perpendicular to the plane shows properties as a Chern insulator characterized by an inversion band structure and a nonzero Chern number. The nontrivial band gap is 37 meV and the Chern number C = ‑1, which are induced by a strong SOC and AFM order. With strong SOC, the NiOsCl6 system performs a continuous topological phase transition from the Chern insulator to the trivial insulator upon the increasing Coulomb repulsion U. The critical U c is indicated as 0.23 eV, at which the system is in a metallic phase with . Upon increasing U, the E g reduces linearly with C = ‑1 for 0 U c . At last we analysis the QAH properties and this continuous topological phase transition theoretically in a two-band model. This AFM Chern insulator NiOsCl6 proposes not only a promising way to realize the QAH effect, but also a new material to study the continuous topological phase transition.
Xing, Yanxia; Xu, Fuming; Cheung, King Tai; Sun, Qing-feng; Wang, Jian; Yao, Yugui
2018-04-01
Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has been experimentally realized in magnetic topological insulator (MTI) thin films fabricated on magnetically doped {({{Bi}},{{Sb}})}2{{{Te}}}3. In an MTI thin film with the magnetic easy axis along the normal direction (z-direction), orientations of magnetic dopants are randomly distributed around the magnetic easy axis, acting as magnetic disorders. With the aid of the non-equilibrium Green's function and Landauer–Büttiker formalism, we numerically study the influence of magnetic disorders on QAHE in an MTI thin film modeled by a three-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian. It is found that, due to the existence of gapless side surface states, QAHE is protected even in the presence of magnetic disorders as long as the z-component of magnetic moment of all magnetic dopants are positive. More importantly, such magnetic disorders also suppress the dissipation of the chiral edge states and enhance the quality of QAHE in MTI films. In addition, the effect of magnetic disorders depends very much on the film thickness, and the optimal influence is achieved at certain thickness. These findings are new features for QAHE in three-dimensional systems, not present in two-dimensional systems.
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Micheli, Fiorenza de [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 440, Santiago (Chile)
2012-10-15
A degenerate dynamical system is characterized by a symplectic structure whose rank is not constant throughout phase space. Its phase space is divided into causally disconnected, nonoverlapping regions in each of which the rank of the symplectic matrix is constant, and there are no classical orbits connecting two different regions. Here the question of whether this classical disconnectedness survives quantization is addressed. Our conclusion is that in irreducible degenerate systems-in which the degeneracy cannot be eliminated by redefining variables in the action-the disconnectedness is maintained in the quantum theory: there is no quantum tunnelling across degeneracy surfaces. This shows that the degeneracy surfaces are boundaries separating distinct physical systems, not only classically, but in the quantum realm as well. The relevance of this feature for gravitation and Chern-Simons theories in higher dimensions cannot be overstated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vourdas, A
2005-01-01
A finite quantum system in which the position and momentum take values in the Galois field GF(p l ) is constructed from a smaller quantum system in which the position and momentum take values in Z p , using field extension. The Galois trace is used in the definition of the Fourier transform. The Heisenberg-Weyl group of displacements and the Sp(2, GF(p l )) group of symplectic transformations are studied. A class of transformations inspired by the Frobenius maps in Galois fields is introduced. The relationship of this 'Galois quantum system' with its subsystems in which the position and momentum take values in subfields of GF(p l ) is discussed
RHETT2/EPDM Hall Thruster Propulsion System Electromagnetic Compatibility Evaluation
Sarmiento, Charles J.; Sankovic, John M.; Freitas, Joseph; Lynn, Peter R.
1997-01-01
Electromagnetic compatibility measurements were obtained as part of the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module (EPDM) flight qualification program. Tests were conducted on a Hall thruster system operating at a nominal 66O W discharge power. Measurements of conducted and radiated susceptibility and emissions were obtained and referenced to MEL-STD-461 C. The power processor showed some conducted susceptibility below 4 kHz for the magnet current and discharge voltage. Radiated susceptibility testing yielded a null result. Conducted emissions showed slight violations of the specified limit for MIL-461C CE03. Radiated emissions exceeded the RE02 standard at low frequencies, below 300 MHz, by up to 40 dB RV/m/MHz.
Scheme of thinking quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D
2009-01-01
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
Analogous behavior in the quantum hall effect, anyon superconductivity, and the standard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laughlin, R.B.
1991-07-01
Similarities between physical behavior known to occur, or suspected of occurring, in simple condensed matter systems and behavior postulated by the standard model are identified and discussed. Particular emphasis is given to quantum number fractionalization, spontaneous occurrence of gauge forces, spontaneous violation of P and T, and anomaly cancellation. 46 refs
Beyond the hall effect: pratical engineering from relativistic quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, Y.
1986-01-01
The author discusses the successful microscopic relativistic quantum field theory viz., quantum electrodynamic (QED) as applied to condensed matter systems. A circuit version of the Heisenberg argument is presented to show that the electric and magnetic flux cannot be measured simultaneously if the usual position/momentum uncertainty of a charged particle confined in a circuit is to be preserved. The author suggests that the electronic transport of a microchip itself obeys some of the same field equations for QED in particular. A comparative list is presented
Effective field theory of an anomalous Hall metal from interband quantum fluctuations
Chua, Victor; Assawasunthonnet, Wathid; Fradkin, Eduardo
2017-07-01
We construct an effective field theory, a two-dimensional two-component metallic system described by a model with two Fermi surfaces ("pockets"). This model describes a translationally invariant metallic system with two types of fermions, each with its own Fermi surface, with forward scattering interactions. This model, in addition to the O (2 ) rotational invariance, has a U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetry of separate charge conservation for each Fermi surface. For sufficiently attractive interactions in the d -wave (quadrupolar) channel, this model has an interesting phase diagram that includes a spontaneously generated anomalous Hall metal phase. We derive the Landau-Ginzburg effective action of quadrupolar order parameter fields which enjoys an O (2 )×U (1 ) global symmetry associated to spatial isotropy and the internal U (1 ) relative phase symmetries, respectively. We show that the order parameter theory is dynamically local with a dynamical scaling of z =2 and perform a one-loop renormalization group analysis of the Landau-Ginzburg theory. The electronic liquid crystal phases that result from spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied and we show the presence of Landau damped Nambu-Goldstone modes at low momenta that is a signature of non-Fermi-liquid behavior. Electromagnetic linear response is also analyzed in both the normal and symmetry broken phases from the point of view of the order parameter theory. The nature of the coupling of electromagnetism to the order parameter fields in the normal phase is non-minimal and decidedly contains a precursor to the anomalous Hall response in the form of a order-parameter-dependent Chern-Simons term in the effective action.
Scaling of anomalous hall effect in amorphous CoFeB Films with accompanying quantum correction
Zhang, Yan; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Guo, Zaibing
2015-01-01
Scaling of anomalous Hall effect in amorphous CoFeB films with thickness ranging from 2 to 160 nm have been investigated. We have found that the scaling relationship between longitudinal (ρxx) and anomalous Hall (ρAH) resistivity is distinctly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manik Goyal
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Low-temperature magnetotransport studies are reported for (112Cd3As2 films grown on (111CdTe by molecular beam epitaxy as a function of the Cd3As2 film thickness. All films show Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. An even-integer quantum Hall effect is observed for films thinner than 70 nm. For the thinnest films, the bulk is gapped and transport at low temperatures occurs only via the gapless, two-dimensional states. The lowest Landau level is reached at ∼10 T, and the longitudinal resistance nearly vanishes at the plateaus in the Hall resistance. The results are discussed in the context of the current theoretical understanding of topological surface states in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Bo; Ma Zhongshui; Zhang, C
2012-01-01
We demonstrate that the trigonal warping observed in bilayer graphene is doubled in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit (RSO) coupling, i.e. the Dirac points along the three-fold symmetry axis are doubled. There are now seven Dirac points. Furthermore, the RSO interaction breaks the electron-hole symmetry of the magnetic band structure. The most intriguing feature is that the step of the quantum Hall plateau at zero energy is four times that at finite energy. The number of Dirac points and the zero energy Hall step are only determined by the existence of RSO coupling, but are independent of the strength of the coupling. The robustness of these phenomena suggests equivalence between the RSO coupling and the topological effect in bilayer coupling.
Greiter, Martin
2011-01-01
This monograph introduces an exact model for a critical spin chain with arbitrary spin S, which includes the Haldane--Shastry model as the special case S=1/2. While spinons in the Haldane-Shastry model obey abelian half-fermi statistics, the spinons in the general model introduced here obey non-abelian statistics. This manifests itself through topological choices for the fractional momentum spacings. The general model is derived by mapping exact models of quantized Hall states onto spin chains. The book begins with pedagogical review of all the relevant models including the non-abelian statistics in the Pfaffian Hall state, and is understandable to every student with a graduate course in quantum mechanics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Juan; Wang Yifei; Gong Changde
2011-01-01
We consider the tight-binding models of electrons on a two-dimensional triangular lattice and kagome lattice under staggered modulated magnetic fields. Such fields have two components: a uniform-flux part with strength φ, and a staggered-flux part with strength Δφ. Various properties of the Hall conductances and Hofstadter butterflies are studied. When φ is fixed, variation of Δφ leads to the quantum Hall transitions and Chern numbers of Landau subbands being redistributed between neighboring pairs. The energy spectra with nonzero Δφs have similar fractal structures but quite different energy gaps compared with the original Hofstadter butterflies of Δφ = 0. Moreover, the fan-like structure of Landau levels in the low magnetic field region is also modified appreciably by Δφ.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, W.; Tsui, D.C.; Pan, W.; Xia, J.; Shvarts, V.; Adams, D.E.; Xia, J.; Shvarts, V.; Adams, D.E.; Stormer, H.L.; Stormer, H.L.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; Baldwin, K.W.; West, K.W.
1999-01-01
We report ultralow temperature experiments on the obscure fractional quantum Hall effect at Landau level filling factor ν=5/2 in a very high-mobility specimen of μ=1.7x10 7 cm 2 /V s . We achieve an electron temperature as low as ∼4 mK , where we observe vanishing R xx and, for the first time, a quantized Hall resistance, R xy =h/(5/2)e 2 to within 2ppm. R xy at the neighboring odd-denominator states ν=7/3 and 8/3 is also quantized. The temperature dependences of the R xx minima at these fractional fillings yield activation energy gaps Δ 5/2 =0.11 , Δ 7/3 =0.10 , and Δ 8/3 =0.055 K . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Juan; Wang Yifei; Gong Changde, E-mail: yfwang_nju@hotmail.com [Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, and Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)
2011-04-20
We consider the tight-binding models of electrons on a two-dimensional triangular lattice and kagome lattice under staggered modulated magnetic fields. Such fields have two components: a uniform-flux part with strength {phi}, and a staggered-flux part with strength {Delta}{phi}. Various properties of the Hall conductances and Hofstadter butterflies are studied. When {phi} is fixed, variation of {Delta}{phi} leads to the quantum Hall transitions and Chern numbers of Landau subbands being redistributed between neighboring pairs. The energy spectra with nonzero {Delta}{phi}s have similar fractal structures but quite different energy gaps compared with the original Hofstadter butterflies of {Delta}{phi} = 0. Moreover, the fan-like structure of Landau levels in the low magnetic field region is also modified appreciably by {Delta}{phi}.
Low-Cost, High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System
Hesterman, Bryce
2015-01-01
Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular PPU for Hall thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper supplies, and an interface module. This high-performance PPU offers resonant circuit topologies, magnetics design, modularity, and a stable and sustained operation during severe Hall effect thruster current oscillations. Laboratory testing has demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96 percent, which is considerably higher than current state of the art.
Boundary maps for C*-crossed products with R with an application to the quantum Hall effect
Kellendonk, J
2003-01-01
The boundary map in K-theory arising from the Wiener-Hopf extension of a crossed product algebra with $\\RR$ is the Connes-Thom isomorphism. In this article, the Wiener Hopf extension is combined with the Heisenberg group algebra to provide an elementary construction of a corresponding map in cyclic cohomology. It then follows directly from a non-commutative Stokes theorem that this map is dual w.r.t. Connes' pairing of cyclic cohomology with K-theory. As an application, we prove equality of quantized bulk and edge conductivities for the integer quantum Hall effect described by continuous magnetic Schrödinger operators.
Umucalılar, R. O.; Carusotto, I.
2017-11-01
We investigate theoretically a driven dissipative model of strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear optical cavity in the presence of a synthetic magnetic field. We show the possibility of using a frequency-dependent incoherent pump to create a strongly correlated ν =1 /2 bosonic Laughlin state of light: Due to the incompressibility of the Laughlin state, fluctuations in the total particle number and excitation of edge modes can be tamed by imposing a suitable external potential profile for photons. We further propose angular-momentum-selective spectroscopy of the emitted light as a tool to obtain unambiguous signatures of the microscopic physics of the quantum Hall liquid of light.
Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators
Viola, Giovanni; DiVincenzo, David P.
2014-04-01
The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller) scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.
Surface and 3D Quantum Hall Effects from Engineering of Exceptional Points in Nodal-Line Semimetals
Molina, Rafael A.; González, José
2018-04-01
We show that, under a strong magnetic field, a 3D nodal-line semimetal is driven into a topological insulating phase in which the electronic transport takes place at the surface of the material. When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the nodal ring, the surface states of the semimetal are transmuted into Landau states which correspond to exceptional points, i.e., branch points in the spectrum of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian which arise upon the extension to complex values of the momentum. The complex structure of the spectrum then allows us to express the number of zero-energy flat bands in terms of a new topological invariant counting the number of exceptional points. When the magnetic field is parallel to the nodal ring, we find that the bulk states are built from the pairing of surfacelike evanescent waves, giving rise to a 3D quantum Hall effect with a flat level of Landau states residing in parallel 2D slices of the 3D material. The Hall conductance is quantized in either case in units of e2/h , leading in the 3D Hall effect to a number of channels growing linearly with the section of the surface and opening the possibility to observe a macroscopic chiral current at the surface of the material.
Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2015-07-16
We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.
Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Otani, Y.; Manchon, Aurelien
2015-01-01
We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.
Engineering a Robust Quantum Spin Hall State in Graphene via Adatom Deposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Conan Weeks
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The 2007 discovery of quantized conductance in HgTe quantum wells delivered the field of topological insulators (TIs its first experimental confirmation. While many three-dimensional TIs have since been identified, HgTe remains the only known two-dimensional system in this class. Difficulty fabricating HgTe quantum wells has, moreover, hampered their widespread use. With the goal of breaking this logjam, we provide a blueprint for stabilizing a robust TI state in a more readily available two-dimensional material—graphene. Using symmetry arguments, density functional theory, and tight-binding simulations, we predict that graphene endowed with certain heavy adatoms realizes a TI with substantial band gap. For indium and thallium, our most promising adatom candidates, a modest 6% coverage produces an estimated gap near 80 K and 240 K, respectively, which should be detectable in transport or spectroscopic measurements. Engineering such a robust topological phase in graphene could pave the way for a new generation of devices for spintronics, ultra-low-dissipation electronics, and quantum information processing.
Quantum Hall effect on top and bottom surface states of topological insulator (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films.
Yoshimi, R; Tsukazaki, A; Kozuka, Y; Falson, J; Takahashi, K S; Checkelsky, J G; Nagaosa, N; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y
2015-04-14
The three-dimensional topological insulator is a novel state of matter characterized by two-dimensional metallic Dirac states on its surface. To verify the topological nature of the surface states, Bi-based chalcogenides such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3 and their combined/mixed compounds have been intensively studied. Here, we report the realization of the quantum Hall effect on the surface Dirac states in (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films. With electrostatic gate-tuning of the Fermi level in the bulk band gap under magnetic fields, the quantum Hall states with filling factor ±1 are resolved. Furthermore, the appearance of a quantum Hall plateau at filling factor zero reflects a pseudo-spin Hall insulator state when the Fermi level is tuned in between the energy levels of the non-degenerate top and bottom surface Dirac points. The observation of the quantum Hall effect in three-dimensional topological insulator films may pave a way toward topological insulator-based electronics.
Mukherjee, Mina; Westphal, Alexander
2015-01-01
The case of Hall vs. Florida tested Florida's so called "bright line rule" in determining intellectual disability in capital cases. The Supreme Court Decision reflects a more general trend from categorical to dimensional approaches in psychiatric diagnostic systems.
A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, K.H.; Minakawa, M.; Yamanoi, Y.
1991-01-01
We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)
Anomalous Hall effect in semiconductor quantum wells in proximity to chiral p -wave superconductors
Yang, F.; Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.
2018-05-01
By using the gauge-invariant optical Bloch equation, we perform a microscopic kinetic investigation on the anomalous Hall effect in chiral p -wave superconducting states. Specifically, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity in the absence of the magnetic field is zero as a consequence of Galilean invariance in our description. As for the extrinsic channel, a finite anomalous Hall current is obtained from the impurity scattering with the optically excited normal quasiparticle current even at zero temperature. From our kinetic description, it can be clearly seen that the excited normal quasiparticle current is due to an induced center-of-mass momentum of Cooper pairs through the acceleration driven by ac electric field. For the induced anomalous Hall current, we show that the conventional skew-scattering channel in the linear response makes the dominant contribution in the strong impurity interaction. In this case, our kinetic description as a supplementary viewpoint mostly confirms the results of Kubo formalism in the literature. Nevertheless, in the weak impurity interaction, this skew-scattering channel becomes marginal and we reveal that an induction channel from the Born contribution dominates the anomalous Hall current. This channel, which has long been overlooked in the literature, is due to the particle-hole asymmetry by nonlinear optical excitation. Finally, we study the case in the chiral p -wave superconducting state with a transverse conical magnetization, which breaks the Galilean invariance. In this situation, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity is no longer zero. Comparison of this intrinsic channel with the extrinsic one from impurity scattering is addressed.
Decoherence in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isar, A.
2005-01-01
In the framework of the Lindblad theory for open quantum systems we determine the degree of quantum decoherence of a harmonic oscillator interacting with a thermal bath. In the present paper we have studied QD with the Markovian equation of Lindblad in order to understand the quantum to classical transition for a system consisting of an one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in interaction with a thermal bath in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups. The role of QD became relevant in many interesting physical problems from field theory, atomic physics, quantum optics and quantum information processing, to which we can add material science, heavy ion collisions, quantum gravity and cosmology, condensed matter physics. Just to mention only a few of them: to understand the way in which QD enhances the quantum to classical transition of density fluctuations; to study systems of trapped and cold atoms (or ions) which may offer the possibility of engineering the environment, like trapped atoms inside cavities, relation between decoherence and other cavity QED effects (such as Casimir effect); on mesoscopic scale, decoherence in the context of Bose-Einstein condensation. In many cases physicists are interested in understanding the specific causes of QD just because they want to prevent decoherence from damaging quantum states and to protect the information stored in quantum states from the degrading effect of the interaction with the environment. Thus, decoherence is responsible for washing out the quantum interference effects which are desirable to be seen as signals in some experiments. QD has a negative influence on many areas relying upon quantum coherence effects, such as quantum computation and quantum control of atomic and molecular processes. The physics of information and computation is such a case, where decoherence is an obvious major obstacle in the implementation of information-processing hardware that takes
Quantum Effects in Biological Systems
2016-01-01
Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...
Asymptotically open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westrich, M.
2008-04-01
In the present thesis we investigate the structure of time-dependent equations of motion in quantum mechanics.We start from two coupled systems with an autonomous equation of motion. A limit, in which the dynamics of one of the two systems has a decoupled evolution and imposes a non-autonomous evolution for the second system is identified. A result due to K. Hepp that provides a classical limit for dynamics turns out to be part and parcel for this limit and is generalized in our work. The method introduced by J.S. Howland for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is interpreted as such a limit. Moreover, we associate our limit with the modern theory of quantization. (orig.)
Iqbal, A.; Toor, A. H.
2002-03-01
We investigate the role of quantum mechanical effects in the central stability concept of evolutionary game theory, i.e., an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). Using two and three-player symmetric quantum games we show how the presence of quantum phenomenon of entanglement can be crucial to decide the course of evolutionary dynamics in a population of interacting individuals.
Experimental approach of plasma supersonic expansion physics and of Hall effect propulsion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazouffre, Stephane
2009-01-01
This report for accreditation to supervise research (HDR) proposes a synthesis of scientific and research works performed by the author during about ten years. Thus, a first part addresses studies on plasma rarefied supersonic flows: expansion through a sonic hole and through a Laval nozzle. The next part addresses the study of plasma propulsion for spacecraft, and more particularly electric propulsion based on the Hall effect: phenomena of ionic and atomic transport, characteristics of the electric field, energy deposition on walls, basic scale laws, related works, hybrid Hall-RF propulsion systems. The third part presents perspectives and projects related to propulsion by Hall effect (research topics, planned researches, a European project on high power, hybrid Hall-RF propulsion) and to ions-ions plasma (the PEGASES concept, the NExET test installation, RF source of negative ions and magnetic trap)
Li, C.; De Ronde, B.; Nikitin, A.; Huang, Y.; Golden, M.S.; De Visser, A.; Brinkman, A.
2017-01-01
The quantum Hall effect is studied in the topological insulator BiSbTeSe2. By employing top- and back-gate electric fields at high magnetic field, the Landau levels of the Dirac cones in the top and bottom topological surface states can be tuned independently. When one surface is tuned to the
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-03-01
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-01-01
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558
Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.
Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2015-03-31
An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.
Outline of a theory of the two-dimensional hall effect in the quantum limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tosatti, E. (Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy). Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia); Parrinello, M. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy). Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia)
1983-03-05
The ground state of two-dimensional electrons of density N/L/sup 2/ in a strong transverse magnetic field B is discussed in terms of localized magnetic functions. For all ''commensurate'' fractional fillings of the n=0 Landau level, occurring at Bsub(st)=(s/sup 2/+t/sup 2/+st)2..pi..(h/2..pi..)cN/eL/sup 2/, with s, t integers, it is found that the ground state is a triangular lattice. This lattice has unusual properties, because it is tied to the magnetic functions. In particular, it has a finite Hall conductivity sigmasub(xy)=e/sup 2//2..pi..(h/2..pi..)(s/sup 2/+t/sup 2/+st) and it also exhibits perfect diamagnetism relative to Bsub(st). It does, however, display no proper Meissner effect, because the London depth is macroscopically large. The excess field B-Bsub(st) gives rise instead to defects in the lattice, where the extra electrons (holes) become ''interstitials'' (''vacancies''). If the defects are free to move, the Hall conductivity will not stay quantized. On the other hand, if all defects are pinned by inhomogeneities, Hall plateaux are expected around each Bsub(st). This picture, while providing a natural explanation for the quantized Hall effect at both integer and fractional filling, leads to a simple understanding of the plateau width vs. temperature and simple quality, and can also explain, at finite temperatures, the behaviour of the longitudinal conductivity sigmasub(yy) and its observed asymmetry for integer filling.
Entanglement in open quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isar, A.
2007-01-01
In the framework of the theory of open systems based on quantum dynamical semigroups, we solve the master equation for two independent bosonic oscillators interacting with an environment in the asymptotic long-time regime. We give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement in terms of the covariance matrix of the quantum states of the considered system for an arbitrary Gaussian input state. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems immersed in a common environment and evolving under a Markovian, completely positive dynamics become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that their non-local quantum correlations exist in the long-time regime. (author) Key words: quantum information theory, open systems, quantum entanglement, inseparable states
Light-Induced Type-II Band Inversion and Quantum Anomalous Hall State in Monolayer FeSe
Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Zhao; Yang, Jinlong; Liu, Feng
2018-04-01
Coupling a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state with a superconducting state offers an attractive approach to detect the signature alluding to a topological superconducting state [Q. L. He et al., Science 357, 294 (2017), 10.1126/science.aag2792], but its explanation could be clouded by disorder effects in magnetic doped QAH materials. On the other hand, an antiferromagnetic (AFM) quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is identified in the well-known high-temperature 2D superconductor of monolayer FeSe [Z. F. Wang et al., Nat. Mater. 15, 968 (2016), 10.1038/nmat4686]. Here, we report a light-induced type-II band inversion (BI) and a QSH-to-QAH phase transition in the monolayer FeSe. Depending on the handedness of light, a spin-tunable QAH state with a high Chern number of ±2 is realized. In contrast to the conventional type-I BI resulting from intrinsic spin-orbital coupling (SOC), which inverts the band an odd number of times and respects time reversal symmetry, the type-II BI results from a light-induced handedness-dependent effective SOC, which inverts the band an even number of times and does not respect time reversal symmetry. The interplay between these two SOC terms makes the spin-up and -down bands of an AFM QSH state respond oppositely to a circularly polarized light, leading to the type-II BI and an exotic topological phase transition. Our finding affords an exciting opportunity to detect Majorana fermions in one single material without magnetic doping.
Quantum models of classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hájíček, P
2015-01-01
Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (paper)
Noncommutative mathematics for quantum systems
Franz, Uwe
2016-01-01
Noncommutative mathematics is a significant new trend of mathematics. Initially motivated by the development of quantum physics, the idea of 'making theory noncommutative' has been extended to many areas of pure and applied mathematics. This book is divided into two parts. The first part provides an introduction to quantum probability, focusing on the notion of independence in quantum probability and on the theory of quantum stochastic processes with independent and stationary increments. The second part provides an introduction to quantum dynamical systems, discussing analogies with fundamental problems studied in classical dynamics. The desire to build an extension of the classical theory provides new, original ways to understand well-known 'commutative' results. On the other hand the richness of the quantum mathematical world presents completely novel phenomena, never encountered in the classical setting. This book will be useful to students and researchers in noncommutative probability, mathematical physi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chirikov, B.V.
1991-01-01
The overview of recent developments in the theory of quantum chaos is presented with the special emphasis on a number of unsolved problems and current apparent contradictions. The relation between dynamical quantum chaos and statistical random matrix theory is discussed. 97 refs
Quantum transport in complex system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusnezov, D.; Bulgac, A.; DoDang, G.
1998-01-01
We derive the influence function and the effective dynamics of a quantum systems coupled to a chaotic environment, using very general parametric and banded random matrices to describe the quantum properties of a chaotic bath. We find that only in certain limits the thermalization can result from the environment. We study the general transport problems including escape, fusion and tunneling (fission). (author)
Evaluation of a reverberation enhancement system installed in a small multi purpose hall
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gade, Anders Christian
1997-01-01
After design and installation of a reverberation enhancement system in new 400 seat multi purpose hall in Vejle, Denmark. room acoustic measurements and listening tests were performed in order to reveal the objective and subjective performance and limits of such a powerful tool for altering ''room...... acoustic'' properties. The compromises in realistic choice of acoustic parameters for the different settings of the system are described with reference to the natural acoustics and functional needs of the hall in question. Although the enhancement system is capable of increasing the reverberation time...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindelof, P.E.; Bruus, H.; Taboryski, R.; Soerensen, C.B.
1989-01-01
An inverted and a normal GaAs/AlGaAs interface grown back to back in a socalled selectively doped double heterostructure (SD DH) has been studied in magnetic fields up to 12 tesla and at temperatures down to 0.3 K. The longitudinal resistance goes to zero at minima of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The Hall resistivity is found to exhibit the quantum Hall effect. By etching the surface of the double heterostructure wafer we create an unbalance in the density of electrons in the two parallel two-dimensional electronic sheets. Although we in this way create only a modest change in the electron densities, we observe a significant change in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, which can be interpreted as a beat between the oscillations of two electron layers with different densities. At the same time we observe a significant variation of the width of the quantum Hall steps. The most astonishing feature of our results is a clear quantum Hall plateou at 1/2 filling in each of the two parallel layers observed at temperatures below 1 K at a magnetic field above 10 T. Weak localization was also studied and such experiments are consistent with two parallel and independent two-dimensional electronic layers. (orig.)
A prototype quantum cryptography system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Surasak, Chiangga
1998-07-01
In this work we have constructed a new secure quantum key distribution system based on the BB84 protocol. Many current state-of-the-art quantum cryptography systems encounter major problems concerning low bit rate, synchronization, and stabilization. Our quantum cryptography system utilizes only laser diodes and standard passive optical components, to enhance the stability and also to decrease the space requirements. The development of this demonstration for a practical quantum key distribution system is a consequence of our previous work on the quantum cryptographic system using optical fiber components for the transmitter and receiver. There we found that the optical fiber couplers should not be used due to the problems with space, stability and alignment. The goal of the synchronization is to use as little transmission capacities as possible. The experimental results of our quantum key distribution system show the feasibility of getting more than 90 % transmission capacities with the approaches developed in this work. Therefore it becomes feasible to securely establish a random key sequence at a rate of 1 to {approx} 5K bit/s by using our stable, compact, cheap, and user-friendly modules for quantum cryptography. (author)
A prototype quantum cryptography system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiangga Surasak
1998-07-01
In this work we have constructed a new secure quantum key distribution system based on the BB84 protocol. Many current state-of-the-art quantum cryptography systems encounter major problems concerning low bit rate, synchronization, and stabilization. Our quantum cryptography system utilizes only laser diodes and standard passive optical components, to enhance the stability and also to decrease the space requirements. The development of this demonstration for a practical quantum key distribution system is a consequence of our previous work on the quantum cryptographic system using optical fiber components for the transmitter and receiver. There we found that the optical fiber couplers should not be used due to the problems with space, stability and alignment. The goal of the synchronization is to use as little transmission capacities as possible. The experimental results of our quantum key distribution system show the feasibility of getting more than 90 % transmission capacities with the approaches developed in this work. Therefore it becomes feasible to securely establish a random key sequence at a rate of 1 to ∼ 5K bit/s by using our stable, compact, cheap, and user-friendly modules for quantum cryptography. (author)
Covariant Conservation Laws and the Spin Hall Effect in Dirac-Rashba Systems
Milletarı, Mirco; Offidani, Manuel; Ferreira, Aires; Raimondi, Roberto
2017-12-01
We present a theoretical analysis of two-dimensional Dirac-Rashba systems in the presence of disorder and external perturbations. We unveil a set of exact symmetry relations (Ward identities) that impose strong constraints on the spin dynamics of Dirac fermions subject to proximity-induced interactions. This allows us to demonstrate that an arbitrary dilute concentration of scalar impurities results in the total suppression of nonequilibrium spin Hall currents when only Rashba spin-orbit coupling is present. Remarkably, a finite spin Hall conductivity is restored when the minimal Dirac-Rashba model is supplemented with a spin-valley interaction. The Ward identities provide a systematic way to predict the emergence of the spin Hall effect in a wider class of Dirac-Rashba systems of experimental relevance and represent an important benchmark for testing the validity of numerical methodologies.
Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.
2012-01-01
Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems on the rooftop. To promote deployment of PV systems, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the electricity rate is available in many countries to subsidize
Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems : a cost–benefit analysis study of industrial halls
Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.
2013-01-01
Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems can be readily deployed on industrial halls with relatively large rooftop area. Feed-in tariff above the base price of electricity is offered in many countries to subsidize the high initial investment of PV systems. In order to fully capitalize the benefit of the
A simulation Model of the Reactor Hall Ventilation and air Conditioning Systems of ETRR-2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abd El-Rahman, M.F.
2004-01-01
Although the conceptual design for any system differs from one designer to another. each of them aims to achieve the function of the system required. the ventilation and air conditioning system of reactors hall is one of those systems that really differs but always dose its function for which it is designed. thus, ventilation and air conditioning in some reactor hall constitute only one system whereas in some other ones, they are separate systems. the Egypt Research Reactor-2 (ETRR-2)represents the second type. most studies conducted on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models either in traditional building or for research rectors show that those models were not designed similarly to the model of the hall of ETRR-2 in which ventilation and air conditioning constitute two separate systems.besides, those studies experimented on ventilation and air conditioning simulation models of reactor building predict the temperature and humidity inside these buildings at certain outside condition and it is difficult to predict when the outside conditions are changed . also those studies do not discuss the influences of reactor power changes. therefore, the present work deals with a computational study backed by infield experimental measurements of the performance of the ventilation and air conditioning systems of reactor hall during normal operation at different outside conditions as well as at different levels of reactor power
Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
voltage bias, the tunneling of the electron from the lead to the dot and vice versa will happen very rarely. Then two successive ..... A typical mesoscopic quantum dot system (a small drop- .... dynamical behavior of the distribution function of the.
Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system
Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang
2017-08-01
As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.
Quantum Dot Systems : A versatile platform for quantum simulations
Barthelemy, P.J.C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endo, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Shiota, F.; Nakayama, K.; Nezu, Y.; Kikuzawa, M.; Hara, K.
1989-01-01
The authors describe an improvement of the preliminary superconducting magnetic levitation system in progress for the absolute determination of the magnetic flux quantum. This improvement includes the development of the flux-up method to determine the flux in terms of the Josephson voltage. The improvement is essential for the determination of the magnetic flux quantum as well as of the coil current in terms of the Josephson voltage and quantized Hall resistance
Magnetotransport of Monolayer Graphene with Inert Gas Adsorption in the Quantum Hall Regime
Fukuda, A.; Terasawa, D.; Fujimoto, A.; Kanai, Y.; Matsumoto, K.
2018-03-01
The surface of graphene is easily accessible from outside, and thus it is a suitable material to study the effects of molecular adsorption on the electric transport properties. We investigate the magnetotransport of inert-gas-adsorbed monolayer graphene at a temperature of 4.4 K under a magnetic field ranging from 0 to 7 T. We introduce 4He or Ar gas at low temperature to graphene kept inside a sample cell. The magnetoresistance change ΔRxx and Hall resistance change ΔRxy from the pristine graphene are measured as a function of gate voltage and magnetic field for one layer of adsorbates. ΔRxx and ΔRxy show oscillating patterns related to the constant filling factor lines in a Landau-fan diagram. Magnitudes of these quantities are relatively higher around a charge neutral point and may be mass-sensitive. These conditions could be optimized for development of a highly sensitive gas sensor.
Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in InN x Bi y Sb1-x-y /InSb quantum wells
Song, Zhigang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Zhang, Yan Yang; Shen Li, Shu
2017-07-01
Quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, a fundamentally new quantum state of matter and topological phase transitions are characteristics of a kind of electronic material, popularly referred to as topological insulators (TIs). TIs are similar to ordinary insulator in terms of their bulk bandgap, but have gapless conducting edge-states that are topologically protected. These edge-states are facilitated by the time-reversal symmetry and they are robust against nonmagnetic impurity scattering. Recently, the quest for new materials exhibiting non-trivial topological state of matter has been of great research interest, as TIs find applications in new electronics and spintronics and quantum-computing devices. Here, we propose and demonstrate as a proof-of-concept that QSH effect and topological phase transitions can be realized in {{InN}}x{{Bi}}y{{Sb}}1-x-y/InSb semiconductor quantum wells (QWs). The simultaneous incorporation of nitrogen and bismuth in InSb is instrumental in lowering the bandgap, while inducing opposite kinds of strain to attain a near-lattice-matching conducive for lattice growth. Phase diagram for bandgap shows that as we increase the QW thickness, at a critical thickness, the electronic bandstructure switches from a normal to an inverted type. We confirm that such transition are topological phase transitions between a traditional insulator and a TI exhibiting QSH effect—by demonstrating the topologically protected edge-states using the bandstructure, edge-localized distribution of the wavefunctions and edge-state spin-momentum locking phenomenon, presence of non-zero conductance in spite of the Fermi energy lying in the bandgap window, crossover points of Landau levels in the zero-mode indicating topological band inversion in the absence of any magnetic field and presence of large Rashba spin-splitting, which is essential for spin-manipulation in TIs.
Hall field-induced magnetoresistance oscillations of a two-dimensional electron system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunold, A.; Torres, M.
2008-01-01
We develop a model of the nonlinear response to a dc electrical current of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) placed on a magnetic field. Based on the exact solution to the Schroedinger equation in arbitrarily strong electric and magnetic fields, and separating the relative and guiding center coordinates, a Kubo-like formula for the current is worked out as a response to the impurity scattering. Self-consistent expressions determine the longitudinal and Hall components of the electric field in terms of the dc current. The differential resistivity displays strong Hall field-induced oscillations, in agreement with the main features of the phenomenon observed in recent experiments
Breakdown of the quantum Hall effect in InAs/AlSb quantum wells due to counterflowing edge channels
Wees, B.J. van; Meijer, G.I.; Kuipers, J.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Graaf, W. van de; Borghs, G.
1995-01-01
We investigated magnetotransport in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) present in InAs/AlSb quantum wells. The filling factor Ng underneath a gate electrode was reduced relative to the bulk filling factor Nb. For Ng
Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barthelemy, Pierre; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulations can be used to overcome this problem: complex quantum problems can be solved by studying experimentally an artificial quantum system operated to simulate the desired hamiltonian. Quantum dot systems have shown to be widely tunable quantum systems, that can be efficiently controlled electrically. This tunability and the versatility of their design makes them very promising quantum simulators. This paper reviews the progress towards digital quantum simulations with individually controlled quantum dots, as well as the analog quantum simulations that have been performed with these systems. The possibility to use large arrays of quantum dots to simulate the low-temperature Hubbard model is also discussed. The main issues along that path are presented and new ideas to overcome them are proposed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Quantum speed limits in open system dynamics
del Campo, A.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Plenio, M. B.; Huelga, S. F.
2012-01-01
Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive and trace preserving (CPT) evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the ...
Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vuglar, Shanon L; Amini, Hadis
2014-01-01
Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H ∞ optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs. (paper)
Contextual logic for quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector
2005-01-01
In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction
Duality quantum algorithm efficiently simulates open quantum systems
Wei, Shi-Jie; Ruan, Dong; Long, Gui-Lu
2016-01-01
Because of inevitable coupling with the environment, nearly all practical quantum systems are open system, where the evolution is not necessarily unitary. In this paper, we propose a duality quantum algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian evolution of an open quantum system. In contrast to unitary evolution in a usual quantum computer, the evolution operator in a duality quantum computer is a linear combination of unitary operators. In this duality quantum algorithm, the time evolution of the open quantum system is realized by using Kraus operators which is naturally implemented in duality quantum computer. This duality quantum algorithm has two distinct advantages compared to existing quantum simulation algorithms with unitary evolution operations. Firstly, the query complexity of the algorithm is O(d3) in contrast to O(d4) in existing unitary simulation algorithm, where d is the dimension of the open quantum system. Secondly, By using a truncated Taylor series of the evolution operators, this duality quantum algorithm provides an exponential improvement in precision compared with previous unitary simulation algorithm. PMID:27464855
Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.
2012-01-01
Industrial halls are characterized with their relatively high roof-to-floor ratio, which facilitates ready deployment of renewable energy generation, such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, on the rooftop. To promote deployment of renewable energy generation, feed-in tariff (FIT) higher than the
Single String Integration Test of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator System
Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas W.; Huang, Wensheng; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Shastry, Rohit
2013-01-01
HiVHAc Task Objectives:-Develop and demonstrate low-power, long-life Hall thruster technology to enable cost effective EP for Discovery-class missions-Advance the TRL level of potential power processing units and xenon feed systems to integrate with the HiVHAc thruster.
Quantum dynamics in open quantum-classical systems.
Kapral, Raymond
2015-02-25
Often quantum systems are not isolated and interactions with their environments must be taken into account. In such open quantum systems these environmental interactions can lead to decoherence and dissipation, which have a marked influence on the properties of the quantum system. In many instances the environment is well-approximated by classical mechanics, so that one is led to consider the dynamics of open quantum-classical systems. Since a full quantum dynamical description of large many-body systems is not currently feasible, mixed quantum-classical methods can provide accurate and computationally tractable ways to follow the dynamics of both the system and its environment. This review focuses on quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, one of several quantum-classical descriptions, and discusses the problems that arise when one attempts to combine quantum and classical mechanics, coherence and decoherence in quantum-classical systems, nonadiabatic dynamics, surface-hopping and mean-field theories and their relation to quantum-classical Liouville dynamics, as well as methods for simulating the dynamics.
Temperature dependent transport of two dimensional electrons in the integral quantum Hall regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wi, H.P.
1986-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the temperature dependent electronic transport properties of a two dimensional electron gas subject to background potential fluctuations and a perpendicular magnetic field. The author carried out an extensive temperature dependent study of the transport coefficients, in the region of an integral quantum plateau, in an In/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As/InP heterostructure for 4.2K 10 cm -2 meV -1 ) even at the middle between two Landau levels, which is unexpected from model calculations based on short ranged randomness. In addition, the different T dependent behavior of rho/sub xx/ between the states in the tails and those near the center of a Landau level, indicates the existence of different electron states in a Landau level. Additionally, the author reports T-dependent transport measurements in the transition region between two quantum plateaus in several different materials
Quantum systems and symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.
1978-01-01
Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained
Zamaere, Christine Berkesch; Griffeth, Stephen; Sam, Steven V.
2014-08-01
We show that for Jack parameter α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k + 1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in the case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S n -invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2 k + 1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S n -equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.
Q-balls of quasi-particles in a (2, 0)-theory model of the fractional quantum Hall effect
Ganor, Ori J.; Hong, Yoon Pyo; Moore, Nathan; Sun, Hao-Yu; Tan, Hai Siong; Torres-Chicon, Nesty R.
2015-09-01
A toy model of the fractional quantum Hall effect appears as part of the low-energy description of the Coulomb branch of the A 1 (2 , 0)-theory formulated on ({S}^1× {{R}}^2)/{{Z}}_k , where the generator of {{Z}}_k acts as a combination of translation on S 1 and rotation by 2 π/k on {{R}}^2 . At low energy the configuration is described in terms of a 4+1D Super-Yang-Mills theory on a cone ({{R}}^2/{{Z}}_k) with additional 2+1D degrees of freedom at the tip of the cone that include fractionally charged particles. These fractionally charged "quasi-particles" are BPS strings of the (2 , 0)-theory wrapped on short cycles. We analyze the large k limit, where a smooth cigar-geometry provides an alternative description. In this framework a W-boson can be modeled as a bound state of k quasi-particles. The W-boson becomes a Q-ball, and it can be described as a soliton solution of Bogomolnyi monopole equations on a certain auxiliary curved space. We show that axisymmetric solutions of these equations correspond to singular maps from AdS 3 to AdS 2, and we present some numerical results and an asymptotic expansion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Shuguang
2010-01-01
Recent experiments have confirmed that the electron-hole inhomogeneity in graphene is a new type of charge disorder. Motivated by such confirmation, we theoretically study the transport properties of a monolayer graphene (MLG) based p-n junction and a bilayer graphene (BLG) p-n junction in the quantum Hall regime where electron-hole puddles are considered. By using the non-equilibrium Green function method, both the current and conductance are obtained. We find that, in the presence of the electron-hole inhomogeneity, the lowest quantized conductance plateau at e 2 /h emerges in the MLG p-n junction under very small charge puddle disorder strength. For a BLG p-n junction, however, the conductance in the p-n region is enhanced with charge puddles, and the lowest quantized conductance plateau emerges at 2e 2 /h. Besides, when an ideal quantized conductance plateau is formed for a MLG p-n junction, the universal conductance fluctuation is found to be 2e 2 /3h. Furthermore, we also investigate the influence of Anderson disorder on such p-n junctions and the comparison and discussion are given accordingly. To compare the two models with different types of disorder, we investigate the conductance distribution specially. Finally the influence of disorder strength on the conductance of a MLG p-n junction is investigated.
Intrinsic Dirac half-metal and quantum anomalous Hall phase in a hexagonal metal-oxide lattice
Zhang, Shou-juan; Zhang, Chang-wen; Zhang, Shu-feng; Ji, Wei-xiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-shi; Yan, Shi-shen
2017-11-01
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has attracted extensive attention due to time-reversal symmetry broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from ferromagnetic ordering and spin-orbit coupling. However, the experimental observations of the QAH effect are still challenging due to its small nontrivial bulk gap. Here, based on density functional theory and Berry curvature calculations, we propose the realization of intrinsic QAH effect in two-dimensional hexagonal metal-oxide lattice, N b2O3 , which is characterized by the nonzero Chern number (C =1 ) and chiral edge states. Spin-polarized calculations indicate that it exhibits a Dirac half-metal feature with temperature as large as TC=392 K using spin-wave theory. When the spin-orbit coupling is switched on, N b2O3 becomes a QAH insulator. Notably, the nontrivial topology is robust against biaxial strain with its band gap reaching up to Eg=75 meV , which is far beyond room temperature. A tight-binding model is further constructed to understand the origin of nontrivially electronic properties. Our findings on the Dirac half-metal and room-temperature QAH effect in the N b2O3 lattice can serve as an ideal platform for developing future topotronics devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciftja, O.
1999-01-01
The microscopic approach for studying the half-filled state of the fractional quantum Hall effect is based on the idea of proposing a trial Fermi wave function of the Jastrow-Slater form, which is then fully projected onto the lowest Landau level. A simplified starting point is to drop the projection operator and to consider an unprojected wave function. A recent study claims that such a wave function approximated in a Jastrow form may still constitute a good starting point on the study of the half-filled state. In this paper we formalize the effective hypernetted-chain approximation and apply it to the unprojected Fermi wave function, which describes the even-denominator-filling states. We test the above approximation by using the Fermi hypernetted-chain theory, which constitutes the natural choice for the present case. Our results suggest that the approximation of the Slater determinant of plane waves as a Jastrow wave function may not be a very accurate approximation. We conclude that the lowest Landau-level projection operator cannot be neglected if one wants a better quantitative understanding of the phenomena. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS
2017-06-30
NUMBER (Include area code) 30 June 2017 Briefing Charts 26 May 2017 - 30 June 2017 ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS ...Robert Martin N/A ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS Robert Martin1, Jonathan Tran2 1AIR FORCE...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. PA# 17394 1 / 13 OUTLINE 1 INTRODUCTION 2 TRANSPORT 3 DYNAMIC SYSTEM 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Quantum Dynamics in Biological Systems
Shim, Sangwoo
In the first part of this dissertation, recent efforts to understand quantum mechanical effects in biological systems are discussed. Especially, long-lived quantum coherences observed during the electronic energy transfer process in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex at physiological condition are studied extensively using theories of open quantum systems. In addition to the usual master equation based approaches, the effect of the protein structure is investigated in atomistic detail through the combined application of quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics simulations. To evaluate the thermalized reduced density matrix, a path-integral Monte Carlo method with a novel importance sampling approach is developed for excitons coupled to an arbitrary phonon bath at a finite temperature. In the second part of the thesis, simulations of molecular systems and applications to vibrational spectra are discussed. First, the quantum dynamics of a molecule is simulated by combining semiclassical initial value representation and density funcitonal theory with analytic derivatives. A computationally-tractable approximation to the sum-of-states formalism of Raman spectra is subsequently discussed.
Dynamics of complex quantum systems
Akulin, Vladimir M
2014-01-01
This book gathers together a range of similar problems that can be encountered in different fields of modern quantum physics and that have common features with regard to multilevel quantum systems. The main motivation was to examine from a uniform standpoint various models and approaches that have been developed in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, chemical, laser and nuclear physics in various contexts. The book should help senior-level undergraduate, graduate students and researchers putting particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby taking advantage of well-established techniques used in adjacent fields. This second edition has been expanded to include substantial new material (e.g. new sections on Dynamic Localization and on Euclidean Random Matrices and new chapters on Entanglement, Open Quantum Systems, and Coherence Protection). It is based on the author’s lectures at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, at the CNRS Aimé Cotton Laboratory, and on ...
On quantum mechanics for macroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Primas, H.
1992-01-01
The parable of Schroedinger's cat may lead to several up-to date questions: how to treat open systems in quantum theory, how to treat thermodynamically irreversible processes in the quantum mechanics framework, how to explain, following the quantum theory, the existence, phenomenologically evident, of classical observables, what implies the predicted existence by the quantum theory of non localized macroscopic material object ?
A Magnetic Tracking System based on Highly Sensitive Integrated Hall Sensors
Schlageter, Vincent; Drljaca, Predrag; Popovic, Radivoje S.; KuČERA, Pavel
A tracking system with five degrees of freedom based on a 2D-array of 16 Hall sensors and a permanent magnet is presented in this paper. The sensitivity of the Hall sensors is increased by integrated micro- and external macro-flux-concentrators. Detection distance larger than 20cm (during one hour without calibration) is achieved using a magnet of 0.2cm3. This corresponds to a resolution of the sensors of 0.05µTrms. The position and orientation of the marker is displayed in real time at least 20 times per second. The sensing system is small enough to be hand-held and can be used in a normal environment. This presented tracking system has been successfully applied to follow a small swallowed magnet through the entire human digestive tube. This approach is extremely promising as a new non-invasive diagnostic technique in gastro-enterology.
Quantum tomography and classical propagator for quadratic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Man'ko, O.V.
1999-03-01
The classical propagator for tomographic probability (which describes the quantum state instead of wave function or density matrix) is presented for quadratic quantum systems and its relation to the quantum propagator is considered. The new formalism of quantum mechanics, based on the probability representation of the state, is applied to particular quadratic systems - the harmonic oscillator, particle's free motion, problems of an ion in a Paul trap and in asymmetric Penning trap, and to the process of stimulated Raman scattering. The classical propagator for these systems is written in an explicit form. (author)
Negele, John W
1988-01-01
This book explains the fundamental concepts and theoretical techniques used to understand the properties of quantum systems having large numbers of degrees of freedom. A number of complimentary approaches are developed, including perturbation theory; nonperturbative approximations based on functional integrals; general arguments based on order parameters, symmetry, and Fermi liquid theory; and stochastic methods.
General response formula and application to topological insulator in quantum open system.
Shen, H Z; Qin, M; Shao, X Q; Yi, X X
2015-11-01
It is well-known that the quantum linear response theory is based on the first-order perturbation theory for a system in thermal equilibrium. Hence, this theory breaks down when the system is in a steady state far from thermal equilibrium and the response up to higher order in perturbation is not negligible. In this paper, we develop a nonlinear response theory for such quantum open system. We first formulate this theory in terms of general susceptibility, after which we apply it to the derivation of Hall conductance for open system at finite temperature. As an example, the Hall conductance of the two-band model is derived. Then we calculate the Hall conductance for a two-dimensional ferromagnetic electron gas and a two-dimensional lattice model. The calculations show that the transition points of topological phase are robust against the environment. Our results provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation of the nonlinear response in quantum open system, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and statistical physics.
Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat
Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven
2014-01-01
The components required for an in-space iodine vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system are described. A laboratory apparatus was assembled and used to produce iodine vapor and control the flow through the application of heating to the propellant reservoir and through the adjustment of the opening in a proportional flow control valve. Changing of the reservoir temperature altered the flowrate on the timescale of minutes while adjustment of the proportional flow control valve changed the flowrate immediately without an overshoot or undershoot in flowrate with the requisite recovery time associated with thermal control systems. The flowrates tested spanned a range from 0-1.5 mg/s of iodine, which is sufficient to feed a 200-W Hall effect thruster.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kiryl Pakrouski
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Interesting non-Abelian states, e.g., the Moore-Read Pfaffian and the anti-Pfaffian, offer candidate descriptions of the ν=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state. But, the significant controversy surrounding the nature of the ν=5/2 state has been hampered by the fact that the competition between these and other states is affected by small parameter changes. To study the phase diagram of the ν=5/2 state, we numerically diagonalize a comprehensive effective Hamiltonian describing the fractional quantum Hall effect of electrons under realistic conditions in GaAs semiconductors. The effective Hamiltonian takes Landau-level mixing into account to lowest order perturbatively in κ, the ratio of the Coulomb energy scale to the cyclotron gap. We also incorporate the nonzero width w of the quantum-well and subband mixing. We find the ground state in both the torus and spherical geometries as a function of κ and w. To sort out the nontrivial competition between candidate ground states, we analyze the following four criteria: its overlap with trial wave functions, the magnitude of energy gaps, the sign of the expectation value of an order parameter for particle-hole symmetry breaking, and the entanglement spectrum. We conclude that the ground state is in the universality class of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state, rather than the anti-Pfaffian, for κ<κ_{c}(w, where κ_{c}(w is a w-dependent critical value 0.6≲κ_{c}(w≲1. We observe that both Landau-level mixing and nonzero width suppress the excitation gap, but Landau-level mixing has a larger effect in this regard. Our findings have important implications for the identification of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states.
Low Mass Low Power Hall Thruster System, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking electric propulsion systems capable of producing up to 20mN thrust, input power up to 1000W and specific impulse ranging from 1600-3500 seconds. The...
Li, Sheng-Shi; Ji, Wei-Xiao; Li, Ping; Hu, Shu-Jun; Cai, Li; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Yan, Shi-Shen
2017-06-28
The quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect is promising for achieving dissipationless transport devices due to their robust gapless edge states inside insulating bulk gap. However, the currently discussed QSH insulators usually suffer from ultrahigh vacuum or low temperature due to the small bulk gap, which limits their practical applications. Searching for large-gap QSH insulators is highly desirable. Here, the tunable QSH state of a Bi(110) films with a black phosphorus (BP) structure, which is robust against structural deformation and electric field, is explored by first-principles calculations. It is found that the two-monolayer BP-Bi(110) film obtains a tunable large bulk gap by strain engineering and its QSH effect shows a favorable robustness within a wide range of combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane strains, although a single in-plane compression or out-of-plane extension may restrict the topological phase due to the self-doping effect. More interestingly, in view of biaxial strain, two competing physics on band topology induced by bonding-antibonding and p x,y -p z band inversions are obtained. Meanwhile, the QSH effect can be persevered under an electric field of up to 0.9 V/Å. Moreover, with appropriate in-plane strain engineering, a nontrivial topological phase in a four-monolayer BP-Bi(110) film is identified. Our findings suggest that these two-dimensional BP-Bi(110) films are ideal platforms of the QSH effect for low-power dissipation devices.
Islam, M. F.; Canali, C. M.; Pertsova, A.; Balatsky, A.; Mahatha, S. K.; Carbone, C.; Barla, A.; Kokh, K. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Jiménez, E.; Brookes, N. B.; Gargiani, P.; Valvidares, M.; Schatz, S.; Peixoto, T. R. F.; Bentmann, H.; Reinert, F.; Jung, J.; Bathon, T.; Fauth, K.; Bode, M.; Sessi, P.
2018-04-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has recently been reported to emerge in magnetically doped topological insulators. Although its general phenomenology is well established, the microscopic origin is far from being properly understood and controlled. Here, we report on a detailed and systematic investigation of transition metal (TM) doped Sb2Te3 . By combining density functional theory calculations with complementary experimental techniques, i.e., scanning tunneling microscopy, resonant photoemission, and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we provide a complete spectroscopic characterization of both electronic and magnetic properties. Our results reveal that the TM dopants not only affect the magnetic state of the host material, but also significantly alter the electronic structure by generating impurity-derived energy bands. Our findings demonstrate the existence of a delicate interplay between electronic and magnetic properties in TM doped topological insulators. In particular, we find that the fate of the topological surface states critically depends on the specific character of the TM impurity: while V- and Fe-doped Sb2Te3 display resonant impurity states in the vicinity of the Dirac point, Cr and Mn impurities leave the energy gap unaffected. The single-ion magnetic anisotropy energy and easy axis, which control the magnetic gap opening and its stability, are also found to be strongly TM impurity dependent and can vary from in plane to out of plane depending on the impurity and its distance from the surface. Overall, our results provide general guidelines for the realization of a robust QAHE in TM doped Sb2Te3 in the ferromagnetic state.
QUANTUM AND CLASSICAL CORRELATIONS IN GAUSSIAN OPEN QUANTUM SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aurelian ISAR
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum correlations (quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We solve the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation for the time evolution of the considered system and describe the entanglement and discord in terms of the covariance matrix for Gaussian input states. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. We study the time evolution of logarithmic negativity, which characterizes the degree of entanglement, and show that in the case of an entangled initial squeezed thermal state, entanglement suppression takes place for all temperatures of the environment, including zero temperature. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that it decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath. This is in contrast with the sudden death of entanglement. Before the suppression of the entanglement, the qualitative evolution of quantum discord is very similar to that of the entanglement. We describe also the time evolution of the degree of classical correlations and of quantum mutual information, which measures the total correlations of the quantum system.
Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat
Polzin, Kurt A.
2014-01-01
There has been significant work recently in the development of iodine-fed Hall thrusters for in-space propulsion applications.1 The use of iodine as a propellant provides many advantages over present xenon-gas-fed Hall thruster systems. Iodine is a solid at ambient temperature (no pressurization required) and has no special handling requirements, making it safe for secondary flight opportunities. It has exceptionally high ?I sp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing system level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine provides thrust and efficiency that are comparable to xenonfed Hall thrusters while operating in the same discharge current and voltage regime, making it possible to leverage the development of flight-qualified xenon Hall thruster power processing units for the iodine application. Work at MSFC is presently aimed at designing, integrating, and demonstrating a flight-like iodine feed system suitable for the Hall thruster application. This effort represents a significant advancement in state-of-the-art. Though Iodine thrusters have demonstrated high performance with mission enabling potential, a flight-like feed system has never been demonstrated and iodine compatible components do not yet exist. Presented in this paper is the end-to-end integrated feed system demonstration. The system includes a propellant tank with active feedback-control heating, fill and drain interfaces, latching and proportional flow control valves (PFCV), flow resistors, and flight-like CubeSat power and control electronics. Hardware is integrated into a CubeSat-sized structure, calibrated and tested under vacuum conditions, and operated under under hot-fire conditions using a Busek BHT-200 thruster designed for iodine. Performance of the system is evaluated thorugh accurate measurement of thrust and a calibrated of mass flow rate measurement, which is a function of
Critique of the Board-Hall model for thermal detonations in UO2--Na systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, D.C.
1976-01-01
The Board--Hall model for detonating thermal explosions is reviewed and some criticisms are offered in terms of its application to UO 2 -Na systems. The basic concept of a detonation-like thermal explosion is probably valid provided certain fundamental conditions can be met; however, Board and Hall's arguments as to just how these conditions can be met in UO 2 -Na mixtures appear to contain serious flaws. Even as given, the model itself predicts that a very large triggering event is needed to initiate the process. More importantly, the model for shock-induced fragmentation greatly overestimates the tendency for such fragmentation to occur. The shock-dispersive effects of mixtures are ignored. Altogether, the model's deficiencies imply that, as given, it is not applicable to LMFBR accident analysis; nonetheless, one cannot completely rule out the possibility of meeting the fundamental conditions for detonation by other mechanisms
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems.
Li, Andy C Y; Petruccione, F; Koch, Jens
2014-05-08
The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical.
Quantum systems, channels, information. A mathematical introduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holevo, Alexander S.
2012-07-01
The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to quantum information theory, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.
Quantum-information processing in disordered and complex quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Ahufinger, Veronica; Briegel, Hans J.; Sanpera, Anna; Lewenstein, Maciej
2006-01-01
We study quantum information processing in complex disordered many body systems that can be implemented by using lattices of ultracold atomic gases and trapped ions. We demonstrate, first in the short range case, the generation of entanglement and the local realization of quantum gates in a disordered magnetic model describing a quantum spin glass. We show that in this case it is possible to achieve fidelities of quantum gates higher than in the classical case. Complex systems with long range interactions, such as ions chains or dipolar atomic gases, can be used to model neural network Hamiltonians. For such systems, where both long range interactions and disorder appear, it is possible to generate long range bipartite entanglement. We provide an efficient analytical method to calculate the time evolution of a given initial state, which in turn allows us to calculate its quantum correlations
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baecker, Arnd
2007-07-01
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Eigenfunctions in chaotic quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baecker, Arnd
2007-01-01
The structure of wavefunctions of quantum systems strongly depends on the underlying classical dynamics. In this text a selection of articles on eigenfunctions in systems with fully chaotic dynamics and systems with a mixed phase space is summarized. Of particular interest are statistical properties like amplitude distribution and spatial autocorrelation function and the implication of eigenfunction structures on transport properties. For systems with a mixed phase space the separation into regular and chaotic states does not always hold away from the semiclassical limit, such that chaotic states may completely penetrate into the region of the regular island. The consequences of this flooding are discussed and universal aspects highlighted. (orig.)
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
Quantum control of optomechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofer, S.
2015-01-01
This thesis explores the prospects of entanglement-enhanced quantum control of optomechanical systems. We first discuss several pulsed schemes in which the radiation-pressure interaction is used to generate EPR entanglement between the mechanical mode of a cavity-optomechanical system and a travelling-wave light pulse. The entanglement created in this way can be used as a resource for mechanical state preparation. On the basis of this protocol, we introduce an optomechanical teleportation scheme to transfer an arbitrary light state onto the mechanical system. Furthermore, we describe how one can create a mechanical non-classical state (i.e., a state with a negative Wigner function) by single-photon detection, and, in a similar protocol, how optomechanical systems can be used to demonstrate the violation of a Bell inequality. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to time-continuous quantum control protocols. Making use of optimal-control techniques, we analyse measurement-based feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator and demonstrate that ground-state cooling is achievable in the sideband-resolved, blue-detuned regime. We then extend this homodyne-detection based setup and introduce the notion of a time-continuous Bell measurement---a generalisation of the standard continuous variable Bell measurement to a continuous measurement setting. Combining this concept with continuous feedback we analyse the generation of a squeezed mechanical steady state via time-continuous teleportation, and the creation of bipartite mechanical entanglement by entanglement swapping. Finally we discuss an experiment demonstrating the evaluation of the conditional optomechanical quantum state by Kalman filtering, constituting a important step towards time-continuous quantum control of optomechanical systems and the possible realisation of the protocols presented in this thesis. (author) [de
Loss energy states of nonstationary quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodonov, V.V.; Man'ko, V.I.
1978-01-01
The concept of loss energy states is introduced. The loss energy states of the quantum harmonic damping oscillator are considered in detail. The method of constructing the loss energy states for general multidimensional quadratic nonstationary quantum systems is briefly discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kannan, E S; Karamad, M; Kim, Gil-Ho; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A
2010-01-01
Magnetotransport measurements were performed in two widely separated double quantum well systems with different starting disorders. In the weak magnetic field regime, a crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance in the longitudinal resistivity was observed in the system with weak disorder when the electron densities in the neighboring wells were significantly unbalanced. The crossover was found to be the result of the exchange-energy-assisted interactions between the electrons occupying the lowest subbands in the neighboring wells. In the case of the system with strong disorder short range scattering dominated the scattering process and no such transition in longitudinal resistivity in the low magnetic field regime was observed. However, at high magnetic fields, sharp peaks were observed in the Hall resistance due to the interaction between the edge states in the quantum Hall regime.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas
2016-01-01
opportunity to change the local topology by adsorption of atoms or molecules and thus comprise an ideal platform for designing topological heterostructures. Here we apply first-principles calculations to show that the quantum spin Hall insulator 1T'-MoS2 exhibits a phase transition to a trivial insulator upon....... This is in sharp contrast to topological edge states, which typically exhibit strong dispersion that are sensitive to a particular edge termination. The heterostructure is also suggestive of a simple design of one-dimensional metallic networks in sheets of 1T'-MoS2....
Relativistic quantum Hall conductivity for 3D and 2D electron plasma in an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez Felipe, R.; Perez Martinez, A.; Perez-Rojas, H.
1990-05-01
The complete antisymmetric form of the conductivity tensor in the static limit, as well as the expression for the Hall conductivity, is obtained for the relativistic 3D and 2D electron gas in a magnetic field. The non-relativistic 2D limit is also discussed. The typical step form of the 2D Hall conductivity at zero temperature is obtained under the simple hypothesis of constancy of the chemical potential. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.
2016-04-01
We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.
Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. III. Quantum operations
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2007-05-01
During the last decade, several quantum information protocols, such as quantum key distribution, teleportation or quantum computation, have attracted a lot of interest. Despite the recent success and research efforts in quantum information processing, however, we are just at the beginning of understanding the role of entanglement and the behavior of quantum systems in noisy environments, i.e. for nonideal implementations. Therefore, in order to facilitate the investigation of entanglement and decoherence in n-qubit quantum registers, here we present a revised version of the FEYNMAN program for working with quantum operations and their associated (Jamiołkowski) dual states. Based on the implementation of several popular decoherence models, we provide tools especially for the quantitative analysis of quantum operations. Apart from the implementation of different noise models, the current program extension may help investigate the fragility of many quantum states, one of the main obstacles in realizing quantum information protocols today. Program summaryTitle of program: Feynman Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v3_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: None Operating systems: Any system that supports MAPLE; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, SuSe Linux 10 Program language used:MAPLE 10 Typical time and memory requirements: Most commands that act upon quantum registers with five or less qubits take ⩽10 seconds of processor time (on a Pentium 4 processor with ⩾2 GHz or equivalent) and 5-20 MB of memory. Especially when working with symbolic expressions, however, the memory and time requirements critically depend on the number of qubits in the quantum registers, owing to the exponential dimension growth of the associated Hilbert space. For example, complex (symbolic) noise models (with several Kraus operators) for multi-qubit systems
Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems
Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.
2015-01-01
We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...
Repeated interactions in open quantum systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruneau, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.bruneau@u-cergy.fr [Laboratoire AGM, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Site Saint-Martin, BP 222, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Joye, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Joye@ujf-grenoble.fr [Institut Fourier, UMR 5582, CNRS-Université Grenoble I, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France); Merkli, Marco, E-mail: merkli@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL Canada A1C 5S7 (Canada)
2014-07-15
Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Facer, G.R.; Kane, B.E.
1996-01-01
Full text: Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) GaAs/AIGaAs heterostructures have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in which gate-induced accumulation of carriers replaces the more usual modulation doping. These novel devices have the advantages of reduced disorder and a high degree of tunability in the carrier density. Because modulation doping is not used, disorder effects in the 2DEG due to nearby dopants are eliminated. Mean free paths for electrons exceed 30 μm at low temperatures. Electron densities are accurately tunable over nearly two orders of magnitude, from 9 x 10 9 cm -2 to 4 x 10 11 cm -2 . Very high electron mobilities, exceeding 3 x10 6 cm 2 /Vs at 4.2 K, are obtained. With such a combination of density tunability and low disorder, these layers provide unique opportunities for studying low dimensional systems following further lithography. Nanolithography with feature sizes under 50 nm will be possible at UNSW in early 1996. In preparation for 1-dimensional and 0-dimensional structure fabrication, the 2DEG samples have been characterised in steady fields at temperatures ∼ 50 mK. Recent theory has explained the fractional quantum Hall effect at electron filling factor ν=1/2 in terms of composite fermions (made up of interacting electrons) behaving as if they are a non-interacting system at B=0. The question of the mobility μ c of composite fermions in the new devices, and how it varies as the electron density varies, has been studied. Preliminary measurements at ν=1/2 yield μ c ∼ 10 4 cm 2 /Vs. The composite fermion mobility is nearly independent of electron density beyond an apparent threshold N = 0.5 x 10 11 cm -2 , and independent of temperature in the range 50 to 200 mK. The electron N threshold coincides with the crossover of the carrier Fermi wavelength and the mean free path
Global quantum discord in multipartite systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)
2011-10-15
We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraak, W.; Nachtwei, G.; Herrmann, R.; Glinski, M.
1988-01-01
The magnetotransport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined at the interface of the grain boundary in p-type InSb bicrystals are investigated. Under high hydrostatic pressures and in high magnetic fields (B > 5 T) the integral quantum Hall regime is reached, where the Hall resistance ρ xy is quantized to h/e 2 j (j is the number of filled Landau levels of the 2DEG). In this high field regime detailed measurements are given of the resistivity ρ xx and the Hall resistance ρ xy as function of temperature T and current density j x . An unexpected high accuracy of the Hall resistance ρ xy at magnetic field values close to a fully occupied Landau level is found, despite the high value of the diagonal resistivity ρ xx . At high current densities j x in the quantum Hall regime (j = 1) a sudden breakdown of the quantized resistance value associated with a jump-like switching to the next lower quantized value h/2e 2 is observed. A simple macroscopic picture is proposed to account for these novel transport properties associated with the quantum Hall effect. (author)
Past Quantum States of a Monitored System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
A density matrix ρ(t) yields probabilistic information about the outcome of measurements on a quantum system. We introduce here the past quantum state, which, at time T, accounts for the state of a quantum system at earlier times t...(t) and E(t), conditioned on the dynamics and the probing of the system until t and in the time interval [t, T], respectively. The past quantum state is characterized by its ability to make better predictions for the unknown outcome of any measurement at t than the conventional quantum state at that time....... On the one hand, our formalism shows how smoothing procedures for estimation of past classical signals by a quantum probe [M. Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 250403 (2009)] apply also to describe the past state of the quantum system itself. On the other hand, it generalizes theories of pre- and postselected...
Entangling transformations in composite finite quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vourdas, A
2003-01-01
Phase space methods are applied in the context of finite quantum systems. 'Galois quantum systems' (with a dimension which is a power of a prime number) are considered, and symplectic Sp(2,Z(d)) transformations are studied. Composite systems comprising two finite quantum systems are also considered. Symplectic Sp(4,Z(d)) transformations are classified into local and entangling ones and the necessary matrices which perform such transformations are calculated numerically
Development of an access control system for the LHD experimental hall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawano, T.; Inoue, N.; Sakuma, Y.; Uda, T.; Yamanishi, H.; Miyake, H.; Tanahashi, S.; Motozima, O.
2000-01-01
An access control system for the LHD (Large Helical Device) experimental hall had been constructed and its practical operation started in March 1998. Continuously, the system has been improved. The present system keeps watch on involved entrance and exit for the use of persons at four entrances by using five turnstile gates while watching on eight shielding doors at eight positions (four entrances, three carriage entrances and a hall overview) and a stairway connecting the LHD main hall with the LHD basement. Besides, for the security of safety operation of the LHD, fifteen kinds of interlock signals are exchanged between the access control system and the LHD control system. Seven of the interlock signals are properly sent as the occasional demands from the access control system to the LHD control system, in which three staple signals are B Personnel Access to Controlled Area, D Shielding Door Closed, and E No Entrance. It is important that any plasma experiments of the LHD are not permitted while the signal B being sent or D being not sent. The signal E is sent to inform the LHD control system that the turnstile gates are locked. All the plasma experiments should not be done unless the lock procedure of the turnstile is confirmed. When the turnstile gates are locked, any persons cannot enter into the LHD controlled area, but are permissible to exit only. Six of the interlock signals are used to send the information of the working at that time in the LHD controlled area to the access control system. When one signal of the operation mode is sent to the access control system from the LHD, the access control system sets the turnstile gate in situation corresponding to the operation mode, A Equipment Operation, B Vacuum Pumping, C Coil Cooling, D Coil Excitation, and E Plasma Experiment. If the access control system receives, for example, the signal B, this system sets the turnstile gate in the condition of control such that only persons assigned to the work of vacuum
Spin hall effect associated with SU(2) gauge field
Tao, Y.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the connection between spin Hall effect and spin force. Here we investigate that the spin force due to spin-orbit coupling, which, in two-dimensional system, is equivalent to forces of Hirsch and Chudnovsky besides constant factors 3 and frac{3}{2} respectively, is a part of classic Anandan force, and that the spin Hall effect is an anomalous Hall effect. Furthermore, we develop the method of AC phase to derive the expression for the spin force, and note that the most basic spin Hall effect indeed originate from the AC phase and is therefore an intrinsic quantum mechanical property of spin. This method differs from approach of Berry phase in the study of anomalous Hall effect , which is the intrinsic property of the perfect crystal. On the other hand, we use an elegant skill to show that the Chudnovsky-Drude model is reasonable. Here we have improved the theoretical values of spin Hall conductivity of Chudnovsky. Compared to the theoretical values of spin Hall conductivity in the Chudnovsky-Drude model, ours are in better agreement with experimentation. Finally, we discuss the relation between spin Hall effect and fractional statistics.
Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems.
Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro
2016-02-26
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. He
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we’ll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven’t been included in the
He, S.; Tang, Z.; Yang, S.
2015-09-01
Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we'll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven't been included in the management of the system
The Dynamical Invariant of Open Quantum System
Wu, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Yi, X. X.
2015-01-01
The dynamical invariant, whose expectation value is constant, is generalized to open quantum system. The evolution equation of dynamical invariant (the dynamical invariant condition) is presented for Markovian dynamics. Different with the dynamical invariant for the closed quantum system, the evolution of the dynamical invariant for the open quantum system is no longer unitary, and the eigenvalues of it are time-dependent. Since any hermitian operator fulfilling dynamical invariant condition ...
Quantum entanglement and quantum information in biological systems (DNA)
Hubač, Ivan; Švec, Miloslav; Wilson, Stephen
2017-12-01
Recent studies of DNA show that the hydrogen bonds between given base pairs can be treated as diabatic systems with spin-orbit coupling. For solid state systems strong diabaticity and spin-orbit coupling the possibility of forming Majorana fermions has been discussed. We analyze the hydrogen bonds in the base pairs in DNA from this perspective. Our analysis is based on a quasiparticle supersymmetric transformation which couples electronic and vibrational motion and includes normal coordinates and the corresponding momenta. We define qubits formed by Majorana fermions in the hydrogen bonds and also discuss the entangled states in base pairs. Quantum information and quantum entropy are introduced. In addition to the well-known classical information connected with the DNA base pairs, we also consider quantum information and show that the classical and quantum information are closely connected.
Quantum mechanics in complex systems
Hoehn, Ross Douglas
This document should be considered in its separation; there are three distinct topics contained within and three distinct chapters within the body of works. In a similar fashion, this abstract should be considered in three parts. Firstly, we explored the existence of multiply-charged atomic ions by having developed a new set of dimensional scaling equations as well as a series of relativistic augmentations to the standard dimensional scaling procedure and to the self-consistent field calculations. Secondly, we propose a novel method of predicting drug efficacy in hopes to facilitate the discovery of new small molecule therapeutics by modeling the agonist-protein system as being similar to the process of Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy. Finally, we facilitate the instruction in basic quantum mechanical topics through the use of quantum games; this method of approach allows for the generation of exercises with the intent of conveying the fundamental concepts within a first year quantum mechanics classroom. Furthermore, no to be mentioned within the body of the text, yet presented in appendix form, certain works modeling the proliferation of cells types within the confines of man-made lattices for the purpose of facilitating artificial vascular transplants. In Chapter 2, we present a theoretical framework which describes multiply-charged atomic ions, their stability within super-intense laser fields, also lay corrections to the systems due to relativistic effects. Dimensional scaling calculations with relativistic corrections for systems: H, H-, H 2-, He, He-, He2-, He3- within super-intense laser fields were completed. Also completed were three-dimensional self consistent field calculations to verify the dimensionally scaled quantities. With the aforementioned methods the system's ability to stably bind 'additional' electrons through the development of multiple isolated regions of high potential energy leading to nodes of high electron density is shown
Dissipation and decoherence in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menskii, Mikhail B
2003-01-01
The theory of dissipative quantum systems and its relation to the quantum theory of continuous measurements are reviewed. Constructing a correct theory of a dissipative quantum system requires that the system's interaction with its environment (reservoir) be taken into account. Since information about the system is 'recorded' in the state of the reservoir, the quantum theory of continuous measurements can be used to account for the influence of the reservoir. If based on the use of restricted path integrals, this theory does not require an explicit reservoir model and is therefore much simpler technically. (reviews of topical problems)
Quantum speed limits in open system dynamics.
del Campo, A; Egusquiza, I L; Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F
2013-02-01
Bounds to the speed of evolution of a quantum system are of fundamental interest in quantum metrology, quantum chemical dynamics, and quantum computation. We derive a time-energy uncertainty relation for open quantum systems undergoing a general, completely positive, and trace preserving evolution which provides a bound to the quantum speed limit. When the evolution is of the Lindblad form, the bound is analogous to the Mandelstam-Tamm relation which applies in the unitary case, with the role of the Hamiltonian being played by the adjoint of the generator of the dynamical semigroup. The utility of the new bound is exemplified in different scenarios, ranging from the estimation of the passage time to the determination of precision limits for quantum metrology in the presence of dephasing noise.
Quantum efficiency measurement system for large area CsI photodetectors
Cusanno, F; Colilli, S; Crateri, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giuliani, F; Gricia, M; Lucentini, M; Mostarda, A; Santavenere, F; Veneroni, P; Breuer, H; Iodice, M; Urciuoli, G M; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Lagamba, L; Braem, André
2003-01-01
A proximity focusing freon/CsI RICH detector has been built for kaon physics at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF or Jefferson Lab), Hall A. The Cherenkov photons are detected by a UV photosensitive CsI film which has been obtained by vacuum evaporation. A dedicated evaporation facility for large area photocathodes has been built for this task. A measuring system has been built to allow the evaluation of the absolute quantum efficiency (QE) just after the evaporation. The evaporation facility is described here, as well as the quantum efficiency measurement device. Results of the QE on-line measurements, for the first time on large area photocathodes, are reported.
High Voltage Hall Accelerator Propulsion System Development for NASA Science Missions
Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Mathers, Alex
2013-01-01
NASA Science Mission Directorates In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.8 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn Research Center and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster have been performed. In addition, the HiVHAc project is also pursuing the development of a power processing unit (PPU) and xenon feed system (XFS) for integration with the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster. Colorado Power Electronics and NASA Glenn Research Center have tested a brassboard PPU for more than 1,500 hours in a vacuum environment, and a new brassboard and engineering model PPU units are under development. VACCO Industries developed a xenon flow control module which has undergone qualification testing and will be integrated with the HiVHAc thruster extended duration tests. Finally, recent mission studies have shown that the HiVHAc propulsion system has sufficient performance for four Discovery- and two New Frontiers-class NASA design reference missions.
Quantum open system theory: bipartite aspects.
Yu, T; Eberly, J H
2006-10-06
We demonstrate in straightforward calculations that even under ideally weak noise the relaxation of bipartite open quantum systems contains elements not previously encountered in quantum noise physics. While additivity of decay rates is known to be generic for decoherence of a single system, we demonstrate that it breaks down for bipartite coherence of even the simplest composite systems.
Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits
Cleland, Andrew
Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.
Macroscopic quantum systems and gravitational phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pikovski, I.
2014-01-01
Low-energy quantum systems are studied theoretically in light of possible experiments to test the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity. The research focus in this thesis is on quantum systems which can be controlled with very high precision and which allow for tests of quantum theory at novel scales in terms of mass and size. The pulsed regime of opto-mechanics is explored and it is shown how short optical pulses can be used to prepare and characterize quantum states of a massive mechanical resonator, and how some phenomenological models of quantum gravity can be probed. In addition, quantum interferometry with photons and matter-waves in the presence of gravitational time dilation is considered. It is shown that time dilation causes entanglement between internal states and the center-of-mass position and that it leads to decoherence of all composite quantum systems. The results of the thesis show that the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity affects even low-energy quantum systems and that it offers novel phenomena which can be probed in experiments. (author) [de
Controllable Subspaces of Open Quantum Dynamical Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Ming; Gong Erling; Xie Hongwei; Hu Dewen; Dai Hongyi
2008-01-01
This paper discusses the concept of controllable subspace for open quantum dynamical systems. It is constructively demonstrated that combining structural features of decoherence-free subspaces with the ability to perform open-loop coherent control on open quantum systems will allow decoherence-free subspaces to be controllable. This is in contrast to the observation that open quantum dynamical systems are not open-loop controllable. To a certain extent, this paper gives an alternative control theoretical interpretation on why decoherence-free subspaces can be useful for quantum computation.
Capacity on wireless quantum cellular communication system
Zhou, Xiang-Zhen; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen
2018-03-01
Quantum technology is making excellent prospects in future communication networks. Entanglement generation and purification are two major components in quantum networks. Combining these two techniques with classical cellular mobile communication, we proposed a novel wireless quantum cellular(WQC) communication system which is possible to realize commercial mobile quantum communication. In this paper, the architecture and network topology of WQC communication system are discussed, the mathematical model of WQC system is extracted and the serving capacity, indicating the ability to serve customers, is defined and calculated under certain circumstances.
Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems
Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"
2007-01-01
The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...
Energy balance for a dissipative quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Jishad
2014-01-01
The role of random force in maintaining equilibrium in a dissipative quantum system is studied here. We compute the instantaneous power supplied by the fluctuating (random) force, which provides information about the work done by the random force on the quantum subsystem of interest. The quantum Langevin equation formalism is used here to verify that, at equilibrium, the work done by the fluctuating force balances the energy lost by the quantum subsystem to the heat bath. The quantum subsystem we choose to couple to the heat bath is the charged oscillator in a magnetic field. We perform the calculations using the Drude regularized spectral density of bath oscillators instead of using a strict ohmic spectral density that gives memoryless damping. We also discuss the energy balance for our dissipative quantum system and in this regard it is to be understood that the physical system is the charged magneto-oscillator coupled to the heat bath, not the uncoupled charged magneto-oscillator. (paper)
High Accuracy Beam Current Monitor System for CEBAF'S Experimental Hall A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
J. Denard; A. Saha; G. Lavessiere
2001-01-01
CEBAF accelerator delivers continuous wave (CW) electron beams to three experimental Halls. In Hall A, all experiments require continuous, non-invasive current measurements and a few experiments require an absolute accuracy of 0.2 % in the current range from 1 to 180 (micro)A. A Parametric Current Transformer (PCT), manufactured by Bergoz, has an accurate and stable sensitivity of 4 (micro)A/V but its offset drifts at the muA level over time preclude its direct use for continuous measurements. Two cavity monitors are calibrated against the PCT with at least 50 (micro)A of beam current. The calibration procedure suppresses the error due to PCT's offset drifts by turning the beam on and off, which is invasive to the experiment. One of the goals of the system is to minimize the calibration time without compromising the measurement's accuracy. The linearity of the cavity monitors is a critical parameter for transferring the accurate calibration done at high currents over the whole dynamic range. The method for measuring accurately the linearity is described
Two-dimensional hole systems in indium-based quantum well heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loher, Josef
2016-08-01
The complex spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) systems - the relativistic coupling of the hole spin degree of freedom to their movement in an electric field - is of fundamental interest in spin physics due to its key role for spin manipulation in spintronic devices. In this work, we were able to evaluate the tunability of Rashba-SOI-related parameters in the 2DHG system of InAlAs/InGaAs/InAs:Mn quantum well heterostructures experimentally by analyzing the hole density evolution of quantum interference effects at low magnetic fields. We achieved to cover a significant range of hole densities by the joint action of the variation of the manganese modulation doping concentration during molecular beam epitaxy and external field-effect-mediated manipulation of the 2D carrier density in Hall bar devices by a metallic topgate. Within these magnetotransport experiments, a reproducible phenomenon of remarkable robustness emerged in the transverse Hall magnetoresistivity of the indium 2DHG systems which are grown on a special InAlAs step-graded metamorphic buffer layer structure to compensate crystal lattice mismatch. As a consequence of the strain relaxation process, these material systems are characterized by anisotropic properties along different crystallographic directions. We identify a puzzling offset phenomenon in the zero-field Hall magnetoresistance and demonstrate it to be a universal effect in systems with spatially anisotropic transport properties.
High Voltage Solar Array Arc Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System
Schneider, Todd; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.; Ferguson, D.; Kerslake, T. W.; Peterson, T.; Snyder, D.; Hoskins, A.
2004-01-01
The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (D2HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration trigger arcs as well as long duration sustained arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of voltage, current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (greater than 300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.
Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems
2015-07-09
dimensional Dirac material systems. 2 List of Publications 1. X. Ni, L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, and L. M. Pecora, “Effect of chaos on relativistic quantum...development of relativistic quantum devices based on graphene or alternative two-dimensional Dirac material systems. In the project period, we studied
Dynamical entropy for infinite quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hudetz, T.
1990-01-01
We review the recent physical application of the so-called Connes-Narnhofer-Thirring entropy, which is the successful quantum mechanical generalization of the classical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and, by its very conception, is a dynamical entropy for infinite quantum systems. We thus comparingly review also the physical applications of the classical dynamical entropy for infinite classical systems. 41 refs. (Author)
Linear response theory for quantum open systems
Wei, J. H.; Yan, YiJing
2011-01-01
Basing on the theory of Feynman's influence functional and its hierarchical equations of motion, we develop a linear response theory for quantum open systems. Our theory provides an effective way to calculate dynamical observables of a quantum open system at its steady-state, which can be applied to various fields of non-equilibrium condensed matter physics.
Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems
Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking. PMID:23818819
Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yifan Xing
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking.
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krueger, O.
2006-04-06
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Quantum information theory with Gaussian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krueger, O.
2006-01-01
This thesis applies ideas and concepts from quantum information theory to systems of continuous-variables such as the quantum harmonic oscillator. The focus is on three topics: the cloning of coherent states, Gaussian quantum cellular automata and Gaussian private channels. Cloning was investigated both for finite-dimensional and for continuous-variable systems. We construct a private quantum channel for the sequential encryption of coherent states with a classical key, where the key elements have finite precision. For the case of independent one-mode input states, we explicitly estimate this precision, i.e. the number of key bits needed per input state, in terms of these parameters. (orig.)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Semenchinsky, S. G.; Chrobok, P.; Svoboda, Pavel
2008-01-01
Roč. 51, č. 12 (2008), s. 1351-1356 ISSN 0543-1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : resistance unit * quantum Hall effect * comparison * standards Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.151, year: 2008
Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grib, A; Khrennikov, A; Parfionov, G; Starkov, K
2006-01-01
Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered
Quantum equilibria for macroscopic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grib, A [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Russian State Pedagogical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khrennikov, A [Centre for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences Vaexjoe University (Sweden); Parfionov, G [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation); Starkov, K [Department of Mathematics, St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finances (Russian Federation)
2006-06-30
Nash equilibria are found for some quantum games with particles with spin-1/2 for which two spin projections on different directions in space are measured. Examples of macroscopic games with the same equilibria are given. Mixed strategies for participants of these games are calculated using probability amplitudes according to the rules of quantum mechanics in spite of the macroscopic nature of the game and absence of Planck's constant. A possible role of quantum logical lattices for the existence of macroscopic quantum equilibria is discussed. Some examples for spin-1 cases are also considered.
Interaction between classical and quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherry, T.N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1977-10-01
An unconventional approach to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is considered--the apparatus is treated as a classical system, belonging to the macro-world. In order to have a measurement the apparatus must interact with the quantum system. As a first step, the classical apparatus is embedded into a large quantum mechanical structure, making use of a superselection principle. The apparatus and system are coupled such that the apparatus remains classical (principle of integrity), and unambiguous information of the values of a quantum observable are transferred to the variables of the apparatus. Further measurement of the classical apparatus can be done, causing no problems of principle. Thus interactions causing pointers to move (which are not treated) can be added. The restrictions placed by the principle of integrity on the form of the interaction between classical and quantum systems are examined and illustration is given by means of a simple example in which one sees the principle of integrity at work
Non-perturbative description of quantum systems
Feranchuk, Ilya; Le, Van-Hoang; Ulyanenkov, Alexander
2015-01-01
This book introduces systematically the operator method for the solution of the Schrödinger equation. This method permits to describe the states of quantum systems in the entire range of parameters of Hamiltonian with a predefined accuracy. The operator method is unique compared with other non-perturbative methods due to its ability to deliver in zeroth approximation the uniformly suitable estimate for both ground and excited states of quantum system. The method has been generalized for the application to quantum statistics and quantum field theory. In this book, the numerous applications of operator method for various physical systems are demonstrated. Simple models are used to illustrate the basic principles of the method which are further used for the solution of complex problems of quantum theory for many-particle systems. The results obtained are supplemented by numerical calculations, presented as tables and figures.
Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton Pljonkin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein.
Mixing and entropy increase in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narnhofer, H.; Pflug, A.; Thirring, W.
1989-01-01
This paper attempts to explain the key feature of deterministic chaotic classical systems and how they can be translated to quantum systems. To do so we develop the appropriate algebraic language for the non-specialist. 22 refs. (Author)
Symmetries in Hall-like systems: microwave and nonlinear transport effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, Manuel; Kunold, Alejandro
2008-01-01
In this work, we present a model to describe the nonlinear response to a dc electrical current of a two-dimensional electron system subjected to magnetic and microwave fields. Considering the separation of the electron coordinates into the non-commuting relative and guiding center coordinates, we obtain a unitary transformation that exactly solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in the presence of arbitrarily strong electric, magnetic and microwave fields. Based on this formalism, we provide a Kubo-like formula that takes into account the oscillatory Floquet structure of the problem. We discuss results related to the recently discovered zero-resistance states and to the microwave-induced resistivity oscillations and the Hall-induced resistivity oscillations