Mesoscopic Elastic Distortions in GaAs Quantum Dot Heterostructures.
Pateras, Anastasios; Park, Joonkyu; Ahn, Youngjun; Tilka, Jack A; Holt, Martin V; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner; Baart, Timothy A; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Mukhopadhyay, Uditendu; Vandersypen, Lieven M K; Evans, Paul G
2018-05-09
Quantum devices formed in high-electron-mobility semiconductor heterostructures provide a route through which quantum mechanical effects can be exploited on length scales accessible to lithography and integrated electronics. The electrostatic definition of quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructure devices intrinsically involves the lithographic fabrication of intricate patterns of metallic electrodes. The formation of metal/semiconductor interfaces, growth processes associated with polycrystalline metallic layers, and differential thermal expansion produce elastic distortion in the active areas of quantum devices. Understanding and controlling these distortions present a significant challenge in quantum device development. We report synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction measurements combined with dynamical X-ray diffraction modeling that reveal lattice tilts with a depth-averaged value up to 0.04° and strain on the order of 10 -4 in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Elastic distortions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures modify the potential energy landscape in the 2DEG due to the generation of a deformation potential and an electric field through the piezoelectric effect. The stress induced by metal electrodes directly impacts the ability to control the positions of the potential minima where quantum dots form and the coupling between neighboring quantum dots.
Homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira, Kayo Oliveira [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Bettini, Jefferson [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, Jefferson Luis [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil); Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.br [Grupo de Pesquisa em Química de Materiais – (GPQM), Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Dom Bosco, Praça Dom Helvécio, 74, CEP 36301-160, São João del-Rei, MG (Brazil)
2015-01-15
The development of homogeneous CdTe quantum dots-carbon nanotubes heterostructures based on electrostatic interactions has been investigated. We report a simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route that can be accomplished at room temperature, to prepare colloidal composites consisting of CdTe nanocrystals deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with a thin layer of polyelectrolytes by layer-by-layer technique. Specifically, physical adsorption of polyelectrolytes such as poly (4-styrene sulfonate) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) was used to deagglomerate and disperse MWCNTs, onto which we deposited CdTe quantum dots coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), as surface ligand, via electrostatic interactions. Confirmation of the CdTe quantum dots/carbon nanotubes heterostructures was done by transmission and scanning electron microscopies (TEM and SEM), dynamic-light scattering (DLS) together with absorption, emission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies (UV–vis, PL, Raman and FT-IR). Almost complete quenching of the PL band of the CdTe quantum dots was observed after adsorption on the MWCNTs, presumably through efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs. - Highlights: • Highly homogeneous CdTe-carbon nanotubes heterostructures were prepared. • Simple and reproducible non-covalent functionalization route. • CdTe nanocrystals homogeneously deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Efficient energy transfer process from photoexcited CdTe to MWCNTs.
Wannier-Frenkel hybrid exciton in organic-semiconductor quantum dot heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birman, Joseph L.; Huong, Nguyen Que
2007-01-01
The formation of a hybridization state of Wannier Mott exciton and Frenkel exciton in different hetero-structure configurations involving quantum dots is investigated. The hybrid excitons exist at the interfaces of the semiconductors quantum dots and the organic medium, having unique properties and a large optical non-linearity. The coupling at resonance is very strong and tunable by changing the parameters of the systems (dot radius, dot-dot distance, generation of the organic dendrites and the materials of the system etc...). Different semiconductor quantum dot-organic material combination systems have been considered such as a semiconductor quantum dot lattice embedded in an organic host, a semiconductor quantum dot at the center of an organic dendrite, a semiconductor quantum dot coated by an organic shell
A fabrication guide for planar silicon quantum dot heterostructures
Spruijtenburg, Paul C.; Amitonov, Sergey V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Zwanenburg, Floris A.
2018-04-01
We describe important considerations to create top-down fabricated planar quantum dots in silicon, often not discussed in detail in literature. The subtle interplay between intrinsic material properties, interfaces and fabrication processes plays a crucial role in the formation of electrostatically defined quantum dots. Processes such as oxidation, physical vapor deposition and atomic-layer deposition must be tailored in order to prevent unwanted side effects such as defects, disorder and dewetting. In two directly related manuscripts written in parallel we use techniques described in this work to create depletion-mode quantum dots in intrinsic silicon, and low-disorder silicon quantum dots defined with palladium gates. While we discuss three different planar gate structures, the general principles also apply to 0D and 1D systems, such as self-assembled islands and nanowires.
InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot-quantum-well heterostructure formed by submonolayer deposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Zhangcheng; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan
2003-01-01
-dot-quantum-well (QDQW) structure, by using high power PL and selective PL with excitation energies below the band gap of the GaAs barriers and temperature dependent PL. As the temperature is increased from 10 to 300 K, a narrowing of the full width at half-maximum at intermediate temperatures and a sigmoidal behaviour......Discrete emission lines from self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown in the submonolayer (SML) deposition mode have been observed in micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 10 K. For the first time, the SML-grown InGaAs/GaAs QD heterostructure is verified to be a quantum...
A Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire-based double quantum dot with integrated charge sensor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hu, Yongjie; Churchill, Hugh; Reilly, David
2007-01-01
Coupled electron spins in semiconductor double quantum dots hold promise as the basis for solid-state qubits. To date, most experiments have used III-V materials, in which coherence is limited by hyperfine interactions. Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires seem ideally suited to overcome this limitati...
Development of an eight-band theory for quantum dot heterostructures
Pokatilov, E.P.; Fonoberov, V.A.; Fomin, V.; Devreese, J.T.
2001-01-01
We derive a nonsymmetrized eight-band effective-mass Hamiltonian for quantum dot heterostructures (QDH's) in Burt's envelope-function representation. The 8*8 radial Hamiltonian and the boundary conditions for the Schrodinger equation are obtained for spherical QDH's. Boundary conditions for
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Carsten
2008-07-01
This work is focused on the optical dynamics of mesoscopic semiconductor heterostructures, using as prototypes zero-dimensional quantum dots and quantum cascade lasers which consist of quasitwo- dimensional quantum wells. Within a density matrix theory, a microscopic many-particle theory is applied to study scattering effects in these structures: the coupling to external as well as local fields, electron-phonon coupling, coupling to impurities, and Coulomb coupling. For both systems, the investigated effects are compared to experimentally observed results obtained during the past years. In quantum dots, the three-dimensional spatial confinement leads to the necessity to consider a quantum kinetic description of the dynamics, resulting in non-Markovian electron-phonon effects. This can be seen in the spectral phonon sidebands due to interaction with acoustic phonons as well as a damping of nonlinear Rabi oscillations which shows a nonmonotonous intensity and pulse duration dependence. An analysis of the inclusion of the self-interaction of the quantum dot shows that no dynamical local field terms appear for the simple two-level model. Considering local fields which have their origin in many quantum dots, consequences for a two-level quantum dot such as a zero-phonon line broadening and an increasing signal in photon echo experiments are found. For the use of quantum dots in an optical spin control scheme, it is found that the dephasing due to the electron-phonon interaction can be dominant in certain regimes. Furthermore, soliton and breather solutions are studied analytically in nonlinear quantum dot ensembles. Generalizing to quasi-two-dimensional structures, the intersubband dynamics of quantum cascade laser structures is investigated. A dynamical theory is considered in which the temporal evolution of the subband populations and the current density as well as the influence of scattering effects is studied. In the nonlinear regime, the scattering dependence and
Formation of Si/Ge/Si heterostructures with quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinov'ev, V.A.; Dvurechenskij, A.V.; Novikov, P.L.
2003-01-01
It is present the Monte Carlo simulation of epitaxial embedding of faceted three-dimensional Ge islands (quantum dots) in a Si matrix. Under a Si flux these islands expand and undergo a shape change (from pyramidal to drop-like shape). The main expansion occurs at initial stage of embedding in Si (deposition of 1-2 monolayers). This change is controlled by surface diffusion. The shape of island can be preserved when one uses the higher Si fluxes. The reason of island conservation lies in blocking of Ge surface diffusion [ru
Advanced Optoelectronic Devices based on Si Quantum Dots/Si Nanowires Hetero-structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, J; Zhai, Y Y; Cao, Y Q; Chen, K J
2017-01-01
Si quantum dots are currently extensively studied since they can be used to develop many kinds of optoelectronic devices. In this report, we review the fabrication of Si quantum dots (Si QD) /Si nanowires (Si NWs) hetero-structures by deposition of Si QDs/SiO 2 or Si QDs/SiC multilayers on Si NWs arrays. The electroluminescence and photovoltaic devices based on the formed hetero-structures have been prepared and the improved performance is confirmed. It is also found that the surface recombination via the surface defects states on the Si NWs, especially the ones obtained by the long-time etching, may deteriorate the device properties though they exhibit the better anti-reflection characteristics. The possible surface passivation approaches are briefly discussed. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parkhomenko, Ya. A.; Ivanov, E. V.; Moiseev, K. D., E-mail: mkd@iropt2.ioffe.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)
2013-11-15
The electrical and electroluminescence properties of a single narrow-gap heterostructure based on a p-n junction in indium arsenide, containing a single layer of InSb quantum dots in the InAs matrix, are studied. The presence of quantum dots has a significant effect on the shape of the reverse branch of the current-voltage characteristic of the heterostructure. Under reverse bias, the room-temperature electroluminescence spectra of the heterostructure with quantum dots, in addition to a negative-luminescence band with a maximum at the wavelength {lambda} = 3.5 {mu}m, contained a positive-luminescence emission band at 3.8 {mu}m, caused by radiative transitions involving localized states of quantum dots at the type-II InSb/InAs heterointerface.
Enhanced monolayer MoS2/InP heterostructure solar cells by graphene quantum dots
Wang, Peng; Lin, Shisheng; Ding, Guqiao; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Zhijuan; Xu, Sen; Lu, Yanghua; Xu, Wenli; Zheng, Zheyang
2016-04-01
We demonstrate significantly improved photovoltaic response of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)/indium phosphide (InP) van der Waals heterostructure induced by graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Raman and photoluminescence measurements indicate that effective charge transfer takes place between GQDs and MoS2, which results in n-type doping of MoS2. The doping effect increases the barrier height at the MoS2/InP heterojunction, thus the averaged power conversion efficiency of MoS2/InP solar cells is improved from 2.1% to 4.1%. The light induced doping by GQD provides a feasible way for developing more efficient MoS2 based heterostructure solar cells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nevedomskiy, V. N.; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.
2015-01-01
A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix
Sub-monolayer Deposited InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Dot Heterostructures and Lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Zhangcheng
2004-01-01
deposition, the deposition of a short-period InAs/GaAs superlattice on GaAs (100) surface with an InAs effective thickness of less than 1 monolayer (ML), results in the formatioin of nanometer scale (In,Ga)As QDs of a non-SK class.In this thesis, the SML InGaAs/GaAs QDs are formed by 10 cycles of alternate......The fabrication, characterization and exploitation of self-assembled quantum dot (QD) heterostructures have attracted much attention not only in basic research, but also by the promising device applications such as QD lasers. The Stranski-Krastanow (SK) growth and the submonolayer (SML) deposition...... deposition of 0.5 ML InAs and 2.5 MLGaAs. The growth, structure, and optical properties of SML InGaAs/GaAs QD heterostructures are investigated in detail. SML InGaAs/GaAs QD lasers lasing even at room temperature have been successfully realized. The gain properties of SML InGaAs QD lasers are studied...
Optical response of confined excitons in GaInAsSb/GaSb Quantum Dots heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez-Cano, R [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Occidente, A.A. 2790, Cali (Colombia); Tirado-Mejia, L; Fonthal, G; Ariza-Calderon, H [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio, A.A. 4603 Armenia (Colombia); Porras-Montenegro, N, E-mail: rsanchez40@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)
2009-05-01
The narrow-gap Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} compounds are suitable materials for heterostructure devices operating in the infrared wavelength range. In these compounds grown by liquid phase epitaxy over GaSb single crystals, for x and y values in the range of 0.10 to 0.14 for both variables, the photoluminescence optical response at 12K is blue-shifted by 20 meV related to the photoreflectance response. We believe this behavior is due to possible higher electronic confinement in some places of the heterostructure, possibly formed in the interface during the growth process. In order to explain this behavior, in this work we study the exciton recombination energy in spherical Quantum Dots (QDs) on Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y}/GaSb, using the variational procedure within the effective-mass approximation and considering an electron in a Type I band alignment formed by two semiconductors with similar parabolic conduction bands. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental results.
Han, Shikui
2017-07-04
Preparation of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures is important not only fundamentally, but also technologically for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile colloidal method for the synthesis of WOn -WX2 (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures by sulfurization or selenization of WOn nanomaterials. The WOn -WX2 heterostructures are composed of WO2.9 nanoparticles (NPs) or WO2.7 nanowires (NWs) grown together with single- or few-layer WX2 nanosheets (NSs). As a proof-of-concept application, the WOn -WX2 heterostructures are used as the anode interfacial buffer layer for green quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). The QLED prepared with WO2.9 NP-WSe2 NS heterostructures achieves external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.53 %. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency in the reported green QLEDs using inorganic materials as the hole injection layer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Studenikin, S. A.; Gaudreau, L.; Kataoka, K.; Austing, D. G.; Lu, Tzu-Ming; Luhman, Dwight; Bethke, Donald Thomas; Wanke, Michael; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Sachrajda, A. S.
2017-12-01
We demonstrate coupled triple dot operation and charge sensing capability for the recently introduced quantum dot technology employing undoped Si/Si_{0.8}Ge_{0.2} hetero-structures which also incorporate a single metal-gate layer to simplify fabrication [T. M. Lu et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 093102 (2016)]. Si/SiGe hetero-structures with a Ge concentration of 20% rather than the more usual 30% typically encountered offer higher electron mobility. The devices consist of two in-plane parallel electron channels that host a double dot in one channel and a single dot in the other channel. In a device where the channels are sufficiently close a triple dot in a triangular configuration is induced leading to regions in the charge stability diagram where three addition lines of different slope approach each other and anti-cross. In a device where the channels are further apart the single dot charge-senses the double dot with relative change of ~2% in the sensor current. We also highlight temporal drifting and metastability of the Coulomb oscillations. These effects are induced if the temperature environment of the device is not kept constant and arise from non-equilibrium charge redistribution and subsequent slow recovery.
Exciton binding energy in GaAsBiN spherical quantum dot heterostructures
Das, Subhasis; Dhar, S.
2017-03-01
The ground state exciton binding energies (EBE) of heavy hole excitons in GaAs1-x-yBixNy - GaAs spherical quantum dots (QD) are calculated using a variational approach under 1s hydrogenic wavefunctions within the framework of effective mass approximation. Both the nitrogen and the bismuth content in the material are found to affect the binding energy, in particular for larger nitrogen content and lower dot radii. Calculations also show that the ground state exciton binding energies of heavy holes increase more at smaller dot sizes as compared to that for the light hole excitons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kouwenhoven, L.; Marcus, C.
1998-01-01
Quantum dots are man-made ''droplets'' of charge that can contain anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousand. Their typical dimensions range from nanometres to a few microns, and their size, shape and interactions can be precisely controlled through the use of advanced nanofabrication technology. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. Indeed, quantum dots exemplify an important trend in condensed-matter physics in which researchers study man-made objects rather than real atoms or nuclei. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantized due to the confinement of electrons. With quantum dots, however, an experimentalist can scan through the entire periodic table by simply changing a voltage. In this article the authors describe how quantum dots make it possible to explore new physics in regimes that cannot otherwise be accessed in the laboratory. (UK)
Tartakovskii, Alexander
2012-07-01
Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by
Lu, Yanghua; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Lin, Shisheng
2016-12-01
A ZnO quantum dot photo-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity of more than 1915 A W-1 and detectivity of more than 1.02 × 1013 Jones (Jones = cm Hz1/2 W-1) has been demonstrated. The interfaced h-BN layer increases the barrier height at the graphene/GaN heterojunction, which decreases the dark current and improves the on/off current ratio of the device. The photo-doping effect increases the barrier height and carrier concentration at the graphene/h-BN/GaN heterojunction, thus the responsivity is improved from 1473 A W-1 to 1915 A W-1 and the detectivity is improved from 5.8 × 1012 to 1.0 × 1013 Jones. Moreover, all of the responsivity and detectivity values are the highest values among all the graphene-based ultraviolet photodetectors.
Heterostructures and quantum devices
Einspruch, Norman G
1994-01-01
Heterostructure and quantum-mechanical devices promise significant improvement in the performance of electronic and optoelectronic integrated circuits (ICs). Though these devices are the subject of a vigorous research effort, the current literature is often either highly technical or narrowly focused. This book presents heterostructure and quantum devices to the nonspecialist, especially electrical engineers working with high-performance semiconductor devices. It focuses on a broad base of technical applications using semiconductor physics theory to develop the next generation of electrical en
Electron and hole spectrum in InAs quantum dot renormalized by InAs/GaAs heterostructure deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dan'kiv, O.O.; Peleshchak, R.M.
2005-01-01
Analytical expressions describing the energy spectrum of electrons and holes are obtained for a quantum dot occurring in a self-consistent strain field created by an array of coherently stressed quantum dots. A method of taking into account the lattice mismatch at the quantum dot-matrix interface is proposed that allows for the dependence of the mismatch parameter on the quantum dot size and the matrix layer thickness. It is shown that the internal elastic strain arising at the quantum dot-matrix interface influences the energy spectrum of electrons more significantly than the spectrum of holes [ru
Fabrication and optical properties of type-II InP/InAs nanowire/quantum-dot heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Junshuai; Wu, Yao; Li, Bang; Ren, Xiaomin [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, 100876 (China)
2016-02-15
The growth and optical properties of InAs quantum dots on a pure zinc blende InP nanowire are investigated. The quantum dots are formed in Stranski-Krastanov mode and exhibit pure zinc blende crystal structure. A substantial blueshift of the dots peak with a cube-root dependence on the excitation power is observed, suggesting a type-II band alignment. The peak position of dots initially red-shifts and then blue-shifts with increasing temperature, which is attributed to the carrier redistribution among the quantum dots. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Yuryev, Vladimir A; Arapkina, Larisa V; Storozhevykh, Mikhail S; Chapnin, Valery A; Chizh, Kirill V; Uvarov, Oleg V; Kalinushkin, Victor P; Zhukova, Elena S; Prokhorov, Anatoly S; Spektor, Igor E; Gorshunov, Boris P
2012-07-23
: Issues of Ge hut cluster array formation and growth at low temperatures on the Ge/Si(001) wetting layer are discussed on the basis of explorations performed by high resolution STM and in-situ RHEED. Dynamics of the RHEED patterns in the process of Ge hut array formation is investigated at low and high temperatures of Ge deposition. Different dynamics of RHEED patterns during the deposition of Ge atoms in different growth modes is observed, which reflects the difference in adatom mobility and their 'condensation' fluxes from Ge 2D gas on the surface for different modes, which in turn control the nucleation rates and densities of Ge clusters. Data of HRTEM studies of multilayer Ge/Si heterostructures are presented with the focus on low-temperature formation of perfect films.Heteroepitaxial Si p-i-n-diodes with multilayer stacks of Ge/Si(001) quantum dot dense arrays built in intrinsic domains have been investigated and found to exhibit the photo-emf in a wide spectral range from 0.8 to 5 μm. An effect of wide-band irradiation by infrared light on the photo-emf spectra has been observed. Photo-emf in different spectral ranges has been found to be differently affected by the wide-band irradiation. A significant increase in photo-emf is observed in the fundamental absorption range under the wide-band irradiation. The observed phenomena are explained in terms of positive and neutral charge states of the quantum dot layers and the Coulomb potential of the quantum dot ensemble. A new design of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed.By using a coherent source spectrometer, first measurements of terahertz dynamical conductivity (absorptivity) spectra of Ge/Si(001) heterostructures were performed at frequencies ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 THz in the temperature interval from 300 to 5 K. The effective dynamical conductivity of the heterostructures with Ge quantum dots has been discovered to be significantly higher than that of the structure with the same amount of bulk
Lu, Yanghua; Wu, Zhiqian; Xu, Wenli; Lin, Shisheng
2016-12-02
A ZnO quantum dot photo-doped graphene/h-BN/GaN-heterostructure ultraviolet photodetector with extremely high responsivity of more than 1915 A W -1 and detectivity of more than 1.02 × 10 13 Jones (Jones = cm Hz 1/2 W -1 ) has been demonstrated. The interfaced h-BN layer increases the barrier height at the graphene/GaN heterojunction, which decreases the dark current and improves the on/off current ratio of the device. The photo-doping effect increases the barrier height and carrier concentration at the graphene/h-BN/GaN heterojunction, thus the responsivity is improved from 1473 A W -1 to 1915 A W -1 and the detectivity is improved from 5.8 × 10 12 to 1.0 × 10 13 Jones. Moreover, all of the responsivity and detectivity values are the highest values among all the graphene-based ultraviolet photodetectors.
VLS growth of alternating InAsP/InP heterostructure nanowires for multiple-quantum-dot structures.
Tateno, Kouta; Zhang, Guoqiang; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi
2012-06-13
We investigated the Au-assisted growth of alternating InAsP/InP heterostructures in wurtzite InP nanowires on InP(111)B substrates for constructing multiple-quantum-dot structures. Vertical InP nanowires without stacking faults were obtained at a high PH(3)/TMIn mole flow ratio of 300-1000. We found that the growth rate changed largely when approximately 40 min passed. Ten InAsP layers were inserted in the InP nanowire, and it was found that both the InP growth rate and the background As level increased after the As supply. We also grew the same structure using TBAs/TBP and could reduce the As level in the InP segments. A simulation using a finite-difference time-domain method suggests that the nanowire growth was dominated by the diffusion of the reaction species with long residence time on the surface. For TBAs/TBP, when the source gases were changed, the formed surface species showed a short diffusion length so as to reduce the As background after the InAsP growth.
Li, Han; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Zhepeng; Jiang, Tian
2018-01-25
The idea of fabricating artificial solids with band structures tailored to particular applications has long fascinated condensed matter physicists. Heterostructure (HS) construction is viewed as an effective and appealing approach to engineer novel electronic properties in two dimensional (2D) materials. Different from common 2D/2D heterojunctions where energy transfer is rarely observed, CsPbBr 3 quantum dots (0D-QDs) interfaced with 2D materials have become attractive HSs for exploring the physics of charge transfer and energy transfer, due to their superior optical properties. In this paper, a new 0D/2D HS is proposed and experimentally studied, making it possible to investigate both light utilization and energy transfer. Specifically, this HS is constructed between monolayer WS 2 and CsPbBr 3 QDs, and exhibits a hybrid band alignment. The dynamics of energy transfer within the investigated 0D/2D HS is characterized by femtosecond transient absorption spectrum (TAS) measurements. The TAS results reveal that ultrafast energy transfer caused by optical excitation is observed from CsPbBr 3 QDs to the WS 2 layer, which can increase the exciton fluence within the WS 2 layer up to 69% when compared with pristine ML WS 2 under the same excitation fluence. Moreover, the formation and dynamics of interlayer excitons have also been investigated and confirmed in the HS, with a calculated recombination time of 36.6 ps. Finally, the overall phenomenological dynamical scenario for the 0D/2D HS is established within the 100 ps time region after excitation. The techniques introduced in this work can also be applied to versatile optoelectronic devices based on low dimensional materials.
Zheng, Zhi; Gan, Lin; Zhang, Jianbing; Zhuge, Fuwei; Zhai, Tianyou
2017-03-01
ZnO nanostructure-based photodetectors have a wide applications in many aspects, however, the response range of which are mainly restricted in the UV region dictated by its bandgap. Herein, UV-vis-NIR sensitive ZnO photodetectors consisting of ZnO nanowires (NW) array/PbS quantum dots (QDs) heterostructures are fabricated through modified electrospining method and an exchanging process. Besides wider response region compared to pure ZnO NWs based photodetectors, the heterostructures based photodetectors have faster response and recovery speed in UV range. Moreover, such photodetectors demonstrate good flexibility as well, which maintain almost constant performances under extreme (up to 180°) and repeat (up to 200 cycles) bending conditions in UV-vis-NIR range. Finally, this strategy is further verified on other kinds of 1D nanowires and 0D QDs, and similar enhancement on the performance of corresponding photodetecetors can be acquired, evidencing the universality of this strategy.
Optical Spectroscopy Of Charged Quantum Dot Molecules
Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Doty, M. F.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.
2007-04-01
Coupling between two closely spaced quantum dots is observed by means of photoluminescence spectroscopy. Hole coupling is realized by rational crystal growth and heterostructure design. We identify molecular resonances of different excitonic charge states, including the important case of a doubly charged quantum dot molecule.
Kinnischtzke, Laura A.
We report on several experiments using single excitons confined to single semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Electric and magnetic fields have previously been used as experimental knobs to understand and control individual excitons in single quantum dots. We realize new ways of electric field control by changing materials and device geometry in the first two experiments with strain-based InAs QDs. A standard Schottky diode heterostructure is demonstrated with graphene as the Schottky gate material, and its performance is bench-marked against a diode with a standard gate material, semi-transparent nickel-chromium (NiCr). This change of materials increases the photon collection rate by eliminating absorption in the metallic NiCr layer. A second set of experiments investigates the electric field response of QDs as a possible metrology source. A linear voltage potential drop in a plane near the QDs is used to describe how the spatially varying voltage profile is also imparted on the QDs. We demonstrate a procedure to map this voltage profile as a preliminary route towards a full quantum sensor array. Lastly, InAs QDs are explored as potential spin-photon interfaces. We describe how a magnetic field is used to realize a reversible exchange of information between light and matter, including a discussion of the polarization-dependence of the photoluminesence, and how that can be linked to the spin of a resident electron or hole. We present evidence of this in two wavelength regimes for InAs quantum dots, and discuss how an external magnetic field informs the spin physics of these 2-level systems. This thesis concludes with the discovery of a new class of quantum dots. As-yet unidentified defect states in single layer tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) are shown to host quantum light emission. We explore the spatial extent of electron confinement and tentatively identify a radiative lifetime of 1 ns for these single photon emitters.
Unbound states in quantum heterostructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferreira R
2006-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWe report in this review on the electronic continuum states of semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots and highlight the decisive part played by the virtual bound states in the optical properties of these structures. The two particles continuum states of Quantum Dots control the decoherence of the excited electron – hole states. The part played by Auger scattering in Quantum Dots is also discussed.
From quantum dots to quantum circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ensslin, K.
2008-01-01
Full text: Quantum dots, or artificial atoms, confine charge carriers in three-dimensional islands in a semiconductor environment. Detailed understanding and exquisite control of the charge and spin state of the electrically tunable charge occupancy have been demonstrated over the years. Quantum dots with best quality for transport experiments are usually realized in n-type AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. Novel material systems, such as graphene, nanowires and p-type heterostructures offer unexplored parameter regimes in view of spin-orbit interactions, carrier-carrier interactions and hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins, which might be relevant for future spin qubits realized in quantum dots. With more sophisticated nanotechnology it has become possible to fabricate coupled quantum systems where classical and quantum mechanical coupling and back action is experimentally investigated. A narrow constriction, or quantum point contact, in vicinity to a quantum dot has been shown to serve as a minimally invasive sensor of the charge state of the dot. If charge transport through the quantum dot is slow enough (kHz), the charge sensor allows the detection of time-resolved transport through quantum-confined structures. This has allowed us to measure extremely small currents not detectable with conventional electronics. In addition the full statistics of current fluctuations becomes experimentally accessible. This way correlations between electrons which influence the current flow can be analyzed by measuring the noise and higher moments of the distribution of current fluctuations. Mesoscopic conductors driven out of equilibrium can emit photons which may be detected by another nearby quantum system with suitably tuned energy levels. This way an on-chip microwave single photon detector has been realized. In a ring geometry containing a tunable double quantum dot it has been possible to measure the self-interference of individual electrons as they traverse
Heterostructures on the basis of GaAs with quantum points of InAs for photo-electric transformers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maronchuk I. E.
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Heterostructures based on GaAs with InAs quantum dots obtained in the process of liquid-phase epitaxy by the method of pulse cooling of saturated solution in indium or heterostructures containing quantum dots in the area of the p–n-junction were much worse than control solar cells manufactured on the same structures but without quantum dots. Solar cells containing quantum dots in the p-region were slightly better than control solar cells.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hospodková, Alice; Zíková, Markéta; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Kubištová, Jana; Kuldová, Karla; Hazdra, P.; Hulicius, Eduard
2013-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 9 (2013), "095103-1"-"095103-9" ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1201; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dot * band alignment * InAs/GaAs * GaAsSb * MOVPE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.521, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/46/9/095103/
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan
1999-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution of...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan
Semiconductor quantum dots ("solid-state atoms") are promising candidates for quantum computers and future electronic and optoelectronic devices. Quantum dots are zero-dimensional electronic systems and therefore have discrete energy levels, similar to atoms or molecules. The size distribution of...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Shikui; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Junze; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bo; Luo, Zhimin; Ma, Qinglang; Sindoro, Melinda; Zhang, Hua [Center for Programmable Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Yang, Xuyong [Luminous. Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu [Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Wei [Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech) (China); Qi, Xiaoying [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore (Singapore); Sun, Xiao Wei [Luminous. Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Southern Univ. of Science and Technology, Nanshan, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)
2017-08-21
Preparation of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures is important not only fundamentally, but also technologically for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile colloidal method for the synthesis of WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures by sulfurization or selenization of WO{sub n} nanomaterials. The WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} heterostructures are composed of WO{sub 2.9} nanoparticles (NPs) or WO{sub 2.7} nanowires (NWs) grown together with single- or few-layer WX{sub 2} nanosheets (NSs). As a proof-of-concept application, the WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} heterostructures are used as the anode interfacial buffer layer for green quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). The QLED prepared with WO{sub 2.9} NP-WSe{sub 2} NS heterostructures achieves external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.53 %. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency in the reported green QLEDs using inorganic materials as the hole injection layer. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Quantum dot sensitized solar cell based on TiO2/CdS/Ag2S heterostructure
Pawar, Sachin A.; Patil, Dipali S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Patil, Pramod S.; Shin, Jae Cheol
2017-04-01
Quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) is fabricated based on a stepwise band structure of TiO2/CdS/Ag2S to improve the photoconversion efficiency of TiO2/CdS system by incorporating a low band gap Ag2S QDs. Vertically aligned TiO2 nanorods assembly is prepared by a simple hydrothermal technique. The formation of CdS and Ag2S QDs over TiO2 nanorods assembly as a photoanode is carried out by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The synthesized electrode materials are characterized by XRD, XPS, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Optical, solar cell and electrochemical performances. The results designate that the QDs of CdS and Ag2S have efficiently covered exterior surfaces of TiO2 nanorods assembly. A cautious evaluation between TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/Ag2S sensitized cells tells that CdS and Ag2S synergetically helps to enhance the light harvesting ability. Under AM 1.5G illumination, the photoanodes show an improved power conversion efficiency of 1.87%, in an aqueous polysulfide electrolyte with short-circuit photocurrent density of 7.03 mA cm-2 which is four fold higher than that of a TiO2/CdS system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang
2009-11-10
This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.
McDaniel, Hunter
2017-10-17
Common approaches to synthesizing alloyed quantum dots employ high-cost, air-sensitive phosphine complexes as the selenium precursor. Disclosed quantum dot synthesis embodiments avoid these hazardous and air-sensitive selenium precursors. Certain embodiments utilize a combination comprising a thiol and an amine that together reduce and complex the elemental selenium to form a highly reactive selenium precursor at room temperature. The same combination of thiol and amine acts as the reaction solvent, stabilizing ligand, and sulfur source in the synthesis of quantum dot cores. A non-injection approach may also be used. The optical properties of the quantum dots synthesized by this new approach can be finely tuned for a variety of applications by controlling size and/or composition of size and composition. Further, using the same approach, a shell can be grown around a quantum dot core that improves stability, luminescence efficiency, and may reduce toxicity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huebel, A.
2007-11-22
In this work, a double quantum dot system is studied whose two dots are electrically insulated from one another and contacted independently with two leads. The geometry is optimized to maximize the capacitive interaction between the dots. The samples are characterized by electrical transport measurements in a dilution refrigerator. It is then studied at different tunnel couplings how the capacitive interaction influences the electrical transport in equilibrium. Under certain conditions correlated tunnel processes can be observed. A simple model is derived that serves to understand these processes. The double quantum dot system is defined in lateral arrangement by reactive ion etching of a two-dimensional electron system located only 50 nm below the surface of a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure. The samples are characterized in a dilution refrigerator at 25 mK near the common pinch-off point of all four tunnel barriers. A measurement of the differential equilibrium conductances of both quantum dots as a function of two gate voltages yields a honeycomb-like charge stability diagram. The most important sample characteristic is the ratio between the interaction capacitance and the total capacitance of a single quantum dot. For the optimized sample, this ratio turns out to be larger than one third near the common pinch-off point, with a single-dot charging energy of up to 800 {mu}eV. At more positive gate voltages, the capacitances between the quantum dots and their leads increase more and more, thereby diminishing the charging energy. It is shown for the optimized sample that all capacitance coefficients except the dot-lead capacitances are constant to within considerable accuracy over several Coulomb blockade oscillations. In order to measure correlated electrical transport in equilibrium, special parameter regions are examined in which the charges of both quantum dots cannot fluctuate independently of each other. An analytical formula is derived that describes the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deus, Fernanda; Continetino, Mucio
2011-01-01
Full text. In this work we study the time dependent transport in interacting quantum dot. This is a zero-dimensional nano structure system which has quantized electronic states. In our purpose, we are interested in studying such system in a Coulomb blockade regime where a mean-field treatment of the electronic correlations are appropriate. The quantum dot is described by an Anderson type of Hamiltonian where the hybridization term arises from the contact with the leads. We consider a time dependence of both the energy of the localized state in the quantum dot and of the hybridization-like term. These time dependent parameters, under certain conditions, induce a current in the quantum dot even in the absence of difference on the chemical potential of the leads. The approach to this non-equilibrium problem requires the use of a Keldysh formalism. We calculate the non- equilibrium Green's functions and obtain results for the average (equilibrium term) and the non-equilibrium values of the electronic occupation number in the dot. we consider the possibility of a magnetic solution, with different values for the average up and down spins in the quantum dot. Our results allow to obtain, for instance, the tunneling current through the dot. The magnetic nature of the dot, for a certain range of parameters should give rise also to an induced spin current through the dot
Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime
Baart, T.A.; Eendebak, P.T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.
2016-01-01
We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the
Wu, Jiang
2014-01-01
This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapidly growing field of quantum dot molecules (QDMs). It offers state-of-the-art coverage of novel techniques and connects fundamental physical properties with device design.
Güçlü, Alev Devrim; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel
2014-01-01
This book reflects the current status of theoretical and experimental research of graphene based nanostructures, in particular quantum dots, at a level accessible to young researchers, graduate students, experimentalists and theorists. It presents the current state of research of graphene quantum dots, a single or few monolayer thick islands of graphene. It introduces the reader to the electronic and optical properties of graphite, intercalated graphite and graphene, including Dirac fermions, Berry's phase associated with sublattices and valley degeneracy, covers single particle properties of
Wu, Jiang
2013-01-01
The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou
Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver
2004-01-01
A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots
Gheshlaghi, Negar; Pisheh, Hadi Sedaghat; Ünlü, Hilmi
2017-11-01
We investigated the effect of ternary shell alloy composition on the bandgap and diameter of core of ZnSe / Cd1 - x Znx S heterostructure core/shell quantum dots, which were synthesized by using a simple colloidal technique. Characterization by using the x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopic techniques indicate that (i) there is a transition of ZnSe / Cd0.6 Zn0.4 S Type-I heterostructure (electrons and holes tend to localize in core) to ZnSe / Cd0.75 Zn0.25 S quasi-Type-II heterostructures (holes tend to localized in the core and electrons are delocalized) and (ii) then after large red shift and Stock-shift in PL emission spectra but not a distinct absorption peak in UV spectra become noticeable in ZnSe/Cd0.75Zn0.25 S quasi-Type II and ZnSe/CdS Type II heterostructures (electrons are localized in core and holes are localized in shell). Furthermore, the increase of Cd:S ratio in shell alloy composition shifts the XRD peaks to lower 2θ degrees which corresponds to tensile strain in the ZnSe core. Finally, the hydrostatic interfacial strain has effect on the squeezing or stretching the capped core: A decrease of compressive force on core from ZnSe/ZnS to tensile force in ZnSe/CdS with increase in Cd:S ratio indicates that transition of compressive strain to tensile strain takes place with the transition from Type-I to II heterostructure.
Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baart, T. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eendebak, P. T. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2016-05-23
We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the double quantum dots into the single-electron regime. The algorithm only requires (1) prior knowledge of the gate design and (2) the pinch-off value of the single gate T that is shared by all the quantum dots. This work significantly alleviates the user effort required to tune multiple quantum dot devices.
Hexagonal graphene quantum dots
Ghosh, Sumit; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2016-01-01
We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.
Hexagonal graphene quantum dots
Ghosh, Sumit
2016-12-05
We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.
Klimov, Victor I
2010-01-01
""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do
Quantum dots and nanocomposites.
Mansur, Herman Sander
2010-01-01
Quantum dots (QDs), also known as semiconducting nanoparticles, are promising zero-dimensional advanced materials because of their nanoscale size and because they can be engineered to suit particular applications such as nonlinear optical devices (NLO), electro-optical devices, and computing applications. QDs can be joined to polymers in order to produce nanocomposites which can be considered a scientific revolution of the 21st century. One of the fastest moving and most exciting interfaces of nanotechnology is the use of QDs in medicine, cell and molecular biology. Recent advances in nanomaterials have produced a new class of markers and probes by conjugating semiconductor QDs with biomolecules that have affinities for binding with selected biological structures. The nanoscale of QDs ensures that they do not scatter light at visible or longer wavelengths, which is important in order to minimize optical losses in practical applications. Moreover, at this scale, quantum confinement and surface effects become very important and therefore manipulation of the dot diameter or modification of its surface allows the properties of the dot to be controlled. Quantum confinement affects the absorption and emission of photons from the dot. Thus, the absorption edge of a material can be tuned by control of the particle size. This paper reviews developments in the myriad of possibilities for the use of semiconductor QDs associated with molecules producing novel hybrid nanocomposite systems for nanomedicine and bioengineering applications.
Taylor, Robert A.
2010-09-01
These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at Quantum Dot 2010 (QD2010). The conference was held in Nottingham, UK, on 26-30 April 2010. The conference addressed topics in research on: 1. Epitaxial quantum dots (including self-assembled and interface structures, dots defined by electrostatic gates etc): optical properties and electron transport quantum coherence effects spin phenomena optics of dots in cavities interaction with surface plasmons in metal/semiconductor structures opto-electronics applications 2. Novel QD structures: fabrication and physics of graphene dots, dots in nano-wires etc 3. Colloidal quantum dots: growth (shape control and hybrid nanocrystals such as metal/semiconductor, magnetic/semiconductor) assembly and surface functionalisation optical properties and spin dynamics electrical and magnetic properties applications (light emitting devices and solar cells, biological and medical applications, data storage, assemblers) The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Maurice Skolnick (Chair) Alexander Tartakovskii (Programme Chair) Pavlos Lagoudakis (Programme Chair) Max Migliorato (Conference Secretary) Paola Borri (Publicity) Robert Taylor (Proceedings) Manus Hayne (Treasurer) Ray Murray (Sponsorship) Mohamed Henini (Local Organiser) International Advisory Committee: Yasuhiko Arakawa (Tokyo University, Japan) Manfred Bayer (Dortmund University, Germany) Sergey Gaponenko (Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk, Belarus) Pawel Hawrylak (NRC, Ottawa, Canada) Fritz Henneberger (Institute for Physics, Berlin, Germany) Atac Imamoglu (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland) Paul Koenraad (TU Eindhoven, Nethehrlands) Guglielmo Lanzani (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Jungil Lee (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea) Henri Mariette (CNRS-CEA, Grenoble, France) Lu Jeu Sham (San Diego, USA) Andrew Shields (Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge, UK) Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Stanford University, USA) Artur
Silicon quantum dots: surface matters
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Kůsová, Kateřina
2014-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 17 (2014), 1-28 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * quantum dot * surface chemistry * quantum confinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahamefula, U.C.; Sulaiman, M.Y.; Sopian, K.; Ibarahim, Z.; Ibrahim, N.; Alghoul, M.A.; Haw, L.C.; Yahya, M.; Amin, N.; Mat, S.; Ruslan, M.H.
2009-01-01
Full text: The much awaited desire of replacing fossil fuel with photovoltaic will remain a fairy tale if the myriad of issues facing solar cell development are marginalized. Foremost in the list is the issue of cost. Silicon has reached a stage where its use on large scale can no longer be lavishly depended upon. The demand for high grade silicon from the microelectronics and solar industries has soared leading to scarcity. New approach has to be sought. Notable is the increased attention on thin films such as cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium diselenide, amorphous silicon, and the not so thin non-crystalline family of silicon. While efforts to address the issues of stability, toxicity and efficiency of these systems are ongoing, another novel approach is quietly making its appearance - quantum dots. Quantum dots seem to be promising candidates for solar cells because of the opportunity to manipulate their energy levels allowing absorption of a wider solar spectrum. Utilization of minute quantity of these nano structures is enough to bring the cost of solar cell down and to ascertain sustainable supply of useful material. The paper outlines the progress that has been made on quantum dot solar cells. (author)
Quantum dots for quantum information technologies
2017-01-01
This book highlights the most recent developments in quantum dot spin physics and the generation of deterministic superior non-classical light states with quantum dots. In particular, it addresses single quantum dot spin manipulation, spin-photon entanglement and the generation of single-photon and entangled photon pair states with nearly ideal properties. The role of semiconductor microcavities, nanophotonic interfaces as well as quantum photonic integrated circuits is emphasized. The latest theoretical and experimental studies of phonon-dressed light matter interaction, single-dot lasing and resonance fluorescence in QD cavity systems are also provided. The book is written by the leading experts in the field.
Enhanced Photon Extraction from a Nanowire Quantum Dot Using a Bottom-Up Photonic Shell
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeannin, Mathieu; Cremel, Thibault; Häyrynen, Teppo
2017-01-01
Semiconductor nanowires offer the possibility to grow high-quality quantum-dot heterostructures, and, in particular, CdSe quantum dots inserted in ZnSe nanowires have demonstrated the ability to emit single photons up to room temperature. In this paper, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach...
Fiore, A.; Rossetti, M.; Alloing, B.; Paranthoën, C.; Chen, J.X.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.
2004-01-01
We present a comparative study of carrier diffusion in semiconductor heterostructures with different dimensionality [InGaAs quantum wells (QWs), InAs quantum dots (QDs), and disordered InGaNAs QWs (DQWs)]. In order to evaluate the diffusion length in the active region of device structures, we
Wang, Yanhu; Gao, Chaomin; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei
2016-11-15
A platelike tungsten trioxide (WO3) sensitized with CdS quantum dots (QDs) heterojunction is developed for solar-driven, real-time, and selective photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing of H2O2 in the living cells. The structure is synthesized by hydrothermally growing platelike WO3 on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) and subsequently sensitized with CdS QDs. The as-prepared WO3-CdS QDs heterojunction achieve significant photocurrent enhancement, which is remarkably beneficial for light absorption and charge carrier separation. Based on the enzymatic etching of CdS QDs enables the activation of quenching the charge transfer efficiency, thus leading to sensitive PEC recording of H2O2 level in buffer and cellular environments. The results indicated that the proposed method will pave the way for the development of excellent PEC sensing platform with the quantum dot sensitization. This study could also provide a new train of thought on designing of self-operating photoanode in PEC sensing, promoting the application of semiconductor nanomaterials in photoelectrochemistry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vishnoi, Pratap; Mazumder, Madhulika; Barua, Manaswee; Pati, Swapan K.; Rao, C. N. R.
2018-05-01
Phosphorene, a two-dimensional material, has been a subject of recent investigations. In the present study, we have prepared blue fluorescent phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) by liquid phase exfoliation of black phosphorus in two non-polar solvents, toluene and mesitylene. The average particle sizes of PQDs decrease from 5.0 to 1.0 nm on increasing the sonicator power from 150 to 225 W. The photoluminescence spectrum of the PQDs is red-shifted in the 395-470 nm range on increasing the excitation-wavelength from 300 to 480 nm. Electron donor and acceptor molecules quench the photoluminescence, with the acceptors showing more marked effects.
Zhang, H G; Hu, H; Pan, Y; Mao, J H; Gao, M; Guo, H M; Du, S X; Greber, T; Gao, H-J
2010-08-04
Laterally localized electronic states are identified on a single layer of graphene on ruthenium by low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The individual states are separated by 3 nm and comprise regions of about 90 carbon atoms. This constitutes a highly regular quantum dot-array with molecular precision. It is evidenced by quantum well resonances (QWRs) with energies that relate to the corrugation of the graphene layer. The dI/dV conductance spectra are modeled by a layer height dependent potential-well with a delta-function potential that describes the barrier for electron penetration into graphene. The resulting QWRs are strongest and lowest in energy on the isolated 'hill' regions with a diameter of 2 nm, where the graphene is decoupled from the surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Silicon Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing
2013-11-01
S. Lai, C. Tahan, A. Morello and A. S. Dzurak, Electron Spin lifetimes in multi-valley sil- icon quantum dots, S3NANO Winter School Few spin solid...lifetimes in multi-valley sil- icon quantum dots, International Workshop on Silicon Quantum Electronics, Grenoble, France, February 2012 (Poster). C...typically plunger gates), PMMA A5 is spun at 5000 rpm for 30 seconds, resulting in a 280 nm resist thickness. The resists are baked for 90 seconds at 180
Han, Shikui; Yang, Xuyong; Zhu, Yihan; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Junze; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bo; Luo, Zhimin; Ma, Qinglang; Sindoro, Melinda; Zhang, Hao; Qi, Xiaoying; Li, Hai; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Wei; Sun, Xiao Wei; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua
2017-01-01
.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures by sulfurization or selenization of WOn nanomaterials. The WOn -WX2 heterostructures are composed of WO2.9 nanoparticles (NPs) or WO2.7 nanowires (NWs) grown together with single- or few-layer WX2 nanosheets (NSs). As a
Quantum dots: Rethinking the electronics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bishnoi, Dimple [Department of Physics, S. S. Jain Subodh PG College, Jaipur, Rajasthan Pin-302004 (India)
2016-05-06
In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the Quantum dots are quite interesting for the electronics industry. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale crystals, which have unique photo physical, quantum electrical properties, size-dependent optical properties, There small size means that electrons do not have to travel as far as with larger particles, thus electronic devices can operate faster. Cheaper than modern commercial solar cells while making use of a wider variety of photon energies, including “waste heat” from the sun’s energy. Quantum dots can be used in tandem cells, which are multi junction photovoltaic cells or in the intermediate band setup. PbSe (lead selenide) is commonly used in quantum dot solar cells.
Jindal, Shikha; Giripunje, S. M.
2018-07-01
Nanostructured quantum dots (QDs) are quite promising in the solar cell application due to quantum confinement effect. QDs possess multiple exciton generation and large surface area. The environment friendly CuInS2/ZnS core-shell QDs were prepared by solvothermal method. Thus, the 3 nm average sized CuInS2/ZnS QDs were employed in the bulk heterojunction device and the active blend layer consisting of the P3HT and CuInS2/ZnS QDs was investigated. The energy level information of CuInS2/ZnS QDs as an electron acceptor was explored by ultra violet photoelectron spectroscopy. Bulk heterojunction hybrid device of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT: (CuInS2/ZnS QDs)/ZnO/Ag was designed by spin coating approach and its electrical characterization was investigated by solar simulator. Current density - voltage characteristics shows the enhancement in power conversion efficiency with increasing concentration of CuInS2/ZnS QDs in bulk heterojunction device.
Two path transport measurements on a triple quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogge, Maximilian C.; Haug, Rolf J. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)
2008-07-01
We present a novel triple quantum dot device made with local anodic oxidation on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The geometry provides two path transport via a three lead setup with each lead connected to one of the three quantum dots. In addition charge detection is implemented via a quantum point contact. One lead is used as a common source contact, the other two are used as two separate drain contacts with independent current measurement. Thus two paths are formed with two dots in each path. Along both paths serial transport is observed at the triple points of the two corresponding dots. With four side gates a wide tunability is given. Thus the system can be tuned in and out of triple dot resonances. When all three dots come into resonance, quadruple points are formed with simultaneous transport along both paths. The data are analysed in combined two colour plots and compared to the charge detection showing sets of three different lines, one for each dot. This way the two path setup allows to investigate the transition from double dot physics to triple dot physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai, Xiao; Wang, Hao; Yi, Qinghua; Wang, Yun; Cong, Shan; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Yinghui; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Qian, Zhicheng [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang, Jianwen; Xiong, Jie, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Luo, Hongmei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States)
2015-11-16
Due to the different emission mechanism between fluorescent carbon dots and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), it is of interest to explore the potential emission in hetero-structured carbon dots/semiconducting QDs. Herein, we design carbon dots coated CdTe QDs (CDQDs) and investigate their inherent emission. We demonstrate switchable emission for the hetero-interactions of the CDQDs. Optical analyses indicate electron transfer between the carbon dots and the CdTe QDs. A heterojunction electron process is proposed as the driving mechanism based on N atom protonation of the carbon dots. This work advances our understanding of the interaction mechanism of the heterostructured CDQDs and benefits the future development of optoelectronic nanodevices with new functionalities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kushavah, Dushyant [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, IIT Bombay-400076, Mumbai (India); Mohapatra, P. K.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: bhanups@iitb.ac.in [Department of physics, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India); Rustagi, K. C. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal-462066, Bhopal (India); Bahadur, D. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India)
2015-05-15
We illustrate effect of charge transfer (CT) in type-II quantum confined heterostructure by comparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs), CdSe/CdTe heterostructure quantum dots (HQDs) and CdSe/CdTe/CdSe quantum well-quantum dots (QWQDs) heterostructures. CdSe core QDs were synthesized using a kinetic growth method where QD size depends on reaction time. For shell coating we used modified version of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Size of different QDs ∼5 to 7 nm were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Strong red shift from ∼597 to ∼746 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra from QDs to QWQDs shows high tunability which is not possible with single constituent semiconductor QDs. PL spectra have been recorded at different temperatures (10K-300K). Room temperature time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements for QDs to QWQDs show three exponential radiative decay. The slowest component decay constant in QWQDs comes around eight fold to ∼51 ns as compared to ∼6.5 ns in HQD suggesting new opportunities to tailor the radiative carrier recombination rate of CT excitons.
First-principles study of the electronic structure of CdS/ZnSe coupled quantum dots
Ganguli, N.; Acharya, S.; Dasgupta, I.
2014-01-01
We have studied the electronic structure of CdS/ZnSe coupled quantum dots, a novel heterostructure at the nanoscale. Our calculations reveal CdS/ZnSe coupled quantum dots are type II in nature where the anion p states play an important role in deciding the band offset for the highest occupied
Quadra-quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules:
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somsak Panyakeow
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called ‘‘Droplet Epitaxy” has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390°C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7–8×10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200°C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or , which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.
Bhat, T. S.; Mali, S. S.; Sheikh, A. D.; Korade, S. D.; Pawar, K. K.; Hong, C. K.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.
2017-11-01
So far we developed the efficient photoelectrodes which can harness the UV as well as the visible regime of the solar spectrum effectively. In order to exploit a maximum portion of solar spectrum, it is necessary to study the synergistic effect of a photoelectrode comprising UV and visible radiations absorbing materials. Present research work highlights the efforts to study the synchronized effect of TiO2 and PbS on the power conversion efficiency of quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). A cascade structure of TiO2/PbS/ZnS QDSSC is achieved to enhance the photoconversion efficiency of TiO2/PbS system by incorporating a surface passivation layer of ZnS which avoids the recombination of charge carriers. A QDSSC is fabricated using a simple and cost-effective technique such as hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays decorated with PbS and ZnS using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Synthesized electrode materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), High resolution-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), STEM-EDS mapping, optical and solar cell performances. Phase formation of TiO2, PbS and ZnS get confirmed from the XPS study. FE-SEM images of the photoelectrode show uniform coverage of PbS QDs onto the TiO2 nanorods which increases with increasing number of SILAR cycles. The ZnS layer not only improves the charge transport but also reduces the photocorrosion of lead chalcogenides in the presence of a liquid electrolyte. Finally, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) study is carried out using an optimized photoanode comprising TiO2/PbS/ZnS assembly. Under AM 1.5G illumination the TiO2/PbS/ZnS QDSSC photoelectrode shows 4.08 mA/cm2 short circuit current density in a polysulfide electrolyte which is higher than that of a bare TiO2 nanorod array.
Quantum features of semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lozada-Cassou, M.; Dong Shihai; Yu Jiang
2004-01-01
The exact solutions of the two-dimensional Schrodinger equation with the position-dependent mass for the square well potential in the semiconductor quantum dots system are obtained. The eigenvalues, which are closely related to the position-dependent masses μ1 and μ2, the potential well depth V0 and the radius of the quantum dots r0, can be calculated from two boundary conditions. We generalize this quantum system to three-dimensional case. The special cases for the angular momentum quantum number l=0, 1, 2 are studied in some detail. We find that the energy levels are proportional to the parameters μ2, V0 and r0 for l=0. The relations between them for l=1, 2 become very complicated. The scattering states of this quantum system are mentioned briefly
Electrical control of single hole spins in nanowire quantum dots.
Pribiag, V S; Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; van den Berg, J W G; van Weperen, I; Plissard, S R; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P
2013-03-01
The development of viable quantum computation devices will require the ability to preserve the coherence of quantum bits (qubits). Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, but controlling decoherence remains a considerable challenge. Hole spins in III-V semiconductors have unique properties, such as a strong spin-orbit interaction and weak coupling to nuclear spins, and therefore, have the potential for enhanced spin control and longer coherence times. A weaker hyperfine interaction has previously been reported in self-assembled quantum dots using quantum optics techniques, but the development of hole-spin-based electronic devices in conventional III-V heterostructures has been limited by fabrication challenges. Here, we show that gate-tunable hole quantum dots can be formed in InSb nanowires and used to demonstrate Pauli spin blockade and electrical control of single hole spins. The devices are fully tunable between hole and electron quantum dots, which allows the hyperfine interaction strengths, g-factors and spin blockade anisotropies to be compared directly in the two regimes.
Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.
2010-01-01
We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... intermixing inside the quantum dots....
Electron correlations in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tipton, Denver Leonard John
2001-01-01
Quantum dot structures confine electrons in a small region of space. Some properties of semiconductor quantum dots, such as the discrete energy levels and shell filling effects visible in addition spectra, have analogies to those of atoms and indeed dots are sometimes referred to as 'artificial atoms'. However, atoms and dots show some fundamental differences due to electron correlations. For real atoms, the kinetic energy of electrons dominates over their mutual Coulomb repulsion energy and for this reason the independent electron approximation works well. For quantum dots the confining potential may be shallower than that of real atoms leading to lower electron densities and a dominance of mutual Coulomb repulsion over kinetic energy. In this strongly correlated regime the independent electron picture leads to qualitatively incorrect results. This thesis concentrates on few-electron quantum dots in the strongly correlated regime both for quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional dots in a square confining potential. In this so-called 'Wigner' regime the ground-state electronic charge density is localised near positions of classical electrostatic minima and the interacting electronic spectrum consists of well separated spin multiplets. In the strongly correlated regime the structure of low-energy multiplets is explained by mapping onto lattice models with extended-Hubbard and Heisenberg effective Hamiltonians. The parameters for these effective models are calculated within a Hartree approximation and are shown to reproduce well the exact results obtained by numerical diagonalisation of the full interacting Hamiltonian. Comparison is made between square dots and quantum rings with full rotational symmetry. In the very low-density regime, direct diagonalisation becomes impractical due to excessive computer time for convergence. In this regime a numerical renormalisation group method is applied to one-dimensional dots, enabling effective spin-interactions to be
Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heiss, Dominik
2009-01-01
This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T 1 =20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T 1 ∝B -5 has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T 1 ∝T -1 . The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T 1 h in the microsecond range, therefore, comparable with
Spin storage in quantum dot ensembles and single quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heiss, Dominik
2009-10-15
This thesis deals with the investigation of spin relaxation of electrons and holes in small ensembles of self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques. Furthermore, a method to detect the spin orientation in a single quantum dot was developed in the framework of this thesis. A spin storage device was used to optically generate oriented electron spins in small frequency selected quantum dot ensembles using circularly polarized optical excitation. The spin orientation can be determined by the polarization of the time delayed electroluminescence signal generated by the device after a continuously variable storage time. The degree of spin polarized initialization was found to be limited to 0.6 at high magnetic fields, where anisotropic effects are compensated. The spin relaxation was directly measured as a function of magnetic field, lattice temperature and s-shell transition energy of the quantum dot by varying the spin storage time up to 30 ms. Very long spin lifetimes are obtained with a lower limit of T{sub 1}=20 ms at B=4 T and T=1 K. A strong magnetic field dependence T{sub 1}{proportional_to}B{sup -5} has been observed for low temperatures of T=1 K which weakens as the temperature is increased. In addition, the temperature dependence has been determined with T{sub 1}{proportional_to}T{sup -1}. The characteristic dependencies on magnetic field and temperature lead to the identification of the spin relaxation mechanism, which is governed by spin-orbit coupling and mediated by single phonon scattering. This finding is qualitatively supported by the energy dependent measurements. The investigations were extended to a modified device design that enabled studying the spin relaxation dynamics of heavy holes in self-assembled quantum dots. The measurements show a polarization memory effect for holes with up to 0.1 degree of polarization. Furthermore, investigations of the time dynamics of the hole spin relaxation reveal surprisingly long lifetimes T{sub 1}{sup h
Erlingsson, S.I.
2003-01-01
The main theme of this thesis is the hyperfine interaction between the many lattice nuclear spins and electron spins localized in GaAs quantum dots. This interaction is an intrinsic property of the material. Despite the fact that this interaction is rather weak, it can, as shown in this thesis,
Tomczak, N.; Liu, Rongrong; Vancso, Gyula J.
2013-01-01
Quantum Dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct photophysical properties finding applications in biology, biosensing, and optoelectronics. Polymeric coatings of QDs are used primarily to provide long-term colloidal stability to QDs dispersed in solutions and also as a source of
Optical Pumping of the Electronic and Nuclear Spin of Single Charge-Tunable Quantum Dots
Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Gammon, D.; Ware, M. E.; Tischler, J. G.; Shabaev, A.; Efros, Al. L.; Park, D.; Gershoni, D.; Korenev, V. L.; Merkulov, I. A.
2005-02-01
We present a comprehensive examination of optical pumping of spins in individual GaAs quantum dots as we change the net charge from positive to neutral to negative with a charge-tunable heterostructure. Negative photoluminescence polarization memory is enhanced by optical pumping of ground state electron spins, which we prove with the first measurements of the Hanle effect on an individual quantum dot. We use the Overhauser effect in a high longitudinal magnetic field to demonstrate efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins for all three charge states of the quantum dot.
Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.
2002-01-01
-power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...
Multi-Excitonic Quantum Dot Molecules
Scheibner, M.; Stinaff, E. A.; Doty, M. F.; Ware, M. E.; Bracker, A. S.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.
2006-03-01
With the ability to create coupled pairs of quantum dots, the next step towards the realization of semiconductor based quantum information processing devices can be taken. However, so far little knowledge has been gained on these artificial molecules. Our photoluminescence experiments on single InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules provide the systematics of coupled quantum dots by delineating the spectroscopic features of several key charge configurations in such quantum systems, including X, X^+,X^2+, XX, XX^+ (with X being the neutral exciton). We extract general rules which determine the formation of molecular states of coupled quantum dots. These include the fact that quantum dot molecules provide the possibility to realize various spin configurations and to switch the electron hole exchange interaction on and off by shifting charges inside the molecule. This knowledge will be valuable in developing implementations for quantum information processing.
Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors
Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Sargent, Edward H.
2011-01-01
in particular on visible-, near-infrared, and short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on size-effect-tuned semiconductor nanoparticles made using quantum-confined PbS, PbSe, Bi 2S3, and In2S3. These devices have in recent years achieved room-temperature D
Correlated Coulomb Drag in Capacitively Coupled Quantum-Dot Structures.
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-05-13
We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs)-a bias-driven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach that accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multielectron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters. Interestingly, the direction of the drag current is not determined by the drive current, but by an interplay between the energy-dependent lead couplings. Studying the drag mechanism in a graphene-based CQD heterostructure, we show that the predictions of our theory are consistent with recent experiments on Coulomb drag in CQD systems.
The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltukov, Y M; Greshnov, A A
2014-01-01
It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given
Modeling of the quantum dot filling and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ameen, Tarek A.; El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Abouelsaood, A. A.
2014-01-01
A generalized drift-diffusion model for the calculation of both the quantum dot filling profile and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed. The confined electrons inside the quantum dots produce a space-charge potential barrier between the two contacts, which controls the quantum dot filling and limits the dark current in the device. The results of the model reasonably agree with a published experimental work. It is found that increasing either the doping level or the temperature results in an exponential increase of the dark current. The quantum dot filling turns out to be nonuniform, with a dot near the contacts containing more electrons than one in the middle of the device where the dot occupation approximately equals the number of doping atoms per dot, which means that quantum dots away from contacts will be nearly unoccupied if the active region is undoped
Quantum Logic Using Excitonic Quantum Dots in External Optical Microcavities
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Raymer, Michael
2003-01-01
An experimental project was undertaken to develop means to achieve quantum optical strong coupling between a single GaAs quantum dot and the optical mode of a microcavity for the purpose of quantum...
Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells
Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Tang, Jiang; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Sargent, Edward H.
2012-01-01
The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum
Millimeter Wave Modulators Using Quantum Dots
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Prather, Dennis W
2008-01-01
In this effort electro-optic modulators for millimeter wave sensing and imaging were developed and demonstrated via design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of multi layer quantum dot...
Optical Signatures of Coupled Quantum Dots
Stinaff, E. A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Korenev, V. L.; Ware, M. E.; Doty, M. F.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.
2006-02-01
An asymmetric pair of coupled InAs quantum dots is tuned into resonance by applying an electric field so that a single hole forms a coherent molecular wave function. The optical spectrum shows a rich pattern of level anticrossings and crossings that can be understood as a superposition of charge and spin configurations of the two dots. Coulomb interactions shift the molecular resonance of the optically excited state (charged exciton) with respect to the ground state (single charge), enabling light-induced coupling of the quantum dots. This result demonstrates the possibility of optically coupling quantum dots for application in quantum information processing.
Structure and optical anisotropy of vertically correlated submonolayer InAs/GaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Zhangcheng; Birkedal, Dan; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2003-01-01
A vertically correlated submonolayer (VCSML) InAs/GaAs quantum-dot (QD) heterostructure was studied using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and polarization-dependent photoluminescence. The HRXRD (004) rocking curve was simulated using the Tagaki-Taupin...
A InGaN/GaN quantum dot green (λ=524 nm) laser
Zhang, Meng; Banerjee, Animesh; Lee, Chi-Sen; Hinckley, John M.; Bhattacharya, Pallab
2011-01-01
The characteristics of self-organized InGaN/GaN quantum dot lasers are reported. The laser heterostructures were grown on c-plane GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and the laser facets were formed by focused ion beam etching
Polarization anisotropy of the emission from type-II quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klenovský, P.; Hemzal, D.; Steindl, P.; Zíková, Markéta; Křápek, V.; Humlíček, J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 24 (2015), 1-5, č. článku 241302. ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dot * type II heterostructure * polarization anisotropy * III-V semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....
Stark shifting two-electron quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dineykhan, M.; Zhaugasheva, S.A.; Duysebaeva, K.S.
2003-01-01
Advances in modern technology make it possible to create semiconducting nano-structures (quantum dot) in which a finite number of electrons are 'captured' in a bounded volume. A quantum dot is associated with a quantum well formed at the interface, between two finite-size semiconductors owing to different positions of the forbidden gaps on the energy scale in these semiconductors. The possibility of monitoring and controlling the properties of quantum dots attracts considerable attention to these objects, as a new elemental basis for future generations of computers. The quantum-mechanical effects and image potential play a significant role in the description of the formation mechanism quantum dot, and determined the confinement potential in a two-electron quantum dot only for the spherical symmetric case. In the present talk, we considered the formation dynamics of two-electron quantum dot with violation of spherical symmetry. So, we have standard Stark potential. The energy spectrum two-electron quantum dot were calculated. Usually Stark interactions determined the tunneling phenomena between quantum dots
Hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.F.
2007-01-01
The ground state binding energy and the average interparticle distances for a hydrogenic impurity in double quantum dots with Gaussian confinement potential are studied by the variational method. The probability density of the electron is calculated, too. The dependence of the binding energy on the impurity position is investigated for GaAs quantum dots. The result shows that the binding energy has a minimum as a function of the distance between the two quantum dots when the impurity is located at the center of one quantum dot or at the center of the edge of one quantum dot. When the impurity is located at the center of the two dots, the binding energy decreases monotonically
Quantum interference effects for the electronic fluctuations in quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, J.G.G.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas; Hussein, M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Barbosa, A.L.R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UAEADTec/UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Ensino a Distancia. Pos-Graduacao em Fisica Aplicada
2014-07-01
For the main quantum interference term of coherent electronic transport, we study the effect of temperature, perpendicular and/or parallel magnetic fields, spin-orbit coupling and tunneling rates in both metallic grains and mesoscopic heterostructures. We show that the Zeeman effects determines a crucial way to characterize the quantum interference phenomena of the noise for anisotropic systems (mesoscopic heterostructures), qualitatively distinct from those observed in isotropic structures (metallic grains). (author)
Quantum interference effects for the electronic fluctuations in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Hussein, M.S.; Barbosa, A.L.R.
2014-01-01
For the main quantum interference term of coherent electronic transport, we study the effect of temperature, perpendicular and/or parallel magnetic fields, spin-orbit coupling and tunneling rates in both metallic grains and mesoscopic heterostructures. We show that the Zeeman effects determines a crucial way to characterize the quantum interference phenomena of the noise for anisotropic systems (mesoscopic heterostructures), qualitatively distinct from those observed in isotropic structures (metallic grains). (author)
Diffusion thermopower of a serial double quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thierschmann, H; Henke, M; Knorr, J; Maier, L; Buhmann, H; Molenkamp, L W; Heyn, C; Hansen, W
2013-01-01
We have experimentally studied the diffusion thermopower of a serial double quantum dot, defined electrostatically in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. We present the thermopower stability diagram for a temperature difference ΔT = (20 ± 10) mK across the device and find a maximum thermovoltage signal of several μV in the vicinity of the triple points. Along a constant energy axis in this regime, the data show a characteristic pattern which is in agreement with Mott's relation and can be well understood within a model of sequential transport. (paper)
Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors
Konstantatos, Gerasimos
2011-05-01
We review recent progress in light sensors based on solution-processed materials. Spin-coated semiconductors can readily be integrated with many substrates including as a post-process atop CMOS silicon and flexible electronics. We focus in particular on visible-, near-infrared, and short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on size-effect-tuned semiconductor nanoparticles made using quantum-confined PbS, PbSe, Bi 2S3, and In2S3. These devices have in recent years achieved room-temperature D values above 1013 Jones, while fully-depleted photodiodes based on these same materials have achieved MHz response combined with 1012 Jones sensitivities. We discuss the nanoparticle synthesis, the materials processing, integrability, temperature stability, physical operation, and applied performance of this class of devices. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quantum engineering of transistors based on 2D materials heterostructures
Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Fiori, Gianluca
2018-03-01
Quantum engineering entails atom-by-atom design and fabrication of electronic devices. This innovative technology that unifies materials science and device engineering has been fostered by the recent progress in the fabrication of vertical and lateral heterostructures of two-dimensional materials and by the assessment of the technology potential via computational nanotechnology. But how close are we to the possibility of the practical realization of next-generation atomically thin transistors? In this Perspective, we analyse the outlook and the challenges of quantum-engineered transistors using heterostructures of two-dimensional materials against the benchmark of silicon technology and its foreseeable evolution in terms of potential performance and manufacturability. Transistors based on lateral heterostructures emerge as the most promising option from a performance point of view, even if heterostructure formation and control are in the initial technology development stage.
Quantum engineering of transistors based on 2D materials heterostructures.
Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Fiori, Gianluca
2018-03-01
Quantum engineering entails atom-by-atom design and fabrication of electronic devices. This innovative technology that unifies materials science and device engineering has been fostered by the recent progress in the fabrication of vertical and lateral heterostructures of two-dimensional materials and by the assessment of the technology potential via computational nanotechnology. But how close are we to the possibility of the practical realization of next-generation atomically thin transistors? In this Perspective, we analyse the outlook and the challenges of quantum-engineered transistors using heterostructures of two-dimensional materials against the benchmark of silicon technology and its foreseeable evolution in terms of potential performance and manufacturability. Transistors based on lateral heterostructures emerge as the most promising option from a performance point of view, even if heterostructure formation and control are in the initial technology development stage.
Exciton in type-II quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sierra-Ortega, J; Escorcia, R A [Universidad del Magdalena, A. A. 731, Santa Marta (Colombia); Mikhailov, I D, E-mail: jsierraortega@gmail.co [Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)
2009-05-01
We study the quantum-size effect and the influence of the external magnetic field on the exciton ground state energy in the type-II InP quantum disk, lens and pyramid deposited on a wetting layer and embedded in a GaInP matrix. We show that the charge distribution over and below quantum dot and wetting layer induced by trapped exciton strongly depends on the quantum dot morphology and the strength of the magnetic field.
Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves
Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.
2018-01-01
We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.
Detecting the chirality for coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Huijuan; Hu Lian
2008-01-01
We propose a scheme to detect the chirality for a system consisting of three coupled quantum dots. The chirality is found to be determined by the frequency of the transition between chiral states under the chiral symmetry broken perturbation. The results are important to construct quantum gates and to demonstrate chiral entangle states in the triangle spin dots
Optical Properties of Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Perinetti, U.
2011-01-01
This thesis presents different optical experiments performed on semiconductor quantum dots. These structures allow to confine a small number of electrons and holes to a tiny region of space, some nm across. The aim of this work was to study the basic properties of different types of quantum dots
Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots
Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM
2011-05-03
Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.
Capture, relaxation and recombination in quantum dots
Sreenivasan, D.
2008-01-01
Quantum dots (QDs) have attracted a lot of interest both from application and fundamental physics point of view. A semiconductor quantum dot features discrete atomiclike energy levels, despite the fact that it contains many atoms within its surroundings. The discrete energy levels give rise to very
Spin-based quantum computation in multielectron quantum dots
Hu, Xuedong; Sarma, S. Das
2001-01-01
In a quantum computer the hardware and software are intrinsically connected because the quantum Hamiltonian (or more precisely its time development) is the code that runs the computer. We demonstrate this subtle and crucial relationship by considering the example of electron-spin-based solid state quantum computer in semiconductor quantum dots. We show that multielectron quantum dots with one valence electron in the outermost shell do not behave simply as an effective single spin system unles...
Excitonic quantum interference in a quantum dot chain with rings.
Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog Woo; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang
2008-04-16
We demonstrate excitonic quantum interference in a closely spaced quantum dot chain with nanorings. In the resonant dipole-dipole interaction model with direct diagonalization method, we have found a peculiar feature that the excitation of specified quantum dots in the chain is completely inhibited, depending on the orientational configuration of the transition dipole moments and specified initial preparation of the excitation. In practice, these excited states facilitating quantum interference can provide a conceptual basis for quantum interference devices of excitonic hopping.
Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications
Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Chang, Jerry C.; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James R.; Tomlinson, Ian D.
2011-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, sizetunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots. PMID:21276935
Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan, E-mail: jcchen@xmu.edu.cn
2015-12-18
Highlights: • A three-terminal quantum dot refrigerator is proposed. • The effects of magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization are considered. • The region that the system can work as a refrigerator is determined. • Two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared. - Abstract: A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.
Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.
2001-01-01
We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)
Quantum dot devices for optical communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørk, Jesper
2005-01-01
-low threshold currents and amplifiers with record-high power levels. In this tutorial we will review the basic properties of quantum dots, emphasizing the properties which are important for laser and amplifier applications, as well as devices for all-optical signal processing. The high-speed properties....... The main property of semiconductor quantum dots compared to bulk material or even quantum well structures is the discrete nature of the allowed states, which means that inversion of the medium can be obtained for very low electron densities. This has led to the fabrication of quantum dot lasers with record...
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stano, P.
2007-01-01
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stano, P.
2007-01-15
Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)
Efficient spin filter using multi-terminal quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yokoyama Tomohiro
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We propose a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect (SHE in a quantum dot connected to three leads. We show that the SHE is significantly enhanced by the resonant tunneling if the level spacing in the quantum dot is smaller than the level broadening. We stress that the SHE is tunable by changing the tunnel coupling to the third lead. Next, we perform a numerical simulation for a multi-terminal spin filter using a quantum dot fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures. The spin filter shows an efficiency of more than 50% when the conditions for the enhanced SHE are satisfied. PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc,71.70.Ej,73.63.Kv,85.75.-d
Electron transport in quantum dots
2003-01-01
When I was contacted by Kluwer Academic Publishers in the Fall of 200 I, inviting me to edit a volume of papers on the issue of electron transport in quantum dots, I was excited by what I saw as an ideal opportunity to provide an overview of a field of research that has made significant contributions in recent years, both to our understanding of fundamental physics, and to the development of novel nanoelectronic technologies. The need for such a volume seemed to be made more pressing by the fact that few comprehensive reviews of this topic have appeared in the literature, in spite of the vast activity in this area over the course of the last decade or so. With this motivation, I set out to try to compile a volume that would fairly reflect the wide range of opinions that has emerged in the study of electron transport in quantum dots. Indeed, there has been no effort on my part to ensure any consistency between the different chapters, since I would prefer that this volume instead serve as a useful forum for the...
Quantum measurement of coherent tunneling between quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiseman, H. M.; Utami, Dian Wahyu; Sun, He Bi; Milburn, G. J.; Kane, B. E.; Dzurak, A.; Clark, R. G.
2001-01-01
We describe the conditional and unconditional dynamics of two coupled quantum dots when one dot is subjected to a measurement of its occupation number by coupling it to a third readout dot via the Coulomb interaction. The readout dot is coupled to source and drain leads under weak bias, and a tunnel current flows through a single bound state when energetically allowed. The occupation of the quantum dot near the readout dot shifts the bound state of the readout dot from a low conducting state to a high conducting state. The measurement is made by continuously monitoring the tunnel current through the readout dot. We show that there is a difference between the time scale for the measurement-induced decoherence between the localized states of the dots, and the time scale on which the system becomes localized due to the measurement
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Walachová, Jarmila; Zelinka, Jiří; Leshkov, Sergey; Šroubek, Filip; Pangrác, Jiří; Vaniš, Jan
2013-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 1 (2013), s. 61-65 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P824; GA ČR GAP102/10/1201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : quantum dots * scanning tunneling microscopy * ballistic transport Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.856, year: 2013
Dicke states in multiple quantum dots
Sitek, Anna; Manolescu, Andrei
2013-10-01
We present a theoretical study of the collective optical effects which can occur in groups of three and four quantum dots. We define conditions for stable subradiant (dark) states, rapidly decaying super-radiant states, and spontaneous trapping of excitation. Each quantum dot is treated like a two-level system. The quantum dots are, however, realistic, meaning that they may have different transition energies and dipole moments. The dots interact via a short-range coupling which allows excitation transfer across the dots, but conserves the total population of the system. We calculate the time evolution of single-exciton and biexciton states using the Lindblad equation. In the steady state the individual populations of each dot may have permanent oscillations with frequencies given by the energy separation between the subradiant eigenstates.
Thermoelectric transport through quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merker, Lukas Heinrich
2016-06-30
In this thesis the thermoelectric properties (electrical conductance, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductance)of quantum dots described by the Anderson impurity model have been investigated by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method. In order to make accurate calculations for thermoelectric properties of quantum impurity systems, a number of recent developments and refinements of the NRG have been implemented. These include the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme, which enable the evaluation of physical quantities on an arbitrary temperature grid and at large discretization parameter Λ and the full density matrix (FDM) approach, which allows a more accurate calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients. The implementation of the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme has been tested within a new method for specific heats of quantum impurities. The accuracy of this new method was established by comparison with the numerical solution of the Bethe-ansatz equations for the Anderson model. The FDM approach was implemented and tested within a new approach to the calculation of impurity contributions to the uniform susceptibilities. Within this method a non-negligible contribution from the ''environmental'' degrees of freedom needs to be taken into account to recover the correct susceptibility, as shown by comparison with the Bethe-ansatz approach. An accurate method to calculate the conductance of a quantum dot is implemented, enabling the extraction of the Fermi liquid scaling coefficients c{sub T} and c{sub B} to high accuracy, being able to verify the results of the renormalized super perturbation theory approach (within its regime of validity). The method was generalized to higher order moments of the local level spectral function. This, as well as reduction of the SU(2) code to the U(1) symmetry, enabled the investigation of the effect of a magnetic field on the thermoelectric properties of quantum
The electronic properties of semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barker, J.A.
2000-10-01
This work is an investigation into the electronic behaviour of semiconductor quantum dots, particularly self-assembled quantum dot arrays. Processor-efficient models are developed to describe the electronic structure of dots, deriving analytic formulae for the strain tensor, piezoelectric distribution and diffusion- induced evolution of the confinement potential, for dots of arbitrary initial shape and composition profile. These models are then applied to experimental data. Transitions due to individual quantum dots have a narrow linewidth as a result of their discrete density of states. By contrast, quantum dot arrays exhibit inhomogeneous broadening which is generally attributed to size variations between the individual dots in the ensemble. Interpreting the results of double resonance spectroscopy, it is seen that variation in the indium composition of the nominally InAs dots is also present. This result also explains the otherwise confusing relationship between the spread in the ground-state and excited-state transition energies. Careful analysis shows that, in addition to the variations in size and composition, some other as yet unidentified broadening mechanism must also be present. The influence of rapid thermal annealing on dot electronic structure is also considered, finding that the experimentally observed blue-shift and narrowing of the photoluminescence linewidth may both be explained in terms of normal In/Ga interdiffusion. InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots are commonly assumed to have a pyramidal geometry, so that we would expect the energy separation of the ground-state electron and hole levels in the dot to be largest at a positive applied field. This should also be the case for any dot of uniform composition whose shape tapers inwards from base to top, counter to the results of experimental Stark-shift spectroscopy which show a peak transition energy at a negative applied field. It is demonstrated that this inversion of the ground state
Circularly organized quantum dot nanostructures of Ge on Si substrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai, Qijia; Chen, Peixuan; Zhong, Zhenyang; Jiang, Zuimin; Lu, Fang; An, Zhenghua
2009-01-01
A novel circularly arranged structure of germanium quantum dots has been fabricated by combining techniques including electron beam lithography, wet etching and molecular beam epitaxy. It was observed that both pattern and growth parameters affect the morphology of the quantum dot molecules. Meanwhile, the oxidation mask plays a vital role in the formation of circularly organized quantum dots. The experimental results demonstrate the possibilities of investigating the properties of quantum dot molecules as well as single quantum dots
Chiral Responsive Liquid Quantum Dots.
Zhang, Jin; Ma, Junkai; Shi, Fangdan; Tian, Demei; Li, Haibing
2017-08-01
How to convert the weak chiral-interaction into the macroscopic properties of materials remains a huge challenge. Here, this study develops highly fluorescent, selectively chiral-responsive liquid quantum dots (liquid QDs) based on the hydrophobic interaction between the chiral chains and the oleic acid-stabilized QDs, which have been designated as (S)-1810-QDs. The fluorescence spectrum and liquidity of thermal control demonstrate the fluorescence properties and the fluidic behavior of (S)-1810-QDs in the solvent-free state. Especially, (S)-1810-QDs exhibit a highly chiral-selective response toward (1R, 2S)-2-amino-1,2-diphenyl ethanol. It is anticipated that this study will facilitate the construction of smart chiral fluidic sensors. More importantly, (S)-1810-QDs can become an attractive material for chiral separation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates in semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Zanardi, Paolo; Rossi, Fausto
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study the implementation of nonadiabatic geometrical quantum gates with in semiconductor quantum dots. Different quantum information enconding (manipulation) schemes exploiting excitonic degrees of freedom are discussed. By means of the Aharanov-Anandan geometrical phase, one can avoid the limitations of adiabatic schemes relying on adiabatic Berry phase; fast geometrical quantum gates can be, in principle, implemented
Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules
Bayer, Manfred
2002-03-01
Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Herraiz-Cardona, Isaac; Park, Hun; Song, Taesup; Noh, Seung Hyun; Gimenez, Sixto; Sero, Ivan Mora; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Bisquert, Juan; Terashima, Chiaki; Paik, Ungyu; Kang, Yong Soo
2016-01-01
photoelectrochemical fuel generation systems. In this work, we demonstrate direct assembly of surface modified graphene quantum dots (∼2 nm particle size) onto TiO 2 hollow nanowire (∼3 μm in length and ∼100 to 250 nm in diameter) by electrostatic attraction and examine the photocarrier accumulation and recombination processes leading to device operation. Optical characterization reveals that GQDs absorbed light photons at visible light wavelength up to 600 nm. Hybrid TiO 2 -GQDs heterostructures show a photocurrent enhancement of ∼70% for water oxidation compared to pristine TiO 2 using sacrificial-free electrolyte, which is further validated by incident photon to current efficiency. Additionally, the charge accumulation processes and charge transfer characteristics are investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These results provide the platform to understand the insights of graphene quantum dots/metal oxide interfaces in PEC reactions and discuss the feasibility of graphene quantum dots in wide range of electrochemical and photoelectrochemical based fuel conversion devices.
Optical pumping of electron and nuclear spin in a negatively-charged quantum dot
Bracker, Allan; Gershoni, David; Korenev, Vladimir
2005-03-01
We report optical pumping of electron and nuclear spins in an individual negatively-charged quantum dot. With a bias-controlled heterostructure, we inject one electron into the quantum dot. Intense laser excitation produces negative photoluminescence polarization, which is easily erased by the Hanle effect, demonstrating optical pumping of a long-lived resident electron. The electron spin lifetime is consistent with the influence of nuclear spin fluctuations. Measuring the Overhauser effect in high magnetic fields, we observe a high degree of nuclear spin polarization, which is closely correlated to electron spin pumping.
Ordered quantum-ring chains grown on a quantum-dot superlattice template
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M.; Holmes, Kyland; Marega, Euclydes; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.
2012-01-01
One-dimensional ordered quantum-ring chains are fabricated on a quantum-dot superlattice template by molecular beam epitaxy. The quantum-dot superlattice template is prepared by stacking multiple quantum-dot layers and quantum-ring chains are formed by partially capping quantum dots. Partially capping InAs quantum dots with a thin layer of GaAs introduces a morphological change from quantum dots to quantum rings. The lateral ordering is introduced by engineering the strain field of a multi-layer InGaAs quantum-dot superlattice.
System and method for making quantum dots
Bakr, Osman; Pan, Jun; El-Ballouli, Ala'a O.; Knudsen, Kristian Rahbek; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.
2015-01-01
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments
Electron Transport in Coupled Quantum Dots
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Antoniadis, D
1998-01-01
In the course of the investigation funded by this proposal we fabricated, modeled, and measured a variety of quantum dot structures in order to better understand how such nanostructures might be used for computation...
Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots.
Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T
2016-03-03
Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Optical Studies of Single Quantum Dots
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gammon, Daniel; Steel, Duncan G
2002-01-01
...: the atomlike entities known as quantum dots (QDs). Measuring 1-100 nm across, QDs are semiconductor structures in which the electron wavefunction is confined in all three dimensions by the potential energy barriers that form the QD's boundaries...
Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics: A Path Forward
Kramer, Illan J.; Sargent, Edward H.
2011-01-01
spectrum. CQD materials' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements
Quantum Dots Coupled to a Superconductor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jellinggaard, Anders Robert
are tuned electrostatically. This includes tuning the odd occupation of the dot through a quantum phase transition, where it forms a singlet with excitations in the superconductor. We detail the fabrication of these bottom gated devices, which additionally feature ancillary sensor dots connected...
Optical anisotropy in vertically coupled quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Ping; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Leosson, Kristjan
1999-01-01
We have studied the polarization of surface and edge-emitted photoluminescence (PL) from structures with vertically coupled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The PL polarization is found to be strongly dependent on the number of stacked layers. While single...... number due to increasing dot size....
Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector
Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang
2010-01-01
A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.
Fermionic entanglement via quantum walks in quantum dots
Melnikov, Alexey A.; Fedichkin, Leonid E.
2018-02-01
Quantum walks are fundamentally different from random walks due to the quantum superposition property of quantum objects. Quantum walk process was found to be very useful for quantum information and quantum computation applications. In this paper we demonstrate how to use quantum walks as a tool to generate high-dimensional two-particle fermionic entanglement. The generated entanglement can survive longer in the presence of depolorazing noise due to the periodicity of quantum walk dynamics. The possibility to create two distinguishable qudits in a system of tunnel-coupled semiconductor quantum dots is discussed.
Liu, Weiwen
The continual downsizing of the basic functional units used in the electronics industry has motivated the study of the quantum computation and related topics. To overcome the limitations of classical physics and engineering, some unique quantum mechanical features, especially entanglement and superpositions have begun to be considered as important properties for future bits. Including these quantum mechanical features is attractive because the ability to utilize quantum mechanics can dramatically enhance computational power. Among the various ways of constructing the basic building blocks for quantum computation, we are particularly interested in using spins inside epitaxially grown InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules as quantum bits (qubits). The ability to design and engineer nanostructures with tailored quantum properties is critical to engineering quantum computers and other novel electro-optical devices and is one of the key challenges for scaling up new ideas for device application. In this thesis, we will focus on how the structure and composition of quantum dot molecules can be used to control spin properties and charge interactions. Tunable spin and charge properties can enable new, more scalable, methods of initializing and manipulating quantum information. In this thesis, we demonstrate one method to enable electric-field tunability of Zeeman splitting for a single electron spin inside a quantum dot molecules by using heterostructure engineering techniques to modify the barrier that separates quantum dots. We describe how these structural changes to the quantum dot molecules also change charge interactions and propose ways to use this effect to enable accurate measurement of coulomb interactions and possibly charge occupancy inside these complicated quantum dot molecules.
The sandwich InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure for IR photoelectric detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moldavskaya, L. D.; Vostokov, N. V.; Gaponova, D. M.; Danil'tsev, V. M.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Shashkin, V. I.
2008-01-01
A new possibility for growing InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructures for infrared photoelectric detectors by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is discussed. The specific features of the technological process are the prolonged time of growth of quantum dots and the alternation of the low-and high-temperature modes of overgrowing the quantum dots with GaAs barrier layers. During overgrowth, large-sized quantum dots are partially dissolved, and the secondary InGaAs quantum well is formed of the material of the dissolved large islands. In this case, a sandwich structure is formed. In this structure, quantum dots are arranged between two thin layers with an increased content of indium, namely, between the wetting InAs layer and the secondary InGaAs layer. The height of the quantum dots depends on the thickness of the GaAs layer grown at a comparatively low temperature. The structures exhibit intraband photoconductivity at a wavelength around 4.5 μm at temperatures up to 200 K. At 90 K, the photosensitivity is 0.5 A/W, and the detectivity is 3 x 10 9 cm Hz 1/2 W -1
Semiconductor Quantum Dots with Photoresponsive Ligands.
Sansalone, Lorenzo; Tang, Sicheng; Zhang, Yang; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; Raymo, Françisco M; Garcia-Amorós, Jaume
2016-10-01
Photochromic or photocaged ligands can be anchored to the outer shell of semiconductor quantum dots in order to control the photophysical properties of these inorganic nanocrystals with optical stimulations. One of the two interconvertible states of the photoresponsive ligands can be designed to accept either an electron or energy from the excited quantum dots and quench their luminescence. Under these conditions, the reversible transformations of photochromic ligands or the irreversible cleavage of photocaged counterparts translates into the possibility to switch luminescence with external control. As an alternative to regulating the photophysics of a quantum dot via the photochemistry of its ligands, the photochemistry of the latter can be controlled by relying on the photophysics of the former. The transfer of excitation energy from a quantum dot to a photocaged ligand populates the excited state of the species adsorbed on the nanocrystal to induce a photochemical reaction. This mechanism, in conjunction with the large two-photon absorption cross section of quantum dots, can be exploited to release nitric oxide or to generate singlet oxygen under near-infrared irradiation. Thus, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and photoresponsive ligands offers the opportunity to assemble nanostructured constructs with specific functions on the basis of electron or energy transfer processes. The photoswitchable luminescence and ability to photoinduce the release of reactive chemicals, associated with the resulting systems, can be particularly valuable in biomedical research and can, ultimately, lead to the realization of imaging probes for diagnostic applications as well as to therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.
Spectroscopy of Charged Quantum Dot Molecules
Stinaff, E. A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Ware, M. E.; Doty, M. F.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.; Korenev, V. L.
2006-03-01
Spins of single charges in quantum dots are attractive for many quantum information and spintronic proposals. Scalable quantum information applications require the ability to entangle and operate on multiple spins in coupled quantum dots (CQDs). To further the understanding of these systems, we present detailed spectroscopic studies of InAs CQDs with control of the discrete electron or hole charging of the system. The optical spectrum reveals a pattern of energy anticrossings and crossings in the photoluminescence as a function of applied electric field. These features can be understood as a superposition of charge and spin configurations of the two dots and represent clear signatures of quantum mechanical coupling. The molecular resonance leading to these anticrossings is achieved at different electric fields for the optically excited (trion) states and the ground (hole) states allowing for the possibility of using the excited states for optically induced coupling of the qubits.
A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London N6G 3K7 (Canada)
2014-03-31
We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.
Metamorphic quantum dots: Quite different nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seravalli, L.; Frigeri, P.; Nasi, L.; Trevisi, G.; Bocchi, C.
2010-01-01
In this work, we present a study of InAs quantum dots deposited on InGaAs metamorphic buffers by molecular beam epitaxy. By comparing morphological, structural, and optical properties of such nanostructures with those of InAs/GaAs quantum dot ones, we were able to evidence characteristics that are typical of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs structures. The more relevant are: the cross-hatched InGaAs surface overgrown by dots, the change in critical coverages for island nucleation and ripening, the nucleation of new defects in the capping layers, and the redshift in the emission energy. The discussion on experimental results allowed us to conclude that metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dots are rather different nanostructures, where attention must be put to some issues not present in InAs/GaAs structures, namely, buffer-related defects, surface morphology, different dislocation mobility, and stacking fault energies. On the other hand, we show that metamorphic quantum dot nanostructures can provide new possibilities of tailoring various properties, such as dot positioning and emission energy, that could be very useful for innovative dot-based devices.
Advancements in the Field of Quantum Dots
Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha; Sinha, Swami Prasad.
2012-08-01
Quantum dots are defined as very small semiconductor crystals of size varying from nanometer scale to a few micron i.e. so small that they are considered dimensionless and are capable of showing many chemical properties by virtue of which they tend to be lead at one minute and gold at the second minute.Quantum dots house the electrons just the way the electrons would have been present in an atom, by applying a voltage. And therefore they are very judiciously given the name of being called as the artificial atoms. This application of voltage may also lead to the modification of the chemical nature of the material anytime it is desired, resulting in lead at one minute to gold at the other minute. But this method is quite beyond our reach. A quantum dot is basically a semiconductor of very tiny size and this special phenomenon of quantum dot, causes the band of energies to change into discrete energy levels. Band gaps and the related energy depend on the relationship between the size of the crystal and the exciton radius. The height and energy between different energy levels varies inversely with the size of the quantum dot. The smaller the quantum dot, the higher is the energy possessed by it.There are many applications of the quantum dots e.g. they are very wisely applied to:Light emitting diodes: LEDs eg. White LEDs, Photovoltaic devices: solar cells, Memory elements, Biology : =biosensors, imaging, Lasers, Quantum computation, Flat-panel displays, Photodetectors, Life sciences and so on and so forth.The nanometer sized particles are able to display any chosen colour in the entire ultraviolet visible spectrum through a small change in their size or composition.
Spectroscopy characterization and quantum yield determination of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortiz, S N Contreras; Ospino, E Mejía; Cabanzo, R
2016-01-01
In this paper we show the characterization of two kinds of quantum dots: hydrophilic and hydrophobic, with core and core/shell respectively, using spectroscopy techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman. We determined the quantum yield in the quantum dots using the quinine sulphate as standard. This salt is commonly used because of its quantum yield (56%) and stability. For the CdTe excitation, we used a wavelength of 549nm and for the CdSe/ZnS excitation a wavelength of 527nm. The results show that CdSe/ZnS (49%) has better fluorescence, better quantum dots, and confirm the fluorescence result. The quantum dots have shown a good fluorescence performance, so this property will be used to replace dyes, with the advantage that quantum dots are less toxic than some dyes like the rhodamine. In addition, in this work we show different techniques to find the quantum dots emission: fluorescence spectrum, synchronous spectrum and Raman spectrum. (paper)
Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids
Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.
2015-01-01
© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned 'dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.
Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids
Ning, Zhijun
2015-07-15
© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Heteroepitaxy - atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate - is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned \\'dots-in-a-matrix\\' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.
Studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime
Goldmann, Eyal
We present two studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime. In the first study, presented in Chapter 3, we investigate the edge reconstruction phenomenon believed to occur when the quantum dot filling fraction is n≲1 . Our approach involves the examination of large dots (≤40 electrons) using a partial diagonalization technique in which the occupancies of the deep interior orbitals are frozen. To interpret the results of this calculation, we evaluate the overlap between the diagonalized ground state and a set of trial wavefunctions which we call projected necklace (PN) states. A PN state is simply the angular momentum projection of a maximum density droplet surrounded by a ring of localized electrons. Our calculations reveal that PN states have up to 99% overlap with the diagonalized ground states, and are lower in energy than the states identified in Chamon and Wen's study of the edge reconstruction. In the second study, presented in Chapter 4, we investigate quantum dots in the fractional quantum Hall regime using a Hartree formulation of composite fermion theory. We find that under appropriate conditions, the chemical potential of the dots oscillates periodically with B due to the transfer of composite fermions between quasi-Landau bands. This effect is analogous the addition spectrum oscillations which occur in quantum dots in the integer quantum Hall regime. Period f0 oscillations are found in sharply confined dots with filling factors nu = 2/5 and nu = 2/3. Period 3 f0 oscillations are found in a parabolically confined nu = 2/5 dot. More generally, we argue that the oscillation period of dots with band pinning should vary continuously with B, whereas the period of dots without band pinning is f0 .
Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer working in adiabatic limit. M Ávila ... The time of operation of an adiabatic quantum computer must be less than the decoherence time, otherwise the computer would be nonoperative. So far, the ...
Electron Spins in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Hanson, R.
2005-01-01
This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding and controlling the behavior of the spin degree of freedom of single electrons, confined in semiconductor quantum dots. This research work is motivated by the prospects of using the electron spin as a quantum bit (qubit), the basic
Quantum dot optoelectronic devices: lasers, photodetectors and solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Jiang; Chen, Siming; Seeds, Alwyn; Liu, Huiyun
2015-01-01
Nanometre-scale semiconductor devices have been envisioned as next-generation technologies with high integration and functionality. Quantum dots, or the so-called ‘artificial atoms’, exhibit unique properties due to their quantum confinement in all 3D. These unique properties have brought to light the great potential of quantum dots in optoelectronic applications. Numerous efforts worldwide have been devoted to these promising nanomaterials for next-generation optoelectronic devices, such as lasers, photodetectors, amplifiers, and solar cells, with the emphasis on improving performance and functionality. Through the development in optoelectronic devices based on quantum dots over the last two decades, quantum dot devices with exceptional performance surpassing previous devices are evidenced. This review describes recent developments in quantum dot optoelectronic devices over the last few years. The paper will highlight the major progress made in 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers, quantum dot infrared photodetectors, and quantum dot solar cells. (topical review)
Temperature-Dependent Coercive Field Measured by a Quantum Dot Strain Gauge.
Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G
2017-12-13
Coercive fields of piezoelectric materials can be strongly influenced by environmental temperature. We investigate this influence using a heterostructure consisting of a single crystal piezoelectric film and a quantum dots containing membrane. Applying electric field leads to a physical deformation of the piezoelectric film, thereby inducing strain in the quantum dots and thus modifying their optical properties. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission shows butterfly-like loops, from which the coercive fields are directly derived. The results suggest that coercive fields at cryogenic temperatures are strongly increased, yielding values several tens of times larger than those at room temperature. We adapt a theoretical model to fit the measured data with very high agreement. Our work provides an efficient framework for predicting the properties of ferroelectric materials and advocating their practical applications, especially at low temperatures.
Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prodanović, Nikola, E-mail: elnpr@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Milanović, Vitomir [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [Institute of Microwaves and Photonics, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2013-11-01
We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.
CdZnTe quantum dots study: energy and phase relaxation process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viale, Yannick
2004-01-01
We present a study of the electron-hole pair energy and phase relaxation processes in a CdTe/ZnTe heterostructure, in which quantum dots are embedded. CdZnTe quantum wells with a high Zinc concentration, separated by ZnTe barriers, contain islands with a high cadmium concentration. In photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy experiments, we evidence two types of electron hole pair relaxation processes. After being excited in the CdZnTe quantum well, the pairs relax their energy by emitting a cascade of longitudinal optical phonons until they are trapped in the quantum dots. Before their radiative recombination follows an intra-dot relaxation, which is attributed to a lattice polarization mechanism of the quantum dots. It is related to the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational states. Both relaxation mechanisms are reinforced by the strong polar character of the chemical bond in II-VI compounds. Time resolved measurements of transmission variations in a pump-probe configuration allowed us to investigate the population dynamics of the electron-hole pairs during the relaxation process. We observe a relaxation time of about 2 ps for the longitudinal phonon emission cascade in the quantum well before a saturation of the quantum dot transition. We also measured an intra-box relaxation time of 25 ps. The comparison of various cascades allows us to estimate the emission time of a longitudinal optical phonon in the quantum well to be about 100 fs. In four waves mixing experiments, we observe oscillations that we attribute to quantum beats between excitonic and bi-excitonic transitions. The dephasing times that we measure as function of the density of photons shows that excitons are strongly localized in the quantum dots. The excitonic dephasing time is much shorter than the radiative lifetime and is thus controlled by the intra-dot relaxation time. (author) [fr
Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits
Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey
2014-08-26
A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.
Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition
Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro
2015-02-03
Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.
Inorganic passivation and doping control in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics
Hoogland, Sjoerd H.; Ip, Alex; Thon, Susanna; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Debnath, Ratan K.; Levina, Larissa; Rollny, Lisa R.; Fischer, Armin H.; Kemp, Kyle W.; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, André J.; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, E. H.
2012-01-01
We discuss strategies to reduce midgap trap state densities in colloidal quantum dot films and requirements to control doping type and magnitude. We demonstrate that these improvements result in colloidal quantum dot solar cells with certified 7.0% efficiency.
Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barthelemy, Pierre; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K.
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulations can be used to overcome this problem: complex quantum problems can be solved by studying experimentally an artificial quantum system operated to simulate the desired hamiltonian. Quantum dot systems have shown to be widely tunable quantum systems, that can be efficiently controlled electrically. This tunability and the versatility of their design makes them very promising quantum simulators. This paper reviews the progress towards digital quantum simulations with individually controlled quantum dots, as well as the analog quantum simulations that have been performed with these systems. The possibility to use large arrays of quantum dots to simulate the low-temperature Hubbard model is also discussed. The main issues along that path are presented and new ideas to overcome them are proposed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Distributed quantum information processing via quantum dot spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jun, Liu; Qiong, Wang; Le-Man, Kuang; Hao-Sheng, Zeng
2010-01-01
We propose a scheme to engineer a non-local two-qubit phase gate between two remote quantum-dot spins. Along with one-qubit local operations, one can in principal perform various types of distributed quantum information processing. The scheme employs a photon with linearly polarisation interacting one after the other with two remote quantum-dot spins in cavities. Due to the optical spin selection rule, the photon obtains a Faraday rotation after the interaction process. By measuring the polarisation of the final output photon, a non-local two-qubit phase gate between the two remote quantum-dot spins is constituted. Our scheme may has very important applications in the distributed quantum information processing
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-01-01
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiltscher, Bastian
2012-10-05
The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in
Carbon quantum dots and a method of making the same
Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Washington, Aaron L.
2017-08-22
The present invention is directed to a method of preparing a carbon quantum dot. The carbon quantum dot can be prepared from a carbon precursor, such as a fullerene, and a complex metal hydride. The present invention also discloses a carbon quantum dot made by reacting a carbon precursor with a complex metal hydride and a polymer containing a carbon quantum dot made by reacting a carbon precursor with a complex metal hydride.
Exceeding Conventional Photovoltaic Efficiency Limits Using Colloidal Quantum Dots
Pach, Gregory F.
Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are a widely investigated field of research due to their highly tunable nature in which the optical and electronic properties of the nanocrystal can be manipulated by merely changing the nanocrystal's size. Specifically, colloidal quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) have become a promising candidate for future generation photovoltaic technology. Quantum dots exhibit multiple exciton generation (MEG) in which multiple electron-hole pairs are generated from a single high-energy photon. This process is not observed in bulk-like semiconductors and allows for QDSCs to achieve theoretical efficiency limits above the standard single-junction Shockley-Queisser limit. However, the fast expanding field of QDSC research has lacked standardization of synthetic techniques and device design. Therefore, we sought to detail methodology for synthesizing PbS and PbSe QDs as well as photovoltaic device fabrication techniques as a fast track toward constructing high-performance solar cells. We show that these protocols lead toward consistently achieving efficiencies above 8% for PbS QDSCs. Using the same methodology for building single-junction photovoltaic devices, we incorporated PbS QDs as a bottom cell into a monolithic tandem architecture along with solution-processed CdTe nanocrystals. Modeling shows that near-peak tandem device efficiencies can be achieved across a wide range of bottom cell band gaps, and therefore the highly tunable band gap of lead-chalcogenide QDs lends well towards a bottom cell in a tandem architecture. A fully functioning monolithic tandem device is realized through the development of a ZnTe/ZnO recombination layer that appropriately combines the two subcells in series. Multiple recent reports have shown nanocrystalline heterostructures to undergo the MEG process more efficiency than several other nanostrucutres, namely lead-chalcogenide QDs. The final section of my thesis expands upon a recent publication by Zhang et. al., which
Phonon impact on optical control schemes of quantum dots: Role of quantum dot geometry and symmetry
Lüker, S.; Kuhn, T.; Reiter, D. E.
2017-12-01
Phonons strongly influence the optical control of semiconductor quantum dots. When modeling the electron-phonon interaction in several theoretical approaches, the quantum dot geometry is approximated by a spherical structure, though typical self-assembled quantum dots are strongly lens-shaped. By explicitly comparing simulations of a spherical and a lens-shaped dot using a well-established correlation expansion approach, we show that, indeed, lens-shaped dots can be exactly mapped to a spherical geometry when studying the phonon influence on the electronic system. We also give a recipe to reproduce spectral densities from more involved dots by rather simple spherical models. On the other hand, breaking the spherical symmetry has a pronounced impact on the spatiotemporal properties of the phonon dynamics. As an example we show that for a lens-shaped quantum dot, the phonon emission is strongly concentrated along the direction of the smallest axis of the dot, which is important for the use of phonons for the communication between different dots.
Carrier relaxation in (In,Ga)As quantum dots with magnetic field-induced anharmonic level structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurtze, H.; Bayer, M. [Experimentelle Physik 2, TU Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)
2016-07-04
Sophisticated models have been worked out to explain the fast relaxation of carriers into quantum dot ground states after non-resonant excitation, overcoming the originally proposed phonon bottleneck. We apply a magnetic field along the quantum dot heterostructure growth direction to transform the confined level structure, which can be approximated by a Fock–Darwin spectrum, from a nearly equidistant level spacing at zero field to strong anharmonicity in finite fields. This changeover leaves the ground state carrier population rise time unchanged suggesting that fast relaxation is maintained upon considerable changes of the level spacing. This corroborates recent models explaining the relaxation by polaron formation in combination with quantum kinetic effects.
Bright infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots
Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.
2013-01-01
Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm. © 2013 Materials Research Society.
Double quantum dot as a minimal thermoelectric generator
Donsa, S.; Andergassen, S.; Held, K.
2014-01-01
Based on numerical renormalization group calculations, we demonstrate that experimentally realized double quantum dots constitute a minimal thermoelectric generator. In the Kondo regime, one quantum dot acts as an n-type and the other one as a p-type thermoelectric device. Properly connected the double quantum dot provides a miniature power supply utilizing the thermal energy of the environment.
Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan
2003-01-01
We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...
Optical localization of quantum dots in tapered nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østerkryger, Andreas Dyhl; Gregersen, Niels; Fons, Romain
2017-01-01
In this work we have measured the far-field emission patterns of In As quantum dots embedded in a GaAs tapered nanowire and used an open-geometry Fourier modal method for determining the radial position of the quantum dots by computing the far-field emission pattern for different quantum dot...
Circular polarization memory in single Quantum Dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khatsevich, S.; Poem, E.; Benny, Y.; Marderfeld, I.; Gershoni, D.; Badolato, A.; Petroff, P. M.
2010-01-01
Under quasi-resonant circularly polarized optical excitation, charged quantum dots may emit polarized light. We measured various transitions with either positive, negative or no circular-polarization memory. We explain these observations and quantitatively calculate the polarization spectrum. Our model use the full configuration-interaction method, including the electron-hole exchange interaction, for calculating the quantum dot's confined many-carrier states, along with one assumption regarding the spin relaxation of photoexcited carriers: Electrons maintain their initial spin polarization, while holes do not.
Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)
2014-06-21
We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.
Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-07-02
Jul 2, 2014 ... corrections in it. If the decoherence times of a quantum dot computer are ∼100 ns [J M Kikkawa and D D Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4313 (1998)] then the predicted number of one qubit gate (primitive) operations of the Loss–DiVincenzo quantum computer in such an interval of time must be >1010.
High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kadkhodazadeh, Shima
2013-01-01
This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Aiwei; Teng Feng; Gao Yinhao; Li Dan; Zhao Suling; Liang Chunjun; Wang Yongsheng
2007-01-01
In this paper, white light emission was obtained from organic-inorganic heterostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer, in which CdSe quantum dots were synthesized via a colloidal chemical approach by using CdO and Se powder as precursors. Photoluminescence of CdSe quantum dots demonstrated a white emission with a full wavelength at half maximum (FWHM) of about 200 nm under ambient conditions, and the white emission could be observed in both multilayer device ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/BCP/Alq 3 /Al and single-layer device: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/Al. The broad emission was attributed to the inhomogeneous broadening. The CIE coordinates of the multilayer device were x=0.35 and y=0.40. The white-light-emitting diodes with CdSe quantum dots as the emitting layer are potentially useful in lighting applications
Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sollner, Immo Nathanael
This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... with numerical simulations. Such a high coupling eciency implies that the system can be considered an articial 1D-atom, and we theoretically show that this system can generate strong photon-photon interaction, which is an essential functionality for deterministic optical quantum information processing. We...
Dynamic localization in quantum dots: Analytical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basko, D.M.; Skvortsov, M.A.; Kravtsov, V.E.
2003-02-01
We analyze the response of a complex quantum-mechanical system (e.g., a quantum dot) to a time-dependent perturbation φ(t). Assuming the dot to be described by random matrix theory for GOE we find the quantum correction to the energy absorption rate as a function of the dephasing time t φ . If φ(t) is a sum of d harmonics with incommensurate frequencies, the correction behaves similarly to that to the conductivity δσ d (t φ ) in the d-dimensional Anderson model of the orthogonal symmetry class. For a generic periodic perturbation the leading quantum correction is absent as in the systems of the unitary symmetry class, unless φ(-t+τ)=φ(t+τ) for some τ, which falls into the quasi-1d orthogonal universality class. (author)
Magnetic control of dipolaritons in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojas-Arias, J S; Vinck-Posada, H; Rodríguez, B A
2016-01-01
Dipolaritons are quasiparticles that arise in coupled quantum wells embedded in a microcavity, they are a superposition of a photon, a direct exciton and an indirect exciton. We propose the existence of dipolaritons in a system of two coupled quantum dots inside a microcavity in direct analogy with the quantum well case and find that, despite some similarities, dipolaritons in quantum dots have different properties and can lead to true dark polariton states. We use a finite system theory to study the effects of the magnetic field on the system, including the emission, and find that it can be used as a control parameter of the properties of excitons and dipolaritons, and the overall magnetic behaviour of the structure. (paper)
Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits
Kim, Dohun
2015-03-01
The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields π rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories
Imaging and Manipulating Energy Transfer Among Quantum Dots at Individual Dot Resolution.
Nguyen, Duc; Nguyen, Huy A; Lyding, Joseph W; Gruebele, Martin
2017-06-27
Many processes of interest in quantum dots involve charge or energy transfer from one dot to another. Energy transfer in films of quantum dots as well as between linked quantum dots has been demonstrated by luminescence shift, and the ultrafast time-dependence of energy transfer processes has been resolved. Bandgap variation among dots (energy disorder) and dot separation are known to play an important role in how energy diffuses. Thus, it would be very useful if energy transfer could be visualized directly on a dot-by-dot basis among small clusters or within films of quantum dots. To that effect, we report single molecule optical absorption detected by scanning tunneling microscopy (SMA-STM) to image energy pooling from donor into acceptor dots on a dot-by-dot basis. We show that we can manipulate groups of quantum dots by pruning away the dominant acceptor dot, and switching the energy transfer path to a different acceptor dot. Our experimental data agrees well with a simple Monte Carlo lattice model of energy transfer, similar to models in the literature, in which excitation energy is transferred preferentially from dots with a larger bandgap to dots with a smaller bandgap.
Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1999-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...... to resolve luminescence lines from individual quantum dots, revealing an atomic-like spectrum of sharp transition lines. A parameter of fundamental importance is the intrinsic linewidth of these transitions. Using high-resolution spectroscopy we have determined the linewidth and investigated its dependence...... on temperature, which gives information about how the exciton confined to the quantum dot interacts with the surrounding lattice....
Enhanced Photon Extraction from a Nanowire Quantum Dot Using a Bottom-Up Photonic Shell
Jeannin, Mathieu; Cremel, Thibault; Häyrynen, Teppo; Gregersen, Niels; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Nogues, Gilles; Kheng, Kuntheak
2017-11-01
Semiconductor nanowires offer the possibility to grow high-quality quantum-dot heterostructures, and, in particular, CdSe quantum dots inserted in ZnSe nanowires have demonstrated the ability to emit single photons up to room temperature. In this paper, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach to fabricate a photonic fiberlike structure around such nanowire quantum dots by depositing an oxide shell using atomic-layer deposition. Simulations suggest that the intensity collected in our NA =0.6 microscope objective can be increased by a factor 7 with respect to the bare nanowire case. Combining microphotoluminescence, decay time measurements, and numerical simulations, we obtain a fourfold increase in the collected photoluminescence from the quantum dot. We show that this improvement is due to an increase of the quantum-dot emission rate and a redirection of the emitted light. Our ex situ fabrication technique allows a precise and reproducible fabrication on a large scale. Its improved extraction efficiency is compared to state-of-the-art top-down devices.
Quantum and field effects of oxide heterostructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trier, Felix
. In these multi-plexed devices, several inputs aretranslated into several outputs through the multiple physical functionalities.A highly prominent example of such an oxide interface is the one between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. Although both LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 in the bulk are electrically insulating and non-magnetic......, their interface nonetheless shows attractive properties such as metallic conductivity, superconductivity and ferro magnetism.This thesis will provide an extensive review of the literature concerning the interface metal found in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 as well as in other SrTiO3-based hetero structures. Through this review...... in two different SrTiO3-based heterostructures. Here, it is shown that the interface between amorphous-LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 is superconducting with a larger critical transition temperature than that in LaAlO3/SrTiO3. For γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 it is shown that non-volatile bipolar resistance switching is possible...
Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Neetu, E-mail: singh.neetu1985@gmail.com; Kapoor, Avinashi [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi-110 021 (India); Kumar, Vinod [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Mehra, R. M. [School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida-201 306, U.P. (India)
2014-04-24
CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.
Coherent control of quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...
Hybrid quantum-classical modeling of quantum dot devices
Kantner, Markus; Mittnenzweig, Markus; Koprucki, Thomas
2017-11-01
The design of electrically driven quantum dot devices for quantum optical applications asks for modeling approaches combining classical device physics with quantum mechanics. We connect the well-established fields of semiclassical semiconductor transport theory and the theory of open quantum systems to meet this requirement. By coupling the van Roosbroeck system with a quantum master equation in Lindblad form, we introduce a new hybrid quantum-classical modeling approach, which provides a comprehensive description of quantum dot devices on multiple scales: it enables the calculation of quantum optical figures of merit and the spatially resolved simulation of the current flow in realistic semiconductor device geometries in a unified way. We construct the interface between both theories in such a way, that the resulting hybrid system obeys the fundamental axioms of (non)equilibrium thermodynamics. We show that our approach guarantees the conservation of charge, consistency with the thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by numerical simulations of an electrically driven single-photon source based on a single quantum dot in the stationary and transient operation regime.
Exciton in vertically coupled type II quantum dots in threading magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mendoza-Cantillo, J., E-mail: jhofry@gmail.com [Group of Investigation in Condensed Matter Theory, Universidad del Magdalena, Carrera 32 No 22-08, Santa Marta (Colombia); Universidad de la Guajira, Riohacha (Colombia); Escorcia-Salas, G. Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabethescorcia@gmail.com [Group of Investigation in Condensed Matter Theory, Universidad del Magdalena, Carrera 32 No 22-08, Santa Marta (Colombia); Mikhailov, I.D., E-mail: mikhail2811@gmail.com [Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Sierra-Ortega, J., E-mail: jsierraortega@gmail.com [Group of Investigation in Condensed Matter Theory, Universidad del Magdalena, Carrera 32 No 22-08, Santa Marta (Colombia)
2014-11-15
We analyze the energy spectrum of a neutral exciton confined in a semiconductor heterostructure formed by two vertically coupled axially symmetrical type II quantum dots located close to each other. The electron in the structure is mainly located inside dots tunneling between them while the hole generally is placed in the exterior region close to the symmetry axis. Solutions of the Schrödinger equation are obtained by a variational separation of variables in the adiabatic limit. Numerical results are presented for the energies of bonding and anti-bonding lowest-lying of the exciton states and for the density of states for different InP/GaInP quantum dots' morphologies and the magnetic field strength values.
Entangled photons from small quantum dots
Visser, P.M.; Allaart, K.; Lenstra, D.
2003-01-01
We discuss level schemes of small quantum-dot turnstiles and their applicability in the production of entanglement in two-photon emission. Due to the large energy splitting of the single-electron levels, only one single-electron level and one single-hole level can be made resonant with the levels in
System and method for making quantum dots
Bakr, Osman M.
2015-05-28
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of making quantum dots (QDs) (passivated or unpassivated) using a continuous flow process, systems for making QDs using a continuous flow process, and the like. In one or more embodiments, the QDs produced using embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in solar photovoltaic cells, bio-imaging, IR emitters, or LEDs.
Enabling biomedical research with designer quantum dots
Tomczak, N.; Janczewski, D.; Dorokhin, D.V.; Han, M-Y; Vancso, Gyula J.; Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A.
2012-01-01
Quantum Dots (QDs) are a new class of semiconductor nanoparticulate luminophores, which are actively researched for novel applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this review, the recent progress in the design and applications of QD labels for in vitro and in vivo imaging of cells is presented.
Effect of temperature on quantum dots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MAHDI AHMADI BORJI
2017-07-12
Jul 12, 2017 ... Effect of temperature on InxGa1−xAs/GaAs quantum dots. MAHDI AHMADI BORJI1, ALI ... Attention should be given to the effects of temperature, ... tion 2 explains the model and method of the numerical simulation. Our results ...
Decoherence in Nearly-Isolated Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.; Harris jr, J.
2000-01-01
Decoherence in nearly-isolated GaAs quantum dots is investigated using the change in average Coulomb blockade peak height upon breaking time-reversal symmetry. The normalized change in average peak height approaches the predicted universal value of 1/4 at temperatures well below the single...
Photoluminescence of hybrid quantum dot systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), 347-349 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12236; GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : quantum dots * energy transfer * electron-phonon interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Many electron effects in semiconductor quantum dots
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit shell structures, very similar to atoms. Termed as 'artificial atoms' by some, they are much larger (1 100 nm) than real atoms. One can study a variety of manyelectron effects in them, which are otherwise difficult to observe in a real atom. We have treated these effects within the ...
Integrated photonics using colloidal quantum dots
Menon, Vinod M.; Husaini, Saima; Okoye, Nicky; Valappil, Nikesh V.
2009-11-01
Integrated photonic devices were realized using colloidal quantum dot composites such as flexible microcavity laser, microdisk emitters and integrated active-passive waveguides. The microcavity laser structure was realized using spin coating and consisted of an all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector with a poly-vinyl carbazole cavity layer embedded with InGaP/ZnS colloidal quantum dots. These microcavities can be peeled off the substrate yielding a flexible structure that can conform to any shape and whose emission spectra can be mechanically tuned. Planar photonic devices consisting of vertically coupled microring resonators, microdisk emitters, active-passive integrated waveguide structures and coupled active microdisk resonators were realized using soft lithography, photo-lithography, and electron beam lithography, respectively. The gain medium in all these devices was a composite consisting of quantum dots embedded in SU8 matrix. Finally, the effect of the host matrix on the optical properties of the quantum dots using results of steady-state and time-resolved luminescence measurements was determined. In addition to their specific functionalities, these novel device demonstrations and their development present a low-cost alternative to the traditional photonic device fabrication techniques.
Influence of the quantum dot geometry on p -shell transitions in differently charged quantum dots
Holtkemper, M.; Reiter, D. E.; Kuhn, T.
2018-02-01
Absorption spectra of neutral, negatively, and positively charged semiconductor quantum dots are studied theoretically. We provide an overview of the main energetic structure around the p -shell transitions, including the influence of nearby nominally dark states. Based on the envelope function approximation, we treat the four-band Luttinger theory as well as the direct and short-range exchange Coulomb interactions within a configuration interaction approach. The quantum dot confinement is approximated by an anisotropic harmonic potential. We present a detailed investigation of state mixing and correlations mediated by the individual interactions. Differences and similarities between the differently charged quantum dots are highlighted. Especially large differences between negatively and positively charged quantum dots become evident. We present a visualization of energetic shifts and state mixtures due to changes in size, in-plane asymmetry, and aspect ratio. Thereby we provide a better understanding of the experimentally hard to access question of quantum dot geometry effects. Our findings show a method to determine the in-plane asymmetry from photoluminescence excitation spectra. Furthermore, we supply basic knowledge for tailoring the strength of certain state mixtures or the energetic order of particular excited states via changes of the shape of the quantum dot. Such knowledge builds the basis to find the optimal QD geometry for possible applications and experiments using excited states.
Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aberle, C; Winslow, L; Li, J J; Weiss, S
2013-01-01
Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO
Using a quantum dot system to realize perfect state transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ji; Wu Shi-Hai; Zhang Wen-Wen; Xi Xiao-Qiang
2011-01-01
There are some disadvantages to Nikolopoulos et al.'s protocol [Nikolopoulos G M, Petrosyan D and Lambropoulos P 2004 Europhys. Lett. 65 297] where a quantum dot system is used to realize quantum communication. To overcome these disadvantages, we propose a protocol that uses a quantum dot array to construct a four-qubit spin chain to realize perfect quantum state transfer (PQST). First, we calculate the interaction relation for PQST in the spin chain. Second, we review the interaction between the quantum dots in the Heitler—London approach. Third, we present a detailed program for designing the proper parameters of a quantum dot array to realize PQST. (general)
Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids
Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F.; Sargent, Edward H.
2015-01-01
© 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.
Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids
Kim, Younghoon
2015-11-18
© 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals\\' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids.
Quantum Dots and Their Multimodal Applications: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul H. Holloway
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Semiconducting quantum dots, whose particle sizes are in the nanometer range, have very unusual properties. The quantum dots have band gaps that depend in a complicated fashion upon a number of factors, described in the article. Processing-structure-properties-performance relationships are reviewed for compound semiconducting quantum dots. Various methods for synthesizing these quantum dots are discussed, as well as their resulting properties. Quantum states and confinement of their excitons may shift their optical absorption and emission energies. Such effects are important for tuning their luminescence stimulated by photons (photoluminescence or electric field (electroluminescence. In this article, decoupling of quantum effects on excitation and emission are described, along with the use of quantum dots as sensitizers in phosphors. In addition, we reviewed the multimodal applications of quantum dots, including in electroluminescence device, solar cell and biological imaging.
Spin interactions in InAs quantum dots and molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doty, M.F.; Ware, M.E.; Stinaff, E.A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A.S.; Ponomarev, I.V.; Badescu, S.C.; Reinecke, T.L.; Gammon, D. [Naval Research Lab, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Korenev, V.L. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)
2006-12-15
Spin interactions between particles in quantum dots or quantum dot molecules appear as fine structure in the photoluminescence spectra. Using the understanding of exchange interactions that has been developed from single dot spectra, we analyze the spin signatures of coupled quantum dots separated by a wide barrier such that inter-dot interactions are negligible. We find that electron-hole exchange splitting is directly evident. In dots charged with an excess hole, an effective hole-hole interaction can be turned on through tunnel coupling. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals Quantum Heterostructures
2018-02-19
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0012 Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals Quantum Heterostructures PHILIP Kim HARVARD COLLEGE PRESIDENT...21-02-2018 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Aug 2015 to 14 Feb 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nano Electronics on...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We report molecular beam epitaxial growth and electronic transport properties of high quality topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films
Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy of Quantum Dot Molecules
Sitek, A.; Machnikowski, P.
2007-08-01
We study theoretically the nonlinear four-wave mixing response of an ensemble of coupled pairs of quantum dots (quantum dot molecules). We discuss the shape of the echo signal depending on the parameters of the ensemble: the statistics of transition energies and the degree of size correlations between the dots forming the molecules.
Controlling the aspect ratio of quantum dots: from columnar dots to quantum rods
Li, L.; Patriarche, G.; Chauvin, N.J.G.; Ridha, P.; Rossetti, M.; Andrzejewski, J.; Sek, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Fiore, A.
2008-01-01
We demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of artificial shape engineering of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures. Novel nanostructures including InGaAs quantum rods (QRs), nanocandles, and quantum dots (QDs)-in-rods were realized on a GaAs substrate. They were formed by depositing a
Theory of the Quantum Dot Hybrid Qubit
Friesen, Mark
2015-03-01
The quantum dot hybrid qubit, formed from three electrons in two quantum dots, combines the desirable features of charge qubits (fast manipulation) and spin qubits (long coherence times). The hybridized spin and charge states yield a unique energy spectrum with several useful properties, including two different operating regimes that are relatively immune to charge noise due to the presence of optimal working points or ``sweet spots.'' In this talk, I will describe dc and ac-driven gate operations of the quantum dot hybrid qubit. I will analyze improvements in the dephasing that are enabled by the sweet spots, and I will discuss the outlook for quantum hybrid qubits in terms of scalability. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), the USDOD, and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program. The views and conclusions contained in this presentation are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the US government.
Quantum dot-polymer conjugates for stable luminescent displays.
Ghimire, Sushant; Sivadas, Anjaly; Yuyama, Ken-Ichi; Takano, Yuta; Francis, Raju; Biju, Vasudevanpillai
2018-05-23
The broad absorption of light in the UV-Vis-NIR region and the size-based tunable photoluminescence color of semiconductor quantum dots make these tiny crystals one of the most attractive antennae in solar cells and phosphors in electrooptical devices. One of the primary requirements for such real-world applications of quantum dots is their stable and uniform distribution in optically transparent matrices. In this work, we prepare transparent thin films of polymer-quantum dot conjugates, where CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are uniformly distributed at high densities in a chitosan-polystyrene copolymer (CS-g-PS) matrix. Here, quantum dots in an aqueous solution are conjugated to the copolymer by a phase transfer reaction. With the stable conjugation of quantum dots to the copolymer, we prevent undesired phase separation between the two and aggregation of quantum dots. Furthermore, the conjugate allows us to prepare transparent thin films in which quantum dots are uniformly distributed at high densities. The CS-g-PS copolymer helps us in not only preserving the photoluminescence properties of quantum dots in the film but also rendering excellent photostability to quantum dots at the ensemble and single particle levels, making the conjugate a promising material for photoluminescence-based devices.
Principles of conjugating quantum dots to proteins via carbodiimide chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Fayi; Chan, Warren C W
2011-01-01
The covalent coupling of nanomaterials to bio-recognition molecules is a critical intermediate step in using nanomaterials for biology and medicine. Here we investigate the carbodiimide-mediated conjugation of fluorescent quantum dots to different proteins (e.g., immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin, and horseradish peroxidase). To enable these studies, we developed a simple method to isolate quantum dot bioconjugates from unconjugated quantum dots. The results show that the reactant concentrations and protein type will impact the overall number of proteins conjugated onto the surfaces of the quantum dots, homogeneity of the protein–quantum dot conjugate population, quantum efficiency, binding avidity, and enzymatic kinetics. We propose general principles that should be followed for the successful coupling of proteins to quantum dots.
Resonant Tunneling in Photonic Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cox Joel
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Here, we study the resonant photonic states of photonic double quantum well (PDQW heterostructures composed of two different photonic crystals. The heterostructure is denoted as B/A/B/A/B, where photonic crystals A and B act as photonic wells and barriers, respectively. The resulting band structure causes photons to become confined within the wells, where they occupy discrete quantized states. We have obtained an expression for the transmission coefficient of the PDQW heterostructure using the transfer matrix method and have found that resonant states exist within the photonic wells. These resonant states occur in split pairs, due to a coupling between degenerate states shared by each of the photonic wells. It is observed that when the resonance energy lies at a bound photonic state and the two photonic quantum wells are far away from each other, resonant states appear in the transmission spectrum of the PDQW as single peaks. However, when the wells are brought closer together, coupling between bound photonic states causes an energy-splitting effect, and the transmitted states each have two peaks. Essentially, this means that the system can be switched between single and double transparent states. We have also observed that the total number of resonant states can be controlled by varying the width of the photonic wells, and the quality factor of transmitted peaks can be drastically improved by increasing the thickness of the outer photonic barriers. It is anticipated that the resonant states described here can be used to develop new types of photonic-switching devices, optical filters, and other optoelectronic devices.
Anisotropic Pauli Spin Blockade of Holes in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot
Wang, Qingwen; Klochan, Oleh; Hung, Jo-Tzu; Culcer, Dimitrie; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Hamilton, Alex
Electrically defined semiconductor quantum dots are appealing systems for spin manipulation and quantum information processing. Thanks to the weak hyperfine interaction and the strong spin-orbit interaction, heavy-holes in GaAs are promising candidates for all-electrical spin manipulation. However, making stable quantum dots in GaAs has only become possible recently, mainly because of difficulties in device fabrication and device stability. Here we present electrical transport measurements of heavy-holes in a lateral double quantum dot based on a GaAs /AlxGa1 - x As heterostructure. We observe clear Pauli spin blockade and show that the lifting of the spin blockade by an external magnetic field is extremely anisotropic. Numerical calculations of heavy-hole transport through a double quantum dot in the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction demonstrate quantitative agreement with experimental results, which indicates that the observed anisotropy can be explained by the anisotropic hole g-factor and the surface Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling.
The quantum mechanical description of the dot-dot interaction in ionic colloids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morais, P.C.; Qu, Fanyao
2007-01-01
In this study the dot-dot interaction in ionic colloids is systematically investigated by self-consistently solving the coupled Schroedinger and Poisson equations in the frame of finite difference method (FDM). In a first approximation the interacting two-dot system (dimer) is described using the picture of two coupled quantum wells. It was found that the dot-dot interaction changes the colloid characteristic by changing the hopping coefficient (t) and consequently the nanodot surface charge density (σ). The hopping coefficient and the surface charge density were investigated as a function of the dot size and dot-dot distance
Carey, Graham H; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H
2015-06-03
Through a combination of chemical and mutual dot-to-dot surface passivation, high-quality colloidal quantum dot solids are fabricated. The joint passivation techniques lead to a record diffusion length for colloidal quantum dots of 230 ± 20 nm. The technique is applied to create thick photovoltaic devices that exhibit high current density without losing fill factor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Coulomb Blockade of Tunnel-Coupled Quantum Dots
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Golden, John
1997-01-01
.... Though classical charging models can explain the Coulomb blockade of an isolated dot, they must be modified to explain the Coulomb blockade of dots coupled through the quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons...
Quantum transport in a ring of quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sena Junior, Marcone I.; Macedo, Antonio M.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica
2012-07-01
Full text: Quantum dots play a central role in the recent technological efforts to build efficient devices to storage, process and transmit information in the quantum regime [1]. One of the reasons for this interest is the relative simplicity with which its control parameters can be changed by experimentalists. Systems with one, two and even arrays of quantum dots have been intensively studied with respect to their efficiency in processing information carried by charge, spin and heat [1]. A particularly useful realization of a quantum dot is a ballistic electron cavity formed by electrostatic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas. In the chaotic regime, the shape of the dot is statistically irrelevant and the ability to change its form via external gates can be used to generate members of an ensemble of identical systems. From a theoretical point of view, such quantum dots are ideal electron systems in which to study theoretical models combining phase-coherence, chaotic dynamics and Coulomb interactions. In this work, we use the Keldysh non-linear sigma model [2] with a counting field to study electron transport through a ring of four chaotic quantum dots pierced by an Aharonov-Bohm flux. This system is particularly well suited for studying ways to use the weak-localization effect to process quantum information. We derive the quantum circuit equations for this system from the saddle-point condition of the Keldysh action. The results are used to build the action of the corresponding supersymmetric (SUSY) non-linear sigma model. The connection with the random scattering matrix approach is then made via the color-flavor transformation. In the perturbative regime, where weak-localization effects appear, the Keldysh, SUSY and random scattering matrix approaches can be compared by means of independent analytical calculations. We conclude by pointing out the many advantages of our unified approach. [1] For a review, see Yu. V. Nazarov, and Ya. M. Blanter, Quantum
Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide
2016-01-01
We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...
Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munsch, Mathieu; Cadeddu, Davide; Teissier, Jean
2016-01-01
We present an exploration of the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter's properties with the highest sensitivity, allowing...
Conductance Peaks in Open Quantum Dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, J. G. G. S.; Bazeia, D.; Hussein, M. S.; Lewenkopf, C. H.
2011-01-01
We present a simple measure of the conductance fluctuations in open ballistic chaotic quantum dots, extending the number of maxima method originally proposed for the statistical analysis of compound nuclear reactions. The average number of extreme points (maxima and minima) in the dimensionless conductance T as a function of an arbitrary external parameter Z is directly related to the autocorrelation function of T(Z). The parameter Z can be associated with an applied gate voltage causing shape deformation in quantum dot, an external magnetic field, the Fermi energy, etc. The average density of maxima is found to be Z >=α Z /Z c , where α Z is a universal constant and Z c is the conductance autocorrelation length, which is system specific. The analysis of Z > does not require large statistic samples, providing a quite amenable way to access information about parametric correlations, such as Z c .
Theory of Charged Quantum Dot Molecules
Ponomarev, I. V.; Scheibner, M.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Doty, M. F.; Ware, M. E.; Gammon, D.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.
2006-03-01
Recent optical spectroscopy of excitonic molecules in coupled quantum dots (CQDs) tuned by electric field reveal a richer diversity in spectral line patterns than in their single quantum dot counterparts. We developed a theoretical model that allows us to classify energies and intensities of various PL transitions. In this approach the electric field induced resonance tunneling of the electron and hole states occurs at different biases due to the inherent asymmetry of CQDs. The truncated many-body basis configurations for each molecule are constructed from antisymmetrized products of single-particle states, where the electron occupies only one ground state level in single QD and the hole can occupy two lowest levels of CQD system. The Coulomb interaction between particles is treated with perturbation theory. As a result the observed PL spectral lines can be described with a small number of parameters. The theoretical predictions account well for recent experiments.
Strain-tunable quantum dot devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rastelli, A.; Trotta, R.; Zallo, E.; Atkinson, P.; Magerl, E.; Ding, F.; Plumhof, J.D.; Kumar, S.; Doerr, K.; Schmidt, O.G.
2011-01-01
We introduce a new class of quantum dot-based devices, in which the semiconductor structures are integrated on top of piezoelectric actuators. This combination allows on one hand to study in detail the effects produced by variable strains (up to about 0.2%) on the excitonic emission of single quantum dots and on the other to manipulate their electronic- and optical properties to achieve specific requirements. In fact, by combining strain with electric fields we are able to obtain (i) independent control of emission energy and charge-state of a QD, (II) wavelength-tunable single-QD light-emitting diodes and (III) frequency-stabilized sources of single photons at predefined wavelengths. Possible future extensions and applications of this technology will be discussed.
Quantum Dot Devices for Optical Signal Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yaohui
and the continuum. Additional to the conventional time-domain modeling scheme, a small-signal perturbation analysis has been used to assist the investigation of harmonic modulation properties. The static properties of quantum dot devices, for example high saturation power, have been quantitatively analyzed....... Additional to the static linear amplication properties, we focus on exploring the gain dynamics on the time scale ranging from sub-picosecond to nanosecond. In terms of optical signals that have been investigated, one is the simple sinusoidally modulated optical carrier with a typical modulation frequency....... We also investigate the gain dynamics in the presence of pulsed signals, in particular the steady gain response to a periodic pulse trains with various time periods. Additional to the analysis of high speed patterning free amplication up to 150-200 Gb/s in quantum dot semiconductor optical ampliers...
Electric and Magnetic Interaction between Quantum Dots and Light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tighineanu, Petru
argue that there is ample room for improving the oscillator strength with prospects for approaching the ultra-strong-coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics with optical photons. These outstanding gures of merit render interface-uctuation quantum dots excellent candidates for use in cavity...... quantum electrodynamics and quantum-information science. We investigate exciton localization in droplet-epitaxy quantum dots by conducting spectral and time-resolved measurements. We nd small excitons despite the large physical size of dropletepitaxy quantum dots, which is attributed to material inter......The present thesis reports research on the optical properties of quantum dots by developing new theories and conducting optical measurements. We demonstrate experimentally singlephoton superradiance in interface-uctuation quantum dots by recording the temporal decay dynamics in conjunction...
The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction
Masala, Silvia; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sun, Jon Paul; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kramer, Illan J.; Hill, Ian G.; Sargent, Edward H.
2015-01-01
A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Biomedical application of carbon quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markovic, Z.
2017-01-01
In this presentation we will summarize and discuss the possibilities of application of carbon quantum dots (CQD) as agents for PDT. Considering their biocompatibility, photostability and optical properties, CQD seem to be good candidates as a photosensitizer. This lecture critically compares and discusses current state-of the-art use of CQD in PDT. We will analyze structural, morphological and optical properties of these nanomaterials as well as the mechanisms responsible for their photosensition and ROS production. (authors)
Quantum Dots for Molecular Diagnostics of Tumors
Zdobnova, T.A.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Deyev, S.М.
2011-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorophores with unique physical and chemical properties, which allow to appreciably expand the possibilities for the current methods of fluorescent imaging and optical diagnostics. Here we discuss the prospects of QD application for molecular diagnostics of tumors ranging from cancer-specific marker detection on microplates to non-invasive tumor imaging in vivo. We also point out the essential problems that require resolution in order to c...
The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction
Masala, Silvia
2015-10-13
A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics
Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.
2011-05-26
The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Correlation effects in superconducting quantum dot systems
Pokorný, Vladislav; Žonda, Martin
2018-05-01
We study the effect of electron correlations on a system consisting of a single-level quantum dot with local Coulomb interaction attached to two superconducting leads. We use the single-impurity Anderson model with BCS superconducting baths to study the interplay between the proximity induced electron pairing and the local Coulomb interaction. We show how to solve the model using the continuous-time hybridization-expansion quantum Monte Carlo method. The results obtained for experimentally relevant parameters are compared with results of self-consistent second order perturbation theory as well as with the numerical renormalization group method.
Research Progress of Photoanodes for Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Zhi-min
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the development status and tendency of quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Photoanode research progress and its related technologies are analyzed in detail from the three ways of semiconductor thin films, quantum dot co-sensitization and quantum dot doping, deriving from the approach that the conversion efficiency can be improved by photoanode modification for quantum dot sensitized solar cells. According to the key factors which restrict the cell efficiency, the promising future development of quantum dot sensitized solar cells is proposed,for example,optimizing further the compositions and structures of semiconductor thin films for the photoanodes, exploring new quantum dots with broadband absorption and developing high efficient techniques of interface modification.
Using of Quantum Dots in Biology and Medicine.
Pleskova, Svetlana; Mikheeva, Elza; Gornostaeva, Ekaterina
2018-01-01
Quantum dots are nanoparticles, which due to their unique physical and chemical (first of all optical) properties, are promising in biology and medicine. There are many ways for quantum dots synthesis, both in the form of nanoislands self-forming on the surfaces, which can be used as single-photon emitters in electronics for storing information, and in the form of colloidal quantum dots for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in living systems. The paper describes the main methods of quantum dots synthesis and summarizes medical and biological ways of their use. The main emphasis is laid on the ways of quantum dots surface modification. Influence of the size and form of nanoparticles, charge on the surfaces of quantum dots, and cover type on the efficiency of internalization by cells and cell compartments is shown. The main mechanisms of penetration are considered.
Quantum Dots for Solar Cell Application
Poudyal, Uma
Solar energy has been anticipated as the most important and reliable source of renewable energy to address the ever-increasing energy demand. To harvest solar energy efficiently, diverse kinds of solar cells have been studied. Among these, quantum dot sensitized solar cells have been an interesting group of solar cells mainly due to tunable, size-dependent electronic and optical properties of quantum dots. Moreover, doping these quantum dots with transition metal elements such as Mn opens avenue for improved performance of solar cells as well as for spin based technologies. In this dissertation, Mn-doped CdSe QDs (Mn-CdSe) have been synthesized by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. They are used in solar cells to study the effect of Mn doping in the performance of solar cells. Incident photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) is used to record the effect of Mn-doping. Intensity modulated photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy (IMVS/PS) has been used to study the carrier dynamics in these solar cells. Additionally, the magnetic properties of Mn-CdSe QDs is studied and its possible origin is discussed. Moreover, CdS/CdSe QDs have been used to study the effect of liquid, gel and solid electrolyte in the performance and stability of the solar cells. Using IPCE spectra, the time decay measurements are presented and the possible reactions between the QD and the electrolytes are explained.
Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Lirong; Yu Yi; Tian Peng; Huang Dexiu
2009-01-01
The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design
Numerical simulation of electronic properties of coupled quantum dots on wetting layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betcke, M M; Voss, H
2008-01-01
Self-assembled quantum dots are grown on wetting layers and frequently in an array-like assembly of many similar but not exactly equal dots. Nevertheless, most simulations disregard these structural conditions and restrict themselves to simulating a pure single quantum dot. For reasons of numerical efficiency we advocate the effective one-band Hamiltonian with energy- and position-dependent effective mass approximation and a finite height hard-wall 3D confinement potential for computation of the energy levels of the electrons in the conduction band. Within this model we investigate the geometrical effects mentioned above on the electronic structure of a pyramidal InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs matrix. We find that the presence of a wetting layer may affect the electronic structure noticeably. Furthermore, we establish that, in spite of the large bandgap of the InAs/GaAs heterostructure, if the dots in a vertically aligned array are sufficiently close stacked there is considerable interaction between their eigenfunctions. Moreover, the eigenfunctions of such an array are quite sensitive to certain structural perturbations
Electronic transport through a quantum dot chain with strong dot-lead coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yu; Zheng, Yisong; Gong, Weijiang; Gao, Wenzhu; Lue, Tianquan
2007-01-01
By means of the non-equilibrium Green function technique, the electronic transport through an N-quantum-dot chain is theoretically studied. By calculating the linear conductance spectrum and the local density of states in quantum dots, we find the resonant peaks in the spectra coincides with the eigen-energies of the N-quantum-dot chain when the dot-lead coupling is relatively weak. With the increase of the dot-lead coupling, such a correspondence becomes inaccurate. When the dot-lead coupling exceeds twice the interdot coupling, such a mapping collapses completely. The linear conductance turn to reflect the eigen-energies of the (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain instead. The two peripheral quantum dots do not manifest themselves in the linear conductance spectrum. More interestingly, with the further increase of the dot-lead coupling, the system behaves just like an (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain in weak dot-lead coupling limit, since the resonant peaks becomes narrower with the increase of dot-lead coupling
Analysis of quantum semiconductor heterostructures by ballistic electron emission spectroscopy
Guthrie, Daniel K.
1998-09-01
The microelectronics industry is diligently working to achieve the goal of gigascale integration (GSI) by early in the 21st century. For the past twenty-five years, progress toward this goal has been made by continually scaling down device technology. Unfortunately, this trend cannot continue to the point of producing arbitrarily small device sizes. One possible solution to this problem that is currently under intensive study is the relatively new area of quantum devices. Quantum devices represent a new class of microelectronic devices that operate by utilizing the wave-like nature (reflection, refraction, and confinement) of electrons together with the laws of quantum mechanics to construct useful devices. One difficulty associated with these structures is the absence of measurement techniques that can fully characterize carrier transport in such devices. This thesis addresses this need by focusing on the study of carrier transport in quantum semiconductor heterostructures using a relatively new and versatile measurement technique known as ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). To achieve this goal, a systematic approach that encompasses a set of progressively more complex structures is utilized. First, the simplest BEES structure possible, the metal/semiconductor interface, is thoroughly investigated in order to provide a foundation for measurements on more the complex structures. By modifying the semiclassical model commonly used to describe the experimental BEES spectrum, a very complete and accurate description of the basic structure has been achieved. Next, a very simple semiconductor heterostructure, a Ga1-xAlxAs single-barrier structure, was measured and analyzed. Low-temperature measurements on this structure were used to investigate the band structure and electron-wave interference effects in the Ga1-xAlxAs single barrier structure. These measurements are extended to a simple quantum device by designing, measuring, and analyzing a set of
Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Claudon, Julien; Munsch, Matthieu; Bleuse, Joel
2012-01-01
Besides microcavities and photonic crystals, photonic nanowires have recently emerged as a novel resource for solidstate quantum optics. We will review recent studies which demonstrate an excellent control over the spontaneous emission of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in single-mode Ga...... quantum optoelectronic devices. Quite amazingly, this approach has for instance permitted (unlike microcavity-based approaches) to combine for the first time a record-high efficiency (72%) and a negligible g(2) in a QD single photon source....
In situ electron-beam polymerization stabilized quantum dot micelles.
Travert-Branger, Nathalie; Dubois, Fabien; Renault, Jean-Philippe; Pin, Serge; Mahler, Benoit; Gravel, Edmond; Dubertret, Benoit; Doris, Eric
2011-04-19
A polymerizable amphiphile polymer containing PEG was synthesized and used to encapsulate quantum dots in micelles. The quantum dot micelles were then polymerized using a "clean" electron beam process that did not require any post-irradiation purification. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the polymerized micelles provided an organic coating that preserved the quantum dot fluorescence better than nonpolymerized micelles, even under harsh conditions. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Spin fine structure of optically excited quantum dot molecules
Scheibner, M.; Doty, M. F.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Korenev, V. L.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.
2007-06-01
The interaction between spins in coupled quantum dots is revealed in distinct fine structure patterns in the measured optical spectra of InAs/GaAs double quantum dot molecules containing zero, one, or two excess holes. The fine structure is explained well in terms of a uniquely molecular interplay of spin-exchange interactions, Pauli exclusion, and orbital tunneling. This knowledge is critical for converting quantum dot molecule tunneling into a means of optically coupling not just orbitals but also spins.
Controllability of multi-partite quantum systems and selective excitation of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirmer, S G; Pullen, I C H; Solomon, A I
2005-01-01
We consider the degrees of controllability of multi-partite quantum systems, as well as necessary and sufficient criteria for each case. The results are applied to the problem of simultaneous control of an ensemble of quantum dots with a single laser pulse. Finally, we apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate selective excitation of individual dots for a simultaneously controllable ensemble of quantum dots
A 2x2 quantum dot array with controllable inter-dot tunnel couplings
Mukhopadhyay, Uditendu; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner; Vandersypen, Lieven M. K.
2018-01-01
The interaction between electrons in arrays of electrostatically defined quantum dots is naturally described by a Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian. Moreover, the high degree of tunability of these systems make them a powerful platform to simulate different regimes of the Hubbard model. However, most quantum dot array implementations have been limited to one-dimensional linear arrays. In this letter, we present a square lattice unit cell of 2$\\times$2 quantum dots defined electrostatically in a AlGaA...
Core–shell quantum dots: Properties and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasudevan, D., E-mail: vasudevand@rediffmail.com [Electrodics and electrocatalysis division, CSIR-CECRI, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida 201301 (India); Trinchi, Adrian; Cole, Ivan [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton South MDC, 3169 (Australia)
2015-07-05
Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs) that find numerous applications in areas, such as bio labelling, sensors, lasers, light emitting diodes and medicine. Core–shell quantum dots were developed to improve the photoluminescence efficiency of single quantum dots. Capping their surface with organic ligands as well as their extraction into aqueous media enables their use in sensing applications. The current review highlights the importance and applications of core shell quantum dots as well as their surface modifications and applications in the field of medicine and as sensors for chemical and biochemical analysis.
Core–shell quantum dots: Properties and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasudevan, D.; Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan; Trinchi, Adrian; Cole, Ivan
2015-01-01
Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs) that find numerous applications in areas, such as bio labelling, sensors, lasers, light emitting diodes and medicine. Core–shell quantum dots were developed to improve the photoluminescence efficiency of single quantum dots. Capping their surface with organic ligands as well as their extraction into aqueous media enables their use in sensing applications. The current review highlights the importance and applications of core shell quantum dots as well as their surface modifications and applications in the field of medicine and as sensors for chemical and biochemical analysis
Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.
2015-01-01
Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure
Correlation effects in side-coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zitko, R; Bonca, J
2007-01-01
Using Wilson's numerical renormalization group (NRG) technique, we compute zero-bias conductance and various correlation functions of a double quantum dot (DQD) system. We present different regimes within a phase diagram of the DQD system. By introducing a negative Hubbard U on one of the quantum dots, we simulate the effect of electron-phonon coupling and explore the properties of the coexisting spin and charge Kondo state. In a triple quantum dot (TQD) system, a multi-stage Kondo effect appears where localized moments on quantum dots are screened successively at exponentially distinct Kondo temperatures
Single-charge tunneling in ambipolar silicon quantum dots
Müller, Filipp
2015-01-01
Spin qubits in coupled quantum dots (QDs) are promising for future quantum information processing (QIP). A quantum bit (qubit) is the quantum mechanical analogon of a classical bit. In general, each quantum mechanical two-level system can represent a qubit. For the spin of a single charge carrier
A strongly interacting polaritonic quantum dot
Jia, Ningyuan; Schine, Nathan; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Ryou, Albert; Clark, Logan W.; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan
2018-06-01
Polaritons are promising constituents of both synthetic quantum matter1 and quantum information processors2, whose properties emerge from their components: from light, polaritons draw fast dynamics and ease of transport; from matter, they inherit the ability to collide with one another. Cavity polaritons are particularly promising as they may be confined and subjected to synthetic magnetic fields controlled by cavity geometry3, and furthermore they benefit from increased robustness due to the cavity enhancement in light-matter coupling. Nonetheless, until now, cavity polaritons have operated only in a weakly interacting mean-field regime4,5. Here we demonstrate strong interactions between individual cavity polaritons enabled by employing highly excited Rydberg atoms as the matter component of the polaritons. We assemble a quantum dot composed of approximately 150 strongly interacting Rydberg-dressed 87Rb atoms in a cavity, and observe blockaded transport of photons through it. We further observe coherent photon tunnelling oscillations, demonstrating that the dot is zero-dimensional. This work establishes the cavity Rydberg polariton as a candidate qubit in a photonic information processor and, by employing multiple resonator modes as the spatial degrees of freedom of a photonic particle, the primary ingredient to form photonic quantum matter6.
Quantum size effect and thermal stability of carbon-nanotube-based quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, N.Y.; Peng, J.; Liang, S.D.; Li, Z.B.; Xu, N.S.
2004-01-01
Full text: Based on semi-experience quantum chemical calculation, we have investigated the quantum size effect and thermal stability of open-end carbon nanotube (5, 5) quantum dots of 20 to 400 atoms. It was found that there is a gap in the energy band of all carbon nanotube (5, 5) quantum dots although a (5, 5) carbon nanotube is metallic. The energy gap of quantum dots is much dependent of the number of atoms in a dot, as a result of the quantization rules imposed by the finite scales in both radial and axial directions of a carbon nanotube quantum dot. Also, the heat of formation of carbon nanotube quantum dots is dependent of the size of a quantum dot. (author)
Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids
Ip, Alex
2012-07-29
Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids
Ip, Alex; Thon, Susanna; Hoogland, Sjoerd H.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Debnath, Ratan K.; Levina, Larissa; Rollny, Lisa R.; Carey, Graham H.; Fischer, Armin H.; Kemp, Kyle W.; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, André J.; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, E. H.
2012-01-01
Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogge, Maximilian Christoph
2008-12-03
This thesis describes the fabrication of different lateral single, double and triple quantum dots as well as the investigation of these devices with electronic transport. Based on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, the fabrication was carried out using optical lithography and lithography with a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. The latter ones were also used in combination. Aside from basic effects like Coulomb blockade the analysis of single quantum dots particularly yielded results by charge detection and magneto transport. With charge detection using quantum point contacts conclusions were attained concerning tunneling rates and the extension of wave functions. In a magnetic field the influence of the electronic spin is important aside from aspects concerning the Fock-Darwin spectrum. Analyses were performed on Zeeman effect, spin pairing, spin blockade and Kondo effect. The combination of spin blockade and Kondo effect allows statements concerning the spin configuration, which depends on the electron number. With double quantum dots of different geometries the two mechanisms of capacitive coupling and tunnel coupling were analyzed. They were found in spectra of ground and excited states. With gate voltage and magnetic field it was possible to freely vary character and strength of coupling. With capacitive coupling, spin blockade was investigated again. The analysis of coupling effects was performed using transport and charge measurements. Aside from results on tunneling rates the latter one allows to detect molecular states. Concerning triple quantum dots the three dimensional stability diagram was analyzed. The free variation of energies of all three dots was achieved. The evolution of resonances was observed with transport and charge detection. With a starlike device geometry it was possible to perform two-path measurements. They provide a new measurand, the distinguishability of double and triple dot physics. (orig.)
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures
Harrison, Paul
2011-01-01
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, 3rd Edition is aimed at providing all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, in order that the reader can, starting from essentially nothing, understand how the electronic, optical and transport properties of semiconductor heterostructures are calculated. Completely revised and updated, this text is designed to lead the reader through a series of simple theoretical and computational implementations, and slowly build from solid foundations, to a level where the reader can begin to initiate theoretical investigations or explanations of their
Near-field strong coupling of single quantum dots.
Groß, Heiko; Hamm, Joachim M; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Hess, Ortwin; Hecht, Bert
2018-03-01
Strong coupling and the resultant mixing of light and matter states is an important asset for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate deterministic room temperature strong coupling of a mesoscopic colloidal quantum dot to a plasmonic nanoresonator at the apex of a scanning probe. Enormous Rabi splittings of up to 110 meV are accomplished by nanometer-precise positioning of the quantum dot with respect to the nanoresonator probe. We find that, in addition to a small mode volume of the nanoresonator, collective coherent coupling of quantum dot band-edge states and near-field proximity interaction are vital ingredients for the realization of near-field strong coupling of mesoscopic quantum dots. The broadband nature of the interaction paves the road toward ultrafast coherent manipulation of the coupled quantum dot-plasmon system under ambient conditions.
Silicon Quantum Dots with Counted Antimony Donor Implants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Meenakshi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Pacheco, Jose L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Perry, Daniel Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Garratt, E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Ten Eyck, Gregory A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Wendt, Joel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Luhman, Dwight [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Bielejec, Edward S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Lilly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies
2015-10-01
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. A focused ion beam is used to implant close to quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of ions implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. Regular coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization, are observed in devices with counted implants.
Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)
2016-02-08
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.
Structural and optical features of InGaAs quantum dots grown on Si(001) substrates
Vdovin, V I; Rzaev, M M; Burbaev, T M
2002-01-01
A multilayer GaAs/SiGe/Si heterostructure with InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a GaAs layer was grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a Si(001) substrate. A step-graded Si sub 1 sub - sub x Ge sub x (0 <= x <= 1) buffer layer and a GaAs layer with In sub y Ga sub 1 sub sub - sub y As (y approx 0.5) QDs were deposited consecutively in two different MBE systems. The heterostructure exhibits intense photoluminescence in the region of 1.3 mu m at room temperature. Perfect crystal InGaAs islands with height less than 10 nm are the sources of this radiation.
Trajectory phases of a quantum dot model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genway, Sam; Hickey, James M; Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D
2014-01-01
We present a thermodynamic formalism to study the trajectories of charge transport through a quantum dot coupled to two leads in the resonant-level model. We show that a close analogue of equilibrium phase transitions exists for the statistics of transferred charge; by tuning an appropriate ‘counting field’, crossovers to different trajectory phases are possible. Our description reveals a mapping between the statistics of a given device and current measurements over a range of devices with different dot–lead coupling strengths. Furthermore insight into features of the trajectory phases are found by studying the occupation of the dot conditioned on the transported charge between the leads; this is calculated from first principles using a trajectory biased two-point projective measurement scheme. (paper)
Coupled quantum dot-ring structures by droplet epitaxy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somaschini, C; Bietti, S; Koguchi, N; Sanguinetti, S
2011-01-01
The fabrication, by pure self-assembly, of GaAs/AlGaAs dot-ring quantum nanostructures is presented. The growth is performed via droplet epitaxy, which allows for the fine control, through As flux and substrate temperature, of the crystallization kinetics of nanometer scale metallic Ga reservoirs deposited on the surface. Such a procedure permits the combination of quantum dots and quantum rings into a single, multi-functional, complex quantum nanostructure.
Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2006-01-01
We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....
Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics: A Path Forward
Kramer, Illan J.
2011-11-22
Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer a path toward high-efficiency photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processes. Spectral tunability via the quantum size effect facilitates absorption of specific wavelengths from across the sun\\'s broad spectrum. CQD materials\\' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements represent important first steps toward commercially compelling performance. Here we review advances in device architecture and materials science. We diagnose the principal phenomenon-electronic states within the CQD film band gap that limit both current and voltage in devices-that must be cured for CQD PV devices to fulfill their promise. We close with a prescription, expressed as bounds on the density and energy of electronic states within the CQD film band gap, that should allow device efficiencies to rise to those required for the future of the solar energy field. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Tunable single quantum dot nanocavities for cavity QED experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaniber, M; Laucht, A; Neumann, A; Bichler, M; Amann, M-C; Finley, J J
2008-01-01
We present cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments performed on single quantum dots embedded in two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities. We begin by describing the structural and optical properties of the quantum dot sample and the photonic crystal nanocavities and compare the experimental results with three-dimensional calculations of the photonic properties. The influence of the tailored photonic environment on the quantum dot spontaneous emission dynamics is studied using spectrally and spatially dependent time-resolved spectroscopy. In ensemble and single dot measurements we show that the photonic crystals strongly enhance the photon extraction efficiency and, therefore, are a promising concept for realizing efficient single-photon sources. Furthermore, we demonstrate single-photon emission from an individual quantum dot that is spectrally detuned from the cavity mode. The need for controlling the spectral dot-cavity detuning is discussed on the basis of shifting either the quantum dot emission via temperature tuning or the cavity mode emission via a thin film deposition technique. Finally, we discuss the recently discovered non-resonant coupling mechanism between quantum dot emission and cavity mode for large detunings which drastically lowers the purity of single-photon emission from dots that are spectrally coupled to nanocavity modes.
Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells
Liu, Huan
2012-01-01
The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1 under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Discrete quantum Fourier transform in coupled semiconductor double quantum dot molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Ping; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang
2008-01-01
In this Letter, we present a physical scheme for implementing the discrete quantum Fourier transform in a coupled semiconductor double quantum dot system. The main controlled-R gate operation can be decomposed into many simple and feasible unitary transformations. The current scheme would be a useful step towards the realization of complex quantum algorithms in the quantum dot system
Nonequilibrium Electron Transport Through a Quantum Dot from Kubo Formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lue Rong; Zhang Guangming
2005-01-01
Based on the Kubo formula for an electron tunneling junction, we revisit the nonequilibrium transport properties through a quantum dot. Since the Fermi level of the quantum dot is set by the conduction electrons of the leads, we calculate the electron current from the left side by assuming the quantum dot coupled to the right lead as another side of the tunneling junction, and the other way round is used to calculate the current from the right side. By symmetrizing these two currents, an effective local density states on the dot can be obtained, and is discussed at high and low temperatures, respectively.
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christ, H.
2008-01-24
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ, H.
2008-01-01
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin
Quantum-dot cluster-state computing with encoded qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Levy, Jeremy
2005-01-01
A class of architectures is advanced for cluster-state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors and present a means of error protection
Exciton binding energy in a pyramidal quantum dot
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A ANITHA
2018-03-27
Mar 27, 2018 ... screening function on exciton binding energy in a pyramid-shaped quantum dot of ... tures may generate unique properties and they show .... where Ee is the ground-state energy of the electron in ... Figure 1. The geometry of the pyramidal quantum dot. base and H is the height of the pyramid which is taken.
Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Dots in Photonic-Crystal Cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg
deviations. Similar measurements on a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity sow a Rabi splitting on resonance, while time-resolved measurements prove that the system is in the weak coupling regime. Whle tuning the quantum dot through resonance of the high-Q mode we observe a strong and surprisingly...
Electron transport and coherence in semiconductor quantum dots and rings
Van der Wiel, W.G.
2002-01-01
A number of experiments on electron transport and coherence in semiconductor vertical and lateral quantum dots and semiconductor rings is described. Quantum dots are often referred to as "artificial atoms", because of their similarities with real atoms. Examples of such atom-like properties that
Stark effect and polarizability of graphene quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2017-01-01
The properties of graphene quantum dots can be manipulated via lateral electric fields. Treating electrons in such structures as confined massless Dirac fermions, we derive an analytical expression for the quadratic Stark shift valid for arbitrary angular momentum and quantum dot size. Moreover, we...
Laterally coupled jellium-like two-dimensional quantum dots
Markvoort, Albert. J.; Hilbers, P.A.J.; Pino, R.
2003-01-01
Many studies have been performed to describe quantum dots using a parabolic confining potential. However, infinite potentials are unphysical and lead to problems when describing laterally coupled quantum dots. We propose the use of the parabolic potential of a homogeneous density distribution within
Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.
Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu
2016-05-01
Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Electroluminescent Cu-doped CdS quantum dots
Stouwdam, J.W.; Janssen, R.A.J.
2009-01-01
Incorporating Cu-doped CdS quantum dots into a polymer host produces efficient light-emitting diodes. The Cu dopant creates a trap level that aligns with the valence band of the host, enabling the direct injection of holes into the quantum dots, which act as emitters. At low current densities, the
Imaging vasculature and lymphatic flow in mice using quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ballou, Byron; Ernst, Lauren A.; Andreko, Susan
2009-01-01
Quantum dots are ideal probes for fluorescent imaging of vascular and lymphatic tissues. On injection into appropriate sites, red- and near-infrared-emitting quantum dots provide excellent definition of vasculature, lymphoid organs, and lymph nodes draining both normal tissues and tumors. We detail...
Fractional decay of quantum dots in photonic crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, Femius; Lodahl, Peter
2008-01-01
We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses.......We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses....
High-resolution photoluminescence studies of single semiconductor quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis
2000-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots, especially those formed by self-organized growth, are considered a promising material system for future optical devices [1] and the optical properties of quantum dot ensembles have been investigated in detail over the past years. Recently, considerable interest has...
Polarized electrons, trions, and nuclei in charged quantum dots
Bracker, A. S.; Tischler, J. G.; Korenev, V. L.; Gammon, D.
2003-07-01
We have investigated spin polarization in GaAs quantum dots. Excitons and trions are polarized directly by optical excitation and studied through polarization of photoluminescence. Electrons and nuclei are polarized indirectly through subsequent relaxation processes. Polarized electrons are identified by the Hanle effect for exciton and trion photoluminescence, while polarized nuclei are identified through the Overhauser effect in individual charged quantum dots.
Electronic properties of assemblies of zno quantum dots
Roest, Aarnoud Laurens
2003-01-01
Electron transport in an assembly of ZnO quantum dots has been studied using an electrochemically gated transistor. The electron mobility shows a step-wise increase as a function of the electron occupation per quantum dot. When the occupation number is below two, transport occurs by tunnelling
Phonon-assisted decoherence and tunneling in quantum dot molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Foerstner, Jens
2011-01-01
processes with relevant acoustic phonons. We show that the relaxation is dominated by phonon-assisted electron tunneling between constituent quantum dots and occurs on a picosecond time scale. The dependence of the time evolution of the quantum dot occupation probabilities on the energy mismatch between...
Optical properties of a tip-induced quantum dot
Kemerink, M.; Sauthoff, K.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gerritsen, J.W.; Kempen, van H.; Fomin, V.M.; Wolter, J.H.; Devreese, J.T.; Miura, N.; Ando, T.
2001-01-01
We have performed optical spectroscopy measurements on an STM-tip-induced quantum dot. The dominant confinement in the (hole) quantum dot is in the direction parallel to the tip axis. Electron confinement is achieved by a sub-surface AlGaAs barrier. Current dependent measurements indicate that
Electroluminescence spectra of an STM-tip-induced quantum dot
Croitoru, M.D.; Gladilin, V.N.; Fomin, V.; Devreese, J.T.; Kemerink, M.; Koenraad, P.M.; Sauthoff, K.; Wolter, J.H.; Long, A.R.; Davies, J.H.
2003-01-01
We analyse the electroluminescence measurements performed on a STM-tipImduced quantum dot in a GaAs layer. Positions of electroluminescence peaks, attributed to the electron-hole recombination in the quantum dot, are very sensitive to the electron tunnelling current even in the case when the current
Quantum dot loaded immunomicelles for tumor imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Levchenko Tatyana
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical imaging is a promising method for the detection of tumors in animals, with speed and minimal invasiveness. We have previously developed a lipid coated quantum dot system that doubles the fluorescence of PEG-grafted quantum dots at half the dose. Here, we describe a tumor-targeted near infrared imaging agent composed of cancer-specific monoclonal anti-nucleosome antibody 2C5, coupled to quantum dot (QD-containing polymeric micelles, prepared from a polyethylene glycol/phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE conjugate. Its production is simple and involves no special equipment. Its imaging potential is great since the fluorescence intensity in the tumor is twofold that of non-targeted QD-loaded PEG-PE micelles at one hour after injection. Methods Para-nitrophenol-containing (5% PEG-PE quantum dot micelles were produced by the thin layer method. Following hydration, 2C5 antibody was attached to the PEG-PE micelles and the QD-micelles were purified using dialysis. 4T1 breast tumors were inoculated subcutaneously in the flank of the animals. A lung pseudometastatic B16F10 melanoma model was developed using tail vein injection. The contrast agents were injected via the tail vein and mice were depilated, anesthetized and imaged on a Kodak Image Station. Images were taken at one, two, and four hours and analyzed using a methodology that produces normalized signal-to-noise data. This allowed for the comparison between different subjects and time points. For the pseudometastatic model, lungs were removed and imaged ex vivo at one and twenty four hours. Results The contrast agent signal intensity at the tumor was double that of the passively targeted QD-micelles with equally fast and sharply contrasted images. With the side views of the animals only tumor is visible, while in the dorsal view internal organs including liver and kidney are visible. Ex vivo results demonstrated that the agent detects melanoma nodes in a lung
Quantum Dots for Molecular Diagnostics of Tumors
Zdobnova, T.A.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Deyev, S.М.
2011-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorophores with unique physical and chemical properties, which allow to appreciably expand the possibilities for the current methods of fluorescent imaging and optical diagnostics. Here we discuss the prospects of QD application for molecular diagnostics of tumors ranging from cancer-specific marker detection on microplates to non-invasive tumor imagingin vivo. We also point out the essential problems that require resolution in order to clinically promote QD, and we indicate innovative approaches to oncology which are implementable using QD. PMID:22649672
Electron Spin Coherence Times in Si/SiGe Quantum Dots
Jock, R. M.; He, Jianhua; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.; Lee, C.-H.; Huang, S.-H.; Liu, C. W.
2014-03-01
Single electron spin states in silicon have shown a great deal of promise as qubits due to their long spin relaxation (T1) and coherence (T2) times. Recent results exhibit a T2 of 250 us for electrons confined in Si/SiGe quantum dots at 350 mK. These experiments used conventional X-band (10 GHz) pulsed Electron Spin Resonance on a large area (3.5 mm x 20 mm), dual-gated, undoped Si/SiGe heterostructure quantum dots. These dots are induced in a natural Si quantum well by e-beam defined gates having a lithographic radius of 150 nm and pitch of 700 nm. The relatively large size of these dots led to closely spaced energy levels and long T2's could only be measured at sub-Kelvin temperatures. At 2K confined electrons displayed a 3 us T2, which is comparable to that of 2D electrons at that temperature. Decreasing the quantum dot size increases the electron confinement and reduces the effects of valley-splitting and spin-orbit coupling on the electron spin coherence times. We will report results on dots with 80 nm lithographic radii and a 375 nm pitch. This device displays an extended electron coherence time of 30 us at 2K, suggesting tighter confinement of electrons. Further measurements at lower temperatures are in progress. This work was supported in part by NSF through the Materials World Network program (DMR-1107606) and the Princeton MRSEC (DMR-0819860), and in part by the U.S. Army Research Office (W911NF-13-1-0179).
Transcending binary logic by gating three coupled quantum dots.
Klein, Michael; Rogge, S; Remacle, F; Levine, R D
2007-09-01
Physical considerations supported by numerical solution of the quantum dynamics including electron repulsion show that three weakly coupled quantum dots can robustly execute a complete set of logic gates for computing using three valued inputs and outputs. Input is coded as gating (up, unchanged, or down) of the terminal dots. A nanosecond time scale switching of the gate voltage requires careful numerical propagation of the dynamics. Readout is the charge (0, 1, or 2 electrons) on the central dot.
Electrical control of single hole spins in nanowire quantum dots
Pribiag, V.S.; Nadj-Perge, S.; Frolov, S.M.; Berg, J.W.G.; Weperen, van I.; Plissard, S.R.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.
2013-01-01
The development of viable quantum computation devices will require the ability to preserve the coherence of quantum bits (qubits)1. Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, but controlling decoherence remains a considerable
Numerical simulation of optical feedback on a quantum dot lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Khursan, Amin H., E-mail: ameen_2all@yahoo.com [Thi-Qar University, Nassiriya Nanotechnology Research Laboratory (NNRL), Science College (Iraq); Ghalib, Basim Abdullattif [Babylon University, Laser Physics Department, Science College for Women (Iraq); Al-Obaidi, Sabri J. [Al-Mustansiriyah University, Physics Department, Science College (Iraq)
2012-02-15
We use multi-population rate equations model to study feedback oscillations in the quantum dot laser. This model takes into account all peculiar characteristics in the quantum dots such as inhomogeneous broadening of the gain spectrum, the presence of the excited states on the quantum dot and the non-confined states due to the presence of wetting layer and the barrier. The contribution of quantum dot groups, which cannot follow by other models, is simulated. The results obtained from this model show the feedback oscillations, the periodic oscillations which evolves to chaos at higher injection current of higher feedback levels. The frequency fluctuation is attributed mainly to wetting layer with a considerable contribution from excited states. The simulation shows that is must be not using simple rate equation models to express quantum dots working at excited state transition.
3D super-resolution imaging with blinking quantum dots
Wang, Yong; Fruhwirth, Gilbert; Cai, En; Ng, Tony; Selvin, Paul R.
2013-01-01
Quantum dots are promising candidates for single molecule imaging due to their exceptional photophysical properties, including their intense brightness and resistance to photobleaching. They are also notorious for their blinking. Here we report a novel way to take advantage of quantum dot blinking to develop an imaging technique in three-dimensions with nanometric resolution. We first applied this method to simulated images of quantum dots, and then to quantum dots immobilized on microspheres. We achieved imaging resolutions (FWHM) of 8–17 nm in the x-y plane and 58 nm (on coverslip) or 81 nm (deep in solution) in the z-direction, approximately 3–7 times better than what has been achieved previously with quantum dots. This approach was applied to resolve the 3D distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) molecules at, and inside of, the plasma membrane of resting basal breast cancer cells. PMID:24093439
Enhanced intratumoral uptake of quantum dots concealed within hydrogel nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nair, Ashwin; Shen Jinhui; Thevenot, Paul; Zou Ling; Tang Liping; Cai Tong; Hu Zhibing
2008-01-01
Effective nanomedical devices for tumor imaging and drug delivery are not yet available. In an attempt to construct a more functional device for tumor imaging, we have embedded quantum dots (which have poor circulatory behavior) within hydrogel nanoparticles made of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide. We found that the hydrogel encapsulated quantum dots are more readily taken up by cultured tumor cells. Furthermore, in a melanoma model, hydrogel encapsulated quantum dots also preferentially accumulate in the tumor tissue compared with normal tissue and have ∼16-fold greater intratumoral uptake compared to non-derivatized quantum dots. Our results suggest that these derivatized quantum dots, which have greatly improved tumor localization, may enhance cancer monitoring and chemotherapy.
Interaction of porphyrins with CdTe quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xing; Liu Zhongxin; Ma Lun; Hossu, Marius; Chen Wei
2011-01-01
Porphyrins may be used as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy, photocatalysts for organic pollutant dissociation, agents for medical imaging and diagnostics, applications in luminescence and electronics. The detection of porphyrins is significantly important and here the interaction of protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) with CdTe quantum dots was studied. It was observed that the luminescence of CdTe quantum dots was quenched dramatically in the presence of PPIX. When CdTe quantum dots were embedded into silica layers, almost no quenching by PPIX was observed. This indicates that PPIX may interact and alter CdTe quantum dots and thus quench their luminescence. The oxidation of the stabilizers such as thioglycolic acid (TGA) as well as the nanoparticles by the singlet oxygen generated from PPIX is most likely responsible for the luminescence quenching. The quenching of quantum dot luminescence by porphyrins may provide a new method for photosensitizer detection.
Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator
Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit
2015-02-01
Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties.
Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.
Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong
2013-10-31
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future.
Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.
2014-01-01
In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Graphene based quantum dots
Zhang, H. G.; Hu, H.; Pan, Y.; Mao, J. H.; Gao, M.; Guo, H. M.; Du, S. X.; Greber, T.; Gao, H.-J.
2010-08-01
Laterally localized electronic states are identified on a single layer of graphene on ruthenium by low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The individual states are separated by 3 nm and comprise regions of about 90 carbon atoms. This constitutes a highly regular quantum dot-array with molecular precision. It is evidenced by quantum well resonances (QWRs) with energies that relate to the corrugation of the graphene layer. The dI/dV conductance spectra are modeled by a layer height dependent potential-well with a delta-function potential that describes the barrier for electron penetration into graphene. The resulting QWRs are strongest and lowest in energy on the isolated 'hill' regions with a diameter of 2 nm, where the graphene is decoupled from the surface.
Templated self-assembly of SiGe quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dais, Christian
2009-08-19
This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and characterization of exact aligned SiGe quantum dot structures. In general, SiGe quantum dots which nucleate via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode exhibit broad size dispersion and nucleate randomly on the surface. However, to tap the full potential of SiGe quantum dots it is necessary to control the positioning and size of the dots on a nanometer length, e.g. for electronically addressing of individual dots. This can be realized by so-called templated self-assembly, which combines top-down lithography with bottom-up selfassembly. In this process the lithographically defined pits serve as pre-defined nucleation points for the epitaxially grown quantum dots. In this thesis, extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at a wavelength of e=13.4 nm is employed for prepatterning of the Si substrates. This technique allows the precise and fast fabrication of high-resolution templates with a high degree of reproducibility. The subsequent epitaxial deposition is either performed by molecular beam epitaxy or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. It is shown that the dot nucleation on pre-patterned substrates depends strongly on the lithography parameters, e.g. size and periodicity of the pits, as well as on the epitaxy parameters, e.g. growth temperature or material coverage. The interrelations are carefully analyzed by means of scanning force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Provided that correct template and overgrowth parameters are chosen, perfectly aligned and uniform SiGe quantum dot arrays of different period, size as well as symmetry are created. In particular, the quantum dot arrays with the so far smallest period (35 nm) and smallest size dispersion are fabricated in this thesis. Furthermore, the strain fields of the underlying quantum dots allow the fabrication of vertically aligned quantum dot stacks. Combining lateral and vertical dot alignment results in three
Quantum dot systems: artificial atoms with tunable properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weis, J.
2005-01-01
Full text: Quantum dots - also called zero-dimensional electron systems or artificial atoms - are physical objects where the constituent electrons are confined in a small spatial region, leading to discrete eigenvalues for the energies of the confined electrons. Large quantum dots offer a dense energy spectrum comparable to that of metallic grains, whereas small quantum dots more closely resemble atoms in their electronic properties. Quantum dots can be linked to leads by tunnel barriers, hence permitting electrical transport measurements: Coulomb blockade and single-electron charging effects are observed due to the repulsive electron electron interaction on the quantum dot site. Usually fabricated by conventional semiconductor growth and processing technology, the advantage is that both simple and also more complex quantum dot systems can be designed to purpose, acting as model systems with in-situ tunable parameters such as the number of confined electrons in the quantum dot and the strength of the tunnel coupling to the leads, electrostatically controlled by the applied voltages to gate electrodes. With increasing the tunnel coupling to the leads, the virtual occupation of the quantum dot from the leads becomes more and more important -- the simple description of electrical transport by single-electron tunneling events breaks down. The basic physics is described by the Kondo physics based on the Anderson impurity model. A system consisting of strongly electrostatically coupled quantum dots with separate leads to each quantum dot represent another realization of the Anderson impurity model. Experiments to verify the analogy are presented. The experimental data embedded within this tutorial have been obtained with Alexander Huebel, Matthias Keller, Joerg Schmid, David Quirion, Armin Welker, Ulf Wilhelm, and Klaus von Klitzing. (author)
Andreev molecules in semiconductor nanowire double quantum dots.
Su, Zhaoen; Tacla, Alexandre B; Hocevar, Moïra; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Daley, Andrew J; Pekker, David; Frolov, Sergey M
2017-09-19
Chains of quantum dots coupled to superconductors are promising for the realization of the Kitaev model of a topological superconductor. While individual superconducting quantum dots have been explored, control of longer chains requires understanding of interdot coupling. Here, double quantum dots are defined by gate voltages in indium antimonide nanowires. High transparency superconducting niobium titanium nitride contacts are made to each of the dots in order to induce superconductivity, as well as probe electron transport. Andreev bound states induced on each of dots hybridize to define Andreev molecular states. The evolution of these states is studied as a function of charge parity on the dots, and in magnetic field. The experiments are found in agreement with a numerical model.Quantum dots in a nanowire are one possible approach to creating a solid-state quantum simulator. Here, the authors demonstrate the coupling of electronic states in a double quantum dot to form Andreev molecule states; a potential building block for longer chains suitable for quantum simulation.
Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vanessa Wood
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI. We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs – optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection – that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt. We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.
Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection
Moebius, M.; Martin, J.; Hartwig, M.; Baumann, R. R.; Otto, T.; Gessner, T.
2016-08-01
We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL) of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl)-3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD) and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.
Quantum dots for lasers, amplifiers and computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bimberg, Dieter
2005-01-01
For InAs-GaAs based quantum dot lasers emitting at 1300 nm, digital modulation showing an open eye pattern up to 12 Gb s -1 at room temperature is demonstrated, at 10 Gb s -1 the bit error rate is below 10 -12 at -2 dB m receiver power. Cut-off frequencies up to 20 GHz are realised for lasers emitting at 1.1 μm. Passively mode-locked QD lasers generate optical pulses with repetition frequencies between 5 and 50 GHz, with a minimum Fourier limited pulse length of 3 ps. The uncorrelated jitter is below 1 ps. We use here deeply etched narrow ridge waveguide structures which show excellent performance similar to shallow mesa structures, but a circular far field at a ridge width of 1 μm, improving coupling efficiency into fibres. No beam filamentation of the fundamental mode, low a-factors and strongly reduced sensitivity to optical feedback are observed. QD lasers are thus superior to QW lasers for any system or network. Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD SOAs) demonstrate gain recovery times of 120-140 fs, 4-7 times faster than bulk/QW SOAs, and a net gain larger than 0.4 dB/(mm*QD-layer) providing us with novel types of booster amplifiers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. These breakthroughs became possible due to systematic development of self-organized growth technologies
Using quantum dot photoluminescence for load detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Moebius
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel concept for an integrable and flexible sensor capable to visualize mechanical impacts on lightweight structures by quenching the photoluminescence (PL of CdSe quantum dots. Considering the requirements such as visibility, storage time and high optical contrast of PL quenching with low power consumption, we have investigated a symmetrical and an asymmetrical layer stack consisting of semiconductor organic N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(3-methylphenyl-3,3′-dimethylbenzidine (HMTPD and CdSe quantum dots with elongated CdS shell. Time-resolved series of PL spectra from layer stacks with applied voltages of different polarity and simultaneous observation of power consumption have shown that a variety of mechanisms such as photo-induced charge separation and charge injection, cause PL quenching. However, mechanisms such as screening of external field as well as Auger-assisted charge ejection is working contrary to that. Investigations regarding the influence of illumination revealed that the positive biased asymmetrical layer stack is the preferred sensor configuration, due to a charge carrier injection at voltages of 10 V without the need of coincident illumination.
Fourier transform spectra of quantum dots
Damian, V.; Ardelean, I.; Armăşelu, Anca; Apostol, D.
2010-05-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystals with unique photochemical and photophysical properties that are not available from either isolated molecules or bulk solids. These nanocrystals absorb light over a very broad spectral range as compared to molecular fluorophores which have very narrow excitation spectra. High-quality QDs are proper to be use in different biological and medical applications (as fluorescent labels, the cancer treatment and the drug delivery). In this article, we discuss Fourier transform visible spectroscopy of commercial quantum dots. We reveal that QDs produced by Evident Technologies when are enlightened by laser or luminescent diode light provides a spectral shift of their fluorescence spectra correlated to exciting emission wavelengths, as shown by the ARCspectroNIR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. In the final part of this paper we show an important biological application of CdSe/ZnS core-shell ODs as microbial labeling both for pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechocystis PCC 6803) and for mixed cultures of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.
Charge-extraction strategies for colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics
Lan, Xinzheng
2014-02-20
The solar-power conversion efficiencies of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have advanced from sub-1% reported in 2005 to a record value of 8.5% in 2013. Much focus has deservedly been placed on densifying, passivating and crosslinking the colloidal quantum dot solid. Here we review progress in improving charge extraction, achieved by engineering the composition and structure of the electrode materials that contact the colloidal quantum dot film. New classes of structured electrodes have been developed and integrated to form bulk heterojunction devices that enhance photocharge extraction. Control over band offsets, doping and interfacial trap state densities have been essential for achieving improved electrical communication with colloidal quantum dot solids. Quantum junction devices that not only tune the optical absorption spectrum, but also provide inherently matched bands across the interface between p-and n-materials, have proven that charge separation can occur efficiently across an all-quantum-tuned rectifying junction. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates
Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.
2005-01-01
Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calarco, T.; Datta, A.; Fedichev, P.; Zoller, P.; Pazy, E.
2003-01-01
We present an all-optical implementation of quantum computation using semiconductor quantum dots. Quantum memory is represented by the spin of an excess electron stored in each dot. Two-qubit gates are realized by switching on trion-trion interactions between different dots. State selectivity is achieved via conditional laser excitation exploiting Pauli exclusion principle. Read out is performed via a quantum-jump technique. We analyze the effect on our scheme's performance of the main imperfections present in real quantum dots: exciton decay, hole mixing, and phonon decoherence. We introduce an adiabatic gate procedure that allows one to circumvent these effects and evaluate quantitatively its fidelity
InGaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy for light emission on Si substrates.
Bru-Chevallier, C; El Akra, A; Pelloux-Gervais, D; Dumont, H; Canut, B; Chauvin, N; Regreny, P; Gendry, M; Patriarche, G; Jancu, J M; Even, J; Noe, P; Calvo, V; Salem, B
2011-10-01
The aim of this study is to achieve homogeneous, high density and dislocation free InGaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy for light emission on silicon substrates. This work is part of a project which aims at overcoming the severe limitation suffered by silicon regarding its optoelectronic applications, especially efficient light emission device. For this study, one of the key points is to overcome the expected type II InGaAs/Si interface by inserting the InGaAs quantum dots inside a thin silicon quantum well in SiO2 fabricated on a SOI substrate. Confinement effects of the Si/SiO2 quantum well are expected to heighten the indirect silicon bandgap and then give rise to a type I interface with the InGaAs quantum dots. Band structure and optical properties are modeled within the tight binding approximation: direct energy bandgap is demonstrated in SiO2/Si/InAs/Si/SiO2 heterostructures for very thin Si layers and absorption coefficient is calculated. Thinned SOI substrates are successfully prepared using successive etching process resulting in a 2 nm-thick Si layer on top of silica. Another key point to get light emission from InGaAs quantum dots is to avoid any dislocations or defects in the quantum dots. We investigate the quantum dot size distribution, density and structural quality at different V/III beam equivalent pressure ratios, different growth temperatures and as a function of the amount of deposited material. This study was performed for InGaAs quantum dots grown on Si(001) substrates. The capping of InGaAs quantum dots by a silicon epilayer is performed in order to get efficient photoluminescence emission from quantum dots. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images are used to study the structural quality of the quantum dots. Dislocation free In50Ga50As QDs are successfully obtained on a (001) silicon substrate. The analysis of QDs capped with silicon by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in a channeling geometry is also presented.
Transport through a vibrating quantum dot: Polaronic effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, T; Alvermann, A; Fehske, H; Loos, J; Bishop, A R
2010-01-01
We present a Green's function based treatment of the effects of electron-phonon coupling on transport through a molecular quantum dot in the quantum limit. Thereby we combine an incomplete variational Lang-Firsov approach with a perturbative calculation of the electron-phonon self energy in the framework of generalised Matsubara Green functions and a Landauer-type transport description. Calculating the ground-state energy, the dot single-particle spectral function and the linear conductance at finite carrier density, we study the low-temperature transport properties of the vibrating quantum dot sandwiched between metallic leads in the whole electron-phonon coupling strength regime. We discuss corrections to the concept of an anti-adiabatic dot polaron and show how a deformable quantum dot can act as a molecular switch.
Spin current through quantum-dot spin valves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J; Xing, D Y
2006-01-01
We report a theoretical study of the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the equilibrium spin current in a quantum-dot spin valve, in which the quantum dot described by the Anderson impurity model is coupled to two ferromagnetic leads with noncollinear magnetizations. In the Kondo regime, electrons transmit through the quantum dot via higher-order virtual processes, in which the spin of either lead electrons or a localized electron on the quantum dot may reverse. It is found that the magnitude of the spin current decreases with increasing Coulomb interactions due to spin flip effects on the dot. However, the spatial direction of the spin current remains unchanged; it is determined only by the exchange coupling between two noncollinear magnetizations
Exciton dephasing in single InGaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leosson, Kristjan; Østergaard, John Erland; Jensen, Jacob Riis
2000-01-01
The homogeneous linewidth of excitonic transitions is a parameter of fundamental physical importance. In self-assembled quantum dot systems, a strong inhomogeneous broadening due to dot size fluctuations masks the homogeneous linewidth associated with transitions between individual states....... The homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening of InGaAs quantum dot luminescence is of central importance for the potential application of this material system in optoelectronic devices. Recent measurements of MOCVD-grown InAs/InGaAs quantum dots indicate a large homogeneous broadening at room temperature due...... to fast dephasing. We present an investigation of the low-temperature homogeneous linewidth of individual PL lines from MBE-grown In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots....
Photoinduced electric dipole in CuCl quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masumoto, Yasuaki; Naruse, Fumitaka; Kanno, Atsushi
2003-01-01
Electromodulated absorption spectra of CuCl quantum dots modulated at twice the modulation frequency of electric field, 2f, show prominent structure around persistently burned hole. It grows in proportion to square of the electric field in the same manner as the 2f component of electromodulated absorption spectra of the dots without the laser exposure. Even the f component of electromodulated signal was observed around the burned hole position. These observations are explained by considering electric dipole formed in hole burned and photoionized quantum dots. Photoionization not only produces persistent spectral hole burning but also the local built-in electric field and photoinduced dipole moment in quantum dots. The dipole moment is estimated to be about 5 debye for 3.2-nm-radius quantum dots. The dipole moments are randomly oriented but 1% anisotropy is deduced from the electromodulated signal at f
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donglin, Wang; Zhongyuan, Yu; Yumin, Liu; Han, Ye; Pengfei, Lu; Xiaotao, Guo; Long, Zhao; Xia, Xin
2010-01-01
The composition of quantum dots has a direct effect on the optical and electronic properties of quantum-dot-based devices. In this paper, we combine the method of moving asymptotes and finite element tools to compute the composition distribution by minimizing the Gibbs free energy of quantum dots, and use this method to study the effect of near laterally and vertically neighboring quantum dots on the composition distribution. The simulation results indicate that the effect from the laterally neighboring quantum dot is very small, and the vertically neighboring quantum dot can significantly influence the composition by the coupled strain field
Quantum phase transition of light as a control of the entanglement between interacting quantum dots
Barragan, Angela; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Mondragon-Shem, Ian
We study coupled quantum dots arranged in a photonic crystal, interacting with light which undergoes a quantum phase transition. At the mean-field level for the infinite lattice, we compute the concurrence of the quantum dots as a measure of their entanglement. We find that this quantity smoothly
Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albert, F.; Stobbe, Søren; Schneider, C.
2010-01-01
We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled InAs quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...
Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren
2010-01-01
We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...
Quantum dot nanoparticle conjugation, characterization, and applications in neuroscience
Pathak, Smita
Quantum dot are semiconducting nanoparticles that have been used for decades in a variety of applications such as solar cells, LEDs and medical imaging. Their use in the last area, however, has been extremely limited despite their potential as revolutionary new biological labeling tools. Quantum dots are much brighter and more stable than conventional fluorophores, making them optimal for high resolution imaging and long term studies. Prior work in this area involves synthesizing and chemically conjugating quantum dots to molecules of interest in-house. However this method is both time consuming and prone to human error. Additionally, non-specific binding and nanoparticle aggregation currently prevent researchers from utilizing this system to its fullest capacity. Another critical issue that has not been addressed is determining the number of ligands bound to nanoparticles, which is crucial for proper interpretation of results. In this work, methods to label fixed cells using two types of chemically modified quantum dots are studied. Reproducible non-specific artifact labeling is consistently demonstrated if antibody-quantum dot conditions are less than optimal. In order to explain this, antibodies bound to quantum dots were characterized and quantified. While other groups have qualitatively characterized antibody functionalized quantum dots using TEM, AFM, UV spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis, and in some cases have reported calculated estimates of the putative number of total antibodies bound to quantum dots, no quantitative experimental results had been reported prior to this work. The chemical functionalization and characterization of quantum dot nanocrystals achieved in this work elucidates binding mechanisms of ligands to nanoparticles and allows researchers to not only translate our tools to studies in their own areas of interest but also derive quantitative results from these studies. This research brings ease of use and increased reliability to
The transfer matrix approach to circular graphene quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, H Chau; Nguyen, Nhung T T; Nguyen, V Lien
2016-01-01
We adapt the transfer matrix (T -matrix) method originally designed for one-dimensional quantum mechanical problems to solve the circularly symmetric two-dimensional problem of graphene quantum dots. Similar to one-dimensional problems, we show that the generalized T -matrix contains rich information about the physical properties of these quantum dots. In particular, it is shown that the spectral equations for bound states as well as quasi-bound states of a circular graphene quantum dot and related quantities such as the local density of states and the scattering coefficients are all expressed exactly in terms of the T -matrix for the radial confinement potential. As an example, we use the developed formalism to analyse physical aspects of a graphene quantum dot induced by a trapezoidal radial potential. Among the obtained results, it is in particular suggested that the thermal fluctuations and electrostatic disorders may appear as an obstacle to controlling the valley polarization of Dirac electrons. (paper)
Kondo and mixed-valence regimes in multilevel quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Ulloa, S. E.
2001-01-01
We investigate the dependence of the ground state of a multilevel quantum dot on the coupling to an external fermionic system and on the interactions in the dot. As the coupling to the external system increases, the rearrangement of the effective energy levels in the dot signals the transition from the Kondo regime to a mixed-valence (MV) regime. The MV regime in a two-level dot is characterized by an intrinsic mixing of the levels in the dot, resulting in nonperturbative subtunneling and supertunneling phenomena that strongly influence the Kondo effect
Rabi oscillations a quantum dot exposed to quantum light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magyarov, A.; Slepyan, G.Ya.; Maksimenko, S.A.; Hoffmann, A.
2007-01-01
The influence of the local field on the excitonic Rabi oscillations in an isolated quantum dot driven by the coherent state of light has been theoretically investigated. Local field is predicted to entail the appearance of two oscillatory regimes in the Rabi effect separated by the bifurcation. In the first regime Rabi oscillations are periodic and do not reveal collapse-revivals phenomenon, while in the second one collapse and revivals appear, showing significant difference as compared to those predicted by the standard Jaynes-Cummings model
Quantum dot doped solid polymer electrolyte for device application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Pramod K.; Kim, Kang Wook; Rhee, Hee-Woo [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea)
2009-06-15
ZnS capped CdSe quantum dots embedded in PEO:KI:I{sub 2} polymer electrolyte matrix have been synthesized and characterized for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The complex impedance spectroscopy shows enhance in ionic conductivity ({sigma}) due to charges provide by quantum dots (QD) while AFM affirm the uniform distribution of QD into polymer electrolyte matrix. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the possible interaction between polymer electrolyte, QD and iodide/iodine. The photovoltaic performances of the DSSC containing quantum dots doped polymer electrolyte was also found to improve. (author)
Strong-coupling polaron effect in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Kadi; Gu Shiwei
1993-11-01
Strong-coupling polaron in a parabolic quantum dot is investigated by the Landau-Pekar variational treatment. The polaron binding energy and the average number of virtual phonons around the electron as a function of the effective confinement length of the quantum dot are obtained in Gaussian function approximation. It is shown that both the polaron binding energy and the average number of virtual phonons around the electron decrease by increasing the effective confinement length. The results indicate that the polaronic effects are more pronounced in quantum dots than those in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs
Quantum Dots Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection
DeHaven, Stan; Williams, Phillip; Burke, Eric
2015-01-01
Microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide are presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dot application technique are discussed.
Study of a Quantum Dot in an Excited State
Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht
We have studied the first excited singlet state of a quantum dot via quantal density functional theory (QDFT). The quantum dot is represented by a 2D Hooke's atom in an external magnetostatic field. The QDFT mapping is from an excited singlet state of this interacting system to one of noninteracting fermions in a singlet ground state. The results of the study will be compared to (a) the corresponding mapping from a ground state of the quantum dot and (b) to the similar mapping from an excited singlet state of the 3D Hooke's atom.
Imaging GABAc Receptors with Ligand-Conjugated Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ian D. Tomlinson
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We report a methodology for labeling the GABAc receptor on the surface membrane of intact cells. This work builds upon our earlier work with serotonin-conjugated quantum dots and our studies with PEGylated quantum dots to reduce nonspecific binding. In the current approach, a PEGylated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphilic polymer derivative of a modified polyacrylamide. These conjugates were used to image GABAC receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.
Nuclear Spin Nanomagnet in an Optically Excited Quantum Dot
Korenev, V. L.
2007-12-01
Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei shifts the optical transition energy close to resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of the quantum dot electron. As a result the optically selected single quantum dot represents a tiny magnet with the ferromagnetic ordering of nuclear spins—the nuclear spin nanomagnet.
Second-harmonic imaging of semiconductor quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, John Erland; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Pedersen, Kjeld
2000-01-01
Resonant second-harmonic generation is observed at room temperature in reflection from self-assembled InAlGaAs quantum dots grown on a GaAs (001) substrate. The detected second-harmonic signal peaks at a pump wavelength of similar to 885 nm corresponding to the quantum-dot photoluminescence maximum....... In addition, the second-harmonic spectrum exhibits another smaller but well-pronounced peak at 765 nm not found in the linear experiments. We attribute this peak to the generation of second-harmonic radiation in the AlGaAs spacer layer enhanced by the local symmetry at the quantum-dot interface. We further...
Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.
Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong
2015-10-07
Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals.
PREFACE: Quantum dots as probes in biology
Cieplak, Marek
2013-05-01
The recent availability of nanostructured materials has resulted in an explosion of research focused on their unique optical, thermal, mechanical and magnetic properties. Optical imagining, magnetic enhancement of contrast and drug delivery capabilities make the nanoparticles of special interest in biomedical applications. These materials have been involved in the development of theranostics—a new field of medicine that is focused on personalized tests and treatment. It is likely that multimodal nanomaterials will be responsible for future diagnostic advances in medicine. Quantum dots (QD) are nanoparticles which exhibit luminescence either through the formation of three-dimensional excitons or excitations of the impurities. The excitonic luminescence can be tuned by changing the size (the smaller the size, the higher the frequency). QDs are usually made of semiconducting materials. Unlike fluorescent proteins and organic dyes, QDs resist photobleaching, allow for multi-wavelength excitations and have narrow emission spectra. The techniques to make QDs are cheap and surface modifications and functionalizations can be implemented. Importantly, QDs could be synthesized to exhibit useful optomagnetic properties and, upon functionalization with an appropriate biomolecule, directed towards a pre-selected target for diagnostic imaging and photodynamic therapy. This special issue on Quantum dots in Biology is focused on recent research in this area. It starts with a topical review by Sreenivasan et al on various physical mechanisms that lead to the QD luminescence and on using wavelength shifts for an improvement in imaging. The next paper by Szczepaniak et al discusses nanohybrids involving QDs made of CdSe coated by ZnS and combined covalently with a photosynthetic enzyme. These nanohybrids are shown to maintain the enzymatic activity, however the enzyme properties depend on the size of a QD. They are proposed as tools to study photosynthesis in isolated
Single Molecule Applications of Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Thomas Elmelund; Jauffred, Liselotte; Brewer, Jonathan R.
2013-01-01
Fluorescent nanocrystals composed of semiconductor materials were first introduced for biological applications in the late 1990s. The focus of this review is to give a brief survey of biological applications of quantum dots (QDs) at the single QD sensitivity level. These are described as follows: 1......) QD blinking and bleaching statistics, 2) the use of QDs in high speed single particle tracking with a special focus on how to design the biofunctional coatings of QDs which enable specific targeting to single proteins or lipids of interest, 3) a hybrid lipid-DNA analogue binding QDs which allows...... for tracking single lipids in lipid bilayers, 4) two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of QDs and 5) optical trapping and excitation of single QDs. In all of these applications, the focus is on the single particle sensitivity level of QDs. The high applicability of QDs in live cell imaging...
Terahertz wave generation in coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Yu-Rong; Guo Shi-Fang; Duan Su-Qing
2012-01-01
Based on coupled quantum dots, we present an interesting optical effect in a four-level loop coupled system. Both the two upper levels and the two lower levels are designed to be almost degenerate, which induces a considerable dipole moment. The terahertz wave is obtained from the low-frequency component of the photon emission spectrum. The frequency of the terahertz wave can be controlled by tuning the energy levels via designing the nanostructure appropriately or tuning the driving laser field. A terahertz wave with adjustable frequency and considerable intensity (100 times higher than that of the Rayleigh line) can be obtained. It provides an effective scheme for a terahertz source. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Characteristics of chirped quantum dot superluminescent diodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bae, H.C.; Park, H.L. [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); You, Y.C. [Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 440-746 (Korea); Han, I.K. [Nano Device Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 130-650 (Korea); Kim, J.S. [Department of Image System Science and Engineering, Pukyong National University, Pusan Department of Image System Science and Engineering, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-739 (Korea)
2009-04-15
We compared the superluminescent diodes (SLDs) of two types in order to see the effect of embedding another quantum dots (QDs) layer. The insertion of another QDs layer showed a new possibility for a wider spectrum. In addition, through comparing two kinds of SLD structures, the peak positions of the ground state and excited state were observed to be affected differently by band-filling, thermal effect, and the overlap of tails of excited state (ES) gain, according to the wafer structure, and the effect of the cap layer is superior to the carrier non-uniformity. We also revealed the temperature sensitivity of carriers in QDs through measuring characteristic temperature. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Building devices from colloidal quantum dots.
Kagan, Cherie R; Lifshitz, Efrat; Sargent, Edward H; Talapin, Dmitri V
2016-08-26
The continued growth of mobile and interactive computing requires devices manufactured with low-cost processes, compatible with large-area and flexible form factors, and with additional functionality. We review recent advances in the design of electronic and optoelectronic devices that use colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). The properties of materials assembled of QDs may be tailored not only by the atomic composition but also by the size, shape, and surface functionalization of the individual QDs and by the communication among these QDs. The chemical and physical properties of QD surfaces and the interfaces in QD devices are of particular importance, and these enable the solution-based fabrication of low-cost, large-area, flexible, and functional devices. We discuss challenges that must be addressed in the move to solution-processed functional optoelectronic nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Tellurium quantum dots: Preparation and optical properties
Lu, Chaoyu; Li, Xueming; Tang, Libin; Lai, Sin Ki; Rogée, Lukas; Teng, Kar Seng; Qian, Fuli; Zhou, Liangliang; Lau, Shu Ping
2017-08-01
Herein, we report an effective and simple method for producing Tellurium Quantum dots (TeQDs), zero-dimensional nanomaterials with great prospects for biomedical applications. Their preparation is based on the ultrasonic exfoliation of Te powder dispersed in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Sonication causes the van der Waals forces between the structural hexagons of Te to break so that the relatively coarse powder breaks down into nanoscale particles. The TeQDs have an average size of about 4 nm. UV-Vis absorption spectra of the TeQDs showed an absorption peak at 288 nm. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) are used to study the optical properties of TeQDs. Both the PLE and PL peaks revealed a linear relationship against the emission and excitation energies, respectively. TeQDs have important potential applications in biological imaging and catalysis as well as optoelectronics.
Protease-activated quantum dot probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Emmanuel; Miller, Jordan S.; Sun, Jiantang; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Drezek, Rebekah; West, Jennifer L.
2005-01-01
We have developed a novel nanoparticulate luminescent probe with inherent signal amplification upon interaction with a targeted proteolytic enzyme. This construct may be useful for imaging in cancer detection and diagnosis. In this system, quantum dots (QDs) are bound to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a proteolytically degradable peptide sequence to non-radiatively suppress luminescence. A 71% reduction in luminescence was achieved with conjugation of AuNPs to QDs. Release of AuNPs by peptide cleavage restores radiative QD photoluminescence. Initial studies observed a 52% rise in luminescence over 47 h of exposure to 0.2 mg/mL collagenase. These probes can be customized for targeted degradation simply by changing the sequence of the peptide linker
Coherence and spin effects in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katsumoto, S
2007-01-01
This review focuses on experiments on coherent transport through quantum dot systems. The most important quantity obtained in coherent transport is the phase shift through the dots, which gives complementary information to the scattering amplitude (i.e. the conductance). However, two-terminal devices have a particular difficulty, called 'phase rigidity', in obtaining the phase shift. There are two representative ways to avoid this problem: one is to adopt a multi-terminal configuration and another is to use resonance in the interferometer. This review mainly reviews the latter approaches. Such resonance in the whole interferometer often joins with local resonance inside the interferometer and appears as the Fano effect, which is a powerful tool for investigating the phase shift problem with the aid of theories. In addition to such resonances of single-electron states, electron spin causes a kind of many-body resonance, that is, the Kondo effect. Combination of these resonances is the Fano-Kondo effect. Experiments on the Fano-Kondo effect, which unveil the nature of the Kondo resonance, are also reviewed. (topical review)
High frequency response of open quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, R.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F.; Ferry, D.; Elhassan, M.; Ishibashi, K.
2002-01-01
Full text: We investigate the response of the transport through open quantum dots to millimeterwave radiation (up to 55 GHz). In the low-field region ( 11 cm -2 and a mobility of 1.2 10 6 cm 2 /Vs. By applying a sufficiently negative voltage to the gates the 2DES is split into two regions connected only by a dot-like region (about 350 nm diameter) between them. The DC data exhibit backscattering peaks at fields of a few tenth of a Tesla. Shubnikovde- Haas (SdH) oscillations appear above 0.5 T. While the SdH oscillations show the usual temperature dependence, the backscattering peaks are temperature independent up to 2.5 K. The backscattering peak shows a reduction of 10 percent due to the millimeterwave irradiation. However, due to the temperature independence of this peak, this reduction cannot simply be attributed to electron heating. This conclusion is supported by the observation of a strong frequency dependence of the reduction of the peak height. (author)
Application of Quantum Dots in Biological Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shan Jin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are a group of semiconducting nanomaterials with unique optical and electronic properties. They have distinct advantages over traditional fluorescent organic dyes in chemical and biological studies in terms of tunable emission spectra, signal brightness, photostability, and so forth. Currently, the major type of QDs is the heavy metal-containing II-IV, IV-VI, or III-V QDs. Silicon QDs and conjugated polymer dots have also been developed in order to lower the potential toxicity of the fluorescent probes for biological applications. Aqueous solubility is the common problem for all types of QDs when they are employed in the biological researches, such as in vitro and in vivo imaging. To circumvent this problem, ligand exchange and polymer coating are proven to be effective, besides synthesizing QDs in aqueous solutions directly. However, toxicity is another big concern especially for in vivo studies. Ligand protection and core/shell structure can partly solve this problem. With the rapid development of QDs research, new elements and new morphologies have been introduced to this area to fabricate more safe and efficient QDs for biological applications.
First principles study of edge carboxylated graphene quantum dots
Abdelsalam, Hazem; Elhaes, Hanan; Ibrahim, Medhat A.
2018-05-01
The structure stability and electronic properties of edge carboxylated hexagonal and triangular graphene quantum dots are investigated using density functional theory. The calculated binding energies show that the hexagonal clusters with armchair edges have the highest stability among all the quantum dots. The binding energy of carboxylated graphene quantum dots increases by increasing the number of carboxyl groups. Our study shows that the total dipole moment significantly increases by adding COOH with the highest value observed in triangular clusters. The edge states in triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges produce completely different energy spectrum from other dots: (a) the energy gap in triangular zigzag is very small as compared to other clusters and (b) the highest occupied molecular orbital is localized at the edges which is in contrast to other clusters where it is distributed over the cluster surface. The enhanced reactivity and the controllable energy gap by shape and edge termination make graphene quantum dots ideal for various nanodevice applications such as sensors. The infrared spectra are presented to confirm the stability of the quantum dots.
Optimal tunneling enhances the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Chen; Cao, Jianshu; Ren, Jie
2014-01-01
We investigate the quantum photovoltaic effect in double quantum dots by applying the nonequilibrium quantum master equation. A drastic suppression of the photovoltaic current is observed near the open circuit voltage, which leads to a large filling factor. We find that there always exists an optimal inter-dot tunneling that significantly enhances the photovoltaic current. Maximal output power will also be obtained around the optimal inter-dot tunneling. Moreover, the open circuit voltage behaves approximately as the product of the eigen-level gap and the Carnot efficiency. These results suggest a great potential for double quantum dots as efficient photovoltaic devices
Decoherence and Entanglement Simulation in a Model of Quantum Neural Network Based on Quantum Dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Altaisky Mikhail V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present the results of the simulation of a quantum neural network based on quantum dots using numerical method of path integral calculation. In the proposed implementation of the quantum neural network using an array of single-electron quantum dots with dipole-dipole interaction, the coherence is shown to survive up to 0.1 nanosecond in time and up to the liquid nitrogen temperature of 77K.We study the quantum correlations between the quantum dots by means of calculation of the entanglement of formation in a pair of quantum dots on the GaAs based substrate with dot size of 100 ÷ 101 nanometer and interdot distance of 101 ÷ 102 nanometers order.
Quantum dynamics of spin qubits in optically active quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bechtold, Alexander
2017-01-01
The control of solid-state qubits for quantum information processing requires a detailed understanding of the mechanisms responsible for decoherence. During the past decade a considerable progress has been achieved for describing the qubit dynamics in relatively strong external magnetic fields. However, until now it has been impossible to experimentally test many theoretical predictions at very low magnetic fields and uncover mechanisms associated with reduced coherence times of spin qubits in solids. In particular, the role of the quadrupolar coupling of nuclear spins in this process is to date poorly understood. In the framework of this thesis, a spin memory device is utilized to optically prepare individual electron spin qubits in a single InGaAs quantum dot. After storages over timescales extending into the microsecond range the qubit��s state is read out to monitor the impact of the environment on it the spin dynamics. By performing such pump-probe experiments, the dominant electron spin decoherence mechanisms are identified in a wide range of external magnetic fields (0-5 T) and lattice temperatures of ∝10 K. The results presented in this thesis show that, without application of external magnetic fields the initially orientated electron spin rapidly loses its polarization due to precession around the fluctuating Overhauser field with a dispersion of 10.5 mT. The inhomogeneous dephasing time associated with these hyperfine mediated dynamics is of the order of T * 2 =2 ns. Over longer timescales, an unexpected stage of central spin relaxation is observed, namely the appearance of a second feature in the relaxation curve around T Q =750 ns. By comparison with theoretical simulations, this additional decoherence channel is shown to arise from coherent dynamics in the nuclear spin bath itself. Such coherent dynamics are induced by a quadrupolar coupling of the nuclear spins to the strain induced electric field gradients in the quantum dot. These processes
Spin interactions in InAs quantum dots
Doty, M. F.; Ware, M. E.; Stinaff, E. A.; Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.
2006-03-01
Fine structure splittings in optical spectra of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) generally arise from spin interactions between particles confined in the dots. We present experimental studies of the fine structure that arises from multiple charges confined in a single dot [1] or in molecular orbitals of coupled pairs of dots. To probe the underlying spin interactions we inject particles with a known spin orientation (by using polarized light to perform photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy experiments) or use a magnetic field to orient and/or mix the spin states. We develop a model of the spin interactions that aids in the development of quantum information processing applications based on controllable interactions between spins confined to QDs. [1] Polarized Fine Structure in the Photoluminescence Excitation Spectrum of a Negatively Charged Quantum Dot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 177403 (2005)
Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications.
Wen, Lin; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Yongxiang; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaobing
2017-07-28
Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.
Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Wen
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khanin, Yu. N.; Vdovin, E. E.; Eaves, L.; Larkin, I. A.; Patane, A.; Makarovskii, O. N.; Henini, M.
2007-01-01
The results of the investigation of tunneling transport through a GaAs/(AlGa)As/GaAs single-barrier heterostructure containing InAs self-assembled quantum dots at low temperatures are reported. An anomalous increase in the tunneling current through the quantum dots has been observed in the presence of a magnetic field both parallel and perpendicular to the current. This increase is a manifestation of a Fermi-edge singularity appearing in the current due to the interaction of a tunneling electron with the electron gas in an emitter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toropov, A.A.; Sorokin, S.V.; Shubina, T.V.; Nekrutkina, O.V.; Solnyshkov, D.D.; Ivanov, S.V.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.
2003-01-01
We report on the investigations of in-plane optical anisotropy in non-common-atom heterostructures: ZnSe/BeTe perfect quantum wells (QWs) and CdSe/BeTe rough QWs and quantum dots. A noticeable linear polarization of photoluminescence (PL) with respect to the in-plane [1-10] and [110] crystal axes was observed in the ZnSe/BeTe QWs with equivalent ZnTe-type interfaces due to the reduction of QW symmetry, induced by unintentional formation of BeSe chemical bonds at a ''BeTe-ZnSe'' interface. The BeSe bond concentration and, hence, the polarization degree depend on the Te/Be flux ratio during molecular beam epitaxy growth of the samples. Strongly linearly polarized (up to 80%) PL was detected in the CdSe/BeTe structures, evidencing QW-like flat symmetry of the emitting sites of carrier localization. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
All-Quantum-Dot Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes
Yang, Zhenyu; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Liu, Mengxia; Yuan, Mingjian; Ip, Alexander H.; Ahmed, Osman S.; Levina, Larissa; Kinge, Sachin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.
2015-01-01
© 2015 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising candidates for infrared electroluminescent devices. To date, CQD-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have employed a CQD emission layer sandwiched between carrier transport
Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells
Yuan, Mingjian; Liu, Mengxia; Sargent, Edward H.
2016-01-01
Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally
Colloidal Quantum-Dot Photodetectors Exploiting Multiexciton Generation
Sukhovatkin, V.; Hinds, S.; Brzozowski, L.; Sargent, E. H.
2009-01-01
Multiexciton generation (MEG) has been indirectly observed in colloidal quantum dots, both in solution and the solid state, but has not yet been shown to enhance photocurrent in an optoelectronic device. Here, we report a class of solution
Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel
Stavis, Samuel M.; Edel, Joshua B.; Samiee, Kevan T.; Craighead, Harold G.
2010-04-13
A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.
Coal as an abundant source of graphene quantum dots
Ye, Ruquan; Xiang, Changsheng; Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Huang, Kewei; Yan, Zheng; Cook, Nathan P.; Samuel, Errol L. G.; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O.; Martí, Angel A.; Tour, James M.
2013-12-01
Coal is the most abundant and readily combustible energy resource being used worldwide. However, its structural characteristic creates a perception that coal is only useful for producing energy via burning. Here we report a facile approach to synthesize tunable graphene quantum dots from various types of coal, and establish that the unique coal structure has an advantage over pure sp2-carbon allotropes for producing quantum dots. The crystalline carbon within the coal structure is easier to oxidatively displace than when pure sp2-carbon structures are used, resulting in nanometre-sized graphene quantum dots with amorphous carbon addends on the edges. The synthesized graphene quantum dots, produced in up to 20% isolated yield from coal, are soluble and fluorescent in aqueous solution, providing promise for applications in areas such as bioimaging, biomedicine, photovoltaics and optoelectronics, in addition to being inexpensive additives for structural composites.
Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim
2005-01-01
Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how...
Quantum Dots in the Therapy: Current Trends and Perspectives.
Pohanka, Miroslav
2017-01-01
Quantum dots are an emerging nanomaterial with broad use in technical disciplines; however, their application in the field of biomedicine becomes also relevant and significant possibilities have appeared since the discovery in 1980s. The current review is focused on the therapeutic applications of quantum dots which become an emerging use of the particles. They are introduced as potent carriers of drugs and as a material well suited for the diagnosis of disparate pathologies like visualization of cancer cells or pathogenic microorganisms. Quantum dots toxicity and modifications for the toxicity reduction are discussed here as well. Survey of actual papers and patents in the field of quantum dots use in the biomedicine is provided. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.
Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...
Colloidal quantum dot solar cells exploiting hierarchical structuring
Labelle, André J.; Thon, Susanna; Masala, Silvia; Adachi, Michael M.; Dong, Haopeng; Farahani, Maryam; Ip, Alexander H.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Sargent, E. H.
2015-01-01
Extremely thin-absorber solar cells offer low materials utilization and simplified manufacture but require improved means to enhance photon absorption in the active layer. Here, we report enhanced-absorption colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells
Nodal ground states and orbital textures in semiconductor quantum dots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lee, J.; Výborný, Karel; Han, J.E.; Žutič, I.
2014-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), "045315-1"-"045315-17" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dots * electronic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Quantum dot conjugates in a sub-micrometer fluidic channel
Stavis, Samuel M [Ithaca, NY; Edel, Joshua B [Brookline, MA; Samiee, Kevan T [Ithaca, NY; Craighead, Harold G [Ithaca, NY
2008-07-29
A nanofluidic channel fabricated in fused silica with an approximately 500 nm square cross section was used to isolate, detect and identify individual quantum dot conjugates. The channel enables the rapid detection of every fluorescent entity in solution. A laser of selected wavelength was used to excite multiple species of quantum dots and organic molecules, and the emission spectra were resolved without significant signal rejection. Quantum dots were then conjugated with organic molecules and detected to demonstrate efficient multicolor detection. PCH was used to analyze coincident detection and to characterize the degree of binding. The use of a small fluidic channel to detect quantum dots as fluorescent labels was shown to be an efficient technique for multiplexed single molecule studies. Detection of single molecule binding events has a variety of applications including high throughput immunoassays.
The impact of doped silicon quantum dots on human osteoblasts
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ostrovská, L.; Brož, Antonín; Fučíková, A.; Bělinová, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Kanno, T.; Fujii, M.; Valenta, J.; Kalbáčová, M.H.
2016-01-01
Roč. 6, č. 68 (2016), s. 63403-63413 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * osteoblasts * cytotoxicity * photoluminiscence bioimaging Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016
Light Scattering Spectroscopies of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Grat; Nozaki, Shinji; Berbezier, Isabelle
2006-01-01
We review the study of nanocrystals or quantum dots using inelastic light scattering spectroscopies. In particular recent calculations of the phonon density of states and low frequency Raman spectra in Ge nanocrystals are presented for comparison with experimental results
Electron Energy Level Statistics in Graphene Quantum Dots
De Raedt, H.; Katsnellson, M. I.; Katsnelson, M.I.
2008-01-01
Motivated by recent experimental observations of size quantization of electron energy levels in graphene quantum dots [7] we investigate the level statistics in the simplest tight-binding model for different dot shapes by computer simulation. The results are in a reasonable agreement with the
X-ray scattering from periodic arrays of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holy, V; Stangl, J; Lechner, R T; Springholz, G
2008-01-01
Three-dimensional periodic arrays of self-organized quantum dots in semiconductor multilayers are investigated by high-resolution x-ray scattering. We demonstrate that the statistical parameters of the dot array can be determined directly from the scattering data without performing a numerical simulation of the scattered intensity.
Cyto-molecular Tuning of Quantum Dots
Lee, Bong; Suresh, Sindhuja; Ekpenyong, Andrew
Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanoparticles composed of groups II-VI or III-V elements, with physical dimensions smaller than the exciton Bohr radius, and between 1-10 nm. Their applications and promising myriad applications in photovoltaic cells, biomedical imaging, targeted drug delivery, quantum computing, etc, have led to much research on their interactions with other systems. For biological systems, research has focused on biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of QDs in the context of imaging/therapy. However, there is a paucity of work on how biological systems might be used to tune QDs. Here, we hypothesize that the photo-electronic properties of QDs can be tuned by biological macromolecules following controlled changes in cellular activities. Using CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs, we perform spectroscopic analysis of optically excited colloidal QDs with and without promyelocytic HL60 cells. Preliminary results show shifts in the emission spectra of the colloidal dispersions with and without cells. We will present results for activated HL60-derived cells where specific macromolecules produced by these cells perturb the electric dipole moments of the excited QDs and the associated electric fields, in ways that constitute what we describe as cyto-molecular tuning. Startup funds from the College of Arts and Sciences, Creighton University (to AEE).
Spin-flip tunneling in quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schreiber, Lars; Braakman, Floris; Meunier, Tristan; Calado, Victor; Vandersypen, Lieven [Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft (Netherlands); Wegscheider, Werner [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany)
2010-07-01
Electron spins in a gate-defined double quantum dot formed in a GaAs/(Al,Ga)As 2DEG are promising candidates for quantum information processing as coherent single spin rotation and spin swap has been demonstrated recently. In this system we investigate the two-electron spin dynamics in the presence of microwaves (5.20 GHz) applied to one side gate. During microwave excitation we observe characteristic photon assisted tunneling (PAT) peaks at the (1,1) to (0,2) charge transition. Some of the PAT peaks are attributed to photon tunneling events between the singlet S(0,2) and the singlet S(1,1) states, a spin-conserving transition. Surprisingly, other PAT peaks stand out by their different external magnetic field dependence. They correspond to tunneling involving a spin-flip, from the (0,2) singlet to a (1,1) triplet. The full spectrum of the observed PAT lines is captured by simulations. This process offers novel possibilities for 2-electron spin manipulation and read-out.
Fluorescent quantum dot hydrophilization with PAMAM dendrimer
Potapkin, Dmitry V.; Geißler, Daniel; Resch-Genger, Ute; Goryacheva, Irina Yu.
2016-05-01
Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were used to produce CdSe core/multi-shell fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) which are colloidally stable in aqueous solutions. The size, charge, and optical properties of QDs functionalized with the 4th (G4) and 5th (G5) generation of PAMAM were compared with amphiphilic polymer-covered QDs and used as criteria for the evaluation of the suitability of both water solubilization methods. As revealed by dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering (DLS and ELS), the hydrodynamic sizes of the QDs varied from 30 to 65 nm depending on QD type and dendrimer generation, with all QDs displaying highly positive surface charges, i.e., zeta potentials of around +50 mV in water. PAMAM functionalization yielded stable core/multi-shell QDs with photoluminescence quantum yields ( Φ) of up to 45 %. These dendrimer-covered QDs showed a smaller decrease in their Φ upon phase transfer compared with QDs made water soluble via encapsulation with amphiphilic brush polymer bearing polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene chains.
Fluorescent quantum dot hydrophilization with PAMAM dendrimer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potapkin, Dmitry V., E-mail: potapkindv@gmail.com [Saratov State University, Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation); Geißler, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.geissler@bam.de; Resch-Genger, Ute, E-mail: ute.resch@bam.de [BAM - Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Goryacheva, Irina Yu., E-mail: goryachevaiy@mail.ru [Saratov State University, Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-05-15
Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were used to produce CdSe core/multi-shell fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) which are colloidally stable in aqueous solutions. The size, charge, and optical properties of QDs functionalized with the 4th (G4) and 5th (G5) generation of PAMAM were compared with amphiphilic polymer-covered QDs and used as criteria for the evaluation of the suitability of both water solubilization methods. As revealed by dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering (DLS and ELS), the hydrodynamic sizes of the QDs varied from 30 to 65 nm depending on QD type and dendrimer generation, with all QDs displaying highly positive surface charges, i.e., zeta potentials of around +50 mV in water. PAMAM functionalization yielded stable core/multi-shell QDs with photoluminescence quantum yields (Φ) of up to 45 %. These dendrimer-covered QDs showed a smaller decrease in their Φ upon phase transfer compared with QDs made water soluble via encapsulation with amphiphilic brush polymer bearing polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene chains.
Lead selenide quantum dot polymer nanocomposites
Waldron, Dennis L.; Preske, Amanda; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Krauss, Todd D.; Gupta, Mool C.
2015-02-01
Optical absorption and fluorescence properties of PbSe quantum dots (QDs) in an Angstrom Bond AB9093 epoxy polymer matrix to form a nanocomposite were investigated. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported use of AB9093 as a QD matrix material and it was shown to out-perform the more common poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix in terms of preserving the optical properties of the QD, resulting in the first reported quantum yield (QY) for PbSe QDs in a polymer matrix, 26%. The 1-s first excitonic absorption peak of the QDs in a polymer matrix red shifted 65 nm in wavelength compared to QDs in a hexane solution, while the emission peak in the polymer matrix red shifted by 38 nm. The fluorescence QY dropped from 55% in hexane to 26% in the polymer matrix. A time resolved fluorescence study of the QDs showed single exponential lifetimes of 2.34 and 1.34 μs in toluene solution and the polymer matrix respectively.
Controlled Photon Switch Assisted by Coupled Quantum Dots
Luo, Ming-Xing; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Xiaojun
2015-01-01
Quantum switch is a primitive element in quantum network communication. In contrast to previous switch schemes on one degree of freedom (DOF) of quantum systems, we consider controlled switches of photon system with two DOFs. These controlled photon switches are constructed by exploring the optical selection rules derived from the quantum-dot spins in one-sided optical microcavities. Several double controlled-NOT gate on different joint systems are greatly simplified with an auxiliary DOF of the controlling photon. The photon switches show that two DOFs of photons can be independently transmitted in quantum networks. This result reduces the quantum resources for quantum network communication. PMID:26095049
Coherent radiation by quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.
2014-01-01
The assemblies of either quantum dots or magnetic nanoclusters are studied. It is shown that such assemblies can produce coherent radiation. A method is developed for solving the systems of nonlinear equations describing the dynamics of such assemblies. The method is shown to be general and applicable to systems of different physical nature. Despite mathematical similarities of dynamical equations, the physics of the processes for quantum dots and magnetic nanoclusters is rather different. In a quantum dot assembly, coherence develops due to the Dicke effect of dot interactions through the common radiation field. For a system of magnetic clusters, coherence in the spin motion appears due to the Purcell effect caused by the feedback action of a resonator. Self-organized coherent spin radiation cannot arise without a resonator. This principal difference is connected with the different physical nature of dipole forces between the objects. Effective dipole interactions between the radiating quantum dots, appearing due to photon exchange, collectivize the dot radiation. While the dipolar spin interactions exist from the beginning, yet before radiation, and on the contrary, they dephase spin motion, thus destroying the coherence of moving spins. In addition, quantum dot radiation exhibits turbulent photon filamentation that is absent for radiating spins
Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices
Gamble, John King
In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques
Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells
Choi, Joshua J.; Wenger, Whitney N.; Hoffman, Rachel S.; Lim, Yee-Fun; Luria, Justin; Jasieniak, Jacek; Marohn, John A.; Hanrath, Tobias
2011-01-01
Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Non-Markovian spontaneous emission from a single quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Ates, Serkan; Lund-Hansen, Toke
2011-01-01
We observe non-Markovian dynamics of a single quantum dot when tuned into resonance with a cavity mode. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is observed providing the first quantitative description of such a system.......We observe non-Markovian dynamics of a single quantum dot when tuned into resonance with a cavity mode. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is observed providing the first quantitative description of such a system....
Local Gate Control of a Carbon Nanotube Double Quantum Dot
2016-04-04
describ- ing the levitation . Quantitative comparisons are made difficult by the complicated aniso- tropy of the nematic’s viscoelasticity (21). However...director fields. For example, as a straightforward extension of the levitation , a liquid crystal that twists through many periods (such as a cholesteric...Nanotube Double Quantum Dot N. Mason,*† M. J. Biercuk,* C. M. Marcus† We have measured carbon nanotube quantum dots with multiple electro- static gates and
Double Tunneling Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High Speed Operation
2017-10-23
Double Tunneling-Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High -Speed Operation The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6...State University Title: Double Tunneling-Injection Quantum Dot Lasers for High -Speed Operation Report Term: 0-Other Email: asryan@vt.edu Distribution
Spin-orbit-enhanced Wigner localization in quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalli, Andrea; Malet, F.; Cremon, J. C.
2011-01-01
We investigate quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the strongly-correlated regime. We show that the presence of the Rashba interaction enhances the Wigner localization in these systems, making it achievable for higher densities than those at which it is observed in Rashba-free quantum...... dots. Recurring shapes in the pair distribution functions of the yrast spectrum, which might be associated with rotational and vibrational modes, are also reported....
Theory of Spin States of Quantum Dot Molecules
Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Scheibner, M.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Doty, M. F.; Gammon, D.; Korenev, V. L.
2007-04-01
The photoluminescence spectrum of an asymmetric pair of coupled InAs quantum dots in an applied electric field shows a rich pattern of level anticrossings, crossings and fine structure that can be understood as a superposition of charge and spin configurations. We present a theoretical model that provides a description of the energy positions and intensities of the optical transitions in exciton, biexciton and charged exciton states of coupled quantum dots molecules.
Ultrafast optical signal processing using semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper
2002-01-01
The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing.......The linear and nonlinear properties of quantum dot amplifiers are discussed on the basis of an extensive theoretical model. These devices show great potential for linear amplification as well as ultrafast signal processing....
Noise and saturation properties of semiconductor quantum dot optical amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper
2002-01-01
We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved.......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved....
Whispering-gallery mode microcavity quantum-dot lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kryzhanovskaya, N V; Maximov, M V; Zhukov, A E
2014-01-01
This review examines axisymmetric-cavity quantum-dot microlasers whose emission spectrum is determined by whisperinggallery modes. We describe the possible designs, fabrication processes and basic characteristics of the microlasers and demonstrate the possibility of lasing at temperatures above 100 °C. The feasibility of creating multichannel optical sources based on a combination of a broadband quantum-dot laser and silicon microring modulators is discussed. (review)
Self-Sustaining Dynamical Nuclear Polarization Oscillations in Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudner, Mark Spencer; Levitov, Leonid
2013-01-01
Early experiments on spin-blockaded double quantum dots revealed robust, large-amplitude current oscillations in the presence of a static (dc) source-drain bias. Despite experimental evidence implicating dynamical nuclear polarization, the mechanism has remained a mystery. Here we introduce......) and nuclear spin diffusion, which governs dynamics of the spatial profile of nuclear polarization. The proposed framework naturally explains the differences in phenomenology between vertical and lateral quantum dot structures as well as the extremely long oscillation periods....
Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells
Choi, Joshua J.
2011-06-03
Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Interaction of solitons with a string of coupled quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Vijendra, E-mail: vsmedphysics@gmail.com; Swami, O. P., E-mail: omg1789@gmail.com; Nagar, A. K., E-mail: ajaya.nagar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner, Rajasthan 334001 (India); Taneja, S., E-mail: sachintaneja9@gmail.com [Department of Radiotherapy, CHAF Bangalore, Karnataka 560007 (India)
2016-05-06
In this paper, we develop a theory for discrete solitons interaction with a string of coupled quantum dots in view of the local field effects. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equations are used to describe the dynamics of the string. Numerical calculations are carried out and results are analyzed with the help of matlab software. With the help of numerical solutions we demonstrate that in the quantum dots string, Rabi oscillations (RO) are self trapped into stable bright Rabi solitons. The Rabi oscillations in different types of nanostructures have potential applications to the elements of quantum logic and quantum memory.
Si quantum dot structures and their applications
Shcherbyna, L.; Torchynska, T.
2013-06-01
This paper presents briefly the history of emission study in Si quantum dots (QDs) in the last two decades. Stable light emission of Si QDs and NCs was observed in the spectral ranges: blue, green, orange, red and infrared. These PL bands were attributed to the exciton recombination in Si QDs, to the carrier recombination through defects inside of Si NCs or via oxide related defects at the Si/SiOx interface. The analysis of recombination transitions and the different ways of the emission stimulation in Si QD structures, related to the element variation for the passivation of surface dangling bonds, as well as the plasmon induced emission and rare earth impurity activation, have been presented. The different applications of Si QD structures in quantum electronics, such as: Si QD light emitting diodes, Si QD single union and tandem solar cells, Si QD memory structures, Si QD based one electron devices and double QD structures for spintronics, have been discussed as well. Note the significant worldwide interest directed toward the silicon-based light emission for integrated optoelectronics is related to the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatibility and the possibility to be monolithically integrated with very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. The different features of poly-, micro- and nanocrystalline silicon for solar cells, that is a mixture of both amorphous and crystalline phases, such as the silicon NCs or QDs embedded in a α-Si:H matrix, as well as the thin film 2-cell or 3-cell tandem solar cells based on Si QD structures have been discussed as well. Silicon NC based structures for non-volatile memory purposes, the recent studies of Si QD base single electron devices and the single electron occupation of QDs as an important component to the measurement and manipulation of spins in quantum information processing have been analyzed as well.
Fluorescence from a quantum dot and metallic nanosphere hybrid system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schindel, Daniel G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2E9 (Canada); Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)
2014-03-31
We present energy absorption and interference in a quantum dot-metallic nanosphere system embedded on a dielectric substrate. A control field is applied to induce dipole moments in the nanosphere and the quantum dot, and a probe field is applied to monitor absorption. Dipole moments in the quantum dot or the metal nanosphere are induced, both by the external fields and by each other's dipole fields. Thus, in addition to direct polarization, the metal nanosphere and the quantum dot will sense one another via the dipole-dipole interaction. The density matrix method was used to show that the absorption spectrum can be split from one peak to two peaks by the control field, and this can also be done by placing the metal sphere close to the quantum dot. When the two are extremely close together, a self-interaction in the quantum dot produces an asymmetry in the absorption peaks. In addition, the fluorescence efficiency can be quenched by the addition of a metal nanosphere. This hybrid system could be used to create ultra-fast switching and sensing nanodevices.
Graphene quantum dots probed by scanning tunneling microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morgenstern, Markus; Freitag, Nils; Nent, Alexander; Nemes-Incze, Peter; Liebmann, Marcus [II. Institute of Physics B and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)
2017-11-15
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy results probing the electronic properties of graphene quantum dots are reviewed. After a short summary of the study of squared wave functions of graphene quantum dots on metal substrates, we firstly present data where the Landau level gaps caused by a perpendicular magnetic field are used to electrostatically confine electrons in monolayer graphene, which are probed by the Coulomb staircase revealing the consecutive charging of a quantum dot. It turns out that these quantum dots exhibit much more regular charging sequences than lithographically confined ones. Namely, the consistent grouping of charging peaks into quadruplets, both, in the electron and hole branch, portrays a regular orbital splitting of about 10meV. At low hole occupation numbers, the charging peaks are, partly, additionally grouped into doublets. The spatially varying energy separation of the doublets indicates a modulation of the valley splitting by the underlying BN substrate. We outline that this property might be used to eventually tune the valley splitting coherently. Afterwards, we describe graphene quantum dots with multiple contacts produced without lithographic resist, namely by local anodic oxidation. Such quantum dots target the goal to probe magnetotransport properties during the imaging of the corresponding wave functions by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Heparin conjugated quantum dots for in vitro imaging applications.
Maguire, Ciaran Manus; Mahfoud, Omar Kazem; Rakovich, Tatsiana; Gerard, Valerie Anne; Prina-Mello, Adriele; Gun'ko, Yurii; Volkov, Yuri
2014-11-01
In this work heparin-gelatine multi-layered cadmium telluride quantum dots (QDgel/hep) were synthesised using a novel 'one-pot' method. The QDs produced were characterised using various spectroscopic and physiochemical techniques. Suitable QDs were then selected and compared to thioglycolic acid stabilised quantum dots (QDTGA) and gelatine coated quantum dots (QDgel) for utilisation in in vitro imaging experiments on live and fixed permeabilised THP-1, A549 and Caco-2 cell lines. Exposure of live THP-1 cells to QDgel/hep resulted in localisation of the QDs to the nucleus of the cells. QDgel/hep show affinity for the nuclear compartment of fixed permeabilised THP-1 and A549 cells but remain confined to cytoplasm of fixed permeabilised Caco-2 cells. It is postulated that heparin binding to the CD11b receptor facilitates the internalisation of the QDs into the nucleus of THP-1 cells. In addition, the heparin layer may reduce the unfavourable thrombogenic nature of quantum dots observed in vivo. In this study, heparin conjugated quantum dots were found to have superior imaging properties compared to its native counterparts. The authors postulate that heparin binding to the CD11b receptor facilitates QD internalization to the nucleus, and the heparin layer may reduce the in vivo thrombogenic properties of quantum dots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: The effect of polydispersity
Zhitomirsky, David
2012-02-08
The size-effect tunability of colloidal quantum dots enables facile engineering of the bandgap at the time of nanoparticle synthesis. The dependence of effective bandgap on nanoparticle size also presents a challenge if the size dispersion, hence bandgap variability, is not well-controlled within a given quantum dot solid. The impact of this polydispersity is well-studied in luminescent devices as well as in unipolar electronic transport; however, the requirements on monodispersity have yet to be quantified in photovoltaics. Here we carry out a series of combined experimental and model-based studies aimed at clarifying, and quantifying, the importance of quantum dot monodispersity in photovoltaics. We successfully predict, using a simple model, the dependence of both open-circuit voltage and photoluminescence behavior on the density of small-bandgap (large-diameter) quantum dot inclusions. The model requires inclusion of trap states to explain the experimental data quantitatively. We then explore using this same experimentally tested model the implications of a broadened quantum dot population on device performance. We report that present-day colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices with typical inhomogeneous linewidths of 100-150 meV are dominated by surface traps, and it is for this reason that they see marginal benefit from reduction in polydispersity. Upon eliminating surface traps, achieving inhomogeneous broadening of 50 meV or less will lead to device performance that sees very little deleterious impact from polydispersity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
2016-05-03
This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.
Carrier confinement in Ge/Si quantum dots grown with an intermediate ultrathin oxide layer
Kuryliuk, V.; Korotchenkov, O.; Cantarero, A.
2012-02-01
We present computational results for strain effects on charge carrier confinement in GexSi1-x quantum dots (QDs) grown on an oxidized Si surface. The strain and free carrier probability density distributions are obtained using the continuum elasticity theory and the effective-mass approximation implemented by a finite-element modeling scheme. Using realistic parameters and conditions for hemisphere and pyramid QDs, it is pointed out that an uncapped hemisphere dot deposited on the Si surface with an intermediate ultrathin oxide layer offers advantageous electron-hole separation distances with respect to a square-based pyramid grown directly on Si. The enhanced separation is associated with a larger electron localization depth in the Si substrate for uncapped hemisphere dots. Thus, for dot diameters smaller than 15-20 nm and surface density of the dots (nQD) ranging from about 1010 to 1012 cm-2, the localization depth may be enhanced from about 8 nm for a pyramid to 38 nm for a hemisphere dot. We find that the effect in a hemisphere dot is very sensitive to the dot density and size, whereas the localization depth is not significantly affected by the variation of the Ge fraction x in GexSi1-x and the aspect ratio of the dot. We also calculate the effect of the fixed oxide charge (Qox) with densities ranging from 10-9 to 10-7 C/cm2 for 10-Ωcm p-type Si wafers on the carrier confinement. Although the confinement potential can be strongly perturbed by the charge at nQD less than ≈4×1011 cm-2, it is not very sensitive to the value of Qox at higher nQD. Since, to our knowledge, there are no data on carrier confinement for Ge QDs deposited on oxidized Si surfaces, these results might be applicable to functional devices utilizing separated electrons and holes such as photovoltaic devices, spin transistors, and quantum computing components. The use of hemisphere QDs placed on oxidized Si rather than pyramid dots grown on bare Si may help to confine charge carriers deeper
Design of quaternary logic circuit using quantum dot gate-quantum dot channel FET (QDG-QDCFET)
Karmakar, Supriya
2014-10-01
This paper presents the implementation of quaternary logic circuits based on quantum dot gate-quantum dot channel field effect transistor (QDG-QDCFET). The super lattice structure in the quantum dot channel region of QDG-QDCFET and the electron tunnelling from inversion channel to the quantum dot layer in the gate region of a QDG-QDCFET change the threshold voltage of this device which produces two intermediate states between its ON and OFF states. This property of QDG-QDCFET is used to implement multi-valued logic for future multi-valued logic circuit. This paper presents the design of basic quaternary logic operation such as inverter, AND and OR operation based on QDG-QDCFET.
Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures
Trallero-Giner, C; García-Moliner, F; Garc A-Moliner, F; Perez-Alvarez, R; Garcia-Moliner, F
1998-01-01
Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quantum wires and dots. Also to allow anyone reading the book to apply the techniques discussed for planar heterostructures, the scope has been widened to include cylindrical and spherical geometries. The book is intended as an introductory text which guides the reader through basic questions and expands to cover state-of-the-art professional topics. The book is relevant to experimentalists wanting an instructive presentatio...
Rainbow Emission from an Atomic Transition in Doped Quantum Dots.
Hazarika, Abhijit; Pandey, Anshu; Sarma, D D
2014-07-03
Although semiconductor quantum dots are promising materials for displays and lighting due to their tunable emissions, these materials also suffer from the serious disadvantage of self-absorption of emitted light. The reabsorption of emitted light is a serious loss mechanism in practical situations because most phosphors exhibit subunity quantum yields. Manganese-based phosphors that also exhibit high stability and quantum efficiency do not suffer from this problem but in turn lack emission tunability, seriously affecting their practical utility. Here, we present a class of manganese-doped quantum dot materials, where strain is used to tune the wavelength of the dopant emission, extending the otherwise limited emission tunability over the yellow-orange range for manganese ions to almost the entire visible spectrum covering all colors from blue to red. These new materials thus combine the advantages of both quantum dots and conventional doped phosphors, thereby opening new possibilities for a wide range of applications in the future.
Liu, Fei; Jang, Min-Ho; Ha, Hyun Dong; Kim, Je-Hyung; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Seo, Tae Seok
2013-07-19
Pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots are synthesized by chemical exfoliation from the graphite nanoparticles with high uniformity in terms of shape (circle), size (less than 4 nm), and thickness (monolayer). The origin of the blue and green photoluminescence of GQDs and GOQDs is attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic energy states, respectively. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.
Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu
2016-11-01
Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Local field effects and metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porvatkina, O V; Tishchenko, A A; Strikhanov, M N
2015-01-01
Metamaterials are composite structures that exhibit interesting and unusual properties, e.g. negative refractive index. In this article we consider metamaterials based on colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). We investigate these structures taking into account the local field effects and theoretically analyze expressions for permittivity and permeability of metamaterials based on CdSe CQDs. We obtain inequality describing the conditions when material with definite concentration of CQDs is metamaterial. Also we investigate how the values of dielectric polarizability and magnetic polarizability of CQDs depend on the dots radius and properties the material the quantum dots are made of. (paper)
Electrically Tunable g Factors in Quantum Dot Molecular Spin States
Doty, M. F.; Scheibner, M.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Korenev, V. L.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.
2006-11-01
We present a magnetophotoluminescence study of individual vertically stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot pairs separated by thin tunnel barriers. As an applied electric field tunes the relative energies of the two dots, we observe a strong resonant increase or decrease in the g factors of different spin states that have molecular wave functions distributed over both quantum dots. We propose a phenomenological model for the change in g factor based on resonant changes in the amplitude of the wave function in the barrier due to the formation of bonding and antibonding orbitals.
Universal parametric correlations of conductance peaks in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alhassid, Y.; Attias, H.
1996-01-01
We compute the parametric correlation function of the conductance peaks in chaotic and weakly disordered quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime and demonstrate its universality upon an appropriate scaling of the parameter. For a symmetric dot we show that this correlation function is affected by breaking time-reversal symmetry but is independent of the details of the channels in the external leads. We derive a new scaling which depends on the eigenfunctions alone and can be extracted directly from the conductance peak heights. Our results are in excellent agreement with model simulations of a disordered quantum dot. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots
Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Matthew
2003-01-01
Architectures that would exploit the distinct characteristics of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed for digital communication networks that connect advanced digital computing circuits. In comparison with networks of wires in conventional very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry, the networks according to the proposed architectures would be more compact. The proposed architectures would make it possible to implement complex interconnection schemes that are required for some advanced parallel-computing algorithms and that are difficult (and in many cases impractical) to implement in VLSI circuitry. The difficulty of implementation in VLSI and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA were described previously in Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42. To recapitulate: Wherever two wires in a conventional VLSI circuit cross each other and are required not to be in electrical contact with each other, there must be a layer of electrical insulation between them. This, in turn, makes it necessary to resort to a noncoplanar and possibly a multilayer design, which can be complex, expensive, and even impractical. As a result, much of the cost of designing VLSI circuits is associated with minimization of data routing and assignment of layers to minimize crossing of wires. Heretofore, these considerations have impeded the development of VLSI circuitry to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. On the other hand, with suitable design and under suitable operating conditions, QCA-based signal paths can be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. The proposed architectures require two advances in QCA-based circuitry beyond basic QCA-based binary
Transport properties of a Kondo dot with a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y S; Fan, X H; Xia, Y J; Yang, X F
2008-01-01
We investigate theoretically linear and nonlinear quantum transport through a smaller quantum dot in a Kondo regime connected to two leads in the presence of a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot, without tunneling coupling to the leads. To do this we employ the slave boson mean field theory with the help of the Keldysh Green's function at zero temperature. The numerical results show that the Kondo conductance peak may develop multiple resonance peaks and multiple zero points in the conductance spectrum owing to constructive and destructive quantum interference effects when the energy levels of the large side-coupled noninteracting dot are located in the vicinity of the Fermi level in the leads. As the coupling strength between two quantum dots increases, the tunneling current through the quantum device as a function of gate voltage applied across the two leads is suppressed. The spin-dependent transport properties of two parallel coupled quantum dots connected to two ferromagnetic leads are also investigated. The numerical results show that, for the parallel configuration, the spin current or linear spin differential conductance are enhanced when the polarization strength in the two leads is increased
Electronic transient processes and optical spectra in quantum dots for quantum computing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Karel; Zdeněk, Petr; Khás, Zdeněk
2004-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2004), s. 17-25 ISSN 1536-125X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : depopulation * electronic relaxation * optical spectra * quantum dots * self-assembled quantum dots * upconversion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.176, year: 2004
Quantitative analysis of quantum dot dynamics and emission spectra in cavity quantum electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Lodahl, Peter
2013-01-01
-resolved measurements reveal that the actual coupling strength is significantly smaller than anticipated from the spectral measurements and that the quantum dot is rather weakly coupled to the cavity. We suggest that the observed Rabi splitting is due to cavity feeding by other quantum dots and/or multi...
Structural Investigations of GaAs/AIAs quantum wires and quantum dots
Darhuber, A.A.; Bauer, G.; Wang, P.D.; Song, Y.P.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Holland, M.C.
1995-01-01
We have investigated periodic arrays of dry etched 150 nm and 175 nm wide, (110) oriented GaAs/AlAs quantum wires and quantum dots by means of reciprocal-space mapping using triple-axis X-ray diffractometry. From the X-ray data the lateral periodicity of wires and dots, the etch depth and the angle
A theoretical study of exciton energy levels in laterally coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barticevic, Z; Pacheco, M; Duque, C A; Oliveira, L E
2009-01-01
A theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of laterally coupled quantum dots, under applied magnetic fields perpendicular to the plane of the dots, is presented. The exciton energy levels of such laterally coupled quantum-dot systems, together with the corresponding wavefunctions and eigenvalues, are obtained in the effective-mass approximation by using an extended variational approach in which the magnetoexciton states are simultaneously obtained. One achieves the expected limits of one single quantum dot, when the distance between the dots is zero, and of two uncoupled quantum dots, when the distance between the dots is large enough. Moreover, present calculations-with appropriate structural dimensions of the two-dot system-are shown to be in agreement with measurements in self-assembled laterally aligned GaAs quantum-dot pairs and naturally/accidentally occurring coupled quantum dots in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells.
Fabrication of quantum-dot devices in graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satoshi Moriyama, Yoshifumi Morita, Eiichiro Watanabe, Daiju Tsuya, Shinya Uji, Maki Shimizu and Koji Ishibashi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We describe our recent experimental results on the fabrication of quantum-dot devices in a graphene-based two-dimensional system. Graphene samples were prepared by micromechanical cleavage of graphite crystals on a SiO2/Si substrate. We performed micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements to determine the number of layers of graphene flakes during the device fabrication process. By applying a nanofabrication process to the identified graphene flakes, we prepared a double-quantum-dot device structure comprising two lateral quantum dots coupled in series. Measurements of low-temperature electrical transport show the device to be a series-coupled double-dot system with varied interdot tunnel coupling, the strength of which changes continuously and non-monotonically as a function of gate voltage.
Scaling of the Coulomb Energy Due to Quantum Fluctuations in the Charge on a Quantum Dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Molenkamp, L. W; Flensberg, Karsten; Kemerink, M.
1995-01-01
The charging energy of a quantum dot is measured through the effect of its potential on the conductance of a second dot. This technique allows a measurement of the scaling of the dot's charging energy with the conductance of the tunnel barriers leading to the dot. We find that the charging energy...... scales quadratically with the reflection probability of the barriers. The observed power law agrees with a recent theory....
Growth and characterization of InP/In0.48Ga0.52P quantum dots optimized for single-photon emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ugur, Asli
2012-01-01
In this work the growth of self-assembled InP/InGaP quantum dots, as well as their optical and structural properties are presented and discussed. The QDs were grown on In 0.48 Ga 0.52 P, lattice matched to GaAs. Self-assembled InP quantum dots are grown using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy over a wide range of InP deposition rates, using an ultra-low growth rate of about 0.01 atomic monolayers/s, a quantum-dot density of 1 dot/μm 2 is realized. The resulting isolated InP quantum dots are individually characterized without the need for lithographical patterning and masks on the substrate. Both excitonic and biexcitonic emissions are observed from single dots, appearing as doublets with a fine-structure splitting of 320 μeV. Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlation measurements for the excitonic emission under cw excitation show anti-bunching behavior with an autocorrelation value of g (2) (0)=0.2. This system is applicable as a single-photon source for applications such as quantum cryptography. The formation of well-ordered chains of InP quantum dots on GaAs (001) substrates by using self-organized In 0.48 Ga 0.52 P surface undulations as a template is also demonstrated. The ordering requires neither stacked layers of quantum dots nor substrate misorientation. The structures are investigated by polarization-dependent photoluminescence together with transmission electron microscopy. Luminescence from the In 0.48 Ga 0.52 P matrix is polarized in one crystallographic direction due to anisotropic strain arising from a lateral compositional modulation. The photoluminescence measurements show enhanced linear polarization in the alignment direction of quantum dots. A polarization degree of 66% is observed. The optical anisotropy is achieved with a straightforward heterostructure, requiring only a single layer of QDs.
Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konstantatos, G.; Howard, I.; Fischer, A.; Hoogland, S.; Clifford, J.; Klem, E.; Levina, L.; Sargent, E.H.
2007-01-01
Solution-processed electronic and optoelectronic devices offer low cost, large device area, physical flexibility and convenient materials integration compared to conventional epitaxially grown, lattice-matched, crystalline semiconductor devices. Although the electronic or optoelectronic performance of these solution-processed devices is typically inferior to that of those fabricated by conventional routes, this can be tolerated for some applications in view of the other benefits. Here we report the fabrication of solution-processed infrared photodetectors that are superior in their normalized detectivity (D * , the figure of merit for detector sensitivity) to the best epitaxially grown devices operating at room temperature. We produced the devices in a single solution-processing step, overcoating a prefabricated planar electrode array with an unpatterned layer of Pbs colloidal quantum dot nanocrystals. The devices showed large photoconductive gains with responsivities greater than 10 3 AW -1 . The best devices exhibited a normalized detectivity D * of 1.8 x 10 13 jones (1 jones= 1 cm Hz 1/2 W -1 ) at 1.3μm at room temperature: today's highest performance infrared photodetectors are photovoltaic devices made from epitaxially grown InGaAs that exhibit peak D * in the 10 12 ) jones range at room temperature, whereas the previous record for D * from a photoconductive detector lies at 10 11 jones. The tailored selection of absorption onset energy through the quantum size effect, combined with deliberate engineering of the sequence of nanoparticle fusing and surface trap functionalization, underlie the superior performance achieved in this readily fabricated family of devices. (author)
Effect of carrier dynamics and temperature on two-state lasing in semiconductor quantum dot lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korenev, V. V., E-mail: korenev@spbau.ru; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V. [Saint Petersburg Academic University-Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15
It is analytically shown that the both the charge carrier dynamics in quantum dots and their capture into the quantum dots from the matrix material have a significant effect on two-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers. In particular, the consideration of desynchronization in electron and hole capture into quantum dots allows one to describe the quenching of ground-state lasing observed at high injection currents both qualitatevely and quantitatively. At the same time, an analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in a single quantum dot allowed us to describe the temperature dependences of the emission power via the ground- and excited-state optical transitions of quantum dots.
Effect of carrier dynamics and temperature on two-state lasing in semiconductor quantum dot lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.
2013-01-01
It is analytically shown that the both the charge carrier dynamics in quantum dots and their capture into the quantum dots from the matrix material have a significant effect on two-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers. In particular, the consideration of desynchronization in electron and hole capture into quantum dots allows one to describe the quenching of ground-state lasing observed at high injection currents both qualitatevely and quantitatively. At the same time, an analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in a single quantum dot allowed us to describe the temperature dependences of the emission power via the ground- and excited-state optical transitions of quantum dots
Transient Dynamics of Double Quantum Dots Coupled to Two Reservoirs
Fukadai, Takahisa; Sasamoto, Tomohiro
2018-05-01
We study the time-dependent properties of double quantum dots coupled to two reservoirs using the nonequilibrium Green function method. For an arbitrary time-dependent bias, we derive an expression for the time-dependent electron density of a dot and several currents, including the current between the dots in the wide-band-limit approximation. For the special case of a constant bias, we calculate the electron density and the currents numerically. As a result, we find that these quantities oscillate and that the number of crests in a single period of the current from a dot changes with the bias voltage. We also obtain an analytical expression for the relaxation time, which expresses how fast the system converges to its steady state. From the expression, we find that the relaxation time becomes constant when the coupling strength between the dots is sufficiently large in comparison with the difference of coupling strength between the dots and the reservoirs.
Magnetic Polarons in Anisotropic Quantum Dots
Oszwaldowski, Rafal; Petukhov, Andre; Zutic, Igor
2010-03-01
Tunability of confinement in magnetically-doped quantum dots (QDs) allows to tailor magnetism to an extent not available in bulk semiconductors. Versatile control of magnetic ordering, along with piezomagnetism, has been predicted even at a fixed number of carriers [1]. Recent experiments on colloidal QDs revealed strongly bound magnetic polarons (MPs) [2]. Previous studies of MPs in bulk semiconductors showed that the mean-field theory predicts a spurious magnetic phase transition, which is removed by taking into account spin fluctuations [3]. Here we present our theoretical results for MPs forming in QDs with pronounced magnetic anisotropy, which influences the spin fluctuations. We apply our findings to explain some peculiarities of the magnetic behavior of type-II ZnSe/(Zn,Mn)Te QDs, where magnetic polarons are found to persist to at least 200K [4]. Supported by ONR, AFOSR, and NSF-ECCS CAREER. [4pt] [1] R. M. Abolfath, A. G. Petukhov, and I. Zutic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 207202 (2008); I. Zutic and A. G. Petukhov, Nature Mater.4, 623 (2009). [0pt] [2] R. Beaulac et al., Science 325, 973 (2009). [0pt] [3] T. Dietl and J. Spalek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 355 (1982). [0pt] [4] I. R. Sellers, R. Oszwaldowski, et al., preprint; I. R. Sellers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 136405 (2008).
Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots
Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael
2015-03-01
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Quantum dot laser optimization: selectively doped layers
Korenev, Vladimir V.; Konoplev, Sergey S.; Savelyev, Artem V.; Shernyakov, Yurii M.; Maximov, Mikhail V.; Zhukov, Alexey E.
2016-08-01
Edge emitting quantum dot (QD) lasers are discussed. It has been recently proposed to use modulation p-doping of the layers that are adjacent to QD layers in order to control QD's charge state. Experimentally it has been proven useful to enhance ground state lasing and suppress the onset of excited state lasing at high injection. These results have been also confirmed with numerical calculations involving solution of drift-diffusion equations. However, deep understanding of physical reasons for such behavior and laser optimization requires analytical approaches to the problem. In this paper, under a set of assumptions we provide an analytical model that explains major effects of selective p-doping. Capture rates of elections and holes can be calculated by solving Poisson equations for electrons and holes around the charged QD layer. The charge itself is ruled by capture rates and selective doping concentration. We analyzed this self-consistent set of equations and showed that it can be used to optimize QD laser performance and to explain underlying physics.
Quantum dot laser optimization: selectively doped layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, Vladimir V; Konoplev, Sergey S; Savelyev, Artem V; Shernyakov, Yurii M; Maximov, Mikhail V; Zhukov, Alexey E
2016-01-01
Edge emitting quantum dot (QD) lasers are discussed. It has been recently proposed to use modulation p-doping of the layers that are adjacent to QD layers in order to control QD's charge state. Experimentally it has been proven useful to enhance ground state lasing and suppress the onset of excited state lasing at high injection. These results have been also confirmed with numerical calculations involving solution of drift-diffusion equations. However, deep understanding of physical reasons for such behavior and laser optimization requires analytical approaches to the problem. In this paper, under a set of assumptions we provide an analytical model that explains major effects of selective p-doping. Capture rates of elections and holes can be calculated by solving Poisson equations for electrons and holes around the charged QD layer. The charge itself is ruled by capture rates and selective doping concentration. We analyzed this self-consistent set of equations and showed that it can be used to optimize QD laser performance and to explain underlying physics. (paper)
Insight on quantum dot infrared photodetectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogalski, A
2009-01-01
The paper presents possible future developments of quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). At the beginning the fundamental properties of QDIPs are summarized. Next, investigations of the performance of QDIPs, as compared to other types of infrared photodetectors, are presented. Theoretical predictions indicate that only type II superlattice photodiodes and QDIPs are expected to compete with HgCdTe photodiodes. QDIPs theoretically have several advantages compared with QWIPs including the normal incidence response, lower dark current, higher operating temperature, higher responsivity and detectivity. The operating temperature for HgCdTe detectors is higher than for other types of photon detectors. Comparison of QDIP performance with HgCdTe detectors gives evidence that the QDIP is suitable for high operation temperature. It can be expected that an improvement in technology and design of QDIP detectors will make it possible to achieve both high sensitivity and fast response useful for practical application at room temperature focal plane arrays. However, so far the QDIP devices have not fully demonstrated their potential advantages.
Exciton coherence in semiconductor quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Sasaki, Masahide; Kujiraoka, Mamiko; Ema, Kazuhiro
2009-01-01
The coherent dynamics of excitons in InAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated in the telecommunication wavelength range using a transient four-wave mixing technique. The sample was fabricated on an InP(311)B substrate using strain compensation to control the emission wavelength. This technique also enabled us to fabricate a 150-layer stacked QD structure for obtaining a high S/N in the four-wave mixing measurements, although no high-sensitive heterodyne detection was carried out. The dephasing time and transition dipole moment were precisely estimated from the polarization dependence of signals, taking into account their anisotropic properties. The population lifetimes of the excitons were also measured by using a polarization-dependent pumpprobe technique. A quantitative comparison of these anisotropies demonstrates that in our QDs, non-radiative population relaxation, polarization relaxation and pure dephasing are considerably smaller than the radiative relaxation. A comparison of the results of the four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements revealed that the pure dephasing could be directly estimated with an accuracy of greater than 0.1 meV by comparing the results of four-wave mixing and pump-probe measurements. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Quantum dot lasers: From promise to high-performance devices
Bhattacharya, P.; Mi, Z.; Yang, J.; Basu, D.; Saha, D.
2009-03-01
Ever since self-organized In(Ga)As/Ga(AI)As quantum dots were realized by molecular beam epitaxy, it became evident that these coherently strained nanostructures could be used as the active media in devices. While the expected advantages stemming from three-dimensional quantum confinement were clearly outlined, these were not borne out by the early experiments. It took a very detailed understanding of the unique carrier dynamics in the quantum dots to exploit their full potential. As a result, we now have lasers with emission wavelengths ranging from 0.7 to 1.54 μm, on GaAs, which demonstrate ultra-low threshold currents, near-zero chip and α-factor and large modulation bandwidth. State-of-the-art performance characteristics of these lasers are briefly reviewed. The growth, fabrication and characteristics of quantum dot lasers on silicon substrates are also described. With the incorporation of multiple quantum dot layers as a dislocation filter, we demonstrate lasers with Jth=900 A/cm 2. The monolithic integration of the lasers with guided wave modulators on silicon is also described. Finally, the properties of spin-polarized lasers with quantum dot active regions are described. Spin injection of electrons is done with a MnAs/GaAs tunnel barrier. Laser operation at 200 K is demonstrated, with the possibility of room temperature operation in the near future.
Entanglement and Zeeman interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hichri, A.; Jaziri, S.
2004-01-01
We present theoretically the Zeeman coupling and exchange-induced swap action in spin-based quantum dot quantum computer models in the presence of magnetic field. We study the valence and conduction band states in a double quantum dots made in diluted magnetic semiconductor. The latter have been proven to be very useful in building an all-semiconductor platform for spintronics. Due to a strong p-d exchange interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor (Cd 0.57 Mn 0.43 Te), the relative contribution of this component is strongly affected by an external magnetic field, a feature that is absent in nonmagnetic double quantum dots. We determine the energy spectrum as a function of magnetic field within the Hund-Mulliken molecular-orbit approach and by including the Coulomb interaction. Since we show that the ground state of the two carriers confined in a vertically coupled quantum dots provide a possible realization for a gate of a quantum computer, the crossing between the lowest states, caused by the giant spin splitting, can be observed as a pronounced jump in the magnetization of small magnetic field amplitude. Finally, we determine the swap time as a function of magnetic field and the inter dot distance. We estimate quantitatively swap errors caused by the field, establishing that error correction would, in principle, be possible in the presence of nonuniform magnetic field in realistic structures
Thermodynamic concepts in semiconductor quantum dot technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shchukin, V.
2001-01-01
Major trends of the modern civilization are related to the changing of the industrial society into an information and knowledge-based society. This transformation is to a large extent based on the modern information and communication technology. The nobel prize-2000 in physics is a remarkable recognition of an extremely high significance of this kind of technology. The nobel prize has been awarded with one half jointly to Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics and one half to Jack St. Clair Kilby for this part in the invention of the integrated circuit. The development of the semiconductor heterostructures technology requires a profound understanding of the basic growth mechanisms involved in any technological process, including any type of epitaxy, either the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), or the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), or the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Starting from this pioneering works on semiconductor heterostructures till present time, Professor Zh. Alferov has always paid much attention to complex and comprehensive study of the subject. This covers the growth - as well as the post-growth technology including the theoretical modeling of the technology, the characterization of the heterostructures, and the device design. Such complex approach has master mined the scientific and technological success of Abraham loffe Institute in the area of semiconductor heterostructures, and later, nano structures. (Orig../A.B.)
Electrically protected resonant exchange qubits in triple quantum dots.
Taylor, J M; Srinivasa, V; Medford, J
2013-08-02
We present a modulated microwave approach for quantum computing with qubits comprising three spins in a triple quantum dot. This approach includes single- and two-qubit gates that are protected against low-frequency electrical noise, due to an operating point with a narrowband response to high frequency electric fields. Furthermore, existing double quantum dot advances, including robust preparation and measurement via spin-to-charge conversion, are immediately applicable to the new qubit. Finally, the electric dipole terms implicit in the high frequency coupling enable strong coupling with superconducting microwave resonators, leading to more robust two-qubit gates.
Folded-light-path colloidal quantum dot solar cells.
Koleilat, Ghada I; Kramer, Illan J; Wong, Chris T O; Thon, Susanna M; Labelle, André J; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H
2013-01-01
Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics combine low-cost solution processing with quantum size-effect tuning to match absorption to the solar spectrum. Rapid advances have led to certified solar power conversion efficiencies of over 7%. Nevertheless, these devices remain held back by a compromise in the choice of quantum dot film thickness, balancing on the one hand the need to maximize photon absorption, mandating a thicker film, and, on the other, the need for efficient carrier extraction, a consideration that limits film thickness. Here we report an architecture that breaks this compromise by folding the path of light propagating in the colloidal quantum dot solid. Using this method, we achieve a substantial increase in short-circuit current, ultimately leading to improved power conversion efficiency.
Dynamical thermalization in isolated quantum dots and black holes
Kolovsky, Andrey R.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2017-01-01
We study numerically a model of quantum dot with interacting fermions. At strong interactions with small conductance the model is reduced to the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev black-hole model while at weak interactions and large conductance it describes a Landau-Fermi liquid in a regime of quantum chaos. We show that above the Åberg threshold for interactions there is an onset of dynamical themalization with the Fermi-Dirac distribution describing the eigenstates of an isolated dot. At strong interactions in the isolated black-hole regime there is also the onset of dynamical thermalization with the entropy described by the quantum Gibbs distribution. This dynamical thermalization takes place in an isolated system without any contact with a thermostat. We discuss the possible realization of these regimes with quantum dots of 2D electrons and cold ions in optical lattices.
Slow Auger Relaxation in HgTe Colloidal Quantum Dots.
Melnychuk, Christopher; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe
2018-05-03
The biexciton lifetimes in HgTe colloidal quantum dots are measured as a function of particle size. Samples produced by two synthetic methods, leading to partially aggregated or well-dispersed particles, exhibit markedly different dynamics. The relaxation characteristics of partially aggregated HgTe inhibit reliable determinations of the Auger lifetime. In well-dispersed HgTe quantum dots, the biexciton lifetime increases approximately linearly with particle volume, confirming trends observed in other systems. The extracted Auger coefficient is three orders of magnitude smaller than that for bulk HgCdTe materials with similar energy gaps. We discuss these findings in the context of understanding Auger relaxation in quantum-confined systems and their relevance to mid-infrared optoelectronic devices based on HgTe colloidal quantum dots.
Quantum computation in semiconductor quantum dots of electron-spin asymmetric anisotropic exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Xiang; Zhu Shiqun
2007-01-01
The universal quantum computation is obtained when there exists asymmetric anisotropic exchange between electron spins in coupled semiconductor quantum dots. The asymmetric Heisenberg model can be transformed into the isotropic model through the control of two local unitary rotations for the realization of essential quantum gates. The rotations on each qubit are symmetrical and depend on the strength and orientation of asymmetric exchange. The implementation of the axially symmetric local magnetic fields can assist the construction of quantum logic gates in anisotropic coupled quantum dots. This proposal can efficiently use each physical electron spin as a logical qubit in the universal quantum computation
Detection of CdSe quantum dot photoluminescence for security label on paper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isnaeni,, E-mail: isnaeni@lipi.go.id; Sugiarto, Iyon Titok [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Science, Building 442 Puspiptek Serpong, South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia 15314 (Indonesia); Bilqis, Ratu; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro [Department of Physics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia 50275 (Indonesia)
2016-02-08
CdSe quantum dot has great potential in various applications especially for emitting devices. One example potential application of CdSe quantum dot is security label for anti-counterfeiting. In this work, we present a practical approach of security label on paper using one and two colors of colloidal CdSe quantum dot, which is used as stamping ink on various types of paper. Under ambient condition, quantum dot is almost invisible. The quantum dot security label can be revealed by detecting emission of quantum dot using photoluminescence and cnc machine. The recorded quantum dot emission intensity is then analyzed using home-made program to reveal quantum dot pattern stamp having the word ’RAHASIA’. We found that security label using quantum dot works well on several types of paper. The quantum dot patterns can survive several days and further treatment is required to protect the quantum dot. Oxidation of quantum dot that occurred during this experiment reduced the emission intensity of quantum dot patterns.
Ultrafast optical control of individual quantum dot spin qubits.
De Greve, Kristiaan; Press, David; McMahon, Peter L; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2013-09-01
Single spins in semiconductor quantum dots form a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing. The spin-up and spin-down states of a single electron or hole, trapped inside a quantum dot, can represent a single qubit with a reasonably long decoherence time. The spin qubit can be optically coupled to excited (charged exciton) states that are also trapped in the quantum dot, which provides a mechanism to quickly initialize, manipulate and measure the spin state with optical pulses, and to interface between a stationary matter qubit and a 'flying' photonic qubit for quantum communication and distributed quantum information processing. The interaction of the spin qubit with light may be enhanced by placing the quantum dot inside a monolithic microcavity. An entire system, consisting of a two-dimensional array of quantum dots and a planar microcavity, may plausibly be constructed by modern semiconductor nano-fabrication technology and could offer a path toward chip-sized scalable quantum repeaters and quantum computers. This article reviews the recent experimental developments in optical control of single quantum dot spins for quantum information processing. We highlight demonstrations of a complete set of all-optical single-qubit operations on a single quantum dot spin: initialization, an arbitrary SU(2) gate, and measurement. We review the decoherence and dephasing mechanisms due to hyperfine interaction with the nuclear-spin bath, and show how the single-qubit operations can be combined to perform spin echo sequences that extend the qubit decoherence from a few nanoseconds to several microseconds, more than 5 orders of magnitude longer than the single-qubit gate time. Two-qubit coupling is discussed, both within a single chip by means of exchange coupling of nearby spins and optically induced geometric phases, as well as over longer-distances. Long-distance spin-spin entanglement can be generated if each spin can emit a photon that is entangled
Tuning Single Quantum Dot Emission with a Micromirror.
Yuan, Gangcheng; Gómez, Daniel; Kirkwood, Nicholas; Mulvaney, Paul
2018-02-14
The photoluminescence of single quantum dots fluctuates between bright (on) and dark (off) states, also termed fluorescence intermittency or blinking. This blinking limits the performance of quantum dot-based devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. However, the origins of the blinking remain unresolved. Here, we use a movable gold micromirror to determine both the quantum yield of the bright state and the orientation of the excited state dipole of single quantum dots. We observe that the quantum yield of the bright state is close to unity for these single QDs. Furthermore, we also study the effect of a micromirror on blinking, and then evaluate excitation efficiency, biexciton quantum yield, and detection efficiency. The mirror does not modify the off-time statistics, but it does change the density of optical states available to the quantum dot and hence the on times. The duration of the on times can be lengthened due to an increase in the radiative recombination rate.
Periodic Scarred States in Open Quantum Dots as Evidence of Quantum Darwinism
Burke, A. M.; Akis, R.; Day, T. E.; Speyer, Gil; Ferry, D. K.; Bennett, B. R.
2010-04-01
Scanning gate microscopy (SGM) is used to image scar structures in an open quantum dot, which is created in an InAs quantum well by electron-beam lithography and wet etching. The scanned images demonstrate periodicities in magnetic field that correlate to those found in the conductance fluctuations. Simulations have shown that these magnetic transform images bear a strong resemblance to actual scars found in the dot that replicate through the modes in direct agreement with quantum Darwinism.
Influence of surface states of CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots in quantum dots sensitized photo-electrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, Zhuoyin; Liu, Yueli [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Lei [School of Electronic and Electrical, Wuhan Railway Vocational College of Technology, Wuhan 430205 (China); Zhao, Yinghan; Chen, Keqiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: chenw@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)
2016-12-01
Graphical abstract: J–V curves of different ligands capped CuInS{sub 2} QDs sensitized TiO{sub 2} photo-electrodes. - Highlights: • DDT, OLA, MPA, and S{sup 2−} ligand capped CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes are prepared. • Surface states of quantum dots greatly influence the electrochemical performance of CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes. • S{sup 2−} ligand enhances the UV–vis absorption and electron–hole separation property as well as the excellent charge transfer performance of the photo-electrodes. - Abstract: Surface states are significant factor for the enhancement of electrochemical performance in CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes. DDT, OLA, MPA, and S{sup 2−} ligand capped CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes are prepared by thermolysis, solvethermal and ligand-exchange processes, respectively, and their optical properties and photoelectrochemical properties are investigated. The S{sup 2−} ligand enhances the UV–vis absorption and electron–hole separation property as well as the excellent charge transfer performance of the photo-electrodes, which is attributed to the fact that the atomic S{sup 2−} ligand for the interfacial region of quantum dots may improve the electron transfer rate. These S{sup 2−}-capped CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized photo-electrodes exhibit the excellent photoelectrochemical efficiency and IPCE peak value, which is higher than that of the samples with DDT, OLA and MPA ligands.
Superconducting single electron transistor for charge sensing in Si/SiGe-based quantum dots
Yang, Zhen
Si-based quantum devices, including Si/SiGe quantum dots (QD), are promising candidates for spin-based quantum bits (quits), which are a potential platform for quantum information processing. Meanwhile, qubit readout remains a challenging task related to semiconductor-based quantum computation. This thesis describes two readout devices for Si/SiGe QDs and the techniques for developing them from a traditional single electron transistor (SET). By embedding an SET in a tank circuit and operating it in the radio-frequency (RF) regime, a superconducting RF-SET has quick response as well as ultra high charge sensitivity and can be an excellent charge sensor for the QDs. We demonstrate such RF-SETs for QDs in a Si/SiGe heterostructure. Characterization of the SET in magnetic fields is studied for future exploration of advanced techniques such as spin detection and spin state manipulation. By replacing the tank circuit with a high-quality-factor microwave cavity, the embedded SET will be operated in the supercurrent regime as a single Cooper pair transistor (CPT) to further increase the charge sensitivity and reduce any dissipation. The operating principle and implementation of the cavity-embedded CPT (cCPT) will be introduced.
Forrest, Stephen R.
2008-08-19
A plurality of quantum dots each have a shell. The quantum dots are embedded in an organic matrix. At least the quantum dots and the organic matrix are photoconductive semiconductors. The shell of each quantum dot is arranged as a tunneling barrier to require a charge carrier (an electron or a hole) at a base of the tunneling barrier in the organic matrix to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the respective quantum dot. A first quantum state in each quantum dot is between a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the organic matrix. Wave functions of the first quantum state of the plurality of quantum dots may overlap to form an intermediate band.
Electroluminescence of colloidal ZnSe quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, S.C.; Nath, S.S.
2011-01-01
The article reports a green chemical synthesis of colloidal ZnSe quantum dots at a moderate temperature. The prepared colloid sample is characterised by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy reveals as-expected blue-shift with strong absorption edge at 400 nm and micrographs show a non-uniform size distribution of ZnSe quantum dots in the range 1-4 nm. Further, photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectroscopies are carried out to study optical emission. Each of the spectroscopies reveals two emission peaks, indicating band-to-band transition and defect related transition. From the luminescence studies, it can be inferred that the recombination of electrons and holes resulting from interband transition causes violet emission and the recombination of a photon generated hole with a charged state of Zn-vacancy gives blue emission. Meanwhile electroluminescence study suggests the application of ZnSe quantum dots as an efficient light emitting device with the advantage of colour tuning (violet-blue-violet). - Highlights: → Synthesis of ZnSe quantum dots by a green chemical route. → Characterisation: UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. → Analysis of UV-vis absorption spectrum and transmission electron micrographs. → Study of electro-optical properties by photoluminescence and electroluminescence. → Conclusion: ZnSe quantum dots can be used as LED with dual colour emission.
SELF-ORGANIZATION OF LEAD SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS INTO SUPERSTRUCTURES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena V. Ushakova
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The method of X-ray structural analysis (X-ray scattering at small angles is used to show that the structures obtained by self-organization on a substrate of lead sulfide (PbS quantum dots are ordered arrays. Self-organization of quantum dots occurs at slow evaporation of solvent from a cuvette. The cuvette is a thin layer of mica with teflon ring on it. The positions of peaks in SAXS pattern are used to calculate crystal lattice of obtained ordered structures. Such structures have a primitive orthorhombic crystal lattice. Calculated lattice parameters are: a = 21,1 (nm; b = 36,2 (nm; c = 62,5 (nm. Dimensions of structures are tens of micrometers. The spectral properties of PbS QDs superstructures and kinetic parameters of their luminescence are investigated. Absorption band of superstructures is broadened as compared to the absorption band of the quantum dots in solution; the luminescence band is slightly shifted to the red region of the spectrum, while its bandwidth is not changed much. Luminescence lifetime of obtained structures has been significantly decreased in comparison with the isolated quantum dots in solution, but remained the same for the lead sulfide quantum dots close-packed ensembles. Such superstructures can be used to produce solar cells with improved characteristics.
Synthetic Control of Exciton Behavior in Colloidal Quantum Dots.
Pu, Chaodan; Qin, Haiyan; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Jianhai; Wang, Peng; Peng, Xiaogang
2017-03-08
Colloidal quantum dots are promising optical and optoelectronic materials for various applications, whose performance is dominated by their excited-state properties. This article illustrates synthetic control of their excited states. Description of the excited states of quantum-dot emitters can be centered around exciton. We shall discuss that, different from conventional molecular emitters, ground-state structures of quantum dots are not necessarily correlated with their excited states. Synthetic control of exciton behavior heavily relies on convenient and affordable monitoring tools. For synthetic development of ideal optical and optoelectronic emitters, the key process is decay of band-edge excitons, which renders transient photoluminescence as important monitoring tool. On the basis of extensive synthetic developments in the past 20-30 years, synthetic control of exciton behavior implies surface engineering of quantum dots, including surface cation/anion stoichiometry, organic ligands, inorganic epitaxial shells, etc. For phosphors based on quantum dots doped with transition metal ions, concentration and location of the dopant ions within a nanocrystal lattice are found to be as important as control of the surface states in order to obtain bright dopant emission with monoexponential yet tunable photoluminescence decay dynamics.
Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots Using Fusarium oxysporum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takaaki Yamaguchi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available CdSe quantum dots are often used in industry as fluorescent materials. In this study, CdSe quantum dots were synthesized using Fusarium oxysporum. The cadmium and selenium concentration, pH, and temperature for the culture of F. oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum were optimized for the synthesis, and the CdSe quantum dots obtained from the mycelial cells of F. oxysporum were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Ultra-thin sections of F. oxysporum showed that the CdSe quantum dots were precipitated in the intracellular space, indicating that cadmium and selenium ions were incorporated into the cell and that the quantum dots were synthesized with intracellular metabolites. To reveal differences in F. oxysporum metabolism, cell extracts of F. oxysporum, before and after CdSe synthesis, were compared using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The results suggested that the amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD decreased after CdSe synthesis. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic superoxide increased significantly after CdSe synthesis. The accumulation of superoxide may increase the expression of various metabolites that play a role in reducing Se4+ to Se2− and inhibit the aggregation of CdSe to make nanoparticles.
Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control
Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J.; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C.; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G.; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W.
2012-01-01
Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr '1 m '2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control.
Sun, Liangfeng; Choi, Joshua J; Stachnik, David; Bartnik, Adam C; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Malliaras, George G; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W
2012-05-06
Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr(-1) m(-2)) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH(2) groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.
Bright infrared quantum-dot light-emitting diodes through inter-dot spacing control
Sun, Liangfeng
2012-05-06
Infrared light-emitting diodes are currently fabricated from direct-gap semiconductors using epitaxy, which makes them expensive and difficult to integrate with other materials. Light-emitting diodes based on colloidal semiconductor quantum dots, on the other hand, can be solution-processed at low cost, and can be directly integrated with silicon. However, so far, exciton dissociation and recombination have not been well controlled in these devices, and this has limited their performance. Here, by tuning the distance between adjacent PbS quantum dots, we fabricate thin-film quantum-dot light-emitting diodes that operate at infrared wavelengths with radiances (6.4 W sr \\'1 m \\'2) eight times higher and external quantum efficiencies (2.0%) two times higher than the highest values previously reported. The distance between adjacent dots is tuned over a range of 1.3 nm by varying the lengths of the linker molecules from three to eight CH 2 groups, which allows us to achieve the optimum balance between charge injection and radiative exciton recombination. The electroluminescent powers of the best devices are comparable to those produced by commercial InGaAsP light-emitting diodes. By varying the size of the quantum dots, we can tune the emission wavelengths between 800 and 1,850 nm.© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Carrier-phonon interaction in semiconductor quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seebeck, Jan
2009-03-10
In recent years semiconductor quantum dots have been studied extensively due to their wide range of possible applications, predominantly for light sources. For successful applications, efficient carrier scattering processes as well as a detailed understanding of the optical properties are of central importance. The aims of this thesis are theoretical investigations of carrier scattering processes in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots on a quantum-kinetic basis. A consistent treatment of quasi-particle renormalizations and carrier kinetics for non-equilibrium conditions is presented, using the framework of non-equilibrium Green's functions. The focus of our investigations is the interaction of carriers with LO phonons. Important for the understanding of the scattering mechanism are the corresponding quasi-particle properties. Starting from a detailed study of quantum-dot polarons, scattering and dephasing processes are discussed for different temperature regimes. The inclusion of polaron and memory effects turns out to be essential for the description of the carrier kinetics in quantum-dot systems. They give rise to efficient scattering channels and the obtained results are in agreement with recent experiments. Furthermore, a consistent treatment of the carrier-LO-phonon and the carrier-carrier interaction is presented for the optical response of semiconductor quantum dots, both giving rise to equally important contributions to the dephasing. Beside the conventional GaAs material system, currently GaN based light sources are of high topical interest due to their wide range of possible emission frequencies. In this material additionally intrinsic properties like piezoelectric fields and strong band-mixing effects have to be considered. For the description of the optical properties of InN/GaN quantum dots a procedure is presented, where the material properties obtained from an atomistic tight-binding approach are combined with a many-body theory for non
A Quantum Dot with Spin-Orbit Interaction--Analytical Solution
Basu, B.; Roy, B.
2009-01-01
The practical applicability of a semiconductor quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction gives an impetus to study analytical solutions to one- and two-electron quantum dots with or without a magnetic field.
Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.
Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin
2018-02-23
An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.
Light effects in asymmetric vertically coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stavrou, V.N., E-mail: vstavrou@newton.physics.uiowa.edu
2015-12-15
In this paper, the dependence of circular light polarization on the size asymmetry of self-assembled coupled quantum dots (SACQDs) has been studied. The heterostructure consists of ellipsoidal shaped QDs made with InAs which are embedded in a wetting layer and are surrounded by GaAs. By considering fully spin-polarized carriers within the QD structure, the light polarization has been estimated along the plane of spin polarized electrons (or holes). Circularly polarized light strongly depends on the ratio related to the different QD volumes. In the case of elongated QDs, small interdot distance and large volume ratio, the light polarization observed along the plane (110) receives the largest value (∼90%). On the other hand, the polarization efficiency of the emitted light decreases as the QD elongation decreases and finally vanishes for axially symmetric QD caps.
A InGaN/GaN quantum dot green (λ=524 nm) laser
Zhang, Meng
2011-01-01
The characteristics of self-organized InGaN/GaN quantum dot lasers are reported. The laser heterostructures were grown on c-plane GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and the laser facets were formed by focused ion beam etching with gallium. Emission above threshold is characterized by a peak at 524 nm (green) and linewidth of 0.7 nm. The lowest measured threshold current density is 1.2 kA/ cm2 at 278 K. The slope and wall plug efficiencies are 0.74 W/A and ∼1.1%, respectively, at 1.3 kA/ cm 2. The value of T0 =233 K in the temperature range of 260-300 K. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Optical orientation in self assembled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevens, Gregory C.
2002-01-01
We examined Zeeman splitting in a series of ln x Ga (1-x) As/GaAs self assembled quantum dots (SAQD's) with different pump polarisations. All these measurements were made in very low external magnetic fields where direct determination of the Zeeman splitting energy is impossible due to its small value in comparison to the photoluminescence linewidths. The use of a technique developed by M. J. Snelling allowed us to obtain the Zeeman splitting and hence the excitonic g-factors indirectly. We observed a linear low field splitting, becoming increasingly non-linear at higher fields. We attribute this non-linearity to field induced level mixing. It is believed these are the first low field measurements in these structures. A number of apparent nuclear effects in the Zeeman splitting measurements led us onto the examination of nuclear effects in these structures. The transverse and oblique Hanie effects then allowed us to obtain the sign of the electronic g-factors in two of our samples, for one sample, a (311) grown In 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/GaAs SAQD sample, we were able to ascertain the spin relaxation time, the maximum value of the nuclear field, and provide evidence of the existence of nuclear spin freezing in at least one of our samples. We have then used a novel technique investigated by D. J. Guerrier, to examine optically detected nuclear magnetic resonance in our samples. We believe this is the first such study on these structures. We could not ascertain the dipolar indium resonance signal, even though all other isotopes were seen. We have therefore suggested a number of possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the lack of an indium resonance signal. (author)
Gain recovery dynamics and limitations in quantum dot amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Bischoff, Svend; Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg
2001-01-01
gain recovery in a quantum dot amplifier, and it is thus not yet clear what the limiting processes for the device response are. We present the results of a comprehensive theoretical model, which agrees well with the experimental results, and indicates the importance of slow recovery of higher energy...... levels. The model used is of the rate-equation type with three energy levels: ground state (GS) and excited state (ES) dot levels and a wetting layer...
Quantum mechanical solver for confined heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verreck, Devin, E-mail: devin.verreck@imec.be; Groeseneken, Guido [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van de Put, Maarten; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Departement of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandenberghe, William G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)
2014-02-07
Heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFET) are promising candidates for low-power applications in future technology nodes, as they are predicted to offer high on-currents, combined with a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing. However, the effects of important quantum mechanical phenomena like size confinement at the heterojunction are not well understood, due to the theoretical and computational difficulties in modeling realistic heterostructures. We therefore present a ballistic quantum transport formalism, combining a novel envelope function approach for semiconductor heterostructures with the multiband quantum transmitting boundary method, which we extend to 2D potentials. We demonstrate an implementation of a 2-band version of the formalism and apply it to study confinement in realistic heterostructure diodes and p-n-i-n HTFETs. For the diodes, both transmission probabilities and current densities are found to decrease with stronger confinement. For the p-n-i-n HTFETs, the improved gate control is found to counteract the deterioration due to confinement.
Double Rashba Quantum Dots Ring as a Spin Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi Feng
2008-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractWe theoretically propose a double quantum dots (QDs ring to filter the electron spin that works due to the Rashba spin–orbit interaction (RSOI existing inside the QDs, the spin-dependent inter-dot tunneling coupling and the magnetic flux penetrating through the ring. By varying the RSOI-induced phase factor, the magnetic flux and the strength of the spin-dependent inter-dot tunneling coupling, which arises from a constant magnetic field applied on the tunneling junction between the QDs, a 100% spin-polarized conductance can be obtained. We show that both the spin orientations and the magnitude of it can be controlled by adjusting the above-mentioned parameters. The spin filtering effect is robust even in the presence of strong intra-dot Coulomb interactions and arbitrary dot-lead coupling configurations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Ka-Di; Li, Wai-Sang
2003-01-01
The quantum coherent oscillations in a coherently driven quantum dot-cavity system with the presence of strong exciton-phonon interactions are investigated theoretically in a fully quantum treatment. It is shown that even at zero temperature, the strong exciton-phonon interactions still affect the quantum coherent oscillations significantly
A tunable colloidal quantum dot photo field-effect transistor
Ghosh, Subir; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sukhovatkin, Vlad; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H.
2011-01-01
We fabricate and investigate field-effect transistors in which a light-absorbing photogate modulates the flow of current along the channel. The photogate consists of colloidal quantum dots that efficiently transfer photoelectrons to the channel across a charge-separating (type-II) heterointerface, producing a primary and sustained secondary flow that is terminated via electron back-recombination across the interface. We explore colloidal quantum dot sizes corresponding to bandgaps ranging from 730 to 1475 nm and also investigate various stoichiometries of aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) channel materials. We investigate the role of trap state energies in both the colloidal quantum dot energy film and the AZO channel. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Coulomb Mediated Hybridization of Excitons in Coupled Quantum Dots.
Ardelt, P-L; Gawarecki, K; Müller, K; Waeber, A M; Bechtold, A; Oberhofer, K; Daniels, J M; Klotz, F; Bichler, M; Kuhn, T; Krenner, H J; Machnikowski, P; Finley, J J
2016-02-19
We report Coulomb mediated hybridization of excitonic states in optically active InGaAs quantum dot molecules. By probing the optical response of an individual quantum dot molecule as a function of the static electric field applied along the molecular axis, we observe unexpected avoided level crossings that do not arise from the dominant single-particle tunnel coupling. We identify a new few-particle coupling mechanism stemming from Coulomb interactions between different neutral exciton states. Such Coulomb resonances hybridize the exciton wave function over four different electron and hole single-particle orbitals. Comparisons of experimental observations with microscopic eight-band k·p calculations taking into account a realistic quantum dot geometry show good agreement and reveal that the Coulomb resonances arise from broken symmetry in the artificial semiconductor molecule.
Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots
Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.
2013-03-01
The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).
Colloidal quantum dot solids for solution-processed solar cells
Yuan, Mingjian
2016-02-29
Solution-processed photovoltaic technologies represent a promising way to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of solar energy harvesting. Among these, colloidal semiconductor quantum dot photovoltaics have the advantage of a spectrally tuneable infrared bandgap, which enables use in multi-junction cells, as well as the benefit of generating and harvesting multiple charge carrier pairs per absorbed photon. Here we review recent progress in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics, focusing on three fronts. First, we examine strategies to manage the abundant surfaces of quantum dots, strategies that have led to progress in the removal of electronic trap states. Second, we consider new device architectures that have improved device performance to certified efficiencies of 10.6%. Third, we focus on progress in solution-phase chemical processing, such as spray-coating and centrifugal casting, which has led to the demonstration of manufacturing-ready process technologies.
Optical manipulation of electron spin in quantum dot systems
Villas-Boas, Jose; Ulloa, Sergio; Govorov, Alexander
2006-03-01
Self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) are of particular interest for fundamental physics because of their similarity with atoms. Coupling two of such dots and addressing them with polarized laser light pulses is perhaps even more interesting. In this paper we use a multi-exciton density matrix formalism to model the spin dynamics of a system with single or double layers of QDs. Our model includes the anisotropic electron-hole exchange in the dots, the presence of wetting layer states, and interdot tunneling [1]. Our results show that it is possible to switch the spin polarization of a single self-assembled quantum dot under elliptically polarized light by increasing the laser intensity. In the nonlinear mechanism described here, intense elliptically polarized light creates an effective exchange channel between the exciton spin states through biexciton states, as we demonstrate by numerical and analytical methods. We further show that the effect persists in realistic ensembles of dots, and we propose alternative ways to detect it. We also extend our study to a double layer of quantum dots, where we find a competition between Rabi frequency and tunneling oscillations. [1] J. M. Villas-Boas, S. E. Ulloa, and A. O. Govorov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 057404 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 69, 125342 (2004).
Vacuum-induced coherence in quantum dot systems
Sitek, Anna; Machnikowski, Paweł
2012-11-01
We present a theoretical study of vacuum-induced coherence in a pair of vertically stacked semiconductor quantum dots. The process consists in a coherent excitation transfer from a single-exciton state localized in one dot to a delocalized state in which the exciton occupation gets trapped. We study the influence of the factors characteristic of quantum dot systems (as opposed to natural atoms): energy mismatch, coupling between the single-exciton states localized in different dots, and different and nonparallel dipoles due to sub-band mixing, as well as coupling to phonons. We show that the destructive effect of the energy mismatch can be overcome by an appropriate interplay of the dipole moments and coupling between the dots which allows one to observe the trapping effect even in a structure with technologically realistic energy splitting of the order of milli-electron volts. We also analyze the impact of phonon dynamics on the occupation trapping and show that phonon effects are suppressed in a certain range of system parameters. This analysis shows that the vacuum-induced coherence effect and the associated long-living trapped excitonic population can be achieved in quantum dots.
Magneto-exciton transitions in laterally coupled quantum dots
Barticevic, Zdenka; Pacheco, Monica; Duque, Carlos A.; Oliveira, Luiz E.
2008-03-01
We present a study of the electronic and optical properties of laterally coupled quantum dots. The excitonic spectra of this system under the effects of an external magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the dots is obtained, with the potential of every individual dot taken as the superposition of a quantum well potential along the axial direction with a lateral parabolic confinement potential, and the coupled two- dot system then modeled by a superposition of the potentials of each dot, with their minima at different positions and truncated at the intersection plane. The wave functions and eigenvalues are obtained in the effective-mass approximation by using an extended variational approach in which the magneto- exciton states are simultaneously obtained [1]. The allowed magneto-exciton transitions are investigated by using circularly polarized radiation in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. We present results on the excitonic absorption coefficient as a function of the photon energy for different geometric quantum-dot confinement and magnetic-field values. Reference: [1] Z. Barticevic, M. Pacheco, C. A. Duque and L. E. Oliveira, Phys. Rev. B 68, 073312 (2003).
Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling......) processes as well as energy-dependent lead couplings, and identify a mesoscopic Coulomb drag mechanism driven by nonlocal multi-electron cotunneling processes. Our theory establishes the conditions for a nonzero drag as well as the direction of the drag current in terms of microscopic system parameters...... on Coulomb drag in CQD systems....
Realization of electrically tunable single quantum dot nanocavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofbauer, Felix Florian Georg
2009-03-15
We investigated the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot-photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. We demonstrate that the quantum confined Stark effect can be employed to quickly and reversibly switch the dot-cavity coupling, simply by varying a gate voltage. Our results show that exciton transitions from individual dots can be tuned by up to {proportional_to}4 meV relative to the nanocavity mode, before the emission quenches due to carrier tunneling escape from the dots. We directly probe spontaneous emission, irreversible polariton decay and the statistics of the emitted photons from a single-dot nanocavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime and electrical control of zero dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the first time. The structures investigated are p-i-n photodiodes consisting of an 180nm thick free-standing GaAs membrane into which a two dimensional photonic crystal is formed by etching a triangular lattice of air holes. Low mode volume nanocavities (V{sub mode}<1.6 ({lambda}/n){sup 3}) are realized by omitting 3 holes in a line to form L3 cavities and a single layer of InGaAs self-assembled quantum dots is embedded into the midpoint of the membrane. The nanocavities are electrically contacted via 35 nm thick p- and n-doped contact layers in the GaAs membrane. In the weak coupling regime, time resolved spectroscopy reveals a {proportional_to}7 x shortening of the spontaneous emission lifetime as the dot is tuned through the nanocavity mode, due to the Purcell effect. Upon strongly detuning the same quantum dot transition from the nanocavity mode we observe an additional {proportional_to}8 x lengthening of the spontaneous emission lifetime. These observations unequivocally highlight two regimes of dot
Wang, Xing; Jiang, Subin; Huo, Xuejian; Xia, Rui; Muhire, Elisée; Gao, Meizhen
2018-05-01
In this article, mechanical grinding, an effortless and super-effective synthetic strategy, is used to successfully synthesize a TiO2 quantum dot (TiO2QD)/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) heterostructure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results together with transmission electron microscopy reveal the formation of the TiO2QD/g-C3N4 heterostructure with strong interfacial interaction. Because of the advantages of this characteristic, the prepared heterostructure exhibits excellent properties for photocatalytic wastewater treatment. Notably, the optimum photocatalytic activity of the TiO2QD/g-C3N4 heterostructure is nearly 3.4 times higher than that of the g-C3N4 nanosheets used for the photodegradation of rhodamine B pollutant. In addition, the stability and possible degradation mechanism of the TiO2QD/g-C3N4 heterojunction are studied in detail. This method may stimulate an effective approach to synthesizing QD-sensitized semiconductor materials and facilitate their application in environmental protection.
QCAD simulation and optimization of semiconductor double quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, Erik; Gao, Xujiao; Kalashnikova, Irina; Muller, Richard Partain; Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Young, Ralph Watson
2013-12-01
We present the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) simulator that targets modeling quantum devices, particularly silicon double quantum dots (DQDs) developed for quantum qubits. The simulator has three di erentiating features: (i) its core contains nonlinear Poisson, e ective mass Schrodinger, and Con guration Interaction solvers that have massively parallel capability for high simulation throughput, and can be run individually or combined self-consistently for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices; (ii) the core solvers show superior convergence even at near-zero-Kelvin temperatures, which is critical for modeling quantum computing devices; (iii) it couples with an optimization engine Dakota that enables optimization of gate voltages in DQDs for multiple desired targets. The Poisson solver includes Maxwell- Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics, supports Dirichlet, Neumann, interface charge, and Robin boundary conditions, and includes the e ect of dopant incomplete ionization. The solver has shown robust nonlinear convergence even in the milli-Kelvin temperature range, and has been extensively used to quickly obtain the semiclassical electrostatic potential in DQD devices. The self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solver has achieved robust and monotonic convergence behavior for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices at very low temperatures by using a predictor-correct iteration scheme. The QCAD simulator enables the calculation of dot-to-gate capacitances, and comparison with experiment and between solvers. It is observed that computed capacitances are in the right ballpark when compared to experiment, and quantum con nement increases capacitance when the number of electrons is xed in a quantum dot. In addition, the coupling of QCAD with Dakota allows to rapidly identify which device layouts are more likely leading to few-electron quantum dots. Very efficient QCAD simulations on a large number of fabricated and proposed Si DQDs have made it possible to provide fast feedback for design
Preparation of carbon quantum dots based high photostability luminescent membranes.
Zhao, Jinxing; Liu, Cui; Li, Yunchuan; Liang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jiyan; Qian, Tonghui; Ding, Jianjun; Cao, Yuan-Cheng
2017-06-01
Urethane acrylate (UA) was used to prepare carbon quantum dots (C-dots) luminescent membranes and the resultants were examined with FT-IR, mechanical strength, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and quantum yields (QYs). FT-IR results showed the polyurethane acrylate (PUA) prepolymer -C = C-vibration at 1101 cm -1 disappeared but there was strong vibration at1687cm -1 which was contributed from the-C = O groups in cross-linking PUA. Mechanical strength results showed that the different quantity of C-dots loadings and UV-curing time affect the strength. SEM observations on the cross-sections of the membranes are uniform and have no structural defects, which prove that the C-dots are compatible with the water-soluble PUA resin. The C-dot loading was increased from 0 to 1 g, the maximum tensile stress was nearly 2.67 MPa, but the tensile strain was decreased from 23.4% to 15.1% and 7.2% respectively. QYs results showed that the C-dots in the membrane were stable after 120 h continuous irradiation. Therefore, the C-dots photoluminescent film is the promising material for the flexible devices in the future applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fluorescent determination of graphene quantum dots in water samples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benítez-Martínez, Sandra; Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es
2015-10-08
This work presents a simple, fast and sensitive method for the preconcentration and quantification of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in aqueous samples. GQDs are considered an object of analysis (analyte) not an analytical tool which is the most frequent situation in Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. This approach is based on the preconcentration of graphene quantum dots on an anion exchange sorbent by solid phase extraction and their subsequent elution prior fluorimetric analysis of the solution containing graphene quantum dots. Parameters of the extraction procedure such as sample volume, type of solvent, sample pH, sample flow rate and elution conditions were investigated in order to achieve extraction efficiency. The limits of detection and quantification were 7.5 μg L{sup −1} and 25 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The precision for 200 μg L{sup −1}, expressed as %RSD, was 2.8%. Recoveries percentages between 86.9 and 103.9% were obtained for two different concentration levels. Interferences from other nanoparticles were studied and no significant changes were observed at the concentration levels tested. Consequently, the optimized procedure has great potential to be applied to the determination of graphene quantum dots at trace levels in drinking and environmental waters. - Highlights: • Development of a novel and simple method for determination of graphene quantum dots. • Preconcentration of graphene quantum dots by solid phase extraction. • Fluorescence spectroscopy allows fast measurements. • High sensitivity and great reproducibility are achieved.
Statistical Characterization of Dispersed Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Quantum Dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimizu, M; Moriyama, S; Suzuki, M; Fuse, T; Homma, Y; Ishibashi, K
2006-01-01
Quantum dots have been fabricated in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) simply by depositing metallic contacts on top of them. The fabricated quantum dots show different characteristics from sample to sample, which are even different in samples fabricated in the same chip. In this report, we study the statistical variations of the quantum dots fabricated with our method, and suggest their possible origin
Room-temperature dephasing in InAs/GaAs quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
1999-01-01
Summary form only given. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are receiving increasing attention for fundamental studies on zero-dimensional confinement and for device applications. Quantum-dot lasers are expected to show superior performances, like high material gain, low and temperature...... stacked layers of InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dots....
A triple quantum dot in a single-wall carbon nanotube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grove-Rasmussen, Kasper; Jørgensen, Henrik Ingerslev; Hayashi, T.
2008-01-01
A top-gated single-wall carbon nanotube is used to define three coupled quantum dots in series between two electrodes. The additional electron number on each quantum dot is controlled by top-gate voltages allowing for current measurements of single, double, and triple quantum dot stability diagrams...
Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment
Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.
2008-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…
Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit.
Kim, Dohun; Shi, Zhan; Simmons, C B; Ward, D R; Prance, J R; Koh, Teck Seng; Gamble, John King; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, Mark A
2014-07-03
The similarities between gated quantum dots and the transistors in modern microelectronics--in fabrication methods, physical structure and voltage scales for manipulation--have led to great interest in the development of quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor quantum dots. Although quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications, such as factoring. Furthermore, scalability and manufacturability are enhanced when qubits are as simple as possible. Previous work has increased the speed of spin qubit rotations by making use of integrated micromagnets, dynamic pumping of nuclear spins or the addition of a third quantum dot. Here we demonstrate a qubit that is a hybrid of spin and charge. It is simple, requiring neither nuclear-state preparation nor micromagnets. Unlike previous double-dot qubits, the hybrid qubit enables fast rotations about two axes of the Bloch sphere. We demonstrate full control on the Bloch sphere with π-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than any other double-dot qubit. The speed arises from the qubit's charge-like characteristics, and its spin-like features result in resistance to decoherence over a wide range of gate voltages. We achieve full process tomography in our electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dot qubit, extracting high fidelities of 85 per cent for X rotations (transitions between qubit states) and 94 per cent for Z rotations (phase accumulation between qubit states).
Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenny F. Chou
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Förster (or fluorescence resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting.
Förster Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dot Donors and Quantum Dot Acceptors
Chou, Kenny F.; Dennis, Allison M.
2015-01-01
Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer amongst semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is reviewed, with particular interest in biosensing applications. The unique optical properties of QDs provide certain advantages and also specific challenges with regards to sensor design, compared to other FRET systems. The brightness and photostability of QDs make them attractive for highly sensitive sensing and long-term, repetitive imaging applications, respectively, but the overlapping donor and acceptor excitation signals that arise when QDs serve as both the donor and acceptor lead to high background signals from direct excitation of the acceptor. The fundamentals of FRET within a nominally homogeneous QD population as well as energy transfer between two distinct colors of QDs are discussed. Examples of successful sensors are highlighted, as is cascading FRET, which can be used for solar harvesting. PMID:26057041
Graphene quantum dots, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and graphite nanocrystals in coals
Dong, Yongqiang; Lin, Jianpeng; Chen, Yingmei; Fu, Fengfu; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan
2014-06-01
Six coal samples of different ranks have been used to prepare single-layer graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). After chemical oxidation and a series of centrifugation separation, every coal could be treated into two fractions, namely, CoalA and CoalB. According to the characterization results of TEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR, CoalA was revealed to be mainly composed of S-GQDs, which have an average height of about 0.5 nm and an average plane dimension of about 10 nm. The obtained S-GQDs showed excitation-dependent fluorescence and excellent electrochemiluminescence. CoalB was found to be some other carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs), including agglomerated GQDs, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and agglomerated carbon nanocrystals. Generally, low-ranked coals might be more suitable for the preparation of S-GQDs. The production yield of S-GQDs from the six investigated coals decreased from 56.30% to 14.66% when the coal rank increased gradually. In contrast, high-ranked coals had high production yield of CoalB and might be more suitable for preparing other CNMs that were contained in CoalB, although those CNMs were difficult to separate from each other in our experiment.Six coal samples of different ranks have been used to prepare single-layer graphene quantum dots (S-GQDs). After chemical oxidation and a series of centrifugation separation, every coal could be treated into two fractions, namely, CoalA and CoalB. According to the characterization results of TEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR, CoalA was revealed to be mainly composed of S-GQDs, which have an average height of about 0.5 nm and an average plane dimension of about 10 nm. The obtained S-GQDs showed excitation-dependent fluorescence and excellent electrochemiluminescence. CoalB was found to be some other carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs), including agglomerated GQDs, graphene oxide, carbon quantum dots and agglomerated carbon nanocrystals. Generally, low-ranked coals might be more suitable for the preparation of
Design of Efficient Mirror Adder in Quantum- Dot Cellular Automata
Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Manju K.
2018-03-01
Lower power consumption is an essential demand for portable multimedia system using digital signal processing algorithms and architectures. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA) is a rising nano technology for the development of high performance ultra-dense low power digital circuits. QCA based several efficient binary and decimal arithmetic circuits are implemented, however important improvements are still possible. This paper demonstrate Mirror Adder circuit design in QCA. We present comparative study of mirror adder cells designed using conventional CMOS technique and mirror adder cells designed using quantum-dot cellular automata. QCA based mirror adders are better in terms of area by order of three.
Tunable Hybrid Qubit in a Triple Quantum Dot
Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Hu, Xuedong; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping
2017-12-01
We experimentally demonstrate quantum-coherent dynamics of a triple-dot-based multielectron hybrid qubit. Pulsed experiments show that this system can be conveniently initialized, controlled, measured electrically, and has a good ratio Q ˜29 between the coherence time and gate time. Furthermore, the current multielectron hybrid qubit has an operation frequency that is tunable in a wide range, from 2 to about 15 GHz. We also provide a qualitative understanding of the experimental observations by mapping them onto a three-electron system. The demonstration of the high tunability in a triple dot system could be potentially useful for future quantum control.
Laterally coupled circular quantum dots under applied electric field
Duque, C. M.; Correa, J. D.; Morales, A. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.
2016-03-01
The optical response of a system of two laterally coupled quantum dots with circular cross-sectional shape is investigated within the effective mass approximation, taking into account the effects of the change in the geometrical configuration, the application of an external static electric field, and the presence of a donor impurity center. The first-order dielectric susceptibility is calculated in order to derive the corresponding light absorption and relative refractive index coefficients. The possibility of tuning these optical properties by means of changes in the quantum dot symmetry and the electric field intensity is particularly discussed.
Overview of Stabilizing Ligands for Biocompatible Quantum Dot Nanocrystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aaron Clapp
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Luminescent colloidal quantum dots (QDs possess numerous advantages as fluorophores in biological applications. However, a principal challenge is how to retain the desirable optical properties of quantum dots in aqueous media while maintaining biocompatibility. Because QD photophysical properties are directly related to surface states, it is critical to control the surface chemistry that renders QDs biocompatible while maintaining electronic passivation. For more than a decade, investigators have used diverse strategies for altering the QD surface. This review summarizes the most successful approaches for preparing biocompatible QDs using various chemical ligands.
Landauer current and mutual information in a bosonic quantum dot
Shashikant Sable, Hrushikesh; Singh Bhakuni, Devendra; Sharma, Auditya
2018-02-01
We study the quantum transport of bosons through a quantum dot coupled to two macroscopic heat baths L and R, held at fixed temperatures TL and TR respectively. We manage to cast the particle as well as the heat current into the Landauer form. Following the correlation matrix approach, we compute the time-dependent mutual information of the dot with the baths. We find that mutual information goes logarithmically as the number of bosons, and at low temperatures, it is possible to set up the parameters in such a way that in steady-state, the mutual information goes quadratically as a function of current.
Quantum Dots: Proteomics characterization of the impact on biological systems
Pozzi-Mucelli, Stefano; Boschi, F.; Calderan, L.; Sbarbati, A.; Osculati, F.
2009-05-01
Over the past few years, Quantum Dots have been tested in most biotechnological applications that use fluorescence, including DNA array technology, immunofluorescence assays, cell and animal biology. Quantum Dots tend to be brighter than conventional dyes, because of the compounded effects of extinction coefficients that are an order of magnitude larger than those of most dyes. Their main advantage resides in their resistance to bleaching over long periods of time (minutes to hours), allowing the acquisition of images that are crisp and well contrasted. This increased photostability is especially useful for three-dimensional (3D) optical sectioning, where a major issue is bleaching of fluorophores during acquisition of successive z-sections, which compromises the correct reconstruction of 3D structures. The long-term stability and brightness of Quantum Dots make them ideal candidates also for live animal targeting and imaging. The vast majority of the papers published to date have shown no relevant effects on cells viability at the concentration used for imaging applications; higher concentrations, however, caused some issues on embryonic development. Adverse effects are due to be caused by the release of cadmium, as surface PEGylation of the Quantum Dots reduces these issues. A recently published paper shows evidences of an epigenetic effect of Quantum Dots treatment, with general histones hypoacetylation, and a translocation to the nucleus of p53. In this study, mice treated with Quantum Dots for imaging purposes were analyzed to investigate the impact on protein expression and networking. Differential mono-and bidimensional electrophoresis assays were performed, with the individuation of differentially expressed proteins after intravenous injection and imaging analysis; further, as several authors indicate an increase in reactive oxygen species as a possible mean of damage due to the Quantum Dots treatment, we investigated the signalling pathway of APE1/Ref1, a
Quantum Dots: Proteomics characterization of the impact on biological systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozzi-Mucelli, Stefano; Osculati, F; Boschi, F; Calderan, L; Sbarbati, A
2009-01-01
Over the past few years, Quantum Dots have been tested in most biotechnological applications that use fluorescence, including DNA array technology, immunofluorescence assays, cell and animal biology. Quantum Dots tend to be brighter than conventional dyes, because of the compounded effects of extinction coefficients that are an order of magnitude larger than those of most dyes. Their main advantage resides in their resistance to bleaching over long periods of time (minutes to hours), allowing the acquisition of images that are crisp and well contrasted. This increased photostability is especially useful for three-dimensional (3D) optical sectioning, where a major issue is bleaching of fluorophores during acquisition of successive z-sections, which compromises the correct reconstruction of 3D structures. The long-term stability and brightness of Quantum Dots make them ideal candidates also for live animal targeting and imaging. The vast majority of the papers published to date have shown no relevant effects on cells viability at the concentration used for imaging applications; higher concentrations, however, caused some issues on embryonic development. Adverse effects are due to be caused by the release of cadmium, as surface PEGylation of the Quantum Dots reduces these issues. A recently published paper shows evidences of an epigenetic effect of Quantum Dots treatment, with general histones hypoacetylation, and a translocation to the nucleus of p53. In this study, mice treated with Quantum Dots for imaging purposes were analyzed to investigate the impact on protein expression and networking. Differential mono-and bidimensional electrophoresis assays were performed, with the individuation of differentially expressed proteins after intravenous injection and imaging analysis; further, as several authors indicate an increase in reactive oxygen species as a possible mean of damage due to the Quantum Dots treatment, we investigated the signalling pathway of APE1/Ref1, a
Gain dynamics and saturation in semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2004-01-01
Quantum dot (QD)-based semiconductor optical amplifiers offer unique properties compared with conventional devices based on bulk or quantum well material. Due to the bandfilling properties of QDs and the existence of a nearby reservoir of carriers in the form of a wetting layer, QD semiconductor...... optical amplifiers may be operated in regimes of high linearity, i.e. with a high saturation power, but can also show strong and fast nonlinearities by breaking the equilibrium between discrete dot states and the continuum of wetting layer states. In this paper, we analyse the interplay of these two...
Resonant Scattering of Surface Plasmon Polaritons by Dressed Quantum Dots
2014-06-23
t rel d‘ jð Þ;1 Rsp ne1 nh1 ; (5) where Rsp is the spontaneous emission rate, which should be calculated by using the Kubo -Martin-Schwinger...and should be calculated by including carrier-carrier and carrier-(optical) phonon interac- tions. Moreover, we know from Eq. (5) that the total...inside a quantum dot. In our numerical calculations , we chose the quantum dot dimensions as 210 Å and 100 Å along the x and y direc- tions
Quantum Dot Nanobioelectronics and Selective Antimicrobial Redox Interventions
Goodman, Samuel Martin
The unique properties of nanomaterials have engendered a great deal of interest in applying them for applications ranging from solid state physics to bio-imaging. One class of nanomaterials, known collectively as quantum dots, are defined as semiconducting crystals which have a characteristic dimension smaller than the excitonic radius of the bulk material which leads to quantum confinement effects. In this size regime, excited charge carriers behave like prototypical particles in a box, with their energy levels defined by the dimensions of the constituent particle. This is the source of the tunable optical properties which have drawn a great deal of attention with regards to finding appropriate applications for these materials. This dissertation is divided into multiple sections grouped by the type of application explored. The first sectoin investigates the energetic interactions of physically-coupled quantum dots and DNA, with the goal of gaining insight into how self-assembled molecular wires can bridge the energetic states of physically separated nanocrystals. Chapter 1 begins with an introduction to the properties of quantum dots, the conductive properties of DNA, and the common characterization methods used to characterize materials on the nanoscale. In Chapter 2 scanning tunneling measurements of QD-DNA constructs on the single particle level are presented which show the tunable coupling between the two materials and their resulting hybrid electronic structure. This is expanded upon in Chapter 3 where the conduction of photogenerated charges in QD-DNA hybrid thin films are characterized, which exhibit different charge transfer pathways through the constituent nucleobases depending on the energy of the incident light and resulting electrons. Complementary investigations of energy transfer mediated through DNA are presented in Chapter 4, with confirmation of Dexter-like transfer being facilitated through the oligonucleotides. The second section quantifies the
Quantum-dot based nanothermometry in optical plasmonic recording media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maestro, Laura Martinez; Zhang, Qiming; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min; Jaque, Daniel
2014-01-01
We report on the direct experimental determination of the temperature increment caused by laser irradiation in a optical recording media constituted by a polymeric film in which gold nanorods have been incorporated. The incorporation of CdSe quantum dots in the recording media allowed for single beam thermal reading of the on-focus temperature from a simple analysis of the two-photon excited fluorescence of quantum dots. Experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations revealing an excellent agreement and opening a promising avenue for further understanding and optimization of optical writing processes and media
Modeling of the Interminiband Absorption Coefficient in InGaN Quantum Dot Superlattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Giannoccaro
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a model to estimate minibands and theinterminiband absorption coefficient for a wurtzite (WZ indium gallium nitride (InGaN self-assembled quantum dot superlattice (QDSL is developed. It considers a simplified cuboid shape for quantum dots (QDs. The semi-analytical investigation starts from evaluation through the three-dimensional (3D finite element method (FEM simulations of crystal mechanical deformation derived from heterostructure lattice mismatch under spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects. From these results, mean values in QDs and barrier regions of charge carriers’ electric potentials and effective masses for the conduction band (CB and three valence sub-bands for each direction are evaluated. For the minibands’ investigation, the single-particle time-independent Schrödinger equation in effective mass approximation is decoupled in three directions and resolved using the one-dimensional (1D Kronig–Penney model. The built-in electric field is also considered along the polar axis direction, obtaining Wannier–Stark ladders. Then, theinterminiband absorption coefficient in thermal equilibrium for transverse electric (TE and magnetic (TM incident light polarization is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule implementation based on a numerical integration into the first Brillouin zone. For more detailed results, an absorption coefficient component related to superlattice free excitons is also introduced. Finally, some simulation results, observations and comments are given.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu Y
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We present a systemic theoretical study of the electronic properties of the quantum dots inserted in quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs. The strain distribution of three different shaped quantum dots (QDs with a same ratio of the base to the vertical aspect is calculated by using the short-range valence-force-field (VFF approach. The calculated results show that the hydrostatic strain ɛHvaries little with change of the shape, while the biaxial strain ɛBchanges a lot for different shapes of QDs. The recursion method is used to calculate the energy levels of the bound states in QDs. Compared with the strain, the shape plays a key role in the difference of electronic bound energy levels. The numerical results show that the deference of bound energy levels of lenslike InAs QD matches well with the experimental results. Moreover, the pyramid-shaped QD has the greatest difference from the measured experimental data.
Complex dynamics in planar two-electron quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeter, Sebastian Josef Arthur
2013-01-01
Quantum dots play an important role in a wide range of recent experimental and technological developments. In particular they are promising candidates for realisations of quantum bits and further applications in quantum information theory. The harmonically confined Hooke's atom model is experimentally verified and separates in centre-of-mass and relative coordinates. Findings that are contradictory to this separability call for an extension of the model, in particular changing the confinement potential. In order to study effects of an anharmonic confinement potential on spectral properties of planar two-electron quantum dots a sophisticated numerical approach is developed. Comparison between the Helium atom, Hooke's atom and an anharmonic potential model are undertaken in order to improve the description of quantum dots. Classical and quantum features of complexity and chaos are investigated and used to characterise the dynamics of the system to be mixed regular-chaotic. Influence of decoherence can be described by quantum fidelity, which measures the effect of a perturbation on the time evolution. The quantum fidelity of eigenstates of the system depends strongly on the properties of the perturbation. Several methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented and a high level of accuracy for long time evolutions is achieved. The concept of offset entanglement, the entanglement of harmonic models in the noninteracting limit, is introduced. This concept explains different questions raised in the literature for harmonic quantum dot models, recently. It shows that only in the groundstate the electrons are not entangled in the fermionic sense. The applicability, validity, and origin of Hund's first rule in general quantum dot models is further addressed. In fact Hund's first rule is only applicable, and in this case also valid, for one pair of singlet and triplet states in Hooke's atom. For more realistic models of two-electron quantum dots an
Complex dynamics in planar two-electron quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeter, Sebastian Josef Arthur
2013-06-25
Quantum dots play an important role in a wide range of recent experimental and technological developments. In particular they are promising candidates for realisations of quantum bits and further applications in quantum information theory. The harmonically confined Hooke's atom model is experimentally verified and separates in centre-of-mass and relative coordinates. Findings that are contradictory to this separability call for an extension of the model, in particular changing the confinement potential. In order to study effects of an anharmonic confinement potential on spectral properties of planar two-electron quantum dots a sophisticated numerical approach is developed. Comparison between the Helium atom, Hooke's atom and an anharmonic potential model are undertaken in order to improve the description of quantum dots. Classical and quantum features of complexity and chaos are investigated and used to characterise the dynamics of the system to be mixed regular-chaotic. Influence of decoherence can be described by quantum fidelity, which measures the effect of a perturbation on the time evolution. The quantum fidelity of eigenstates of the system depends strongly on the properties of the perturbation. Several methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation are implemented and a high level of accuracy for long time evolutions is achieved. The concept of offset entanglement, the entanglement of harmonic models in the noninteracting limit, is introduced. This concept explains different questions raised in the literature for harmonic quantum dot models, recently. It shows that only in the groundstate the electrons are not entangled in the fermionic sense. The applicability, validity, and origin of Hund's first rule in general quantum dot models is further addressed. In fact Hund's first rule is only applicable, and in this case also valid, for one pair of singlet and triplet states in Hooke's atom. For more realistic models of two
Field-emission from quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.
García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Gong, Xiwen; Sabatini, Randy P; Liu, Min; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Sutherland, Brandon R; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Xu, Jixian; Pang, Yuangjie; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sinton, David; Sargent, Edward
2017-03-24
Quantum dot and well architectures are attractive for infrared optoelectronics, and have led to the realization of compelling light sensors. However, they require well-defined passivated interfaces and rapid charge transport, and this has restricted their efficient implementation to costly vacuum-epitaxially grown semiconductors. Here we report solution-processed, sensitive infrared field-emission photodetectors. Using quantum-dots-in-perovskite, we demonstrate the extraction of photocarriers via field emission, followed by the recirculation of photogenerated carriers. We use in operando ultrafast transient spectroscopy to sense bias-dependent photoemission and recapture in field-emission devices. The resultant photodiodes exploit the superior electronic transport properties of organometal halide perovskites, the quantum-size-tuned absorption of the colloidal quantum dots and their matched interface. These field-emission quantum-dot-in-perovskite photodiodes extend the perovskite response into the short-wavelength infrared and achieve measured specific detectivities that exceed 10 12 Jones. The results pave the way towards novel functional photonic devices with applications in photovoltaics and light emission.
Design strategy for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers.
Burnett, Benjamin A; Williams, Benjamin S
2016-10-31
The development of quantum dot cascade lasers has been proposed as a path to obtain terahertz semiconductor lasers that operate at room temperature. The expected benefit is due to the suppression of nonradiative electron-phonon scattering and reduced dephasing that accompanies discretization of the electronic energy spectrum. We present numerical modeling which predicts that simple scaling of conventional quantum well based designs to the quantum dot regime will likely fail due to electrical instability associated with high-field domain formation. A design strategy adapted for terahertz quantum dot cascade lasers is presented which avoids these problems. Counterintuitively, this involves the resonant depopulation of the laser's upper state with the LO-phonon energy. The strategy is tested theoretically using a density matrix model of transport and gain, which predicts sufficient gain for lasing at stable operating points. Finally, the effect of quantum dot size inhomogeneity on the optical lineshape is explored, suggesting that the design concept is robust to a moderate amount of statistical variation.
Perspective: The future of quantum dot photonic integrated circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin C. Norman
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Direct epitaxial integration of III-V materials on Si offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages over heterogeneous integration. The challenge is that epitaxial growth introduces high densities of crystalline defects that limit device performance and lifetime. Quantum dot lasers, amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors epitaxially grown on Si are showing promise for achieving low-cost, scalable integration with silicon photonics. The unique electrical confinement properties of quantum dots provide reduced sensitivity to the crystalline defects that result from III-V/Si growth, while their unique gain dynamics show promise for improved performance and new functionalities relative to their quantum well counterparts in many devices. Clear advantages for using quantum dot active layers for lasers and amplifiers on and off Si have already been demonstrated, and results for quantum dot based photodetectors and modulators look promising. Laser performance on Si is improving rapidly with continuous-wave threshold currents below 1 mA, injection efficiencies of 87%, and output powers of 175 mW at 20 °C. 1500-h reliability tests at 35 °C showed an extrapolated mean-time-to-failure of more than ten million hours. This represents a significant stride toward efficient, scalable, and reliable III-V lasers on on-axis Si substrates for photonic integrate circuits that are fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS foundries.
Perspective: The future of quantum dot photonic integrated circuits
Norman, Justin C.; Jung, Daehwan; Wan, Yating; Bowers, John E.
2018-03-01
Direct epitaxial integration of III-V materials on Si offers substantial manufacturing cost and scalability advantages over heterogeneous integration. The challenge is that epitaxial growth introduces high densities of crystalline defects that limit device performance and lifetime. Quantum dot lasers, amplifiers, modulators, and photodetectors epitaxially grown on Si are showing promise for achieving low-cost, scalable integration with silicon photonics. The unique electrical confinement properties of quantum dots provide reduced sensitivity to the crystalline defects that result from III-V/Si growth, while their unique gain dynamics show promise for improved performance and new functionalities relative to their quantum well counterparts in many devices. Clear advantages for using quantum dot active layers for lasers and amplifiers on and off Si have already been demonstrated, and results for quantum dot based photodetectors and modulators look promising. Laser performance on Si is improving rapidly with continuous-wave threshold currents below 1 mA, injection efficiencies of 87%, and output powers of 175 mW at 20 °C. 1500-h reliability tests at 35 °C showed an extrapolated mean-time-to-failure of more than ten million hours. This represents a significant stride toward efficient, scalable, and reliable III-V lasers on on-axis Si substrates for photonic integrate circuits that are fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries.
Shallow acceptors in strained Ge/Ge1-xSix heterostructures with quantum wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleshkin, V.Ya.; Andreev, B.A.; Gavrilenko, V.I.; Erofeeva, I.V.; Kozlov, D.V.; Kuznetsov, O.A.
2000-01-01
Dependence of acceptor localized state energies in quantum wells (strained layers of Ge in heterostructures Ge/Ge 1-x Si x ) on the width of quantum well and position in it was studied theoretically. Spectrum of impurity absorption in the far infrared range was calculated. Comparison of the results calculated and observed photoconductivity spectra permits estimating acceptor distribution over quantum well and suggesting conclusion that acceptors can be largely concentrated near heteroboundaries. Absorption spectrum was calculated bearing in mind resonance impurity states, which permits explaining the observed specific features in the photoconductivity spectrum short-wave range by transition to resonance energy levels, bound to upper subzones of dimensional quantization [ru
Interaction of Water-Soluble CdTe Quantum Dots with Bovine Serum Albumin
2011-01-01
Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) are promising fluorescent markers, but it is very little known about interaction of quantum dots with biological molecules. In this study, interaction of CdTe quantum dots coated with thioglycolic acid (TGA) with bovine serum albumin was investigated. Steady state spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods were used. It was explored how bovine serum albumin affects stability and spectral properties of quantum dots in aqueous media. CdTe–TGA quantum dots in aqueous solution appeared to be not stable and precipitated. Interaction with bovine serum albumin significantly enhanced stability and photoluminescence quantum yield of quantum dots and prevented quantum dots from aggregating. PMID:27502633
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, D; Hafenbrak, R; Joens, K D; Schulz, W-M; Eichfelder, M; Rossbach, R; Jetter, M; Michler, P
2010-01-01
To achieve a low density of optically active InP-quantum dots we used InGaAs islands embedded in GaAs as a seed layer. First, the structural InGaAs quantum dot properties and the influence of the annealing technique was investigated by atomic force microscope measurements. High-resolution micro-photoluminescence spectra reveal narrow photoluminescence lines, with linewidths down to 11 μeV and fine structure splittings of 25 μeV. Furthermore, using these InGaAs quantum dots as seed layer reduces the InP quantum dot density of optically active quantum dots drastically. InP quantum dot excitonic photoluminescence emission with a linewidth of 140 μeV has been observed.
Leon, R.; Swift, G.; Magness, B.; Taylor, W.; Tang, Y.; Wang, K.; Dowd, P.; Zhang, Y.
2000-01-01
Successful implementation of technology using self-forming semiconductor Quantum Dots (QDs) has already demonstrated that temperature independent Dirac-delta density of states can be exploited in low current threshold QD lasers and QD infrared photodetectors.
Electron-longitudinal-acoustic-phonon scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Peiji; Woolard, Dwight L.
2008-01-01
We propose a nanostructure design which can significantly suppress longitudinal-acoustic-phonon-electron scattering in double-quantum-dot based quantum gates for quantum computing. The calculated relaxation rates vs. bias voltage exhibit a double-peak feature with a minimum approaching 10 5 s -1 . In this matter, the energy conservation law prohibits scattering contributions from phonons with large momenta; furthermore, increasing the barrier height between the double quantum dots reduces coupling strength between the dots. Hence, the joint action of the energy conservation law and the decoupling greatly reduces the scattering rates. The degrading effects of temperatures can be reduced simply by increasing the height of the barrier between the dots
Magnetism at the Interface of Magnetic Oxide and Nonmagnetic Semiconductor Quantum Dots.
Saha, Avijit; Viswanatha, Ranjani
2017-03-28
Engineering interfaces specifically in quantum dot (QD) heterostructures provide several prospects for developing multifunctional building block materials. Precise control over internal structure by chemical synthesis offers a combination of different properties in QDs and allows us to study their fundamental properties, depending on their structure. Herein, we studied the interface of magnetic/nonmagnetic Fe 3 O 4 /CdS QD heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate the decrease in the size of the magnetic core due to annealing at high temperature by the decrease in saturation magnetization and blocking temperature. Furthermore, surprisingly, in a prominently optically active and magnetically inactive material such as CdS, we observe the presence of substantial exchange bias in spite of the nonmagnetic nature of CdS QDs. The presence of exchange bias was proven by the increase in magnetic anisotropy as well as the presence of exchange bias field (H E ) during the field-cooled magnetic measurements. This exchange coupling was eventually traced to the in situ formation of a thin antiferromagnetic FeS layer at the interface. This is verified by the study of Fe local structure using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, demonstrating the importance of interface engineering in QDs.
Optical levitation of microdroplet containing a single quantum dot
Minowa, Yosuke; Kawai, Ryoichi; Ashida, Masaaki
2014-01-01
We demonstrate the optical levitation or trapping in helium gas of a single quantum dot (QD) within a liquid droplet. Bright single photon emission from the levitated QD in the droplet was observed for more than 200 s. The observed photon count rates are consistent with the value theoretically estimated from the two-photon-action cross section. This paper presents the realization of an optically levitated solid-state quantum emitter. This paper was published in Optics Letters and is made avai...
Scalable Spin-Qubit Circuits with Quantum Dots
2006-12-31
Anisotropic Heisenberg Spin Rings” cond-mat/0608642. 13. Karyn Le Hur (Yale), Pascal Simon, and Daniel Loss, “Transport through a quantum dot with SU(4...Daniel Loss, “Nuclear spin state narrowing via gate--controlled Rabi oscillations in a double quantum dot” Phys. Rev. B 73, 205302 (2006). 27. Jörg...single spin read out (Delft), sqrt-of-swap (Harvard) and single spin Rabi oscillations. At the end of this program and based on our theoretical
Exciton trapping in interface defects/quantum dots in narrow quantum wells: magnetic-field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barticevic, Z.; Pacheco, M.; Duque, C.A.; Oliveira, L.E.
2003-01-01
The effects of applied magnetic fields on excitons trapped in quantum dots/interface defects in narrow GaAs/Ga 1-x Al x As quantum wells are studied within the effective-mass approximation. The magnetic fields are applied in the growth direction of the quantum wells, and exciton trapping is modeled through a quantum dot formed by monolayer fluctuations in the z-direction, together with lateral confinement via a truncated or infinite parabolic potential in the exciton in-plane coordinate. Theoretical results are found in overall agreement with available experimental measurements
Towards a feasible implementation of quantum neural networks using quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altaisky, Mikhail V.; Zolnikova, Nadezhda N.; Kaputkina, Natalia E.; Krylov, Victor A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.; Dattani, Nikesh S.
2016-01-01
We propose an implementation of quantum neural networks using an array of quantum dots with dipole-dipole interactions. We demonstrate that this implementation is both feasible and versatile by studying it within the framework of GaAs based quantum dot qubits coupled to a reservoir of acoustic phonons. Using numerically exact Feynman integral calculations, we have found that the quantum coherence in our neural networks survive for over a hundred ps even at liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K), which is three orders of magnitude higher than current implementations, which are based on SQUID-based systems operating at temperatures in the mK range.
Giant fifth-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triple quantum dots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Si-Cong Tian
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Schemes for giant fifth-order nonlinearity via tunneling in both linear and triangular triple quantum dots are proposed. In both configurations, the real part of the fifth-order nonlinearity can be greatly enhanced, and simultaneously the absorption is suppressed. The analytical expression and the dressed states of the system show that the two tunnelings between the neighboring quantum dots can induce quantum interference, resulting in the giant higher-order nonlinearity. The scheme proposed here may have important applications in quantum information processing at low light level.