WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantum crystals

  1. Spin waves in quantum crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratenko, P.S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper considers the spectrum of spin waves of a quantum magnetic crystal. It has been assumed that the crystal is characterized by gapless Fermi excitations. The properties of a single-particle Green function for a magnetic crystal are briefly outlined. The dispersion equation system describing the spin wave spectrum has been derived. The spectrum described by the equation system comprises a group of Goldstone modes and a family of spin waves of the zero sound type, associated with the group by an interaction. The maximum number of Goldstone modes in an antiferromagnet is three, whereas in a ferromagnet it is two. At frequencies higher than the characteristic frequencies of magnetic interactions, in an antiferromagnet all three modes have a linear spectrum, whereas in a ferromagnet the longitudinal mode is represented by a linear spectrum and the transverse mode, by a quadratic one. The dynamical susceptibility of a magnetically ordered crystal has been calculated. The thermodynamical potential of the crystal has been proved to vary as a function of the angular crystal orientation in a spin subspace. The results have been obtained by methods of the quantum field theory for the case of zero temperature

  2. Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollner, Immo Nathanael

    This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... with numerical simulations. Such a high coupling eciency implies that the system can be considered an articial 1D-atom, and we theoretically show that this system can generate strong photon-photon interaction, which is an essential functionality for deterministic optical quantum information processing. We...

  3. Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations...... in the local density of states (LDOS) in PhC waveguides. From decay rate measurements on quantum dot lines temperature tuned in the vicinity of the waveguide band edge, a β-factor for a single quantum dot of more then 85% has been extracted. Finite difference time domain simulations (FDTD) for disordered Ph...... is shown to increase from 3 − 7 um for no intentional disorder to 25 um for 6% disorder. A distribution of losses is seen to be necessary to explain the measured Q-factor distributions. Finally we have performed a cavity QED experiment between single quantum dots and an Anderson localized mode, where a β...

  4. Absence of Quantum Time Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Haruki; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2015-06-26

    In analogy with crystalline solids around us, Wilczek recently proposed the idea of "time crystals" as phases that spontaneously break the continuous time translation into a discrete subgroup. The proposal stimulated further studies and vigorous debates whether it can be realized in a physical system. However, a precise definition of the time crystal is needed to resolve the issue. Here we first present a definition of time crystals based on the time-dependent correlation functions of the order parameter. We then prove a no-go theorem that rules out the possibility of time crystals defined as such, in the ground state or in the canonical ensemble of a general Hamiltonian, which consists of not-too-long-range interactions.

  5. Nonlinear and quantum optics with liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukishova, Svetlana G

    2014-01-01

    Thermotropic liquid crystals' usual application is display technology. This paper describes experiments on light interaction with pure and doped liquid crystals under for these materials unconventional incident light powers: (1) under high-power laser irradiation, and (2) at the single-photon level. In (1), I will outline several nonlinear optical effects under high-power, nanosecond laser irradiation which should be taken into account in the design of lasers with liquid crystal components and in fabrication of optical power limiters based on liquid crystals: (1.1) athermal helical pitch dilation and unwinding of cholesteric mirrors (both in free space and inside laser resonators); (1.2) some pitfalls in measurements of refractive nonlinearity using z-scan technique under two-photon or linear absorption of liquids; (1.3) the first observation of thermal lens effects in liquid crystals under several-nanosecond, low-pulse-repetition rate (2-10 Hz) laser irradiation in the presence of two-photon absorption; (1.4) feedback-free kaleidoscope of patterns (hexagons, stripes, etc.) in dye-doped liquid crystals. In (2), at the single-photon level, it will be shown that with a proper selection of liquid crystals and a single-emitter dopant spectral range, liquid crystal structures can be used to control emitted single photons (both polarization and count rate). The application of the latter research is absolutely secure quantum communication with polarization coding of information. In particular, in (2.1), definite handedness, circular polarized cholesteric microcavity resonance in quantum dot fluorescence is reported. In (2.2), definite linear polarization of single (antibunched) photons from single-dye-molecules in planar-aligned nematic host is discussed. In (2.3), some results on photon antibunching from NV-color center in nanodiamond in liquid crystal host and circularly polarized fluorescence of definite handedness from nanocrystals doped with trivalent ions of

  6. Thulium doped crystals for quantum information storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauro, R., E-mail: romain.lauro@lac.u-psud.f [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS-UPR 3321, Univ Paris Sud, Batiment 505, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Ruggiero, J.; Louchet, A.; Alexander, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Lorgere, I.; Bretenaker, F.; Goldfarb, F.; Le Gouet, J.-L. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS-UPR 3321, Univ Paris Sud, Batiment 505, 91405 Orsay cedex (France)

    2009-12-15

    Optically driving nuclear spin waves in a Tm:YAG crystal, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of a three-level {Lambda} system in this material, which is a foundation step in the prospect of quantum memory investigations. Varying the spin state splitting with an external magnetic field, we show that the nuclear spin coherence lifetime remains close to 350mus over a wide range of variation of this splitting. Finally, we demonstrate fast coherent population transfer between the spin states.

  7. Fractional decay of quantum dots in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, Femius; Lodahl, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses.......We define a practical measure for the degree of fractional decay and establish conditions for the effect to be observable for quantum dots in photonic crystals exhibiting absorptive losses....

  8. Quantum simulation and quantum information processing with molecular dipolar crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortner, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis interactions between dipolar crystals and neutral atoms or separated molecules have been investigated. They were motivated to realize new kinds of lattice models in mixtures of atoms and polar molecules where an MDC functions as an underlying periodic lattice structure for the second species. Such models bring out the peculiar features of MDC's, that include a controllable, potentially sub-optical wavelength periodicity and strong particle phonon interactions. Only stable collisional configurations have been investigated, excluding chemical reactions between the substituents, and crystal distortions beyond the scope of perturbation theory. The system was treated in the polaron picture where particles of the second species are dressed by surrounding crystal phonons. To describe the competition between coherent and incoherent dynamics of the polarons, a master equation in the Brownian motion limit was used with phonons treated as a thermal heat bath. It was shown analytically that in a wide range of realistic parameters the corrections to the coherent time evolution are small, and that the dynamics of the dressed particles can be described by an effective extended Hubbard model with controllable system parameters. The last chapter of this thesis contains a proposal for QIP with cold polar molecules that, in contrast to previous works, uses an MDC as a quantum register. It was motivated by the unique features of dipolar molecules and to exploit the peculiar physical conditions in dipolar crystals. In this proposal the molecular dipole moments were tailored by non-local fields to include a small, switchable, state-dependent dipole moment in addition to the large internal state independent moment that stabilizes the crystal. It was shown analytically that a controllable, non-trivial phonon-mediated interaction can be generated that exceeds non-trivial, direct dipole-dipole couplings. The addressability problem due to high crystal densities was overcome by

  9. Fractional decay of quantum dots in real photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Koenderink, A. Femius; Lodahl, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We show that fractional decay may be observable in experiments using quantum dots and photonic crystals with parameters that are currently achievable. We focus on the case of inverse opal photonic crystals and locate the position in the crystal where the effect is most pronounced. Furthermore, we...

  10. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure

  11. Simulation and understanding of atomic and molecular quantum crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Claudio; Boronat, Jordi

    2017-07-01

    Quantum crystals abound in the whole range of solid-state species. Below a certain threshold temperature the physical behavior of rare gases (He 4 and Ne), molecular solids (H2 and CH4 ), and some ionic (LiH), covalent (graphite), and metallic (Li) crystals can be explained only in terms of quantum nuclear effects (QNE). A detailed comprehension of the nature of quantum solids is critical for achieving progress in a number of fundamental and applied scientific fields such as planetary sciences, hydrogen storage, nuclear energy, quantum computing, and nanoelectronics. This review describes the current physical understanding of quantum crystals formed by atoms and small molecules, as well as the wide palette of simulation techniques that are used to investigate them. Relevant aspects in these materials such as phase transformations, structural properties, elasticity, crystalline defects, and the effects of reduced dimensionality are discussed thoroughly. An introduction to quantum Monte Carlo techniques, which in the present context are the simulation methods of choice, and other quantum simulation approaches (e.g., path-integral molecular dynamics and quantum thermal baths) is provided. The overarching objective of this article is twofold: first, to clarify in which crystals and physical situations the disregard of QNE may incur in important bias and erroneous interpretations. And second, to promote the study and appreciation of QNE, a topic that traditionally has been treated in the context of condensed matter physics, within the broad and interdisciplinary areas of materials science.

  12. Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Dots in Photonic-Crystal Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg

    deviations. Similar measurements on a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity sow a Rabi splitting on resonance, while time-resolved measurements prove that the system is in the weak coupling regime. Whle tuning the quantum dot through resonance of the high-Q mode we observe a strong and surprisingly...

  13. Quantum effects for particles channeling in a bent crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feranchuk, Ilya, E-mail: iferanchuk@gmail.com [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Str., Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Str., Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosty Ave., 220030 Minsk (Belarus); San, Nguyen Quang [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosty Ave., 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2016-09-15

    Quantum mechanical theory for channeling of the relativistic charged particles in the bent crystals is considered in the paper. Quantum effects of under-barrier tunneling are essential when the radius of the curvature is closed to its critical value. In this case the wave functions of the quasi-stationary states corresponding to the particles captured in a channel are presented in the analytical form. The efficiency of channeling of the particles and their angular distribution at the exit crystal surface are calculated. Characteristic experimental parameters for observation the quantum effects are estimated.

  14. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc......-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...

  15. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-10-11

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  16. Slow light in quantum dot photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of pulse propagation in a semiconductor quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency is presented. The slow light mechanism considered here is based on both material and waveguide dispersion. The group index n...

  17. Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jöns, Klaus D; Zieliński, Michal

    2016-01-01

    . We notice that the emission spectra consist often of two peaks close in energy, which we explain with a comprehensive theory showing that the symmetry of the system plays a crucial role for the hole levels forming hybridized orbitals. Our results state that crystal phase quantum dots have promising...

  18. Site-controlled quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigal, B.; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Jarlov, C.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate selective optical coupling of multiple, site controlled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) to photonic crystal waveguide structures. The impact of the exact position and emission spectrum of the QDs on the coupling efficiency is elucidated. The influence of optical disorder and end-r...

  19. Quantum Dot/Liquid Crystal Nanocomposites in Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Rodarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot/liquid crystal nano-composites are promising new materials for a variety of applications in energy harvesting, displays and photonics including the liquid crystal laser. To realize many applications, however, we need to control and stabilize nano-particle dispersion in different liquid crystal host phases and understand how the particles behave in an anisotropic fluid. An ideal system will allow for the controlled assembly of either well-defined nano-particle clusters or a uniform particle distribution. In this paper, we investigate mesogen-functionalized quantum dots for dispersion in cholesteric liquid crystal. These nanoparticles are known to assemble into dense stable packings in the nematic phase, and such structures, when localized in the liquid crystal defects, can potentially enhance the coupling between particles and a cholesteric cavity. Controlling the dispersion and assembly of quantum dots using mesogenic surface ligands, we demonstrate how resonant fluid photonic cavities can result from the co-assembly of luminescent nanoparticles in the presence of cholesteric liquid crystalline ordering.

  20. A quantum optical transistor with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-02-04

    Laser and strong coupling can coexist in a single quantum dot (QD) coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity. This provides an important clue towards the realization of a quantum optical transistor. Using experimentally realistic parameters, in this work, theoretical analysis shows that such a quantum optical transistor can be switched on or off by turning on or off the pump laser, which corresponds to attenuation or amplification of the probe laser, respectively. Furthermore, based on this quantum optical transistor, an all-optical measurement of the vacuum Rabi splitting is also presented. The idea of associating a quantum optical transistor with this coupled QD-nanocavity system may achieve images of light controlling light in all-optical logic circuits and quantum computers.

  1. A quantum optical transistor with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinjin; Zhu Kadi

    2011-01-01

    Laser and strong coupling can coexist in a single quantum dot (QD) coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity. This provides an important clue towards the realization of a quantum optical transistor. Using experimentally realistic parameters, in this work, theoretical analysis shows that such a quantum optical transistor can be switched on or off by turning on or off the pump laser, which corresponds to attenuation or amplification of the probe laser, respectively. Furthermore, based on this quantum optical transistor, an all-optical measurement of the vacuum Rabi splitting is also presented. The idea of associating a quantum optical transistor with this coupled QD-nanocavity system may achieve images of light controlling light in all-optical logic circuits and quantum computers.

  2. Light crystals for ultracold quantum degenerate bosonic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimondo, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text follows. The experimental realization of quantum degenerate states in ultracold atomic gases has opened the possibility to realize few body systems isolated from external perturbations and at temperatures close to absolute zero. Under these conditions counterintuitive phenomena characteristic of the quantum mechanical evolution may be assessed experimentally. Matter quantum-mechanical waves inside periodic potentials investigated in solid-state physics, where electrons propagate within a crystal lattice. Interfering laser beams create a light-induced spatial periodic potential for ultracold atoms called an 'optical lattice'. Atoms hopping between the lattice periodic potential minima emulate the motion of electrons in a crystal. The creation of one-, two-, and three-dimensional periodic structures in which atoms can be trapped and accelerated, with the possibility of switching or modulating the lattice at will, gives a great flexibility. In addition atomic physicists can tune the lattice's geometry, the rate of hopping, and the push and pull between atoms within the light crystals. So they hope to map the various behaviors of solid-state models. On the basis of the research work performed at Pisa, several processes of quantum mechanics evolution within a spatial periodic potential and associated to the solid-state physics will be presented

  3. Tailoring quantum structures for active photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Nadezda

    demonstrated various trench profiles along the [0-1-1] and [0-11] crystallographic directions. Selectively grown InGaAs/InP quantum wells (QWs) possessed distinct geometrical and optical properties in the cases of directly grown InGaAs and when an InP buffer was deposited underneath. The fabrication process...... consumption for on-chip and chip-to-chip optical communication. In order to develop metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial selective area etching and growth, a mask was fabricated in the HSQ e-beam resist including optimization of exposure and development conditions. By use of CBr4 as an etchant, in situ etching...

  4. Quantum Chemistry of Solids LCAO Treatment of Crystals and Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Evarestov, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Quantum Chemistry of Solids delivers a comprehensive account of the main features and possibilities of LCAO methods for the first principles calculations of electronic structure of periodic systems. The first part describes the basic theory underlying the LCAO methods  applied to periodic systems and the use of Hartree-Fock(HF), Density Function theory(DFT) and hybrid Hamiltonians. The translation and site symmetry consideration is included to establish connection between k-space solid –state physics and real-space quantum chemistry. The inclusion of electron correlation effects for periodic systems is considered on the basis of localized crystalline orbitals. The possibilities of LCAO methods for chemical bonding analysis in periodic systems are discussed. The second part deals with the applications of LCAO methods  for calculations of bulk crystal properties, including magnetic ordering and crystal structure optimization.  In the second edition two new chapters are added in the application part II of t...

  5. Quantum concept of the rearrangement of a crystal lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureev, M.D.; Mednikov, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    Using quantum considerations based on the concept of lattice rearrangement waves, we carried out an analysis of processes of rearrangement of a crystal lattice occurring on a moving front (interface) of crystal rearrangement. For the introduction and quantization of these waves we use the method of acoustomechanical analogy and the Sommerfeld quantum conditions. We calculate the energies and the propagation velocities of the lattice rearrangement waves. Along with quanta having a certain momentum, quanta that have a certain angular momentum are introduced into consideration. On the basis of the concepts developed, we suggest a new expression for calculating the probability of thermofluctuational processes in a crystal. We perform a numerical analysis of the rate of growth of the γ-phase in iron in the process of α-γ-conversion. Satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. We discuss the limitations and prospects of further development of the concept suggested. For direct experimental verification of the concept we propose to investigate the diffraction of electrons and other particles on the lattice rearrangement waves, i.e., in the process of phase conversions or disintegration of crystals

  6. Pinning mode of integer quantum Hall Wigner crystal of skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Han; Sambandamurthy, G.; Chen, Y. P.; Jiang, P.-H.; Engel, L. W.; Tsui, D. C.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2009-03-01

    Just away from integer Landau level (LL) filling factors ν, the dilute quasi-particles/holes at the partially filled LL form an integer-quantum-Hall Wigner crystal, which exhibits microwave pinning mode resonances [1]. Due to electron-electron interaction, it was predicted that the elementary excitation around ν= 1 is not a single spin flip, but a larger-scale spin texture, known as a skyrmion [2]. We have compared the pinning mode resonances [1] of integer quantum Hall Wigner crystals formed in the partly filled LL just away from ν= 1 and ν= 2, in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. As an in-plane field is applied, the peak frequencies of the resonances near ν= 1 increase, while the peak frequencies below ν= 2 show neligible dependence on in-plane field. We interpret this observation as due to a skyrmion crystal phase around ν= 1 and a single-hole Wigner crystal phase below ν= 2. The in-plane field increases the Zeeman gap and causes shrinking of the skyrmion size toward single spin flips. [1] Yong P. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016801 (2003). [2] S. L. Sondhi et al., Phys. Rev. B 47, 16 419 (1993); L. Brey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2562 (1995).

  7. Experimental realization of highly efficient broadband coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We present time-resolved spontaneous emission measurements of single quantum dots embedded in photonic crystal waveguides. Quantum dots that couple to a photonic crystal waveguide are found to decay up to 27 times faster than uncoupled quantum dots. From these measurements -factors of up to 0.89 ...... taking into account that the light-matter coupling is strongly enhanced due to the significant slow-down of light in the photonic crystal waveguides....

  8. Mixing effects in the crystallization of supercooled quantum binary liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühnel, M.; Kalinin, A.; Fernández, J. M.; Tejeda, G.; Moreno, E.; Montero, S.; Tramonto, F.; Galli, D. E.; Nava, M.; Grisenti, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    By means of Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets, we have investigated the crystallization process of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures composed of parahydrogen (pH 2 ) or orthodeuterium (oD 2 ) diluted with small amounts of neon. We show that the introduction of the Ne impurities affects the crystallization kinetics in terms of a significant reduction of the measured pH 2 and oD 2 crystal growth rates, similarly to what found in our previous work on supercooled pH 2 -oD 2 liquid mixtures [Kühnel et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 180201(R) (2014)]. Our experimental results, in combination with path-integral simulations of the supercooled liquid mixtures, suggest in particular a correlation between the measured growth rates and the ratio of the effective particle sizes originating from quantum delocalization effects. We further show that the crystalline structure of the mixtures is also affected to a large extent by the presence of the Ne impurities, which likely initiate the freezing process through the formation of Ne-rich crystallites

  9. Mixing effects in the crystallization of supercooled quantum binary liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühnel, M.; Kalinin, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fernández, J. M.; Tejeda, G.; Moreno, E.; Montero, S. [Laboratory of Molecular Fluid Dynamics, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Tramonto, F.; Galli, D. E. [Laboratorio di Calcolo Parallelo e di Simulazioni di Materia Condensata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nava, M. [Laboratorio di Calcolo Parallelo e di Simulazioni di Materia Condensata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Computational Science, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI Campus, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Grisenti, R. E. [Institut für Kernphysik, J. W. Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI - Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-08-14

    By means of Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets, we have investigated the crystallization process of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures composed of parahydrogen (pH{sub 2}) or orthodeuterium (oD{sub 2}) diluted with small amounts of neon. We show that the introduction of the Ne impurities affects the crystallization kinetics in terms of a significant reduction of the measured pH{sub 2} and oD{sub 2} crystal growth rates, similarly to what found in our previous work on supercooled pH{sub 2}-oD{sub 2} liquid mixtures [Kühnel et al., Phys. Rev. B 89, 180201(R) (2014)]. Our experimental results, in combination with path-integral simulations of the supercooled liquid mixtures, suggest in particular a correlation between the measured growth rates and the ratio of the effective particle sizes originating from quantum delocalization effects. We further show that the crystalline structure of the mixtures is also affected to a large extent by the presence of the Ne impurities, which likely initiate the freezing process through the formation of Ne-rich crystallites.

  10. Photon control of phonons in mixed crystal quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingale, Alka

    2003-12-15

    Coherent phonon oscillations in solids can be excited impulsively by a single femtosecond laser pulse whose duration is shorter than a phonon period. In the impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) experiment, scattering of probe is monitored as a function of time with respect to pump to generate time domain spectra of coherent phonons. In this paper, we present one such study of CdSe{sub 0.68}Te{sub 0.32} (d{approx}80 A) quantum dots in glass matrix, i.e semiconductor-doped glass (SDG) RG780 from Schott, USA and the experiment was performed at Prof. Merlin's laboratory at the University of Michigan, USA. Here, we present first report of selectively driving only CdSe-like modes in these mixed crystal quantum dots using photon control with two pump beams.

  11. Spontaneous emission of quantum dots in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We report on the enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of single semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide with engineered disorder. Random high-Q cavities, that are signature of Anderson localization, are measured in photoluminescence experiments and appear...... in the slow light regime of the waveguide mode. Time resolved experiments show a 15-fold enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate, with coupling efficiencies of single photons into Anderson localized cavity modes of 94%. These results show that the performances of Anderson-localized cavities...

  12. Crystal orientation effects on wurtzite quantum well electromechanical fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    in the literature for semiconductors, is inaccurate for ZnO/MgZnO heterostructures where shear-strain components play an important role. An interesting observation is that a growth direction apart from [1̅ 21̅ 0] exists for which the electric field in the quantum well region becomes zero. This is important for, e......A one-dimensional continuum model for calculating strain and electric field in wurtzite semiconductor heterostructures with arbitrary crystal orientation is presented and applied to GaN/AlGaN and ZnO/MgZnO heterostructure combinations. The model is self-consistent involving feedback couplings...... of spontaneous polarization, strain, and electric field. Significant differences between fully coupled and semicoupled models are found for the longitudinal and shear-strain components as a function of the crystal-growth direction. In particular, we find that the semicoupled model, typically used...

  13. Crystal habit dependent quantum confined photoluminescence of zinc oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, Ian Harvey J.; Payawan, Leon Jr. M.; Sarmago, Roland V.

    2008-01-01

    Diverse zinc oxide crystal habits namely wire, rods, tubes, whiskers and tetrapods were synthesized via hydrothermal and carbothermal reduction routes. A vapor current induced regionalization in the carbothermal synthesis lead to the isolation of these crystal habits for characterization. The surface morphology of the nanostructures was analyzed via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The morphology and crystallinity of the as-synthesized nanostructure architectural motifs were related to their photoluminescence (PL). The photoluminescence at 157 nm was taken using F2 excimer laser and a crystal habit dependent response was observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were conducted to deduce the degree of crystallinity showing results consistent with the excitonic emission at the band edge and visible emission at the electron-hole recombination sites. The presence of minimal crystal defects which gave the green emission was supported by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) data. Transmission spectroscopy for the tetrapods exhibited an interesting PL reduction associated with high-energy deep traps in the nanostructures. Furthermore, some intensity dependent characteristics were deduced indicating quantum confined properties of these nano structures. (author)

  14. The Study of Quantum Interference in Metallic Photonic Crystals Doped with Four-Level Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatef Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, the absorption coefficient of a metallic photonic crystal doped with nanoparticles has been obtained using numerical simulation techniques. The effects of quantum interference and the concentration of doped particles on the absorption coefficient of the system have been investigated. The nanoparticles have been considered as semiconductor quantum dots which behave as a four-level quantum system and are driven by a single coherent laser field. The results show that changing the position of the photonic band gap about the resonant energy of the two lower levels directly affects the decay rate, and the system can be switched between transparent and opaque states if the probe laser field is tuned to the resonance frequency. These results provide an application for metallic nanostructures in the fabrication of new optical switches and photonic devices.

  15. On the crystal structure of colloidally prepared CsPbBr3 quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Patrick; Brutchey, Richard L

    2016-04-18

    Colloidally synthesized quantum dots of CsPbBr3 are highly promising for light-emitting applications. Previous reports based on benchtop diffraction conflict as to the crystal structure of CsPbBr3 quantum dots. We present X-ray diffraction and PDF analysis of X-ray total scattering data that indicate that the crystal structure is unequivocally orthorhombic (Pnma).

  16. Nematic quantum liquid crystals of bosons in frustrated lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanyu; Koch, Jens; Martin, Ivar

    2016-04-01

    The problem of interacting bosons in frustrated lattices is an intricate one due to the absence of a unique minimum in the single-particle dispersion where macroscopic number of bosons can condense. Here, we consider a family of tight-binding models with macroscopically degenerate lowest energy bands, separated from other bands by a gap. We predict the formation of exotic states that spontaneously break rotational symmetry at relatively low filling. These states belong to three nematic phases: Wigner crystal, supersolid, and superfluid. The Wigner crystal phase is established exactly at low filling. Supersolid and superfluid phases, at larger filling, are obtained by making use of a projection onto the flat band, construction of an appropriate Wannier basis, and subsequent mean-field treatment. The nematic superfluid that we predict is uniform in real space but has an anisotropic momentum distribution, providing a novel scenario for Bose condensation with an additional nematic order. Our findings open up a promising direction of studying microscopic quantum liquid crystalline phases of bosons.

  17. Enhanced Gain in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides with Embedded Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide slabs. These are promising results for future compact devices for terabit/s communication, such as compact optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers.......We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum dot photonic crystal waveguide slabs. These are promising results for future compact devices for terabit/s communication, such as compact optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers....

  18. Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference, Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects for Optical Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-26

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0003 TR-2016-0003 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTRONIC QUANTUM INTERFERENCE , PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITY, PHOTONIC BAND...EDGE EFFECTS FOR OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION Shawn-Yu Lin Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 8th Street Troy, New York 12180 26 Jan 2016 Final Report...2014 – 11 Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experimental Study of Electronic Quantum Interference , Photonic Crystal Cavity, Photonic Band Edge Effects

  19. Statistics of decay dynamics of quantum emitters in disordered photonic-crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa; Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David; Sapienza, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the spontaneous emission of quantum dots coupled to Anderson-localized cavities in disordered photonic-crystal waveguides.We observe an average Purcell factor of ∼ 5 with a maximum value of 24.......We present a statistical analysis of the spontaneous emission of quantum dots coupled to Anderson-localized cavities in disordered photonic-crystal waveguides.We observe an average Purcell factor of ∼ 5 with a maximum value of 24....

  20. Voltage-Controlled Quantum Dynamics and Generation Entanglement between Two Separated Quantum-Dot Molecules Embedded in Photonic Crystal Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Mu-Tian; Song Yan-Yan; Ma Xiao-San; Wang Xia

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-controlled quantum dynamics of two quantum-dot molecules (QDMs) embedded in two separated photonic crystal cavities are theoretically investigated. We show numerically that generation of entangled states and population transfer between the two QDMs can be realized with the same coupling parameters. The effects of parameters deviation and dissipations on generation entangled states and populations transfer are also discussed. The results may be used for realization of new-type of solid state quantum devices and integrated electro-optical devices

  1. Dual gauge field theory of quantum liquid crystals in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beekman, Aron J.; Nissinen, Jaakko; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The dislocation-mediated quantum melting of solids into quantum liquid crystals is extended from two to three spatial dimensions, using a generalization of boson-vortex or Abelian-Higgs duality. Dislocations are now Burgers-vector-valued strings that trace out worldsheets in space-time while the phonons of the solid dualize into two-form (Kalb-Ramond) gauge fields. We propose an effective dual Higgs potential that allows for restoring translational symmetry in either one, two, or three directions, leading to the quantum analogues of columnar, smectic, or nematic liquid crystals. In these phases, transverse phonons turn into gapped, propagating modes, while compressional stress remains massless. Rotational Goldstone modes emerge whenever translational symmetry is restored. Lastly, we also consider the effective electromagnetic response of electrically charged quantum liquid crystals, and find among other things that as a hard principle only two out of the possible three rotational Goldstone modes are observable using propagating electromagnetic fields.

  2. Dual gauge field theory of quantum liquid crystals in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Aron J.; Nissinen, Jaakko; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The dislocation-mediated quantum melting of solids into quantum liquid crystals is extended from two to three spatial dimensions, using a generalization of boson-vortex or Abelian-Higgs duality. Dislocations are now Burgers-vector-valued strings that trace out worldsheets in space-time while the phonons of the solid dualize into two-form (Kalb-Ramond) gauge fields. We propose an effective dual Higgs potential that allows for restoring translational symmetry in either one, two, or three directions, leading to the quantum analogues of columnar, smectic, or nematic liquid crystals. In these phases, transverse phonons turn into gapped, propagating modes, while compressional stress remains massless. Rotational Goldstone modes emerge whenever translational symmetry is restored. We also consider the effective electromagnetic response of electrically charged quantum liquid crystals, and find among other things that as a hard principle only two out of the possible three rotational Goldstone modes are observable using propagating electromagnetic fields.

  3. Increased fluorescence of PbS quantum dots in photonic crystals by excitation enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Carlo; Roder, Sebastian; Brodoceanu, Daniel; Kraus, Tobias; Hammerschmidt, Martin; Burger, Sven; Becker, Christiane

    2017-07-01

    We report on the enhanced fluorescence of lead sulfide quantum dots interacting with leaky modes of slab-type silicon photonic crystals. The photonic crystal slabs were fabricated, supporting leaky modes in the near infrared wavelength range. Lead sulfite quantum dots which are resonant in the same spectral range were prepared in a thin layer above the slab. We selectively excited the leaky modes by tuning the wavelength and angle of incidence of the laser source and measured distinct resonances of enhanced fluorescence. By an appropriate experiment design, we ruled out directional light extraction effects and determined the impact of enhanced excitation. Three-dimensional numerical simulations consistently explain the experimental findings by strong near-field enhancements in the vicinity of the photonic crystal surface. Our study provides a basis for systematic tailoring of photonic crystals used in biological applications such as biosensing and single molecule detection, as well as quantum dot solar cells and spectral conversion applications.

  4. Landau-Zener tunneling with many-body quantum effects in crystals of molecular magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Li-Bin; Chen, Shi-Gang; Hu, Bambi

    2004-01-01

    We present a quantum interpretation of the heights in hysteresis of $Fe_{8}$ molecule at lower temperatures by treating the crystal as an Ising spin system with the dipolar interaction between spins. Then we apply it to two limit cases : rapid and adiabatic regions. Our theoretical analysis is in agreement with the experimental observation in these regions, which indicates that the steps in hysteresis loops of magnetization of Fe$_{8}$ at lower temperatures show a pure quantum process.

  5. Optical simulation of quantum algorithms using programmable liquid-crystal displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puentes, Graciana; La Mela, Cecilia; Ledesma, Silvia; Iemmi, Claudio; Paz, Juan Pablo; Saraceno, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    We present a scheme to perform an all optical simulation of quantum algorithms and maps. The main components are lenses to efficiently implement the Fourier transform and programmable liquid-crystal displays to introduce space dependent phase changes on a classical optical beam. We show how to simulate Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover's quantum algorithms using essentially the same optical array programmed in two different ways

  6. Quantum dynamics of crystals of molecular magnets inside microwave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, R.; Tejada, J.; Chudnovsky, E.M.; Hernandez, J.M.; Garcia-Santiago, A. E-mail: antonio@ubxlab.comtoni@ubxlab.com

    2004-05-01

    It is shown that crystals of molecular nanomagnets exhibit enhanced magnetic relaxation when placed inside a resonant cavity. Strong dependence of the magnetization curve on the geometry of the cavity has been observed, providing evidence of the coherent microwave radiation by the crystals. These observations open the possibility of building a nanomagnetic microwave laser pumped by the magnetic field.

  7. Quantum dynamics of crystals of molecular magnets inside microwave resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigo, R.; Tejada, J.; Chudnovsky, E.M.; Hernandez, J.M.; Garcia-Santiago, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that crystals of molecular nanomagnets exhibit enhanced magnetic relaxation when placed inside a resonant cavity. Strong dependence of the magnetization curve on the geometry of the cavity has been observed, providing evidence of the coherent microwave radiation by the crystals. These observations open the possibility of building a nanomagnetic microwave laser pumped by the magnetic field

  8. Colloidal crystal formation in a semiconductor quantum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeba, I.; Uzma, Ch.; Jamil, M.; Salimullah, M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    The static shielding and the far-field dynamical oscillatory wake potentials in an ion-implanted piezoelectric semiconductor with colloid ions as test particles have been investigated in detail. The dielectric response function of the semiconductor is contributed by the quantum effect of electrons through the Bohm potential and lattice electron-phonon coupling effects. It is found that the quantum effect causes tighter binding of the electrons reducing the quantum Debye shielding length and the effective length of the wake potential to several angstroms. Hence, a quasiquantum lattice of colloid ions can be formed in the semiconductor in the quantum scales giving rise to drastic modifications of the ion-implanted semiconductor properties.

  9. Molecular morphology and crystallization in the quantum limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    The effects of phonons on crystallization and crystal morphology are investigated. It is shown that the commensuration of the lattice vibrations with the lattice will favor certain crystal morphologies. Vibrational effects can also be important for the molecular structure of chain molecules...... protein are estimated to differ by several electron volts. For a biomolecule, such energy is significant and may contribute to cold denaturing as seen for proteins. This is consistent with the empirical observation that cold denaturation is exothermic and hot denaturation endothermic....

  10. Coupling of erbium dopants to yttrium orthosilicate photonic crystal cavities for on-chip optical quantum memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazono, Evan; Zhong, Tian; Craiciu, Ioana; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Faraon, Andrei, E-mail: faraon@caltech.edu [T. J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Erbium dopants in crystals exhibit highly coherent optical transitions well suited for solid-state optical quantum memories operating in the telecom band. Here, we demonstrate coupling of erbium dopant ions in yttrium orthosilicate to a photonic crystal cavity fabricated directly in the host crystal using focused ion beam milling. The coupling leads to reduction of the photoluminescence lifetime and enhancement of the optical depth in microns-long devices, which will enable on-chip quantum memories.

  11. Coupling of single quantum dots to a photonic crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Toke; Stobbe, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian

    Efficient and high quality single-photon sources is a key element in quantum information processing using photons. As a consequence, much current research is focused on realizing all-solid-state nanophotonic single-photon sources. Single photons can be harvested with high efficiency if the emitter...... is coupled efficiently to a single enhanced mode. One popular approach has been to couple single quantum dots to a nanocavity but a limiting factor in this configuration is that in order to apply the photon it should subsequently be coupled out of the cavity, reducing the overall efficiency significantly...

  12. Experimental demonstration of highly anisotropic decay rates of single quantum dots inside photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    We have systematically measured the variation of the spontaneous emission rate with polarization for self-assembled single quantum dots in two-dimensional photonic crystal membranes and obtained a maximum anisotropy factor of 6 between the decay rates of the two nondegenerate bright exciton states....

  13. Transmission spectrum of a double quantum-dot-nanocavity system in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jun; Jin Shiqi; Gong Shangqing; Qian Yong; Feng Xunli

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the optical transmission properties of a combined system which consists of two quantum-dot-nanocavity subsystems indirectly coupled to a waveguide in a planar photonic crystal. A Mollow-like triplet and the growth of sidebands are found, reflecting intrinsic optical responses in the complex microstructure

  14. Spatial mode effects in a cavity-EIT based quantum memory with ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, Kasper Rothe; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Quantum storage and retrieval of light in ion Coulomb crystals using cavity electromagnetically induced transparency are investigated theoretically. It is found that when both the control and the probe fields are coupled to the same spatial cavity mode, their transverse mode profile affects the q...

  15. Electronic states in crystals of finite size quantum confinement of bloch waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Shang Yuan

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an analytical theory of the electronic states in ideal low dimensional systems and finite crystals based on a differential equation theory approach. It provides precise and fundamental understandings on the electronic states in ideal low-dimensional systems and finite crystals, and offers new insights into some of the basic problems in low-dimensional systems, such as the surface states and quantum confinement effects, etc., some of which are quite different from what is traditionally believed in the solid state physics community. Many previous predictions have been confirmed in subsequent investigations by other authors on various relevant problems. In this new edition, the theory is further extended to one-dimensional photonic crystals and phononic crystals, and a general theoretical formalism for investigating the existence and properties of surface states/modes in semi-infinite one-dimensional crystals is developed. In addition, there are various revisions and improvements, including us...

  16. Designing artificial 2D crystals with site and size controlled quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuejun; Kang, Jiahao; Cao, Wei; Chu, Jae Hwan; Gong, Yongji; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Banerjee, Kaustav

    2017-08-30

    Ordered arrays of quantum dots in two-dimensional (2D) materials would make promising optical materials, but their assembly could prove challenging. Here we demonstrate a scalable, site and size controlled fabrication of quantum dots in monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), and quantum dot arrays with nanometer-scale spatial density by focused electron beam irradiation induced local 2H to 1T phase change in MoS 2 . By designing the quantum dots in a 2D superlattice, we show that new energy bands form where the new band gap can be controlled by the size and pitch of the quantum dots in the superlattice. The band gap can be tuned from 1.81 eV to 1.42 eV without loss of its photoluminescence performance, which provides new directions for fabricating lasers with designed wavelengths. Our work constitutes a photoresist-free, top-down method to create large-area quantum dot arrays with nanometer-scale spatial density that allow the quantum dots to interfere with each other and create artificial crystals. This technique opens up new pathways for fabricating light emitting devices with 2D materials at desired wavelengths. This demonstration can also enable the assembly of large scale quantum information systems and open up new avenues for the design of artificial 2D materials.

  17. Quantum Chemistry of Solids The LCAO First Principles Treatment of Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Evarestov, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Chemistry of Solids delivers a comprehensive account of the main features and possibilities of LCAO methods for the first principles calculations of electronic structure of periodic systems. The first part describes the basic theory underlying the LCAO methods applied to periodic systems and the use of wave-function-based (Hartree-Fock), density-based (DFT) and hybrid hamiltonians. The translation and site symmetry consideration is included to establish connection between k-space solid-state physics and real-space quantum chemistry methods in the framework of cyclic model of an infinite crystal. The inclusion of electron correlation effects for periodic systems is considered on the basis of localized crystalline orbitals. The possibilities of LCAO methods for chemical bonding analysis in periodic systems are discussed. The second part deals with the applications of LCAO methods for calculations of bulk crystal properties, including magnetic ordering and crystal structure optimization. The discussion o...

  18. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Willem L.; Woldering, L.A.; Ghulinyan, M.; Pavesi, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is Chapter 8 of the book "Light Localisation and Lasing: Random and Pseudorandom Photonic Structures", edited by Mher Ghulinyan and Lorenzo Pavesi (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015). It provides an overview of much recent work on 3D photonic crystals with a complete photonic

  19. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  20. Direct Identification of Atomic-Like Electronic Levels in InAs Nano crystal Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millo, O.; Katz, D.

    1999-01-01

    The size dependent level structure of InAs nano crystals in the range 2-7 nm in diameter is investigated using both tunneling and optical spectroscopies. The tunneling measurements are performed using a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope on individual nano crystals that, are attached to a gold substrate via dithiol molecules. The tunneling I-V characteristics manifest an interplay between single electron charging and quantum size effects. We are able to directly identify quantum confined states of isolated InAs nano crystals having s and p symmetries. These states are observed in the I-V curves as two and six-fold single electron charging multiplets. Excellent agreement is found between the strongly allowed optical transitions [1] and the spacing of levels detected in the tunneling experiment. This correlation provides new information on the quantum-dot level structure, from which we conclude that the top-most valence band state has both s and p characteristics. The interplay between level structure singles electron charging of the nano crystals obeys an atomic-like Aufbau sequential electron level occupation

  1. Coupled quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal cavities towards controlled phase gate operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Y-F; Gao, J; McMillan, J F; Yang, X; Wong, C W; Zou, X-B; Chen, Y-L; Han, Z-F; Guo, G-C

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a scalable photonic crystal cavity array, in which single embedded quantum dots (QDs) are coherently interacting, is studied theoretically. Firstly, we examine the spectral character and optical delay brought about by the coupled cavities interacting with single QDs, in an optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency. Secondly, we then examine the usability of this coupled QD-cavity system for quantum phase gate operation and our numerical examples suggest that a two-qubit system with fidelity above 0.99 and photon loss below 0.04 is possible.

  2. Single-Photon Source for Quantum Information Based on Single Dye Molecule Fluorescence in Liquid Crystal Host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukishova, S.G.; Knox, R.P.; Freivald, P.; McNamara, A.; Boyd, R.W.; Stroud, Jr. C.R.; Schmid, A.W.; Marshall, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new application for liquid crystals: quantum information technology. A deterministically polarized single-photon source that efficiently produces photons exhibiting antibunching is a pivotal hardware element in absolutely secure quantum communication. Planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal hosts deterministically align the single dye molecules which produce deterministically polarized single (antibunched) photons. In addition, 1-D photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystals will increase single-photon source efficiency. The experiments and challenges in the observation of deterministically polarized fluorescence from single dye molecules in planar-aligned glassy nematic-liquid-crystal oligomer as well as photon antibunching in glassy cholesteric oligomer are described for the first time

  3. Mapping the Local Density of Optical States of a Photonic Crystal with Single Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots as internal probes to map the local density of optical states of photonic crystal membranes. The employed technique separates contributions from nonradiative recombination and spin-flip processes by properly accounting for the role of the exciton...... fine structure. We observe inhibition factors as high as 70 and compare our results to local density of optical states calculations available from the literature, thereby establishing a quantitative understanding of photon emission in photonic crystal membranes. © 2011 American Physical Society....

  4. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike study of quantum fluid structures on the crystallization line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesé, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid neon, liquid para-hydrogen, and the quantum hard-sphere fluid are studied with path integral Monte Carlo simulations and the Ornstein-Zernike pair equation on their respective crystallization lines. The results cover the whole sets of structures in the r-space and the k-space and, for completeness, the internal energies, pressures and isothermal compressibilities. Comparison with experiment is made wherever possible, and the possibilities of establishing k-space criteria for quantum crystallization based on the path-integral centroids are discussed. In this regard, the results show that the centroid structure factor contains two significant parameters related to its main peak features (amplitude and shape) that can be useful to characterize freezing.

  5. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike study of quantum fluid structures on the crystallization line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesé, Luis M., E-mail: msese@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Ciencias y Técnicas Fisicoquímicas, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Paseo Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-07

    Liquid neon, liquid para-hydrogen, and the quantum hard-sphere fluid are studied with path integral Monte Carlo simulations and the Ornstein-Zernike pair equation on their respective crystallization lines. The results cover the whole sets of structures in the r-space and the k-space and, for completeness, the internal energies, pressures and isothermal compressibilities. Comparison with experiment is made wherever possible, and the possibilities of establishing k-space criteria for quantum crystallization based on the path-integral centroids are discussed. In this regard, the results show that the centroid structure factor contains two significant parameters related to its main peak features (amplitude and shape) that can be useful to characterize freezing.

  6. Room-temperature light-emission from Ge quantum dots in photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Jinsong [Advanced Research Laboratories, Musashi Institute of Technolgy, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0082 (Japan)], E-mail: jxia@sc.musashi-tech.ac.jp; Nemoto, Koudai; Ikegami, Yuta [Advanced Research Laboratories, Musashi Institute of Technolgy, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0082 (Japan); Usami, Noritaka [Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-2-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai Japan (Japan)], E-mail: usa@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Nakata, Yasushi [Horiba, Ltd., 1-7-8 Higashi-Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0031 (Japan)], E-mail: yasushi.nakata@horiba.com; Shiraki, Yasuhiro [Advanced Research Laboratories, Musashi Institute of Technolgy, 8-15-1 Todoroki, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0082 (Japan)

    2008-11-03

    Multiple layers of Ge self-assembled quantum dots were embedded into two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal microcavities fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Microphotoluminescence was used to study the light-emission characteristic of the Ge quantum dots in the microcavities. Strong resonant room-temperature light-emission was observed in the telecommunication wavelength region. Significant enhancement of the luminescence from Ge dots was obtained due to the resonance in the cavities. Multiple sharp resonant peaks dominated the spectrum, showing strong optical resonance inside the cavity. By changing the lattice constant of photonic crystal structure, the wavelengths of the resonant peaks are tuned in the wide wavelength range from 1.2 to 1.6 {mu}m.

  7. Quantum nernst effect in a bismuth single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, M.; Endo, A.; Hatano, N.; Nakamura, H.; Shirasaki, R.; Sugihara, K.

    2009-07-01

    We calculate the phonon-drag contribution to the transverse (Nernst) thermoelectric power S yx in a bismuth single crystal subjected to a quantizing magnetic field. The calculated heights of the Nernst peaks originating from the hole Landau levels and their temperature dependence reproduce the right order of magnitude for those of the pronounced magneto-oscillations recently reported by Behnia et al. A striking experimental finding that S yx is much larger than the longitudinal (Seebeck) thermoelectric power S xx can be naturally explained as the effect of the phonon drag, combined with the well-known relation between the longitudinal and the Hall resistivity ρ xx >> |ρ yx | in a semi-metal bismuth. The calculation that includes the contribution of both holes and electrons suggests that some of the hitherto unexplained minor peaks located roughly at the fractional filling of the hole Landau levels are attributable to the electron Landau levels. (author)

  8. Demonstration of quantum logic gates in liquid crystal nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjanska, Malgorzata; Chuang, Isaac L.; Kubinec, Mark G.

    2000-01-01

    1 H- 13 C heteronuclear dipolar couplings are used to produce the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) version of a two bit controlled-NOT quantum logic gate. This gate is coupled with the Hadamard gate to complete a circuit which generates the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) state which is the maximally entangled state of a pair of spins. The EPR state is crucial for the potential exponential speed advantage of quantum computers over their classical counterparts. We sample the deviation density matrix of the two spin system to verify the presence of the EPR state. EPR state lifetimes are also measured with this technique, thereby demonstrating the viability of liquid crystals as a platform for quantum computing. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Experimental and numerical investigations of Si-based photonic crystals with ordered Ge quantum dots emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannesari, R.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years quasi-two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals, also known as photonic crystal slabs, have been the subject of extensive research. The present work is based on photonic crystals where a hexagonal 2D lattice of air holes is etched through a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) slab. Light is guided in the horizontal plane using photonic band-gap properties, and index guiding provides the optical confinement in the third dimension. This work discusses photonic crystal slabs with Ge quantum dots (QDs) as internal sources. Ge quantum dots have luminescence around 1500nm, which is well suited for optical fiber communication in a way that is fully compatible with standard silicon technology. QD emission can be controlled by epitaxial growth on a pre-patterned SOI substrate. In this way the position of the QDs is controlled, as well as their homogeneity and spectral emission range. During this thesis, photonic crystal fabrication techniques together with techniques for the alignment of the photonic crystal holes with the QDs positions were developed. The employed techniques involve electron beam lithography (EBL) and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE). Perfect ordering of the QDs position was achieved by employing these techniques for pit patterning and the subsequent growth of Ge dots using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A second EBL step was then used for photonic crystal writing, which needed to be aligned with respect to the pit pattern with a precision of about ± 30nm. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy was used for the optical characterization of the photonic crystal. The emission from ordered quantum dots in different symmetry positions within a unit cell of photonic crystal was theoretically and experimentally investigated and compared with randomly distributed ones. Besides, different geometrical parameters of photonic crystals were studied. The theoretical investigations were mainly based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA

  10. Crystal density predictions for nitramines based on quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ling; Xiao Heming; Gong Xuedong; Ju Xuehai; Zhu Weihua

    2007-01-01

    An efficient and convenient method for predicting the crystalline densities of energetic materials was established based on the quantum chemical computations. Density functional theory (DFT) with four different basis sets (6-31G**, 6-311G**, 6-31+G**, and 6-311++G**) and various semiempirical molecular orbital (MO) methods have been employed to predict the molecular volumes and densities of a series of energetic nitramines including acyclic, monocyclic, and polycyclic/cage molecules. The relationships between the calculated values and experimental data were discussed in detail, and linear correlations were suggested and compared at different levels. The calculation shows that if the selected basis set is larger, it will expend more CPU (central processing unit) time, larger molecular volume and smaller density will be obtained. And the densities predicted by the semiempirical MO methods are all systematically larger than the experimental data. In comparison with other methods, B3LYP/6-31G** is most accurate and economical to predict the solid-state densities of energetic nitramines. This may be instructive to the molecular designing and screening novel HEDMs

  11. Inside Perovskites: Quantum Luminescence from Bulk Cs4PbBr6 Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    de Bastiani, Michele

    2017-08-01

    Zero-dimensional perovskite-related structures (0D-PRS) are a new frontier of perovskite-based materials. 0D-PRS, commonly synthesized in powder form, manifest distinctive optical properties such as strong photoluminescence (PL), narrow emission linewidth, and high exciton binding energy. These properties make 0D-PRS compelling for several types of optoelectronic applications, including phosphor screens and electroluminescent devices. However, it would not be possible to rationally design the chemistry and structure of these materials, without revealing the origins of their optical behaviour, which is contradictory to the well-studied APbX3 perovskites. In this work, we synthesize single crystals of Cs4PbBr6 0D-PRS, and investigated the origins of their unique optical and electronic properties. The crystals exhibit a PL quantum yield higher than 40%, the highest reported for perovskite-based single crystals. Time-resolved and temperature dependent PL studies, supported by DFT calculations, and structural analysis, elucidate an emissive behaviour reminiscent of a quantum confined structure rather than a typical bulk perovskite material.

  12. Origin of quantum criticality in Yb-Al-Au approximant crystal and quasicrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Miyake, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    To get insight into the mechanism of emergence of unconventional quantum criticality observed in quasicrystal Yb 15 Al 34 Au 51 , the approximant crystal Yb 14 Al 35 Au 51 is analyzed theoretically. By constructing a minimal model for the approximant crystal, the heavy quasiparticle band is shown to emerge near the Fermi level because of strong correlation of 4f electrons at Yb. We find that charge-transfer mode between 4f electron at Yb on the 3rd shell and 3p electron at Al on the 4th shell in Tsai-type cluster is considerably enhanced with almost flat momentum dependence. The mode-coupling theory shows that magnetic as well as valence susceptibility exhibits χ ∼ T -0.5 for zero-field limit and is expressed as a single scaling function of the ratio of temperature to magnetic field T/B over four decades even in the approximant crystal when some condition is satisfied by varying parameters, e.g., by applying pressure. The key origin is clarified to be due to strong locality of the critical Yb-valence fluctuation and small Brillouin zone reflecting the large unit cell, giving rise to the extremely-small characteristic energy scale. This also gives a natural explanation for the quantum criticality in the quasicrystal corresponding to the infinite limit of the unit-cell size. (author)

  13. High transmittance optical films based on quantum dot doped nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple way to fabricate highly transparent nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystal (nano-PDLC) films between glass substrates and investigate their incident angle dependent optical transmittance properties with both collimated and Lambertian intensity distribution light sources. We also demonstrate that doping nano-PDLC films with 0.1% InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QD) results in a higher optical transmittance. This work lays the foundation for such nanostructured composites to potentially serve as roll-to-roll coatable light extraction or brightness enhancement films in emissive display applications, superior to complex nanocorrugation techniques proposed in the past.

  14. RBS cross-section of MeV ions channeling in crystals from quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Spizzirri, P.G.; Allen, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present an alternative approach to describing Rutherford Backscattered (RBS) angular yield scans. The Bloch wave method to formulate the cross-section is a fundamental approach originating from Schrodinger's equation. This quantum formulation is often used when describing various aspects of electron diffraction including Backscattering, EDX and TEM but has seen little application to the very short wavelength regime of MeV ions. It offers several significant advantages. Great freedom is given to crystal properties and structure in the theory allowing a fundamental insight into the channeling phenomena and hence the crystal itself. We have calculated both planar and axial channeling scans and these maps are shown to be in good agreement to their experimental counterparts. There is excellent correlation between the theoretical and experimental results for both χ min and Ψ 1/2 . Further investigation is required into the area of absorption or dechanneling. This phenomenon requires different mechanisms for electron and ion scattering differ greatly

  15. Far from the equilibrium crystallization of oxide quantum dots in dried inorganic gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costille, B.; Dumoulin, M.; Ntsame Abagha, A. M.; Thune, E.; Guinebretière, R.

    2018-06-01

    We synthesized, through the sol-gel process, far from the equilibrium amorphous materials in which heterogeneous crystallization allowed the formation of oxide quantum dots. The isothermal evolutions of the mean size of the nanocrystals and the crystallinity of the materials were determined through x-ray diffraction experiments. The heterogeneous crystallization is characterized by a kinetic behavior that is far from that expected, according to the classical nucleation theory. We demonstrate that the evolution of the crystallinity is characterized by an Avrami exponent largely smaller than 1. Finally, nanocrystals exhibiting a size significantly below their Bohr radius are obtained and the number of these nanocrystals increases during isothermal treatment, whereas their mean size remains quasi-constant.

  16. Strongly nonexponential time-resolved fluorescence of quantum-dot ensembles in three-dimensional photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; van Driel, A. Floris

    2007-01-01

    We observe experimentally that ensembles of quantum dots in three-dimensional 3D photonic crystals reveal strongly nonexponential time-resolved emission. These complex emission decay curves are analyzed with a continuous distribution of decay rates. The log-normal distribution describes the decays...... parameter. This interpretation qualitatively agrees with the calculations of the 3D projected local density of states. We therefore conclude that fluorescence decay of ensembles of quantum dots is highly nonexponential to an extent that is controlled by photonic crystals....

  17. Quantum theory of scattering of channeled electrons and positrons in a crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, V.A.; Goloviznin, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    The quantum theory of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons on plane or axial channeling in a thin crystal is developed. The role of coherent (without phonon excitation) and incoherent scattering by atoms of the plane (chain) is investigated. It is shown that incoherent scattering which leads to dechanneling cannot be reduced to scattering by an isolated atom. Allowance for ordered arrangement of the atoms in the plane (chain) of the crystal leads to suppression of the motion levels. It is also shown that on movement of a particle along the plane in directions strongly differing from those of the principal axes, the scattering is incoherent and is determined by thermal vibrations of the nuclei. As the direction of the particle momentum approaches those of the principal axes, the role of coherent scattering without recoil by the crystal lattice nuclei increases and may become dicisive. The probability of large- angle scattering increases relatively in this case. Under certain conditions coherent scattering may become resonant [ru

  18. Scanning near-field optical microscopy of quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skacel, Matthias; Fiore, Andrea [COBRA Research Institute, Technical University Eindhoven, Den Dolech 2, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Prancardi, Marco; Gerardino, Annamaria [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnology, CNR, via del Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Alloing, Blandine; Li Lianhe, E-mail: m.s.skacel@tue.n [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-09-01

    Nanophotonic devices are of major interest for research and future quantum communication applications. Due to their nanometer feature size the resolution limit of far-field microscopy poses a limitation on the characterization of their optical properties. A method to overcome the resolution limit is the Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (SNOM). By approaching a fiber tip into the close vicinity of the sample the optical emission in the near-field regime is collected. This way of collecting the light is not affected by the diffraction limit. We employ a low temperature SNOM to investigate the photoluminescence of InAs QDs emitting at 1300nm wavelength embedded in photonic crystal cavities. At each location of an image scan the tip is stopped and a spectrum is acquired. We then plot maps of the photoluminescence for each wavelength. With this instrument it is now possible to directly observe the coupling of QDs to photonic crystal cavities both spectrally and spatially. We show first results of photoluminescence mapping of InAs QDs in photonic crystal cavities.

  19. Quantum theoretical calculations of activation energies for the mass transfer at phase boundaries of ionic crystals. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that a direct proportionality exists between the activation energy for the mass transfer at the respective crystal faces of ionic crystals and the frequency of the phonones (longitudinal-optical), Planck's constant being found once more as a proportionality constant. Thus it could be demonstrated that the different activation energies measured at different time intervals for the mass transfer processes at phase boundaries of ionic crystals can be attributed to the specific growth of the crystal faces. Thus, NaCl crystal fractions which were mechanically stressed (pulverized and sifted) and consequently contained a great amount of [111]- and [110]-faces, respectively, experimentally yielded an activation energy which agrees with the values determined by quantum theory when the frequency of propagation of the phonons is inserted into a derived equation. This relation was also confirmed by NaCl crystal fractions predominantly containing cubic faces. This also indicates that in mass transfer processes on phase boundaries of ionic crystals quantum mechanical laws are of importance. (author)

  20. Efficient fiber-coupled single-photon source based on quantum dots in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daveau, Raphaël S.; Balram, Krishna C.; Pregnolato, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Many photonic quantum information processing applications would benefit from a high brightness, fiber-coupled source of triggered single photons. Here, we present a fiber-coupled photonic-crystal waveguide (PCWG) singlephoton source relying on evanescent coupling of the light field from a tapered...

  1. Thermally Assisted Macroscopic Quantum Resonance on a Single-Crystal of Mn12-ac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionti, F.; Thomas, L.; Ballou, R.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Barbara, B.; Sulpice, A.; Sessoli, R.; Gatteschi, D.

    1997-03-01

    Magnetization measurements have been performed on a single mono-crystal of the molecule Mn12-acetate (L. Thomas, F. Lionti, R. Ballou, R. Sessoli, D. Gatteschi and B. Barbara, Nature, 383, 145 (1996).). Steps were observed in the hysteresis loop for values of the applied field at which level crossings of the collective spin states of each manganese clusters take place. The influence of quartic terms is taken into account. At these fields, the magnetization relaxes at short time scales, being otherwise essentially blocked. This novel behavior is interpreted in terms of resonant quantum tunneling of the magnetization from thermally activated energy levels. Hysteresis loop measurements performed for different field orientations and ac-susceptibility experiments, confirm general trends of this picture.

  2. Optical pulse dynamics for quantum-dot logic operations in a photonic-crystal waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xun; John, Sajeev [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 Canada (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We numerically demonstrate all-optical logic operations with quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a bimodal photonic-crystal waveguide using Maxwell-Bloch equations in a slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). The two-level QD excitation level is controlled by one or more femtojoule optical driving pulses passing through the waveguide. Specific logic operations depend on the relative pulse strengths and their detunings from an inhomogeneouslly broadened (about 1% for QD transitions centered at 1.5 {mu}m) QD transition. This excitation controlled two-level medium then determines passage of subsequent probe optical pulses. Envelope equations for electromagnetic waves in the linear dispersion and cutoff waveguide modes are derived to simplify solution of the coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations in the waveguide. These determine the quantum mechanical evolution of the QD excitation and its polarization, driven by classical electromagnetic (EM) pulses near a sharp discontinuity in the EM density of states of the bimodal waveguide. Different configurations of the driving pulses lead to distinctive relations between driving pulse strength and probe pulse passage, representing all-optical logic and, or, and not operations. Simulation results demonstrate that such operations can be done on picosecond time scales and within a waveguide length of about 10 {mu}m in a photonic-band-gap (PBG) optical microchip.

  3. Ultralow-threshold electrically pumped quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bryan; Mayer, Marie A.; Shambat, Gary; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E.; Vučković, Jelena

    2011-05-01

    Efficient, low-threshold and compact semiconductor laser sources are under investigation for many applications in high-speed communications, information processing and optical interconnects. The best edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers have thresholds on the order of 100 µA (refs 1,2), but dissipate too much power to be practical for many applications, particularly optical interconnects. Optically pumped photonic-crystal nanocavity lasers represent the state of the art in low-threshold lasers; however, to be practical, techniques to electrically pump these structures must be developed. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-dot photonic-crystal nanocavity laser in gallium arsenide pumped by a lateral p-i-n junction formed by ion implantation. Continuous-wave lasing is observed at temperatures up to 150 K. Thresholds of only 181 nA at 50 K and 287 nA at 150 K are observed--the lowest thresholds ever observed in any type of electrically pumped laser.

  4. Quantum irreversible decoherence behaviour in open quantum systems with few degrees of freedom: application to 1H NMR reversion experiments in nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segnorile, H H; Zamar, R C

    2013-10-21

    An experimental study of NMR spin decoherence in nematic liquid crystals is presented. Decoherence dynamics can be put in evidence by means of refocusing experiments of the dipolar interactions. The experimental technique used in this work is based on the MREV8 pulse sequence. The aim of the work is to detect the main features of the irreversible quantum decoherence in liquid crystals, on the basis of the theory presented by the authors recently. The focus is laid on experimentally probing the eigen-selection process in the intermediate time scale, between quantum interference of a closed system and thermalization, as a signature of the quantum spin decoherence of the open quantum system, as well as on quantifying the effects of non-idealities as possible sources of signal decays which could mask the intrinsic decoherence. In order to contrast experiment and theory, the theory was adapted to obtain the decoherence function corresponding to the MREV8 reversion experiments. Non-idealities of the experimental setting, like external field inhomogeneity, pulse misadjustments, and the presence of non-reverted spin interaction terms are analysed in detail within this framework, and their effects on the observed signal decay are numerically estimated. It is found that though all these non-idealities could in principle affect the evolution of the spin dynamics, their influence can be mitigated and they do not present the characteristic behaviour of the irreversible spin decoherence. As unique characteristic of decoherence, the experimental results clearly show the occurrence of eigen-selectivity in the intermediate timescale, in complete agreement with the theoretical predictions. We conclude that the eigen-selection effect is the fingerprint of decoherence associated with a quantum open spin system in liquid crystals. Besides, these features of the results account for the quasi-equilibrium states of the spin system, which were observed previously in these mesophases, and

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF 3D SELF-ASSEMBLED PHOTONIC CRYSTALS AND COLLOIDAL CORE-SHELL SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Thu Nga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present an experimental study of 3D opal photonic crystals. The samples are opals constituted by colloidal silica spheres, realized with self-assembly technique. The sphere diameter is selected in order to obtain coupling of the photonic band gap with the emission from CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots. The quantum dots infiltrated in the opals is expected to be enhanced or suppressed depending on the detection angle from the photonic crystal. The structural and optical characterization of the SiO2 opal photonic crystals are performed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and reflectivity spectroscopy. Measurements performed on samples permits to put into evidence the influence of the different preparation methods on the optical properties. Study of self-activated luminescence of the pure opals is also presented. It is shown that the luminescence of the sample with QDs have original QD emission and not due to the photonic crystal structure. The optical properties of colloidal core-shell semiconductor quantum dots of CdSe/ZnS which are prepared in our lab will be mention.

  6. A Study of F-center in the Ionic Crystal by Using The Quantum Dot Model Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Abood Kassim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study of the electronic structure of F-center in the crystal of NaCl, CsCl and fluorite structure by using quantum dot model potential. This model employs the semi-continuum method due to Simpson and specifies the F-center as a quantum dot partially confined within finite potential. The energy levels and transition energy of the F-center are calculated analytically by using this new model potential and including the effect of continuum medium due to the coulomb tail and using the strong perturbation approach

  7. Non-polar InGaN quantum dot emission with crystal-axis oriented linear polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Benjamin P. L., E-mail: benjamin.reid@physics.ox.ac.uk; Chan, Christopher C. S.; Taylor, Robert A. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kocher, Claudius [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Konstanz 78457 (Germany); Zhu, Tongtong; Oehler, Fabrice; Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-27

    Polarization sensitive photoluminescence is performed on single non-polar InGaN quantum dots. The studied InGaN quantum dots are found to have linearly polarized emission with a common polarization direction defined by the [0001] crystal axis. Around half of ∼40 studied dots have a polarization degree of 1. For those lines with a polarization degree less than 1, we can resolve fine structure splittings between −800 μeV and +800 μeV, with no clear correlation between fine structure splitting and emission energy.

  8. Electro-optical and dielectric properties of CdSe quantum dots and 6CHBT liquid crystals composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, U. B.; Pandey, M. B., E-mail: mbpandey@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Vikramajit Singh Sanatan Dharama College, Kanpur-208002 (India); Dhar, R; Pandey, A. S. [Centre of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Kumar, S. [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore-560080 (India); Dabrowski, R. [Institute of Applied Sciences and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908-Warswa (Poland)

    2014-11-15

    We have prepared the composites of a room temperature nematic liquid crystal namely 4-(trans-4-n-hexylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzoate (6CHBT) and Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (CdSe-QDs) and investigated their electro-optical and dielectric properties. Effect of dispersion of CdSe-QDs on various electro-optical and display parameters of host liquid crystalline material have been studied. Physical parameters, such as switching threshold voltage and splay elastic constant have been altered drastically for composites. Dispersion of QDs in a liquid crystals medium destabilizes nematic ordering of the host and decreases the nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature.

  9. Electro-optical and dielectric properties of CdSe quantum dots and 6CHBT liquid crystals composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U. B.; Pandey, M. B.; Dhar, R; Pandey, A. S.; Kumar, S.; Dabrowski, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared the composites of a room temperature nematic liquid crystal namely 4-(trans-4-n-hexylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzoate (6CHBT) and Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (CdSe-QDs) and investigated their electro-optical and dielectric properties. Effect of dispersion of CdSe-QDs on various electro-optical and display parameters of host liquid crystalline material have been studied. Physical parameters, such as switching threshold voltage and splay elastic constant have been altered drastically for composites. Dispersion of QDs in a liquid crystals medium destabilizes nematic ordering of the host and decreases the nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature

  10. A review on solar cells from Si-single crystals to porous materials and quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Waheed A

    2015-03-01

    Solar energy conversion to electricity through photovoltaics or to useful fuel through photoelectrochemical cells was still a main task for research groups and developments sectors. In this article we are reviewing the development of the different generations of solar cells. The fabrication of solar cells has passed through a large number of improvement steps considering the technological and economic aspects. The first generation solar cells were based on Si wafers, mainly single crystals. Permanent researches on cost reduction and improved solar cell efficiency have led to the marketing of solar modules having 12-16% solar conversion efficiency. Application of polycrystalline Si and other forms of Si have reduced the cost but on the expense of the solar conversion efficiency. The second generation solar cells were based on thin film technology. Thin films of amorphous Si, CIS (copper-indium-selenide) and t-Si were employed. Solar conversion efficiencies of about 12% have been achieved with a remarkable cost reduction. The third generation solar cells are based on nano-crystals and nano-porous materials. An advanced photovoltaic cell, originally developed for satellites with solar conversion efficiency of 37.3%, based on concentration of the solar spectrum up to 400 suns was developed. It is based on extremely thin concentration cells. New sensitizer or semiconductor systems are necessary to broaden the photo-response in solar spectrum. Hybrids of solar and conventional devices may provide an interim benefit in seeking economically valuable devices. New quantum dot solar cells based on CdSe-TiO2 architecture have been developed.

  11. A review on solar cells from Si-single crystals to porous materials and quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed A. Badawy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy conversion to electricity through photovoltaics or to useful fuel through photoelectrochemical cells was still a main task for research groups and developments sectors. In this article we are reviewing the development of the different generations of solar cells. The fabrication of solar cells has passed through a large number of improvement steps considering the technological and economic aspects. The first generation solar cells were based on Si wafers, mainly single crystals. Permanent researches on cost reduction and improved solar cell efficiency have led to the marketing of solar modules having 12–16% solar conversion efficiency. Application of polycrystalline Si and other forms of Si have reduced the cost but on the expense of the solar conversion efficiency. The second generation solar cells were based on thin film technology. Thin films of amorphous Si, CIS (copper–indium–selenide and t-Si were employed. Solar conversion efficiencies of about 12% have been achieved with a remarkable cost reduction. The third generation solar cells are based on nano-crystals and nano-porous materials. An advanced photovoltaic cell, originally developed for satellites with solar conversion efficiency of 37.3%, based on concentration of the solar spectrum up to 400 suns was developed. It is based on extremely thin concentration cells. New sensitizer or semiconductor systems are necessary to broaden the photo-response in solar spectrum. Hybrids of solar and conventional devices may provide an interim benefit in seeking economically valuable devices. New quantum dot solar cells based on CdSe–TiO2 architecture have been developed.

  12. Crystal lattice desolvation effects on the magnetic quantum tunneling of single-molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redler, G.; Lampropoulos, C.; Datta, S.; Koo, C.; Stamatatos, T. C.; Chakov, N. E.; Christou, G.; Hill, S.

    2009-09-01

    High-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) and alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements are reported for a new high-symmetry Mn12 complex, [Mn12O12(O2CCH3)16(CH3OH)4]ṡCH3OH . The results are compared to those of other high-symmetry spin S=10Mn12 single-molecule magnets (SMMs), including the original acetate, [Mn12(O2CCH3)16(H2O)4]ṡ2CH3CO2Hṡ4H2O , and the [Mn12O12(O2CCH2Br)16(H2O)4]ṡ4CH2Cl2 and [Mn12O12(O2CCH2But)16(CH3OH)4]ṡCH3OH complexes. These comparisons reveal important insights into the factors that influence the values of the effective barrier to magnetization reversal, Ueff , deduced on the basis of ac susceptibility measurements. In particular, we find that variations in Ueff can be correlated with the degree of disorder in a crystal which can be controlled by desolvating (drying) samples. This highlights the importance of careful sample handling when making measurements on SMM crystals containing volatile lattice solvents. The HFEPR data additionally provide spectroscopic evidence suggesting that the relatively weak disorder induced by desolvation influences the quantum tunneling interactions and that it is under-barrier tunneling that is responsible for a consistent reduction in Ueff that is found upon drying samples. Meanwhile, the axial anisotropy deduced from HFEPR is found to be virtually identical for all four Mn12 complexes, with no measurable reduction upon desolvation.

  13. Structural studies of crystals of organic and organoelement compounds using modern quantum chemical calculations within the framework of the density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korlyukov, Alexander A; Antipin, Mikhail Yu

    2012-01-01

    The review generalizes the results of structural studies of crystals of organic and organometallic compounds by modern quantum chemical calculations within the framework of the density functional theory reported in the last decade. Features of the software for such calculations are discussed. Examples of the use of quantum chemical calculations for the studies of the electronic structure, spectroscopic and other physicochemical properties of molecular crystals are presented. The bibliography includes 223 references.

  14. A quantum-chemical study of oxygen-vacancy defects in PbTiO{sub 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stashans, Arvids [Laboratorio de Fisica, Escuela de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador)]. E-mail: arvids@utpl.edu.ec; Serrano, Sheyla [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica de Materia Condensada, Corporacion de Fisica Fundamental y Aplicada, Apartado 17-12-637, Quito (Ecuador); Escuela de Ingenierias, Universidad Politecnica Salesiana, Campus Sur, Rumichaca s/n y Moran Valverde, Apartado 17-12-536, Quito (Ecuador); Medina, Paul [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica de Materia Condensada, Corporacion de Fisica Fundamental y Aplicada, Apartado 17-12-637, Quito (Ecuador)

    2006-05-31

    Investigation of an oxygen vacancy and F center in the cubic and tetragonal lattices of PbTiO{sub 3} crystals is done by means of quantum-chemical simulations. Displacements of defect-surrounding atoms, electronic and optical properties, lattice relaxation energies and some new effects due to the defects presence are reported and analyzed. A comparison with similar studies is made and conclusions are drawn on the basis of the obtained results.

  15. A quantum-chemical study of oxygen-vacancy defects in PbTiO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stashans, Arvids; Serrano, Sheyla; Medina, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of an oxygen vacancy and F center in the cubic and tetragonal lattices of PbTiO 3 crystals is done by means of quantum-chemical simulations. Displacements of defect-surrounding atoms, electronic and optical properties, lattice relaxation energies and some new effects due to the defects presence are reported and analyzed. A comparison with similar studies is made and conclusions are drawn on the basis of the obtained results

  16. Investigating Optical Properties of One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Containing Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mokhtarnejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined MQWs made of InGaAs/GaAs, InAlAs/InP, and InGaAs/InP in terms of their band structure and reflectivity. We also demonstrated that the reflectivity of MQWs under normal incident was at maximum, while both using a strong pump and changing incident angle reduced it. Reflectivity of the structure for a weak probe pulse depends on polarization, intensity of the pump pulse, and delay between the probe pulse and the pump pulse. So this system can be used as an ultrafast all-optical switch which is inspected by the transfer matrix method. After studying the band structure of the one-dimensional photonic crystal, the optical stark effect (OSE was considered on it. Due to the OSE on virtual exciton levels, the switching time can be in the order of picoseconds. Moreover, it is demonstrated that, by introducing errors in width of barrier and well as well as by inserting defect, the reflectivity is reduced. Thus, by employing the mechanism of stark effect MQWs band-gaps can be easily controlled which is useful in designing MWQ based optical switches and filters. By comparing the results, we observe that the reflectivity of MWQ containing 200 periods of InAlAs/InP quantum wells shows the maximum reflectivity of 96%.

  17. Adsorption of quantum dots onto polymer and Gemini surfactant films: a quartz crystal microbalance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, T; Merchán, M D; Velázquez, M M

    2014-08-26

    We used quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation to study the mechanical properties, the kinetics of adsorption, and the amount of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) adsorbed onto a SiO2 sensor, referred as bare sensor, onto the sensor modified with a film of the polymer poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene), PMAO, or with a film of the Gemini surfactant ethyl-bis(dimethyl octadecyl ammonium bromide), abbreviated as 18-2-18. Results showed that when the sensor is coated with polymer or surfactant molecules, the coverage increases compared with that obtained for the bare sensor. On the other hand, rheological properties and kinetics of adsorption of QDs are driven by QD nanoparticles. Thus, the QD films present elastic behavior, and the elasticity values are independent of the molecule used as coating and similar to the elasticity value obtained for QDs films on the bare sensor. The QD adsorption is a two-step mechanism in which the fastest process is attributed to the QD adsorption onto the solid substrate and the slowest one is ascribed to rearrangement movements of the nanoparticles adsorbed at the surface.

  18. Crystal growth by Bridgman and Czochralski method of the ferromagnetic quantum critical material YbNi4P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliemt, K.; Krellner, C.

    2016-09-01

    The tetragonal YbNi4P2 is one of the rare examples of compounds that allow the investigation of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point. We report in detail on two different methods which have been used to grow YbNi4P2 single crystals from a self-flux. The first, a modified Bridgman method, using a closed crucible system yields needle-shaped single crystals oriented along the [001]-direction. The second method, the Czochralski growth from a levitating melt, yields large single crystals which can be cut in any desired orientation. With this crucible-free method, samples without flux inclusions and a resistivity ratio at 1.8 K of RR1.8K = 17 have been grown.

  19. QUANTUM-MECHANICAL MODELING OF SPATIAL AND BAND STRUCTURE OF Y3AL5O12 SCINTILLATION CRYSTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vrubel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and electronic structures of a unit cell of yttrium-aluminum garnet have been studied. Quantum-mechanical model have been presented. Semi-empirical methods PM6 and PM7 have been used for geometry optimization of the crystal unit cell. Band structure has been calculated within density functional theory with the use of PBE exchange-correlation functional. Histograms of metal-oxygen distances for equilibrium geometry have been constructed. Comparison of the used methods has been carried out and recommendation about their applicability for such problems was given. The single-particle wave functions and energies have been calculated. The bandgap was estimated. The band structure was plotted. It was shown that the method gives reliable results for spatial and band structure of Y3Al5O12 scintillation crystal. The results of this work can be used for improvement of characteristics of garnet scintillation crystals.

  20. Quantum phase transition in a coupled two-level system embedded in anisotropic three-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H Z; Shao, X Q; Wang, G C; Zhao, X L; Yi, X X

    2016-01-01

    The quantum phase transition (QPT) describes a sudden qualitative change of the macroscopic properties mapped from the eigenspectrum of a quantum many-body system. It has been studied intensively in quantum systems with the spin-boson model, but it has barely been explored for systems in coupled spin-boson models. In this paper, we study the QPT with coupled spin-boson models consisting of coupled two-level atoms embedded in three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystals. The dynamics of the system is derived exactly by means of the Laplace transform method, which has been proven to be equivalent to the dissipationless non-Markovian dynamics. Drawing on methods for analyzing the ground state, we obtain the phase diagrams through two exact critical equations and two QPTs are found: one QPT is that from the phase without one bound state to the phase with one bound state and another is that from one phase with the bound state having one eigenvalue to another phase where the bound state has two eigenvalues. Our analytical results also suggest a way of control to overcome the effect of decoherence by engineering the spectrum of the reservoirs to approach the non-Markovian regime and to form the bound state of the whole system for quantum devices and quantum statistics.

  1. Self-consistent Maxwell-Bloch model of quantum-dot photonic-crystal-cavity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartar, William; Mørk, Jesper; Hughes, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    We present a powerful computational approach to simulate the threshold behavior of photonic-crystal quantum-dot (QD) lasers. Using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, Maxwell-Bloch equations representing a system of thousands of statistically independent and randomly positioned two-level emitters are solved numerically. Phenomenological pure dephasing and incoherent pumping is added to the optical Bloch equations to allow for a dynamical lasing regime, but the cavity-mediated radiative dynamics and gain coupling of each QD dipole (artificial atom) is contained self-consistently within the model. These Maxwell-Bloch equations are implemented by using Lumerical's flexible material plug-in tool, which allows a user to define additional equations of motion for the nonlinear polarization. We implement the gain ensemble within triangular-lattice photonic-crystal cavities of various length N (where N refers to the number of missing holes), and investigate the cavity mode characteristics and the threshold regime as a function of cavity length. We develop effective two-dimensional model simulations which are derived after studying the full three-dimensional passive material structures by matching the cavity quality factors and resonance properties. We also demonstrate how to obtain the correct point-dipole radiative decay rate from Fermi's golden rule, which is captured naturally by the FDTD method. Our numerical simulations predict that the pump threshold plateaus around cavity lengths greater than N =9 , which we identify as a consequence of the complex spatial dynamics and gain coupling from the inhomogeneous QD ensemble. This behavior is not expected from simple rate-equation analysis commonly adopted in the literature, but is in qualitative agreement with recent experiments. Single-mode to multimode lasing is also observed, depending on the spectral peak frequency of the QD ensemble. Using a statistical modal analysis of the average decay rates, we also

  2. Self-consistent Maxwell-Bloch theory of quantum-dot-population switching in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; John, Sajeev

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the population switching of quantum dots (QD's), modeled as two-level atoms in idealized one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PC's) by self-consistent solution of the Maxwell-Bloch equations. In our semiclassical theory, energy states of the electron are quantized, and electron dynamics is described by the atomic Bloch equation, while electromagnetic waves satisfy the classical Maxwell equations. Near a waveguide cutoff in a photonic band gap, the local electromagnetic density of states (LDOS) and spontaneous emission rates exhibit abrupt changes with frequency, enabling large QD population inversion driven by both continuous and pulsed optical fields. We recapture and generalize this ultrafast population switching using the Maxwell-Bloch equations. Radiative emission from the QD is obtained directly from the surrounding PC geometry using finite-difference time-domain simulation of the electromagnetic field. The atomic Bloch equations provide a source term for the electromagnetic field. The total electromagnetic field, consisting of the external input and radiated field, drives the polarization components of the atomic Bloch vector. We also include a microscopic model for phonon dephasing of the atomic polarization and nonradiative decay caused by damped phonons. Our self-consistent theory captures stimulated emission and coherent feedback effects of the atomic Mollow sidebands, neglected in earlier treatments. This leads to remarkable high-contrast QD-population switching with relatively modest (factor of 10) jump discontinuities in the electromagnetic LDOS. Switching is demonstrated in three separate models of QD's placed (i) in the vicinity of a band edge of a 1D PC, (ii) near a cutoff frequency in a bimodal waveguide channel of a 2D PC, and (iii) in the vicinity of a localized defect mode side coupled to a single-mode waveguide channel in a 2D PC.

  3. Energy resolution measurements of LaBr3:Ce scintillating crystals with an ultra-high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Cinti, M.N.; Scafe, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Vittorini, F.; Bennati, P.; Ridolfi, S.; Lo Meo, S.; Mattioli, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Pisacane, F.; Navarria, F.; Moschini, G.; Boccaccio, P.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Sacco, D.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the new prototype of high quantum efficiency PMT (43% at 380 nm), Hamamatsu R7600U-200, was studied coupled to a LaBr 3 :Ce crystal with the size of o12.5 mmx12.5 mm. The energy resolution results were compared with ones from two PMTs, Hamamatsu R7600U and R6231MOD, with 22% and 30% quantum efficiency (QE), respectively. Moreover, the photodetectors were equipped with tapered and un-tapered voltage dividers to study the non-linearity effects on pulse height distribution, due to very high peak currents induced in the PMT by the fast and intense light pulse of LaBr 3 :Ce. The results show an energy resolution improvement with UBA PMT of about 20%, in the energy range of 80-662 keV, with respect to the BA one.

  4. Quantum criticality and the formation of a putative electronic liquid crystal in Sr3Ru2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, A.P.; Bruin, J.A.N.; Borzi, R.A.; Rost, A.W.; Grigera, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a brief review of the physical properties of Sr 3 Ru 2 O 7 , in which the approach to a magnetic-field-tuned quantum critical point is cut off by the formation of a novel phase with transport characteristics consistent with those of a nematic electronic liquid crystal. Our goal is to summarise the physics that led to that conclusion being drawn, describing the key experiments and discussing the theoretical approaches that have been adopted. Throughout the review we also attempt to highlight observations that are not yet understood, and to discuss the future challenges that will need to be addressed by both experiment and theory.

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectra and theoretical calculations of quantum chemistry of a potential antimicrobial Meldrum's acid derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, M. J. M.; Freire, P. T. C.; Mendes Filho, J.; de Toledo, T. A.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; da Silva, L. E.; Bento, R. R. F.; Faria, J. L. B.; Pizani, P. S.; Gusmão, G. O. M.; Coutinho, H. D. M.; Oliveira, M. T. A.

    2017-10-01

    A new derivative of Meldrum's acid 5-((5-chloropyridin-2-ylamino)methylene)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (CYMM) of molecular formula C12H11ClN2O4 was synthesized and structurally characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The vibrational properties of the crystal were studied by Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) techniques and theoretical calculations of quantum chemistry using Density functional theory (DFT) and Density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). A comparison with experimental spectra allowed the assignment of all the normal modes. The descriptions of the normal modes were carried by means of potential energy distribution (PED). Additionally, analysis of the antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance modulatory activity was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the CYMM.

  6. On the possibility of a quantum bremsstrahlung induced self-modulation of a relativistic beam channeling in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskij, V.I.; Vorontsov, V.I.; Kuz'min, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    Physical predictions and quantitative estimations of a new physical effect - the phenomenon of quantum bremsstrahlung induced selfmodulation of a fast beam channeling in the crystals are considered and carried out. The occurrence of induced self-modulation results from nonstationary interference of proper waves of a channeled particle in the range of mutual coherence and with account of difference of selective bremsstrahlung losses of these waves. The modulation frequency for superrelativistic particles is shown to lie within the range from soft X-ray to hard gamma range. It proceeds from the estimations that modulation at these frequencies is preserved within the limits of macroscopically large ranges after the crystal attaining several meters. The maximum frequency of modulation for nonrelativistic heavy particles (protons) corresponds to the optical range

  7. A Medipix quantum area detector allows rotation electron diffraction data collection from submicrometre three-dimensional protein crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nederlof, Igor; Genderen, Eric van; Li, Yao-Wang; Abrahams, Jan Pieter, E-mail: abrahams@chem.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    An ultrasensitive Medipix2 detector allowed the collection of rotation electron-diffraction data from single three-dimensional protein nanocrystals for the first time. The data could be analysed using the standard X-ray crystallography programs MOSFLM and SCALA. When protein crystals are submicrometre-sized, X-ray radiation damage precludes conventional diffraction data collection. For crystals that are of the order of 100 nm in size, at best only single-shot diffraction patterns can be collected and rotation data collection has not been possible, irrespective of the diffraction technique used. Here, it is shown that at a very low electron dose (at most 0.1 e{sup −} Å{sup −2}), a Medipix2 quantum area detector is sufficiently sensitive to allow the collection of a 30-frame rotation series of 200 keV electron-diffraction data from a single ∼100 nm thick protein crystal. A highly parallel 200 keV electron beam (λ = 0.025 Å) allowed observation of the curvature of the Ewald sphere at low resolution, indicating a combined mosaic spread/beam divergence of at most 0.4°. This result shows that volumes of crystal with low mosaicity can be pinpointed in electron diffraction. It is also shown that strategies and data-analysis software (MOSFLM and SCALA) from X-ray protein crystallography can be used in principle for analysing electron-diffraction data from three-dimensional nanocrystals of proteins.

  8. A Medipix quantum area detector allows rotation electron diffraction data collection from submicrometre three-dimensional protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nederlof, Igor; Genderen, Eric van; Li, Yao-Wang; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasensitive Medipix2 detector allowed the collection of rotation electron-diffraction data from single three-dimensional protein nanocrystals for the first time. The data could be analysed using the standard X-ray crystallography programs MOSFLM and SCALA. When protein crystals are submicrometre-sized, X-ray radiation damage precludes conventional diffraction data collection. For crystals that are of the order of 100 nm in size, at best only single-shot diffraction patterns can be collected and rotation data collection has not been possible, irrespective of the diffraction technique used. Here, it is shown that at a very low electron dose (at most 0.1 e − Å −2 ), a Medipix2 quantum area detector is sufficiently sensitive to allow the collection of a 30-frame rotation series of 200 keV electron-diffraction data from a single ∼100 nm thick protein crystal. A highly parallel 200 keV electron beam (λ = 0.025 Å) allowed observation of the curvature of the Ewald sphere at low resolution, indicating a combined mosaic spread/beam divergence of at most 0.4°. This result shows that volumes of crystal with low mosaicity can be pinpointed in electron diffraction. It is also shown that strategies and data-analysis software (MOSFLM and SCALA) from X-ray protein crystallography can be used in principle for analysing electron-diffraction data from three-dimensional nanocrystals of proteins

  9. Complete devil's staircase and crystal-superfluid transitions in a dipolar XXZ spin chain: a trapped ion quantum simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Cucchietti, Fernando M; Lewenstein, Maciej; Mueller-Hermes, Alexander; Banuls, Mari-Carmen; Ignacio Cirac, J

    2010-01-01

    Systems with long-range interactions show a variety of intriguing properties: they typically accommodate many metastable states, they can give rise to spontaneous formation of supersolids, and they can lead to counterintuitive thermodynamic behavior. However, the increased complexity that comes with long-range interactions strongly hinders theoretical studies. This makes a quantum simulator for long-range models highly desirable. Here, we show that a chain of trapped ions can be used to quantum simulate a one-dimensional (1D) model of hard-core bosons with dipolar off-site interaction and tunneling, equivalent to a dipolar XXZ spin-1/2 chain. We explore the rich phase diagram of this model in detail, employing perturbative mean-field theory, exact diagonalization and quasi-exact numerical techniques (density-matrix renormalization group and infinite time-evolving block decimation). We find that the complete devil's staircase-an infinite sequence of crystal states existing at vanishing tunneling-spreads to a succession of lobes similar to the Mott lobes found in Bose-Hubbard models. Investigating the melting of these crystal states at increased tunneling, we do not find (contrary to similar 2D models) clear indications of supersolid behavior in the region around the melting transition. However, we find that inside the insulating lobes there are quasi-long-range (algebraic) correlations, as opposed to models with nearest-neighbor tunneling, that show exponential decay of correlations.

  10. Spectrometric performances of high quantum efficiency multi and single anode PMTs coupled to LaBr3(Ce) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinti, Maria Nerina, E-mail: marianerina.cinti@uniroma1.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); INFN Rome 1 Section, Rome (Italy); Pani, Roberto; Pellegrini, Rosanna [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); INFN Rome 1 Section, Rome (Italy); Bennati, Paolo [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); Orlandi, Chiara [Medical Physics Post Graduate School, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); Fabbri, Andrea [Department of Physics, Roma Tre University, Rome (Italy); INFN Rome 3 Section, Rome (Italy); Ridolfi, Stefano; Scafè, Raffaele [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    High quantum efficiency semiconductor photodetectors have recently drawn the attention of the scientific community for their potential in the realization of a new class of scintillation imagers with very high energy and spatial resolution performance. However, this goal does not seem within easy reach, due to various technological issues such as, for example, the difficulty to scale the characteristics of a single detector to an imager with suitable dimensions. Lately a definite technical improvement in increasing quantum efficiency up to 42% for position sensitive photomultipliers was achieved. The aim of this work is thus to test this new technological progress and to study the possible implications in imaging applications. Four Hamamatsu PMTs were tested: two multi anode photomultipliers, one with a bialkali (27% quantum efficiency) and the other one with a super-bialkali photocathode (38% quantum efficiency), and two 1×1 in. PMTs, both equipped with an ultra bialkali photocathode (42% quantum efficiency). In particular one of the ultra bialkali PMT has also an increased efficiency of first dynode charge collection. The results were compared with the ones obtained with a reference PMT (Hamamatsu R6231), mainly used in spectroscopy. The PMTs were coupled to LaBr3(Ce), NaI(Tl) and LSO(Ce) continuous scintillation crystals. The tests were done using two independent electronic chains: one dedicated for spectroscopic application and a second one, using a multi wire 64 channel readout, for imaging applications. The super-bialkali MA-PMTs have shown high energy resolution, both with spectroscopic and imaging setup, highlighting the appropriateness of these devices for the development of imaging devices with high spectroscopic performance. -- Highlights: • A study of energy resolution results coming from position sensitive photomultipliers are proposed. • The study is also extended on mono- anode photomultiplier. • The selected scintillation crystal is LeBr3(Ce

  11. Role of Precursor-Conversion Chemistry in the Crystal-Phase Control of Catalytically Grown Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2017-12-26

    Crystal-phase control is one of the most challenging problems in nanowire growth. We demonstrate that, in the solution-phase catalyzed growth of colloidal cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum wires (QWs), the crystal phase can be controlled by manipulating the reaction chemistry of the Cd precursors and tri-n-octylphosphine telluride (TOPTe) to favor the production of either a CdTe solute or Te, which consequently determines the composition and (liquid or solid) state of the Bi x Cd y Te z catalyst nanoparticles. Growth of single-phase (e.g., wurtzite) QWs is achieved only from solid catalysts (y ≪ z) that enable the solution-solid-solid growth of the QWs, whereas the liquid catalysts (y ≈ z) fulfill the solution-liquid-solid growth of the polytypic QWs. Factors that affect the precursor-conversion chemistry are systematically accounted for, which are correlated with a kinetic study of the composition and state of the catalyst nanoparticles to understand the mechanism. This work reveals the role of the precursor-reaction chemistry in the crystal-phase control of catalytically grown colloidal QWs, opening the possibility of growing phase-pure QWs of other compositions.

  12. Efficient Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer between Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles Based on Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal for DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Lv, Jie; Jia, Zhenhong

    2017-05-10

    A novel assembled biosensor was prepared for detecting 16S rRNA, a small-size persistent specific for Actinobacteria. The mechanism of the porous silicon (PS) photonic crystal biosensor is based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through DNA hybridization, where QDs act as an emission donor and AuNPs serve as a fluorescence quencher. Results showed that the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of PS photonic crystal was drastically increased when the QDs-conjugated probe DNA was adhered to the PS layer by surface modification using a standard cross-link chemistry method. The PL intensity of QDs was decreased when the addition of AuNPs-conjugated complementary 16S rRNA was dropped onto QDs-conjugated PS. Based on the analysis of different target DNA concentration, it was found that the decrease of the PL intensity showed a good linear relationship with complementary DNA concentration in a range from 0.25 to 10 μM, and the detection limit was 328.7 nM. Such an optical FRET biosensor functions on PS-based photonic crystal for DNA detection that differs from the traditional FRET, which is used only in liquid. This method will benefit the development of a new optical FRET label-free biosensor on Si substrate and has great potential in biochips based on integrated optical devices.

  13. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  14. Transfer behavior of quantum states between atoms in photonic crystal coupled cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ke; Li Zhiyuan

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the one-excitation dynamics of a quantum system consisting of two two-level atoms each interacting with one of two coupled single-mode cavities via spontaneous emission. When the atoms and cavities are tuned into resonance, a wide variety of time-evolution behaviors can be realized by modulating the atom-cavity coupling strength g and the cavity-cavity hopping strength λ. The dynamics is solved rigorously via the eigenproblem of an ordinary coupled linear system and simple analytical solutions are derived at several extreme situations of g and λ. In the large hopping limit where g >λ, the time-evolution behavior of the system is characterized by the usual slowly varying carrier envelope superimposed upon a fast and violent oscillation. At a certain instant, the energy is fully transferred from the one quantum subsystem to the other. When the two interaction strengths are comparable in magnitude, the dynamics acts as a continuous pulse having irregular frequency and line shape of peaks and valleys, and the complicated time-evolution behaviors are ascribed to the violent competition between all the one-excitation quantum states. The coupled quantum system of atoms and cavities makes a good model to study cavity quantum electrodynamics with great freedoms of many-body interaction.

  15. Calculation of dynamic and electronic properties of perfect and defect crystals by semiempirical quantum mechanical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunger, A.

    1975-07-01

    Semiempirical all-valence-electron LCAO methods, that were previously used to study the electronic structure of molecules are applied to three problems in solid state physics: the electronic band structure of covalent crystals, point defect problems in solids and lattice dynamical study of molecular crystals. Calculation methods for the electronic band structure of regular solids are introduced and problems regarding the computation of the density matrix in solids are discussed. Three models for treating the electronic eigenvalue problem in the solid, within the proposed calculation schemes, are discussed and the proposed models and calculation schemes are applied to the calculation of the electronic structure of several solids belonging to different crystal types. The calculation models also describe electronic properties of deep defects in covalent insulating crystals. The possible usefulness of the semieipirical LCAO methods in determining the first order intermolecular interaction potential in solids and an improved model for treating the lattice dynamics and related thermodynamical properties of molecular solids are presented. The improved lattice dynamical is used to compute phonon dispersion curves, phonon density of states, stable unit cell structure, lattice heat capacity and thermal crystal parameters, in α and γ-N 2 crystals, using the N 2 -N 2 intermolecular interaction potential that has been computed from the semiempirical LCAO methods. (B.G.)

  16. Aqueous Exfoliation of Graphite into Graphene Assisted by Sulfonyl Graphene Quantum Dots for Photonic Crystal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Minxiang; Shah, Smit A; Huang, Dali; Parviz, Dorsa; Yu, Yi-Hsien; Wang, Xuezhen; Green, Micah J; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2017-09-13

    We investigate the π-π stacking of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with graphene surfaces, showing that such interactions are general across a wide range of PAH sizes and species, including graphene quantum dots. We synthesized a series of graphene quantum dots with sulfonyl, amino, and carboxylic functional groups and employed them to exfoliate and disperse pristine graphene in water. We observed that sulfonyl-functionalized graphene quantum dots were able to stabilize the highest concentration of graphene in comparison to other functional groups; this is consistent with prior findings by pyrene. The graphene nanosheets prepared showed excellent colloidal stability, indicating great potential for applications in electronics, solar cells, and photonic displays which was demonstrated in this work.

  17. Spontaneous emission of semiconductor quantum dots in inverse opal SiO2 photonic crystals at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Yang, Yingshu; Wang, Yinghui; Gao, Jiechao; Sui, Ning; Chi, Xiaochun; Zou, Lu; Zhang, Han-Zhuang

    2016-02-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) infiltrated into inverse opal SiO2 photonic crystals (PCs) are systemically studied. The special porous structure of inverse opal PCs enhanced the thermal exchange rate between the CdSe QDs and their surrounding environment. Finally, inverse opal SiO2 PCs suppressed the nonlinear PL enhancement of CdSe QDs in PCs excited by a continuum laser and effectively modulated the PL characteristics of CdSe QDs in PCs at high temperatures in comparison with that of CdSe QDs out of PCs. The final results are of benefit in further understanding the role of inverse opal PCs on the PL characteristics of QDs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Bistable four-wave mixing response in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Xiao, Si; Liang, Shan; He, Meng-Dong; Luo, Jian-Hua; Kim, Nam-Chol; Chen, Li-Qun

    2017-10-16

    We perform a theoretical study of the bistable four-wave mixing (FWM) response in a coupled system comprised of a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and a photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity in which the SQD is embedded. It is shown that the shape of the FWM spectrum can switch among single-peaked, double-peaked, triple-peaked, and four-peaked arising from the vacuum Rabi splitting and the exciton-nanocavity coupling. Especially, we map out bistability phase diagrams within a parameter subspace of the system, and find that it is easy to turn on or off the bistable FWM response by only adjusting the excitation frequency or the pumping intensity. Our results offer a feasible means for measuring the SQD-PC nanocavity coupling strength and open a new avenue to design optical switches and memories.

  19. Factors influencing epitaxial growth of three-dimensional Ge quantum dot crystals on pit-patterned Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y J; Zhong, Z; Yang, X J; Fan, Y L; Jiang, Z M

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the molecular beam epitaxy growth of three-dimensional (3D) Ge quantum dot crystals (QDCs) on periodically pit-patterned Si substrates. A series of factors influencing the growth of QDCs were investigated in detail and the optimized growth conditions were found. The growth of the Si buffer layer and the first quantum dot (QD) layer play a key role in the growth of QDCs. The pit facet inclination angle decreased with increasing buffer layer thickness, and its optimized value was found to be around 21°, ensuring that all the QDs in the first layer nucleate within the pits. A large Ge deposition amount in the first QD layer favors strain build-up by QDs, size uniformity of QDs and hence periodicity of the strain distribution; a thin Si spacer layer favors strain correlation along the growth direction; both effects contribute to the vertical ordering of the QDCs. Results obtained by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that 3D ordering was achieved in the Ge QDCs with the highest ever areal dot density of 1.2 × 10 10 cm −2 , and that the lateral and the vertical interdot spacing were ∼10 and ∼2.5 nm, respectively. (paper)

  20. Factors influencing epitaxial growth of three-dimensional Ge quantum dot crystals on pit-patterned Si substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y J; Zhong, Z; Yang, X J; Fan, Y L; Jiang, Z M

    2013-01-11

    We investigated the molecular beam epitaxy growth of three-dimensional (3D) Ge quantum dot crystals (QDCs) on periodically pit-patterned Si substrates. A series of factors influencing the growth of QDCs were investigated in detail and the optimized growth conditions were found. The growth of the Si buffer layer and the first quantum dot (QD) layer play a key role in the growth of QDCs. The pit facet inclination angle decreased with increasing buffer layer thickness, and its optimized value was found to be around 21°, ensuring that all the QDs in the first layer nucleate within the pits. A large Ge deposition amount in the first QD layer favors strain build-up by QDs, size uniformity of QDs and hence periodicity of the strain distribution; a thin Si spacer layer favors strain correlation along the growth direction; both effects contribute to the vertical ordering of the QDCs. Results obtained by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that 3D ordering was achieved in the Ge QDCs with the highest ever areal dot density of 1.2 × 10(10) cm(-2), and that the lateral and the vertical interdot spacing were ~10 and ~2.5 nm, respectively.

  1. Inside Perovskites: Quantum Luminescence from Bulk Cs4PbBr6 Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    de Bastiani, Michele; Dursun, Ibrahim; Zhang, Yuhai; Alshankiti, Buthainah; Miao, Xiaohe; Yin, Jun; Yengel, Emre; Alarousu, Erkki; Turedi, Bekir; Almutlaq, Jawaher; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Mitra, Somak; Gereige, Issam; Alsaggaf, Ahmed; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Roqan, Iman S.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman

    2017-01-01

    the chemistry and structure of these materials, without revealing the origins of their optical behaviour, which is contradictory to the well-studied APbX3 perovskites. In this work, we synthesize single crystals of Cs4PbBr6 0D-PRS, and investigated the origins

  2. Investigation of quantum states of fast electrons under planar channeling in silicon crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridnev, V.I.; Kaplin, V.V.; Khlabutin, V.G.; Rozum, E.I.; Vorobiev, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The angular distributions of (1.87 to 5.7) MeV electrons channeled in 2 μm Si crystals along (100), (110), and (111) atomic planes are measured. The half-width of measured angular distributions is defined by a critical Lindhard angle. A relation is obtained connecting those energies of electrons at which their angular distributions are similar for various atomic planes. The effect of a 'critical energy' under planar channeling of electrons is found and investigated. (author)

  3. Decay dynamics of radiatively coupled quantum dots in photonic crystal slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the influence of radiative coupling on light emission in a photonic crystal slab structure. The calculation method is based on a formalism that combines the photon Green's tensor with a self-consistent Dyson equation approach and is applicable to a wide range of probl......’s tensor and show how interference between different light scattering pathways is responsible for this nontrivial detector response...

  4. Diamond photonic crystal slab: leaky modes and modified photoluminescence emission of surface-deposited quantum dots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondič, Lukáš; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Čtyroký, Jiří; Pelant, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, Dec (2012), s. 1-6 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120804; GA AV ČR KJB100100903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/0046 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : photonic crystal * diamond * photoluminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.927, year: 2012 http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/121203/srep00914/full/srep00914.html

  5. Evidence of quantum correlations in the H/D-transfer dynamics in the hydrogen bonds in partially deuterated benzoic acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sadamu; Tsuzumitani, Akihiko; Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann, C. A.

    1992-10-01

    A precise investigation of spin—lattice relaxation rates for protons and deuterons of partially deuterated benzoic acid crystals showed a remarkable quenching of the transfer rate of an HD pair in hydrogen-bonded dimeric units of carboxyl groups with increasing concentration of D in the surrounding hydrogen bonds. A similar effect was also observed for partially deuterated crystals of acetylenedicarboxylic acid. This finding supports recent theoretical predictions of thermally activated protonic quantum correlation in condensed matter and proposes a new mechanism for the proton transfer in hydrogen bonds in condensed matter.

  6. Single crystal EPR determination of the quantum energy level structure for Fe8 molecular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagnano, S.; Hill, S.; Negusse, E.; Lussier, A.; Mola, M. M.; Achey, R.; Dalal, N. S.

    2001-05-01

    Using a high sensitivity resonance cavity technique,^1 we are able to obtain high field/frequency (up to 9 tesla/210 GHz) EPR spectra for oriented single crystals of [Fe_8O_2(OH)_12(tacn)_6]Br_8.9H_2O (or Fe8 for short). Extrapolating the frequency dependence of transitions to zero-field (for any orientation of the field) allows us to directly, and accurately (to within 0.5 percent), determine the first five zero-field splittings, which are in reasonable agreement with recent inelastic neutron studies.^2 The dependence of these splittings on the applied field strength, and its orientation with respect to the crystal, enables us to identify (to within 1^o) the easy, intermediate and hard magnetic axes. Subsequent analysis of EPR spectra for field parallel to the easy axis yields a value of for gz which is appreciably different from the value assumed in a recent high field EPR study by Barra et al.^3 ^1 M.M. Mola, S. Hill, P. Goy, and M. Gross, Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 186 (2000). ^2 R. Caciuffo, G. Amoretti, R. Sessoli, A. Caneschi, and D. Gatteschi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4744 (1998). ^3 A. L. Barra, D. Gatteschi, and R. Sessoli, cond?mat/0002386 (Feb, 2000).

  7. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and quantum chemical investigations of three novel coumarin-benzenesulfonohydrazide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chethan Prathap, K. N.; Lokanath, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    Coumarin derivatives are an important class of heterocyclic compounds due to their physical and biological properties. Coumarin derivatives have been identified with many significant electro-optical properties and biological activities. Three novel coumarin derivatives containing benzene sulfonohydrazide group were synthesized by condensation reaction. The synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques (Mass, 1H/13C NMR and FTIR). Thermal and optical properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and UV-Vis spectroscopic studies. Finally their structures were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The three compounds exhibit diverse intermolecular interactions, as observed by the crystal packing and Hirshfeld surface analysis. Further, their structures were optimized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations using B3LYP hybrid functionals with 6-311G+(d,p) level basis set. The Mulliken charge, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), frontier molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) were investigated. The experimentally determined parameters were compared with those calculated theoretically and they complement each other with a very good correlation. The transitions among the molecular orbitals were investigated using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and the electronic absorption spectra obtained showed very good agreement with the experimentally measured UV-Vis spectra. Furthermore, non-linear optical (NLO) properties were investigated by calculating polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities. All three compounds exhibit significantly high hyperpolarizabilities compared to the reference material urea, which makes them potential candidates for NLO applications.

  8. Studying the InAs quantum points on the vicinal surface of a GaAs crystal by the atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Evtikhiev, V P; Kotelnikov, E Y; Matveentsev, A V; Titkov, A N; Shkolnik, A S

    2002-01-01

    The methodology for processing the images, obtained through the atomic force microscopy, is proposed. It is shown by the concrete example, how the parameters of the InAs clusters on the vicinal surface of the GaAs crystal are determined. This makes it possible to calculate the energy levels of the electrons and holes in the quantum point with application of the previously developed cluster spherical model

  9. Quantum chemical modelling of magnesium centers in LiF crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyuger, A.L.; Mysovskij, S.N.; Nepomnyashchikh, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown theoretically that optical absorption at 4.0 eV in LiF irradiated crystals is linked with Mg c + v a + v c - -centers (M-centers) and results from electron transitions from quasi-local staes in valent zone to vetre local state. V k and M-centres resulting from M-centre photodecolorization at low temperatures cause optical absorption with maxima at 3.5 and 5.0 eV. M-centres are transformed into M-centres oriented along axis at temperatures higher than 240 K. Optical excitation of M-centres oriented along axis with 5.5 eV maximum results in the initiation of luminescence at 2 eV

  10. Giant optical anisotropy in M-plane GaN/AlGaN quantum wells due to crystal-field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-N.; Su, W.-L.; Chang, K.-C.; Chang, S.-H.; Chiang, J.-C.; Lo Ikai; Wang, W.-T.; Kao, H.-F.; Lee, M.-E.

    2008-01-01

    The optical polarization of GaN/AlGaN wurtzite quantum wells in various orientations is studied using an arbitrarily-oriented [hkil] Hamiltonian potential matrix. The optical matrix elements in the wurtzite quantum wells are calculated using the k.p finite difference scheme. The results reveal the presence of giant in-plane optical anisotropy (polarized normal to [0001]) in the M-plane (i.e., the (101-bar0)-oriented layer plane) GaN/Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 N quantum well, due to the positive crystal-field split energy effect (Δ CR >0). The present theoretical results are consistent with the photoluminescence measurements presented in the literature [B. Rau, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 (2000) 3343

  11. Pico-ampere current sensitivity and CdSe quantum dots assembly assisted charge transport in ferroelectric liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap Singh, Dharmendra; Boussoualem, Yahia; Duponchel, Benoit; Sahraoui, Abdelhak Hadj; Kumar, Sandeep; Manohar, Rajiv; Daoudi, Abdelylah

    2017-08-01

    Octadecylamine capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) dispersed 4-(1-methyl-heptyloxy)-benzoic acid 4‧-octyloxy-biphenyl-4-yl ester ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) were deposited over gold coated quartz substrate using dip-coating. The topographical investigation discloses that the homogeneously dispersed QDs adopt face-on to edge-on assembly in FLC matrix owing to their concentration. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement was performed using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) which yields ohmic to critical diode like I-V curves depending upon the concentration of QDs in FLC. The recorded pico-ampere (pA) current sensitivity in FLC-QDs composites is attributed to micro-second drift time of electron due to weak electronic coupling between the π-electrons on the FLC and s-electrons on the metal surface. The observed pico-ampere sensitivity is the least current sensitivity recorded so far. For FLC-QDs composites, almost 24% faster electro-optic response was observed in comparison to pure FLC. The pico-ampere current sensitivity can be utilized in touch screen displays whereas the change in polarization for low applied electric field ameliorates the increased electrical susceptibility counteracting the internal electric field and its use in electronic data storage and faster electro-optical devices.

  12. Collective classical and quantum fields in plasmas, superconductors, superfluid $^{3}$He, and liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hagen Kleinert

    2018-01-01

    This is an introductory book dealing with collective phenomena in many-body systems. A gas of bosons or fermions can show oscillations of various types of density. These are described by different combinations of field variables. Especially delicate is the competition of these variables. In superfluid 3He, for example, the atoms can be attracted to each other by molecular forces, whereas they are repelled from each other at short distance due to a hardcore repulsion. The attraction gives rise to Cooper pairs, and the repulsion is overcome by paramagnon oscillations. The combination is what finally led to the discovery of superfluidity in 3He. In general, the competition between various channels can most efficiently be studied by means of a classical version of the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. A gas of electrons is controlled by the interplay of plasma oscillations and pair formation. In a system of rod- or disc-like molecules, liquid crystals are observed with directional orientations that behave in ...

  13. Advanced Fabrication of Single-Crystal Diamond Membranes for Quantum Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Challier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many promising applications of single crystal diamond and its color centers as sensor platform and in photonics require free-standing membranes with a thickness ranging from several micrometers to the few 100 nm range. In this work, we present an approach to conveniently fabricate such thin membranes with up to about one millimeter in size. We use commercially available diamond plates (thickness 50 μ m in an inductively coupled reactive ion etching process which is based on argon, oxygen and SF 6 . We thus avoid using toxic, corrosive feed gases and add an alternative to previously presented recipes involving chlorine-based etching steps. Our membranes are smooth (RMS roughness <1 nm and show moderate thickness variation (central part: <1 μ m over ≈200 × 200 μ m 2 . Due to an improved etch mask geometry, our membranes stay reliably attached to the diamond plate in our chlorine-based as well as SF 6 -based processes. Our results thus open the route towards higher reliability in diamond device fabrication and up-scaling.

  14. Piezo-optic tensor of crystals from quantum-mechanical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, A; Ruggiero, M T; Korter, T M; Dovesi, R

    2015-10-14

    An automated computational strategy is devised for the ab initio determination of the full fourth-rank piezo-optic tensor of crystals belonging to any space group of symmetry. Elastic stiffness and compliance constants are obtained as numerical first derivatives of analytical energy gradients with respect to the strain and photo-elastic constants as numerical derivatives of analytical dielectric tensor components, which are in turn computed through a Coupled-Perturbed-Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham approach, with respect to the strain. Both point and translation symmetries are exploited at all steps of the calculation, within the framework of periodic boundary conditions. The scheme is applied to the determination of the full set of ten symmetry-independent piezo-optic constants of calcium tungstate CaWO4, which have recently been experimentally reconstructed. Present calculations unambiguously determine the absolute sign (positive) of the π61 constant, confirm the reliability of 6 out of 10 experimentally determined constants and provide new, more accurate values for the remaining 4 constants.

  15. Quantum well effect in bulk PbI(2) crystals revealed by the anisotropy of photoluminescence and Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltog, I; Baibarac, M; Lefrant, S

    2009-01-14

    On subjecting a bulk 2H-PbI(2) crystal to vacuum annealing at 500 K followed by a sudden cooling at liquid nitrogen temperature stacking faults are generated that separate distinct layers of nanometric thickness in which different numbers of I-Pb-I atomic layers are bundled together. Such structures, containing two, three, four, five etc I-Pb-I atomic layers, behave as quantum wells of different widths. The signature of such a transformation is given by a shift towards higher energies of the fundamental absorption edge, which is experimentally revealed by specific anisotropies in the photoluminescence and Raman spectra. The quantum confining effect is made visible by specific variations of a wide extra-excitonic band (G) at 2.06 eV that originates in the radiative recombination of carriers (electrons and holes), trapped on the surface defects. The excitation spectrum of the G band, with p polarized exciting light, reveals a fine structure comprised of narrow bands at 2.75, 2.64, 2.59 and 2.56 eV, which are associated with the PbI(2) quantum wells formed from two, three, four and five I-Pb-I atomic layers of 0.7 nm thickness. Regardless of the polarization state of the laser exciting light of 514.5 nm (2.41 eV), which is close to the band gap energy of PbI(2) (2.52 eV), the Raman scattering on bulk as-grown PbI(2) crystals has the character of a resonant process. For p polarized exciting light, the Raman scattering process on vacuum annealed PbI(2) becomes non-resonant. This originates from the quantum well structures generated inside the crystal, whose band gap energies are higher than the energy of the exciting light.

  16. Quantum chemical elucidation of the mechanism for hydrogenation of TiO2 anatase crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, P.; Huang, W. F.; Lin, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogenation of TiO2 is relevant to hydrogen storage and water splitting. We have carried out a detailed mechanistic study on TiO2 hydrogenation through H and/or H2 diffusion from the surface into subsurface layers of anatase TiO2 (101) by periodic density functional theory calculations implementing on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT + U). Both H atoms and H2 molecules can migrate from the crystal surface into TiO2 near subsurface layer with 27.8 and 46.2 kcal/mol energy barriers, respectively. The controlling step for the former process is the dissociative adsorption of H2 on the surface which requires 47.8 kcal/mol of energy barrier. Both hydrogen incorporation processes are expected to be equally favorable. The barrier energy for H2 migration from the first layer of the subsurface Osub1 to the 2nd layer of the subsurface oxygen Osub2 requires only 6.6 kcal. The presence of H atoms on the surface and inside the subsurface layer tends to promote both H and H2 penetration into the subsurface layer by reducing their energy barriers, as well as to prevent the escape of the H2 from the cage by increasing its escaping barrier energy. The H2 molecule inside a cage can readily dissociate and form 2HO-species exothermically (ΔH = -31.0 kcal/mol) with only 26.2 kcal/mol barrier. The 2HO-species within the cage may further transform into H2O with a 22.0 kcal/mol barrier and 19.3 kcal/mol exothermicity relative to the caged H2 molecule. H2O formation following the breaking of Ti-O bonds within the cage may result in the formation of O-vacancies and surface disordering as observed experimentally under a high pressure and moderately high temperature condition. According to density of states analysis, the projected density of states of the interstitial H, H2, and H2O appear prominently within the TiO2 band gap; in addition, the former induces a shift of the band gap position notably towards the conduction band. The thermochemistry for formation of the most stable sub

  17. Quantum chemical elucidation of the mechanism for hydrogenation of TiO{sub 2} anatase crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, P.; Huang, W. F.; Lin, M. C. [Center for Interdisciplinary Molecular Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-21

    Hydrogenation of TiO{sub 2} is relevant to hydrogen storage and water splitting. We have carried out a detailed mechanistic study on TiO{sub 2} hydrogenation through H and/or H{sub 2} diffusion from the surface into subsurface layers of anatase TiO{sub 2} (101) by periodic density functional theory calculations implementing on-site Coulomb interactions (DFT + U). Both H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules can migrate from the crystal surface into TiO{sub 2} near subsurface layer with 27.8 and 46.2 kcal/mol energy barriers, respectively. The controlling step for the former process is the dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2} on the surface which requires 47.8 kcal/mol of energy barrier. Both hydrogen incorporation processes are expected to be equally favorable. The barrier energy for H{sub 2} migration from the first layer of the subsurface O{sub sub1} to the 2nd layer of the subsurface oxygen O{sub sub2} requires only 6.6 kcal. The presence of H atoms on the surface and inside the subsurface layer tends to promote both H and H{sub 2} penetration into the subsurface layer by reducing their energy barriers, as well as to prevent the escape of the H{sub 2} from the cage by increasing its escaping barrier energy. The H{sub 2} molecule inside a cage can readily dissociate and form 2HO-species exothermically ({Delta}H =-31.0 kcal/mol) with only 26.2 kcal/mol barrier. The 2HO-species within the cage may further transform into H{sub 2}O with a 22.0 kcal/mol barrier and 19.3 kcal/mol exothermicity relative to the caged H{sub 2} molecule. H{sub 2}O formation following the breaking of Ti-O bonds within the cage may result in the formation of O-vacancies and surface disordering as observed experimentally under a high pressure and moderately high temperature condition. According to density of states analysis, the projected density of states of the interstitial H, H{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O appear prominently within the TiO{sub 2} band gap; in addition, the former induces a shift of the

  18. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  19. Characterization of CuCl quantum dots grown in NaCl single crystals via optical measurements, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Kensuke; Akatsu, Tatsuro; Itoh, Ken

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated the crystal size, shape, and alignment of the lattice planes of CuCl quantum dots (QDs) embedded in NaCl single crystals by optical measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We obtained, for the first time, an XRD pattern and TEM images for CuCl QDs in NaCl crystals. The XRD pattern showed that the lattice planes of the CuCl QDs were parallel to those of the NaCl crystals. In addition, the size of the QDs was estimated from the diffraction width. It was apparent from the TEM images that almost all CuCl QDs were polygonal, although some cubic QDs were present. The mean size and size distribution of the QDs were also obtained. The dot size obtained from optical measurements, XRD, and TEM image were almost consistent. Our new findings can help to reveal the growth mechanism of semiconductor QDs embedded in a crystallite matrix. In addition, this work will play an important role in progressing the study of optical phenomena originating from assembled semiconductor QDs.

  20. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Spectroscopy of V4+ and V3+ ions in a forsterite crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veremeichik, T. F.; Gaister, A. V.; Zharikov, Evgeny V.; Protopopov, V. N.; Smirnov, Valerii A.; Subbotin, Kirill A.

    2000-05-01

    The absorption spectra of impurity vanadium ions in forsterite crystals are studied in the wavelength range from 600 to 2000 nm. It is found that the V4+ ion in the tetrahedral coordination in crystals grown by the Czochralski technique exhibits strong absorption in the range from 600 to 1200 nm. The intense electron-vibrational progressions in the absorption spectra of impurity d-ions in crystals were observed for the first time at temperatures 300 and 77 K. In the authors' opinion, these progressions appear due to the formation of the oxovanadate complex and distortions of the structural tetrahedron. The forsterite crystal doped with V4+ ions has a very high absorption cross section (up to 2.1×10-18 cm2) and a continuous broad absorption band, which makes this crystal promising as a passive laser switch in the range between 600 and 1200 nm. At the same time, the V4+ ions in the forsterite crystal do not emit luminescence because of a high probability of the nonradiative relaxation of their excited state. It is shown that luminescence of a V:Mg2SiO4 crystal is related to the tetrahedral V3+ ion.

  1. Energy transfer and visible-infrared quantum cutting photoluminescence modification in Tm-Yb codoped YPO(4) inverse opal photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siqin; Qiu, Jianbei; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Dacheng; Yang, Zhengwen

    2015-08-01

    YPO4:  Tm, Yb inverse opal photonic crystals were successfully synthesized by the colloidal crystal templates method, and the visible-infrared quantum cutting (QC) photoluminescence properties of YPO4:  Tm, Yb inverse opal photonic crystals were investigated. We obtained tetragonal phase YPO4 in all the samples when the samples sintered at 950°C for 5 h. The visible emission intensity of Tm3+ decreased significantly when the photonic bandgap was located at 650 nm under 480 nm excitation. On the contrary, the QC emission intensity of Yb3+ was enhanced as compared with the no photonic bandgap sample. When the photonic bandgap was located at 480 nm, the Yb3+ and Tm3+ light-emitting intensity weakened at the same time. We demonstrated that the energy transfer between Tm3+ and Yb3+ is enhanced by the suppression of the red emission of Tm3+. Additionally, the mechanisms for the influence of the photonic bandgap on the energy transfer process of the Tm3+, Yb3+ codoped YPO4 inverse opal are discussed.

  2. Strong photonic crystal behavior in regular arrays of core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewins, C. J., E-mail: c.j.lewins@bath.ac.uk; Le Boulbar, E. D.; Lis, S. M.; Shields, P. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E., E-mail: d.allsopp@bath.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28

    We show that arrays of emissive nanorod structures can exhibit strong photonic crystal behavior, via observations of the far-field luminescence from core-shell and quantum disc InGaN/GaN nanorods. The conditions needed for the formation of directional Bloch modes characteristic of strong photonic behavior are found to depend critically upon the vertical shape of the nanorod sidewalls. Index guiding by a region of lower volume-averaged refractive index near the base of the nanorods creates a quasi-suspended photonic crystal slab at the top of the nanorods which supports Bloch modes. Only diffractive behavior could be observed without this region. Slab waveguide modelling of the vertical structure shows that the behavioral regime of the emissive nanorod arrays depends strongly upon the optical coupling between the nanorod region and the planar layers below. The controlled crossover between the two regimes of photonic crystal operation enables the design of photonic nanorod structures formed on planar substrates that exploit either behavior depending on device requirements.

  3. Spatially-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of CdSe quantum dots synthesized in ionic liquid crystal matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaryan, K.A.; Mikhailov, M.A.; Karimullin, K.R.; Knyazev, M.V.; Eremchev, I.Y.; Naumov, A.V.; Vasilieva, I.A.; Klimusheva, G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of luminescence properties of new quantum dot (QD)-doped materials. We studied CdSe QDs (1.8 nm and 2.3 nm) grown inside of a liquid crystalline cadmium alcanoate matrix. Temperature dependence of parameters of fluorescence spectra obtained in a wide temperature range using epi-luminescence microscopy technique was analyzed. Spatially-resolved luminescence images were measured for the areas of the samples of 150×150 µm 2 . Strong correlation between fluorescence spectra and sample structure was observed. - Highlights: • Glassy matrix with CdSe quantum dots inside fabricated in liquid crystalline mesophase. • Study of luminescence properties in a wide range of low temperatures. • Strong dependence of the luminescence spectra on spatial inhomogeneities. • Spatially-resolved luminescence imaging of quantum dots in liquid crystalline matrix.

  4. Spatially-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of CdSe quantum dots synthesized in ionic liquid crystal matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaryan, K.A., E-mail: xmagaros@gmail.com [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, M.A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Karimullin, K.R. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Institute for Spectroscopy of RAS, 5 Fizicheskaya Str., Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); E.K. Zavoyski Kazan Physical-Technical Institute of RAS, 10/7 Sibirski trakt Str., Kazan 420029 (Russian Federation); Knyazev, M.V.; Eremchev, I.Y. [Institute for Spectroscopy of RAS, 5 Fizicheskaya Str., Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Naumov, A.V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Institute for Spectroscopy of RAS, 5 Fizicheskaya Str., Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Vasilieva, I.A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 29 Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Klimusheva, G.V. [Institute of Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 46 Prospect Nauki, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)

    2016-01-15

    The paper is devoted to investigation of luminescence properties of new quantum dot (QD)-doped materials. We studied CdSe QDs (1.8 nm and 2.3 nm) grown inside of a liquid crystalline cadmium alcanoate matrix. Temperature dependence of parameters of fluorescence spectra obtained in a wide temperature range using epi-luminescence microscopy technique was analyzed. Spatially-resolved luminescence images were measured for the areas of the samples of 150×150 µm{sup 2}. Strong correlation between fluorescence spectra and sample structure was observed. - Highlights: • Glassy matrix with CdSe quantum dots inside fabricated in liquid crystalline mesophase. • Study of luminescence properties in a wide range of low temperatures. • Strong dependence of the luminescence spectra on spatial inhomogeneities. • Spatially-resolved luminescence imaging of quantum dots in liquid crystalline matrix.

  5. A neutron diffraction study of the crystal of benzoic acid from 6 to 293 K and a macroscopic-scale quantum theory of the lattice of hydrogen-bonded dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillaux, François, E-mail: francois.fillaux@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 8233, MONARIS, F-7505 Paris (France); Cousson, Alain, E-mail: alain-f.cousson@cea.fr [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2016-11-10

    Highlights: • Proton transfer and tautomerism are revisited from quantum viewpoint. • Neutron-diffraction gives evidence for long-range correlations for protons. • We introduce a decoherence-free macroscopic-scale crystal-state. • All observations accord with the principle of complementarity. • Computational-chemistry models are inappropriate. - Abstract: Measurements via different techniques of the crystal of benzoic acid have led to conflicting conceptions of tautomerism: statistical disorder for diffraction; semiclassical jumps for relaxometry; quantum states for vibrational spectroscopy. We argue that these conflicts follow from the prejudice that nuclear positions and eigenstates are pre-existing to measurements, what is at variance with the principle of complementarity. We propose a self-contained quantum theory. First of all, new single-crystal neutron-diffraction data accord with long-range correlation for proton-site occupancies. Then we introduce a macroscopic-scale quantum-state emerging from phonon condensation, for which nuclear positions and eigenstates are indefinite. As to quantum-measurements, an incoming wave (neutron or photon) entangled with the condensate realizes a transitory state, either in the space of static nuclear-coordinates (diffraction), or in that of the symmetry coordinates (spectroscopy and relaxometry). We derive temperature-laws for proton-site occupancies and for the relaxation rate, which compare favorably with measurements.

  6. Colloidal Synthesis of Quantum Confined Single Crystal CsPbBr3 Nanosheets with Lateral Size Control up to the Micrometer Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Javad; Dang, Zhiya; Bianchini, Paolo; Canale, Claudio; Stasio, Francesco Di; Brescia, Rosaria; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato

    2016-06-15

    We report the nontemplated colloidal synthesis of single crystal CsPbBr3 perovskite nanosheets with lateral sizes up to a few micrometers and with thickness of just a few unit cells (i.e., below 5 nm), hence in the strong quantum confinement regime, by introducing short ligands (octanoic acid and octylamine) in the synthesis together with longer ones (oleic acid and oleylamine). The lateral size is tunable by varying the ratio of shorter ligands over longer ligands, while the thickness is mainly unaffected by this parameter and stays practically constant at 3 nm in all the syntheses conducted at short-to-long ligands volumetric ratio below 0.67. Beyond this ratio, control over the thickness is lost and a multimodal thickness distribution is observed.

  7. Great Disparity in Photoluminesence Quantum Yields of Colloidal CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals with Varied Shape: The Effect of Crystal Lattice Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangtao; Liu, Mei; Fang, Li; Jiang, Shenlong; Zhou, Jingtian; Ding, Huaiyi; Huang, Hongwen; Wen, Wen; Luo, Zhenlin; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Xiaoping; Gao, Chen

    2017-07-06

    Understanding the big discrepancy in the photoluminesence quantum yields (PLQYs) of nanoscale colloidal materials with varied morphologies is of great significance to its property optimization and functional application. Using different shaped CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals with the same fabrication processes as model, quantitative synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the increasing trend in lattice strain values of the nanocrystals: nanocube, nanoplate, nanowire. Furthermore, transient spectroscopic measurements reveal the same trend in the defect quantities of these nanocrystals. These experimental results unambiguously point out that large lattice strain existing in CsPbBr 3 nanoparticles induces more crystal defects and thus decreases the PLQY, implying that lattice strain is a key factor other than the surface defect to dominate the PLQY of colloidal photoluminesence materials.

  8. A fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe using photonic crystal fiber for nanoscale thermometry based on fluorescence-lifetime measurement of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takuro; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Toshiharu; Nagasaka, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a novel nanoscale temperature-measurement method using fluorescence in the near-field called fluorescence near-field optics thermal nanoscopy (Fluor-NOTN). Fluor-NOTN enables the temperature distributions of nanoscale materials to be measured in vivo/in situ. The proposed method measures temperature by detecting the temperature dependent fluorescence lifetimes of Cd/Se quantum dots (QDs). For a high-sensitivity temperature measurement, the auto-fluorescence generated from a fiber probe should be reduced. In order to decrease the noise, we have fabricated a novel near-field optical-fiber probe by fusion-splicing a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF). The validity of the novel fiber probe was assessed experimentally by evaluating the auto-fluorescence spectra of the PCF. Due to the decrease of auto-fluorescence, a six- to ten-fold increase of S/N in the near-field fluorescence lifetime detection was achieved with the newly fabricated fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe. Additionally, the near-field fluorescence lifetime of the quantum dots was successfully measured by the fabricated fusion-spliced near-field optical fiber probe at room temperature, and was estimated to be 10.0 ns.

  9. Quantum incommensurate skyrmion crystals and commensurate to in-commensurate transitions in cold atoms and materials with spin-orbit couplings in a Zeeman field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fadi; Ye, Jinwu; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we study strongly interacting spinor atoms in a lattice subject to a two dimensional (2d) anisotropic Rashba type of spin orbital coupling (SOC) and an Zeeman field. We find the interplay between the Zeeman field and the SOC provides a new platform to host rich and novel classes of quantum commensurate and in-commensurate phases, excitations and phase transitions. These commensurate phases include two collinear states at low and high Zeeman field, two co-planar canted states at mirror reflected SOC parameters respectively. Most importantly, there are non-coplanar incommensurate Skyrmion (IC-SkX) crystal phases surrounded by the four commensurate phases. New excitation spectra above all the five phases, especially on the IC-SKX phase are computed. Three different classes of quantum commensurate to in-commensurate transitions from the IC-SKX to its four neighboring commensurate phases are identified. Finite temperature behaviors and transitions are discussed. The critical temperatures of all the phases can be raised above that reachable by current cold atom cooling techniques simply by tuning the number of atoms N per site. In view of recent impressive experimental advances in generating 2d SOC for cold atoms in optical lattices, these new many-body phenomena can be explored in the current and near future cold atom experiments. Applications to various materials such as MnSi, {Fe}}0.5 {Co}}0.5Si, especially the complex incommensurate magnetic ordering in Li2IrO3 are given.

  10. A Mathematica package for calculation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled in a diamond-structure single crystal (quantum approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadegan, B.

    2013-03-01

    The presented Mathematica code is an efficient tool for simulation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure single crystal. The program is based on the quantum theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling at electron energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Continuum potentials for different planes of diamond, silicon and germanium single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The code is designed to calculate the electron wave functions, transverse electron states in the planar continuum potential, transition energies, line widths of channeling radiation and depth dependencies of the population of quantum states. Finally the spectral distribution of spontaneously emitted channeling radiation is obtained. The simulation of radiation spectra considerably facilitates the interpretation of experimental data. Catalog identifier: AEOH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 446 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 209805 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Platforms on which Mathematica is available. Operating system: Operating systems on which Mathematica is available. RAM: 1 MB Classification: 7.10. Nature of problem: Planar channeling radiation is emitted by relativistic charged particles during traversing a single crystal in direction parallel to a crystallographic plane. Channeling is modeled as the motion

  11. Vibronic coupling in molecular crystals: A Franck-Condon Herzberg-Teller model of H-aggregate fluorescence based on quantum chemical cluster calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wykes, M., E-mail: mikewykes@gmail.com; Parambil, R.; Gierschner, J. [Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies, IMDEA Nanoscience, Calle Faraday 9, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beljonne, D. [Laboratory for Chemistry of Novel Materials, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2015-09-21

    Here, we present a general approach to treating vibronic coupling in molecular crystals based on atomistic simulations of large clusters. Such clusters comprise model aggregates treated at the quantum chemical level embedded within a realistic environment treated at the molecular mechanics level. As we calculate ground and excited state equilibrium geometries and vibrational modes of model aggregates, our approach is able to capture effects arising from coupling to intermolecular degrees of freedom, absent from existing models relying on geometries and normal modes of single molecules. Using the geometries and vibrational modes of clusters, we are able to simulate the fluorescence spectra of aggregates for which the lowest excited state bears negligible oscillator strength (as is the case, e.g., ideal H-aggregates) by including both Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) vibronic transitions. The latter terms allow the adiabatic excited state of the cluster to couple with vibrations in a perturbative fashion via derivatives of the transition dipole moment along nuclear coordinates. While vibronic coupling simulations employing FC and HT terms are well established for single-molecules, to our knowledge this is the first time they are applied to molecular aggregates. Here, we apply this approach to the simulation of the low-temperature fluorescence spectrum of para-distyrylbenzene single-crystal H-aggregates and draw comparisons with coarse-grained Frenkel-Holstein approaches previously extensively applied to such systems.

  12. Light-Induced Fluorescence Modulation of Quantum Dot-Crystal Violet Conjugates: Stochastic Off-On-Off Cycles for Multicolor Patterning and Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwook; Park, Joonhyuck; Bang, Jiwon; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Kim, Cheolhee; Jeon, Yongmoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jin, Ho; Choi, Sukyung; Kim, Bomi; Lee, Woo Jin; Pack, Chan-Gi; Lee, Jong-Bong; Lee, Nam Ki; Kim, Sungjee

    2017-06-07

    Photoswitching or modulation of quantum dots (QDs) can be promising for many fields that include display, memory, and super-resolution imaging. However, such modulations have mostly relied on photomodulations of conjugated molecules in QD vicinity, which typically require high power of high energy photons at UV. We report a visible light-induced facile modulation route for QD-dye conjugates. QD crystal violets conjugates (QD-CVs) were prepared and the crystal violet (CV) molecules on QD quenched the fluorescence efficiently. The fluorescence of QD-CVs showed a single cycle of emission burst as they go through three stages of (i) initially quenched "off" to (ii) photoactivated "on" as the result of chemical change of CVs induced by photoelectrons from QD and (iii) back to photodarkened "off" by radical-associated reactions. Multicolor on-demand photopatterning was demonstrated using QD-CV solid films. QD-CVs were introduced into cells, and excitation with visible light yielded photomodulation from "off" to "on" and "off" by nearly ten fold. Individual photoluminescence dynamics of QD-CVs was investigated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and single QD emission analysis, which revealed temporally stochastic photoactivations and photodarkenings. Exploiting the stochastic fluorescence burst of QD-CVs, simultaneous multicolor super-resolution localizations were demonstrated.

  13. Quantum technology past, present, future: quantum energetics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2017-04-01

    Since the development of quantum physics in the early part of the 1900s, this field of study has made remarkable contributions to our civilization. Some of these advances include lasers, light-emitting diodes (LED), sensors, spectroscopy, quantum dots, quantum gravity and quantum entanglements. In 1998, the NASA Langley Research Center established a quantum technology committee to monitor the progress in this area and initiated research to determine the potential of quantum technology for future NASA missions. The areas of interest in quantum technology at NASA included fundamental quantum-optics materials associated with quantum dots and quantum wells, device-oriented photonic crystals, smart optics, quantum conductors, quantum information and computing, teleportation theorem, and quantum energetics. A brief review of the work performed, the progress made in advancing these technologies, and the potential NASA applications of quantum technology will be presented.

  14. Crystal and molecular structures of 3-amino-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonamide and its hydrochloride: Quantum-chemical study of their tautomerism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchukova, O. V., E-mail: okovalchukova@mail.ru; Strashnova, S. B.; Romashkina, E. P.; Strashnov, P. V.; Zaitsev, B. E. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation); Sergienko, V. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    3-amino-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonamide and its hydrochloride have been isolated in the crystalline state. Their crystal and molecular structures are determined by X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium between neutral tautomeric forms of the 3-amino-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonamide molecule is studied within the approximation of density functional theory (B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ). The constants of acid-base equilibrium of 3-amino-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonamide are deter-mined using spectrophotometry.

  15. Switch-on fluorescent strategy based on crystal violet-functionalized CdTe quantum dots for detecting L-cysteine and glutathione in water and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhen; Chen, Ligang

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of L-cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH) is closely related to the critical risk of various diseases. In our study, a new rapid method for the determination of Cys and GSH in water and urine samples has been developed using a fluorescent probe technique, which was based on crystal violet (CV)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The original QDs emitted fluorescence light, which was turned off upon adding CV. This conjugation of CV and QDs could be attributed to electrostatic interaction between COO - of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on the surface of QDs and N + of CV in aqueous solution. In addition, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) also occurred between CdTe QDs and CV. After adding Cys or GSH to the solution, Cys or GSH exhibited a stronger binding preference toward Cd 2+ than Cd 2+ -MPA, which disturbed the interaction between MPA and QDs. Thus, most MPA was able to be separated from the surface of QDs because of the participation of Cys or GSH. Then, the fluorescence intensity of the CdTe QDs was enhanced. Good linear relationships were obtained in the range of 0.02-40 μg mL -1 and 0.02-50 μg mL -1 , and the detection limits were calculated as 10.5 ng mL -1 and 8.2 ng mL -1 , for Cys and GSH, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of biological thiols in water and urine samples were determined by the standard addition method using Cys as the standard; the quantitative recoveries were in the range of 97.3-105.8%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 2.5 to 3.7%. The method had several unique properties, such as simplicity, lower cost, high sensitivity, and environmental acceptability. Graphical abstract Crystal violet-functionalized CdTe quantum dots for detecting L-cysteine and glutathione with switch-on fluorescent strategy.

  16. Lead-free/rare earth-free Green-light-emitting crystal based on organic-inorganic hybrid [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] with high emissive quantum yields and large crystal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xing-Wei; Zhao, Yu-Yuan; Li, Hong; Huang, Cui-Ping; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-06-01

    With the flourishing development of emitting materials, tremendous technological progress has been accomplished. However, they still face great challenges in convenient economical environmental-friendly large-scale commercial production. Herein we designed this organic-inorganic hybrid lead-free compound, an emerging class of high-efficiency emitting materials, [(C10H16N)2][MnBr4] (1), which emits intense greenish photoluminescence with a high emissive quantum yields of 72.26%, was prepared through the convenient economical solution method. What's more, compared with rare earth fluorescent materials (especially green-emitting Tb), Mn material is rich in natural resources and low commercial cost, which would possess an increasingly predominant advantage in the preparation of luminescent materials. Additionally, the exceptional thermal stability as well as the low-cost/convenient preparation process makes crystal 1 with the large size of more than 1 cm to be an ideal technologically important green-emitting material and it would open up a new route towards the commercialization process of lead-free/rare earth-free hybrid emitting materials in display and sensing.

  17. Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  18. Quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J.

    1997-01-01

    This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.)

  19. Fast synchrotron and FEL beam monitors based on single-crystal diamond detectors and InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Carrato, S.; Cautero, G.; Menk, R. H.; Jark, W. H.; Ganbold, T.; Biasiol, G.; Callegari, C.; Coreno, M.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2013-12-01

    Simultaneous photon-beam position and intensity monitoring is becoming of increasing importance for new-generation synchrotron radiation sources and free-electron lasers (FEL). Thus, novel concepts of beam diagnostics are required in order to keep such beams under control. From this perspective diamond is a promising material for the production of semitransparent in situ photon beam monitors, which can withstand the high dose rates occurring in such radiation facilities. Here, we report on the development of freestanding, single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond detectors with segmented electrodes. Due to their direct, low-energy band gap, InGaAs quantum well devices operated at room temperature may also be used as fast detectors for photons ranging from visible to X-ray. These features are valuable in low-energy and time-resolved FEL applications. In particular, a novel segmented InGaAs/InAlAs device has been developed and will be discussed. Dedicated measurements carried out on both these devices at the Elettra Synchrotron show their capability to monitor the position and the intensity of the photon beam with bunch-by-bunch temporal performances. Furthermore, preliminary tests have been performed on diamond detectors at the Fermi FEL, extracting quantitative intensity and position information for 100-fs-wide FEL pulses with a photon energy of 28.8 eV.

  20. Scalable optical quantum computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manykin, E A; Mel' nichenko, E V [Institute for Superconductivity and Solid-State Physics, Russian Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr{sup 3+}, regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications. (quantum computer)

  1. Scalable optical quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manykin, E A; Mel'nichenko, E V

    2014-01-01

    A way of designing a scalable optical quantum computer based on the photon echo effect is proposed. Individual rare earth ions Pr 3+ , regularly located in the lattice of the orthosilicate (Y 2 SiO 5 ) crystal, are suggested to be used as optical qubits. Operations with qubits are performed using coherent and incoherent laser pulses. The operation protocol includes both the method of measurement-based quantum computations and the technique of optical computations. Modern hybrid photon echo protocols, which provide a sufficient quantum efficiency when reading recorded states, are considered as most promising for quantum computations and communications. (quantum computer)

  2. Bunch by bunch beam monitoring in 3rd and 4th generation light sources by means of single crystal diamond detectors and quantum well devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Tallaire, A.; Achard, J.; Carrato, S.; Menk, R. H.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Jark, W. H.; Biasiol, G.; Ganbold, T.; Oliver, K.; Callegari, C.; Coreno, M.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2012-10-01

    New generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) require novel concepts of beam diagnostics to keep photon beams under surveillance, asking for simultaneous position and intensity monitoring. To deal with high power load and short time pulses provided by these sources, novel materials and methods are needed for the next generation BPMs. Diamond is a promising material for the production of semitransparent in situ X-ray BPMs withstanding the high dose rates of SR rings and high energy FELs. We report on the development of freestanding, single crystal CVD diamond detectors. Performances in both low and radio frequency SR beam monitoring are presented. For the former, sensitivity deviation was found to be approximately 2%; a 0.05% relative precision in the intensity measurements and a 0.1-μm precision in the position encoding have been estimated. For the latter, single-shot characterizations revealed sub-nanosecond rise-times and spatial precisions below 6 μm, which allowed bunch-by-bunch monitoring in multi-bunch operation. Preliminary measurements at the Fermi FEL have been performed with this detector, extracting quantitative intensity and position information for FEL pulses (~ 100 fs, energy 12 ÷ 60 eV), with a long-term spatial precision of about 85 μm results on FEL radiation damages are also reported. Due to their direct, low-energy band gap, InGaAs quantum well devices too may be used as fast detectors for photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Results are reported which show the capability of a novel InGaAs/InAlAs device to detect intensity and position of 100-fs-wide laser pulses.

  3. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  4. Visible Quantum Nanophotonics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, George T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fischer, Arthur J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wierer, Jonathan J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koleske, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coltrin, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agarwal, Sapan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, P. Duke [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leung, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this LDRD is to develop a quantum nanophotonics capability that will allow practical control over electron (hole) and photon confinement in more than one dimension. We plan to use quantum dots (QDs) to control electrons, and photonic crystals to control photons. InGaN QDs will be fabricated using quantum size control processes, and methods will be developed to add epitaxial layers for hole injection and surface passivation. We will also explore photonic crystal nanofabrication techniques using both additive and subtractive fabrication processes, which can tailor photonic crystal properties. These two efforts will be combined by incorporating the QDs into photonic crystal surface emitting lasers (PCSELs). Modeling will be performed using finite-different time-domain and gain analysis to optimize QD-PCSEL designs that balance laser performance with the ability to nano-fabricate structures. Finally, we will develop design rules for QD-PCSEL architectures, to understand their performance possibilities and limits.

  5. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A guide to the theory, application and potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. It offers an overview of resonance fluorescence emission.$bAn understanding of the interaction between light and matter on a quantum level is of fundamental interest and has many applications in optical technologies. The quantum nature of the interaction has recently attracted great attention for applications of semiconductor nanostructures in quantum information processing. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures is a key guide to the theory, experimental realisation, and future potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. Part one provides a comprehensive overview of single quantum dot systems, beginning with a look at resonance fluorescence emission. Quantum optics with single quantum dots in photonic crystal and micro cavities are explored in detail, before part two goes on to review nanolasers with quantum dot emitters. Light-matter interaction...

  6. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  7. Conformation of the azo bond and its influence on the molecular and crystal structures, IR and Raman spectra, and electron properties of 6-methyl-3,5-dinitro-2-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]pyridine - Quantum chemical DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, J.; Bryndal, I.; Lorenc, J.; Hermanowicz, K.; Janczak, J.; Hanuza, J.

    2018-02-01

    The crystal and molecular structures of 6-methyl-3,5-dinitro-2-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]pyridine have been determined by X-ray diffraction and quantum chemical DFT calculations. The crystal is monoclinic, space group Cc (No. 9) with Z = 4 with the unit cell parameters: a = 12.083(7), b = 12.881(6), c = 8.134(3) Å and β = 97.09(5)°. The azo-bridge appears in the trans conformation in which C2-N2-N2‧-C1‧ torsion angle takes a value - 178.6(3)°, whereas the dihedral angle between the planes of the phenyl and pyridine rings is 3.5(2)°. The IR and Raman spectra measured in the temperature range 80-350 K and quantum chemical calculations with the use of B3LYP/6-311G(2d,2p) approach confirmed the trans configuration of the azo-bridge as the most stable energetically and allowed determination of the energy other virtual structures. The observed effects were used in the discussion of vibrational dynamics of the studied compound. The energy gap between cis and trans conformers equals to 1.054 eV (0.03873 Hartree). The electron absorption and emission spectra have been measured and analyzed on the basis of DFT calculations. The life time of the excited state is 12 μs and the Stokes shift is close to 5470 cm- 1.

  8. Quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiezer, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Basic ideas of quantum electrodynamics history of its origination and its importance are outlined. It is shown low the notion of the field for each kind of particles and the notion of vacuum for such field had originated and been affirmed how a new language of the Feynman diagrams had appeared without which it is quite impossible to described complex processes of particle scattering and mutual transformation. The main problem of the quantum electrodynamics is to find a scattering matrix, which solution comes to the determination of the Green electrodynamic functions. A review is given of papers on clarifying the asymptotic behaviour of the Green electrodynamic functions in the range of high pulses, on studying the Compton effect, bremsstrahlung irradiation Raman light scattering elastic scattering during channeling of charged particles in a crystal

  9. Quantum safari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratel, H.

    1999-01-01

    A new stage in non-destructive quantum measurements has been reached by a French team, it is now possible to measure photons without disturbing them. The photon beam goes through a non-linear transparent medium, this medium is modified by the passing of the beam, a second photon beam is sent through the same medium, this beam whose energy is weaker can read the modifications of the transparent crystal left by the first beam. The study of these modifications gives information on the photons of the first beam. (A.C.)

  10. Introduction to quantum graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Berkolaiko, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    A "quantum graph" is a graph considered as a one-dimensional complex and equipped with a differential operator ("Hamiltonian"). Quantum graphs arise naturally as simplified models in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and engineering when one considers propagation of waves of various nature through a quasi-one-dimensional (e.g., "meso-" or "nano-scale") system that looks like a thin neighborhood of a graph. Works that currently would be classified as discussing quantum graphs have been appearing since at least the 1930s, and since then, quantum graphs techniques have been applied successfully in various areas of mathematical physics, mathematics in general and its applications. One can mention, for instance, dynamical systems theory, control theory, quantum chaos, Anderson localization, microelectronics, photonic crystals, physical chemistry, nano-sciences, superconductivity theory, etc. Quantum graphs present many non-trivial mathematical challenges, which makes them dear to a mathematician's heart. Work on qu...

  11. Agile Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    75, pp. 3253-3256, Oct. 1995. [24] F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal...B. Mizaikoff, “Midinfrared sensors meet nanotechnology: Trace gas sensing with quantum cascade lasers inside photonic band-gap hollow waveguides

  12. X-ray diffraction, vibrational and photoluminescence studies of the self-organized quantum well crystal H3N(CH2)6NH3PbBr4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammak, T.; Fourati, N.; Boughzala, H.; Mlayah, A.; Abid, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We have prepared new semiconductor H 3 N(CH 2 ) 6 NH 3 PbBr 4 crystals which are self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid materials. The grown crystals have been studied by X-ray diffraction, infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy scattering. We found that the title compound, abbreviated 2C 6 PbBr 4 , crystallizes in a two-dimensional (2D) structure with a P2 1 /a space group. In the inorganic semiconductor sub-lattice, the corner sharing PbBr 6 octahedra form infinite 2D chains. The organic C 6 H 18 N 2 + ions form the insulator barriers between the inorganic semiconductor layers. Such a packing leads to a self-assembled multiple quantum well structure. Raman and infrared spectra of the title compound were recorded in the 50-500 and 400-4000 cm -1 frequency regions, respectively. The assignment of the observed Raman lines was performed by comparison with the homologous compounds. Transmission measurements on thin films of 2C 6 PbBr 4 , obtained by the spin coating method, revealed a strong absorption peak at 380 nm. Luminescence measurements showed an emission line at 402 nm associated with radiative recombinations of excitons confined within the PbBr 6 layers. The electron-hole binding energy is estimated at 180 meV

  13. From the atomic nucleus to the cosmos. How the strange laws of the quantum world form our reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The reality of nature, Hamlet in quantum world, the ene of the local realism, quantum jumps, a new quantum theory, string theory for solids, atomic nuclei between liquid and crystal, simulated quantum worlds, space-time entanglement, Einstein in the quantum test, quantum cryptography, quantum computers as code breaker. (HSI)

  14. Quantum Erasure: Quantum Interference Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Walborn, Stephen P.; Cunha, Marcelo O. Terra; Pádua, Sebastião; Monken, Carlos H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments in quantum optics have shed light on the foundations of quantum physics. Quantum erasers - modified quantum interference experiments - show that quantum entanglement is responsible for the complementarity principle.

  15. Analysis of a photon number resolving detector based on fluorescence readout of an ion Coulomb crystal quantum memory inside an optical cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christoph; Sangouard, N.; Drewsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect single photons with a high efficiency is a crucial requirement for various quantum information applications. By combining the storage process of a quantum memory for photons with fluorescence-based quantum state measurement, it is, in principle, possible to achieve high......-efficiency photon counting in large ensembles of atoms. The large number of atoms can, however, pose significant problems in terms of noise stemming from imperfect initial state preparation and off-resonant fluorescence. We identify and analyse a concrete implementation of a photon number resolving detector based...... larger than 93%. Moderate experimental parameters allow for repetition rates of about 3 kHz, limited by the time needed for fluorescence collection and re-cooling of the ions between trials. Our analysis may lead to the first implementation of a photon number resolving detector in atomic ensembles....

  16. Anomalous multi-order Raman scattering in LaMnO.sub.3./sub. a signature of quantum lattice effects in a Jahn-Teller crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovaleva, Natalia; Kusmartseva, O.E.; Kugel, K.I.; Maksimov, A.A.; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Balbashov, A.M.; Demikhov, E.I.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Trepakov, Vladimír; Kusmartsev, F.V.; Stoneham, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 15 (2013), s. 1-8 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum lattice effects * LaMnO 3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2013

  17. Quantum crystallography: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Lou; Matta, Chérif F

    2018-06-30

    Extraction of the complete quantum mechanics from X-ray scattering data is the ultimate goal of quantum crystallography. This article delivers a perspective for that possibility. It is desirable to have a method for the conversion of X-ray diffraction data into an electron density that reflects the antisymmetry of an N-electron wave function. A formalism for this was developed early on for the determination of a constrained idempotent one-body density matrix. The formalism ensures pure-state N-representability in the single determinant sense. Applications to crystals show that quantum mechanical density matrices of large molecules can be extracted from X-ray scattering data by implementing a fragmentation method termed the kernel energy method (KEM). It is shown how KEM can be used within the context of quantum crystallography to derive quantum mechanical properties of biological molecules (with low data-to-parameters ratio). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quadra-Quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules: Basic Nanostructures for Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  19. Liquid Crystal Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-03-01

    Colloids are abundant in nature, science, and technology, with examples ranging from milk to quantum dots and the colloidal atom paradigm. Similarly, liquid crystal ordering is important in contexts ranging from biological membranes to laboratory models of cosmic strings and liquid crystal displays in consumer devices. Some of the most exciting recent developments in both of these soft matter fields emerge at their interface, in the fast-growing research arena of liquid crystal colloids. Mesoscale self-assembly in such systems may lead to artificial materials and to structures with emergent physical behavior arising from patterning of molecular order and nano- or microparticles into precisely controlled configurations. Liquid crystal colloids show exceptional promise for new discovery that may impinge on composite material fabrication, low-dimensional topology, photonics, and so on. Starting from physical underpinnings, I review the state of the art in this fast-growing field, with a focus on its scientific and technological potential.

  20. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    ..., quantum metrology, spin squeezing, control of decoherence and many other key topics. Readers are guided through the principles of quantum optics and their uses in a wide variety of areas including quantum information science and quantum mechanics...

  1. Quantum Instantons and Quantum Chaos

    OpenAIRE

    Jirari, H.; Kröger, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Moriarty, K. J. M.; Rubin, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    Based on a closed form expression for the path integral of quantum transition amplitudes, we suggest rigorous definitions of both, quantum instantons and quantum chaos. As an example we compute the quantum instanton of the double well potential.

  2. Quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Guo-Yong; Guo Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    The statistical error is ineluctable in any measurement. Quantum techniques, especially with the development of quantum information, can help us squeeze the statistical error and enhance the precision of measurement. In a quantum system, there are some quantum parameters, such as the quantum state, quantum operator, and quantum dimension, which have no classical counterparts. So quantum metrology deals with not only the traditional parameters, but also the quantum parameters. Quantum metrology includes two important parts: measuring the physical parameters with a precision beating the classical physics limit and measuring the quantum parameters precisely. In this review, we will introduce how quantum characters (e.g., squeezed state and quantum entanglement) yield a higher precision, what the research areas are scientists most interesting in, and what the development status of quantum metrology and its perspectives are. (topical review - quantum information)

  3. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  4. Crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis, quantum mechanical study and spectroscopic characterization of the non-centrosymmetric coordination compound bis(4-fluoroaniline)dichloridozincate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Nasr, M.; Soudani, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Jelsch, C.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2017-06-01

    The Zn(II) complex with the monodentate ligand 4-fluoroaniline, ZnCl2(C6H4FNH2)2, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The Zn(II) ion is tetracoordinated by two nitrogen atoms of two monodentate 4-fluoroaniline ligands and two chlorine atoms. In the molecular arrangement, the ZnCl2(C6H4FNH2)2 entities are interconnected via Nsbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds to form layers parallel to the (a, b) plane. The nature and proportion of contacts in the crystal packing were investigated through the Hirshfeld surfaces. The crystal is mainly maintained by electrostatic attractions Cl- … Hsbnd N and by extensive hydrophobic contacts as revealed by the Hirshfeld 2D fingerprint plots and statistical analysis. The13C and 19F CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure and confirm the phase purity of the crystalline sample. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. A calorimetric study shows that the title compound is stable until 262.5 °C.

  5. Quantum phase transition of light as a control of the entanglement between interacting quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragan, Angela; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Mondragon-Shem, Ian

    We study coupled quantum dots arranged in a photonic crystal, interacting with light which undergoes a quantum phase transition. At the mean-field level for the infinite lattice, we compute the concurrence of the quantum dots as a measure of their entanglement. We find that this quantity smoothly

  6. Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavity Array Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin

    in the quadratic lattice. Processing techniques are developed and optimized in order fabricate photonic crystals membranes in gallium arsenide with quantum dots as gain medium and in indium gallium arsenide phosphide with quantum wells as gain medium. Several key issues in process to ensure good quality....... The results are in good agreement with standard coupled mode theory. Also a novel type of photonic crystal structure is proposed called lambda shifted cavity which is a twodimensional photonic crystal laser analog of a VCSEL laser. Detailed measurements of the coupled modes in the photonic crystals...... with quantum dots are carried out. In agreement with a simple gain model the structures do not show stimulated emission. The spectral splitting due to the coupling between single cavities as well as arrays of cavities is studied theoretically and experimentally. Lasing is observed for photonic crystal cavity...

  7. Quadra-quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called ‘‘Droplet Epitaxy” has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390°C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7–8×10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200°C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or , which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  8. Multiple topological phases in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo; Wu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    We report a new topological phononic crystal in a ring-waveguide acoustic system. In the previous reports on topological phononic crystals, there are two types of topological phases: quantum Hall phase and quantum spin Hall phase. A key point in achieving quantum Hall insulator is to break the time-reversal (TR) symmetry, and for quantum spin Hall insulator, the construction of pseudo-spin is necessary. We build such pseudo-spin states under particular crystalline symmetry (C-6v) and then break the degeneracy of the pseudo-spin states by introducing airflow to the ring. We study the topology evolution by changing both the geometric parameters of the unit cell and the strength of the applied airflow. We find that the system exhibits three phases: quantum spin Hall phase, conventional insulator phase and a new quantum anomalous Hall phase.

  9. Multiple topological phases in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2017-11-20

    We report a new topological phononic crystal in a ring-waveguide acoustic system. In the previous reports on topological phononic crystals, there are two types of topological phases: quantum Hall phase and quantum spin Hall phase. A key point in achieving quantum Hall insulator is to break the time-reversal (TR) symmetry, and for quantum spin Hall insulator, the construction of pseudo-spin is necessary. We build such pseudo-spin states under particular crystalline symmetry (C-6v) and then break the degeneracy of the pseudo-spin states by introducing airflow to the ring. We study the topology evolution by changing both the geometric parameters of the unit cell and the strength of the applied airflow. We find that the system exhibits three phases: quantum spin Hall phase, conventional insulator phase and a new quantum anomalous Hall phase.

  10. Structural and elastic anisotropy of crystals at high pressures and temperatures from quantum mechanical methods: The case of Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} forsterite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, A., E-mail: alessandro.erba@unito.it; Dovesi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, IT-10125 Torino (Italy); Maul, J. [Dipartimento di Chimica and Centre of Excellence NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces), Università di Torino, via Giuria 5, IT-10125 Torino (Italy); Laboratório de Combustíveis e Materiais, INCTMN-UFPB, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, CEP 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); De La Pierre, M. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Curtin Institute for Computation, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2015-05-28

    We report accurate ab initio theoretical predictions of the elastic, seismic, and structural anisotropy of the orthorhombic Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} forsterite crystal at high pressures (up to 20 GPa) and temperatures (up to its melting point, 2163 K), which constitute earth’s upper mantle conditions. Single-crystal elastic stiffness constants are evaluated up to 20 GPa and their first- and second-order pressure derivatives reported. Christoffel’s equation is solved at several pressures: directional seismic wave velocities and related properties (azimuthal and polarization seismic anisotropies) discussed. Thermal structural and average elastic properties, as computed within the quasi-harmonic approximation of the lattice potential, are predicted at high pressures and temperatures: directional thermal expansion coefficients, first- and second-order pressure derivatives of the isothermal bulk modulus, and P-V-T equation-of-state. The effect on computed properties of five different functionals, belonging to three different classes of approximations, of the density functional theory is explicitly investigated.

  11. Vibrational study, crystal structure and quantum calculations of 2,2'-azobipyridine and 4,4'-dimethyl-3,3'-dinitro-2,2'-azobipyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharska, E.; Hanuza, J.; Waskowska, A.; Talik, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of 2,2'-azobipyridine and 4,4'-dimethyl-3,3'-dinitro-2,2'-azobipyridine is described. The X-ray structure of the later compound is reported and discussed in terms of its molecular structure with a particular attention to the conformation of the azo-bond and intermolecular C-H?O bonds. The crystal is monoclinic, space group P2 1 /c, with the unit cell parameters a = 12.388(2), b = 14.983(3), c 7.370(1) A, and β = 102.49(3) deg . The asymmetric unit consists of two 3-nitro-4-methyl-pyridine units linked by the -N=N- diazene bond. The pyridine rings are planar. The methyl carbon and the N atom of the nitro groups, substituted to the ring, are lying approximately in the plane. In the crystal structure the molecules are arranged in dimers due to the hydrogen bonding between the methyl group and the oxygen of the nitro group of the molecule related by a centre of symmetry. Fourier transform IR and Raman spectra of this compound have been measured and compared to the spectra of 2,2'-azobipyridine. The 6-31G basis set with the B3LYP and MPW1PW31 functionals have been used to discuss the structure and dynamics of the compounds studied

  12. Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included

  13. On propagation of radiation in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, V.; Grigorijev, V.I.

    1984-11-01

    The description of the propagation of the photons in the crystal is given in the framework of a quantum field-theoretical model that can be solved exactly. Besides this, the quantum version of the Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem is proved. (author)

  14. Quantum physics; Physique quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J. [Ecole Polytechnique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.) refs.

  15. Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.

  16. Crystal and molecular structures of benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]quinazolin-6-one and 10-carboxybenzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]quinazolin-6-one: A quantum-chemical study of their tautomerism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval’chukova, O. V.; Stash, A. I.; Strashnov, P. V.; Neborak, E. V.; Strashnova, S. B.; Zaitsev, B. E.

    2011-01-01

    Benzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]quinazolin-6-one and 10-carboxybenzo[4,5]imidazo[1,2-c]quinazolin-6-one were isolated in the crystalline state and studied by X-ray diffraction. The crystal and molecular structures of these compounds were determined by X-ray diffraction. The energy characteristics of the tautomeric and ionic forms were calculated by the quantum-chemical PM3 method.

  17. Quantum stochastics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Mou-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...

  18. Quantum Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Scarani, Valerio

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explain what quantum computing is. The information for the thesis was gathered from books, scientific publications, and news articles. The analysis of the information revealed that quantum computing can be broken down to three areas: theories behind quantum computing explaining the structure of a quantum computer, known quantum algorithms, and the actual physical realizations of a quantum computer. The thesis reveals that moving from classical memor...

  19. Quantum Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    When quantum communication networks proliferate they will likely be subject to a new type of attack: by hackers, virus makers, and other malicious intruders. Here we introduce the concept of "quantum malware" to describe such human-made intrusions. We offer a simple solution for storage of quantum information in a manner which protects quantum networks from quantum malware. This solution involves swapping the quantum information at random times between the network and isolated, distributed an...

  20. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-03-28

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  1. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  2. Quantumness beyond quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Ángel S

    2012-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics allows us to understand quantum systems in the light of other quantum traits than the well-known ones (coherence, diffraction, interference, tunnelling, discreteness, entanglement, etc.). Here the discussion focusses precisely on two of these interesting aspects, which arise when quantum mechanics is thought within this theoretical framework: the non-crossing property, which allows for distinguishability without erasing interference patterns, and the possibility to define quantum probability tubes, along which the probability remains constant all the way. Furthermore, taking into account this hydrodynamic-like description as a link, it is also shown how this knowledge (concepts and ideas) can be straightforwardly transferred to other fields of physics (for example, the transmission of light along waveguides).

  3. Crystals in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Bart; Freudenthal, John; Gunn, Erica

    2010-05-18

    molecules. Luminophores were used as guests in crystals to reveal aspects of growth mechanisms by labeling surface structures such as steps and kinks. New methods were adopted for measuring and imaging the optical rotatory power of crystals. Chiroptical anisotropies can now be compared with the results of quantum chemical calculations that have emerged in the past 10 years. The rapid determination of the optical rotation and circular dichroism tensors of molecules in crystals, and the interpretation of these anisotropies, remains a subject of future research. Polycrystalline patterns that form far from equilibrium challenged the quantitative interpretation of micrographs when heterogeneities along the optical path and obliquely angled interfaces played large roles. Resulting "artifacts" were nevertheless incisive probes of polycrystalline texture and mesoscale chemistry in simple substances grown far from equilibrium or in biopathological crystals such as Alzheimer's amyloid plaques.

  4. Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons

    OpenAIRE

    Kröger, H.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.

  5. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Solar Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A single crystal SiGe has enormous potentials for high performance chips and solar cells. This project seeks to fabricate a rudimentary but 1st cut quantum-well...

  6. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion....... As representative examples, a metal (Pt), an alloy (PtSn), and a metal carbide (beta-Mo2C) were supported on conventional and mesoporous zeolite carriers, respectively, and the degree of particle dispersion was compared by TEM imaging. On conventional zeolites, the supported material aggregated on the outer surface...

  7. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  8. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  9. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  10. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Julien; Munsch, Matthieu; Bleuse, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Besides microcavities and photonic crystals, photonic nanowires have recently emerged as a novel resource for solidstate quantum optics. We will review recent studies which demonstrate an excellent control over the spontaneous emission of InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in single-mode Ga...... quantum optoelectronic devices. Quite amazingly, this approach has for instance permitted (unlike microcavity-based approaches) to combine for the first time a record-high efficiency (72%) and a negligible g(2) in a QD single photon source....

  11. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The book is on quantum mechanics. The emphasis is on the basic concepts and the methodology. The chapters include: Breakdown of classical concepts; Quantum mechanical concepts; Basic postulates of quantum mechanics; solution of problems in quantum mechanics; Simple harmonic oscillator; and Angular Momentum

  12. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  13. Quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Giacobino, S.; Zinn-Justin, J.

    1997-01-01

    This course is dedicated to present in a pedagogical manner the recent developments in peculiar fields concerned by quantum fluctuations: quantum noise in optics, light propagation through dielectric media, sub-Poissonian light generated by lasers and masers, quantum non-demolition measurements, quantum electrodynamics applied to cavities and electrical circuits involving superconducting tunnel junctions. (A.C.)

  14. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  15. Optical Spectroscopy Of Charged Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Doty, M. F.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.

    2007-04-01

    Coupling between two closely spaced quantum dots is observed by means of photoluminescence spectroscopy. Hole coupling is realized by rational crystal growth and heterostructure design. We identify molecular resonances of different excitonic charge states, including the important case of a doubly charged quantum dot molecule.

  16. Quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilin, Sergei Ya

    1999-01-01

    A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilin, Sergei Ya [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1999-05-31

    A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. Quantum ontologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    Quantum ontologies are conceptions of the constitution of the universe that are compatible with quantum theory. The ontological orientation is contrasted to the pragmatic orientation of science, and reasons are given for considering quantum ontologies both within science, and in broader contexts. The principal quantum ontologies are described and evaluated. Invited paper at conference: Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, George Mason University, October 20-21, 1988. 16 refs

  19. When quantum optics meets topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Routing photons at the micrometer scale remains one of the greatest challenges of integrated quantum optics. The main difficulty is the scattering losses at bends and splitters in the photonic circuit. Current approaches imply elaborate designs, quite sensitive to fabrication details (1). Inspired by the physics underlying the one-way transport of electrons in topological insulators, on page 666 of this issue, Barik et al. (2) report a topological photonic crystal in which single photons are emitted and routed through bends with negligible loss. The marriage between quantum optics and topology promises new opportunities for compact quantum optics gating and manipulation.

  20. Monomial Crystals and Partition Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Recently Fayers introduced a large family of combinatorial realizations of the fundamental crystal B(Λ0) for ^sln, where the vertices are indexed by certain partitions. He showed that special cases of this construction agree with the Misra-Miwa realization and with Berg's ladder crystal. Here we show that another special case is naturally isomorphic to a realization using Nakajima's monomial crystal.

  1. Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2010-01-01

    The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…

  2. Quantum dots: Rethinking the electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishnoi, Dimple [Department of Physics, S. S. Jain Subodh PG College, Jaipur, Rajasthan Pin-302004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the Quantum dots are quite interesting for the electronics industry. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale crystals, which have unique photo physical, quantum electrical properties, size-dependent optical properties, There small size means that electrons do not have to travel as far as with larger particles, thus electronic devices can operate faster. Cheaper than modern commercial solar cells while making use of a wider variety of photon energies, including “waste heat” from the sun’s energy. Quantum dots can be used in tandem cells, which are multi junction photovoltaic cells or in the intermediate band setup. PbSe (lead selenide) is commonly used in quantum dot solar cells.

  3. A topological quantum optics interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Karasahin, Aziz; Flower, Christopher; Cai, Tao; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Hafezi, Mohammad; Waks, Edo

    2018-02-09

    The application of topology in optics has led to a new paradigm in developing photonic devices with robust properties against disorder. Although considerable progress on topological phenomena has been achieved in the classical domain, the realization of strong light-matter coupling in the quantum domain remains unexplored. We demonstrate a strong interface between single quantum emitters and topological photonic states. Our approach creates robust counterpropagating edge states at the boundary of two distinct topological photonic crystals. We demonstrate the chiral emission of a quantum emitter into these modes and establish their robustness against sharp bends. This approach may enable the development of quantum optics devices with built-in protection, with potential applications in quantum simulation and sensing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, P D [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD (Australia).Physics Department

    1999-07-01

    Full text: Quantum optics in Australia has been an active research field for some years. I shall focus on recent developments in quantum and atom optics. Generally, the field as a whole is becoming more and more diverse, as technological developments drive experiments into new areas, and theorists either attempt to explain the new features, or else develop models for even more exotic ideas. The recent developments include quantum solitons, quantum computing, Bose-Einstein condensation, atom lasers, quantum cryptography, and novel tests of quantum mechanics. The talk will briefly cover current progress and outstanding problems in each of these areas. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society.

  5. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  6. Dynamics of Spontaneous Emission Controlled by Local Density of States in Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Nikolaev, Ivan S.; van Driel, A. Floris

    2006-01-01

    We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter....

  7. Quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. The ''ghost'' interference and the ''ghost'' image experiments demonstrated the astonishing nonlocal behavior of an entangled photon pair. Even though we still have questions in regard to fundamental issues of the entangled quantum systems, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in quantum information and quantum computation. Quantum teleportation is one of the hot topics. We have demonstrated a quantum teleportation experiment recently. The experimental results proved the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that the complete set of Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a quantum state can thus occur with certainty in principle. (orig.)

  8. Crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, François; Verdurand, Elodie; Taulelle, Pascal; Bebon, Christine; Colson, Didier; Klein, Jean-Paul; Veesler, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, we present an experimental investigation of the growth of four different organic molecules produced at industrial scale with a view to understand the crystallization mechanism of acicular or needle-like crystals. For all organic crystals studied in this article, layer-by-layer growth of the lateral faces is very slow and clear, as soon as the supersaturation is high enough, there is competition between growth and surface-activated secondary nucleation. This gives rise to pseudo-twinned crystals composed of several needle individuals aligned along a crystallographic axis; this is explained by regular over- and inter-growths as in the case of twinning. And when supersaturation is even higher, nucleation is fast and random. In an industrial continuous crystallization, the rapid growth of needle-like crystals is to be avoided as it leads to fragile crystals or needles, which can be partly broken or totally detached from the parent crystals especially along structural anisotropic axis corresponding to weaker chemical bonds, thus leading to slower growing faces. When an activated mechanism is involved such as a secondary surface nucleation, it is no longer possible to obtain a steady state. Therefore, the crystal number, size and habit vary significantly with time, leading to troubles in the downstream processing operations and to modifications of the final solid-specific properties. These results provide valuable information on the unique crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals, and show that it is important to know these threshold and critical values when running a crystallizer in order to obtain easy-to-handle crystals.

  9. Quantum robots and quantum computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-01

    Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.

  10. Quantum computers and quantum computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiev, Kamil' A

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements. The theory of ideal computers that do not interact with the environment and are immune to quantum decohering processes is presented. Decohering processes in quantum computers are investigated. The review considers methods for correcting quantum computing errors arising from the decoherence of the state of the quantum computer, as well as possible methods for the suppression of the decohering processes. A brief enumeration of proposed quantum computer realizations concludes the review. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. Quantum mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Rajat

    1997-01-01

    The book discusses the laws of quantum mechanics, several amazing quantum phenomena and some recent progress in understanding the connection between the quantum and the classical worlds. We show how paradoxes arise and how to resolve them. The significance of Bell's theorem and the remarkable experimental results on particle correlations are described in some detail. Finally, the current status of our understanding of quantum theory is summerised.

  12. Coupled quantum dot-ring structures by droplet epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaschini, C; Bietti, S; Koguchi, N; Sanguinetti, S

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication, by pure self-assembly, of GaAs/AlGaAs dot-ring quantum nanostructures is presented. The growth is performed via droplet epitaxy, which allows for the fine control, through As flux and substrate temperature, of the crystallization kinetics of nanometer scale metallic Ga reservoirs deposited on the surface. Such a procedure permits the combination of quantum dots and quantum rings into a single, multi-functional, complex quantum nanostructure.

  13. Quantum criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Piers; Schofield, Andrew J

    2005-01-20

    As we mark the centenary of Albert Einstein's seminal contribution to both quantum mechanics and special relativity, we approach another anniversary--that of Einstein's foundation of the quantum theory of solids. But 100 years on, the same experimental measurement that puzzled Einstein and his contemporaries is forcing us to question our understanding of how quantum matter transforms at ultra-low temperatures.

  14. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we had looked at how quantum physics can be harnessed to make the building blocks of a quantum computer. In this concluding part, we look at algorithms which can exploit the power of this computational device, and some practical difficulties in building such a device. Quantum Algorithms.

  15. I, Quantum Robot: Quantum Mind control on a Quantum Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Zizzi, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The logic which describes quantum robots is not orthodox quantum logic, but a deductive calculus which reproduces the quantum tasks (computational processes, and actions) taking into account quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. A way toward the realization of intelligent quantum robots is to adopt a quantum metalanguage to control quantum robots. A physical implementation of a quantum metalanguage might be the use of coherent states in brain signals.

  16. Single photon emission and quantum ring-cavity coupling in InAs/GaAs quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, E; Nowak, A K; Sanvitto, D; Meulen, H P van der; Calleja, J M; MartInez, L J; Prieto, I; Alija, A R; Granados, D; Taboada, A G; GarcIa, J M; Postigo, P A; Sarkar, D

    2010-01-01

    Different InAs/GaAs quantum rings embedded in a photonic crystal microcavity are studied by quantum correlation measurements. Single photon emission, with g (2) (0) values around 0.3, is demonstrated for a quantum ring not coupled to the microcavity. Characteristic rise-times are found to be longer for excitons than for biexcitons, resulting in the time asymmetry of the exciton-biexciton cross-correlation. No antibunching is observed in another quantum ring weakly coupled to the microcavity.

  17. Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stairs, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.

  18. Quantum dynamics of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha

    2011-01-01

    The theory of coherent oscillations of the matrix elements of the density matrix of the two-state system as a quantum bit is presented. Different calculation methods are elaborated in the case of a free quantum bit. Then the most appropriate methods are applied to the study of the density matrices of the quantum bits interacting with a classical pumping radiation field as well as with the quantum electromagnetic field in a single-mode microcavity. The theory of decoherence of a quantum bit in Markovian approximation is presented. The decoherence of a quantum bit interacting with monoenergetic photons in a microcavity is also discussed. The content of the present work can be considered as an introduction to the study of the quantum dynamics of quantum bits. (review)

  19. Quantum frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  20. Quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech Hubert

    2009-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism describes the proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of a quantum system. It explains how the quantum fragility of a state of a single quantum system can lead to the classical robustness of states in their correlated multitude; shows how effective `wave-packet collapse' arises as a result of the proliferation throughout the environment of imprints of the state of the system; and provides a framework for the derivation of Born's rule, which relates the probabilities of detecting states to their amplitudes. Taken together, these three advances mark considerable progress towards settling the quantum measurement problem.

  1. Quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouwenhoven, L.; Marcus, C.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum dots are man-made ''droplets'' of charge that can contain anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousand. Their typical dimensions range from nanometres to a few microns, and their size, shape and interactions can be precisely controlled through the use of advanced nanofabrication technology. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. Indeed, quantum dots exemplify an important trend in condensed-matter physics in which researchers study man-made objects rather than real atoms or nuclei. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantized due to the confinement of electrons. With quantum dots, however, an experimentalist can scan through the entire periodic table by simply changing a voltage. In this article the authors describe how quantum dots make it possible to explore new physics in regimes that cannot otherwise be accessed in the laboratory. (UK)

  2. Optical Magnetometer Incorporating Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; Florescu, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    According to a proposal, photonic crystals would be used to greatly increase the sensitivities of optical magnetometers that are already regarded as ultrasensitive. The proposal applies, more specifically, to a state-of-the-art type of quantum coherent magnetometer that exploits the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) method for determining a small change in a magnetic field indirectly via measurement of the shift, induced by that change, in the hyperfine levels of resonant atoms exposed to the field.

  3. Quantum information. Teleporation - cryptography - quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  4. Quantum symmetry in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomerus, V.

    1993-02-01

    Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry

  5. Sub-threshold investigation of two coupled photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Skovgård, Troels Suhr

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of two coupled photonic crystal membrane cavities with quantum dots separated by different number of holes is investigated. The measured spectral splitting with increased coupling is verified by 3D calculations and discussed.......The behavior of two coupled photonic crystal membrane cavities with quantum dots separated by different number of holes is investigated. The measured spectral splitting with increased coupling is verified by 3D calculations and discussed....

  6. Quantum games as quantum types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbecque, Yannick

    In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other

  7. Stochastic quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon layers: The role of quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Porras, A.; García, O.; Vargas, C.; Corrales, A.; Solís, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models

  8. Stochastic quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon layers: The role of quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Porras, A., E-mail: aramirez@fisica.ucr.ac.cr [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); García, O. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Vargas, C. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Corrales, A. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Solís, J.D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models.

  9. Quantum Phonon Optics: Squeezing Quantum Noise in the Atomic Displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Nori, F.

    1996-03-01

    We have investigated(X. Hu and F. Nori, Physical Review B, in press; preprints.) coherent and squeezed quantum states of phonons. Squeezed states are interesting because they allow the possibility of modulating the quantum fluctuations of atomic displacements below the zero-point quantum noise level of phonon vacuum states. We have studiedfootnotemark[1] the possibility of squeezing quantum noise in the atomic displacement using a polariton-based approach and also a method based on the three-phonon anharmonic interaction. Our focus here is on the first approach. We have diagonalized the polariton Hamiltonian and calculated the corresponding expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators (the later is the phonon analog of the electric field operator for photons). Our results shows that squeezing of quantum fluctuations in the atomic displacements can be achieved with appropriate initial states of both photon and phonon fields. The degree of squeezing is directly related to the crystal susceptibility, which is indicative of the interaction strength between the incident light and the crystal.

  10. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  11. Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, D F

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Optics gives a comprehensive coverage of developments in quantum optics over the past years. In the early chapters the formalism of quantum optics is elucidated and the main techniques are introduced. These are applied in the later chapters to problems such as squeezed states of light, resonance fluorescence, laser theory, quantum theory of four-wave mixing, quantum non-demolition measurements, Bell's inequalities, and atom optics. Experimental results are used to illustrate the theory throughout. This yields the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of experiment and theory in quantum optics in any textbook. More than 40 exercises helps readers test their understanding and provide practice in quantitative problem solving.

  12. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981

  13. Quantum Locality?

    OpenAIRE

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-01-01

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a 'consistent quantum theory' that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. O...

  14. Quantum ratchets

    OpenAIRE

    Grifoni, Milena

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, ratchet systems operating in the quantum regime are investigated. Ratchet systems, also known as Brownian motors, are periodic systems presenting an intrinsic asymmetry which can be exploited to extract work out of unbiased forces. As a model for ratchet systems, we consider the motion of a particle in a one-dimensional periodic and asymmetric potential, interacting with a thermal environment, and subject to an unbiased driving force. In quantum ratchets, intrinsic quantum flu...

  15. Quantum space and quantum completeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurić, Tajron

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the question whether quantum gravity can "smear out" the classical singularity we analyze a certain quantum space and its quantum-mechanical completeness. Classical singularity is understood as a geodesic incompleteness, while quantum completeness requires a unique unitary time evolution for test fields propagating on an underlying background. Here the crucial point is that quantum completeness renders the Hamiltonian (or spatial part of the wave operator) to be essentially self-adjoint in order to generate a unique time evolution. We examine a model of quantum space which consists of a noncommutative BTZ black hole probed by a test scalar field. We show that the quantum gravity (noncommutative) effect is to enlarge the domain of BTZ parameters for which the relevant wave operator is essentially self-adjoint. This means that the corresponding quantum space is quantum complete for a larger range of BTZ parameters rendering the conclusion that in the quantum space one observes the effect of "smearing out" the singularity.

  16. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibard, J.; Joffre, M.

    2008-01-01

    All physics is quantum from elementary particles to stars and to the big-bang via semi-conductors and chemistry. This theory is very subtle and we are not able to explain it without the help of mathematic tools. This book presents the principles of quantum mechanics and describes its mathematical formalism (wave function, Schroedinger equation, quantum operators, spin, Hamiltonians, collisions,..). We find numerous applications in the fields of new technologies (maser, quantum computer, cryptography,..) and in astrophysics. A series of about 90 exercises with their answers is included. This book is based on a physics course at a graduate level. (A.C.)

  17. Quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, P.

    1998-01-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  18. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, P

    1998-03-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  19. Quantum Integers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Klein, Moshe; Mor, Tal

    2010-01-01

    In number theory, a partition of a positive integer n is a way of writing n as a sum of positive integers. The number of partitions of n is given by the partition function p(n). Inspired by quantum information processing, we extend the concept of partitions in number theory as follows: for an integer n, we treat each partition as a basis state of a quantum system representing that number n, so that the Hilbert-space that corresponds to that integer n is of dimension p(n); the 'classical integer' n can thus be generalized into a (pure) quantum state ||ψ(n) > which is a superposition of the partitions of n, in the same way that a quantum bit (qubit) is a generalization of a classical bit. More generally, ρ(n) is a density matrix in that same Hilbert-space (a probability distribution over pure states). Inspired by the notion of quantum numbers in quantum theory (such as in Bohr's model of the atom), we then try to go beyond the partitions, by defining (via recursion) the notion of 'sub-partitions' in number theory. Combining the two notions mentioned above, sub-partitions and quantum integers, we finally provide an alternative definition of the quantum integers [the pure-state |ψ'(n)> and the mixed-state ρ'(n),] this time using the sub-partitions as the basis states instead of the partitions, for describing the quantum number that corresponds to the integer n.

  20. Quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, D.

    1992-01-01

    As computers become ever more complex, they inevitably become smaller. This leads to a need for components which are fabricated and operate on increasingly smaller size scales. Quantum theory is already taken into account in microelectronics design. This article explores how quantum theory will need to be incorporated into computers in future in order to give them their components functionality. Computation tasks which depend on quantum effects will become possible. Physicists may have to reconsider their perspective on computation in the light of understanding developed in connection with universal quantum computers. (UK)

  1. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, P

    1998-03-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  2. Many-body formation and dissociation of a dipolar chain crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jhih-Shih; Wang, Daw-Wei

    2014-01-01

    We propose an experimental scheme to effectively assemble chains of dipolar gases with a uniform length in a multi-layer system. The obtained dipolar chains can form a chain crystal with the system temperature easily controlled by the initial lattice potential and the external field strength during processing. When the density of chains increases, we further observe a second order quantum phase transition for the chain crystal to be dissociated toward layers of 2D crystal, where the quantum fluctuation dominates the classical energy and the compressibility diverges at the phase boundary. The experimental implication of such a dipolar chain crystal and its quantum phase transition is also discussed. (paper)

  3. Soliton cellular automata associated with crystal bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatayama, Goro; Kuniba, Atsuo; Takagi, Taichiro

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a class of cellular automata associated with crystals of irreducible finite dimensional representations of quantum affine algebras U' q (g-circumflex n ). They have solitons labeled by crystals of the smaller algebra U' q (g-circumflex n-1 ). We prove stable propagation of one soliton for g-circumflex n =A (2) 2n-1 ,A (2) 2n ,B (1) n ,C (1) n ,D (1) n and D (2) n+1 . For g-circumflex n =C (1) n , we also prove that the scattering matrices of two solitons coincide with the combinatorial R matrices of U' q (C (1) n-1 )-crystals

  4. Quantum group and quantum symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zhe.

    1994-05-01

    This is a self-contained review on the theory of quantum group and its applications to modern physics. A brief introduction is given to the Yang-Baxter equation in integrable quantum field theory and lattice statistical physics. The quantum group is primarily introduced as a systematic method for solving the Yang-Baxter equation. Quantum group theory is presented within the framework of quantum double through quantizing Lie bi-algebra. Both the highest weight and the cyclic representations are investigated for the quantum group and emphasis is laid on the new features of representations for q being a root of unity. Quantum symmetries are explored in selected topics of modern physics. For a Hamiltonian system the quantum symmetry is an enlarged symmetry that maintains invariance of equations of motion and allows a deformation of the Hamiltonian and symplectic form. The configuration space of the integrable lattice model is analyzed in terms of the representation theory of quantum group. By means of constructing the Young operators of quantum group, the Schroedinger equation of the model is transformed to be a set of coupled linear equations that can be solved by the standard method. Quantum symmetry of the minimal model and the WZNW model in conformal field theory is a hidden symmetry expressed in terms of screened vertex operators, and has a deep interplay with the Virasoro algebra. In quantum group approach a complete description for vibrating and rotating diatomic molecules is given. The exact selection rules and wave functions are obtained. The Taylor expansion of the analytic formulas of the approach reproduces the famous Dunham expansion. (author). 133 refs, 20 figs

  5. Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenneker, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  6. Quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, Maria; Petruccione, Francesco

    2018-02-09

    Quantum machine learning witnesses an increasing amount of quantum algorithms for data-driven decision making, a problem with potential applications ranging from automated image recognition to medical diagnosis. Many of those algorithms are implementations of quantum classifiers, or models for the classification of data inputs with a quantum computer. Following the success of collective decision making with ensembles in classical machine learning, this paper introduces the concept of quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers. Creating the ensemble corresponds to a state preparation routine, after which the quantum classifiers are evaluated in parallel and their combined decision is accessed by a single-qubit measurement. This framework naturally allows for exponentially large ensembles in which - similar to Bayesian learning - the individual classifiers do not have to be trained. As an example, we analyse an exponentially large quantum ensemble in which each classifier is weighed according to its performance in classifying the training data, leading to new results for quantum as well as classical machine learning.

  7. Quantum computer games: quantum minesweeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2010-07-01

    The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical minesweeper the goal of the game is to discover all the mines laid out on a board without triggering them, in the quantum version there are several classical boards in superposition. The goal is to know the exact quantum state, i.e. the precise layout of all the mines in all the superposed classical boards. The player can perform three types of measurement: a classical measurement that probabilistically collapses the superposition; a quantum interaction-free measurement that can detect a mine without triggering it; and an entanglement measurement that provides non-local information. The application of the concepts taught by quantum minesweeper to one-way quantum computing are also presented.

  8. Quantum Physics Without Quantum Philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Dürr, Detlef; Zanghì, Nino

    2013-01-01

    It has often been claimed that without drastic conceptual innovations a genuine explanation of quantum interference effects and quantum randomness is impossible. This book concerns Bohmian mechanics, a simple particle theory that is a counterexample to such claims. The gentle introduction and other contributions collected here show how the phenomena of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to non-commuting observables, emerge from the Bohmian motion of particles, the natural particle motion associated with Schrödinger's equation. This book will be of value to all students and researchers in physics with an interest in the meaning of quantum theory as well as to philosophers of science.

  9. Quantum measurement in quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimble, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the generation and application of manifestly quantum or nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field is reviewed with emphasis on the research of the Quantum Optics Group at Caltech. In particular, the possibilities for spectroscopy with non-classical light are discussed both in terms of improved quantitative measurement capabilities and for the fundamental alteration of atomic radiative processes. Quantum correlations for spatially extended systems are investigated in a variety of experiments which utilize nondegenerate parametric down conversion. Finally, the prospects for measurement of the position of a free mass with precision beyond the standard quantum limit are briefly considered. (author). 38 refs., 1 fig

  10. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 9. Quantum Computing - Building Blocks of a Quantum Computer. C S Vijay Vishal Gupta. General Article Volume 5 Issue 9 September 2000 pp 69-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Quantum spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doplicher, S.

    1996-01-01

    We review some recent result and work in progress on the quantum structure of spacetime at scales comparable with the Planck length; the models discussed here are operationally motivated by the limitations in the accuracy of localization of events in spacetime imposed by the interplay between quantum mechanics and classical general relativity. (orig.)

  12. Chaotic behaviour of photonic crystals resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Di Falco, A.; Liu, C.; Krauss, T. F.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We show here theoretically and experimentally how chaotic Photonic Crystal resonators can be used for en- ergy harvesting applications and the demonstration of fundamental theories, like the onset of superradiance in quantum systems. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  13. Chaotic behaviour of photonic crystals resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Di Falco, A.

    2015-02-08

    We show here theoretically and experimentally how chaotic Photonic Crystal resonators can be used for en- ergy harvesting applications and the demonstration of fundamental theories, like the onset of superradiance in quantum systems. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Lambda shifted photonic crystal cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Ek, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an alternative type of photonic crystal laser design that shifts all the holes in the lattice by a fixed fraction of the targeted emission wavelength. The structures are realized in InGaAsP =1.15 with InGaAsP quantum wells =1.52 as gain material. Cavities with shifts of...

  15. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  16. Quantum photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of non­locality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...

  17. Quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The subject of these lectures is quantum effects in cosmology. The author deals first with situations in which the gravitational field can be treated as a classical, unquantized background on which the quantum matter fields propagate. This is the case with inflation at the GUT era. Nevertheless the curvature of spacetime can have important effects on the behaviour of the quantum fields and on the development of long-range correlations. He then turns to the question of the quantization of the gravitational field itself. The plan of these lectures is as follows: Euclidean approach to quantum field theory in flat space; the extension of techniques to quantum fields on a curved background with the four-sphere, the Euclidean version of De Sitter space as a particular example; the GUT era; quantization of the gravitational field by Euclidean path integrals; mini superspace model. (Auth.)

  18. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Alastair I M

    2016-01-01

    A Thorough Update of One of the Most Highly Regarded Textbooks on Quantum Mechanics Continuing to offer an exceptionally clear, up-to-date treatment of the subject, Quantum Mechanics, Sixth Edition explains the concepts of quantum mechanics for undergraduate students in physics and related disciplines and provides the foundation necessary for other specialized courses. This sixth edition builds on its highly praised predecessors to make the text even more accessible to a wider audience. It is now divided into five parts that separately cover broad topics suitable for any general course on quantum mechanics. New to the Sixth Edition * Three chapters that review prerequisite physics and mathematics, laying out the notation, formalism, and physical basis necessary for the rest of the book * Short descriptions of numerous applications relevant to the physics discussed, giving students a brief look at what quantum mechanics has made possible industrially and scientifically * Additional end-of-chapter problems with...

  19. Quantum magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Johannes; Farnell, Damian; Bishop, Raymod

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects play a dominant role has become a very active branch of solid-state-physics research in its own right. The first three chapters of the "Quantum Magnetism" survey conceptual problems and provide insights into the classes of systems considered, namely one-dimensional, two-dimensional and molecular magnets. The following chapters introduce the methods used in the field of quantum magnetism, including spin wave analysis, exact diagonalization, quantum field theory, coupled cluster methods and the Bethe ansatz. The book closes with a chapter on quantum phase transitions and a contribution that puts the wealth of phenomena into the context of experimental solid-state physics. Closing a gap in the literature, this volume is intended both as an introductory text at postgraduate level and as a modern, comprehensive reference for researchers in the field.

  20. Quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steane, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from

  1. Quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steane, Andrew [Department of Atomic and Laser Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from

  2. Realizing Controllable Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    -- 4. Mesoscopic superconductivity with unconventional superconductor or ferromagnet. Ultraefficient microrefrigerators realized with ferromagnet-superconductor junctions / F. Giazotto et al. Anomalous charge transport in triplet superconductor junctions by the synergy effect of the proximity effect and the mid gap Andreev resonant states / Y. Tanaka and S. Kashiwaya. Paramagnetic and glass states in superconductive YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] ceramics of sub-micron scale grains / H. Deguchi et al. Quantum properties of single-domain triplet superconductors / A. M. Gulian and K. S. Wood. A numerical study of Josephson current in p wave superconducting junctions / Y. Asano et al. Tilted bi-crystal sapphire substrates improve properties of grain boundary YBa[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] junctions and extend their Josephson response to THZ frequencies / E. Stepantsov et al. Circuit theory analysis of AB-plane tunnel junctions of unconventional superconductor Bi[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ca[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / I. Shigeta et al. Transport properties of normal metal/anisotropic superconductor junctions in the eutectic system Sr[symbol]RuO[symbol]Ru / M. Kawamura et al. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in d-wave superconductor Josephson / S. Kawabata et al. Quasiparticle states of high-T[symbol] oxides observed by a Zeeman magnetic field response / S. Kashiwaya et al. Experimentally realizable devices for controlling the motion of magnetic flux quanta in anisotropic superconductors: vortex lenses, vortex diodes and vortex pumps / S. Savel'ev and F. Nori. Stability of vortex-antivortex "molecules" in mesoscopic superconducting triangles / V. R. Misko et al. Superconducting network with magnetic decoration - Hofstadter butterfly in spatially modulated magnetic field / Y. Iye et al. Observation of paramagnetic supercurrent in mesoscopic superconducting rings and disks using multiple-small-tunnel-junction method / A. Kanda et al. Guidance of vortices in high

  3. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Shul'ga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  4. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul' ga, N.F., E-mail: shulga@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine); Shulga, S.N. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine)

    2017-06-10

    Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  5. Quantum mechanics with quantum time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuscik, E.

    1984-01-01

    Using a non-canonical Lie structure of classical mechanics a new algebra of quantum mechanical observables is constructed. The new algebra, in addition to the notion of classical time, makes it possible to introduce the notion of quantum time. A new type of uncertainty relation is derived. (author)

  6. Proceedings of quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.; Man; ko, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the XVIII International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics held in Moscow on June 4-9, 1990. Topics covered include; applications of algebraic methods in quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, quantum optics, spectrum generating groups, quantum algebras, symmetries of equations, quantum physics, coherent states, group representations and space groups

  7. Quantum communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: ·         development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; ·         general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system ·         particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...

  8. Quantum Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, P. D.; Chaturvedi, S.; Dechoum, K.; Comey, J.

    2001-02-01

    We investigate the theory of quantum fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems having large crit­ical fluctuations. This allows us to treat the limits imposed by nonlinearities to quantum squeezing and noise reduction, and also to envisage future tests of quantum theory in regions of macroscopic quantum fluctuations. A long-term objective of this research is to identify suitable physical sys­tems in which macroscopic 'Schrödinger cat'-like behaviour may be observed. We investigate two systems in particular of much current experimental interest, namely the degenerate parametric oscillator near threshold, and the evaporatively cooled (BEC). We compare the results obtained in the positive-P representation, as a fully quantum mechanical calculation, with the truncated Wigner phase space equation, also known as semi-classical theory. We show when these results agree and differ in calculations taken beyond the linearized approximation. In the region where the largest quantum fluctuations and Schrödinger cat-like behaviour might be expected, we find that the quantum predictions correspond very closely to the semi-classical theory. Nature abhors observing a Schrödinger cat. -Pacs: 03.65.Bz

  9. Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.

  10. Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.

  11. Cascade quantum teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Nan-run; GONG Li-hua; LIU Ye

    2006-01-01

    In this letter a cascade quantum teleportation scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme needs less local quantum operations than those of quantum multi-teleportation. A quantum teleportation scheme based on entanglement swapping is presented and compared with the cascade quantum teleportation scheme. Those two schemes can effectively teleport quantum information and extend the distance of quantum communication.

  12. Quantum diffusion of muon and muonium in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadono, Ryosuke [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    The quantum tunneling diffusion of muon and muonium in crystalline solids is discussed with emphasis on the effects of disorder and superconductivity. The complex effect of disorder on muonium diffusion in inhomogeneous crystal is scrutinized. The enhanced muon diffusion in the superconducting state of high-purity tantalum establishes the predominant influence of conduction electrons on the quantum diffusion in metals. (author)

  13. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John L

    2015-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates, this thorough text focuses on the role of symmetry operations and the essentially algebraic structure of quantum-mechanical theory. Based on courses in quantum mechanics taught by the authors, the treatment provides numerous problems that require applications of theory and serve to supplement the textual material.Starting with a historical introduction to the origins of quantum theory, the book advances to discussions of the foundations of wave mechanics, wave packets and the uncertainty principle, and an examination of the Schrödinger equation that includ

  14. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, A.I.M.

    1981-01-01

    This book, based on a thirty lecture course given to students at the beginning of their second year, covers the quantum mechanics required by physics undergraduates. Early chapters deal with wave mechanics, including a discussion of the energy states of the hydrogen atom. These are followed by a more formal development of the theory, leading to a discussion of some advanced applications and an introduction to the conceptual problems associated with quantum measurement theory. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. Problems are included at the end of each chapter. (U.K.)

  15. Quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, F.

    1994-01-01

    A short historical overview is given on the development of our knowledge of complex dynamical systems with special emphasis on ergodicity and chaos, and on the semiclassical quantization of integrable and chaotic systems. The general trace formular is discussed as a sound mathematical basis for the semiclassical quantization of chaos. Two conjectures are presented on the basis of which it is argued that there are unique fluctuation properties in quantum mechanics which are universal and, in a well defined sense, maximally random if the corresponding classical system is strongly chaotic. These properties constitute the quantum mechanical analogue of the phenomenon of chaos in classical mechanics. Thus quantum chaos has been found. (orig.)

  16. Quantum thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, G.P.; Gyftopoulos, E.P.; Park, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A novel nonlinear equation of motion is proposed for a general quantum system consisting of more than one distinguishable elementary constituent of matter. In the domain of idempotent quantum-mechanical state operators, it is satisfied by all unitary evolutions generated by the Schroedinger equation. But in the broader domain of nonidempotent state operators not contemplated by conventional quantum mechanics, it generates a generally nonunitary evolution, it keeps the energy invariant and causes the entropy to increase with time until the system reaches a state of equilibrium or a limit cycle

  17. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  18. Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damnjanovic, M [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Milosevic, I [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Vukovic, T [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 368, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Maultzsch, J [Institut fuer Festkoerper Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2003-05-30

    Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as systematic band sticking or van Hove singularities related to parities. The importance of these conclusions is illustrated by the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes: parity may prevent absorption peaks at van Hove singularities.

  19. Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damnjanovic, M; Milosevic, I; Vukovic, T; Maultzsch, J

    2003-01-01

    Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as systematic band sticking or van Hove singularities related to parities. The importance of these conclusions is illustrated by the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes: parity may prevent absorption peaks at van Hove singularities

  20. Quantum numbers and band topology of nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Damnjanovic, M; Vukovic, T; Maultzsch, J

    2003-01-01

    Nanotubes as well as polymers and quasi-1D subsystems of 3D crystals have line group symmetry. This allows two types of quantum numbers: roto-translational and helical. The roto-translational quantum numbers are linear and total angular (not conserved) momenta, while the helical quantum numbers are helical and complementary angular momenta. Their mutual relations determine some topological properties of energy bands, such as systematic band sticking or van Hove singularities related to parities. The importance of these conclusions is illustrated by the optical absorption in carbon nanotubes: parity may prevent absorption peaks at van Hove singularities.

  1. Quantum imaging with undetected photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Borish, Victoria; Cole, Garrett D; Ramelow, Sven; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Zeilinger, Anton

    2014-08-28

    Information is central to quantum mechanics. In particular, quantum interference occurs only if there exists no information to distinguish between the superposed states. The mere possibility of obtaining information that could distinguish between overlapping states inhibits quantum interference. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a quantum imaging concept based on induced coherence without induced emission. Our experiment uses two separate down-conversion nonlinear crystals (numbered NL1 and NL2), each illuminated by the same pump laser, creating one pair of photons (denoted idler and signal). If the photon pair is created in NL1, one photon (the idler) passes through the object to be imaged and is overlapped with the idler amplitude created in NL2, its source thus being undefined. Interference of the signal amplitudes coming from the two crystals then reveals the image of the object. The photons that pass through the imaged object (idler photons from NL1) are never detected, while we obtain images exclusively with the signal photons (from NL1 and NL2), which do not interact with the object. Our experiment is fundamentally different from previous quantum imaging techniques, such as interaction-free imaging or ghost imaging, because now the photons used to illuminate the object do not have to be detected at all and no coincidence detection is necessary. This enables the probe wavelength to be chosen in a range for which suitable detectors are not available. To illustrate this, we show images of objects that are either opaque or invisible to the detected photons. Our experiment is a prototype in quantum information--knowledge can be extracted by, and about, a photon that is never detected.

  2. Quantum Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, C W J

    2005-01-01

    Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schroedinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The

  3. Quantum exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ba An

    2006-01-01

    Absolutely and asymptotically secure protocols for organizing an exam in a quantum way are proposed basing judiciously on multipartite entanglement. The protocols are shown to stand against common types of eavesdropping attack

  4. Quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittel, W.; Brendel, J.; Gissin, N.; Ribordy, G.; Zbinden, H.

    1999-01-01

    The principles of quantum cryptography based on non-local correlations of entanglement photons are outlined. The method of coding and decoding of information and experiments is also described. The prospects of the technique are briefly discussed. (Z.J.)

  5. Quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cejnar, P.

    2007-01-01

    Chaos is a name given in physics to a branch which, within classical mechanics, studies the consequences of sensitive dependences of the behavior of physical systems on the starting conditions, i.e., the 'butterfly wing effect'. However, how to describe chaotic behavior in the world of quantum particles? It appears that quantum mechanics does not admit the sensitive dependence on the starting conditions, and moreover, predicts a substantial suppression of chaos also at the macroscopic level. Still, the quantum properties of systems that are chaotic in terms of classical mechanics differ basically from the properties of classically arranged systems. This topic is studied by a field of physics referred to as quantum chaos. (author)

  6. Quantum transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative ∂ q replaced by ∂ q with dq = dq/√1-β 2 (q), where β 2 (q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above open-quotes quantum transformationclose quotes, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) - E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures κ W and κ Q which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form (∂ q 2 + κ W )ψ = 0

  7. Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)

  8. Duality Quantum Information and Duality Quantum Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C. Y.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, C.; Song, S. Y.; Long, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum mechanical systems exhibit particle wave duality property. This duality property has been exploited for information processing. A duality quantum computer is a quantum computer on the move and passing through a multi-slits. It offers quantum wave divider and quantum wave combiner operations in addition to those allowed in an ordinary quantum computer. It has been shown that all linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and a duality quantum computer with n qubits and d-slits can be realized in an ordinary quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit in the so-called duality quantum computing mode. The quantum particle-wave duality can be used in providing secure communication. In this paper, we will review duality quantum computing and duality quantum key distribution.

  9. Magnetophotonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujikawa, R [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Baryshev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Khanikaev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Lim, P B [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan (Japan); Uchida, H [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Aktsipetrov, O [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Fedyanin, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Murzina, T [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-21

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  10. Magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M; Fujikawa, R; Baryshev, A; Khanikaev, A; Lim, P B; Uchida, H; Aktsipetrov, O; Fedyanin, A; Murzina, T; Granovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  11. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehner, Dominique [Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Fourier, F-38000 Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique et Modélisation des Milieux Condensés, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  12. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature

  13. Quantum Locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a `consistent quantum theory' that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are not entailed by the precepts of quantum mechanics. Thus whatever is proved is not a feature of quantum mechanics, but is a property of a theory that tries to combine quantum theory with quasi-classical features that go beyond what is entailed by quantum theory itself. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by establishing, instead, properties of a system modified by adding properties alien to the original system. Hence Griffiths' rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his `consistent quantum theory' shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive version of quantum theory. An added section responds to Griffiths' reply, which cites general possibilities of ambiguities that might make what is to be proved ill-defined, and hence render the pertinent `consistent framework' ill defined. But the vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question, which, both by its physical formulation and by explicit identification, specify the framework to be used. Griffiths confirms the validity of the proof insofar as that pertinent framework is used. The section also shows

  14. Quantum lottery

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On April Fools' Day, CERN Quantum Diaries blogger Pauline Gagnon held a giveaway of microscopic proportion. Up for grabs? Ten Higgs bosons, courtesy of CERN. Pauline announced the winners last week; let's see what they'll really be getting in the mail...   Custom-made Particle Zoo Higgs bosons were sent out to the winners. Read more about the prize in the Quantum Diaries post "Higgs boson lottery: when CERN plays April Fools' jokes".

  15. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  16. Quantum torsors

    OpenAIRE

    Grunspan, C.

    2003-01-01

    This text gives some results about quantum torsors. Our starting point is an old reformulation of torsors recalled recently by Kontsevich. We propose an unification of the definitions of torsors in algebraic geometry and in Poisson geometry. Any quantum torsor is equipped with two comodule-algebra structures over Hopf algebras and these structures commute with each other. In the finite dimensional case, these two Hopf algebras share the same finite dimension. We show that any Galois extension...

  17. Quantum conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  18. Quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiivanov, L.; Todorov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Expository paper providing a historical survey of the gradual transformation of the 'philosophical discussions' between Bohr, Einstein and Schrödinger on foundational issues in quantum mechanics into a quantitative prediction of a new quantum effect, its experimental verification and its proposed (and loudly advertised) applications. The basic idea of the 1935 paper of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) was reformulated by David Bohm for a finite dimensional spin system. This allowed John Bell to derive his inequalities that separate the prediction of quantum entanglement from its possible classical interpretation. We reproduce here their later (1971) version, reviewing on the way the generalization (and mathematical derivation) of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations (due to Weyl and Schrödinger) needed for the passage from EPR to Bell. We also provide an improved derivation of the quantum theoretic violation of Bell's inequalities. Soon after the experimental confirmation of the quantum entanglement (culminating with the work of Alain Aspect) it was Feynman who made public the idea of a quantum computer based on the observed effect

  19. Quantum Computation and Quantum Spin Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel; Hams, Anthony; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the stability of quantum computations on physically realizable quantum computers by simulating quantum spin models representing quantum computer hardware. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum

  20. Quantum effect on thermally activated glide of dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proville, Laurent; Maricina, Mihai-Cosmin; Rodney, David

    2012-01-01

    Crystal plasticity involves the motion of dislocations under stress. So far, atomistic simulations of this process have predicted Peierls stresses, the stress needed to overcome the crystal resistance in the absence of thermal fluctuations, of more than twice the experimental values, a discrepancy best-known in body-centred cubic crystals. Here we show that a large contribution arises from the crystal zero-point vibrations, which ease dislocation motion below typically half the Debye temperature. Using Wigner's quantum transition state theory in atomistic models of crystals, we found a large decrease of the kink-pair formation enthalpy due to the quantization of the crystal vibrational modes. Consequently, the flow stress predicted by Orowan's law is strongly reduced when compared with its classical approximation and in much closer agreement with experiments. This work advocates that quantum mechanics should be accounted for in simulations of materials and not only at very low temperatures or in light-atom systems. (authors)

  1. Moessbauer neutrinos in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the correspondence between quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretical descriptions of Moessbauer neutrino oscillations. First, we compute the combined rate Γ of Moessbauer neutrino emission, propagation, and detection in quantum field theory, treating the neutrino as an internal line of a tree level Feynman diagram. We include explicitly the effect of homogeneous line broadening due to fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the source and detector crystals and show that the resulting formula for Γ is identical to the one obtained previously [1] for the case of inhomogeneous line broadening. We then proceed to a quantum mechanical treatment of Moessbauer neutrinos and show that the oscillation, coherence, and resonance terms from the field theoretical result can be reproduced if the neutrino is described as a superposition of Lorentz-shaped wave packet with appropriately chosen energies and widths. On the other hand, the emission rate and the detection cross section, including localization and Lamb-Moessbauer terms, cannot be predicted in quantum mechanics and have to be put in by hand.

  2. Quantum computing: Quantum advantage deferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andrew M.

    2017-12-01

    A type of optics experiment called a boson sampler could be among the easiest routes to demonstrating the power of quantum computers. But recent work shows that super-classical boson sampling may be a long way off.

  3. Quantum Physics for Beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

  4. Quantum Transmemetic Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * A Quantum Model of Free Will * Quantum Acquisition of Knowledge * Thinking as a Quantum Algorithm * Counterfactual Measurement as a Model of Intuition * Quantum Modification of Freud's Model of Consciousness * Conclusion * Acknowledgements * References

  5. Time Operators and Time Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsugawa, K.; Fujii, T.; Saxena, A.; Tanda, S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate time operators in the context of quantum time crystals in ring systems. We demonstrate that a self-adjoint time operator with a periodic time evolution can be derived for a free particle on a ring system: The conventional Aharonov-Bohm time operator is obtained by taking the infinite-radius limit. We also reveal the relationship between our time operator and a $\\mathcal PT$-symmetric time operator. We find that both time operators indeed describe the periodic time evolution of ...

  6. Quantum correlations in multipartite quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Heshmati, A.; Karimi, N.; Yahyavi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum entanglement is the most famous type of quantum correlation between elements of a quantum system that has a basic role in quantum communication protocols like quantum cryptography, teleportation and Bell inequality detection. However, it has already been shown that various applications in quantum information theory do not require entanglement. Quantum discord as a new kind of quantum correlations beyond entanglement, is the most popular candidate for general quantum correlations. In this paper, first we find the entanglement witness in a particular multipartite quantum system which consists of a N-partite system in 2 n -dimensional space. Then we give an exact analytical formula for the quantum discord of this system. At the end of the paper, we investigate the additivity relation of the quantum correlation and show that this relation is satisfied for a N-partite system with 2 n -dimensional space.

  7. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    determined the oscillator strength, quantum efficiency and spin-flip rates of QD excitons as well as their dependencies on emission wavelength and QD size. Enhancement and inhibition of QD spontaneous emission in photonic crystal membranes (PCMs) is observed. Efficient coupling to PCM waveguides...

  8. Quantum-dot excitons in nanostructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    determined the oscillator strength, quantum efficiency and spin-flip rates of QD excitons as well as their dependencies on emission wavelength and QD size. Enhancement and inhibition of QD spontaneous emission in photonic crystal membranes (PCMs) is observed. Efficient coupling to PCM waveguides...

  9. Quantum theory of the electron liquid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giuliani, Gabriele; Vignale, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    ... to the Wigner crystal, from the Luttinger liquid to the quantum Hall liquid, are extensively discussed. Both static and time-dependent density functional theory are presented in detail. Although the emphasis is on the development of the basic physical ideas and on a critical discussion of the most useful approximations, the formal derivation of the r...

  10. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  11. Electron quantum optics as quantum signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Roussel, B.; Cabart, C.; Fève, G.; Thibierge, E.; Degiovanni, P.

    2016-01-01

    The recent developments of electron quantum optics in quantum Hall edge channels have given us new ways to probe the behavior of electrons in quantum conductors. It has brought new quantities called electronic coherences under the spotlight. In this paper, we explore the relations between electron quantum optics and signal processing through a global review of the various methods for accessing single- and two-electron coherences in electron quantum optics. We interpret electron quantum optics...

  12. Channeling and related crystal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggerhoj, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Channeling, the interaction of particles with oriented crystals, has been applied in a wide variety of scientific and technological areas. A workshop at Aarhus, Denmark, this summer highlighted progress and future directions. Radiation emission has been explored and linked to coherent bremsstrahlung and other oriented crystal radiations. Dramatic effects have been found for ultra-relativistic electrons with Lorentz factors of 105 6. Single crystals are unique for investigations of quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields because probabilities for processes in axial/ planar fields are determined by the magnitude of these fields in the particle rest frame. Erik Uggerhoj of Aarhus reported on an extensive series of experiments concerning radiation emission, pair production, and shower formation carried out at CERN by the NA43 collaboration. As Vladimir Baier of Novosibirsk and Yuri Kononets of Kurchatov noted, theoretical treatment of these interconnected radiation distributions is challenging and much work needs to be done. In general, the agreement with the CERN experiments is good, but many areas like polarization phenomena and particle production need investigation. Prominent among high energy applications is extraction from accelerators. At the workshop, Alexei Asseev reported on beam extraction using a bent crystal at Serpukhov. Konrad Elsener and Jukka Klem reviewed recent CERN SPS studies driven by the possibility of using crystals for extraction of LHC beams. Thornton Murphy of Fermilab announced a step in that direction, with a demonstration this summer of extraction from the Tevatron at 900 GeV. Bent crystal channeling is also used for handling extracted high energy beams. Niels Doble presented a beautiful example of a beam for the CERN NA48 CP-violation experiment. Yuri Chesnokov reported that beams had been deflected through angles up to 150 milliradians at Serpukhov

  13. Quantum solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, I [Centre National d' Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 196 Avenue Henri Ravera, F-92220 Bagneux (France)

    1999-02-01

    Two of the most remarkable properties of light - squeezing and solitons - are being combined in a new generation of experiments that could revolutionize optics and communications. One area of application concerns the transmission and processing of classical (binary) information, in which the presence or absence of a soliton in a time-window corresponds to a ''1'' or ''0'', as in traditional optical-fibre communications. However, since solitons occur at fixed power levels, we do not have the luxury of being able to crank up the input power to improve the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving end. Nevertheless, the exploitation of quantum effects such as squeezing could help to reduce noise and improve fidelity. In long-distance communications, where the signal is amplified every 50-100 kilometres or so, the soliton pulse is strongest just after the amplifier. Luckily this is where the bulk of the nonlinear interaction needed to maintain the soliton shape occurs. However, the pulse gets weaker as it propagates along the fibre, so the nonlinear interaction also becomes weakerand weaker. This means that dispersive effects become dominant until the next stage of amplification, where the nonlinearity takes over again. One problem is that quantum fluctuations in the amplifiers lead to random jumps in the central wavelength of the individual solitons, and this results in a random variation of the speed of individual solitons in the fibre. Several schemes have been devised to remove this excess noise and bring the train of solitons back to the orderly behaviour characteristic of a stable coherent state (e.g. the solitons could be passed through a spectral filter). Photon-number squeezing could also play a key role in solving this problem. For example, if the solitons are number-squeezed immediately after amplification, there will be a smaller uncertainty in the nonlinearity that keeps the soliton in shape and, therefore, there will also be less noise in the soliton. This

  14. Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bellac, Michel

    2006-03-01

    Quantum physics allows us to understand the nature of the physical phenomena which govern the behavior of solids, semi-conductors, lasers, atoms, nuclei, subnuclear particles and light. In Quantum Physics, Le Bellac provides a thoroughly modern approach to this fundamental theory. Throughout the book, Le Bellac teaches the fundamentals of quantum physics using an original approach which relies primarily on an algebraic treatment and on the systematic use of symmetry principles. In addition to the standard topics such as one-dimensional potentials, angular momentum and scattering theory, the reader is introduced to more recent developments at an early stage. These include a detailed account of entangled states and their applications, the optical Bloch equations, the theory of laser cooling and of magneto-optical traps, vacuum Rabi oscillations, and an introduction to open quantum systems. This is a textbook for a modern course on quantum physics, written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Completely original and contemporary approach, using algebra and symmetry principles Introduces recent developments at an early stage, including many topics that cannot be found in standard textbooks. Contains 130 physically relevant exercises

  15. Quantum minigolf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhard, Friedemann [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). 3. Physikalisches Institut

    2010-07-01

    Quantum minigolf is a virtual-reality computer game visualizing quantum mechanics. The rules are the same as for the classical game minigolf, the goal being to kick a ball such that it crosses an obstacle course and runs into a hole. The ball, however, follows the laws of quantum mechanics: It can be at several places at once or tunnel through obstacles. To know whether the ball has reached the goal, the player has to perform a position measurement, which converts the ball into a classical object and fixes its position. But quantum mechanics is indeterministic: There is always a chance to lose, even for Tiger Woods. Technically, the obstacle course and the ball are projected onto the floor by a video projector. The position of the club is tracked by an infrared marker, similar as in Nintendo's Wii console. The whole setup is portable and the software has been published under the GPL license on www.quantum-minigolf.org.

  16. Quantum walk computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendon, Viv

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are “universal for quantum computation” relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer

  17. Quantum group gauge theory on quantum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezinski, T.; Majid, S.

    1993-01-01

    We construct quantum group-valued canonical connections on quantum homogeneous spaces, including a q-deformed Dirac monopole on the quantum sphere of Podles quantum differential coming from the 3-D calculus of Woronowicz on SU q (2). The construction is presented within the setting of a general theory of quantum principal bundles with quantum group (Hopf algebra) fiber, associated quantum vector bundles and connection one-forms. Both the base space (spacetime) and the total space are non-commutative algebras (quantum spaces). (orig.)

  18. Efficient quantum circuit implementation of quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, B. L.; Wang, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum walks, being the quantum analog of classical random walks, are expected to provide a fruitful source of quantum algorithms. A few such algorithms have already been developed, including the 'glued trees' algorithm, which provides an exponential speedup over classical methods, relative to a particular quantum oracle. Here, we discuss the possibility of a quantum walk algorithm yielding such an exponential speedup over possible classical algorithms, without the use of an oracle. We provide examples of some highly symmetric graphs on which efficient quantum circuits implementing quantum walks can be constructed and discuss potential applications to quantum search for marked vertices along these graphs.

  19. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings (ΔE ∝5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of single photon emission into the waveguide. The results obtained during the course of this thesis contribute significantly to

  20. Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne

    2011-06-15

    This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings ({delta}E<{proportional_to}5 meV) and a multi-exciton-based, Auger-like process for larger detunings ({delta}E >{proportional_to}5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of

  1. Renormalisation in Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Instantons and Quantum Chaos

    OpenAIRE

    Jirari, H.; Kröger, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Moriarty, K. J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We suggest how to construct non-perturbatively a renormalized action in quantum mechanics. We discuss similarties and differences with the standard effective action. We propose that the new quantum action is suitable to define and compute quantum instantons and quantum chaos.

  2. Laser guiding of cold atoms in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasishin, A V; Magnitskiy, Sergey A; Shuvaev, V A; Zheltikov, Aleksei M

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of using photonic crystals with a lattice defect for the laser guiding of cold atoms is analysed. We have found a configuration of a photonic-crystal lattice and a defect ensuring the distribution of a potential in the defect mode of the photonic crystal allowing the guiding of cold atoms along the defect due to the dipole force acting on atoms. Based on quantitative estimates, we have demonstrated that photonic crystals with a lattice defect permit the guiding of atoms with much higher transverse temperatures and a much higher transverse localisation degree than in the case of hollow-core fibres. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Quantum mechanics was developed during the first few decades of the twentieth century via a series of inspired guesses made by various physicists, including Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, and Dirac. All these scientists were trying to construct a self-consistent theory of microscopic dynamics that was compatible with experimental observations. The purpose of this book is to present quantum mechanics in a clear, concise, and systematic fashion, starting from the fundamental postulates, and developing the theory in as logical manner as possible. Topics covered in the book include the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, angular momentum, time-dependent and time-dependent perturbation theory, scattering theory, identical particles, and relativistic electron theory.

  4. Quantum Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Barrett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p45 Because of the conceptual difficulties it faces, quantum mechanics provides a salient example of how alternative metaphysical commitments may clarify our understanding of a physical theory and the explanations it provides. Here we will consider how postulating alternative quantum worlds in the context of Hugh Everett III’s pure wave mechanics may serve to explain determinate measurement records and the standard quantum statistics. We will focus on the properties of such worlds, then briefly consider other metaphysical options available for interpreting pure wave mechanics. These reflections will serve to illustrate both the nature and the limits of naturalized metaphysics.

  5. Quantum weirdness

    CERN Document Server

    Mullin, William J

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics allows a remarkably accurate description of nature and powerful predictive capabilities. The analyses of quantum systems and their interpretation lead to many surprises, for example, the ability to detect the characteristics of an object without ever touching it in any way, via "interaction-free measurement," or the teleportation of an atomic state over large distances. The results can become downright bizarre. Quantum mechanics is a subtle subject that usually involves complicated mathematics -- calculus, partial differential equations, etc., for complete understanding. Most texts for general audiences avoid all mathematics. The result is that the reader misses almost all deep understanding of the subject, much of which can be probed with just high-school level algebra and trigonometry. Thus, readers with that level of mathematics can learn so much more about this fundamental science. The book starts with a discussion of the basic physics of waves (an appendix reviews some necessary class...

  6. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, P K

    2014-01-01

    Quantum mechanics, designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, mathematics and chemistry, provides a concise yet self-contained introduction to the formal framework of quantum mechanics, its application to physical problems and the interpretation of the theory. Starting with a review of some of the necessary mathematics, the basic concepts are carefully developed in the text. After building a general formalism, detailed treatment of the standard material - the harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, angular momentum theory, symmetry transformations, approximation methods, identical particle and many-particle systems, and scattering theory - is presented. The concluding chapter discusses the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Some of the important topics discussed in the book are the rigged Hilbert space, deformation quantization, path integrals, coherent states, geometric phases, decoherene, etc. This book is characterized by clarity and coherence of presentation.

  8. Quantum waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This monograph explains the theory of quantum waveguides, that is, dynamics of quantum particles confined to regions in the form of tubes, layers, networks, etc. The focus is on relations between the confinement geometry on the one hand and the spectral and scattering properties of the corresponding quantum Hamiltonians on the other. Perturbations of such operators, in particular, by external fields are also considered. The volume provides a unique summary of twenty five years of research activity in this area and indicates ways in which the theory can develop further. The book is fairly self-contained. While it requires some broader mathematical physics background, all the basic concepts are properly explained and proofs of most theorems are given in detail, so there is no need for additional sources. Without a parallel in the literature, the monograph by Exner and Kovarik guides the reader through this new and exciting field.

  9. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Alastair I M

    2007-01-01

    PREFACESINTRODUCTION The Photoelectric Effect The Compton Effect Line Spectra and Atomic Structure De Broglie Waves Wave-Particle Duality The Rest of This Book THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation The Time-Independent Schrödinger Equation Boundary ConditionsThe Infinite Square Well The Finite Square Well Quantum Mechanical Tunneling The Harmonic Oscillator THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Wave Equations Separation in Cartesian Coordinates Separation in Spherical Polar Coordinates The Hydrogenic Atom THE BASIC POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MEC

  10. Quantum Chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohigas, Oriol [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Orsay (France)

    2005-04-18

    Are there quantum signatures, for instance in the spectral properties, of the underlying regular or chaotic nature of the corresponding classical motion? Are there universality classes? Within this framework the merging of two at first sight seemingly disconnected fields, namely random matrix theories (RMT) and quantum chaos (QC), is briefly described. Periodic orbit theory (POT) plays a prominent role. Emphasis is given to compound nucleus resonances and binding energies, whose shell effects are examined from this perspective. Several aspects are illustrated with Riemann's {zeta}-function, which has become a testing ground for RMT, QC, POT, and their relationship.

  11. Quantum Chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, Oriol

    2005-01-01

    Are there quantum signatures, for instance in the spectral properties, of the underlying regular or chaotic nature of the corresponding classical motion? Are there universality classes? Within this framework the merging of two at first sight seemingly disconnected fields, namely random matrix theories (RMT) and quantum chaos (QC), is briefly described. Periodic orbit theory (POT) plays a prominent role. Emphasis is given to compound nucleus resonances and binding energies, whose shell effects are examined from this perspective. Several aspects are illustrated with Riemann's ζ-function, which has become a testing ground for RMT, QC, POT, and their relationship

  12. Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Don N.

    2006-01-01

    A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...

  13. Quantum diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.

    1994-01-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source

  14. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  15. Quantum control limited by quantum decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Fei; Sun, C. P.; Yu, S. X.

    2006-01-01

    We describe quantum controllability under the influences of the quantum decoherence induced by the quantum control itself. It is shown that, when the controller is considered as a quantum system, it will entangle with its controlled system and then cause quantum decoherence in the controlled system. In competition with this induced decoherence, the controllability will be limited by some uncertainty relation in a well-armed quantum control process. In association with the phase uncertainty and the standard quantum limit, a general model is studied to demonstrate the possibility of realizing a decoherence-free quantum control with a finite energy within a finite time. It is also shown that if the operations of quantum control are to be determined by the initial state of the controller, then due to the decoherence which results from the quantum control itself, there exists a low bound for quantum controllability

  16. Quantum memory for images: A quantum hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    Matter-light quantum interface and quantum memory for light are important ingredients of quantum information protocols, such as quantum networks, distributed quantum computation, etc. [P. Zoller et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203 (2005)]. In this paper we present a spatially multimode scheme for quantum memory for light, which we call a quantum hologram. Our approach uses a multiatom ensemble which has been shown to be efficient for a single spatial mode quantum memory. Due to the multiatom nature of the ensemble and to the optical parallelism it is capable of storing many spatial modes, a feature critical for the present proposal. A quantum hologram with the fidelity exceeding that of classical hologram will be able to store quantum features of an image, such as multimode superposition and entangled quantum states, something that a standard hologram is unable to achieve

  17. Quantum machine learning for quantum anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nana; Rebentrost, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Anomaly detection is used for identifying data that deviate from "normal" data patterns. Its usage on classical data finds diverse applications in many important areas such as finance, fraud detection, medical diagnoses, data cleaning, and surveillance. With the advent of quantum technologies, anomaly detection of quantum data, in the form of quantum states, may become an important component of quantum applications. Machine-learning algorithms are playing pivotal roles in anomaly detection using classical data. Two widely used algorithms are the kernel principal component analysis and the one-class support vector machine. We find corresponding quantum algorithms to detect anomalies in quantum states. We show that these two quantum algorithms can be performed using resources that are logarithmic in the dimensionality of quantum states. For pure quantum states, these resources can also be logarithmic in the number of quantum states used for training the machine-learning algorithm. This makes these algorithms potentially applicable to big quantum data applications.

  18. Measuring the effective phonon density of states of a quantum dot in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Kreiner-Møller, Asger

    2013-01-01

    We employ detuning-dependent decay-rate measurements of a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity to study the influence of phonon dephasing in a solid-state quantum-electrodynamics experiment. The experimental data agree with a microscopic non-Markovian model accounting for dephasing from...... longitudinal acoustic phonons, and the analysis explains the difference between nonresonant cavity feeding in different nanocavities. From the comparison between experiment and theory we extract the effective phonon density of states experienced by the quantum dot in the nanocavity. This quantity determines...

  19. Photonic time crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia

    2017-12-07

    When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.

  20. Quantum information processing with trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeffner, H.; Haensel, W.; Rapol, U.; Koerber, T.; Benhelm, J.; Riebe, M.; Chek-al-Kar, D.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Becher, C.; Roos, C.; Blatt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Single Ca + ions and crystals of Ca + ions are confined in a linear Paul trap and are investigated for quantum information processing. Here we report on recent experimental advancements towards a quantum computer with such a system. Laser-cooled trapped ions are ideally suited systems for the investigation and implementation of quantum information processing as one can gain almost complete control over their internal and external degrees of freedom. The combination of a Paul type ion trap with laser cooling leads to unique properties of trapped cold ions, such as control of the motional state down to the zero-point of the trapping potential, a high degree of isolation from the environment and thus a very long time available for manipulations and interactions at the quantum level. The very same properties make single trapped atoms and ions well suited for storing quantum information in long lived internal states, e.g. by encoding a quantum bit (qubit) of information within the coherent superposition of the S 1/2 ground state and the metastable D 5/2 excited state of Ca + . Recently we have achieved the implementation of simple algorithms with up to 3 qubits on an ion-trap quantum computer. We will report on methods to implement single qubit rotations, the realization of a two-qubit universal quantum gate (Cirac-Zoller CNOT-gate), the deterministic generation of multi-particle entangled states (GHZ- and W-states), their full tomographic reconstruction, the realization of deterministic quantum teleportation, its quantum process tomography and the encoding of quantum information in decoherence-free subspaces with coherence times exceeding 20 seconds. (author)

  1. Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Nicole A.

    Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab

  2. Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe.   While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models.   ...

  3. A matter of quantum voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M., E-mail: Shawn.Kathmann@pnnl.gov [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V{sub o}) – the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V{sub o} from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V{sub o} for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V{sub o} as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  4. Quantum teleportation from a telecom-wavelength photon to a solid-state quantum memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussieres, Felix [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum teleportation is a cornerstone of quantum information science due to its essential role in several important tasks such as the long-distance transmission of quantum information using quantum repeaters. In this context, a challenge of paramount importance is the distribution of entanglement between remote nodes, and to use this entanglement as a resource for long-distance light-to-matter quantum teleportation. In this talk I will report on the demonstration of quantum teleportation of the polarization state of a telecom-wavelength photon onto the state of a solid-state quantum memory. Entanglement is established between a rare-earth-ion doped crystal storing a single photon that is polarization-entangled with a flying telecom-wavelength photon. The latter is jointly measured with another flying qubit carrying the polarization state to be teleported, which heralds the teleportation. The fidelity of the polarization state of the photon retrieved from the memory is shown to be greater than the maximum fidelity achievable without entanglement, even when the combined distances travelled by the two flying qubits is 25 km of standard optical fibre. This light-to-matter teleportation channel paves the way towards long-distance implementations of quantum networks with solid-state quantum memories.

  5. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  6. Quantum Computation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Quantum Computation - Particle and Wave Aspects of Algorithms. Apoorva Patel. General Article Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 821-835. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    performance driven optimization ofVLSI ... start-up company at lIT. Mumbai. ... 1 The best known algorithms for factorization ... make a measurement the quantum state continues to be ... cally in this way: if there is a source producing identical.

  8. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  9. Quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1979-01-01

    The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)

  10. Quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Burba, M.; Lapitskaya, T.

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an elementary introduction to quantum computing. It is a draft for a book chapter of the "Handbook of Nature-Inspired and Innovative Computing", Eds. A. Zomaya, G.J. Milburn, J. Dongarra, D. Bader, R. Brent, M. Eshaghian-Wilner, F. Seredynski (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2006).

  11. Quantum Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De; Binder, K; Ciccotti, G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this set of lectures is to introduce the general concepts that are at the basis of the computer simulation algorithms that are used to study the behavior of condensed matter quantum systems. The emphasis is on the underlying concepts rather than on specific applications. Topics

  12. Quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, A.

    1980-01-01

    The symposium included lectures covering both the elements and the experimental tests of the theory of quantum chromdynamics. A three day topical conference was included which included the first results from PETRA as well as the latest reports from CERN, Fermilab, and SPEAR experiments. Twenty-one items from the symposium were prepared separately for the data base

  13. Quantum Statistical Mechanics on a Quantum Computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, H. De; Hams, A.H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S.; Saito, K.; Saito, E.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a simulation method for a quantum spin model of a generic, general purpose quantum computer. The use of this quantum computer simulator is illustrated through several implementations of Grover’s database search algorithm. Some preliminary results on the stability of quantum algorithms

  14. Quantum arithmetic with the Quantum Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Perez, Lidia; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Quantum Fourier Transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing Quantum Fourier Transform adders and multipliers and propose some modifications that extend their capabilities. Among the new circuits, we propose a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain.

  15. Quantum Chaos via the Quantum Action

    OpenAIRE

    Kröger, H.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the concept of the quantum action with the purpose to characterize and quantitatively compute quantum chaos. As an example we consider in quantum mechanics a 2-D Hamiltonian system - harmonic oscillators with anharmonic coupling - which is classically a chaotic system. We compare Poincar\\'e sections obtained from the quantum action with those from the classical action.

  16. Quantum optics and fundamentals of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, M.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum optics has opened up new opportunities for experimental verification of the basic principles of quantum mechanics, particularly in the field of quantum interference and so-called non-local phenomena. The results of the experiments described provide unambiguous support to quantum mechanics. (Z.J.)

  17. Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,

  18. Quantum Computing: a Quantum Group Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhenghan

    2013-01-01

    There is compelling theoretical evidence that quantum physics will change the face of information science. Exciting progress has been made during the last two decades towards the building of a large scale quantum computer. A quantum group approach stands out as a promising route to this holy grail, and provides hope that we may have quantum computers in our future.

  19. Quantum Hall Electron Nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Allan

    In 2D electron systems hosted by crystals with hexagonal symmetry, electron nematic phases with spontaneously broken C3 symmetry are expected to occur in the quantum Hall regime when triplets of Landau levels associated with three different Fermi surface pockets are partially filled. The broken symmetry state is driven by intravalley Coulombic exchange interactions that favor spontaneously polarized valley occupations. I will discuss three different examples of 2D electron systems in which this type of broken symmetry state is expected to occur: i) the SnTe (111) surface, ii) the Bi (111) surface. and iii) unbalanced bilayer graphene. This type of quantum Hall electron nematic state has so far been confirmed only in the Bi (111) case, in which the anisotropic quasiparticle wavefunctions of the broken symmetry state were directly imaged. In the SnTe case the nematic state phase boundary is controlled by a competition between intravalley Coulomb interactions and intervalley scattering processes that increase in relative strength with magnetic field. An in-plane Zeeman field alters the phase diagram by lifting the three-fold Landau level degeneracy, yielding a ground state energy with 2 π/3 periodicity as a function of Zeeman-field orientation angle. I will comment on the possibility of observing similar states in the absence of a magnetic field. Supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Grant DE-FG03-02ER45958.

  20. Photonic Crystal Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristiansen, Rene E

    2005-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...

  1. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  2. Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, G E

    2005-01-01

    Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)

  3. Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots

  4. Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471

  5. Quantum Secure Dialogue with Quantum Encryption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Tian-Yu

    2014-01-01

    How to solve the information leakage problem has become the research focus of quantum dialogue. In this paper, in order to overcome the information leakage problem in quantum dialogue, a novel approach for sharing the initial quantum state privately between communicators, i.e., quantum encryption sharing, is proposed by utilizing the idea of quantum encryption. The proposed protocol uses EPR pairs as the private quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the traveling photons, which can be repeatedly used after rotation. Due to quantum encryption sharing, the public announcement on the state of the initial quantum state is omitted, thus the information leakage problem is overcome. The information-theoretical efficiency of the proposed protocol is nearly 100%, much higher than previous information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocols. Moreover, the proposed protocol only needs single-photon measurements and nearly uses single photons as quantum resource so that it is convenient to implement in practice. (general)

  6. The GUP and quantum Raychaudhuri equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias C. Vagenas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the quantum corrections to the Schwarzschild black hole temperature due to quadratic and linear-quadratic generalised uncertainty principle, with the corrections from the quantum Raychaudhuri equation. The reason for this comparison is to connect the deformation parameters β0 and α0 with η which is the parameter that characterises the quantum Raychaudhuri equation. The derived relation between the parameters appears to depend on the relative scale of the system (black hole, which could be read as a beta function equation for the quadratic deformation parameter β0. This study shows a correspondence between the two phenomenological approaches and indicates that quantum Raychaudhuri equation implies the existence of a crystal-like structure of spacetime.

  7. The GUP and quantum Raychaudhuri equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagenas, Elias C.; Alasfar, Lina; Alsaleh, Salwa M.; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we compare the quantum corrections to the Schwarzschild black hole temperature due to quadratic and linear-quadratic generalised uncertainty principle, with the corrections from the quantum Raychaudhuri equation. The reason for this comparison is to connect the deformation parameters β0 and α0 with η which is the parameter that characterises the quantum Raychaudhuri equation. The derived relation between the parameters appears to depend on the relative scale of the system (black hole), which could be read as a beta function equation for the quadratic deformation parameter β0. This study shows a correspondence between the two phenomenological approaches and indicates that quantum Raychaudhuri equation implies the existence of a crystal-like structure of spacetime.

  8. Quantum key distribution via quantum encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Yong Sheng Zhang; Guang Can Guo

    2001-01-01

    A quantum key distribution protocol based on quantum encryption is presented in this Brief Report. In this protocol, the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs act as the quantum key to encode and decode the classical cryptography key. The quantum key is reusable and the eavesdropper cannot elicit any information from the particle Alice sends to Bob. The concept of quantum encryption is also discussed. (21 refs).

  9. Quantum random walks using quantum accelerator modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.-Y.; Burnett, K.; D'Arcy, M. B.; Gardiner, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the use of high-order quantum accelerator modes to achieve an atom optical realization of a biased quantum random walk. We first discuss how one can create coexistent quantum accelerator modes, and hence how momentum transfer that depends on the atoms' internal state can be achieved. When combined with microwave driving of the transition between the states, a different type of atomic beam splitter results. This permits the realization of a biased quantum random walk through quantum accelerator modes

  10. Quantum chemistry on a superconducting quantum processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaicher, Michael P.; Wilhelm, Frank K. [Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Love, Peter J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Quantum chemistry is the most promising civilian application for quantum processors to date. We study its adaptation to superconducting (sc) quantum systems, computing the ground state energy of LiH through a variational hybrid quantum classical algorithm. We demonstrate how interactions native to sc qubits further reduce the amount of quantum resources needed, pushing sc architectures as a near-term candidate for simulations of more complex atoms/molecules.

  11. Rotons, Superfluidity, and Helium Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balibar, Sébastien

    2006-09-01

    Fritz London understood that quantum mechanics could show up at the macroscopic level, and, in 1938, he proposed that superfluidity was a consequence of Bose-Einstein condensation. However, Lev Landau never believed in London's ideas; instead, he introduced quasiparticles to explain the thermodynamics of superfluid 4He and a possible mechanism for its critical velocity. One of these quasiparticles, a crucial one, was his famous "roton" which he considered as an elementary vortex. At the LT0 conference (Cambridge, 1946), London criticized Landau and his "theory based on the shaky grounds of imaginary rotons". Despite their rather strong disagreement, Landau was awarded the London prize in 1960, six years after London's death. Today, we know that London and Landau had both found part of the truth: BEC takes place in 4He, and rotons exist. In my early experiments on quantum evaporation, I found direct evidence for the existence of rotons and for evaporation processes in which they play the role of photons in the photoelectric effect. But rotons are now considered as particular phonons which are nearly soft, due to some local order in superfluid 4He. Later we studied helium crystals which are model systems for the general study of crystal surfaces, but also exceptional systems with unique quantum properties. In our recent studies of nucleation, rotons show their importance again: by using acoustic techniques, we have extended the study of liquid 4He up to very high pressures where the liquid state is metastable, and we wish to demonstrate that the vanishing of the roton gap may destroy superfluidity and trigger an instability towards the crystalline state.

  12. From wave function to crystal morphology: application to urea and alpha-glycine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boek, E.S.; Boek, E.S.; Feil, D.; Feil, D.; Briels, Willem J.; Bennema, P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the relation between the molecular electron density distribution and the crystal growth morphology is investigated. Accurate charge densities derived from ab initio quantum chemical calculations were partitioned into multipole moments, to calculate the electrostatic contribution to the

  13. Electrically Driven Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    material, here gallium arsenide and indium arsenide self- assembled quantum dots (QDs). QDs are preferred for the gain medium because they can have...blue points ) and 150 K (green points ). The black lines are linear fits to the above threshold output power of the lasers, which are used to find the...SHAMBAT et al.: ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL NANOCAVITY DEVICES 1707 Fig. 13. (a) Tilted SEM picture of a fabricated triple cavity device. The in

  14. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate enhanced gain in the slow-light regime of quantum well photonic crystal amplifiers. A strong gain enhancement is observed with the increase of the group refractive index, due to light slow-down. The slow light enhancement is shown in a amplified spontaneous emission....... These results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....

  15. Advancements in the Field of Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha; Sinha, Swami Prasad.

    2012-08-01

    Quantum dots are defined as very small semiconductor crystals of size varying from nanometer scale to a few micron i.e. so small that they are considered dimensionless and are capable of showing many chemical properties by virtue of which they tend to be lead at one minute and gold at the second minute.Quantum dots house the electrons just the way the electrons would have been present in an atom, by applying a voltage. And therefore they are very judiciously given the name of being called as the artificial atoms. This application of voltage may also lead to the modification of the chemical nature of the material anytime it is desired, resulting in lead at one minute to gold at the other minute. But this method is quite beyond our reach. A quantum dot is basically a semiconductor of very tiny size and this special phenomenon of quantum dot, causes the band of energies to change into discrete energy levels. Band gaps and the related energy depend on the relationship between the size of the crystal and the exciton radius. The height and energy between different energy levels varies inversely with the size of the quantum dot. The smaller the quantum dot, the higher is the energy possessed by it.There are many applications of the quantum dots e.g. they are very wisely applied to:Light emitting diodes: LEDs eg. White LEDs, Photovoltaic devices: solar cells, Memory elements, Biology : =biosensors, imaging, Lasers, Quantum computation, Flat-panel displays, Photodetectors, Life sciences and so on and so forth.The nanometer sized particles are able to display any chosen colour in the entire ultraviolet visible spectrum through a small change in their size or composition.

  16. Crystal-field-modulated magnon squeezing states in a ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Feng

    2003-01-01

    The magnon squeezing states in some magnetic crystals allow a reduction in the quantum fluctuations of the spin component to below the zero-point quantum noise level of the coherent magnon states. It is known that there are the magnon squeezing states in an antiferromagnet. However, their generating mechanism is not suitable for the ferromagnet. In this paper, we discuss the possibility of generating the magnon squeezing states in a ferromagnet, and discuss the effect of the crystal field on the magnon squeezing states

  17. Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Seth

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.

  18. Physics of quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokurov, V.V.; Khrustalev, O.A.; Sadovnichij, V.A.; Timofeevskaya, O.D.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper, the modern status of the theory of quantum computation is considered. The fundamental principles of quantum computers and their basic notions such as quantum processors and computational basis states of the quantum Turing machine as well as the quantum Fourier transform are discussed. Some possible experimental realizations on the basis of NMR methods are given

  19. Short pulse generation in a passively mode-locked photonic crystal semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties......We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties...

  20. Quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Walter

    2009-01-01

    This textbook on Quantum Electrodynamics is a thorough introductory text providing all necessary mathematical tools together with many examples and worked problems. In their presentation of the subject the authors adopt a heuristic approach based on the propagator formalism. The latter is introduced in the first two chapters in both its nonrelativistic and relativistic versions. Subsequently, a large number of scattering and radiation processes involving electrons, positrons, and photons are introduced and their theoretical treatment is presented in great detail. Higher order processes and renormalization are also included. The book concludes with a discussion of two-particle states and the interaction of spinless bosons. This completely revised and corrected new edition provides several additions to enable deeper insight in formalism and application of quantum electrodynamics.

  1. Quantum psyche

    CERN Document Server

    Baaquie, Belal E; Demongeot, J; Galli-Carminati, Giuliana; Martin, F; Teodorani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century Sigmund Freud discovered that our acts and choices are not only decisions of our consciousness, but that they are also deeply determined by our unconscious (the so-called "Freudian unconscious"). During a long correspondence between them (1932-1958) Wolfgang Pauli and Carl Gustav Jung speculated that the unconscious could be a quantum system. This book is addressed both to all those interested in the new developments of the age-old enquiry in the relations between mind and matter, and also to the experts in quantum physics that are interested in a formalisation of this new approach. The description of the "Bilbao experiment" adds a very interesting experimental inquiry into the synchronicity effect in a group situation, linking theory to a quantifiable verification of these subtle effects. Cover design: "Entangled Minds". Riccardo Carminati Galli, 2014.

  2. Quantum Squeezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubairy, Suhail

    2005-01-01

    Quantum squeezed states are a consequence of uncertainty relations; a state is squeezed when the noise in one variable is reduced below the symmetric limit at the expense of the increased noise in the conjugate variable such that the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is not violated. Such states have been known since the earliest days of quantum mechanics. The realization in the early 80's that quantum squeezed states of the radiation field can have important applications in high precision Michelson interferometry for detecting gravitational waves led to a tremendous amount of activity, both in theoretical and experimental quantum optics. The present volume, edited by two eminent scientists, is a collection of papers by leading experts in the field of squeezed states on different aspects of the field as it stands today. The book is divided into three parts. In the first part, there are three articles that review the fundamentals. The first paper by Knight and Buzek presents an introductory account of squeezed states and their properties. The chapter, which opens with the quantization of the radiation field, goes on to discuss the quantum optical properties of single mode and multimode squeezed states. The second article by Hillery provides a detailed description of field quantization in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium, thus providing a rigorous treatment of squeezing in nonlinear media. The third article by Yurke presents a comprehensive discussion of the input-output theory of the squeezed radiation at the dielectric boundaries. The second part of the book, comprising of three articles, deals with the generation of squeezed states. In the first article, Drummond reviews the squeezing properties of light in nonlinear systems such as parametric oscillators. He also discusses squeezed light propagation through waveguides and optical fibers. In the second article, Ralph concentrates on active laser sources of squeezing and presents an analysis based on the

  3. Tunable single quantum dot nanocavities for cavity QED experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniber, M; Laucht, A; Neumann, A; Bichler, M; Amann, M-C; Finley, J J

    2008-01-01

    We present cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments performed on single quantum dots embedded in two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities. We begin by describing the structural and optical properties of the quantum dot sample and the photonic crystal nanocavities and compare the experimental results with three-dimensional calculations of the photonic properties. The influence of the tailored photonic environment on the quantum dot spontaneous emission dynamics is studied using spectrally and spatially dependent time-resolved spectroscopy. In ensemble and single dot measurements we show that the photonic crystals strongly enhance the photon extraction efficiency and, therefore, are a promising concept for realizing efficient single-photon sources. Furthermore, we demonstrate single-photon emission from an individual quantum dot that is spectrally detuned from the cavity mode. The need for controlling the spectral dot-cavity detuning is discussed on the basis of shifting either the quantum dot emission via temperature tuning or the cavity mode emission via a thin film deposition technique. Finally, we discuss the recently discovered non-resonant coupling mechanism between quantum dot emission and cavity mode for large detunings which drastically lowers the purity of single-photon emission from dots that are spectrally coupled to nanocavity modes.

  4. Quantum hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serot, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    It is therefore essential to develop reliable nuclear models that go beyond the traditional non-relativistic many-body framework. The arguments for renormalizable models based on hadronic degrees of freedom (quantum hadrodynamics) are presented, and the assumptions underlying this framework are discussed. The Walecka model, which contains neutrons, protons, and neutral scalar and vector mesons, is considered first as a simple example. The development is based on the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations, and their application to infinite matter and atomic nuclei. Some successes of this model are discussed, such as the nuclear equation of state, the derivation of the shell model, the prediction of nuclear properties throughout the periodic table, and the inclusion of zero-point vacuum corrections. The important concepts of Lorentz covariance and self-consistency are emphasized and the new dynamical features that arise in a relativistic many-body framework are highlighted. The computation of isoscalar magnetic moments is presented as an illustrative example. Calculations beyond the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations (for example, Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner) are considered next, as well as recent efforts to incorporate the full role of the quantum vacuum in a consistent fashion. An extended model containing isovector pi and rho mesons is then developed; the dynamics is based on the chirally invariant linear sigma model. The difficulties in constructing realistic chiral descriptions of nuclear matter and nuclei are analysed, and the connection between the sigma model and the Walecka model is established. Finally, the relationship between quantum hadrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics is briefly addressed. (Author)

  5. Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Haroche, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From the infinitely small to the infinitely big, covering over 60 spatial orders of magnitude, quantum theory is used as much to describe the still largely mysterious vibrations of the microscopic strings that could be the basic constituents of the Universe, as to explain the fluctuations of the microwave radiation reaching us from the depths of outer space. Serge Haroche tells us about the scientific theory that revolutionised our understanding of nature and made an extraordinary contributio...

  6. Quantum Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schaden

    2002-01-01

    Quantum theory is used to model secondary financial markets. Contrary to stochastic descriptions, the formalism emphasizes the importance of trading in determining the value of a security. All possible realizations of investors holding securities and cash is taken as the basis of the Hilbert space of market states. The temporal evolution of an isolated market is unitary in this space. Linear operators representing basic financial transactions such as cash transfer and the buying or selling of...

  7. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-02

    Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.

  8. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    by a factor of 15 on resonance with the Anderson-localized mode, and 94% of the emitted single photons coupled to the mode. Disordered photonic media thus provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering an approach to inherently disorder-robust quantum information devices.......A major challenge in quantum optics and quantum information technology is to enhance the interaction between single photons and single quantum emitters. This requires highly engineered optical cavities that are inherently sensitive to fabrication imperfections. We have demonstrated a fundamentally...... different approach in which disorder is used as a resource rather than a nuisance. We generated strongly confined Anderson-localized cavity modes by deliberately adding disorder to photonic crystal waveguides. The emission rate of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in the waveguide was enhanced...

  9. Nanophotonic rare-earth quantum memory with optically controlled retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Bartholomew, John G.; Rochman, Jake; Craiciu, Ioana; Miyazono, Evan; Bettinelli, Marco; Cavalli, Enrico; Verma, Varun; Nam, Sae Woo; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Beyer, Andrew D.; Faraon, Andrei

    2017-09-01

    Optical quantum memories are essential elements in quantum networks for long-distance distribution of quantum entanglement. Scalable development of quantum network nodes requires on-chip qubit storage functionality with control of the readout time. We demonstrate a high-fidelity nanophotonic quantum memory based on a mesoscopic neodymium ensemble coupled to a photonic crystal cavity. The nanocavity enables >95% spin polarization for efficient initialization of the atomic frequency comb memory and time bin-selective readout through an enhanced optical Stark shift of the comb frequencies. Our solid-state memory is integrable with other chip-scale photon source and detector devices for multiplexed quantum and classical information processing at the network nodes.

  10. Quantum Locality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the

  11. Quantum Monte Carlo tunneling from quantum chemistry to quantum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Guglielmo; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Troyer, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    Quantum tunneling is ubiquitous across different fields, from quantum chemical reactions and magnetic materials to quantum simulators and quantum computers. While simulating the real-time quantum dynamics of tunneling is infeasible for high-dimensional systems, quantum tunneling also shows up in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations, which aim to simulate quantum statistics with resources growing only polynomially with the system size. Here we extend the recent results obtained for quantum spin models [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 180402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.180402], and we study continuous-variable models for proton transfer reactions. We demonstrate that QMC simulations efficiently recover the scaling of ground-state tunneling rates due to the existence of an instanton path, which always connects the reactant state with the product. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of quantum chemical reactions and quantum annealing, where quantum tunneling is expected to be a valuable resource for solving combinatorial optimization problems.

  12. Quantum Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermin, N. David

    2007-08-01

    Preface; 1. Cbits and Qbits; 2. General features and some simple examples; 3. Breaking RSA encryption with a quantum computer; 4. Searching with a quantum computer; 5. Quantum error correction; 6. Protocols that use just a few Qbits; Appendices; Index.

  13. Quantum isometry groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotishman Bhowmick

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... Classical. Quantum. Background. Compact Hausdorff space. Unital C∗ algebra. Gelfand-Naimark. Compact Group. Compact Quantum Group. Woronowicz. Group Action. Coaction. Woronowicz. Riemannian manifold. Spectral triple. Connes. Isometry group. Quantum Isometry Group. To be discussed.

  14. Elementary quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pilar, Frank L

    2003-01-01

    Useful introductory course and reference covers origins of quantum theory, Schrödinger wave equation, quantum mechanics of simple systems, electron spin, quantum states of atoms, Hartree-Fock self-consistent field method, more. 1990 edition.

  15. On quantum statistical inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O.E.; Gill, R.D.; Jupp, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Interest in problems of statistical inference connected to measurements of quantum systems has recently increased substantially, in step with dramatic new developments in experimental techniques for studying small quantum systems. Furthermore, developments in the theory of quantum measurements have

  16. Optical quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvovsky, Alexander I.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Quantum memory is essential for the development of many devices in quantum information processing, including a synchronization tool that matches various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a mechanism to convert heralded photons to on-demand photons. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory will be instrumental for implementing long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied, such as optical delay lines, cavities and electromagnetically induced transparency, as well as schemes that rely on photon echoes and the off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here, we report on state-of-the-art developments in the field of optical quantum memory, establish criteria for successful quantum memory and detail current performance levels.

  17. Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795

  18. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  19. Quantum probability and quantum decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2016-01-13

    A rigorous general definition of quantum probability is given, which is valid not only for elementary events but also for composite events, for operationally testable measurements as well as for inconclusive measurements, and also for non-commuting observables in addition to commutative observables. Our proposed definition of quantum probability makes it possible to describe quantum measurements and quantum decision-making on the same common mathematical footing. Conditions are formulated for the case when quantum decision theory reduces to its classical counterpart and for the situation where the use of quantum decision theory is necessary. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh

    2011-01-01

    We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.

  1. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  2. Nano crystals for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.; Cloutier, S.G.; Ivanov, I; Knappenberger Jr, K.L.; Robel, I.; Zhang, F

    2012-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, from computers and smart cell phones to solar cells, have become a part of our life. Currently, devices with featured circuits of 45 nm in size can be fabricated for commercial use. However, further development based on traditional semiconductor is hindered by the increasing thermal issues and the manufacturing cost. During the last decade, nano crystals have been widely adopted in various electronic and optoelectronic applications. They provide alternative options in terms of ease of processing, low cost, better flexibility, and superior electronic/optoelectronic properties. By taking advantage of solution-processing, self-assembly, and surface engineering, nano crystals could serve as new building blocks for low-cost manufacturing of flexible and large area devices. Tunable electronic structures combined with small exciton binding energy, high luminescence efficiency, and low thermal conductivity make nano crystals extremely attractive for FET, memory device, solar cell, solid-state lighting/display, photodetector, and lasing applications. Efforts to harness the nano crystal quantum tunability have led to the successful demonstration of many prototype devices, raising the public awareness to the wide range of solutions that nano technology can provide for an efficient energy economy. This special issue aims to provide the readers with the latest achievements of nano crystals in electronic and optoelectronic applications, including the synthesis and engineering of nano crystals towards the applications and the corresponding device fabrication, characterization and computer modeling.

  3. Photonic quasi-crystal terahertz lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Nobile, Michele; Ronzani, Alberto; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Castellano, Fabrizio; Talora, Valerio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles

    2014-12-01

    Quasi-crystal structures do not present a full spatial periodicity but are nevertheless constructed starting from deterministic generation rules. When made of different dielectric materials, they often possess fascinating optical properties, which lie between those of periodic photonic crystals and those of a random arrangement of scatterers. Indeed, they can support extended band-like states with pseudogaps in the energy spectrum, but lacking translational invariance, they also intrinsically feature a pattern of ‘defects’, which can give rise to critically localized modes confined in space, similar to Anderson modes in random structures. If used as laser resonators, photonic quasi-crystals open up design possibilities that are simply not possible in a conventional periodic photonic crystal. In this letter, we exploit the concept of a 2D photonic quasi crystal in an electrically injected laser; specifically, we pattern the top surface of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser with a Penrose tiling of pentagonal rotational symmetry, reaching 0.1-0.2% wall-plug efficiencies and 65 mW peak output powers with characteristic surface-emitting conical beam profiles, result of the rich quasi-crystal Fourier spectrum.

  4. Slow-light enhancement of spontaneous emission in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal defect waveguides with embedded active layers containing single or multiple quantum wells or quantum dots have been fabricated. Spontaneous emission spectra are enhanced close to the bandedge, consistently with the enhancement of gain by slow light effects. These are promising...... results for future compact devices for terabit/s communication, such as miniaturised semiconductor optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers....

  5. Characterization of quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)

  6. Quantum theory. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, C.

    2004-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Particles and waves, the superposition principle and probability interpretation, the uncertainty relation, spin, the Schroedinger equation, wave functions, symmetries, the hydrogen atom, atoms with many electrons, Schroedinger's cat and the Einstein-podolsky-Rosen problem, the Bell inequalities, the classical limit, quantum systems in the electromagnetic field, solids and quantum liquids, quantum information, quantum field theory, quantum theory and gravitation, the mathematical formalism of quantum theory. (HSI)

  7. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  8. Relativistic quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol of quantum key distribution is proposed to transmit keys through free space. Along with quantum-mechanical restrictions on the discernibility of nonorthogonal quantum states, the protocol uses additional restrictions imposed by special relativity theory. Unlike all existing quantum key distribution protocols, this protocol ensures key secrecy for a not strictly one-photon source of quantum states and an arbitrary length of a quantum communication channel.

  9. From quantum coherence to quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Mao, Yuanyuan; Luo, Shunlong

    2017-06-01

    In quantum mechanics, quantum coherence of a state relative to a quantum measurement can be identified with the quantumness that has to be destroyed by the measurement. In particular, quantum coherence of a bipartite state relative to a local quantum measurement encodes quantum correlations in the state. If one takes minimization with respect to the local measurements, then one is led to quantifiers which capture quantum correlations from the perspective of coherence. In this vein, quantum discord, which quantifies the minimal correlations that have to be destroyed by quantum measurements, can be identified as the minimal coherence, with the coherence measured by the relative entropy of coherence. To advocate and formulate this idea in a general context, we first review coherence relative to Lüders measurements which extends the notion of coherence relative to von Neumann measurements (or equivalently, orthonomal bases), and highlight the observation that quantum discord arises as minimal coherence through two prototypical examples. Then, we introduce some novel measures of quantum correlations in terms of coherence, illustrate them through examples, investigate their fundamental properties and implications, and indicate their applications to quantum metrology.

  10. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  11. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  12. Fluctuations in quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, G.; Chirikov, B.V.

    1996-01-01

    Various fluctuations in quantum systems with discrete spectrum are discussed, including recent unpublished results. Open questions and unexplained peculiarities of quantum fluctuations are formulated [ru

  13. Quantum potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Potential Theory: Structure and Applications to Physics," held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald from February 26 to March 10, 2007. Quantum potential theory studies noncommutative (or quantum) analogs of classical potential theory. These lectures provide an introduction to this theory, concentrating on probabilistic potential theory and it quantum analogs, i.e. quantum Markov processes and semigroups, quantum random walks, Dirichlet forms on C* and von Neumann algebras, and boundary theory. Applications to quantum physics, in particular the filtering problem in quantum optics, are also presented.

  14. Crystal structure, quantum mechanical investigation, IR and NMR spectroscopy of two new organic salts: (C8H12NO)·[NO3] (I) and (C8H14N4)·[ClO4]2 (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, I.; Khedhiri, L.; Soudani, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Pereira da Silva, P. S.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2018-06-01

    Two new organic-inorganic hybrid materials, 4-methoxybenzylammonium nitrate, (C8H12NO)·[NO3] (I), and 2-(1-piperazinyl)pyrimidinium bis(perchlorate), (C8H14N4)·[ClO4]2(II), have been synthesized by an acid/base reaction at room temperature, their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound (I) crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and Pnma space group with a = 15.7908 (7), b = 6.8032 (3), c = 8.7091 (4) Å, V = 935.60 (7) Å3 with Z = 4. Full-matrix least-squares refinement converged at R = 0.038 and wR(F2) = 0.115. Compound (II) belongs to the monoclinic system, space group P21/c with the following parameters: a = 10.798(2), b = 7.330(1), c = 21.186(2) Å, β = 120.641 (4)°, V = 1442.7 (3) Å3and Z = 4. The structure was refined to R = 0.044, wR(F2) = 0.132. In the structures of (I) and (II), the anionic and cationic entities are interconnected by hydrogen bonding contacts forming three-dimensional networks. Intermolecular interactions were investigated by Hirshfeld surfaces and the contacts of the four different chloride atoms in (II) were compared. The Molecular Electrostatic Potential (MEP) maps and the HOMO and LUMO energy gaps of both compounds were computed. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. These compounds were also investigated by solid-state 13C, 35Cl and 15N NMR spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the IR and NMR bands.

  15. Quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, Matthias

    1996-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory of the strong interactions. It is local, non-abelian gauge theory descripting the interactions between quarks and gluons, the constituents of hadrons. In these lectures, the basic concepts and ph will be introduced in a pedagogical way. Topics will include : asymptotically free partons, colour and confinement ; non-abelian gauge invariance and quantization ; the running coupling constant ; deep-inelastic scattering and scaling violations ; th chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. Some elementary knowledge of field theory, abelian gauge invariance and Feynman diagrams will be helpful in following the course.

  16. Quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics is an essential building block and an integral part of the gauge theory of unified electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, the so-called standard model. Its failure or breakdown at some level would have a most profound impact on the theoretical foundations of elementary particle physics as a whole. Thus the validity of QED has been the subject of intense experimental tests over more than 40 years of its history. This volume presents an up-to-date review of high precision experimental tests of QED together with comprehensive discussion of required theoretical wor

  17. Quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flytzanis, C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Quantum Optics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program is focused on the behavior of dense and dilute materials submitted to short and high-intensity light radiation fields. Nonlinear optics techniques, with time and spatial resolution, are developed. An important research activity concerns the investigations on the interactions between the photon beams and the inhomogeneous or composite materials, as well as the artificial microstructures. In the processes involving molecular beams and surfaces, the research works on the photophysics of surfaces and the molecule-surface interactions, are included [fr

  18. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  19. Manin's quantum spaces and standard quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratos, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    Manin's non-commutative coordinate algebra of quantum groups is shown to be identical, for unitary coordinates, with the conventional operator algebras of quantum mechanics. The deformation parameter q is a pure phase for unitary coordinates. When q is a root of unity. Manin's algebra becomes the matrix algebra of quantum mechanics for a discretized and finite phase space. Implications for quantum groups and the associated non-commutative differential calculus of Wess and Zumino are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Quantum groups and quantum homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The usefulness of the R-matrix formalism and the reflection equations is demonstrated on examples of the quantum group covariant algebras (quantum homogeneous spaces): quantum Minkowski space-time, quantum sphere and super-sphere. The irreducible representations of some covariant algebras are constructed. The generalization of the reflection equation to super case is given and the existence of the quasiclassical limits is pointed out. (orig.)

  1. Fabrication and Measurements on Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin

    Quasi-three dimensional photonic crystals can be realized by fabricating thin membranes of high index material hanging in air patterned with sub-micron holes to create a photonic band gap for optical confinement in plane and total internal reflection for out of plane confinement. Introducing...... defects into the photonic crystal gives rise to defect states in the form of small confined modes. By embedding an active gain medium like quantum dots into the membrane makes it possible to realize lasers with ultra-small mode volumes and low thresholds. Unfortunately single cavity photonic crystal...

  2. Two-dimensionally confined topological edge states in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters. (paper)

  3. Liquid crystalline biopolymers: A new arena for liquid crystal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to liquid crystals on the basis of biopolymers and reviews literature on liquid crystalline behaviour of biopolymers both in vitro and in vivo in relation to their implications in the fields of biology, medicine and material science. Knowledge in the field of biological liquid crystals is crucial for understanding complex phenomena at supramolecular level which will give information about processes involved in biological organization and function. The understanding of the interaction of theses crystals with electric, magnetic, optical and thermal fields will uncover mechanisms of near quantum-energy detection capabilities of biosystems

  4. Simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic field in photonic crystal nanocavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignolini, S.; Intonti, F.; Riboli, F.; Wiersma, D.S.; Balet, L.P.; Li, L.H.; Francardi, M.; Gerardino, A.; Fiore, A.; Gurioli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The insertion of a metal-coated tip on the surface of a photonic crystal microcavity is used for simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic fields in photonic crystal nanocavities, via the radiative emission of embedded semiconductor quantum dots (QD). The photoluminescence intensity

  5. The pushing gate in a planar Coulomb crystal using a flat-top laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, M.; Buluta, I.M.; Hasegawa, S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a pushing gate for entangling two ions in a planar Coulomb crystal in the view of realizing large-scale quantum simulations. A tightly focused laser is irradiated from the direction perpendicular to the crystal plane and its spatial intensity profile generates a state-dependent force. We analyze the error sources in this scheme and obtain low infidelity.

  6. Quantum dot-polymer conjugates for stable luminescent displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Sushant; Sivadas, Anjaly; Yuyama, Ken-Ichi; Takano, Yuta; Francis, Raju; Biju, Vasudevanpillai

    2018-05-23

    The broad absorption of light in the UV-Vis-NIR region and the size-based tunable photoluminescence color of semiconductor quantum dots make these tiny crystals one of the most attractive antennae in solar cells and phosphors in electrooptical devices. One of the primary requirements for such real-world applications of quantum dots is their stable and uniform distribution in optically transparent matrices. In this work, we prepare transparent thin films of polymer-quantum dot conjugates, where CdSe/ZnS quantum dots are uniformly distributed at high densities in a chitosan-polystyrene copolymer (CS-g-PS) matrix. Here, quantum dots in an aqueous solution are conjugated to the copolymer by a phase transfer reaction. With the stable conjugation of quantum dots to the copolymer, we prevent undesired phase separation between the two and aggregation of quantum dots. Furthermore, the conjugate allows us to prepare transparent thin films in which quantum dots are uniformly distributed at high densities. The CS-g-PS copolymer helps us in not only preserving the photoluminescence properties of quantum dots in the film but also rendering excellent photostability to quantum dots at the ensemble and single particle levels, making the conjugate a promising material for photoluminescence-based devices.

  7. Local Gate Control of a Carbon Nanotube Double Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    describ- ing the levitation . Quantitative comparisons are made difficult by the complicated aniso- tropy of the nematic’s viscoelasticity (21). However...director fields. For example, as a straightforward extension of the levitation , a liquid crystal that twists through many periods (such as a cholesteric...Nanotube Double Quantum Dot N. Mason,*† M. J. Biercuk,* C. M. Marcus† We have measured carbon nanotube quantum dots with multiple electro- static gates and

  8. Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penin, Alexander A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted

  9. Characterizing and quantifying quantum chaos with quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explore quantum signatures of classical chaos by studying the rate of information gain in quantum tomography. The tomographic record consists of a time series of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under the application of the Floquet operator of a quantum map that possesses (or lacks) time-reversal ...

  10. Quantum Statistical Mechanics on a Quantum Computer

    OpenAIRE

    De Raedt, H.; Hams, A. H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S.; Saito, K.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a quantum algorithm to compute the density of states and thermal equilibrium properties of quantum many-body systems. We present results obtained by running this algorithm on a software implementation of a 21-qubit quantum computer for the case of an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on triangular lattices of different size.

  11. Quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Luo, Shunlong; Mao, Yuanyuan

    2018-04-01

    We study quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics, where quantumness refers to the noncommutativity between the initial state and the evolving state. In terms of the commutator of the square roots of the initial state and the evolving state, we define a measure to quantify the quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics with respect to initial states. Quantumness-generating capability is absent in classical dynamics and hence is a fundamental characteristic of quantum dynamics. For qubit systems, we present an analytical form for this measure, by virtue of which we analyze several prototypical dynamics such as unitary dynamics, phase damping dynamics, amplitude damping dynamics, and random unitary dynamics (Pauli channels). Necessary and sufficient conditions for the monotonicity of quantumness-generating capability are also identified. Finally, we compare these conditions for the monotonicity of quantumness-generating capability with those for various Markovianities and illustrate that quantumness-generating capability and quantum Markovianity are closely related, although they capture different aspects of quantum dynamics.

  12. Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped ...

  13. What is quantum in quantum randomness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangier, P; Auffèves, A

    2018-07-13

    It is often said that quantum and classical randomness are of different nature, the former being ontological and the latter epistemological. However, so far the question of 'What is quantum in quantum randomness?', i.e. what is the impact of quantization and discreteness on the nature of randomness, remains to be answered. In a first part, we make explicit the differences between quantum and classical randomness within a recently proposed ontology for quantum mechanics based on contextual objectivity. In this view, quantum randomness is the result of contextuality and quantization. We show that this approach strongly impacts the purposes of quantum theory as well as its areas of application. In particular, it challenges current programmes inspired by classical reductionism, aiming at the emergence of the classical world from a large number of quantum systems. In a second part, we analyse quantum physics and thermodynamics as theories of randomness, unveiling their mutual influences. We finally consider new technological applications of quantum randomness that have opened up in the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...

  15. Extra phase noise from thermal fluctuations in nonlinear optical crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    César, J. E. S.; Coelho, A.S.; Cassemiro, K.N.

    2009-01-01

    We show theoretically and experimentally that scattered light by thermal phonons inside a second-order nonlinear crystal is the source of additional phase noise observed in optical parametric oscillators. This additional phase noise reduces the quantum correlations and has hitherto hindered the d...

  16. Variable dislocation widths in colloidal crystals of soft thermosensitive spheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, J.; Petukhov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Themagnetic and structural properties of a cobalt inverse opal-like crystal have been studied by a combination of complementary techniques ranging from polarized neutron scattering and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry to x-ray diffraction. Microradian small-angle

  17. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  18. Crystallization In Multicomponent Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  19. Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view

  20. Quantum Tunneling in Breather Nano-colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Dubinko, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    In many crystals with sufficient anharmonicity, a special kind of lattice vibrations, namely, discrete breathers (DBs) can be excited either thermally or by external triggering, in which the amplitude of atomic oscillations greatly exceeds that of harmonic oscillations (phonons). Coherency and persistence of large atomic oscillations in DBs may have drastic effect on quantum tunneling due to correlation effects discovered by Schrodinger and Robertson in 1930. These effects have been applied r...

  1. Rainbows in channeling of charged particles in crystals and nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Nešković, Nebojša; Ćosić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the effects, modeling, latest results, and nanotechnology applications of rainbows that appear during channeling of charged particles in crystals and nanotubes. The authors begin with a brief review of the optical and particle rainbow effects followed by a detailed description of crystal rainbows, which appear in ion channeling in crystals, and their modeling using catastrophe theory. The effects of spatial and angular focusing of channeled ions are described, with special attention given to the applications of the former effect to subatomic microscopy. The results of a thorough study of the recent high-resolution channeling experiments performed with protons of energies between 2.0 and 0.7 MeV and a 55 nm thick silicon crystal are also provided. This study opens up the potential for accurate analysis of very thin crystals. Also presented are recent results related to rainbows occurring in proton transmission through carbon nanotubes, and a detailed quantum consideration of the transmissio...

  2. Quantum reference frames and quantum transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toller, M.

    1997-01-01

    A quantum frame is defined by a material object following the laws of quantum mechanics. The present paper studies the relations between quantum frames, which are described by some generalization of the Poincare' group. The possibility of using a suitable quantum group is examined, but some arguments are given which show that a different mathematical structure is necessary. Some simple examples in lower-dimensional space-times are treated. They indicate the necessity of taking into account some ''internal'' degrees of freedom of the quantum frames, that can be disregarded in a classical treatment

  3. Equivariant quantum Schubert calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalcea, Leonardo Constantin

    2006-01-01

    We study the T-equivariant quantum cohomology of the Grassmannian. We prove the vanishing of a certain class of equivariant quantum Littlewood-Richardson coefficients, which implies an equivariant quantum Pieri rule. As in the equivariant case, this implies an algorithm to compute the equivariant quantum Littlewood-Richardson coefficients.

  4. Introduction to quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudbery, A.

    1996-01-01

    These pedagogical lectures contain some motivation for the study of quantum groups; a definition of ''quasi triangular Hopf algebra'' with explanations of all the concepts required to build it up; descriptions of quantised universal enveloping algebras and the quantum double; and an account of quantised function algebras and the action of quantum groups on quantum spaces. (author)

  5. Quantum Channeling Effects for 1 MeV Positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakenaasen, R.; Vestergaard Hau, L.; Golovchenko, J.A.; Palathingal, J.C.; Peng, J.P.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    A high resolution angular study of positrons transmitted through a thin single crystal of Si clearly reveals a detailed fine structure due to strong quantum channeling effects. The beam transmitted in the forward direction displays many features associated with dynamical diffraction effects and long coherence lengths. Calculations are presented showing that in flight annihilation of channeled positrons can serve as a solid state probe of electron and spin densities in thin crystals

  6. Relativistic quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1983-01-01

    on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)

  7. Quaternionic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the author describes a new kind of quantum mechanics or quantum field theory based on quaternions. Quaternionic quantum mechanics has a Schrodinger equation, a Dirac transformation theory, and a functional integral. Quaternionic quantum mechanics does not seem to have (except in the complex quantum mechanics specialization): A correspondence principle, and beyond this a commuting tensor product, asymptotic states, an S-matrix, a canonical formalism, coherent states or a Euclidean continuation. A new kind of quantum mechanics exists. There are many interesting formal questions to study, which should enable one to decide whether quaternionic quantum field theory is relevant for particle physics

  8. Coherent quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1987-01-01

    The von Neumann quantum logic lacks two basic symmetries of classical logic, that between sets and classes, and that between lower and higher order predicates. Similarly, the structural parallel between the set algebra and linear algebra of Grassmann and Peano was left incomplete by them in two respects. In this work a linear algebra is constructed that completes this correspondence and is interpreted as a new quantum logic that restores these invariances, and as a quantum set theory. It applies to experiments with coherent quantum phase relations between the quantum and the apparatus. The quantum set theory is applied to model a Lorentz-invariant quantum time-space complex

  9. Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Leuchs, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions

  10. Intrinsic quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutchfield, James P.; Wiesner, Karoline

    2008-01-01

    We introduce ways to measure information storage in quantum systems, using a recently introduced computation-theoretic model that accounts for measurement effects. The first, the quantum excess entropy, quantifies the shared information between a quantum process's past and its future. The second, the quantum transient information, determines the difficulty with which an observer comes to know the internal state of a quantum process through measurements. We contrast these with von Neumann entropy and quantum entropy rate and provide a closed-form expression for the latter for the class of deterministic quantum processes

  11. Multiple topological phase transitions in a gyromagnetic photonic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2017-04-19

    We present the design of a tunable two-dimensional photonic crystal that exhibits multiple topological phases, including a conventional insulator phase, a quantum spin Hall phase, and a quantum anomalous Hall phase under different combinations of geometric parameters and external magnetic fields. Our photonic crystal enables a platform to study the topology evolution attributed to the interplay between crystalline symmetry and time-reversal symmetry. A four-band tight-binding model unambiguously reveals that the topological property is associated with the pseudospin orientations and that it is characterized by the spin Chern number. The emerging quantum anomalous Hall phase features a single helical edge state that is locked by a specific pseudospin. Simulation results demonstrate that the propagation of such a single helical edge state is robust against magnetic impurities. Potential applications, such as spin splitters, are described.

  12. Quantum Chess: Making Quantum Phenomena Accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Christopher

    Quantum phenomena have remained largely inaccessible to the general public. There tends to be a scare factor associated with the word ``Quantum''. This is in large part due to the alien nature of phenomena such as superposition and entanglement. However, Quantum Computing is a very active area of research and one day we will have games that run on those quantum computers. Quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement will seem as normal as gravity. Is it possible to create such games today? Can we make games that are built on top of a realistic quantum simulation and introduce players of any background to quantum concepts in a fun and mentally stimulating way? One of the difficulties with any quantum simulation run on a classical computer is that the Hilbert space grows exponentially, making simulations of an appreciable size physically impossible due largely to memory restrictions. Here we will discuss the conception and development of Quantum Chess, and how to overcome some of the difficulties faced. We can then ask the question, ``What's next?'' What are some of the difficulties Quantum Chess still faces, and what is the future of quantum games?

  13. Efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loke, T.; Wang, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    A major advantage in using Szegedy’s formalism over discrete-time and continuous-time quantum walks lies in its ability to define a unitary quantum walk by quantizing a Markov chain on a directed or weighted graph. In this paper, we present a general scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks that correspond to classical Markov chains possessing transformational symmetry in the columns of the transition matrix. In particular, the transformational symmetry criteria do not necessarily depend on the sparsity of the transition matrix, so this scheme can be applied to non-sparse Markov chains. Two classes of Markov chains that are amenable to this construction are cyclic permutations and complete bipartite graphs, for which we provide explicit efficient quantum circuit implementations. We also prove that our scheme can be applied to Markov chains formed by a tensor product. We also briefly discuss the implementation of Markov chains based on weighted interdependent networks. In addition, we apply this scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits simulating the Szegedy walks used in the quantum Pagerank algorithm for some classes of non-trivial graphs, providing a necessary tool for experimental demonstration of the quantum Pagerank algorithm. - Highlights: • A general theoretical framework for implementing Szegedy walks using quantum circuits. • Explicit efficient quantum circuit implementation of the Szegedy walk for several classes of graphs. • Efficient implementation of Szegedy walks for quantum page-ranking of a certain class of graphs.

  14. Introduction to topological quantum matter & quantum computation

    CERN Document Server

    Stanescu, Tudor D

    2017-01-01

    What is -topological- about topological quantum states? How many types of topological quantum phases are there? What is a zero-energy Majorana mode, how can it be realized in a solid state system, and how can it be used as a platform for topological quantum computation? What is quantum computation and what makes it different from classical computation? Addressing these and other related questions, Introduction to Topological Quantum Matter & Quantum Computation provides an introduction to and a synthesis of a fascinating and rapidly expanding research field emerging at the crossroads of condensed matter physics, mathematics, and computer science. Providing the big picture, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers entering this field as it allows for the fruitful transfer of paradigms and ideas amongst different areas, and includes many specific examples to help the reader understand abstract and sometimes challenging concepts. It explores the topological quantum world beyond the well-know...

  15. Universal quantum computation by discontinuous quantum walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, Michael S.; Feder, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum walks are the quantum-mechanical analog of random walks, in which a quantum ''walker'' evolves between initial and final states by traversing the edges of a graph, either in discrete steps from node to node or via continuous evolution under the Hamiltonian furnished by the adjacency matrix of the graph. We present a hybrid scheme for universal quantum computation in which a quantum walker takes discrete steps of continuous evolution. This ''discontinuous'' quantum walk employs perfect quantum-state transfer between two nodes of specific subgraphs chosen to implement a universal gate set, thereby ensuring unitary evolution without requiring the introduction of an ancillary coin space. The run time is linear in the number of simulated qubits and gates. The scheme allows multiple runs of the algorithm to be executed almost simultaneously by starting walkers one time step apart.

  16. Quantum quincunx in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Tregenna, Ben; Knight, Peter L.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the quantum quincunx, which physically demonstrates the quantum walk and is analogous to Galton's quincunx for demonstrating the random walk by employing gravity to draw pellets through pegs on a board, thereby yielding a binomial distribution of final peg locations. In contradistinction to the theoretical studies of quantum walks over orthogonal lattice states, we introduce quantum walks over nonorthogonal lattice states (specifically, coherent states on a circle) to demonstrate that the key features of a quantum walk are observable albeit for strict parameter ranges. A quantum quincunx may be realized with current cavity quantum electrodynamics capabilities, and precise control over decoherence in such experiments allows a remarkable decrease in the position noise, or spread, with increasing decoherence

  17. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-01-01

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  18. Quantum signatures of chaos or quantum chaos?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunakov, V. E., E-mail: bunakov@VB13190.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A critical analysis of the present-day concept of chaos in quantum systems as nothing but a “quantum signature” of chaos in classical mechanics is given. In contrast to the existing semi-intuitive guesses, a definition of classical and quantum chaos is proposed on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem: a quantum chaotic system featuring N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) specified by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian of the system. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos that, in the classical limit, go over to the Lyapunov exponent and the classical stability parameter are proposed. The proposed criteria of quantum chaos are applied to solving standard problems of modern dynamical chaos theory.

  19. Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabuncu, Metin

    2009-10-29

    Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)

  20. Quantum signatures of chaos or quantum chaos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V. E.

    2016-01-01

    A critical analysis of the present-day concept of chaos in quantum systems as nothing but a “quantum signature” of chaos in classical mechanics is given. In contrast to the existing semi-intuitive guesses, a definition of classical and quantum chaos is proposed on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem: a quantum chaotic system featuring N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) specified by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian of the system. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos that, in the classical limit, go over to the Lyapunov exponent and the classical stability parameter are proposed. The proposed criteria of quantum chaos are applied to solving standard problems of modern dynamical chaos theory.

  1. Quantum mechanics symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Walter

    1989-01-01

    "Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...

  2. Quantum chimera states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viennot, David, E-mail: david.viennot@utinam.cnrs.fr; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-02-15

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.

  3. Quantum chimera states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-01-01

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.

  4. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  5. Photonic Quantum Information Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, P.

    2012-01-01

    The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)

  6. Electrodynamics of quantum spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Martin; Pustogow, Andrej

    2018-05-01

    Quantum spin liquids attract great interest due to their exceptional magnetic properties characterized by the absence of long-range order down to low temperatures despite the strong magnetic interaction. Commonly, these compounds are strongly correlated electron systems, and their electrodynamic response is governed by the Mott gap in the excitation spectrum. Here we summarize and discuss the optical properties of several two-dimensional quantum spin liquid candidates. First we consider the inorganic material herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 and related compounds, which crystallize in a kagome lattice. Then we turn to the organic compounds -EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Ag2(CN)3 and κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3, where the spins are arranged in an almost perfect triangular lattice, leading to strong frustration. Due to differences in bandwidth, the effective correlation strength varies over a wide range, leading to a rather distinct behavior as far as the electrodynamic properties are concerned. We discuss the spinon contributions to the optical conductivity in comparison to metallic quantum fluctuations in the vicinity of the Mott transition.

  7. To decay or not to decay - or both ! quantum mechanics of spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Lodahl, Peter; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    We discuss calculations of spontaneous emission from quantum dots in photonic crystals and show how the decay depends on the intrinsic properties of the emitter as well as the position. A number of fundamentally different types of spontaneous decay dynamics are shown to be possible, including...... counter intuitive situations in which the quantum dot decays only partially....

  8. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, A.K.; Lokanathan, S.

    1975-01-01

    This textbook on quantum mechanics is intended for students at the graduate and post-graduate level. A balanced account of theory and applications is presented. Emphasis is laid on making results plausible and methods to be followed in solving problems. The various chapters in the book are devoted to the following: (1) Wave particle duality and uncertainty principle (2) Wave packets and time-dependent Schroedinger equation (3) Simple solutions of Schroedinger equation (4) Vector spaces and linear operators : Dirac notation (5) Angular momentum and spin (6) Addition of angular momenta (7) Time independent perturbation theory (8) The variational method (9) The WKB approximation (10) Elementary theory of scattering (11) Time-dependent perturbation theory (12) Motion in a magnetic field (13) Interaction of radiation with matter and (14) Relativistic theory. (A.K.)

  9. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  10. What are quantum jumps?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper answers the title question by giving an operational definition of quantum jumps based on measurement theory. This definition forms the basis of a theory of quantum jumps which leads to a number of testable predictions. Experiments are proposed to test the theory. The suggested experiments also test the quantum Zeno paradox, i.e., they test the proposition that frequent observation of a quantum system inhibits quantum jumps in that system. (orig.)

  11. Quantum physics for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Ficek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The textbook introduces students to the main ideas of quantum physics and the basic mathematical methods and techniques used in the fields of advanced quantum physics, atomic physics, laser physics, nanotechnology, quantum chemistry, and theoretical mathematics. The textbook explains how microscopic objects (particles) behave in unusual ways, giving rise to what's called quantum effects. It contains a wide range of tutorial problems from simple confidence-builders to fairly challenging exercises that provide adequate understanding of the basic concepts of quantum physics.

  12. Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There is a lack of state-of-the-art HPC simulation tools for simulating general quantum computing. Furthermore, there are no real software tools that integrate current quantum computers into existing classical HPC workflows. This product, the Quantum Virtual Machine (QVM), solves this problem by providing an extensible framework for pluggable virtual, or physical, quantum processing units (QPUs). It enables the execution of low level quantum assembly codes and returns the results of such executions.

  13. Broadband Quantum Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is a rapidly developing field that draws from a number of disciplines, from quantum optics to information theory to electrical engineering. By combining some fundamental quantum mechanical principles of single photons with various aspects of information theory, quantum cryptography represents a fundamental shift in the basis for security from numerical complexity to the fundamental physical nature of the communications channel. As such, it promises the holy grail of data security: theoretically unbreakable encryption. Of course, implementing quantum cryptography in real br

  14. IETS and quantum interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Destructive quantum interference in single molecule electronics is an intriguing phenomenon; however, distinguishing quantum interference effects from generically low transmission is not trivial. In this paper, we discuss how quantum interference effects in the transmission lead to either low...... suppressed when quantum interference effects dominate. That is, we expand the understanding of propensity rules in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy to molecules with destructive quantum interference....

  15. Quantum gate decomposition algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepoy, Alexander

    2006-07-01

    Quantum computing algorithms can be conveniently expressed in a format of a quantum logical circuits. Such circuits consist of sequential coupled operations, termed ''quantum gates'', or quantum analogs of bits called qubits. We review a recently proposed method [1] for constructing general ''quantum gates'' operating on an qubits, as composed of a sequence of generic elementary ''gates''.

  16. Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa

    A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... as expected from the theory. The value of g(2)(0) is around 1.08. The results con_rm the observation of an on-chip giant optical nonlinearity and the 1D atom behavior. Another direction in this thesis has been to investigate the e_ect of Anderson localization on the electrodynamics of QDs in PCWs. A large...

  17. Photonic crystal pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anscombe, Nadya

    2011-08-01

    Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.

  18. Crystallization Pathways in Biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2011-08-01

    A crystallization pathway describes the movement of ions from their source to the final product. Cells are intimately involved in biological crystallization pathways. In many pathways the cells utilize a unique strategy: They temporarily concentrate ions in intracellular membrane-bound vesicles in the form of a highly disordered solid phase. This phase is then transported to the final mineralization site, where it is destabilized and crystallizes. We present four case studies, each of which demonstrates specific aspects of biological crystallization pathways: seawater uptake by foraminifera, calcite spicule formation by sea urchin larvae, goethite formation in the teeth of limpets, and guanine crystal formation in fish skin and spider cuticles. Three representative crystallization pathways are described, and aspects of the different stages of crystallization are discussed. An in-depth understanding of these complex processes can lead to new ideas for synthetic crystallization processes of interest to materials science.

  19. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  20. Growth of dopamine crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Vidya, E-mail: vidya.patil@ruparel.edu; Patki, Mugdha, E-mail: mugdha.patki@ruparel.edu [D. G. Ruparel College, Senapati Bapat Marg, Mahim, Mumbai – 400 016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Many nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals have been identified as potential candidates in optical and electro-optical devices. Use of NLO organic crystals is expected in photonic applications. Hence organic nonlinear optical materials have been intensely investigated due to their potentially high nonlinearities, and rapid response in electro-optic effect compared to inorganic NLO materials. There are many methods to grow organic crystals such as vapor growth method, melt growth method and solution growth method. Out of these methods, solution growth method is useful in providing constraint free crystal. Single crystals of Dopamine have been grown by evaporating the solvents from aqueous solution. Crystals obtained were of the size of orders of mm. The crystal structure of dopamine was determined using XRD technique. Images of crystals were obtained using FEG SEM Quanta Series under high vacuum and low KV.