WorldWideScience

Sample records for quantum coherent origin

  1. The origins of macroscopic quantum coherence in high temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Philip, E-mail: ph.turner@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nottale, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nottale@obspm.fr [CNRS, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We propose a new theoretical approach to superconductivity in p-type cuprates. • Electron pairing mechanisms in the superconducting and pseudogap phases are proposed. • A scale free network of dopants is key to macroscopic quantum coherence. - Abstract: A new, theoretical approach to macroscopic quantum coherence and superconductivity in the p-type (hole doped) cuprates is proposed. The theory includes mechanisms to account for e-pair coupling in the superconducting and pseudogap phases and their inter relations observed in these materials. Electron pair coupling in the superconducting phase is facilitated by local quantum potentials created by static dopants in a mechanism which explains experimentally observed optimal doping levels and the associated peak in critical temperature. By contrast, evidence suggests that electrons contributing to the pseudogap are predominantly coupled by fractal spin waves (fractons) induced by the fractal arrangement of dopants. On another level, the theory offers new insights into the emergence of a macroscopic quantum potential generated by a fractal distribution of dopants. This, in turn, leads to the emergence of coherent, macroscopic spin waves and a second associated macroscopic quantum potential, possibly supported by charge order. These quantum potentials play two key roles. The first involves the transition of an expected diffusive process (normally associated with Anderson localization) in fractal networks, into e-pair coherence. The second involves the facilitation of tunnelling between localized e-pairs. These combined effects lead to the merger of the super conducting and pseudo gap phases into a single coherent condensate at optimal doping. The underlying theory relating to the diffusion to quantum transition is supported by Coherent Random Lasing, which can be explained using an analogous approach. As a final step, an experimental program is outlined to validate the theory and suggests a new

  2. A new theory of the origin of cancer: quantum coherent entanglement, centrioles, mitosis, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart R

    2004-11-01

    Malignant cells are characterized by abnormal segregation of chromosomes during mitosis ("aneuploidy"), generally considered a result of malignancy originating in genetic mutations. However, recent evidence supports a century-old concept that maldistribution of chromosomes (and resultant genomic instability) due to abnormalities in mitosis itself is the primary cause of malignancy rather than a mere byproduct. In normal mitosis chromosomes replicate into sister chromatids which are then precisely separated and transported into mirror-like sets by structural protein assemblies called mitotic spindles and centrioles, both composed of microtubules. The elegant yet poorly understood ballet-like movements and geometric organization occurring in mitosis have suggested guidance by some type of organizing field, however neither electromagnetic nor chemical gradient fields have been demonstrated or shown to be sufficient. It is proposed here that normal mirror-like mitosis is organized by quantum coherence and quantum entanglement among microtubule-based centrioles and mitotic spindles which ensure precise, complementary duplication of daughter cell genomes and recognition of daughter cell boundaries. Evidence and theory supporting organized quantum states in cytoplasm/nucleoplasm (and quantum optical properties of centrioles in particular) at physiological temperature are presented. Impairment of quantum coherence and/or entanglement among microtubule-based mitotic spindles and centrioles can result in abnormal distribution of chromosomes, abnormal differentiation and uncontrolled growth, and account for all aspects of malignancy. New approaches to cancer therapy and stem cell production are suggested via non-thermal laser-mediated effects aimed at quantum optical states of centrioles.

  3. Perspective: Quantum or classical coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William H

    2012-06-07

    Some coherence effects in chemical dynamics are described correctly by classical mechanics, while others only appear in a quantum treatment--and when these are observed experimentally it is not always immediately obvious whether their origin is classical or quantum. Semiclassical theory provides a systematic way of adding quantum coherence to classical molecular dynamics and thus provides a useful way to distinguish between classical and quantum coherence. Several examples are discussed which illustrate both cases. Particularly interesting is the situation with electronically non-adiabatic processes, where sometimes whether the coherence effects are classical or quantum depends on what specific aspects of the process are observed.

  4. Cohering power of quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Kaifeng, E-mail: bkf@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linyz@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Junde, E-mail: wjd@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Cohering power: production of quantum coherence by quantum operations. • Study of cohering power and generalized cohering power, and their comparison for differentmeasures of quantum coherence. • Operational interpretation of cohering power. • Bound on cohering power of a generic quantum operation. - Abstract: Quantum coherence and entanglement, which play a crucial role in quantum information processing tasks, are usually fragile under decoherence. Therefore, the production of quantum coherence by quantum operations is important to preserve quantum correlations including entanglement. In this paper, we study cohering power–the ability of quantum operations to produce coherence. First, we provide an operational interpretation of cohering power. Then, we decompose a generic quantum operation into three basic operations, namely, unitary, appending and dismissal operations, and show that the cohering power of any quantum operation is upper bounded by the corresponding unitary operation. Furthermore, we compare cohering power and generalized cohering power of quantum operations for different measures of coherence.

  5. Origin of long-lived quantum coherence and excitation dynamics in pigment-protein complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin

    2016-11-01

    We explore the mechanism for the long-lived quantum coherence by considering the discrete phonon modes: these vibrational modes effectively weaken the exciton-environment interaction, due to the new composite (polaron) formed by excitons and vibrons. This subsequently demonstrates the role of vibrational coherence which greatly contributes to long-lived feature of the excitonic coherence that has been observed in femtosecond experiments. The estimation of the timescale of coherence elongated by vibrational modes is given in an analytical manner. To test the validity of our theory, we study the pigment-protein complex in detail by exploring the energy transfer and coherence dynamics. The ground-state vibrational coherence generated by incoherent radiations is shown to be long-survived and is demonstrated to be significant in promoting the excitation energy transfer. This is attributed to the nonequilibriumness of the system caused by the detailed-balance-breaking, which funnels the downhill migration of excitons.

  6. Quantum coherence of steered states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.

  7. Genuine Quantum Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Streltsov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The basis of any quantum resource theory are free states and free operations, these are states and operations which can be created or performed at no cost. In the resource theory of quantum coherence free states are states which are diagonal in a fixed reference basis. This choice is natural in many experimental scenarios where the reference basis is singled out by the unavoidable decoherence. The corresponding free operations are called incoherent, they can be implemented as a generalized measurement which does not create any coherence. However, a general quantum operation admits different experimental realizations, and a quantum operation which seems incoherent in one experimental realization might create coherence in another. Starting from this observation, we propose the framework of genuine quantum coherence. This approach is based on a simple principle: we demand that a genuinely incoherent operation preserves all incoherent states. This simple condition automatically guarantees that the operation is in...

  8. Converting Coherence to Quantum Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiajun; Yadin, Benjamin; Girolami, Davide; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2016-04-22

    Recent results in quantum information theory characterize quantum coherence in the context of resource theories. Here, we study the relation between quantum coherence and quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation which appears even in nonentangled states. We prove that the creation of quantum discord with multipartite incoherent operations is bounded by the amount of quantum coherence consumed in its subsystems during the process. We show how the interplay between quantum coherence consumption and creation of quantum discord works in the preparation of multipartite quantum correlated states and in the model of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit.

  9. Quantum information and coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Öhberg, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...

  10. Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795

  11. Genuine quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente, Julio I.; Streltsov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Any quantum resource theory is based on free states and free operations, i.e. states and operations which can be created and performed at no cost. In the resource theory of coherence free states are diagonal in some fixed basis, and free operations are those which cannot create coherence for some particular experimental realization. Recently, some problems of this approach have been discussed, and new sets of operations have been proposed to resolve these problems. We propose here the framework of genuine quantum coherence. This approach is based on a simple principle: we demand that a genuinely incoherent operation preserves all incoherent states. This framework captures coherence under additional constrains such as energy preservation and all genuinely incoherent operations are incoherent regardless of their particular experimental realization. We also introduce the full class of operations with this property, which we call fully incoherent. We analyze in detail the mathematical structure of these classes and also study possible state transformations. We show that deterministic manipulation is severely limited, even in the asymptotic settings. In particular, this framework does not have a unique golden unit, i.e. there is no single state from which all other states can be created deterministically with the free operations. This suggests that any reasonably powerful resource theory of coherence must contain free operations which can potentially create coherence in some experimental realization.

  12. Exclusion of quantum coherence as the origin of the 2D metallic state in high-mobility silicon inversion layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunthaler, G; Prinz, A; Bauer, G; Pudalov, V M

    2001-08-27

    The temperature and density dependence of the phase coherence time tau(phi) in high-mobility silicon inversion layers was determined from the magnetoresistivity due to weak localization. The upper temperature limit for single-electron quantum interference effects was delineated by comparing tau(phi) with the momentum relaxation time tau. A comparison between the density dependence of the borders for quantum interference effects and the strong resistivity drop reveals that these effects are not related to each other. As the strong resistivity drop occurs in the Drude regime, the apparent metallic behavior cannot be caused by quantum coherent effects.

  13. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D

    2001-01-01

    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.

  14. Quantum Coherence as a Resource

    CERN Document Server

    Streltsov, Alexander; Plenio, Martin B

    2016-01-01

    The coherent superposition of states, in combination with energy quantization, represents one of the most fundamental features that mark the departure of quantum mechanics from the classical realm. Quantum coherence in many-body systems embodies the essence of entanglement and is an essential ingredient for a plethora of physical phenomena in quantum optics, quantum information, solid state physics, and nanoscale thermodynamics. In recent years, research on the presence and functional role of quantum coherence in biological systems has also attracted a considerable interest. Despite the fundamental importance of quantum coherence, the development of a rigorous theory of quantum coherence as a physical resource has only been initiated recently. In this Colloquium we discuss and review the development of this rapidly growing research field that encompasses the characterization, quantification, manipulation, dynamical evolution, and operational application of quantum coherence.

  15. Coherent states in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gazeau, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This self-contained introduction discusses the evolution of the notion of coherent states, from the early works of Schrödinger to the most recent advances, including signal analysis. An integrated and modern approach to the utility of coherent states in many different branches of physics, it strikes a balance between mathematical and physical descriptions.Split into two parts, the first introduces readers to the most familiar coherent states, their origin, their construction, and their application and relevance to various selected domains of physics. Part II, mostly based on recent original results, is devoted to the question of quantization of various sets through coherent states, and shows the link to procedures in signal analysis. Title: Coherent States in Quantum Physics Print ISBN: 9783527407095 Author(s): Gazeau, Jean-Pierre eISBN: 9783527628292 Publisher: Wiley-VCH Dewey: 530.12 Publication Date: 23 Sep, 2009 Pages: 360 Category: Science, Science: Physics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:

  16. Exclusion of quantum coherence as the origin of the 2D metallic state in high-mobility silicon inversion layers

    OpenAIRE

    Brunthaler, G.; Prinz, A.; Bauer, G.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2000-01-01

    The temperature and density dependence of the phase coherence time $\\tau_\\phi$ in high-mobility silicon inversion layers was determined from the magnetoresistivity due to weak localization. The upper temperature limit for single-electron quantum interference effects was delineated by comparing $\\tau_\\phi$ with the momentum relaxation time $\\tau$. A comparison between the density dependence of the borders for quantum interference effects and the strong resistivity drop reveals that theses effe...

  17. Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Asutosh

    2017-03-01

    Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation-which we refer to as additivity relation-between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same.

  18. Assisted distillation of quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other, an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication (LQICC). We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, a direct analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  19. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...

  20. Coherent control of quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lodahl, Peter; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    In recent years much effort has been devoted to the use of semiconductor quantum dotsystems as building blocks for solid-state-based quantum logic devices. One importantparameter for such devices is the coherence time, which determines the number ofpossible quantum operations. From earlier...... measurements the coherence time of the selfassembledquantum dots (QDs) has been reported to be limited by the spontaneousemission rate at cryogenic temperatures1.In this project we propose to alter the coherence time of QDs by taking advantage of arecent technique on modifying spontaneous emission rates...

  1. Remote creation of quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-10-01

    We study remote creation of coherence (RCC) for a quantum system, A, with the help of quantum operations on another system, B, and one-way classical communication. We show that all the nonincoherent quantum states are useful for RCC and all the incoherent-quantum states are not. The necessary and sufficient conditions of RCC for the quantum operations on system B are presented for pure states. The upper bound of average RCC is derived, giving a relation among the entanglement (concurrence), the RCC of the given quantum state, and the RCC of the corresponding maximally entangled state. Moreover, for two-qubit systems we find a simple factorization law for the average remote-created coherence.

  2. Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can

    2016-05-01

    Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to ηCA through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.

  3. Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can

    2016-05-01

    Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency η_{CA}. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to η_{CA} through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.

  4. Quantum coherence in photosynthetic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calhoun, Tessa R.; Fleming, Graham R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The initial steps of photosynthesis require the absorption and subsequent transfer of energy through an intricate network of pigment-protein complexes. Held within the protein scaffold of these complexes, chromophore molecules are densely packed and fixed in specific geometries relative to one another resulting in Coulombic coupling. Excitation energy transfer through these systems can be accomplished with near unity quantum efficiency [Wraight and Clayton, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 333, 246 (1974)]. While replication of this feat is desirable for artificial photosynthesis, the mechanism by which nature achieves this efficiency is unknown. Recent experiments have revealed the presence of long-lived quantum coherences in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes spanning bacterial and plant species with a variety of functions and compositions. Its ubiquitous presence and wavelike energy transfer implicate quantum coherence as key to the high efficiency achieved by photosynthesis. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Quantum learning of coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentis, Gael [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Barcelona (Spain); Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)

  6. Quantum coherence in the dynamical Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samos-Sáenz de Buruaga, D. N.; Sabín, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    We propose to use quantum coherence as the ultimate proof of the quantum nature of the radiation that appears by means of the dynamical Casimir effect in experiments with superconducting microwave waveguides. We show that, unlike previously considered measurements such as entanglement and discord, quantum coherence does not require a threshold value of the external pump amplitude and is highly robust to thermal noise.

  7. Origin of long-lived oscillations in 2D-spectra of a Quantum Vibronic Model: Electronic vs Vibrational coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the coupling of excitonic and vibrational motion in biological complexes can provide mechanisms to explain the long-lived oscillations that have been obtained in non linear spectroscopic signals of different photosynthetic pigment protein complexes and we discuss the contributions of excitonic versus purely vibrational components to these oscillatory features. Considering a dimer model coupled to a structured spectral density we exemplify the fundamental aspects of the electron-phonon dynamics, and by analyzing separately the different contributions to the non linear signal, we show that for realistic parameter regimes purely electronic coherence is of the same order as purely vibrational coherence in the electronic ground state. Moreover, we demonstrate how the latter relies upon the excitonic interaction to manifest. These results link recently proposed microscopic, non-equilibrium mechanisms to support long lived coherence at ambient temperatures with actual experimental observations of...

  8. Quantum learning of coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sentís, Gael; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian es...

  9. The relations between quantum coherence and quantum correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, Pei; Mei, Di; Li, Chong

    2010-01-01

    We reexamine entanglement and quantum correlation from the point of their consanguineous quantum property, the coherence, and consider the quantum correlation as a kind of nonlocal coherence. We emphasize the importance of specifying the tensor product structure of the total state space before discussing quantum correlation. Utilizing off-diagonal elements of density matrix, a measure of quantum correlation for arbitrary dimension bipartite states is proposed. The relations between the proposed measure and others of quantum correlation are investigated with explicit examples. The close relation between nonlocal coherence and quantum correlation provides theory evidence to experimentally measure the bipartite quantum correlation by means of coherence, and indicates a developing way to measure quantum correlation for states with the presence of local coherence.

  10. Total quantum coherence and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Yang, Si-ren; Guo, Bao-qing

    2016-09-01

    Quantum coherence is the most fundamental feature of quantum mechanics. The usual understanding of it depends on the choice of the basis, that is, the coherence of the same quantum state is different within different reference framework. To reveal all the potential coherence, we present the total quantum coherence measures in terms of two different methods. One is optimizing maximal basis-dependent coherence with all potential bases considered and the other is quantifying the distance between the state and the incoherent state set. Interestingly, the coherence measures based on relative entropy and l_2 norm have the same form in the two different methods. In particular, we show that the measures based on the non-contractive l_2 norm are also a good measure different from the basis-dependent coherence. In addition, we show that all the measures are analytically calculable and have all the good properties. The experimental schemes for the detection of these coherence measures are also proposed by multiple copies of quantum states instead of reconstructing the full density matrix. By studying one type of quantum probing schemes, we find that both the normalized trace in the scheme of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit and the overlap of two states in quantum overlap measurement schemes can be well described by the change of total coherence of the probing qubit. Hence the nontrivial probing always leads to the change of the total coherence.

  11. Steerability of Quantum Coherence in Accelerated Frame

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between steering and quantum coherence is studied in a scenario, where two atoms move through an external massless scalar field. We show that just like entanglement, the steering induced coherence of the equilibrium state may increase or decrease with acceleration depending on the initial condition of the state. We also investigate the condition for coherence steerability - as opposed to simple state steerability. Interestingly, we find that the quantum coherence of the equilibrium state cannot be steered, even when the steering induced coherence is non-zero. We argue that under any condition, gravity prohibits the coherence steering of the equilibrium state.

  12. Origin of long-lived oscillations in 2D-spectra of a quantum vibronic model: electronic versus vibrational coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenio, M B; Almeida, J; Huelga, S F

    2013-12-21

    We demonstrate that the coupling of excitonic and vibrational motion in biological complexes can provide mechanisms to explain the long-lived oscillations that have been obtained in nonlinear spectroscopic signals of different photosynthetic pigment protein complexes and we discuss the contributions of excitonic versus purely vibrational components to these oscillatory features. Considering a dimer model coupled to a structured spectral density we exemplify the fundamental aspects of the electron-phonon dynamics, and by analyzing separately the different contributions to the nonlinear signal, we show that for realistic parameter regimes purely electronic coherence is of the same order as purely vibrational coherence in the electronic ground state. Moreover, we demonstrate how the latter relies upon the excitonic interaction to manifest. These results link recently proposed microscopic, non-equilibrium mechanisms to support long lived coherence at ambient temperatures with actual experimental observations of oscillatory behaviour using 2D photon echo techniques to corroborate the fundamental importance of the interplay of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in the dynamics of light harvesting aggregates.

  13. Origin of long-lived oscillations in 2D-spectra of a quantum vibronic model: Electronic versus vibrational coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plenio, M. B.; Almeida, J.; Huelga, S. F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, University Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2013-12-21

    We demonstrate that the coupling of excitonic and vibrational motion in biological complexes can provide mechanisms to explain the long-lived oscillations that have been obtained in nonlinear spectroscopic signals of different photosynthetic pigment protein complexes and we discuss the contributions of excitonic versus purely vibrational components to these oscillatory features. Considering a dimer model coupled to a structured spectral density we exemplify the fundamental aspects of the electron-phonon dynamics, and by analyzing separately the different contributions to the nonlinear signal, we show that for realistic parameter regimes purely electronic coherence is of the same order as purely vibrational coherence in the electronic ground state. Moreover, we demonstrate how the latter relies upon the excitonic interaction to manifest. These results link recently proposed microscopic, non-equilibrium mechanisms to support long lived coherence at ambient temperatures with actual experimental observations of oscillatory behaviour using 2D photon echo techniques to corroborate the fundamental importance of the interplay of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in the dynamics of light harvesting aggregates.

  14. Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2007-06-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding.

  15. Adiabatic Quantum Computation: Coherent Control Back Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Though attractive from scalability aspects, optical approaches to quantum computing are highly prone to decoherence and rapid population loss due to nonradiative processes such as vibrational redistribution. We show that such effects can be reduced by adiabatic coherent control, in which quantum interference between multiple excitation pathways is used to cancel coupling to the unwanted, non-radiative channels. We focus on experimentally demonstrated adiabatic controlled population transfer experiments wherein the details on the coherence aspects are yet to be explored theoretically but are important for quantum computation. Such quantum computing schemes also form a back-action connection to coherent control developments. PMID:23788822

  16. Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, H; Doherty, A C

    2002-11-15

    Modern cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) illuminates the most fundamental aspects of coherence and decoherence in quantum mechanics. Experiments on atoms in cavities can be described by elementary models but reveal intriguing subtleties of the interplay of coherent dynamics with external couplings. Recent activity in this area has pioneered powerful new approaches to the study of quantum coherence and has fueled the growth of quantum information science. In years to come, the purview of cavity QED will continue to grow as researchers build on a rich infrastructure to attack some of the most pressing open questions in micro- and mesoscopic physics.

  17. Coherent states in the quantum multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Perez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.e [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain); Hassouni, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte des Sciences-Universite Sidi Med Ben Abdellah, Avenue Ibn Batouta B.P: 1014, Agdal Rabat (Morocco); Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain)

    2010-01-11

    In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.

  18. Coherent Communication with Continuous Quantum Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wilde, M M; Krovi, H; Brun, Todd A.; Krovi, Hari; Wilde, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical communication and quantum communication. The cobit channel produces coherent versions of the teleportation and superdense coding protocols. We extend the cobit channel to the continuous variables of quantum optics. We provide a general definition of the ``coherent nat'' (conat) channel when only finite-squeezing resources are available. Coherent teleportation provides sufficient conditions and coherent superdense coding provides necessary conditions for a channel to be a finite-squeezing approximation to an ideal conat channel. We illustrate several protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel. Finally, we address the reversibility of coherent teleportation and coherent superdense coding with only finite-squeezing resources.

  19. Quantum coherent oscillations in the early universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pikovski, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic inflation is commonly assumed to be driven by quantum fields. Quantum mechanics predicts phenomena such as quantum fluctuations and tunneling of the field. Here we show an example of a quantum interference effect which goes beyond the semi-classical treatment and which may be of relevance in the early universe. We study the quantum coherent dynamics for a tilted, periodic potential, which results in genuine quantum oscillations of the inflaton field, analogous to Bloch oscillations in condensed matter and atomic systems. Our results show that quantum interference phenomena may be of relevance in cosmology.

  20. Quantum Processes Which Do Not Use Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Yadin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A major signature of quantum mechanics beyond classical physics is coherence, the existence of superposition states. The recently developed resource theory of quantum coherence allows the formalization of incoherent operations—those operations which cannot create coherence. We identify the set of operations which additionally do not use coherence. These are such that coherence cannot be exploited by a classical observer, who measures incoherent properties of the system, to go beyond classical dynamics. We give a physical interpretation in terms of interferometry and prove a dilation theorem, showing how these operations can always be constructed by the system interacting, in an incoherent way, with an ancilla. Such a physical justification is not known for the incoherent operations; thus, our results lead to a physically well-motivated resource theory of coherence. Next, we investigate the implications for coherence in multipartite systems. We show that quantum correlations can be defined naturally with respect to a fixed basis, providing a link between coherence and quantum discord. We demonstrate the interplay between these two quantities in the operations that we study and suggest implications for the theory of quantum discord by relating these operations to those which cannot create discord.

  1. The extraction of work from quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Lostaglio, Matteo; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Jennings, David

    2016-02-01

    The interplay between quantum-mechanical properties, such as coherence, and classical notions, such as energy, is a subtle topic at the forefront of quantum thermodynamics. The traditional Carnot argument limits the conversion of heat to work; here we critically assess the problem of converting coherence to work. Through a careful account of all resources involved in the thermodynamic transformations within a fully quantum-mechanical treatment, we show that there exist thermal machines extracting work from coherence arbitrarily well. Such machines only need to act on individual copies of a state and can be reused. On the other hand, we show that for any thermal machine with finite resources not all the coherence of a state can be extracted as work. However, even bounded thermal machines can be reused infinitely many times in the process of work extraction from coherence.

  2. Quantum coherence, correlated noise and Parrondo games

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, C F; Rodríguez, F; Quiroga, L; Lee, Chiu Fan; Johnson, Neil F.; Rodriguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the effect of correlated noise on the robustness of quantum coherent phenomena. First we consider a simple, toy model to illustrate the effect of such correlations on the decoherence process. Then we show how decoherence rates can be suppressed using a Parrondo-like effect. Finally, we report the results of many-body calculations in which an experimentally-measurable quantum coherence phenomenon is significantly enhanced by non-Markovian dynamics arising from the noise source.

  3. Quantum Correlation Coefficients for Angular Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; HE Yan; GUO Hao

    2009-01-01

    Quantum covariance and correlation coefficients of angular or SU(2) coherent states are directly calculated for all irreducible unitary representations.These results explicitly verify that the angular coherent states minimize the Robertson-Schrodinger uncertainty relation for all spins, which means that they are the so-called intelligent states.The same results can be obtained by the Schwinger representation approach.

  4. Quantum-coherent mixtures of causal relations

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Spekkens, Robert W; Resch, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal influences that hold among the parts of a system is critical both to explaining that system's natural behaviour and to controlling it through targeted interventions. In a quantum world, understanding causal relations is equally important, but the set of possibilities is far richer. The two basic ways in which a pair of time-ordered quantum systems may be causally related are by a cause-effect mechanism or by a common cause acting on both. Here, we show that it is possible to have a coherent mixture of these two possibilities. We realize such a nonclassical causal relation in a quantum optics experiment and derive a set of criteria for witnessing the coherence based on a quantum version of Berkson's paradox. The interplay of causality and quantum theory lies at the heart of challenging foundational puzzles, such as Bell's theorem and the search for quantum gravity, but could also provide a resource for novel quantum technologies.

  5. Entanglement and coherence in quantum state merging

    CERN Document Server

    Streltsov, A; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging where two parties aim to merge their parts of a tripartite quantum state. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered as an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process, and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to ...

  6. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  7. Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M

    2016-06-17

    Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.

  8. Coherent analysis of quantum optical sideband modes

    CERN Document Server

    Huntington, E H; Robilliard, C; Ralph, T C

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a device that allows for the coherent analysis of a pair of optical frequency sidebands in an arbitrary basis. We show that our device is quantum noise limited and hence applications for this scheme may be found in discrete and continuous variable optical quantum information experiments.

  9. Quantum-coherent mixtures of causal relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jean-Philippe W.; Ried, Katja; Spekkens, Robert W.; Resch, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the causal influences that hold among parts of a system is critical both to explaining that system's natural behaviour and to controlling it through targeted interventions. In a quantum world, understanding causal relations is equally important, but the set of possibilities is far richer. The two basic ways in which a pair of time-ordered quantum systems may be causally related are by a cause-effect mechanism or by a common-cause acting on both. Here we show a coherent mixture of these two possibilities. We realize this nonclassical causal relation in a quantum optics experiment and derive a set of criteria for witnessing the coherence based on a quantum version of Berkson's effect, whereby two independent causes can become correlated on observation of their common effect. The interplay of causality and quantum theory lies at the heart of challenging foundational puzzles, including Bell's theorem and the search for quantum gravity. PMID:28485394

  10. Affine Coherent States in Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    A brief summary of the application of coherent states in the examination of quantum dynamics of cosmological models is given. We discuss quantization maps, phase space probability distributions and semiclassical phase spaces. The implementation of coherent states based on the affine group resolves the hardest singularities, renders self-adjoint Hamiltonians without boundary conditions and provides a completely consistent semi-classical description of the involved quantum dynamics. We consider three examples: the closed Friedmann model, the anisotropic Bianchi Type I model and the deep quantum domain of the Bianchi Type IX model.

  11. Toward a superconducting quantum computer. Harnessing macroscopic quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Shen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers.

  12. Coherent spaces, Boolean rings and quantum gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, A.

    2016-10-01

    Coherent spaces spanned by a finite number of coherent states, are introduced. Their coherence properties are studied, using the Dirac contour representation. It is shown that the corresponding projectors resolve the identity, and that they transform into projectors of the same type, under displacement transformations, and also under time evolution. The set of these spaces, with the logical OR and AND operations is a distributive lattice, and with the logical XOR and AND operations is a Boolean ring (Stone's formalism). Applications of this Boolean ring into classical CNOT gates with n-ary variables, and also quantum CNOT gates with coherent states, are discussed.

  13. Quantum oscillators in the canonical coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, A.F. de; Ferreira, K. de Araujo [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Vaidya, A.N. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-11-01

    The main characteristics of the quantum oscillator coherent states including the two-particle Calogero interaction are investigated. We show that these Calogero coherent states are the eigenstates of the second-order differential annihilation operator which is deduced via Wigner-Heisenberg algebraic technique and correspond exactly to the pure uncharged-bosonic states. They posses the important properties of non-orthogonality and completeness. The minimum uncertainty relation for the Wigner oscillator coherent states are investigated. New sets of even and odd coherent states are point out. (author)

  14. Energy cost of creating quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Avijit; Singh, Uttam; Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2016-05-01

    We consider physical situations where the resource theories of coherence and thermodynamics play competing roles. In particular, we study the creation of quantum coherence using unitary operations with limited thermodynamic resources. We find the maximal coherence that can be created under unitary operations starting from a thermal state and find explicitly the unitary transformation that creates the maximal coherence. Since coherence is created by unitary operations starting from a thermal state, it requires some amount of energy. This motivates us to explore the trade-off between the amount of coherence that can be created and the energy cost of the unitary process. We also find the maximal achievable coherence under the constraint on the available energy. Additionally, we compare the maximal coherence and the maximal total correlation that can be created under unitary transformations with the same available energy at our disposal. We find that when maximal coherence is created with limited energy, the total correlation created in the process is upper bounded by the maximal coherence, and vice versa. For two-qubit systems we show that no unitary transformation exists that creates the maximal coherence and maximal total correlation simultaneously with a limited energy cost.

  15. Mesoscopic systems: classical irreversibility and quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Bernard

    2012-09-28

    Mesoscopic physics is a sub-discipline of condensed-matter physics that focuses on the properties of solids in a size range intermediate between bulk matter and individual atoms. In particular, it is characteristic of a domain where a certain number of interacting objects can easily be tuned between classical and quantum regimes, thus enabling studies at the border of the two. In magnetism, such a tuning was first realized with large-spin magnetic molecules called single-molecule magnets (SMMs) with archetype Mn(12)-ac. In general, the mesoscopic scale can be relatively large (e.g. micrometre-sized superconducting circuits), but, in magnetism, it is much smaller and can reach the atomic scale with rare earth (RE) ions. In all cases, it is shown how quantum relaxation can drastically reduce classical irreversibility. Taking the example of mesoscopic spin systems, the origin of irreversibility is discussed on the basis of the Landau-Zener model. A classical counterpart of this model is described enabling, in particular, intuitive understanding of most aspects of quantum spin dynamics. The spin dynamics of mesoscopic spin systems (SMM or RE systems) becomes coherent if they are well isolated. The study of the damping of their Rabi oscillations gives access to most relevant decoherence mechanisms by different environmental baths, including the electromagnetic bath of microwave excitation. This type of decoherence, clearly seen with spin systems, is easily recovered in quantum simulations. It is also observed with other types of qubits such as a single spin in a quantum dot or a superconducting loop, despite the presence of other competitive decoherence mechanisms. As in the molecular magnet V(15), the leading decoherence terms of superconducting qubits seem to be associated with a non-Markovian channel in which short-living entanglements with distributions of two-level systems (nuclear spins, impurity spins and/or charges) leading to 1/f noise induce τ(1)-like

  16. Coherent optoelectronics with single quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zrenner, A; Ester, P; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, S; Huebner, M C; Lackmann, L; Stufler, S [Universitaet Paderborn, Department Physik, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Bichler, M [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: zrenner@mail.upb.de

    2008-11-12

    The optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots are in many respects similar to those of atoms. Since quantum dots can be defined by state-of-the-art semiconductor technologies, they exhibit long-term stability and allow for well-controlled and efficient interactions with both optical and electrical fields. Resonant ps excitation of single quantum dot photodiodes leads to new classes of coherent optoelectronic functions and devices, which exhibit precise state preparation, phase-sensitive optical manipulations and the control of quantum states by electrical fields.

  17. Coherent optoelectronics with single quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrenner, A.; Ester, P.; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, S.; Hübner, M. C.; Lackmann, L.; Stufler, S.; Bichler, M.

    2008-11-01

    The optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots are in many respects similar to those of atoms. Since quantum dots can be defined by state-of-the-art semiconductor technologies, they exhibit long-term stability and allow for well-controlled and efficient interactions with both optical and electrical fields. Resonant ps excitation of single quantum dot photodiodes leads to new classes of coherent optoelectronic functions and devices, which exhibit precise state preparation, phase-sensitive optical manipulations and the control of quantum states by electrical fields.

  18. A coherent quantum annealer with Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaetzle, A. W.; van Bijnen, R. M. W.; Zoller, P.; Lechner, W.

    2017-06-01

    There is a significant ongoing effort in realizing quantum annealing with different physical platforms. The challenge is to achieve a fully programmable quantum device featuring coherent adiabatic quantum dynamics. Here we show that combining the well-developed quantum simulation toolbox for Rydberg atoms with the recently proposed Lechner-Hauke-Zoller (LHZ) architecture allows one to build a prototype for a coherent adiabatic quantum computer with all-to-all Ising interactions and, therefore, a platform for quantum annealing. In LHZ an infinite-range spin-glass is mapped onto the low energy subspace of a spin-1/2 lattice gauge model with quasi-local four-body parity constraints. This spin model can be emulated in a natural way with Rubidium and Caesium atoms in a bipartite optical lattice involving laser-dressed Rydberg-Rydberg interactions, which are several orders of magnitude larger than the relevant decoherence rates. This makes the exploration of coherent quantum enhanced optimization protocols accessible with state-of-the-art atomic physics experiments.

  19. A coherent quantum annealer with Rydberg atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaetzle, A W; van Bijnen, R M W; Zoller, P; Lechner, W

    2017-06-22

    There is a significant ongoing effort in realizing quantum annealing with different physical platforms. The challenge is to achieve a fully programmable quantum device featuring coherent adiabatic quantum dynamics. Here we show that combining the well-developed quantum simulation toolbox for Rydberg atoms with the recently proposed Lechner-Hauke-Zoller (LHZ) architecture allows one to build a prototype for a coherent adiabatic quantum computer with all-to-all Ising interactions and, therefore, a platform for quantum annealing. In LHZ an infinite-range spin-glass is mapped onto the low energy subspace of a spin-1/2 lattice gauge model with quasi-local four-body parity constraints. This spin model can be emulated in a natural way with Rubidium and Caesium atoms in a bipartite optical lattice involving laser-dressed Rydberg-Rydberg interactions, which are several orders of magnitude larger than the relevant decoherence rates. This makes the exploration of coherent quantum enhanced optimization protocols accessible with state-of-the-art atomic physics experiments.

  20. Relating quantum coherence and correlations with entropy-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan

    2017-09-21

    Quantum coherence and quantum correlations are important quantum resources for quantum computation and quantum information. In this paper, using entropy-based measures, we investigate the relationships between quantum correlated coherence, which is the coherence between subsystems, and two main kinds of quantum correlations as defined by quantum discord as well as quantum entanglement. In particular, we show that quantum discord and quantum entanglement can be well characterized by quantum correlated coherence. Moreover, we prove that the entanglement measure formulated by quantum correlated coherence is lower and upper bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement and the entanglement of formation, respectively, and equal to the relative entropy of entanglement for all the maximally correlated states.

  1. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  2. Coherent quantum effects through dispersive bosonic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Sai-Yun; Zheng, Shi-Biao; Serafini, Alessio

    2010-01-01

    The coherent evolution of two atomic qubits mediated by a set of bosonic field modes is investigated. By assuming a specific encoding of the quantum states in the internal levels of the two atoms we show that entangling quantum gates can be realised, with high fidelity, even when a large number of mediating modes is involved. The effect of losses and imperfections on the gates' operation is also considered in detail.

  3. Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akulin, Vladimir M

    2006-01-01

    A large number of modern problems in physics, chemistry, and quantum electronics require a consideration of population dynamics in complex multilevel quantum systems. The purpose of this book is to provide a systematic treatment of these questions and to present a number of exactly solvable problems. It considers the different dynamical problems frequently encountered in different areas of physics from the same perspective, based mainly on the fundamental ideas of group theory and on the idea of ensemble average. Also treated are concepts of complete quantum control and correction of decoherence induced errors that are complementary to the idea of ensemble average. "Coherent Dynamics of Complex Quantum Systems" is aimed at senior-level undergraduate students in the areas of Atomic, Molecular, and Laser Physics, Physical Chemistry, Quantum Optics and Quantum Informatics. It should help them put particular problems in these fields into a broader scientific context and thereby take advantage of the well-elabora...

  4. Quantum coherence in semiconductor nanostructures for improved lasers and detectors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Weng Wah Dr. (; .); Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Modine, Normand Arthur; Biefeld, Robert Malcolm

    2006-02-01

    The potential for implementing quantum coherence in semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots has been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical modeling suggests that coherent dynamics should be possible in self-assembled quantum dots. Our experimental efforts have optimized InGaAs and InAs self-assembled quantum dots on GaAs for demonstrating coherent phenomena. Optical investigations have indicated the appropriate geometries for observing quantum coherence and the type of experiments for observing quantum coherence have been outlined. The optical investigation targeted electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in order to demonstrate an all optical delay line.

  5. Robustness of coherence: An operational and observable measure of quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Napoli, Carmine; Cianciaruso, Marco; Piani, Marco; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying coherence is an essential endeavour for both quantum foundations and quantum technologies. Here the robustness of coherence is defined and proven a full monotone in the context of the recently introduced resource theories of quantum coherence. The measure is shown to be observable, as it can be recast as the expectation value of a coherence witness operator for any quantum state. The robustness of coherence is evaluated analytically on relevant classes of states, and an efficient semidefinite program that computes it on general states is given. An operational interpretation is finally provided: the robustness of coherence quantifies the advantage enabled by a quantum state in a phase-discrimination task.

  6. Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can

    2016-01-01

    Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nano-sized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We sh...

  7. Evaluating quantum teleportation of coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Grangier, P

    2000-01-01

    By using an argument based upon EPR non-separability of the entanglement resource, it was recently argued that a fidelity value larger than 2/3 is required for successful quantum teleportation of coherent states (arXiv:quant-ph/0009079). Here we recover this same conclusion from simple considerations about information exchange during the teleportation process.

  8. Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, P.; Anders, J.

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed.

  9. Coherent optical pulse sequencer for quantum applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Sparkes, Ben M; Hétet, Gabriel; Longdell, Jevon J; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben C

    2009-09-10

    The bandwidth and versatility of optical devices have revolutionized information technology systems and communication networks. Precise and arbitrary control of an optical field that preserves optical coherence is an important requisite for many proposed photonic technologies. For quantum information applications, a device that allows storage and on-demand retrieval of arbitrary quantum states of light would form an ideal quantum optical memory. Recently, significant progress has been made in implementing atomic quantum memories using electromagnetically induced transparency, photon echo spectroscopy, off-resonance Raman spectroscopy and other atom-light interaction processes. Single-photon and bright-optical-field storage with quantum states have both been successfully demonstrated. Here we present a coherent optical memory based on photon echoes induced through controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. Our scheme allows storage of multiple pulses of light within a chosen frequency bandwidth, and stored pulses can be recalled in arbitrary order with any chosen delay between each recalled pulse. Furthermore, pulses can be time-compressed, time-stretched or split into multiple smaller pulses and recalled in several pieces at chosen times. Although our experimental results are so far limited to classical light pulses, our technique should enable the construction of an optical random-access memory for time-bin quantum information, and have potential applications in quantum information processing.

  10. Quantum communication with coherent states of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Elser, Dominique; Dirmeier, Thomas; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2017-06-01

    Quantum communication offers long-term security especially, but not only, relevant to government and industrial users. It is worth noting that, for the first time in the history of cryptographic encoding, we are currently in the situation that secure communication can be based on the fundamental laws of physics (information theoretical security) rather than on algorithmic security relying on the complexity of algorithms, which is periodically endangered as standard computer technology advances. On a fundamental level, the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the non-orthogonality of the quantum states used. So even coherent states are well suited for this task, the quantum states that largely describe the light generated by laser systems. Depending on whether one uses detectors resolving single or multiple photon states or detectors measuring the field quadratures, one speaks of, respectively, a discrete- or a continuous-variable description. Continuous-variable QKD with coherent states uses a technology that is very similar to the one employed in classical coherent communication systems, the backbone of today's Internet connections. Here, we review recent developments in this field in two connected regimes: (i) improving QKD equipment by implementing front-end telecom devices and (ii) research into satellite QKD for bridging long distances by building upon existing optical satellite links. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  11. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui; LO Rong; ZHU Jia-Lin; XIONG Jia-Jiong

    2001-01-01

    The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model. On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained. We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 169), but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting. Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets. We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets. The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.

  12. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  13. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUHui; LURong; 等

    2001-01-01

    The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model.On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation,both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained.We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys.Rev.Lett.80(1998)169),but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting.Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets.We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets.The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.

  14. Efficient quantum computing using coherent photon conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, N K; Ramelow, S; Prevedel, R; Munro, W J; Milburn, G J; Zeilinger, A

    2011-10-12

    Single photons are excellent quantum information carriers: they were used in the earliest demonstrations of entanglement and in the production of the highest-quality entanglement reported so far. However, current schemes for preparing, processing and measuring them are inefficient. For example, down-conversion provides heralded, but randomly timed, single photons, and linear optics gates are inherently probabilistic. Here we introduce a deterministic process--coherent photon conversion (CPC)--that provides a new way to generate and process complex, multiquanta states for photonic quantum information applications. The technique uses classically pumped nonlinearities to induce coherent oscillations between orthogonal states of multiple quantum excitations. One example of CPC, based on a pumped four-wave-mixing interaction, is shown to yield a single, versatile process that provides a full set of photonic quantum processing tools. This set satisfies the DiVincenzo criteria for a scalable quantum computing architecture, including deterministic multiqubit entanglement gates (based on a novel form of photon-photon interaction), high-quality heralded single- and multiphoton states free from higher-order imperfections, and robust, high-efficiency detection. It can also be used to produce heralded multiphoton entanglement, create optically switchable quantum circuits and implement an improved form of down-conversion with reduced higher-order effects. Such tools are valuable building blocks for many quantum-enabled technologies. Finally, using photonic crystal fibres we experimentally demonstrate quantum correlations arising from a four-colour nonlinear process suitable for CPC and use these measurements to study the feasibility of reaching the deterministic regime with current technology. Our scheme, which is based on interacting bosonic fields, is not restricted to optical systems but could also be implemented in optomechanical, electromechanical and superconducting

  15. Coherent Quantum-Noise Cancellation for Optomechanical Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Mankei

    2010-01-01

    Using a flowchart representation of quantum optomechanical dynamics, we design coherent quantum-noise-cancellation schemes that can eliminate the back-action noise induced by radiation pressure at all frequencies and thus overcome the standard quantum limit of force sensing. The proposed schemes can be regarded as novel examples of coherent feedforward quantum control.

  16. Quantum Codes for Controlling Coherent Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sharf, Y; Cory, D G; Sharf, Yehuda; Havel, Timothy F.; Cory, David G.

    2000-01-01

    Control over spin dynamics has been obtained in NMR via coherent averaging, which is implemented through a sequence of RF pulses, and via quantum codes which can protect against incoherent evolution. Here, we discuss the design and implementation of quantum codes to protect against coherent evolution. A detailed example is given of a quantum code for protecting two data qubits from evolution under a weak coupling (Ising) term in the Hamiltonian, using an ``isolated'' ancilla which does not evolve on the experimental time scale. The code is realized in a three-spin system by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy on 13C-labelled alanine, and tested for two initial states. It is also shown that for coherent evolution and isolated ancillae, codes exist that do not require the ancillae to initially be in a (pseudo-)pure state. Finally, it is shown that even with non-isolated ancillae quantum codes exist which can protect against evolution under weak coupling. An example is presented for a six qubit code that protects two ...

  17. Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.

    1996-01-01

    The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.

  18. Coherent states in quantum mechanics; Estados coerentes em mecanica quantica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rafaelr@cbpf.br; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    2001-12-01

    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)

  19. Quantum entanglement and coherence in molecular magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiddiq, Muhandis

    Quantum computers are predicted to outperform classical computers in certain tasks, such as factoring large numbers and searching databases. The construction of a computer whose operation is based on the principles of quantum mechanics appears extremely challenging. Solid state approaches offer the potential to answer this challenge by tailor-making novel nanomaterials for quantum information processing (QIP). Molecular magnets, which are materials whose energy levels and magnetic quantum states are well defined at the molecular level, have been identified as a class of material with properties that make them attractive for quantum computing purpose. In this dissertation, I explore the possibilities and challenges for molecular magnets to be used in quantum computing architecture. The properties of molecular magnets that are critical for applications in quantum computing, i.e., quantum entanglement and coherence, are comprehensively investigated to probe the feasibility of molecular magnets to be used as quantum bits (qubits). Interactions of qubits with photons are at the core of QIP. Photons can be used to detect and manipulate qubits, after which information can then be transferred over long distances. As a potential candidate for qubits, the interactions between Fe8 single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and cavity photons were studied. An earlier report described that a cavity mode splitting was observed in a spectrum of a cavity filled with a single-crystal of Fe8 SMMs. This splitting was interpreted as a vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS), which is a signature of an entanglement between a large number of SMMs and a cavity photon. However, find that large absorption and dispersion of the magnetic susceptibility are the reasons for this splitting. This finding highlights the fact that an observation of a peak splitting in a cavity transmission spectrum neither represents an unambiguous indication of quantum coherence in a large number of spins, nor a signature of

  20. Quantum Communication Using Coherent Rejection Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshu, Anurag; Devabathini, Vamsi Krishna; Jain, Rahul

    2017-09-01

    Compression of a message up to the information it carries is key to many tasks involved in classical and quantum information theory. Schumacher [B. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2738 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevA.51.2738] provided one of the first quantum compression schemes and several more general schemes have been developed ever since [M. Horodecki, J. Oppenheim, and A. Winter, Commun. Math. Phys. 269, 107 (2007); , 10.1007/s00220-006-0118-xI. Devetak and J. Yard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230501 (2008); , 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230501A. Abeyesinghe, I. Devetak, P. Hayden, and A. Winter, Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 2537 (2009), 10.1098/rspa.2009.0202]. However, the one-shot characterization of these quantum tasks is still under development, and often lacks a direct connection with analogous classical tasks. Here we show a new technique for the compression of quantum messages with the aid of entanglement. We devise a new tool that we call the convex split lemma, which is a coherent quantum analogue of the widely used rejection sampling procedure in classical communication protocols. As a consequence, we exhibit new explicit protocols with tight communication cost for quantum state merging, quantum state splitting, and quantum state redistribution (up to a certain optimization in the latter case). We also present a port-based teleportation scheme which uses a fewer number of ports in the presence of information about input.

  1. Witnessing Quantum Coherence: from solid-state to biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Che-Ming; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco; 10.1038/srep00885

    2012-01-01

    Quantum coherence is one of the primary non-classical features of quantum systems. While protocols such as the Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI) and quantum tomography can be used to test for the existence of quantum coherence and dynamics in a given system, unambiguously detecting inherent "quantumness" still faces serious obstacles in terms of experimental feasibility and efficiency, particularly in complex systems. Here we introduce two "quantum witnesses" to efficiently verify quantum coherence and dynamics in the time domain, without the expense and burden of non-invasive measurements or full tomographic processes. Using several physical examples, including quantum transport in solid-state nanostructures and in biological organisms, we show that these quantum witnesses are robust and have a much finer resolution in their detection window than the LGI has. These robust quantum indicators may assist in reducing the experimental overhead in unambiguously verifying quantum coherence in complex systems.

  2. Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosshans, Frédéric; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-02-04

    We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states, and we show that they are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks. These protocols require that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50%, but they do not rely on "sub-shot-noise" features such as squeezing. Their security is a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which limits the signal-to-noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line. Our approach can also be used for evaluating various QKD protocols using light with Gaussian statistics.

  3. Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Grosshans, F; Grosshans, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD), based upon the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states. We show that these protocols are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks, provided that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50 %. The security of the protocol is related to the no-cloning theorem, that limits the signal to noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line, even though the transmitted light has no "non-classical" feature such as squeezing. We show also that our approach can be used for evaluating any QKD protocol using light with gaussian statistics.

  4. Quantum memory with millisecond coherence in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, Matthew; Pfaff, Wolfgang; Axline, Christopher; Heeres, Reinier W.; Ofek, Nissim; Sliwa, Katrina; Holland, Eric; Wang, Chen; Blumoff, Jacob; Chou, Kevin; Hatridge, Michael J.; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, Michel H.; Jiang, Liang; Schoelkopf, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    Significant advances in coherence render superconducting quantum circuits a viable platform for fault-tolerant quantum computing. To further extend capabilities, highly coherent quantum systems could act as quantum memories for these circuits. A useful quantum memory must be rapidly addressable by Josephson-junction-based artificial atoms, while maintaining superior coherence. We demonstrate a superconducting microwave cavity architecture that is highly robust against major sources of loss that are encountered in the engineering of circuit QED systems. The architecture allows for storage of quantum superpositions in a resonator on the millisecond scale, while strong coupling between the resonator and a transmon qubit enables control, encoding, and readout at MHz rates. This extends the maximum available coherence time attainable in superconducting circuits by almost an order of magnitude compared to earlier hardware. Our design is an ideal platform for studying coherent quantum optics and marks an important step towards hardware-efficient quantum computing in Josephson-junction-based quantum circuits.

  5. Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2008-11-01

    A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.

  6. Performance of quantum cloning and deleting machines over coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sumana; Sen, Ajoy; Sarkar, Debasis

    2017-10-01

    Coherence, being at the heart of interference phenomena, is found to be an useful resource in quantum information theory. Here we want to understand quantum coherence under the combination of two fundamentally dual processes, viz., cloning and deleting. We found the role of quantum cloning and deletion machines with the consumption and generation of quantum coherence. We establish cloning as a cohering process and deletion as a decohering process. Fidelity of the process will be shown to have connection with coherence generation and consumption of the processes.

  7. Coherence and Decoherence in Biological Systems: Principles of Noise Assisted Transport and the Origin of Long-lived Coherences

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, A W; Plenio, M B

    2012-01-01

    The quantum dynamics of transport networks in the presence of noisy environments have recently received renewed attention with the discovery of long-lived coherences in different photosynthetic complexes. This experimental evidence has raised two fundamental questions: Firstly, what are the mechanisms supporting long-lived coherences and secondly, how can we assess the possible functional role that the interplay of noise and quantum coherence might play in the seemingly optimal operation of biological systems under natural conditions? Here we review recent results, illuminate them at the hand of two paradigmatic systems, the Fenna-Matthew-Olson (FMO) complex and the light harvesting complex LHII, and present new progress on both questions. In particular we introduce the concept of the phonon antennae and discuss the possible microscopic origin or long-lived electronic coherences.

  8. Communication via an entangled coherent quantum network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Allati, A; Hassouni, Y [Faculte des Sciences, Departement de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique URAC 13, Universite Mohammed V Agdal Rabat, Avenue Ibn Battouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Metwally, N, E-mail: Nmetwally@gmail.com [Mathematics Department, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2011-06-01

    A quantum network (QN) is constructed via maximum entangled coherent states. The possibility of using this network to achieve quantum communication between multi-participants is investigated. We showed that the probability of the successful teleportation of an unknown state depends on the size of the used network. As the number of participants increases, the success probability does not depend on the intensity of the field. Implementing a quantum teleportation protocol via a noisy QN is discussed. The unknown state can be teleported perfectly with small values of the field intensity and larger values of the noise strength. The success probability of this suggested protocol increases abruptly for larger values of the noise strength and gradually for small values. For small-size QNs, the fidelity of the teleported state decreases smoothly, whereas it decreases abruptly for larger-sized networks.

  9. Origin of quantum randomness in the pilot wave quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Shtanov, Yuri

    1997-01-01

    We account for the origin of the laws of quantum probabilities in the de Broglie-Bohm (pilot wave) formulation of quantum theory by considering the property of ergodicity likely to characterise the dynamics of microscopic quantum systems.

  10. Irreversible degradation of quantum coherence under relativistic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of quantum coherence under Unruh thermal noise and seek under which condition the coherence can be frozen in a relativistic setting. We find that the quantum coherence can not be frozen for any acceleration due to the effect of Unruh thermal noise. We also find that quantum coherence is more robust than entanglement under the effect of Unruh thermal noise and therefore the coherence type quantum resources are more accessible for relativistic quantum information processing tasks. Besides, the dynamic of quantum coherence is found to be more sensitive than entanglement to the preparation of the detectors' initial state and the atom-field coupling strength, while it is less sensitive than entanglement to the acceleration of the detector.

  11. Quantum coherence in ion channels: Resonances, Transport and Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Vaziri, A

    2010-01-01

    Recently it was demonstrated that long-lived quantum coherence exists during excitation energy transport in photosynthesis. It is a valid question up to which length, time and mass scales quantum coherence may extend, how to one may detect this coherence and what if any role it plays for the dynamics of the system. Here we suggest that the selectivity filter of ion channels may exhibit quantum coherence which might be relevant for the process of ion selectivity and conduction. We show that quantum resonances could provide an alternative approch to ultrafast 2D spectroscopy to probe these quantum coherences. We demonstrate that the emergence of resonances in the conduction of ion channels that are modulated periodicallly by time dependent external electric fields can serve as signitures of quantum coherence in such a system. Assessments of experimental feasibility and specific paths towards the experimental realization of such experiments are presented. We show that this may be probed by direct 2-D spectroscop...

  12. Silicon nanophotonics for scalable quantum coherent feedback networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sarovar, Mohan; Cox, Jonathan; Brif, Constantin; DeRose, Christopher T; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of coherent quantum feedback control (CQFC) as a new paradigm for precise manipulation of dynamics of complex quantum systems has led to the development of efficient theoretical modeling and simulation tools and opened avenues for new practical implementations. This work explores the applicability of the integrated silicon photonics platform for implementing scalable CQFC networks. If proven successful, on-chip implementations of these networks would provide scalable and efficient nanophotonic components for autonomous quantum information processing devices and ultra-low-power optical processing systems at telecommunications wavelengths. We analyze the strengths of the silicon photonics platform for CQFC applications and identify the key challenges to both the theoretical formalism and experimental implementations. In particular, we determine specific extensions to the theoretical CQFC framework (which was originally developed with bulk-optics implementations in mind), required to make it fully ...

  13. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-10-05

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  14. Quantum coherence and quantum phase transition in the XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Ning-Ju [Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Xu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Hu, Zheng-Da, E-mail: huyuanda1112@jiangnan.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the properties of geometric quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction via the quantum renormalization-group approach. It is shown that the geometric quantum coherence and its coherence susceptibility are effective to detect the quantum phase transition. In the thermodynamic limit, the geometric quantum coherence exhibits a sudden jump. The coherence susceptibilities versus the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction are infinite and vanishing, respectively, illustrating the distinct roles of the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in quantum phase transition. Moreover, we also explore the finite-size scaling behaviors of the coherence susceptibilities. For a finite-size chain, the coherence susceptibility versus the phase-transition parameter is always maximal at the critical point, indicating the dramatic quantum fluctuation. Besides, we show that the correlation length can be revealed by the scaling exponent for the coherence susceptibility versus the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.

  15. Quantum coherence and quantum phase transition in the XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ning-Ju; Xu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin; Hu, Zheng-Da

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the properties of geometric quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction via the quantum renormalization-group approach. It is shown that the geometric quantum coherence and its coherence susceptibility are effective to detect the quantum phase transition. In the thermodynamic limit, the geometric quantum coherence exhibits a sudden jump. The coherence susceptibilities versus the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction are infinite and vanishing, respectively, illustrating the distinct roles of the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in quantum phase transition. Moreover, we also explore the finite-size scaling behaviors of the coherence susceptibilities. For a finite-size chain, the coherence susceptibility versus the phase-transition parameter is always maximal at the critical point, indicating the dramatic quantum fluctuation. Besides, we show that the correlation length can be revealed by the scaling exponent for the coherence susceptibility versus the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.

  16. Gauge nonlocality in planar quantum-coherent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Moulopoulos, K

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that a system with quantum coherence can be nontrivially affected by adjacent magnetic or adjacent time-varying electric field regions, with this proximity (or remote) influence having a gauge origin. This is implicit (although overlooked) in numerous works on extended systems with inhomogeneous magnetic fields (with either conventional or Dirac materials) but is generally plagued with an apparent gauge ambiguity. The origin of this annoying feature is explained and it is shown how it can be theoretically removed, leading to macroscopic quantizations (quantized Dirac monopoles, integral quantum Hall effect, quantized magnetoelectric phenomena in topological insulators). Apart however from serving as a theoretical probe of macroscopic quantizations, there are cases (experimental conditions, clarified here) when this "gauge nonlocality" does not really suffer from any ambiguity: an apparently innocent gauge transformation corresponds to real change in physics of a companion system in higher dimensio...

  17. Quantum filtering of optical coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittmann, C.; Elser, D.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2008-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate nondestructive and noiseless removal (filtering) of vacuum states from an arbitrary set of coherent states of continuous variable systems. Errors, i.e., vacuum states in the quantum information are diagnosed through a weak measurement, and on that basis......, probabilistically filtered out. We consider three different filters based on on-off detection, phase stabilized, and phase randomized homodyne detection. We find that on-off detection, optimal in the ideal theoretical setting, is superior to the homodyne strategy also in a practical setting....

  18. Coherence and dephasing in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Leosson, K.; Birkedal, Dan

    2003-01-01

    We measured dephasing times in InGaAl/As self-assembled quantum dots at low temperature using degenerate four-wave mixing. At 0K, the coherence time of the quantum dots is lifetime limited, whereas at finite temperatures pure dephasing by exciton-phonon interactions governs the quantum dot...... coherence. The inferred homogeneous line widths are significantly smaller than the line widths usually observed in the photoluminescence from single quantum dots indicating an additional inhomogeneours broadening mechanism in the latter....

  19. Coherent transport through interacting quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltscher, Bastian

    2012-10-05

    The present thesis is composed of four different works. All deal with coherent transport through interacting quantum dots, which are tunnel-coupled to external leads. There a two main motivations for the use of quantum dots. First, they are an ideal device to study the influence of strong Coulomb repulsion, and second, their discrete energy levels can easily be tuned by external gate electrodes to create different transport regimes. The expression of coherence includes a very wide range of physical correlations and, therefore, the four works are basically independent of each other. Before motivating and introducing the different works in more detail, we remark that in all works a diagrammatic real-time perturbation theory is used. The fermionic degrees of freedom of the leads are traced out and the elements of the resulting reduced density matrix can be treated explicitly by means of a generalized master equation. How this equation is solved, depends on the details of the problem under consideration. In the first of the four works adiabatic pumping through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot embedded in each of the two arms is studied. In adiabatic pumping transport is generated by varying two system parameters periodically in time. We consider the two dot levels to be these two pumping parameters. Since they are located in different arms of the interferometer, pumping is a quantum mechanical effect purely relying on coherent superpositions of the dot states. It is very challenging to identify a quantum pumping mechanism in experiments, because a capacitive coupling of the gate electrodes to the leads may yield an undesired AC bias voltage, which is rectified by a time dependent conductance. Therefore, distinguishing features of these two transport mechanisms are required. We find that the dependence on the magnetic field is the key feature. While the pumped charge is an odd function of the magnetic flux, the rectified current is even, at least in

  20. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  1. Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  2. Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Alex E

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phase space general noncommutativity on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined. A two-dimensional noncommutative quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure similar to that of Hadamard billiards is obtained and their components behavior are monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two \\emph{free} 1D harmonic oscillators (HO's), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the noncommutative deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained Hamiltonian represents then two \\emph{interacting} 1D HO's. By assuming that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed...

  3. Characterization and quantification of the role of coherence in ultrafast quantum biological experiments using quantum master equations, atomistic simulations, and quantum process tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Rebentrost, Patrick; Yuen-Zhou, Joel; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-01-01

    Long-lived electronic coherences in various photosynthetic complexes at cryogenic and room temperature have generated vigorous efforts both in theory and experiment to understand their origins and explore their potential role to biological function. The ultrafast signals resulting from the experiments that show evidence for these coherences result from many contributions to the molecular polarization. Quantum process tomography (QPT) was conceived in the context of quantum information processing to characterize and understand general quantum evolution of controllable quantum systems, for example while carrying out quantum computational tasks. We introduce our QPT method for ultrafast experiments, and as an illustrative example, apply it to a simulation of a two-chromophore subsystem of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson photosynthetic complex, which was recently shown to have long-lived quantum coherences. Our Fenna-Matthews-Olson model is constructed using an atomistic approach to extract relevant parameters for the s...

  4. Coherent manipulation of single quantum systems in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Lilian Isabel

    2007-12-01

    The controlled, coherent manipulation of quantum-mechanical systems is an important challenge in modern science and engineering, with significant applications in quantum information science. Solid-state quantum systems such as electronic spins, nuclear spins, and superconducting islands are among the most promising candidates for realization of quantum bits (qubits). However, in contrast to isolated atomic systems, these solid-state qubits couple to a complex environment which often results in rapid loss of coherence, and, in general, is difficult to understand. Additionally, the strong interactions which make solid-state quantum systems attractive can typically only occur between neighboring systems, leading to difficulties in coupling arbitrary pairs of quantum bits. This thesis presents experimental progress in understanding and controlling the complex environment of a solid-state quantum bit, and theoretical techniques for extending the distance over which certain quantum bits can interact coherently. Coherent manipulation of an individual electron spin associated with a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond is used to gain insight into its mesoscopic environment. Furthermore, techniques for exploiting coherent interactions between the electron spin and a subset of the environment are developed and demonstrated, leading to controlled interactions with single isolated nuclear spins. The quantum register thus formed by a coupled electron and nuclear spin provides the basis for a theoretical proposal for fault-tolerant long-distance quantum communication with minimal physical resource requirements. Finally, we consider a mechanism for long-distance coupling between quantum dots based on chip-scale cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  5. Verification of the vibronic origin of long-lived coherence in an artificial molecular light harvester

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, James; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Lincoln, Craig N; Prior, Javier; von Berlepsch, Hans; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B; Zigmantas, Donatas; Hauer, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Is quantum coherence responsible for the surprisingly high efficiency of natural light harvesters? If so, how do such systems avoid the loss of coherence due to interaction with their warm, wet and noisy environments? The answer to these important questions rests in the beneficial interplay between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. Here we report experimental and theoretical verification of coherent exciton-vibrational (vibronic) coupling as the origin of long-lasting coherence in an artificial light harvester, a molecular J-aggregate. In this macroscopically aligned tubular system, polarization controlled 2D spectroscopy delivers an uncongested and specific optical response. This clarity of signal provided the opportunity to unambiguously assign the origin of the observed long-lived coherences to vibronic coupling and rule out other explanations based upon correlated fluctuations. The discussed vibronic coupling is functionally relevant, as it describes interaction between vibrations and electro...

  6. Chemical compass for avian magnetoreception as a quantum coherent device

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    It is known that more than 50 species use the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Intensive studies particularly behavior experiments with birds provide support for a chemical compass based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions as a source of this sense. However, the fundamental question of whether and how quantum coherence plays an essential role in such a chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception yet remains controversial. Here, we show that the essence of the chemical compass model can be understood in analogy to a quantum interferometer exploiting quantum coherence. Within the framework of quantum metrology, we quantify quantum coherence and demonstrate that it is a resource for chemical magnetoreception. Our results allow us to understand and predict how various factors can affect the performance of a chemical compass from the unique perspective of quantum coherence assisted metrology. This represents a crucial step to affirm avian magnetoreception as an example of qu...

  7. Coherent spin dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amand, T.; Senes, M.; Marie, X.; Renucci, P. [Laboratoire de Nanophysique, Magnetisme et Optoelectronique-LPMC, INSA, 135 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Urbaszek, B. [Laboratoire de Nanophysique, Magnetisme et Optoelectronique-LPMC, INSA, 135 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Department of Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Krebs, O.; Laurent, S.; Voisin, P. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Warburton, R.J. [Department of Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    The anisotropic exchange interaction (AEI) between electrons and holes is shown to play a central role in quantum dots (QDs) spin dynamics. In neutral QDs, AEI is at the origin of spin quantum beats observed under resonant excitation between the lowest energy doublet of linearly dipole-active eigenstates. In negatively charged QDs, AEI is at the origin of QD emission with opposite helicity to the optic al excitation, under non-resonant excitation conditions. Finally, the possibility of leaving a spin information in the system after recombination of the photo-injected electron-hole pair is discussed with respect to the type and the level of the doping. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Quantum Phase Liquids-Fermionic Superfluid without Phase Coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ya-Jie; Zhou, Jiang; Kou, Su-Peng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the two dimensional generalized attractive Hubbard model in a bipartite lattice, and and a "quantum phase liquid" phase, in which the fermions are paired but don't have phase coherence at zero temperature, in analogy to quantum spin liquid phase. Then, two types of topological quantum phase liquids with a small external magnetic field-Z2 quantum phase liquids and chiral quantum phase liquids-are discussed.

  9. Stability of quantum coherence and correlation decay

    CERN Document Server

    Prosen, T; Znidaric, M; Prosen, Tomaz; Seligman, Thomas H.; Znidaric, Marko

    2003-01-01

    We study the stability of quantum evolution with respect to static perturbations of the unitary propagator in a product Hilbert space of system plus environment. As the stability of state evolution is quantified by fidelity, the stability of coherence is quantified by a novel quantity we call purity-fidelity. We derive a linear response formula for purity-fidelity in terms of a time-correlation function of the generator of perturbation, prove a rigorous inequality between fidelity and purity-fidelity and show that purity-fidelity for Gaussian wave-packets is independent of the Planck constant. Theoretical predictions are demonstrated numerically in an N-level Jaynes-Cummings model.

  10. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholak, Torsten; Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-28

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a "coherent control interferometer" as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of "quantum delayed-choice" in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not.

  11. International Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM OPTICS

    1993-01-01

    This volume is composed of papers (invited and contributed) presented at the International Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics held at the University of Hyderabad January 5-January 10, 1991. It has been organized by Professor Girish Agarwal and his colleagues at the School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyder­ abad, India under partial support from the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy and the National Science Foundation, USA. Without the untiring efforts of Prof. Girish Agarwal and the members of his quantum office group, the Conference and the present volume would not have been possible. Some extraordinary circumstances resulted in a delay of the publication of the present volume. Our sincere apologies to all the authors. We deeply regret the inconvenience caused due to the delay. A debt of gratitude is due to Ms. Kim Bella for the excellent typing job of the different versions and the final version of the ma...

  12. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C. P.

    2016-08-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.

  13. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G H; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C P

    2016-08-25

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance.

  14. Frobenius-norm-based measures of quantum coherence and asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Xiao, Xing; Sun, C. P.

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the Frobenius-norm-based measures for quantum coherence and asymmetry respectively. In contrast to the resource theory of coherence and asymmetry, we construct a natural measure of quantum coherence inspired from optical coherence theory while the group theoretical approach is employed to quantify the asymmetry of quantum states. Besides their simple structures and explicit physical meanings, we observe that these quantities are intimately related to the purity (or linear entropy) of the corresponding quantum states. Remarkably, we demonstrate that the proposed coherence quantifier is not only a measure of mixedness, but also an intrinsic (basis-independent) quantification of quantum coherence contained in quantum states, which can also be viewed as a normalized version of Brukner-Zeilinger invariant information. In our context, the asymmetry of N-qubit quantum systems is considered under local independent and collective transformations. In- triguingly, it is illustrated that the collective effect has a significant impact on the asymmetry measure, and quantum correlation between subsystems plays a non-negligible role in this circumstance. PMID:27558009

  15. Quantum dot spin coherence governed by a strained nuclear environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockill, R.; Le Gall, C.; Matthiesen, C.; Huthmacher, L.; Clarke, E.; Hugues, M.; Atatüre, M.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a confined electron and the nuclei of an optically active quantum dot provides a uniquely rich manifestation of the central spin problem. Coherent qubit control combines with an ultrafast spin–photon interface to make these confined spins attractive candidates for quantum optical networks. Reaching the full potential of spin coherence has been hindered by the lack of knowledge of the key irreversible environment dynamics. Through all-optical Hahn echo decoupling we now recover the intrinsic coherence time set by the interaction with the inhomogeneously strained nuclear bath. The high-frequency nuclear dynamics are directly imprinted on the electron spin coherence, resulting in a dramatic jump of coherence times from few tens of nanoseconds to the microsecond regime between 2 and 3 T magnetic field and an exponential decay of coherence at high fields. These results reveal spin coherence can be improved by applying large magnetic fields and reducing strain inhomogeneity. PMID:27615704

  16. Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.

    2007-01-01

    We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...... space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51 +/- 0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any...

  17. Optical generation and control of quantum coherence in semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Slavcheva, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented control of coherence that can be exercised in quantum optics of atoms and molecules has stimulated increasing efforts in extending it to solid-state systems. One motivation to exploit the coherent phenomena comes from the emergence of the quantum information paradigm, however many more potential device applications ranging from novel lasers to spintronics are all bound up with issues in coherence. The book focuses on recent advances in the optical control of coherence in excitonic and polaritonic systems as model systems for the complex semiconductor dynamics towards the goal

  18. Quantum renormalization group approach to quantum coherence and multipartite entanglement in an XXZ spin chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100193 (China); Xu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: xujb@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-01-30

    We investigate the performances of quantum coherence and multipartite entanglement close to the quantum critical point of a one-dimensional anisotropic spin-1/2 XXZ spin chain by employing the real-space quantum renormalization group approach. It is shown that the quantum criticality of XXZ spin chain can be revealed by the singular behaviors of the first derivatives of renormalized quantum coherence and multipartite entanglement in the thermodynamics limit. Moreover, we find the renormalized quantum coherence and multipartite entanglement obey certain universal exponential-type scaling laws in the vicinity of the quantum critical point of XXZ spin chain. - Highlights: • The QPT of XXZ chain is studied by renormalization group. • The renormalized coherence and multiparticle entanglement is investigated. • Scaling laws of renormalized coherence and multiparticle entanglement are revealed.

  19. Coherence In Quantum Chaos, Stochastic Spacetime, And Collective Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Shiokawa, K

    1998-01-01

    Various manifestations of coherence properties in quantum and classical dynamics in open and closed systems are studied. Among many different issues and phenomena related to coherence, particular aspects are expounded by models chosen from quantum chaos, quantum optics, mesoscopic and high energy physics, and semiclassical relativity. I show how coherence in quantum and classical systems manifests itself in different forms and is enhanced, altered, and suppressed in the presence of chaos, randomness, boundary, and environment. Author's contributions start from the first time discussion of decoherence in quantum cat map and quantum kicked rotor. Wave propagation in stochastic spacetime is considered as that in random media by extending the analogy of spacetime metric with the refractive index of media...

  20. Quantum coherence and uncertainty in the anisotropic XY chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpat, G.; ćakmak, B.; Fanchini, F. F.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the local quantum coherence and the local quantum uncertainty, based on Wigner-Yanase skew information, in the ground state of the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain in a transverse magnetic field. We show that the skew information, as a figure of merit, supplies the necessary information to reveal the occurrence of the second-order phase transition and the completely factorized ground state in the XY model. Additionally, in the same context, we also discuss the usefulness of a simple experimentally friendly lower bound of local quantum coherence. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the connection between the appearance of nonanalyticities in the local quantum uncertainty of the ground state and the quantum phase transitions does not hold in general, by providing explicit examples of the situation. Lastly, we discuss the ability of the local quantum coherence to accurately estimate the critical point of the phase transition, and we investigate the robustness of the factorization phenomenon at low temperatures.

  1. Quantum walk coherences on a dynamical percolation graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, Fabian; Barkhofen, Sonja; Nitsche, Thomas; Novotný, Jaroslav; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Silberhorn, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Coherent evolution governs the behaviour of all quantum systems, but in nature it is often subjected to influence of a classical environment. For analysing quantum transport phenomena quantum walks emerge as suitable model systems. In particular, quantum walks on percolation structures constitute an attractive platform for studying open system dynamics of random media. Here, we present an implementation of quantum walks differing from the previous experiments by achieving dynamical control of the underlying graph structure. We demonstrate the evolution of an optical time-multiplexed quantum walk over six double steps, revealing the intricate interplay between the internal and external degrees of freedom. The observation of clear non-Markovian signatures in the coin space testifies the high coherence of the implementation and the extraordinary degree of control of all system parameters. Our work is the proof-of-principle experiment of a quantum walk on a dynamical percolation graph, paving the way towards complex simulation of quantum transport in random media.

  2. Quantum walk coherences on a dynamical percolation graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, Fabian; Barkhofen, Sonja; Nitsche, Thomas; Novotný, Jaroslav; Gábris, Aurél; Jex, Igor; Silberhorn, Christine

    2015-08-27

    Coherent evolution governs the behaviour of all quantum systems, but in nature it is often subjected to influence of a classical environment. For analysing quantum transport phenomena quantum walks emerge as suitable model systems. In particular, quantum walks on percolation structures constitute an attractive platform for studying open system dynamics of random media. Here, we present an implementation of quantum walks differing from the previous experiments by achieving dynamical control of the underlying graph structure. We demonstrate the evolution of an optical time-multiplexed quantum walk over six double steps, revealing the intricate interplay between the internal and external degrees of freedom. The observation of clear non-Markovian signatures in the coin space testifies the high coherence of the implementation and the extraordinary degree of control of all system parameters. Our work is the proof-of-principle experiment of a quantum walk on a dynamical percolation graph, paving the way towards complex simulation of quantum transport in random media.

  3. Heteronuclear intermolecular single-quantum coherences in liquid nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Song; Zhu Xiao-Qin; Cai Shu-Hui; Chen Zhong

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the heteronuclear Cosy Revamped by Asymmetric Z-gradient Echo Detection pulse sequence.General theoretical expressions of the pulse sequence with arbitrary flip angles were derived by using dipolar field treatment and signals originating from heteronuclear intermolecular single-quantum coherences (iSQCs) in highly-polarized two spin-1/2 systems were mainly discussed in order to find the optimal flip angles.The results show that signals from heteronuclear iSQCs decay slower than those from intermolecular double-quantum coherences or intermolecular zero-quantum coherences. Magical angle experiments validate that the signals are from heteronuclear iSQCs and insensitive to the imperfection of radio-frequency flip angles. All experimental observations are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. The quantum-mechanical treatment leads to similar predictions to the dipolar field treatment.

  4. Directly Measuring the Degree of Quantum Coherence using Interference Fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wei, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shang; Ke, Zhi-Jin; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    Quantum coherence is the most distinguished feature of quantum mechanics. It lies at the heart of the quantum-information technologies as the fundamental resource and is also related to other quantum resources, including entanglement. It plays a critical role in various fields, even in biology. Nevertheless, the rigorous and systematic resource-theoretic framework of coherence has just been developed recently, and several coherence measures are proposed. Experimentally, the usual method to measure coherence is to perform state tomography and use mathematical expressions. Here, we alternatively develop a method to measure coherence directly using its most essential behavior—the interference fringes. The ancilla states are mixed into the target state with various ratios, and the minimal ratio that makes the interference fringes of the "mixed state" vanish is taken as the quantity of coherence. We also use the witness observable to witness coherence, and the optimal witness constitutes another direct method to measure coherence. For comparison, we perform tomography and calculate l1 norm of coherence, which coincides with the results of the other two methods in our situation. Our methods are explicit and robust, providing a nice alternative to the tomographic technique.

  5. Robust quantum spatial coherence near a classical environment

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shuyu; Keil, Mark; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2015-01-01

    In quantum physics spatial coherence allows a massive object to be present in two locations at the same time. Such spatial coherence is easily lost in the presence of a classical environment, making it unobservable in our day-to-day experience. Here we report the persistence of spatial coherence for ultra-cold atoms held only 5$\\,\\mu$m from a room temperature surface, reducing substantially the distance previously achieved between trapped atoms exhibiting spatial coherence and their classical environment. At this distance, the environment would normally destroy spatial coherence over any length greater than a few micrometers, but we nevertheless observe coherence over a length of 30$\\,\\mu$m. We show that no observable dephasing is taking place, even on a time scale on the order of one second. From a technological point of view, this may enable quantum devices based on atomic circuits.

  6. Dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence in de Sitter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we investigate the dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms interacting with massless scalar field in the background de Sitter spacetime. We firstly analyze the solving process of master equation that describes the system evolution with initial Werner state. Then, we discuss the degradation, generation, revival and enhancement of quantum correlation and coherence for three cases of different initial states: zero correlation state, nonzero correlation separable state and maximally entangled state.

  7. Quantum coherent oscillations between two coupled bose-einstein condensates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical investigation of quantum coherent atomic oscillations between two coupled Bose-Einstein condensates(BECs) is studied. We apply the inseparable wave function of time-space to describe two trapped BECs in a double-well magnetic trap. According to Thomas-Fermi approximation, dynamical equations of the interwell phase difference and population imbalance are obtained. Using numerical method, coherent atomic tunneling and macroscopic quantum self-trapping(MQST) effect are investigated.

  8. Entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xin-Hua; Guo Jie-Rong; Nie Jian-Jun; Jia Jin-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The proposals on entanglement diversion and quantum teleportation of entangled coherent states are presented.In these proposals,the entanglement between two coherent states,|α〉and |-α〉,with the same amplitude but a phase difference of π is utilized as a quantum channel.The processes of the entanglement diversion and the teleportation are achieved by using the 5050 symmetric beam splitters,the phase shifters and the photodetectors with the help of classical information.

  9. The quantum coherent mechanism for singlet fission: experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai-Lun; Berkelbach, Timothy C; Provorse, Makenzie R; Monahan, Nicholas R; Tritsch, John R; Hybertsen, Mark S; Reichman, David R; Gao, Jiali; Zhu, X-Y

    2013-06-18

    The absorption of one photon by a semiconductor material usually creates one electron-hole pair. However, this general rule breaks down in a few organic semiconductors, such as pentacene and tetracene, where one photon absorption may result in two electron-hole pairs. This process, where a singlet exciton transforms to two triplet excitons, can have quantum yields as high as 200%. Singlet fission may be useful to solar cell technologies to increase the power conversion efficiency beyond the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. Through time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy in crystalline pentacene and tetracene, our lab has recently provided the first spectroscopic signatures in singlet fission of a critical intermediate known as the multiexciton state (also called a correlated triplet pair). More importantly, we found that population of the multiexciton state rises at the same time as the singlet state on the ultrafast time scale upon photoexcitation. This observation does not fit with the traditional view of singlet fission involving the incoherent conversion of a singlet to a triplet pair. However, it provides an experimental foundation for a quantum coherent mechanism in which the electronic coupling creates a quantum superposition of the singlet and the multiexciton state immediately after optical excitation. In this Account, we review key experimental findings from TR-2PPE experiments and present a theoretical analysis of the quantum coherent mechanism based on electronic structural and density matrix calculations for crystalline tetracene lattices. Using multistate density functional theory, we find that the direct electronic coupling between singlet and multiexciton states is too weak to explain the experimental observation. Instead, indirect coupling via charge transfer intermediate states is two orders of magnitude stronger, and dominates the dynamics for ultrafast multiexciton formation. Density matrix calculation for the crystalline

  10. Coherent-state analysis of the quantum bouncing ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, William H.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2006-03-01

    Gaussian-Klauder coherent states are applied to the bound “quantum bouncer,” a gravitating particle above an infinite potential boundary. These Gaussian-Klauder states, originally created for Rydberg atoms, provide an overcomplete set of wave functions that mimic classical trajectories for extended times through the utilization of energy localization. For the quantum bouncer, analytic methods are applied presently to compute first and second moments of position and momentum operators, and from these results, at least two scalings of Gaussian-Klauder parameters are highlighted, one of which tends to remains localized for markedly more bounces than comparable states that are Gaussian in position (by an order of magnitude in some cases). We close with a connection that compares Gaussian-Klauder states and positional Gaussian states directly for the quantum bouncer, relating the two through a known energy-position duality of Airy functions. Our results, taken together, ultimately reemphasize the primacy of energy localization as a key ingredient for long-lived classical correspondence in systems with smooth spectra.

  11. Silicon nanophotonics for scalable quantum coherent feedback networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarovar, Mohan; Brif, Constantin [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Soh, Daniel B.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Stanford University, Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States); Cox, Jonathan; DeRose, Christopher T.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The emergence of coherent quantum feedback control (CQFC) as a new paradigm for precise manipulation of dynamics of complex quantum systems has led to the development of efficient theoretical modeling and simulation tools and opened avenues for new practical implementations. This work explores the applicability of the integrated silicon photonics platform for implementing scalable CQFC networks. If proven successful, on-chip implementations of these networks would provide scalable and efficient nanophotonic components for autonomous quantum information processing devices and ultra-low-power optical processing systems at telecommunications wavelengths. We analyze the strengths of the silicon photonics platform for CQFC applications and identify the key challenges to both the theoretical formalism and experimental implementations. In particular, we determine specific extensions to the theoretical CQFC framework (which was originally developed with bulk-optics implementations in mind), required to make it fully applicable to modeling of linear and nonlinear integrated optics networks. We also report the results of a preliminary experiment that studied the performance of an in situ controllable silicon nanophotonic network of two coupled cavities and analyze the properties of this device using the CQFC formalism. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of coherently coupled multi-cavity and quantum dot embedded single cavity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Serdar; Sayan, Gönül Turhan

    2016-12-12

    Temporal group delays originating from the optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) are compared in two systems. Similar transmission characteristics are observed between a coherently coupled high-Q multi-cavity array and a single quantum dot (QD) embedded cavity in the weak coupling regime. However, theoretically generated group delay values for the multi-cavity case are around two times higher. Both configurations allow direct scalability for chip-scale optical pulse trapping and coupled-cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED).

  13. Fundamental Principles of Coherent-Feedback Quantum Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0009 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF COHERENT-FEEDBACK QUANTUM CONTROL Hideo Mabuchi LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIV CA Final Report 12/08...robustness in autonomous quantum memories" we have continued our group’s long-term research program in the architectural principles of autonomous

  14. Electron transport and coherence in semiconductor quantum dots and rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wiel, W.G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments on electron transport and coherence in semiconductor vertical and lateral quantum dots and semiconductor rings is described. Quantum dots are often referred to as "artificial atoms", because of their similarities with real atoms. Examples of such atom-like properties that

  15. Coherent control of quantum systems as a resource theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, J. M.; Egloff, D.; Killoran, N.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    Control at the interface between the classical and the quantum world is fundamental in quantum physics. In particular, how classical control is enhanced by coherence effects is an important question both from a theoretical as well as from a technological point of view. In this work, we establish a resource theory describing this setting and explore relations to the theory of coherence, entanglement and information processing. Specifically, for the coherent control of quantum systems, the relevant resources of entanglement and coherence are found to be equivalent and closely related to a measure of discord. The results are then applied to the DQC1 protocol and the precision of the final measurement is expressed in terms of the available resources.

  16. Emergence of coherence and the dynamics of quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Simon; Friesdorf, Mathis; Hodgman, Sean S.; Schreiber, Michael; Ronzheimer, Jens Philipp; Riera, Arnau; del Rey, Marco; Bloch, Immanuel; Eisert, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of quantum phase transitions pose one of the most challenging problems in modern many-body physics. Here, we study a prototypical example in a clean and well-controlled ultracold atom setup by observing the emergence of coherence when crossing the Mott insulator to superfluid quantum phase transition. In the 1D Bose–Hubbard model, we find perfect agreement between experimental observations and numerical simulations for the resulting coherence length. We, thereby, perform a largely certified analog quantum simulation of this strongly correlated system reaching beyond the regime of free quasiparticles. Experimentally, we additionally explore the emergence of coherence in higher dimensions, where no classical simulations are available, as well as for negative temperatures. For intermediate quench velocities, we observe a power-law behavior of the coherence length, reminiscent of the Kibble–Zurek mechanism. However, we find nonuniversal exponents that cannot be captured by this mechanism or any other known model. PMID:25775515

  17. Quantum superposition counterintuitive consequences of coherence, entanglement, and interference

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, M P

    2007-01-01

    Coherence, entanglement, and interference arise from quantum superposition, the most distinctive and puzzling feature of quantum physics. Silverman, whose extensive experimental and theoretical work has helped elucidate these processes, presents a clear and engaging discussion of the role of quantum superposition in diverse quantum phenomena such as the wavelike nature of particle propagation, indistinguishability of identical particles, nonlocal interactions of correlated particles, topological effects of magnetic fields, and chiral asymmetry in nature. He also examines how macroscopic quantum coherence may be able to extricate physics from its most challenging quandary, the collapse of a massive degenerate star to a singularity in space in which the laws of physics break down. Explained by a physicist with a concern for clarity and experimental achievability, the extraordinary nature of quantum superposition will fascinate the reader not only for its apparent strangeness, but also for its comprehensibility.

  18. Quantum Detection and Invisibility in Coherent Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, J.

    2010-04-28

    We address quantum invisibility in the context of electronics in nanoscale quantum structures. In analogy with metamaterials, we use the freedom of design that quantum corrals provide and show that quantum mechanical objects can be hidden inside the corral, with respect to inelastic electron scattering spectroscopy in combination with scanning tunneling microscopy, and we propose a design strategy. A simple illustration of the invisibility is given in terms of an elliptic quantum corral containing a molecule, with a local vibrational mode, at one of the foci. Our work has implications to quantum information technology and presents new tools for nonlocal quantum detection and distinguishing between different molecules.

  19. Quantum Coherent Dynamics at Ambient Temperature in Photosynthetic Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, Zachary B

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes are responsible for absorbing energy from sunlight and transmitting it to remote locations where it can be stored. Recent experiments have found that this process involves long-lived quantum coherence between pigment molecules, called chromophores, which make up these complexes. Expected to decay within 100 fs at room temperature, these coherences were instead found to persist for picosecond time scales, despite having no apparent isolation from the thermal environment of the cell. This paper derives a quantum master equation which describes the coherent evolution of a system in strong contact with a thermal environment. Conditions necessary for long coherence lifetimes are identified, and the role of coherence in efficient energy transport is illuminated. Static spectra and exciton transfer rates for the PE545 complex of the cryptophyte algae CS24 are calculated and shown to have good agreement with experiment.

  20. Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2016-07-01

    Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.

  1. Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2016-07-01

    Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.

  2. Coherently driven semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunication wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakaoka, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Kumagai, Naoto; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2008-09-01

    We proposed and demonstrate use of optical driving pulses at a telecommunication wavelength for exciton-based quantum gate operation. The exciton in a self-assembled quantum dot is coherently manipulated at 1.3 microm through Rabi oscillation. The telecom-band exciton-qubit system incorporates standard optical fibers and fiber optic devices. The coherent manipulation of the two-level system compatible with flexible and stable fiber network paves the way toward practical optical implementation of quantum information processing devices.

  3. Coherent spin-exchange via a quantum mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, Timothy Alexander; Fujita, Takafumi; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner; Vandersypen, Lieven Mark Koenraad

    2017-01-01

    Coherent interactions at a distance provide a powerful tool for quantum simulation and computation. The most common approach to realize an effective long-distance coupling 'on-chip' is to use a quantum mediator, as has been demonstrated for superconducting qubits and trapped ions. For quantum dot arrays, which combine a high degree of tunability with extremely long coherence times, the experimental demonstration of the time evolution of coherent spin-spin coupling via an intermediary system remains an important outstanding goal. Here, we use a linear triple-quantum-dot array to demonstrate a coherent time evolution of two interacting distant spins via a quantum mediator. The two outer dots are occupied with a single electron spin each, and the spins experience a superexchange interaction through the empty middle dot, which acts as mediator. Using single-shot spin readout, we measure the coherent time evolution of the spin states on the outer dots and observe a characteristic dependence of the exchange frequency as a function of the detuning between the middle and outer dots. This approach may provide a new route for scaling up spin qubit circuits using quantum dots, and aid in the simulation of materials and molecules with non-nearest-neighbour couplings such as MnO (ref. 27), high-temperature superconductors and DNA. The same superexchange concept can also be applied in cold atom experiments.

  4. Pulse Designed Coherent Dynamics of a Quantum Dot Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Gang; WANG Li; TU Tao; LI Hai-Ou; XIAO Ming; GUO Guo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    We propose an effective method to design the working parameters of a pulse-driven charge qubit implemented with double quantum dot.It is shown that intrinsic qubit population leakage to undesired states in the control and measurement process can be determined by the simulation of coherent dynamics of the qubit and minimized by choosing proper working parameters such as pulse shape.The result demonstrated here bodes well for future quantum gate operations and quantum computing applications.

  5. Quantum correlations and coherence in spin-1 Heisenberg chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvezzi, A. L.; Karpat, G.; ćakmak, B.; Fanchini, F. F.; Debarba, T.; Vianna, R. O.

    2016-05-01

    We explore quantum and classical correlations along with coherence in the ground states of spin-1 Heisenberg chains, namely the one-dimensional XXZ model and the one-dimensional bilinear biquadratic model, with the techniques of density matrix renormalization group theory. Exploiting the tools of quantum information theory, that is, by studying quantum discord, quantum mutual information, and three recently introduced coherence measures in the reduced density matrix of two nearest neighbor spins in the bulk, we investigate the quantum phase transitions and special symmetry points in these models. We point out the relative strengths and weaknesses of correlation and coherence measures as figures of merit to witness the quantum phase transitions and symmetry points in the considered spin-1 Heisenberg chains. In particular, we demonstrate that, as none of the studied measures can detect the infinite-order Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the XXZ model, they appear to be able to signal the existence of the same type of transition in the biliear biquadratic model. However, we argue that what is actually detected by the measures here is the SU(3) symmetry point of the model rather than the infinite-order quantum phase transition. Moreover, we show in the XXZ model that examining even single site coherence can be sufficient to spotlight the second-order phase transition and the SU(2) symmetry point.

  6. Atomistic Analysis of Room Temperature Quantum Coherence in Two-Dimensional CdSe Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sougata; Nijjar, Parmeet; Frauenheim, Thomas; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2017-03-02

    Recent experiments on CdSe nanoplatelets synthesized with precisely controlled thickness that eliminates ensemble disorder have allowed accurate measurement of quantum coherence at room temperature. Matching exactly the CdSe cores of the experimentally studied particles and considering several defects, we establish the atomistic origins of the loss of coherence between heavy and light hole excitations in two-dimensional CdSe and CdSe/CdZnS core/shell structures. The coherence times obtained using molecular dynamics based on tight-binding density functional theory are in excellent agreement with the measured values. We show that a long coherence time is a consequence of both small fluctuations in the energy gap between the excited state pair, which is much less than thermal energy, and a slow decay of correlation between the energies of the two states. Anionic defects at the core/shell interface have little effect on the coherence lifetime, while cationic defects strongly perturb the electronic structure, destroying the experimentally observed coherence. By coupling to the same phonon modes, the heavy and light holes synchronize their energy fluctuations, facilitating long-lived coherence. We further demonstrate that the electronic excitations are localized close to the surface of these narrow nanoscale systems, and therefore, they couple most strongly to surface acoustic phonons. The established features of electron-phonon coupling and the influence of defects, surfaces, and core/shell interfaces provide important insights into quantum coherence in nanoscale materials in general.

  7. Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Alex E.; Mizrahi, Salomon S.

    2015-06-01

    The effects of general noncommutativity of operators on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined in phase space. A two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure, similar to that of Hadamard billiard, is obtained and the components behaviour is monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two free 1D harmonic oscillators (HOs), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the NC deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained, new, Hamiltonian represents two interacting 1D HOs. By admitting that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed in terms of Wigner functions, which are essential to put in evidence the effects of the noncommutativity.

  8. Temperature-dependent coherent carrier transport in quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman; Menyuk, Curtis R, E-mail: anisuzzaman@umbc.edu [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The temperature dependence of coherent carrier transport in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is studied in this paper. It was found that coherent carrier transport in QCLs decreases as the temperature increases because the coherence between the injector and active region energy levels decays at a faster rate with increasing temperature. Calculations show that the coherence time decreases by at least a factor of two as the temperature increases from 100 K to room temperature. Electron transport from the injector regions into the active regions and vice versa is a highly coherent process that becomes less efficient with decreasing coherence time and hence becomes less efficient with increasing temperature. As a consequence, when the temperature increases, the population of the upper lasing levels in active regions decreases, the population of the lower lasing levels increases and performance suffers.

  9. Quantum repeater based on cavity QED evolutions and coherent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonţa, Denis; van Loock, Peter

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of cavity QED, we propose a quantum repeater scheme that uses coherent light and chains of atoms coupled to optical cavities. In contrast to conventional repeater schemes, in our scheme there is no need for an explicit use of two-qubit quantum logical gates by exploiting solely the cavity QED evolution. In our previous work (Gonta and van Loock in Phys Rev A 88:052308, 2013), we already proposed a quantum repeater in which the entanglement between two neighboring repeater nodes was distributed using controlled displacements of input coherent light, while the produced low-fidelity entangled pairs were purified using ancillary (four-partite) entangled states. In the present work, the entanglement distribution is realized using a sequence of controlled phase shifts and displacements of input coherent light. Compared to previous coherent-state-based distribution schemes for two-qubit entanglement, our scheme here relies only upon a simple discrimination of two coherent states with opposite signs, which can be performed in a quantum mechanically optimal fashion via a beam splitter and two on-off detectors. For the entanglement purification, we employ a method that avoids the use of extra entangled ancilla states. Our repeater scheme exhibits reasonable fidelities and repeater rates providing an attractive platform for long-distance quantum communication.

  10. From atomic to mesoscale the role of quantum coherence in systems of various complexities

    CERN Document Server

    Novikova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest advancements and future developments of atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics and its vital role in modern sciences and technologies. The chapters are devoted to studies of a wide range of quantum systems, with an emphasis on understanding of quantum coherence and other quantum phenomena originated from light-matter interactions. The book intends to survey the current research landscape and to highlight major scientific trends in AMO physics as well as those interfacing with interdisciplinary sciences. The volume may be particularly useful for young researchers working on establishing their scientific interests and goals.

  11. Coherent states for quantum gravity: towards collective variables

    CERN Document Server

    Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the construction of coherent states for quantum theories of connections based on graphs embedded in a spatial manifold, as in loop quantum gravity. We discuss the many subtleties of the construction, mainly related to the diffeomorphism invariance of the theory. Aiming at approximating a continuum geometry in terms of discrete, graph-based data, we focus on coherent states for collective observables characterizing both the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the hypersurface, and we argue that one needs to revise accordingly the more local definitions of coherent states considered in the literature so far. In order to clarify the concepts introduced, we work through a concrete example that we hope will be useful to applying coherent state techniques to cosmology.

  12. Coherent States, Dynamics and Semiclassical Limit on Quantum Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Aref'eva, I Ya; Viswanathan, K S; Volovich, I V

    1994-01-01

    Coherent states on the quantum group $SU_q(2)$ are defined by using harmonic analysis and representation theory of the algebra of functions on the quantum group. Semiclassical limit $q\\rightarrow 1$ is discussed and the crucial role of special states on the quantum algebra in an investigation of the semiclassical limit is emphasized. An approach to $q$-deformation as a $q$-Weyl quantization and a relavence of contact geometry in this context is pointed out. Dynamics on the quantum group parametrized by a real time variable and corresponding to classical rotations is considered.

  13. Noise of quantum solitons and their quasi-coherent states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段路明; 郭光灿

    1997-01-01

    Quantum noise of optical solitons is analysed based on the exact solutions of the quantum nonlinear Schrodmger equation (QNSE) and the construction of the quantum soliton states. The noise limits are obtained for the local photon number and for the local quadrature phase amplitude. They are larger than the vacuum fluctuation. So in the fundamental soliton states the variance of the local photon number and the local quadrature phase amplitude cannot be squeezed The sohton states with the minimum noise are quasi-coherent states, in which the quantum dispersion effects are negligible.

  14. Strong Analog Classical Simulation of Coherent Quantum Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    A strong analog classical simulation of general quantum evolution is proposed, which serves as a novel scheme in quantum computation and simulation. The scheme employs the approach of geometric quantum mechanics and quantum informational technique of quantum tomography, which applies broadly to cases of mixed states, nonunitary evolution, and infinite dimensional systems. The simulation provides an intriguing classical picture to probe quantum phenomena, namely, a coherent quantum dynamics can be viewed as a globally constrained classical Hamiltonian dynamics of a collection of coupled particles or strings. Efficiency analysis reveals a fundamental difference between the locality in real space and locality in Hilbert space, the latter enables efficient strong analog classical simulations. Examples are also studied to highlight the differences and gaps among various simulation methods. Funding support from NSERC of Canada and a research fellowship at Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia are acknowledged

  15. Robustness of asymmetry and coherence of quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Piani, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R; Napoli, Carmine; Johnston, Nathaniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Quantum states may exhibit asymmetry with respect to the action of a given group. Such an asymmetry of states can be considered as a resource in applications such as quantum metrology, and it is a concept that encompasses quantum coherence as a special case. We introduce explicitly and study the robustness of asymmetry, a quantifier of asymmetry of states that we prove to have many attractive properties, including efficient numerical computability via semidefinite programming, and an operational interpretation in a channel discrimination context. We also introduce the notion of asymmetry witnesses, whose measurement in a laboratory detects the presence of asymmetry. We prove that properly constrained asymmetry witnesses provide lower bounds to the robustness of asymmetry, which is shown to be a directly measurable quantity itself. We then focus our attention on coherence witnesses and the robustness of coherence, for which we prove a number of additional results; these include an analysis of its specific rele...

  16. Continuous-variable quantum network coding for coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Li, Ke; Liu, Jian-wei

    2017-04-01

    As far as the spectral characteristic of quantum information is concerned, the existing quantum network coding schemes can be looked on as the discrete-variable quantum network coding schemes. Considering the practical advantage of continuous variables, in this paper, we explore two feasible continuous-variable quantum network coding (CVQNC) schemes. Basic operations and CVQNC schemes are both provided. The first scheme is based on Gaussian cloning and ADD/SUB operators and can transmit two coherent states across with a fidelity of 1/2, while the second scheme utilizes continuous-variable quantum teleportation and can transmit two coherent states perfectly. By encoding classical information on quantum states, quantum network coding schemes can be utilized to transmit classical information. Scheme analysis shows that compared with the discrete-variable paradigms, the proposed CVQNC schemes provide better network throughput from the viewpoint of classical information transmission. By modulating the amplitude and phase quadratures of coherent states with classical characters, the first scheme and the second scheme can transmit 4{log _2}N and 2{log _2}N bits of information by a single network use, respectively.

  17. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  18. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  19. Promoting Conceptual Coherence in Quantum Learning through Computational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2012-02-01

    In order to explain phenomena at the quantum level, scientists use multiple representations in verbal, pictorial, mathematical, and computational forms. Conceptual coherence among these multiple representations is used as an analytical framework to describe student learning trajectories in quantum physics. A series of internet-based curriculum modules are designed to address topics in quantum mechanics, semiconductor physics, and nano-scale engineering applications. In these modules, students are engaged in inquiry-based activities situated in a highly interactive computational modeling environment. This study was conducted in an introductory level solid state physics course. Based on in-depth interviews with 13 students, methods for identifying conceptual coherence as a function of students' level of understanding are presented. Pre-post test comparisons of 20 students in the course indicate a statistically significant improvement in students' conceptual coherence of understanding quantum phenomena before and after the course, Effect Size = 1.29 SD. Additional analyses indicate that students who responded to the modules more coherently improved their conceptual coherence to a greater extent than those who did less to the modules after controlling for their course grades.

  20. Isolating quantum coherence with pathway-selective coherent multi-dimensional spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Tollerud, Jonathan O; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Coherent coupling between spatially separated systems has long been explored as a necessary requirement for quantum information and cryptography. Recent discoveries suggest such phenomena appear in a much wider range of processes, including light-harvesting in photosynthesis. These discoveries have been facilitated by developments in coherent multi-dimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) that allow interactions between different electronic states to be identified in crowded spectra. For complex systems, however, spectral broadening and multiple overlapping peaks limit the ability to separate, identify and properly analyse all contributions. Here we demonstrate how pathway-selective CMDS can overcome these limitations to reveal, isolate and allow detailed analysis of weak coherent coupling between spatially separated excitons localised to different semiconductor quantum wells. Selective excitation of the coherence pathways, by spectrally shaping the laser pulses, provides access to previously hidden details and enable...

  1. Construction of quantum states by special superpositions of coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, P.; Molnar, E.; Mogyorosi, G.; Varga, A.; Mechler, M.; Janszky, J.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the optimal approximation of certain quantum states of a harmonic oscillator with the superposition of a finite number of coherent states in phase space placed either on an ellipse or on a certain lattice. These scenarios are currently experimentally feasible. The parameters of the ellipse and the lattice and the coefficients of the constituent coherent states are optimized numerically, via a genetic algorithm, in order to obtain the best approximation. It is found that for certain quantum states the obtained approximation is better than the ones known from the literature thus far.

  2. Signatures of discrete breathers in coherent state quantum dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumenshchev, Kirill; Ovchinnikov, Misha; Maniadis, Panagiotis; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-02-07

    In classical mechanics, discrete breathers (DBs) - a spatial time-periodic localization of energy - are predicted in a large variety of nonlinear systems. Motivated by a conceptual bridging of the DB phenomena in classical and quantum mechanical representations, we study their signatures in the dynamics of a quantum equivalent of a classical mechanical point in phase space - a coherent state. In contrast to the classical point that exhibits either delocalized or localized motion, the coherent state shows signatures of both localized and delocalized behavior. The transition from normal to local modes have different characteristics in quantum and classical perspectives. Here, we get an insight into the connection between classical and quantum perspectives by analyzing the decomposition of the coherent state into system's eigenstates, and analyzing the spacial distribution of the wave-function density within these eigenstates. We find that the delocalized and localized eigenvalue components of the coherent state are separated by a mixed region, where both kinds of behavior can be observed. Further analysis leads to the following observations. Considered as a function of coupling, energy eigenstates go through avoided crossings between tunneling and non-tunneling modes. The dominance of tunneling modes in the high nonlinearity region is compromised by the appearance of new types of modes - high order tunneling modes - that are similar to the tunneling modes but have attributes of non-tunneling modes. Certain types of excitations preferentially excite higher order tunneling modes, allowing one to study their properties. Since auto-correlation functions decrease quickly in highly nonlinear systems, short-time dynamics are sufficient for modeling quantum DBs. This work provides a foundation for implementing modern semi-classical methods to model quantum DBs, bridging classical and quantum mechanical signatures of DBs, and understanding spectroscopic experiments that

  3. One-way quantum deficit and quantum coherence in the anisotropic XY chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Biao-Liang; Li, Bo; Zhao, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we investigate pairwise non-classical correlations measured using a one-way quantum deficit as well as quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain in a transverse magnetic field for both zero and finite temperatures. The analytical and numerical results of our investigations are presented. In the case when the temperature is zero, it is shown that the one-way quantum deficit can characterize quantum phase transitions as well as quantum coherence. We find that these measures have a clear critical point at λ = 1. When λ ≤ 1, the one-way quantum deficit has an analytical expression that coincides with the relative entropy of coherence. We also study an XX model and an Ising chain at the finite temperatures.

  4. Quantum process tomography quantifies coherence transfer dynamics in vibrational exciton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntonov, Lev; Ma, Jianqiang

    2013-10-31

    Quantum coherence has been a subject of great interest in many scientific disciplines. However, detailed characterization of the quantum coherence in molecular systems, especially its transfer and relaxation mechanisms, still remains a major challenge. The difficulties arise in part because the spectroscopic signatures of the coherence transfer are typically overwhelmed by other excitation-relaxation processes. We use quantum process tomography (QPT) via two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to quantify the rate of the elusive coherence transfer between two vibrational exciton states. QPT retrieves the dynamics of the dissipative quantum system directly from the experimental observables. It thus serves as an experimental alternative to theoretical models of the system-bath interaction and can be used to validate these theories. Our results for coupled carbonyl groups of a diketone molecule in chloroform, used as a benchmark system, reveal the nonsecular nature of the interaction between the exciton and the Markovian bath and open the door for the systematic studies of the dissipative quantum systems dynamics in detail.

  5. Phase-controlled coherent population trapping in superconducting quantum circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程广玲; 王一平; 陈爱喜

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influences of the-applied-field phases and amplitudes on the coherent population trapping behavior in superconducting quantum circuits. Based on the interactions of the microwave fields with a single∆-type three-level fluxonium qubit, the coherent population trapping could be obtainable and it is very sensitive to the relative phase and amplitudes of the applied fields. When the relative phase is tuned to 0 orπ, the maximal atomic coherence is present and coherent population trapping occurs. While for the choice ofπ/2, the atomic coherence becomes weak. Meanwhile, for the fixed relative phaseπ/2, the value of coherence would decrease with the increase of Rabi frequency of the external field coupled with two lower levels. The responsible physical mechanism is quantum interference induced by the control fields, which is indicated in the dressed-state representation. The microwave coherent phenomenon is present in our scheme, which will have potential applications in optical communication and nonlinear optics in solid-state devices.

  6. Coherent pulse position modulation quantum cipher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu [Quantum ICT Research Institute, Tamagawa University, 6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    On the basis of fundamental idea of Yuen, we present a new type of quantum random cipher, where pulse position modulated signals are encrypted in the picture of quantum Gaussian wave form. We discuss the security of our proposed system with a phase mask encryption.

  7. A Calculation of Cosmological Scale from Quantum Coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindesay, J

    2004-07-23

    We use general arguments to examine the energy scales for which a quantum coherent description of gravitating quantum energy units is necessary. The cosmological dark energy density is expected to decouple from the Friedman-Lemaitre energy density when the Friedman-Robertson-Walker scale expansion becomes sub-luminal at R = c, at which time the usual microscopic interactions of relativistic quantum mechanics (QED, QCD, etc) open new degrees of freedom. We assume that these microscopic interactions cannot signal with superluminal exchanges, only superluminal quantum correlations. The expected gravitational vacuum energy density at that scale would be expected to freeze out due to the loss of gravitational coherence. We define the vacuum energy which generates this cosmological constant to be that of a zero temperature Bose condensate at this gravitational de-coherence scale. We presume a universality throughout the universe in the available degrees of freedom determined by fundamental constants during its evolution. Examining the reverse evolution of the universe from the present, long before reaching Planck scale dynamics one expects major modifications from the de-coherent thermal equations of state, suggesting that the pre-coherent phase has global coherence properties. Since the arguments presented involve primarily counting of degrees of freedom, we expect the statistical equilibrium states of causally disconnected regions of space to be independently identical. Thus, there is no horizon problem associated with the lack of causal influences between spatially separated regions in this approach. The scale of the amplitude of fluctuations produced during de-coherence of cosmological vacuum energy are found to evolve to values consistent with those observed in cosmic microwave background radiation and galactic clustering.

  8. Long-distance coherent coupling in a quantum dot array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, F R; Barthelemy, P; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Vandersypen, L M K

    2013-06-01

    Controlling long-distance quantum correlations is central to quantum computation and simulation. In quantum dot arrays, experiments so far rely on nearest-neighbour couplings only, and inducing long-distance correlations requires sequential local operations. Here, we show that two distant sites can be tunnel-coupled directly. The coupling is mediated by virtual occupation of an intermediate site, with a strength that is controlled via the energy detuning of this site. It permits a single charge to oscillate coherently between the outer sites of a triple dot array without passing through the middle, as demonstrated through the observation of Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference. The long-distance coupling significantly improves the prospects of fault-tolerant quantum computation using quantum dot arrays, and opens up new avenues for performing quantum simulations in nanoscale devices.

  9. Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Singh, Uttam; Pati, Arun K.

    2017-02-01

    Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.

  10. Coherent quantum dynamics of excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Moody, Galan

    2016-03-14

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have garnered considerable interest in recent years owing to their layer thickness-dependent optoelectronic properties. In monolayer TMDs, the large carrier effective masses, strong quantum confinement, and reduced dielectric screening lead to pronounced exciton resonances with remarkably large binding energies and coupled spin and valley degrees of freedom (valley excitons). Coherent control of valley excitons for atomically thin optoelectronics and valleytronics requires understanding and quantifying sources of exciton decoherence. In this work, we reveal how exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon scattering influence the coherent quantum dynamics of valley excitons in monolayer TMDs, specifically tungsten diselenide (WSe2), using two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy. Excitation-density and temperature dependent measurements of the homogeneous linewidth (inversely proportional to the optical coherence time) reveal that exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions are significantly stronger compared to quasi-2D quantum wells and 3D bulk materials. The residual homogeneous linewidth extrapolated to zero excitation density and temperature is ~1:6 meV (equivalent to a coherence time of 0.4 ps), which is limited only by the population recombination lifetime in this sample. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  11. Measurement device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded pair coherent state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Shang-Hong, Zhao; Lei, Shi

    2016-10-01

    The original measurement device-independent quantum key distribution is reviewed, and a modified protocol using heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) is proposed to overcome the quantum bit error rate associated with the dark count rate of the detectors in long-distance quantum key distribution. Our simulation indicates that the secure transmission distance can be improved evidently with HPCS owing to the lower probability of vacuum events when compared with weak coherent source scenario, while the secure key rate can be increased with HPCS due to the higher probability of single-photon events when compared with heralded single-photon source scenario. Furthermore, we apply the finite key analysis to the decoy state MDI-QKD with HPCS and obtain a practical key rate.

  12. Quantifying coherence and entanglement in trapped ions using the multiple quantum spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaerttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Wall, Michael; Bohnet, Justin; Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Bollinger, John; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-05-01

    The multiple quantum coherence (MQC) spectrum of a quantum state, originally introduced for highly mixed states in the context of NMR, quantifies coherence between different magnetization sectors. The MQC spectrum of a spin system is measurable by a sequence of rotations and evolution under an interaction Hamiltonian, provided that the evolution can be time reversed. Such a many-body echo can be realized in systems of trapped ions. We study the relation of the multiple quantum intensities with entanglement measures and witnesses such as Fisher information and concurrence and discuss the impact of decoherence mechanisms present in current trapped ion experiments on the proposed scheme for measuring the MQC spectrum. Supported by: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PHY-1521080, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  13. Long lived coherence in self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Leosson, Kristjan; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    We report measurements of ultralong coherence in self-assembled quantum dots. Transient four-wave mixing experiments at 5 K show an average dephasing time of 372 ps, corresponding to a homogeneous linewidth of 3.5 mu eV, which is significantly smaller than the linewidth observed in single-dot lum...

  14. Decoherence as a Probe of Coherent Quantum Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    D'Arcy, M B; Summy, G S; Guarneri, I; Wimberger, S M; Fishman, S; Buchleitner, A; Arcy, Michael B. d'; Godun, Rachel M.; Summy, Gil S.; Guarneri, Italo; Wimberger, Sandro; Fishman, Shmuel; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The effect of decoherence, induced by spontaneous emission, on the dynamics of periodically kicked cold atoms at quantum resonance is experimentally and theoretically studied. We clarify the nature of the coherent evolution, and the way in which decoherence disrupts it, thereby resolving the puzzle of the observed enhancement of the atomic mean energy growth by decoherence [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 074102 (2001)].

  15. Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders

    2012-01-01

    I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er...

  16. Coherence depletion in the Grover quantum search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hai-Long; Liu, Si-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Wen-Li; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Fan, Heng

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the role of quantum coherence depletion (QCD) in the Grover search algorithm (GA) by using several typical measures of quantum coherence and quantum correlations. By using the relative entropy of coherence measure (Cr), we show that the success probability depends on the QCD. The same phenomenon is also found by using the l1 norm of coherence measure (Cl1).In the limit case, the cost performance is defined to characterize the behavior about QCD in enhancing the success probability of GA, which is only related to the number of searcher items and the scale of the database, regardless of using Cr or Cl 1. In the generalized Grover search algorithm (GGA), the QCD for a class of states increases with the required optimal measurement time. In comparison, the quantification of other quantum correlations in GA, such as pairwise entanglement, multipartite entanglement, pairwise discord, and genuine multipartite discord, cannot be directly related to the success probability or the optimal measurement time. Additionally, we do not detect pairwise nonlocality or genuine tripartite nonlocality in GA since Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and Svetlichny's inequality are not violated.

  17. Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil; Singleton, John; Migliori, Albert

    2008-08-05

    A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

  18. Coherent excitonic nonlinearity versus inhomogeneous broadening in single quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    1998-01-01

    The coherent response of excitons in semiconductor nanostructures, as measured in four wave mixing (FWM) experiments, depends strongly on the inhomogeneous broadening of the exciton transition. We investigate GaAs-AlGaAs single quantum wells (SQW) of 4 nm to 25 nm well width. Two main mechanisms...

  19. Demonstration of quantum telecloning of optical coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, S; Yonezawa, H; Takei, N; Braunstein, S L; Aoki, T; Furusawa, A; Koike, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Takei, Nobuyuki; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Quantum cryptography promises in-principle secure communication between two parties via a quantum channel, with the ability to discover eavesdropping when it occurs. In 1999, a telecloning protocol was invented [M. Murao {\\it et al}., Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 59}, 156 (1999)] that provides a way for an eavesdropper to remotely monitor a quantum cryptographic channel such that even if eavesdropping is discovered, the identity and location of the eavesdropper is guaranteed uncompromised. Here we demonstrate unconditional telecloning experimentally for the first time. We symmetrically teleclone coherent states of light, achieving a fidelity for each clone of $F = 0.58 \\pm 0.01$.

  20. Reactant-Product Quantum Coherence in Electron Transfer Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kominis, I K

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the physical meaning of quantum superposition states between reactants and products in electron transfer reactions. We show that such superpositions are strongly suppressed and to leading orders of perturbation theory do not pertain in electron transfer reactions. This is because of the intermediate manifold of states separating the reactants from the products. We provide an intuitive description of these considerations with Feynman diagrams. We also discuss the relation of such quantum coherences to understanding the fundamental quantum dynamics of spin-selective radical-ion-pair reactions.

  1. Unified quantum density matrix description of coherence and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio

    2017-07-01

    The properties of coherence and polarization of light has been the subject of intense investigations and form the basis of many technological applications. These concepts which historically have been treated independently can now be formulated under a single classical theory. Here, we derive a quantum counterpart for this theory, with basis on a density matrix formulation, which describes jointly the coherence and polarization properties of an ensemble of photons. The method is used to show how the degree of polarization of a specific class of mixed states changes on propagation in free space, and how an interacting environment can suppress the coherence and polarization degrees of a general state. This last application can be particularly useful in the analysis of decoherence effects in optical quantum information implementations.

  2. Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong

    2015-01-01

    While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893

  3. Origin of Dynamical Quantum Non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachon, Cesar E.; Pachon, Leonardo A.

    2014-03-01

    Non-locality is one of the hallmarks of quantum mechanics and is responsible for paradigmatic features such as entanglement and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Non-locality comes in two ``flavours'': a kinematic non-locality- arising from the structure of the Hilbert space- and a dynamical non-locality- arising from the quantum equations of motion-. Kinematic non-locality is unable to induce any change in the probability distributions, so that the ``action-at-a-distance'' cannot manifest. Conversely, dynamical non-locality does create explicit changes in probability, though in a ``causality-preserving'' manner. The origin of non-locality of quantum measurements and its relations to the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, such as the uncertainty principle, have been only recently elucidated. Here we trace the origin of dynamical non-locality to the superposition principle. This relation allows us to establish and identify how the uncertainty and the superposition principles determine the non-local character of the outcome of a quantum measurement. Being based on group theoretical and path integral formulations, our formulation admits immediate generalizations and extensions to to, e.g., quantum field theory. This work was supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion -COLCIENCIAS- of Colombia under the grant number 111556934912.

  4. EDITORIAL: Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Lorenza; Tannor, David

    2011-08-01

    Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet this challenge. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is to present a state-of-the-art account of recent advances and current trends in the field, as reflected in two international meetings that were held on the subject over the last summer and which motivated in part the compilation of this volume—the Topical Group: Frontiers in Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Control Theory, held at the Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), from 1-14 August 2010, and the Safed Workshop on Quantum Decoherence and Thermodynamics Control, held in Safed (Israel), from 22-27 August 2010. Initial developments in quantum control theory date back to (at least) the early 1980s, and have been largely inspired by the well-established mathematical framework for classical dynamical systems. As the above-mentioned meetings made clear, and as the burgeoning body of literature on the subject testifies, quantum control has grown since then well beyond its original boundaries, and has by now evolved into a highly cross-disciplinary field which, while still fast-moving, is also entering a new phase of maturity, sophistication, and integration. Two trends deserve special attention: on the one hand, a growing emphasis on control tasks and methodologies that are specifically motivated by QIP, in addition and in parallel to applications in more traditional areas where quantum coherence is nevertheless vital (such as, for instance

  5. Quantum coherence between two atoms beyond Q=10^15

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, C W; Thorpe, M J; Wineland, D J; Rosenband, T

    2011-01-01

    We place two atoms in quantum superposition states and observe coherent phase evolution for 3.4x10^15 cycles. Correlation signals from the two atoms yield information about their relative phase even after the probe radiation has decohered. This technique was applied to a frequency comparison of two Al+ ions, where a fractional uncertainty of 3.7+1.0-0.8x10^-16/\\sqrt{\\tau/s} was observed. Two measures of the Q-factor are reported: The Q-factor derived from quantum coherence is 3.4+2.4-1.1x10^16, and the spectroscopic Q-factor for a Ramsey time of 3 s is 6.7x10^15. As part of this experiment, we demonstrate a method to detect the individual quantum states of two Al+ ions in a Mg+-Al+-Al+ linear ion chain without spatially resolving the ions.

  6. Quantum Coherence between Two Atoms beyond Q=1015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Thorpe, M. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Rosenband, T.

    2011-04-01

    We place two atoms in quantum superposition states and observe coherent phase evolution for 3.4×1015 cycles. Correlation signals from the two atoms yield information about their relative phase even after the probe radiation has decohered. This technique allowed a frequency comparison of two Al+27 ions with fractional uncertainty 3.7-0.8+1.0×10-16/τ/s. Two measures of the Q factor are reported: The Q factor derived from quantum coherence is 3.4-1.1+2.4×1016, and the spectroscopic Q factor for a Ramsey time of 3 s is 6.7×1015. We demonstrate a method to detect the individual quantum states of two Al+ ions in a Mg+-Al+-Al+ linear ion chain without spatially resolving the ions.

  7. Quantum coherence between two atoms beyond Q=10(15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C W; Hume, D B; Thorpe, M J; Wineland, D J; Rosenband, T

    2011-04-22

    We place two atoms in quantum superposition states and observe coherent phase evolution for 3.4×10(15) cycles. Correlation signals from the two atoms yield information about their relative phase even after the probe radiation has decohered. This technique allowed a frequency comparison of two (27)Al(+) ions with fractional uncertainty 3.7(-0.8)(+1.0)×10(-16)/√[τ/s]. Two measures of the Q factor are reported: The Q factor derived from quantum coherence is 3.4(-1.1)(+2.4)×10(16), and the spectroscopic Q factor for a Ramsey time of 3 s is 6.7×10(15). We demonstrate a method to detect the individual quantum states of two Al(+) ions in a Mg(+)-Al(+)-Al(+) linear ion chain without spatially resolving the ions.

  8. Coherent and conventional gravidynamic quantum 1/f noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Peter H.; George, Thomas F.

    2008-04-01

    Quantum 1/f noise is a fundamental fluctuation of currents, physical cross sections or process rates, caused by infrared coupling of the current carriers to very low frequency (soft) quanta, also known as infraquanta. The latter are soft gravitons in the gravidynamic case with the coupling constant g= pGM2/Nch considered here -- soft photons in the electrodynamic case and soft transversal piezo-phonons in the lattice-dynamical case. Here p=3.14 and F=psi. Quantum 1/f noise is a new aspect of quantum mechanics expressed mainly through the coherent quantum 1/f effect 2g/pf derived here for large systems, and mainly through the conventional quantum 1/f effect for small systems or individual particles. Both effects are present in general, and their effects are superposed in a first approximation with the help of a coherence (weight) parameter s" that will be derived elsewhere for the gravitational case. The spectral density of fractional fluctuations S(dj/j,f) for j=e(hk/2pm)|F|2 is S(F2,f)/ = S(j,f)/2 = [4ps"/(1+s")]GM2/pfNch = 4.4 10E9 M2/(pfNgram2). Here s" = 2N'GM/c2=N'rs, where N' is the number of particles of mass M per unit length of the current, rs their Schwarzschild radius, and s" is our coherence (weight) parameter giving the ratio of coherent to conventional quantum 1/f contributions.

  9. Rabi model as a quantum coherent heat engine: From quantum biology to superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ferdi; Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.

    2015-02-01

    We propose a multilevel quantum heat engine with a working medium described by a generalized Rabi model which consists of a two-level system coupled to a single-mode bosonic field. The model is constructed to be a continuum limit of a quantum biological description of light-harvesting complexes so that it can amplify quantum coherence by a mechanism which is a quantum analog of classical Huygens clocks. The engine operates in a quantum Otto cycle where the working medium is coupled to classical heat baths in the isochoric processes of the four-stroke cycle, while either the coupling strength or the resonance frequency is changed in the adiabatic stages. We found that such an engine can produce work with an efficiency close to the Carnot bound when it operates at low temperatures and in the ultrastrong-coupling regime. The interplay of the effects of quantum coherence and quantum correlations on the engine performance is discussed in terms of second-order coherence, quantum mutual information, and the logarithmic negativity of entanglement. We point out that the proposed quantum Otto engine can be implemented experimentally with modern circuit quantum electrodynamic systems where flux qubits can be coupled ultrastrongly to superconducting transmission-line resonators.

  10. Quantum mechanical coherence, resonance, and mind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1995-03-26

    Norbert Wiener and J.B.S. Haldane suggested during the early thirties that the profound changes in our conception of matter entailed by quantum theory opens the way for our thoughts, and other experiential or mind-like qualities, to play a role in nature that is causally interactive and effective, rather than purely epiphenomenal, as required by classical mechanics. The mathematical basis of this suggestion is described here, and it is then shown how, by giving mind this efficacious role in natural process, the classical character of our perceptions of the quantum universe can be seen to be a consequence of evolutionary pressures for the survival of the species.

  11. Quantum mechanical coherence, resonance, and mind

    CERN Document Server

    Stapp, Henry P

    1995-01-01

    Norbert Wiener and J.B.S. Haldane suggested during the early thirties that the profound changes in our conception of matter entailed by quantum theory opens the way for our thoughts, and other experiential or mind-like qualities, to play a role in nature that is causally interactive and effective, rather than purely epiphenomenal, as required by classical mechanics. The mathematical basis of this suggestion is described here, and it is then shown how, by giving mind this efficacious role in natural process, the classical character of our perceptions of the quantum universe can be seen to be a consequence of evolutionary pressures for the survival of the species.

  12. Quantum noise property in coherent atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-xiang; WANG Hai-hong; CAI Jin; GAO Jiang-rui

    2006-01-01

    The coherent superposition of atomic states leads to the characteristic change of interacting lights because of the coupling between the lights and atoms.In this paper,the noise spectrum of the quantified light interacting with the atoms is studied under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT).It is shown that the noise spectrum displays a double M-shape noise profile resulted from the conversion of phase noise of probe beam.A squeezing of 0.3 dB can be observed at the detuning of probe light at the proper parameters of atoms and coupling beam.

  13. Markovian evolution of quantum coherence under symmetric dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostaglio, Matteo; Korzekwa, Kamil; Milne, Antony

    2017-09-01

    Both conservation laws and practical restrictions impose symmetry constraints on the dynamics of open quantum systems. In the case of time-translation symmetry, which arises naturally in many physically relevant scenarios, the quantum coherence between energy eigenstates becomes a valuable resource for quantum information processing. In this work, we identify the minimum amount of decoherence compatible with this symmetry for a given population dynamics. This yields a generalization to higher-dimensional systems of the relation T2≤2 T1 for qubit decoherence and relaxation times. It also enables us to witness and assess the role of non-Markovianity as a resource for coherence preservation and transfer. Moreover, we discuss the relationship between ergodicity and the ability of Markovian dynamics to indefinitely sustain a superposition of different energy states. Finally, we establish a formal connection between the resource-theoretic and the master equation approaches to thermodynamics, with the former being a non-Markovian generalization of the latter. Our work thus brings the abstract study of quantum coherence as a resource towards the realm of actual physical applications.

  14. Coherence length of photons from a single quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelezko, F.; Volkmer, A.; Popa, I.; Rebane, K. K.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2003-04-01

    We present a methodology that allows recording the coherence length of photons emitted by a single quantum system in a solid. The feasibility of this approach is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the self-interference of photons from the zero-phonon line emission of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond at 1.6 K. The first-order correlation function has been recorded and analyzed in terms of a single exponential decay time. A coherence time of ˜5 ps has been obtained, which is in good agreement with the corresponding spectral line width and demonstrates the feasibility of the Fourier-transform spectroscopy with single photons.

  15. Coherent quantum trasport in ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagnet graphene junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salehi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the coherent quantum transport in grapheme-based ferromagnet-superconductor-ferromagent junctions within the framework of BCS theory using DBdG quasiparticles equation .The coherency with the finite size of superconductor region has two characteristic features subgap electron transport and oscillations of differential conductance. we show that periodic vanishing of the Andreev reflection at the energies called geometrical resonances above the superconducting gap is a striking consequence of quasiparticles interference. We suggest to make devices that produce polarized spin-current with possible applications in spintronics.

  16. Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Magnetic Molecular Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yan-Hong; NIE Yi-Hang; LIANG Jiu-Qing; PU Fu-Cho

    2001-01-01

    The oscillation of tunnel splitting in Fes molecular clusters is obtained as a function of magnetic field applied along the hard axis by means of the instanton method with both semiclassical treatment and the effective potential field description of the quantum spin system. The theoretical splittings of the instanton method are compared with the numerical result by diagonalization of spin Hamiltonian operators and experimental observations. By taking the appropriate parameters, our theoretical formula yields a result the same as the experimental observation.

  17. Quantum key distribution using gaussian-modulated coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Grosshans, F; Wenger, J; Brouri, R; Cerf, N J; Grangier, P; Grangier, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    Quantum continuous variables are being explored as an alternative means to implement quantum key distribution, which is usually based on single photon counting. The former approach is potentially advantageous because it should enable higher key distribution rates. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a quantum key distribution protocol based on the transmission of gaussian-modulated coherent states (consisting of laser pulses containing a few hundred photons) and shot-noise-limited homodyne detection; squeezed or entangled beams are not required. Complete secret key extraction is achieved using a reverse reconciliation technique followed by privacy amplification. The reverse reconciliation technique is in principle secure for any value of the line transmission, against gaussian individual attacks based on entanglement and quantum memories. Our table-top experiment yields a net key transmission rate of about 1.7 megabits per second for a loss-free line, and 75 kilobits per second for a line with loss...

  18. Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum coherence of two-level system driven by classical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming; Situ, Haozhen

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the quantum coherence dynamics of two-level atom system embedded in non-Markovian reservoir in the presence of classical driving field. We analyze the influence of memory effects, classical driving, and detuning on the quantum coherence. It is found that the quantum coherence has different behaviors in resonant case and non-resonant case. In the resonant case, in stark contrast with previous results, the strength of classical driving plays a negative effect on quantum coherence, while detuning parameter has the opposite effect. However, in non-resonant case through a long time, classical driving and detuning parameter have a different influence on quantum coherence compared with resonant case. Due to the memory effect of environment, in comparison with Markovian regime, quantum coherence presents vibrational variations in non-Markovian regime. In the resonant case, all quantum coherence converges to a fixed maximum value; in the non-resonant case, quantum coherence evolves to different stable values. For zero-coherence initial states, quantum coherence can be generated with evolution time. Our discussions and results should be helpful in manipulating and preserving the quantum coherence in dissipative environment with classical driving field.

  19. Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

  20. Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

  1. Effects of quantum coherence in metalloprotein electron transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Ross; Goold, John; Heaney, Libby; Farrow, Tristan; Vedral, Vlatko

    2012-09-01

    Many intramolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in biology are mediated by metal centers in proteins. This process is commonly described by a model of diffusive hopping according to the semiclassical theories of Marcus and Hopfield. However, recent studies have raised the possibility that nontrivial quantum mechanical effects play a functioning role in certain biomolecular processes. Here, we investigate the potential effects of quantum coherence in biological ET by extending the semiclassical model to allow for the possibility of quantum coherent phenomena using a quantum master equation based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. We test the model on the structurally defined chain of seven iron-sulfur clusters in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plus hydrogen:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), a crucial respiratory enzyme and one of the longest chains of metal centers in biology. Using experimental parameters where possible, we find that, in limited circumstances, a small quantum mechanical contribution can provide a marked increase in the ET rate above the semiclassical diffusive-hopping rate. Under typical biological conditions, our model reduces to well-known diffusive behavior.

  2. A method for characterizing coherent-state quantum gates

    CERN Document Server

    Blandino, Rémi; Barbieri, Marco; Grangier, Philippe; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    We discuss and implement experimentally a method for characterizing quantum gates operating on superpositions of coherent states. The peculiarity of this encoding of qubits is to work with a non-orthogonal basis, and therefore some technical limitations prevent us from using standard methods, such as process tomography. We adopt a different technique, that relies on some a-priori knowledge about the physics underlying the functioning of the device. A parameter characterizing the global quality of the quantum gate is obtained by \\virtually" processing an entangled state.

  3. Quantum coherence and uncertainty in the anisotropic XY chain

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We explore the local quantum coherence and the local quantum uncertainty, based on Wigner-Yanase skew information, in the ground state of the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain in transverse magnetic field. We show that the skew information, as a figure of merit, supplies the necessary information to reveal the occurrence of the second order phase transition and the completely factorized ground state in the XY model. Additionally, in the same context, we also discuss the usefulness of a simple exp...

  4. Universe's memory and spontaneous coherence in loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The quantum bounce a priori connects several (semi)classical epochs of Universe evolution, however determining if and how well the semiclassicality is preserved in this transition is highly nontrivial. We review the present state of knowledge in that regards in the isotropic sector of loop quantum cosmology. This knowledge is next extended by studies of an isotropic universe admitting positive cosmological constant (featuring an infinite chain of large Universe epochs). It is also shown, that such universe always admits a semiclassical epoch thanks to spontaneous spontaneous coherence, provided it is semiclassical in certain constant of motion playing the role of energy.

  5. Controllable coherent population transfers in superconducting qubits for quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L F; Johansson, J R; Cen, L X; Ashhab, S; Nori, Franco

    2008-03-21

    We propose an approach to coherently transfer populations between selected quantum states in one- and two-qubit systems by using controllable Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages. These evolution-time insensitive transfers, assisted by easily implementable single-qubit phase-shift operations, could serve as elementary logic gates for quantum computing. Specifically, this proposal could be conveniently demonstrated with existing Josephson phase qubits. Our proposal can find an immediate application in the readout of these qubits. Indeed, the broken parity symmetries of the bound states in these artificial atoms provide an efficient approach to design the required adiabatic pulses.

  6. Duality in adiabatic level crossing Quantum coherence and complete reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, K; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    A field dependent su(2) gauge transformation connects between the adiabatic and diabatic pictures in the (Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg) level crossing problem. It is pointed out that weak and strong level crossing interactions are interchanged under this transformation, and thus realizing a naive strong and weak duality. A reliable perturbation theory is thus formulated in the both limits of weak and strong interactions. Main characteristics of the level crossing phenomena such as the Landau-Zener formula including its numerical coefficient are well-described by simple perturbation theory without referring to Stokes phenomena. We also show that quantum coherence in a double well potential is generally suppressed by the effect of level crossing, which is analogous to the effect of Ohmic dissipation on quantum coherence.

  7. Quantum optical coherence in cytoskeletal microtubules: implications for brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibu, M; Hagan, S; Hameroff, S R; Pribram, K H; Yasue, K

    1994-01-01

    'Laser-like,' long-range coherent quantum phenomena may occur biologically within cytoskeletal microtubules. This paper presents a theoretical prediction of the occurrence in biological media of the phenomena which we term 'superradiance' and 'self-induced transparency'. Interactions between the electric dipole field of water molecules confined within the hollow core of microtubules and the quantized electromagnetic radiation field are considered, and microtubules are theorized to play the roles of non-linear coherent optical devices. Superradiance is a specific quantum mechanical ordering phenomenon with characteristic times much shorter than those of thermal interaction. Consequently, optical signalling (and computation) in microtubules would be free from both thermal noise and loss. Superradiant optical computing in networks of microtubules and other cytoskeletal structures may provide a basis for biomolecular cognition and a substrate for consciousness.

  8. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. {\\em Phys. Rev. Lett.}\\ {\\bf 2011}, {\\em 106}, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  9. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Jachura, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad

    2016-11-12

    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. Phys. Rev. Lett.2011, 106, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  10. Atomistic study of the long-lived quantum coherences in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sangwoo; Rebentrost, Patrick; Valleau, Stéphanie; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2012-02-08

    A remarkable amount of theoretical research has been carried out to elucidate the physical origins of the recently observed long-lived quantum coherence in the electronic energy transfer process in biological photosynthetic systems. Although successful in many respects, several widely used descriptions only include an effective treatment of the protein-chromophore interactions. In this work, by combining an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, time-dependent density functional theory, and open quantum system approaches, we successfully simulate the dynamics of the electronic energy transfer of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex. The resulting characteristic beating of populations and quantum coherences is in good agreement with the experimental results and the hierarchy equation of motion approach. The experimental absorption, linear, and circular dichroism spectra and dephasing rates are recovered at two different temperatures. In addition, we provide an extension of our method to include zero-point fluctuations of the vibrational environment. This work thus presents, to our knowledge, one of the first steps to explain the role of excitonic quantum coherence in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes based on their atomistic and molecular description.

  11. Bosonization, coherent states and semiclassical quantum Hall skyrmions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sreedhar B; Shankar, R

    2008-07-09

    We bosonize (2+1)-dimensional fermionic theory using coherent states. The gauge-invariant subspace of boson-Chern-Simons Hilbert space is mapped to fermionic Hilbert space. This subspace is then equipped with a coherent state basis. These coherent states are labelled by a dynamic spinor field. The label manifold could be assigned a physical meaning in terms of density and spin density. A path-integral representation of the evolution operator in terms of these physical variables is given. The corresponding classical theory when restricted to LLL is described by spin fluctuations alone and is found to be the NLSM with Hopf term. The formalism developed here is suitable to study quantum Hall skyrmions semiclassically and/or beyond the hydrodynamic limit. The effects of Landau level mixing or the presence of slowly varying external fields can also be easily incorporated.

  12. Glauber theory and the quantum coherence of curvature inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The curvature inhomogeneities are systematically scrutinized in the framework of the Glauber approach. The amplified quantum fluctuations of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry are shown to be first-order coherent while the interference of the corresponding intensities is larger than in the case of Bose-Einstein correlations. After showing that the degree of second-order coherence does not suffice to characterize unambiguously the curvature inhomogeneities, we argue that direct analyses of the degrees of third and fourth-order coherence are necessary to discriminate between different correlated states and to infer more reliably the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations. We speculate that the moments of the multiplicity distributions of the relic phonons might be observationally accessible thanks to new generations of instruments able to count the single photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background in the THz region.

  13. Glauber theory and the quantum coherence of curvature inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    The curvature inhomogeneities are systematically scrutinized in the framework of the Glauber approach. The amplified quantum fluctuations of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry are shown to be first-order coherent while the interference of the corresponding intensities is larger than in the case of Bose–Einstein correlations. After showing that the degree of second-order coherence does not suffice to characterize unambiguously the curvature inhomogeneities, we argue that direct analyses of the degrees of third- and fourth-order coherence are necessary to discriminate between different correlated states and to infer more reliably the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations. We speculate that the moments of the multiplicity distributions of the relic phonons might be observationally accessible thanks to new generations of instruments able to count the single photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background in the THz region.

  14. Quantum electron transfer processes induced by thermo-coherent state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumana Banerjee; Gautam Gangopadhyay

    2007-09-01

    When the reactant surface is not in a thermal equilibrium, but in a thermo-coherent state we have derived the rate and discussed about the quantum features of the rate. In the limit of very low and very high temperature the expressions are derived analytically and compared with the case of thermal distribution. We have investigated the dependence of temperature on the rate due to displacement, distortion of the harmonic potential energy surfaces of the reactant and product manifold.

  15. Importance of coherence in models of mid-infrared quantum cascade laser gain spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuzhang I.; Harter, Michael P.; Dikmelik, Yamac; Hoffman, Anthony J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a three-level model based on a density matrix to examine the influence of coherence and dephasing on the gain spectrum of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. The model is used to examine a quantum cascade active region with multiple optical transitions. We show how coherence can explain the origin of additional peaks in the gain spectrum. We also analyze the spectra calculated using the three-level model with a rate equation formalism to demonstrate the importance of considering interface roughness and limitations of the rate equation formalism. Specifically, we present how interface roughness influences the broadening and oscillator strength that are recovered using a rate equation analysis. The results of this work are important when considering the design of active regions with multiple optical transitions and could lead to devices with improved performance.

  16. A universal coherent source for quantum key distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShengLi; ZOU XuBo; LI ChuanFeng; JIN ChenHui; GUO GuangCan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a concept of universal coherent source for quantum key distribution. The weak coherent pulse (WCP) and heralded single photon source (HSPS) are the most common photon sources for state-of-art quantum key distribution (QKD). However, there exists a prominent crossover between the maximal secure distance and the secure key generating rate in short and middle distance if one applies these two sources in a practical decoy state quantum key distribution. It is shown that by combining the heralded pair coherent state (HPCS) photon source and the practical decoy state method together, one can not only strengthen the maximal secure transmission distance, but also improve key generat-ing rate at short and medium distance. Moreover, the advancement in key generating is not confined in the particular protocol utilized and can be easily checked for both BB84 and SARG protocol. Finally, we clearly demonstrate how the HPCS-based decoy method works effectively and feasibly by proposing an efficient HPCS-based "1 signal+2 decoy" state method.

  17. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  18. Coherent states and parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debergh, Nathalie

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that Parafermi and Parabose statistics are natural extensions of the usual Fermi and Bose ones, enhancing trilinear (anti)commutation relations instead of bilinear ones. Due to this generalization, positive parameters appear: the so-called orders of paraquantization p (= 1, 2, 3, ...) and h sub 0 (= 1/2, 1, 3/2, ...), respectively, the first value leading in each case to the usual statistics. The superpostion of the parabosonic and parafermionic operators gives rise to parasupermultiplets for which mixed trilinear relations have already been studied leading to two (nonequivalent) sets: the relative Parabose and the relative Parafermi ones. For the specific values p = 1 = 2h sub 0, these sets reduce to the well known supersymmetry. Coherent states associated with this last model have been recently put in evidence through the annihilation operator point of view and the group theoretical approach or displacement operator context. We propose to realize the corresponding studies within the new context p = 2 = 2h sub 0, being then directly extended to any order of paraquantization.

  19. Coherence and decoherence in biological systems: principles of noise-assisted transport and the origin of long-lived coherences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, A W; Huelga, S F; Plenio, M B

    2012-08-13

    The quantum dynamics of transport networks in the presence of noisy environments has recently received renewed attention with the discovery of long-lived coherences in different photosynthetic complexes. This experimental evidence has raised two fundamental questions: firstly, what are the mechanisms supporting long-lived coherences; and, secondly, how can we assess the possible functional role that the interplay of noise and quantum coherence might play in the seemingly optimal operation of biological systems under natural conditions? Here, we review recent results, illuminate them by means of two paradigmatic systems (the Fenna-Matthew-Olson complex and the light-harvesting complex LHII) and present new progress on both questions.

  20. Coherence-Induced Reversibility and Collective Operation of Quantum Heat Machines via Coherence Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdin, Raam

    2016-08-01

    Collective behavior, where a set of elements interact and generate effects that are beyond the reach of the individual noninteracting elements, is always of great interest in physics. Quantum collective effects that have no classical analog are even more intriguing. In this work, we show how to construct collective quantum heat machines and explore their performance boosts with respect to regular machines. Without interactions between the machines, the individual units operate in a stochastic, nonquantum manner. The construction of the collective machine becomes possible by introducing two simple quantum operations: coherence extraction and coherence injection. Together, these operations can harvest coherence from one engine and use it to boost the performance of a slightly different engine. For weakly driven engines, we show that the collective work output scales quadratically with the number of engines rather than linearly. Eventually, the boost saturates and then becomes linear. Nevertheless, even in saturation, work is still significantly boosted compared to individual operation. To study the reversibility of the collective machine, we introduce the "entropy-pollution" measure. It is shown that there is a regime where the collective machine is N times more reversible while producing N times more work, compared to the individual operation of N units. Moreover, the collective machine can even be more reversible than the most reversible unit in the collective. This high level of reversibility becomes possible due to a special symbiotic mechanism between engine pairs.

  1. Measures of coherence-generating power for quantum unital operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Styliaris, Georgios; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Given an orthonormal basis B in a d -dimensional Hilbert space and a unital quantum operation E acting on it, one can define a nonlinear mapping that associates with E a d ×d real-valued matrix that we call the coherence matrix of E with respect to B . This is the Gram matrix of the coherent part of the basis projections of B under E . We show that one can use this coherence matrix to define vast families of measures of the coherence-generating power (CGP) of the operation. These measures have a natural geometrical interpretation as separation of E from the set of incoherent unital operations. The probabilistic approach to CGP discussed in P. Zanardi et al. [Phys. Rev. A 95, 052306 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.052306] can be reformulated and generalized, introducing, alongside the coherence matrix, another d ×d real-valued matrix, the simplex correlation matrix. This matrix describes the relevant statistical correlations in the input ensemble of incoherent states. Contracting these two matrices, one finds CGP measures associated with the process of preparing the given incoherent ensemble and processing it with the chosen unital operation. Finally, in the unitary case, we discuss how these concepts can be made compatible with an underlying tensor product structure by defining families of CGP measures that are additive.

  2. Observation of time-invariant coherence in a room temperature quantum simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Isabela A; Bromley, Thomas R; Cianciaruso, Marco; Sarthour, Roberto S; Oliveira, Ivan S; Franco, Rosario Lo; deAzevedo, Eduardo R; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O; Adesso, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    The ability to live in coherent superposition states is a signature trait of quantum systems and constitutes an unexpendable resource for quantum-enhanced technologies. However, decoherence effects usually destroy quantum superpositions. Here we show that, in a composite quantum system exposed to decohering noise, quantum coherence in a reference basis can stay protected for indefinite time. This occurs for a class of quantum states independently of the measure used to quantify coherence, and requires no control on the system during the dynamics. Such an invariant coherence phenomenon is observed experimentally in a two-qubit room temperature nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator. Our study reveals a novel interplay between coherence and various forms of correlations, and highlights the natural resilience of quantum effects in complex systems.

  3. Observation of Time-Invariant Coherence in a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Quantum Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isabela A; Souza, Alexandre M; Bromley, Thomas R; Cianciaruso, Marco; Marx, Raimund; Sarthour, Roberto S; Oliveira, Ivan S; Lo Franco, Rosario; Glaser, Steffen J; deAzevedo, Eduardo R; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-10-14

    The ability to live in coherent superpositions is a signature trait of quantum systems and constitutes an irreplaceable resource for quantum-enhanced technologies. However, decoherence effects usually destroy quantum superpositions. It was recently predicted that, in a composite quantum system exposed to dephasing noise, quantum coherence in a transversal reference basis can stay protected for an indefinite time. This can occur for a class of quantum states independently of the measure used to quantify coherence, and it requires no control on the system during the dynamics. Here, such an invariant coherence phenomenon is observed experimentally in two different setups based on nuclear magnetic resonance at room temperature, realizing an effective quantum simulator of two- and four-qubit spin systems. Our study further reveals a novel interplay between coherence and various forms of correlations, and it highlights the natural resilience of quantum effects in complex systems.

  4. Quantum Coherence and Random Fields at Mesoscopic Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Thomas F. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We seek to explore and exploit model, disordered and geometrically frustrated magnets where coherent spin clusters stably detach themselves from their surroundings, leading to extreme sensitivity to finite frequency excitations and the ability to encode information. Global changes in either the spin concentration or the quantum tunneling probability via the application of an external magnetic field can tune the relative weights of quantum entanglement and random field effects on the mesoscopic scale. These same parameters can be harnessed to manipulate domain wall dynamics in the ferromagnetic state, with technological possibilities for magnetic information storage. Finally, extensions from quantum ferromagnets to antiferromagnets promise new insights into the physics of quantum fluctuations and effective dimensional reduction. A combination of ac susceptometry, dc magnetometry, noise measurements, hole burning, non-linear Fano experiments, and neutron diffraction as functions of temperature, magnetic field, frequency, excitation amplitude, dipole concentration, and disorder address issues of stability, overlap, coherence, and control. We have been especially interested in probing the evolution of the local order in the progression from spin liquid to spin glass to long-range-ordered magnet.

  5. Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Continuous-Variable Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the revealing features of the continuous-variable (CV) quantum cryptography, we suggest an arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol with CV coherent states. It involves three participants, i.e., the signer Alice, the verifier Bob and the arbitrator Charlie who is trustworthy by Alice and Bob. Three phases initializing phase, signing phase and verifying phase are included in our protocol. The security of the signature scheme is guaranteed by the generation of the shared keys via the CV-based quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) and the implementation process of the CV-based quantum teleportation as well. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged by anyone nor disavowed by the receiver and signer. Moreover, the authenticity and integrality of the transmitted messages can be ensured. The paper shows that a potential high-speed quantum signature scheme with high detection efficiency and repetition rate can be realized when compared to the discrete-variable (DV) quantum signature scheme attributing to the well characteristics of CV-QKD.

  6. Approximation of reachable sets for coherently controlled open quantum systems: Application to quantum state engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Lu, Dawei; Luo, Zhihuang; Laflamme, Raymond; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-07-01

    Precisely characterizing and controlling realistic quantum systems under noises is a challenging frontier in quantum sciences and technologies. In developing reliable controls for open quantum systems, one is often confronted with the problem of the lack of knowledge on the system controllability. The purpose of this paper is to give a numerical approach to this problem, that is, to approximately compute the reachable set of states for coherently controlled quantum Markovian systems. The approximation consists of setting both upper and lower bounds for system's reachable region of states. Furthermore, we apply our reachability analysis to the control of the relaxation dynamics of a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. We implement some experimental tasks of quantum state engineering in this open system at a near optimal performance in view of purity: e.g., increasing polarization and preparing pseudopure states. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our theory and show interesting and promising applications of environment-assisted quantum dynamics.

  7. Coherent states, quantum gravity, and the Born- Oppenheimer approximation. II. Compact Lie groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottmeister, Alexander; Thiemann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the second of three, we discuss and develop the basis of a Weyl quantisation for compact Lie groups aiming at loop quantum gravity-type models. This Weyl quantisation may serve as the main mathematical tool to implement the program of space adiabatic perturbation theory in such models. As we already argued in our first article, space adiabatic perturbation theory offers an ideal framework to overcome the obstacles that hinder the direct implementation of the conventional Born-Oppenheimer approach in the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity. Additionally, we conjecture the existence of a new form of the Segal-Bargmann-Hall "coherent state" transform for compact Lie groups G, which we prove for G = U(1)n and support by numerical evidence for G = SU(2). The reason for conjoining this conjecture with the main topic of this article originates in the observation that the coherent state transform can be used as a basic building block of a coherent state quantisation (Berezin quantisation) for compact Lie groups G. But, as Weyl and Berezin quantisation for ℝ2d are intimately related by heat kernel evolution, it is natural to ask whether a similar connection exists for compact Lie groups as well. Moreover, since the formulation of space adiabatic perturbation theory requires a (deformation) quantisation as minimal input, we analyse the question to what extent the coherent state quantisation, defined by the Segal-Bargmann-Hall transform, can serve as basis of the former.

  8. New theory of diffusive and coherent nature of optical wave via a quantum walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yusuke; Konno, Norio; Matsutani, Shigeki; Mitsuhashi, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    We propose a new theory on a relation between diffusive and coherent nature in one dimensional wave mechanics based on a quantum walk. It is known that the quantum walk in homogeneous matrices provides the coherent property of wave mechanics. Using the recent result of a localization phenomenon in a one-dimensional quantum walk (Konno, 2010), we numerically show that the randomized localized matrices suppress the coherence and give diffusive nature.

  9. Coherent spectroscopy of a strongly driven triple quantum dot molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Yan; Duan Su-Qing; Chu Wei-Dong; Yang Ning

    2010-01-01

    Based on a calculation model, we study the interference phenomena of serially coupled V-type and A-type triple quantum dots (CTQDs) driven simultaneously by a strong driving field and a weak probe field. Strongly depending on the configuration of the three-level CTQD, the probe absorption spectra, which are shown in the tunneling current,exhibit various quantum coherence properties. In the case where the two pairs of transitions of the CTQD have a small eigenfrequency difference , the double-coupling effect of the driving field results in two Autler-Townes doublets and one weak Mollow triplet in one spectrum. With the value of increasing, only one Autler-Townes splitting remains due to the single-coupling of the field. We also find that the effect of spontaneous emission of phonons may lead to an obvious background current, which can be used to distinguish which transition is driven by the driving field in experiment. The interesting quantum property of a CTQD revealed in our results suggests its potential applications in quantum modulators and quantum logic devices.

  10. Quantum-Coherence-Assisted Tunable On- and Off-Resonance Tunneling through a Quantum-Dot-Molecule Dielectric Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian Qi; Zeng, Rui Xi

    2017-02-01

    Quantum-dot-molecular phase coherence (and the relevant quantum-interference-switchable optical response) can be utilized to control electromagnetic wave propagation via a gate voltage, since quantum-dot molecules can exhibit an effect of quantum coherence (phase coherence) when quantum-dot-molecular discrete multilevel transitions are driven by an electromagnetic wave. Interdot tunneling of carriers (electrons and holes) controlled by the gate voltage can lead to destructive quantum interference in a quantum-dot molecule that is coupled to an incident electromagnetic wave, and gives rise to a quantum coherence effect (e.g., electromagnetically induced transparency, EIT) in a quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film. The tunable on- and off-resonance tunneling effect of an incident electromagnetic wave (probe field) through such a quantum-coherent quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film is investigated. It is found that a high gate voltage can lead to the EIT phenomenon of the quantum-dot-molecular systems. Under the condition of on-resonance light tunneling through the present quantum-dot-molecule dielectric film, the probe field should propagate without loss if the probe frequency detuning is zero. Such an effect caused by both EIT and resonant tunneling, which is sensitive to the gate voltage, can be utilized for designing devices such as photonic switching, transistors, and logic gates.

  11. Rabi model as a quantum coherent heat engine: From quantum biology to superconducting circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 91, 023816 (2015) Rabi model as a quantum coherent heat engine: From quantum biology to superconducting circuits Ferdi Altintas,1 Ali U¨ . C. Hardal,2 and O¨ zgu¨r E. Mu¨stecaplıog˘lu2,* 1Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, 14280, Turkey 2Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, Sarıyer, ˙Istanbul, 34450, Turkey (Received 10 November 2014; published 12 February 2015) We propose a multilevel quantum heat engine with a working medium de...

  12. Measuring finite quantum geometries via quasi-coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, Lukas; Steinacker, Harold C.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a systematic approach to determine and measure numerically the geometry of generic quantum or ‘fuzzy’ geometries realized by a set of finite-dimensional Hermitian matrices. The method is designed to recover the semi-classical limit of quantized symplectic spaces embedded in {{{R}}}d including the well-known examples of fuzzy spaces, but it applies much more generally. The central tool is provided by quasi-coherent states, which are defined as ground states of Laplace- or Dirac operators corresponding to localized point branes in target space. The displacement energy of these quasi-coherent states is used to extract the local dimension and tangent space of the semi-classical geometry, and provides a measure for the quality and self-consistency of the semi-classical approximation. The method is discussed and tested with various examples, and implemented in an open-source Mathematica package.

  13. Measuring finite Quantum Geometries via Quasi-Coherent States

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderbauer, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    We develop a systematic approach to determine and measure numerically the geometry of generic quantum or "fuzzy" geometries realized by a set of finite-dimensional hermitian matrices. The method is designed to recover the semi-classical limit of quantized symplectic spaces embedded in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ including the well-known examples of fuzzy spaces, but it applies much more generally. The central tool is provided by quasi-coherent states, which are defined as ground states of Laplace- or Dirac operators corresponding to localized point branes in target space. The displacement energy of these quasi-coherent states is used to extract the local dimension and tangent space of the semi-classical geometry, and provides a measure for the quality and self-consistency of the semi-classical approximation. The method is discussed and tested with various examples, and implemented in an open-source Mathematica package.

  14. A passive transmitter for quantum key distribution with coherent light

    CERN Document Server

    Curty, Marcos; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2011-01-01

    Signal state preparation in quantum key distribution schemes can be realized using either an active or a passive source. Passive sources might be valuable in some scenarios; for instance, in those experimental setups operating at high transmission rates, since no externally driven element is required. Typical passive transmitters involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized coherent pulses also allow passive generation of decoy states and Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) polarization signals, though the combination of both setups in a single passive source is cumbersome. In this paper, we present a complete passive transmitter that prepares decoy-state BB84 signals using coherent light. Our method employs sum-frequency generation together with linear optical components and classical photodetectors. In the asymptotic limit of an infinite long experiment, the resulting secret key rate (per pulse) is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state BB84 setup wit...

  15. Coherent Zeeman resonance from electron spin coherence in a mixed-type GaAs/AlAs quantum well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Shannon; Wang, Hailin; Prineas, John P

    2007-03-01

    Coherent Zeeman resonance from electron spin coherence is demonstrated in a Lambda-type three-level system, coupling electron spin states via trions. The optical control of electron density that is characteristic of a mixed-type quantum-well facilitates the study of trion formation as well as the effects of many-body interactions on the manifestation of electron spin coherence in the nonlinear optical response.

  16. The high-order quantum coherence of thermal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui

    Thermal light, such as sunlight, is usually considered classical light. In a macroscopic picture, classical theory successfully explained the first-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. The macroscopic theory, based on the statistical behavior of light intensity fluctuations, however, can only phenomenologically explain the second- or higher-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. This thesis introduces a microscopic quantum picture, based on the interferences of a large number of randomly distributed and randomly radiated subfields, wavepackets or photons, to the study of high-order coherence of thermal light. This thesis concludes that the second-order intensity fluctuation correlation is caused by nonlocal interference: a pair of wavepackets, which are randomly paired together, interferes with the pair itself at two distant space-time coordinates. This study has the following practical motivations: (1) to simulate N-qbits. Practical quantum computing requires quantum bits(qubits) of N-digit to represent all possible integers from 0 to 2N-1 simultaneously. A large number of independent particles can be prepared to represent a large set of N orthogonal |0> and |1> bits. In fact, based on our recent experiments of simulating the high-order correlation of entangled photons, thermal radiation is suggested as a promising source for quantum information processing. (2) to achieve sunlight ghost imaging. Ghost imaging has three attractive non-classical features: (a) the ghost camera can "see" targets that can never be seen by a classic camera; (2) it is turbulence-free; and (3) its spatial resolution is mainly determined by the angular diameter of the light source. For example, a sunlight ghost image of an object on earth may achieve a spatial resolution of 200 micrometer because the angular diameter of sun is 0.53 degree with respect to Earth. Although ghost imaging has been experimental demonstrated by using entangled photon pairs and "pseudo-thermal light

  17. Probing quantum coherence in arrays of superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liguori, Alexandra; Rivas, Angel; Huelga, Susana; Plenio, Martin [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the mid-80's the so-called phenomenon of dynamic localization was shown for a charged particle moving under the influence of a sinusoidally-varying time-dependent electric field, and more recently similar resonances in the conduction were found to be present also in ion channels. In this work we study the conditions under which this dynamic localization can be found in arrays of superconducting qubits. This phenomenon can serve as a signature of quantum coherence in such systems and moreover could be checked experimentally by various groups constructing arrays of superconducting flux qubits.

  18. Polarization-Sensitive Quantum Optical Coherence Tomography: Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark C; Teich, Malvin Carl

    2010-01-01

    Polarization-sensitive quantum optical coherence tomography (PS-QOCT) makes use of a Type-II twin-photon light source for carrying out optical sectioning with polarization sensitivity. A BBO nonlinear optical crystal pumped by a Ti:sapphire psec-pulsed laser is used to confirm the theoretical underpinnings of this imaging paradigm. PS-QOCT offers even-order dispersion cancellation with simultaneous access to the group-velocity dispersion characteristics of the interstitial medium between the reflecting surfaces of the sample.

  19. Quantum Coherent Multielectron Processes in an Atomic Scale Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Peter-Jan; Xu, Fei; Kaasbjerg, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    The light emission from a scanning tunneling microscope operated on a Ag(111) surface at 6 K is analyzed from low conductances to values approaching the conductance quantum. Optical spectra recorded at sample voltages V reveal emission with photon energies hv > 2eV. A model of electrons interacting...... coherently via a localized plasmon-polariton mode reproduces the experimental data, in particular, the kinks in the spectra at eV and 2eV as well as the scaling of the intensity at low and intermediate conductances....

  20. Requirement of optical coherence for continuous-variable quantum teleportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, T; Sanders, B C

    2001-08-13

    We show that the sender and the receiver each require coherent devices in order to achieve unconditional continuous variable quantum teleportation (CVQT), and this requirement cannot be achieved with conventional laser sources, linear optics, ideal photon detectors, and perfect Fock state sources. The appearance of successful CVQT in recent experiments is due to interpreting the measurement record fallaciously in terms of one preferred ensemble (or decomposition) of the correct density matrix describing the state. Our analysis is unrelated to technical problems such as laser phase drift or finite squeezing bandwidth.

  1. Quantum-optical coherence tomography with collinear entangled photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Novotny, Lukas

    2012-10-01

    Quantum-optical coherence tomography (QOCT) combines the principles of classical OCT with the correlation properties of entangled photon pairs [Phys. Rev. A 65, 053817 (2002)]. The standard QOCT configuration is based on the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, which uses entangled photons propagating in separate interferometer arms. This noncollinear configuration imposes practical limitations, e.g., misalignment due to drift and low signal-to-noise. Here, we introduce and implement QOCT based on collinear entangled photons. It makes use of a two-photon Michelson interferometer and offers several advantages, such as simplicity, robustness, and adaptability.

  2. Quantum Coherent Multielectron Processes in an Atomic Scale Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Peter-Jan; Xu, Fei; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Rastelli, Gianluca; Belzig, Wolfgang; Berndt, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The light emission from a scanning tunneling microscope operated on a Ag(111) surface at 6 K is analyzed from low conductances to values approaching the conductance quantum. Optical spectra recorded at sample voltages V reveal emission with photon energies h ν >2 e V . A model of electrons interacting coherently via a localized plasmon-polariton mode reproduces the experimental data, in particular, the kinks in the spectra at e V and 2 e V as well as the scaling of the intensity at low and intermediate conductances.

  3. Coherent feedback control of multipartite quantum entanglement for optical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, 030006 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Coherent feedback control (CFC) of multipartite optical entangled states produced by a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier is theoretically studied. The features of the quantum correlations of amplitude and phase quadratures among more than two entangled optical modes can be controlled by tuning the transmissivity of the optical beam splitter in the CFC loop. The physical conditions to enhance continuous variable multipartite entanglement of optical fields utilizing the CFC loop are obtained. The numeric calculations based on feasible physical parameters of realistic systems provide direct references for the design of experimental devices.

  4. Long coherence times in self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Leosson, K.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of ultra-long coherence in self-assembled quantum dots. Transient four-wave mixing experiments at 5 K show an average dephasing time of 372 ps, corresponding to a homogeneous linewidth of 3.5 mueV, which is significantly smaller than the linewidth observed in single-dot...... luminescence. Time-resolved luminescence measurements show a lifetime of the dot ground state of 800 ps demonstrating the presence of pure dephasing at finite temperature. The homogeneous width is lifetime limited only at temperatures approaching 0 K....

  5. Quantum theory of optical coherence selected papers and lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Glauber, Roy J

    2007-01-01

    A summary of the pioneering work of Glauber in the field of optical coherence phenomena and photon statistics, this book describes the fundamental ideas of modern quantum optics and photonics in a tutorial style. It is thus not only intended as a reference for researchers in the field, but also to give graduate students an insight into the basic theories of the field. Written by the Nobel Laureate himself, the concepts described in this book have formed the basis for three further Nobel Prizes in Physics within the last decade

  6. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shi-Hai; GAO Ming; DAI Hong-Yi; CHEN Ping-Xing; LI Cheng-Zu

    2008-01-01

    We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.

  7. Quantum transport in a two-level quantum dot driven by coherent and stochastic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Sha-Sha; Miao, Ling-E.; Guo, Zhen; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Huai-Wu; Lü, Hai-Feng

    2016-12-01

    We study theoretically the current and shot noise properties flowing through a two-level quantum dot driven by a strong coherent field and a weak stochastic field. The interaction x(t) between the quantum dot and the stochastic field is assumed to be a Gaussian-Markovian random process with zero mean value and correlation function = Dκe - κ | t - t ‧ | , where D and κ are the strength and bandwidth of the stochastic field, respectively. It is found that the stochastic field could enhance the resonant effect between the quantum dot and the coherent field, and generate new resonant points. At the resonant points, the state population difference between two levels is suppressed and the current is considerably enhanced. The zero-frequency shot noise of the current varies dramatically between sub- and super-Poissonian characteristics by tuning the stochastic field appropriately.

  8. Topological quantum buses: coherent quantum information transfer between topological and conventional qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Bonderson, Parsa

    2010-01-01

    We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems.

  9. Topological Quantum Buses: Coherent Quantum Information Transfer between Topological and Conventional Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderson, Parsa; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2011-04-01

    We propose computing bus devices that enable quantum information to be coherently transferred between topological and conventional qubits. We describe a concrete realization of such a topological quantum bus acting between a topological qubit in a Majorana wire network and a conventional semiconductor double quantum dot qubit. Specifically, this device measures the joint (fermion) parity of these two different qubits by using the Aharonov-Casher effect in conjunction with an ancilliary superconducting flux qubit that facilitates the measurement. Such a parity measurement, together with the ability to apply Hadamard gates to the two qubits, allows one to produce states in which the topological and conventional qubits are maximally entangled and to teleport quantum states between the topological and conventional quantum systems.

  10. Microwave-Driven Coherent Operation of a Semiconductor Quantum Dot Charge Qubit (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Microwave-driven coherent operation of a semiconductor quantum dot charge qubit Dohun Kim,1 D. R. Ward,1 C. B. Simmons,1 John King Gamble,2 Robin...Fig.4a. Coherent microwave ac-gating of a semiconductor quantum dot charge qubit offers fast ( >GHz) manip- ulation rates for all elementary rotation...2014). [12] Kim, D. et al. Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit. Nature 511, 70–74 (2014). [13] Vion, D

  11. 8th Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics was held on the campus of the University of Rochester during the period June 13-16,2001. This volume contains the proceedings of the meeting. The meeting was preceded by an affiliated conference, the International Conference on Quantum Information, with some overlapping sessions on June 13. The proceedings of the affiliated conference will be published separately by the Optical Society of America. A few papers that were presented in common plenary sessions of the two conferences will be published in both proceedings volumes. More than 268 scientists from 28 countries participated in the week long discussions and presentations. This Conference differed from the previous seven in the CQO series in several ways, the most important of which was the absence of Leonard Mandel. Professor Mandel died a few months before the conference. A special memorial symposium in his honor was held at the end of the conference. The presentations from that sym...

  12. Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corndorf, Eric

    objectives of key generation and direct data-encryption, a new quantum cryptographic principle is demonstrated wherein keyed coherent-state signal sets are employed. Taking advantage of the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states, these schemes do not require the users to measure the influence of an attacker. Experimental key-generation and data encryption schemes based on these techniques, which are compatible with today's WDM fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, are implemented and analyzed.

  13. Environment-induced quantum coherence spreading of a qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzobom, Mauro B.; Maziero, Jonas

    2017-02-01

    We make a thorough study of the spreading of quantum coherence (QC), as quantified by the l1-norm QC, when a qubit (a two-level quantum system) is subjected to noise quantum channels commonly appearing in quantum information science. We notice that QC is generally not conserved and that even incoherent initial states can lead to transitory system-environment QC. We show that for the amplitude damping channel the evolved total QC can be written as the sum of local and non-local parts, with the last one being equal to entanglement. On the other hand, for the phase damping channel (PDC) entanglement does not account for all non-local QC, with the gap between them depending on time and also on the qubit's initial state. Besides these issues, the possibility and conditions for time invariance of QC are regarded in the case of bit, phase, and bit-phase flip channels. Here we reveal the qualitative dynamical inequivalence between these channels and the PDC and show that the creation of system-environment entanglement does not necessarily imply the destruction of the qubit's QC. We also investigate the resources needed for non-local QC creation, showing that while the PDC requires initial coherence of the qubit, for some other channels non-zero population of the excited state (i.e., energy) is sufficient. Related to that, considering the depolarizing channel we notice the qubit's ability to act as a catalyst for the creation of joint QC and entanglement, without need for nonzero initial QC or excited state population.

  14. Editorial . Quantum fluctuations and coherence in optical and atomic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschner, Jürgen; Gatti, Alessandra; Maître, Agnès; Morigi, Giovanna

    2003-03-01

    From simple interference fringes, over molecular wave packets, to nonlinear optical patterns - the fundamental interaction between light and matter leads to the formation of structures in many areas of atomic and optical physics. Sophisticated technology in experimental quantum optics, as well as modern computational tools available to theorists, have led to spectacular achievements in the investigation of quantum structures. This special issue is dedicated to recent developments in this area. It presents a selection of examples where quantum dynamics, fluctuations, and coherence generate structures in time or in space or where such structures are observed experimentally. The examples range from coherence phenomena in condensed matter, over atoms in optical structures, entanglement in light and matter, to quantum patterns in nonlinear optics and quantum imaging. The combination of such seemingly diverse subjects formed the basis of a successful European TMR network, "Quantum Structures" (visit http://cnqo.phys.strath.ac.uk/~gianluca/QSTRUCT/). This special issue partly re.ects the results and collaborations of the network, going however well beyond its scope by including contributions from a global community and from many related topics which were not addressed directly in the network. The aim of this issue is to present side by side these di.erent topics, all of which are loosely summarized under quantum structures, to highlight their common aspects, their di.erences, and the progress which resulted from the mutual exchange of results, methods, and knowledge. To guide the reader, we have organized the articles into subsections which follow a rough division into structures in material systems and structures in optical .elds. Nevertheless, in the following introduction we point out connections between the contributions which go beyond these usual criteria, thus highlighting the truly interdisciplinary nature of quantum structures. Much of the progress in atom optics

  15. Quantum key distribution using gaussian-modulated coherent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosshans, Frédéric; Van Assche, Gilles; Wenger, Jérôme; Brouri, Rosa; Cerf, Nicolas J; Grangier, Philippe

    2003-01-16

    Quantum continuous variables are being explored as an alternative means to implement quantum key distribution, which is usually based on single photon counting. The former approach is potentially advantageous because it should enable higher key distribution rates. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a quantum key distribution protocol based on the transmission of gaussian-modulated coherent states (consisting of laser pulses containing a few hundred photons) and shot-noise-limited homodyne detection; squeezed or entangled beams are not required. Complete secret key extraction is achieved using a reverse reconciliation technique followed by privacy amplification. The reverse reconciliation technique is in principle secure for any value of the line transmission, against gaussian individual attacks based on entanglement and quantum memories. Our table-top experiment yields a net key transmission rate of about 1.7 megabits per second for a loss-free line, and 75 kilobits per second for a line with losses of 3.1 dB. We anticipate that the scheme should remain effective for lines with higher losses, particularly because the present limitations are essentially technical, so that significant margin for improvement is available on both the hardware and software.

  16. Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan

    2010-01-01

    Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling single- and bi-partite quantum systems, coherent control of quantum wave function in multipartite systems involving artificial solid-state qubits has been hampered due to the relatively short decoherence time and lack of precise control methods. Here we report the creation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in a tripartite quantum system, which is formed by a superconducting qubit coupled to two microscopic two-level systems (TLSs). The avoided crossings in the system's energy-level spectrum due to the qubit–TLS interaction act as tunable quantum beam splitters of wave functions. Our result shows that the Landau–Zener–Stückelberg interference has great potential in precise control of the quantum states in the tripartite system. PMID:20975719

  17. MR Imaging with Intermolecular Multiple quantum Coherences (iMQCs):Fundamental Questions and Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Pursuit of new contrast in imaging has been the driving force behind many innovative applications of physics in medical MRI. Even though the use of intramolecular multiple quantum coherence in NMR spectroscopy has a long history, intermolecular multiple quantum coherence (iMQC) among spins on different molecules, such as protonproton iMQC in water, was considered impossible for many years.

  18. Experimental detection of quantum coherent evolution through the violation of Leggett-Garg-type inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zong-Quan; Huelga, Susana F; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-09-11

    We discuss the use of inequalities of the Leggett-Garg type (LGtI) to witness quantum coherence and present the first experimental violation of this type of inequalities using a light-matter interfaced system. By separately benchmarking the Markovian character of the evolution and the translational invariance of the conditional probabilities, the observed violation of a LGtI is attributed to the quantum coherent character of the process. These results provide a general method to benchmark "quantumness" when the absence of memory effects can be independently certified and confirm the persistence of quantum coherent features within systems of increasing complexity.

  19. Time-delayed quantum coherent Pyragas feedback control of photon squeezing in a degenerate parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Manuel; Hein, Sven M.; Lehnert, Judith; Schöll, Eckehard; Hughes, Stephen; Knorr, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Quantum coherent feedback control is a measurement-free control method fully preserving quantum coherence. In this paper we show how time-delayed quantum coherent feedback can be used to control the degree of squeezing in the output field of a cavity containing a degenerate parametric oscillator. We focus on the specific situation of Pyragas-type feedback control where time-delayed signals are fed back directly into the quantum system. Our results show how time-delayed feedback can enhance or decrease the degree of squeezing as a function of time delay and feedback strength.

  20. Quantum optical coherence can survive photon losses using a continuous-variable quantum erasure-correcting code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Sabuncu, Metin; Huck, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code that robustly protects the involved fragile quantum states from their environment. Just as classical error-correcting codes are indispensible in today's information t...... is generally the strongest limitation to quantum communication, such an erasure-correcting code provides a new tool for establishing quantum optical coherence over longer distances.......A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code that robustly protects the involved fragile quantum states from their environment. Just as classical error-correcting codes are indispensible in today's information...... technologies, it is believed that quantum error-correcting code will play a similarly crucial role in tomorrow's quantum information systems. Here, we report on the experimental demonstration of a quantum erasure-correcting code that overcomes the devastating effect of photon losses. Our quantum code is based...

  1. Quantum dot mode locked lasers for coherent frequency comb generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.; Calò, C.; Rosales, R.; Watts, R. T.; Merghem, K.; Accard, A.; Lelarge, F.; Barry, L. P.; Ramdane, A.

    2013-12-01

    Monolithic semiconductor passively mode locked lasers (MLL) are very attractive components for many applications including high bit rate telecommunications, microwave photonics and instrumentation. Owing to the three dimensional confinement of the charge carriers, quantum dot based mode-locked lasers have been the subject of intense investigations because of their improved performance compared to conventional material systems. Indeed, the inhomogeneous gain broadening and the ultrafast absorption recovery dynamics are an asset for short pulse generation. Moreover, the weak coupling of amplified spontaneous emission with the guided modes plus low loss waveguide leads to low timing jitter. Our work concentrates on InAs quantum dash nanostructures grown on InP substrate, intended for applications in the 1.55 μm telecom window. InAs/InP quantum dash based lasers, in particular, have demonstrated efficient mode locking in single section Fabry-Perot configurations. The flat optical spectrum of about 12 nm, combined with the narrow RF beat note linewidth of about 10 kHz make them a promising technology for optical frequency comb generation. Coherence between spectral modes was assessed by means of spectral phase measurements. The parabolic spectral phase profile indicates that short pulses can be obtained provided the intracavity dispersion can be compensated by inserting a single mode fiber.

  2. Entanglement distribution schemes employing coherent photon-to-spin conversion in semiconductor quantum dot circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, Louis; Bogan, Alex; Korkusinski, Marek; Studenikin, Sergei; Austing, D. Guy; Sachrajda, Andrew S.

    2017-09-01

    Long distance entanglement distribution is an important problem for quantum information technologies to solve. Current optical schemes are known to have fundamental limitations. A coherent photon-to-spin interface built with quantum dots (QDs) in a direct bandgap semiconductor can provide a solution for efficient entanglement distribution. QD circuits offer integrated spin processing for full Bell state measurement (BSM) analysis and spin quantum memory. Crucially the photo-generated spins can be heralded by non-destructive charge detection techniques. We review current schemes to transfer a polarization-encoded state or a time-bin-encoded state of a photon to the state of a spin in a QD. The spin may be that of an electron or that of a hole. We describe adaptations of the original schemes to employ heavy holes which have a number of attractive properties including a g-factor that is tunable to zero for QDs in an appropriately oriented external magnetic field. We also introduce simple throughput scaling models to demonstrate the potential performance advantage of full BSM capability in a QD scheme, even when the quantum memory is imperfect, over optical schemes relying on linear optical elements and ensemble quantum memories.

  3. Quantum Coherent Three-Terminal Thermoelectrics: Maximum Efficiency at Given Power Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Whitney

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the nonlinear scattering theory for three-terminal thermoelectric devices used for power generation or refrigeration. Such systems are quantum phase-coherent versions of a thermocouple, and the theory applies to systems in which interactions can be treated at a mean-field level. It considers an arbitrary three-terminal system in any external magnetic field, including systems with broken time-reversal symmetry, such as chiral thermoelectrics, as well as systems in which the magnetic field plays no role. It is shown that the upper bound on efficiency at given power output is of quantum origin and is stricter than Carnot’s bound. The bound is exactly the same as previously found for two-terminal devices and can be achieved by three-terminal systems with or without broken time-reversal symmetry, i.e., chiral and non-chiral thermoelectrics.

  4. Macroscopic quantum superposition of spin ensembles with ultra-long coherence times via superradiant masing

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Liang; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena such as lasers, Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids, and superconductors are of great importance in foundations and applications of quantum mechanics. In particular, quantum superposition of a large number of spins in solids is highly desirable for both quantum information processing and ultrasensitive magnetometry. Spin ensembles in solids, however, have rather short collective coherence time (typically less than microseconds). Here we demonstrate that under realistic conditions it is possible to maintain macroscopic quantum superposition of a large spin ensemble (such as about ~10^{14} nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins in diamond) with an extremely long coherence time ~10^8 sec under readily accessible conditions. The scheme, following the mechanism of superradiant lasers, is based on superradiant masing due to coherent coupling between collective spin excitations (magnons) and microwave cavity photons. The coherence time of the macroscopic quantum superposition is the ...

  5. Reversible quantum optical data storage based on resonant Raman optical field excited spin coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byoung S

    2008-09-01

    A method of reversible quantum optical data storage is presented using resonant Raman field excited spin coherence, where the spin coherence is stored in an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble. Unlike the photon echo method, in the present technique, a 2pi Raman optical rephasing pulse area is used and multimode (parallel) optical channels are available in which the multimode access gives a great benefit to quantum information processors such as quantum repeaters.

  6. The size effect of the quantum coherence in the transverse-field XY chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Yang, Cui-hong; Wang, Jun-feng [Department of Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Lei, Shu-guo, E-mail: sglei@njtech.edu.cn [College of Science, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 211816 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Based on the Wigner–Yanase skew information, the size effect of the quantum coherence in the ground state of the finite transverse-field spin-1/2 XY chain is explored. It is found that the first-order derivatives of the single-spin coherence and the two-spin local coherence both have scaling behaviors in the vicinity of the critical point. A simplified version of coherence is also studied and the same characteristics with its counterpart are found.

  7. Enhancing light-harvesting power with coherent vibrational interactions: A quantum heat engine picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Huelga, S F; Plenio, M B

    2015-10-21

    Recent evidence suggests that quantum effects may have functional importance in biological light-harvesting systems. Along with delocalized electronic excitations, it is now suspected that quantum coherent interactions with certain near-resonant vibrations may contribute to light-harvesting performance. However, the actual quantum advantage offered by such coherent vibrational interactions has not yet been established. We investigate a quantum design principle, whereby coherent exchange of single energy quanta between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom can enhance a light-harvesting system's power above what is possible by thermal mechanisms alone. We present a prototype quantum heat engine which cleanly illustrates this quantum design principle and quantifies its quantum advantage using thermodynamic measures of performance. We also demonstrate the principle's relevance in parameter regimes connected to natural light-harvesting structures.

  8. Enhancing light-harvesting power with coherent vibrational interactions: A quantum heat engine picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killoran, N.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2015-10-21

    Recent evidence suggests that quantum effects may have functional importance in biological light-harvesting systems. Along with delocalized electronic excitations, it is now suspected that quantum coherent interactions with certain near-resonant vibrations may contribute to light-harvesting performance. However, the actual quantum advantage offered by such coherent vibrational interactions has not yet been established. We investigate a quantum design principle, whereby coherent exchange of single energy quanta between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom can enhance a light-harvesting system’s power above what is possible by thermal mechanisms alone. We present a prototype quantum heat engine which cleanly illustrates this quantum design principle and quantifies its quantum advantage using thermodynamic measures of performance. We also demonstrate the principle’s relevance in parameter regimes connected to natural light-harvesting structures.

  9. Enhancing light-harvesting power with coherent vibrational interactions: a quantum heat engine picture

    CERN Document Server

    Killoran, Nathan; Plenio, Martin B

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that quantum effects may have functional importance in biological light-harvesting systems. Along with delocalized electronic excitations, it is now suspected that quantum coherent interactions with certain near-resonant vibrations contribute to light-harvesting performance. However, the actual quantum advantage offered by such coherent vibrational interactions has not yet been established. We investigate a quantum design principle, whereby coherent exchange of single energy quanta between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom can enhance a light-harvesting system's power above what is possible by thermal mechanisms alone. We present a prototype quantum heat engine which cleanly illustrates this quantum design principle, and quantify its quantum advantage using thermodynamic measures of performance. We also demonstrate the principle's applicability for realistic biological structures.

  10. Quantum error-correction failure distributions: Comparison of coherent and stochastic error models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeff P.; Trout, Colin J.; Lucarelli, Dennis; Clader, B. D.

    2017-06-01

    We compare failure distributions of quantum error correction circuits for stochastic errors and coherent errors. We utilize a fully coherent simulation of a fault-tolerant quantum error correcting circuit for a d =3 Steane and surface code. We find that the output distributions are markedly different for the two error models, showing that no simple mapping between the two error models exists. Coherent errors create very broad and heavy-tailed failure distributions. This suggests that they are susceptible to outlier events and that mean statistics, such as pseudothreshold estimates, may not provide the key figure of merit. This provides further statistical insight into why coherent errors can be so harmful for quantum error correction. These output probability distributions may also provide a useful metric that can be utilized when optimizing quantum error correcting codes and decoding procedures for purely coherent errors.

  11. Long-lived quantum coherence in photosynthetic complexes at physiological temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Panitchayangkoon, Gitt; Fransted, Kelly A; Caram, Justin R; Harel, Elad; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E; Engel, Gregory S

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthetic antenna complexes capture and concentrate solar radiation by transferring the excitation to the reaction center which stores energy from the photon in chemical bonds. This process occurs with near-perfect quantum efficiency. Recent experiments at cryogenic temperatures have revealed that coherent energy transfer - a wavelike transfer mechanism - occurs in many photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes (1-4). Using the Fenna-Matthews-Olson antenna complex (FMO) as a model system, theoretical studies incorporating both incoherent and coherent transfer as well as thermal dephasing predict that environmentally assisted quantum transfer efficiency peaks near physiological temperature; these studies further show that this process is equivalent to a quantum random walk algorithm (5-8). This theory requires long-lived quantum coherence at room temperature, which never has been observed in FMO. Here we present the first evidence that quantum coherence survives in FMO at physiological temperature for at l...

  12. Coherent quantum state storage and transfer between two phase qubits via a resonant cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Mika A; Park, Jae I; Simmonds, Raymond W

    2007-09-27

    As with classical information processing, a quantum information processor requires bits (qubits) that can be independently addressed and read out, long-term memory elements to store arbitrary quantum states, and the ability to transfer quantum information through a coherent communication bus accessible to a large number of qubits. Superconducting qubits made with scalable microfabrication techniques are a promising candidate for the realization of a large-scale quantum information processor. Although these systems have successfully passed tests of coherent coupling for up to four qubits, communication of individual quantum states between superconducting qubits via a quantum bus has not yet been realized. Here, we perform an experiment demonstrating the ability to coherently transfer quantum states between two superconducting Josephson phase qubits through a quantum bus. This quantum bus is a resonant cavity formed by an open-ended superconducting transmission line of length 7 mm. After preparing an initial quantum state with the first qubit, this quantum information is transferred and stored as a nonclassical photon state of the resonant cavity, then retrieved later by the second qubit connected to the opposite end of the cavity. Beyond simple state transfer, these results suggest that a high-quality-factor superconducting cavity could also function as a useful short-term memory element. The basic architecture presented here can be expanded, offering the possibility for the coherent interaction of a large number of superconducting qubits.

  13. Complete Coherent Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nanocavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in good agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms. PMID:27112420

  14. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-20

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process.

  15. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    In the quantum world, a single particle can have various degrees of freedom to encode quantum information. Controlling multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe a particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. Here we introduce the transverse waveguide-mode degree of freedom to quantum photonic integrated circuits, and demonstrate the coherent conversion of a photonic quantum state between path, polarization and transverse waveguide-mode degrees of freedom on a single chip. The preservation of quantum coherence in these conversion processes is proven by single-photon and two-photon quantum interference using a fibre beam splitter or on-chip beam splitters. These results provide us with the ability to control and convert multiple degrees of freedom of photons for quantum photonic integrated circuit-based quantum information process. PMID:27321821

  16. Limitations on the Evolution of Quantum Coherences: Towards Fully Quantum Second Laws of Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwikliński, Piotr; Studziński, Michał; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2015-11-20

    The second law of thermodynamics places a limitation into which states a system can evolve into. For systems in contact with a heat bath, it can be combined with the law of energy conservation, and it says that a system can only evolve into another if the free energy goes down. Recently, it's been shown that there are actually many second laws, and that it is only for large macroscopic systems that they all become equivalent to the ordinary one. These additional second laws also hold for quantum systems, and are, in fact, often more relevant in this regime. They place a restriction on how the probabilities of energy levels can evolve. Here, we consider additional restrictions on how the coherences between energy levels can evolve. Coherences can only go down, and we provide a set of restrictions which limit the extent to which they can be maintained. We find that coherences over energy levels must decay at rates that are suitably adapted to the transition rates between energy levels. We show that the limitations are matched in the case of a single qubit, in which case we obtain the full characterization of state-to-state transformations. For higher dimensions, we conjecture that more severe constraints exist. We also introduce a new class of thermodynamical operations which allow for greater manipulation of coherences and study its power with respect to a class of operations known as thermal operations.

  17. Chemical Compass Model for Avian Magnetoreception as a Quantum Coherent Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianming; Plenio, Martin B.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that more than 50 species use the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation and navigation. Intensive studies, particularly behavior experiments with birds, provide support for a chemical compass based on magnetically sensitive free radical reactions as a source of this sense. However, the fundamental question of how quantum coherence plays an essential role in such a chemical compass model of avian magnetoreception yet remains controversial. Here, we show that the essence of the chemical compass model can be understood in analogy to a quantum interferometer exploiting global quantum coherence rather than any subsystem coherence. Within the framework of quantum metrology, we quantify global quantum coherence and correlate it with the function of chemical magnetoreception. Our results allow us to understand and predict how various factors can affect the performance of a chemical compass from the unique perspective of quantum coherence assisted metrology. This represents a crucial step to affirm a direct connection between quantum coherence and the function of a chemical compass.

  18. Quantum State Engineering by Superpositions of Coherent States along aStraight Line in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑仕标

    2001-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating the superpositions of several coherent states in a cavity field with dispersive cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). In the scheme, a sequence of atoms interacts dispersively with the cavity field, connected with a microwave source, and is manipulated by classical fields, followed by state-selective measurements. In this way, the cavity field is collapsed onto a superposition of several coherent states along a straight line with controllable coefficients. This scheme provides the possibility for quantum state engineering via coherent-state superpositions along a straight line in cavity QED for the first time.

  19. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states through varied gain channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhang Jing; Zhang Jun-Xiang; Zhang Tian-Cai

    2006-01-01

    This paper has investigated quantum teleportation of even and odd coherent states in terms of the EPR entanglement states for continuous variables. It discusses the relationship between the fidelity and the entanglement of EPR states, which is characterized by the degree of squeezing and the gain of classical channels. It shows that the quality of teleporting quantum states also depends on the characteristics of the states themselves. The properties of teleporting even and odd coherent states at different intensities are investigated. The difference of teleporting two such kinds of quantum states are analysed based on the quantum distance function.

  20. A Coherence Preservation Control Strategy in Cavity QED Based on Classical Quantum Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For eliminating the unexpected decoherence effect in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED, the transfer function of Rabi oscillation is derived theoretically using optical Bloch equations. In particular, the decoherence in cavity QED from the atomic spontaneous emission is especially considered. A feedback control strategy is proposed to preserve the coherence through Rabi oscillation stabilization. In the scheme, a classical quantum feedback channel for the quantum information acquisition is constructed via the quantum tomography technology, and a compensation system based on the root locus theory is put forward to suppress the atomic spontaneous emission and the associated decoherence. The simulation results have proved its effectiveness and superiority for the coherence preservation.

  1. Electronic Enhancement of the Exciton Coherence Time in Charged Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, G.; McDonald, C.; Feldman, A.; Harvey, T.; Mirin, R. P.; Silverman, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing decoherence due to coupling of a quantum system to its fluctuating environment is at the forefront of quantum information and photonics research. Nature sets the ultimate limit, however, given by the strength of the system’s coupling to the electromagnetic field. Here, we establish the ability to electronically control this coupling and enhance the optical coherence time of the charged exciton transition in quantum dots embedded in a photonic waveguide. By manipulating the electronic wavefunctions through an applied lateral electric field, we increase the coherence time from ~ 1.4 ns to ~ 2.7 ns. Numerical calculations reveal that longer coherence arises from the separation of charge carriers by up to ~ 6 nm, which leads to a 30% weaker transition dipole moment. The ability to electronically control the coherence time opens new avenues for quantum communication and novel coupling schemes between distant qubits. PMID:26849614

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency due to intervalence band coherence in a GaAs quantum well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mark; Wang, Hailin

    2003-05-15

    We demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency in the transient optical response in a GaAs quantum well by using the nonradiative coherence between the heavy-hole and the light-hole valence bands.

  3. Coherent nanocavity structures for enhancement in internal quantum efficiency of III-nitride multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.; Liu, B.; Smith, R.; Athanasiou, M.; Gong, Y.; Wang, T., E-mail: t.wang@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-21

    A “coherent” nanocavity structure has been designed on two-dimensional well-ordered InGaN/GaN nanodisk arrays with an emission wavelength in the green spectral region, leading to a massive enhancement in resonance mode in the green spectra region. By means of a cost-effective nanosphere lithography technique, we have fabricated such a structure on an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well epiwafer and have observed the “coherent” nanocavity effect, which leads to an enhanced spontaneous emission (SE) rate. The enhanced SE rate has been confirmed by time resolved photoluminescence measurements. Due to the coherent nanocavity effect, we have achieved a massive improvement in internal quantum efficiency with a factor of 88, compared with the as-grown sample, which could be significant to bridge the “green gap” in solid-state lighting.

  4. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  5. Controlling quantum coherence of atom laser by light with strong strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING; Hui(景辉); GE; Molin(葛墨林); GE; Molin(葛墨林)

    2002-01-01

    A new method for controlling the quantum coherence of atom laser by applying input light with strong strength is presented within the framework of quantum dynamical theory. Unlike the case of rotating wave approximation(RWA), we show that the non-classical properties, such as sub-Poisson distribution and quadrature squeezed effect, can appear in the output atom laser beam with time. By choosing suitable initial RF phase, a steady and brighter output of squeezed coherent atom laser is also available.

  6. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  7. Correspondence between Propagating Characters of Coherent States and Energy Spectral Statistics in Chaotic Quantum Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The quantum mechanical behavior of classically chaotic systems,usually referred to as quantum chaos,is of interest,since the classical limit is still poorly understood for soft chaos~([1,2]).Here the spatio-temporal evolution of axially symmetric harmonic oscillator coherent states under the action of perturbed Harniltonian with octupole deformation is studied for a classically soft chaotic systems.The initial coherent state

  8. Quantum Entanglement and Correlation of Two Qubit Atoms Interacting with the Coherent State Optical Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing

    2017-10-01

    Using the three criterions of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord, we investigate the quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics of two two-level atoms interacting with the coherent state optical field. We discuss the influence of different photon number of the mean square fluctuations on the temporal evolution of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord between two atoms when the two atoms are initially in specific three states. The results show that different photon number of the mean square fluctuations can lead to different effects of quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics.

  9. Quantum Entanglement and Correlation of Two Qubit Atoms Interacting with the Coherent State Optical Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing

    2017-08-01

    Using the three criterions of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord, we investigate the quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics of two two-level atoms interacting with the coherent state optical field. We discuss the influence of different photon number of the mean square fluctuations on the temporal evolution of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord between two atoms when the two atoms are initially in specific three states. The results show that different photon number of the mean square fluctuations can lead to different effects of quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics.

  10. Quantum fuel with multilevel atomic coherence for ultrahigh specific work in a photonic Carnot engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003), 10.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N +1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.

  11. Quantum fuel with multilevel atomic coherence for ultrahigh specific work in a photonic Carnot engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N+1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.

  12. Localized excitons in quantum wells show spin relaxation without coherence loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, R.; Langbein, W.; Runge, E.;

    2001-01-01

    The coherence in the secondary emission from quantum well excitons is studied using the speckle method. Analysing the different polarization channels allows to conclude that (i) no coherence loss occurs in the cross-polarized emission, favouring spin beating instead of spin dephasing, and that (i...

  13. On-chip coherent conversion of photonic quantum signals between different degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Lan-Tian; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Ming; Xiong, Xiao; Yu, Le; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guo-Ping; Dai, Dao-Xin; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-01-01

    In quantum information process, a single quantum particle can have various degrees of freedom and with coherent coupling among them. To control multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously is necessary to describe the particle fully and, therefore, to use it more efficiently. As for photons, polarization, frequency, time, orbital angular momentum, and even transverse mode have been used in free-space and fiber quantum systems. Compared with free space and fiber optics, photonic integrated circuits (PICs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their small footprints, scalability, reduced power consumption, and enhanced processing stability, thus many quantum computation and quantum simulation protocols have been realized on quantum PICs (QPICs). It should be noted that, usually only one degree of freedom, for example, path or polarization, was used in those works. Here we demonstrate the coherent conversion of photonic quantum signals between different degrees of freedom on a single chip. By using mode m...

  14. Quantum Origin of a Hot Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymnikova, Irina; Fil'Chenkov, Michael

    We present the results on the quantum birth of a hot FRW universe in de Sitter vacuum from a quantum fluctuation which contains radiation and strings or some quintessence with the equation of state p=-ɛ/3.REFID="S0218271803003591FN001">The presence of radiation results in quantum tunnelling from a discrete energy level with a non-zero quantized temperature. Energy levels have non-zero width corresponding to temperature fluctuations. The observational constraint on the CMB anisotropy selects the admissible range of the model parameters. For the GUT scale initial de Sitter vacuum, the lower limit on temperature at the start of classical evolution is close to the values predicted by theories of reheating, while an upper limit is far from the threshold for a monopole rest mass. The probability of quantum birth from a level of non-zero energy is much bigger than the probability of quantum birth from nothing. The presence of material with p=-ɛ/3 mimics a positive curvature term which makes possible quantum tunnelling for an open and a flat universe. Most plausible case is a flat universe arising from an initial fluctuation with a small admixture of radiation and strings with the negative deficit angle.

  15. Efficiency and Coherence of Quantum-Dot Single-Photon Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marta Arcari

    The main goal of the project has been to realize an efficient source of coherent single photons by coupling a self-assembled quantum dot to a photonic crystal waveguide. Such a source would have a wide range of applications in the field of quantum information processing. By studying the coupling...... on this result, we improved the design of the photonic crystal waveguide, and we characterized in detail the efficiency of the device and the coherence of the emitted single photons. We investigate the decoherence mechanisms affecting the quantum dots by performing resonance fluorescence experiments on emitters...... of a single charge. A very high degree of coherence can be achieved by embedding quantum dots in electrically gated samples. We show that a single quantum dot behaves like a nearly-ideal two-level system in a sample with electrical gates, and single photons emitted up to 1 μs apart show indistinguishability...

  16. 7th Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard; Wolf, Emil

    1996-01-01

    The Seventh Rochester Conference on Coherence and Quantum Optics was held on the campus of the University of Rochester during the four-day period June 7 - 10, 1996. More than 280 scientists from 33 countries participated. This book contains the Proceedings of the meeting. This Conference differed from the previous six in the series in having only a limited number of oral presentations, in order to avoid too many parallel sessions. Another new feature was the introduction of tutorial lectures. Most contributed papers were presented in poster sessions. The Conference was sponsored by the American Physical Society, by the Optical Society of America, by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and by the University of Rochester. We wish to express our appreciation to these organizations for their support and we especially extend our thanks to the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics for providing financial assistance to a number of speakers from Third World countries, to enable them to take ...

  17. Coherent quantum transport features in carbon superlattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, R.; Henley, S. J.; Silva, S. R. P.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2016-10-01

    Whilst resonant transmission is well understood and can be fully harnessed for crystalline superlattices, a complete picture has not yet emerged for disordered superlattices. It has proven difficult to tune resonant transmission in disordered diamond-like carbon (DLC) superlattices as conventional models are not equipped to incorporate significant structural disorder. In this work, we present concurrent experimental and theoretical analysis which addresses resonant transmission in DLC superlattices. Devices were fabricated by growing alternate layers of DLC with different percentages of sp3 hybridized carbon.Coherent quantum transport effects were demonstrated in these structurally disordered DLC superlattices through distinct current modulation with negative differential resistance (NDR) in the current-voltage (I-V) measurements. A model was developed using tight-binding calculations assuming a random variation of the hopping integral to simulate structural (bond-length) disorder. Calculations of the I-V characteristics compliment the interpretation of the measurements and illustrate that while DLC superlattice structures are unlike their classical counterparts, the near-field structural order will help with the confinement of quantised states. The present model provides an empirical guide for tailoring the properties of future devices, giving rise to much hope that carbon electronics operating at high frequencies over large areas can now be developed.

  18. Investigations of Optical Coherence Properties in an Erbium-doped Silicate Fiber for Quantum State Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Staudt, M U; Afzelius, M; Jaccard, D; Tittel, W; Gisin, Nicolas; Staudt, Matthias U.; Hastings-Simon, Sara R.; Afzelius, Mikael; Jaccard, Didier; Tittel, Wolfgang; Gisin, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    We studied optical coherence properties of the 1.53 $\\mu$m telecommunication transition in an Er$^{3+}$-doped silicate optical fiber through spectral holeburning and photon echoes. We find decoherence times of up to 3.8 $\\mu$s at a magnetic field of 2.2 Tesla and a temperature of 150 mK. A strong magnetic-field dependent optical dephasing was observed and is believed to arise from an interaction between the electronic Er$^{3+}$ spin and the magnetic moment of tunneling modes in the glass. Furthermore, we observed fine-structure in the Erbium holeburning spectrum originating from superhyperfine interaction with $^{27}$Al host nuclei. Our results show that Er$^{3+}$-doped silicate fibers are promising material candidates for quantum state storage.

  19. Nonlinear excitation kinetics of biased quantum wells. Coherent dynamical screening effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a strongly nonlinear process of ultrafast photoexcitation of a biased quantum well. This process is governed by coherent dynamical screening, where the instantaneously polarized photoexcited carriers screen initial bias field. This results in a dynamic modification...... of the bandstructure of the quantum well, which is totally coherent with the temporal intensity distribution of the excitation laser pulse. We developed a time-resolved theoretical model of coherent dynamical screening, which predicts interesting fundamental consequences, such as nonlinear absorption and ultra......-broadband THz emission. The results of our THz and optical experiments are in good agreement with the theoretical model....

  20. Optimal discrimination of M coherent states with a small quantum computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcus P. da; Guha, Saikat; Dutton, Zachary [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-04

    The ability to distinguish between coherent states optimally plays in important role in the efficient usage of quantum resources for classical communication and sensing applications. While it has been known since the early 1970’s how to optimally distinguish between two coherent states, generalizations to larger sets of coherent states have so far failed to reach optimality. In this work we outline how optimality can be achieved by using a small quantum computer, building on recent proposals for optimal qubit state discrimination with multiple copies.

  1. Quantum displacement receiver for M-ary phase-shift-keyed coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Shuro [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan and Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Pozza, Nicola Dalla; Assalini, Antonio [Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131, Padova (Italy); Ema, Kazuhiro [Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We propose quantum receivers for 3- and 4-ary phase-shift-keyed (PSK) coherent state signals to overcome the standard quantum limit (SQL). Our receiver, consisting of a displacement operation and on-off detectors with or without feedforward, provides an error probability performance beyond the SQL. We show feedforward operations can tolerate the requirement for the detector specifications.

  2. Quantum dot-micropillars: a bright source of coherent single photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, Sebastian; He, Yu-Ming; Maier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We present the efficient generation of coherent single photons based on quantum dots in micropillars. We utilize a scalable lithography scheme leading to quantum dot-micropillar devices with 74% extraction efficiency. Via pulsed strict resonant pumping, we show an indistinguishability...... of consecutively emitted photons up to 98.5%....

  3. Causal wave mechanics and the advent of complexity; 4, dynamical origin of quantum indeterminacy and wave reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kirilyuk, A P

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the fundamental dynamic uncertainty (or the fundamental multivaluedness of dynamical functions) developed in parts I-III of this work and used to re-establish the correspondence principle for chaotic Hamiltonian systems provides also a causal description of the basic properties of quantum measurement, - quantum indeterminacy and wave reduction. The modified Schrödinger formalism involving multivalued effective dynamical functions reveals the dynamical origin of quantum indeterminacy as the intrinsic nonlinear instability in the combined quantum system of the measured object interacting with the instrument. As a result of this instability, the originally wide measured wave dynamically "shrinks" around a random accessible point of the combined configurational space loosing its coherence with respect to other possibilities. We do not use any assumptions on particular "classical", "macroscopic", "stochastic", etc. nature of the instrument or environment: full quantum indeterminacy dynamically appe...

  4. Vibronic origin of long-lived coherence in an artificial molecular light harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, James; Paleček, David; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Lincoln, Craig N; Prior, Javier; von Berlepsch, Hans; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B; Zigmantas, Donatas; Hauer, Jürgen

    2015-07-09

    Natural and artificial light-harvesting processes have recently gained new interest. Signatures of long-lasting coherence in spectroscopic signals of biological systems have been repeatedly observed, albeit their origin is a matter of ongoing debate, as it is unclear how the loss of coherence due to interaction with the noisy environments in such systems is averted. Here we report experimental and theoretical verification of coherent exciton-vibrational (vibronic) coupling as the origin of long-lasting coherence in an artificial light harvester, a molecular J-aggregate. In this macroscopically aligned tubular system, polarization-controlled 2D spectroscopy delivers an uncongested and specific optical response as an ideal foundation for an in-depth theoretical description. We derive analytical expressions that show under which general conditions vibronic coupling leads to prolonged excited-state coherence.

  5. Considerations for the extension of coherent optical processors into the quantum computing regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rupert C. D.; Birch, Philip M.; Chatwin, Chris R.

    2016-04-01

    Previously we have examined the similarities of the quantum Fourier transform to the classical coherent optical implementation of the Fourier transform (R. Young et al, Proc SPIE Vol 87480, 874806-1, -11). In this paper, we further consider how superposition states can be generated on coherent optical wave fronts, potentially allowing coherent optical processing hardware architectures to be extended into the quantum computing regime. In particular, we propose placing the pixels of a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) individually in a binary superposition state and illuminating them with a coherent wave front from a conventional (but low intensity) laser source in order to make a so-called `interaction free' measurement. In this way, the quantum object, i.e. the individual pixels of the SLM in their superposition states, and the illuminating wavefront would become entangled. We show that if this were possible, it would allow the extension of coherent processing architectures into the quantum computing regime and we give an example of such a processor configured to recover one of a known set of images encrypted using the well-known coherent optical processing technique of employing a random Fourier plane phase encryption mask which classically requires knowledge of the corresponding phase conjugate key to decrypt the image. A quantum optical computer would allow interrogation of all possible phase masks in parallel and so immediate decryption.

  6. Quantum coherent energy transfer over varying pathways in single light-harvesting complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildner, Richard; Brinks, Daan; Nieder, Jana B; Cogdell, Richard J; van Hulst, Niek F

    2013-06-21

    The initial steps of photosynthesis comprise the absorption of sunlight by pigment-protein antenna complexes followed by rapid and highly efficient funneling of excitation energy to a reaction center. In these transport processes, signatures of unexpectedly long-lived coherences have emerged in two-dimensional ensemble spectra of various light-harvesting complexes. Here, we demonstrate ultrafast quantum coherent energy transfer within individual antenna complexes of a purple bacterium under physiological conditions. We find that quantum coherences between electronically coupled energy eigenstates persist at least 400 femtoseconds and that distinct energy-transfer pathways that change with time can be identified in each complex. Our data suggest that long-lived quantum coherence renders energy transfer in photosynthetic systems robust in the presence of disorder, which is a prerequisite for efficient light harvesting.

  7. Quantum control and coherence of interacting spins in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, G.

    2012-01-01

    The field of quantum science and technology has generated many ideas for new revolutionary devices that exploit the quantum mechanical properties of small-scale systems. Isolated solid state spins play a large role in quantum technologies. They can be used as basic building blocks for a quantum comp

  8. Quantum control and coherence of interacting spins in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, G.

    2012-01-01

    The field of quantum science and technology has generated many ideas for new revolutionary devices that exploit the quantum mechanical properties of small-scale systems. Isolated solid state spins play a large role in quantum technologies. They can be used as basic building blocks for a quantum comp

  9. Quantum Coherence as a Witness of Vibronically Hot Energy Transfer in Bacterial Reaction Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Paleček, David; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Zigmantas, Donatas

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic proteins have evolved over billions of years so as to undergo optimal energy transfer to the sites of charge separation. Based on spectroscopically detected quantum coherences, it has been suggested that this energy transfer is partially wavelike. This conclusion critically depends on assignment of the coherences to the evolution of excitonic superpositions. Here we demonstrate for a bacterial reaction centre protein that long-lived coherent spectroscopic oscillations, which bear canonical signatures of excitonic superpositions, are essentially vibrational excited state coherences shifted to the ground state of the chromophores . We show that appearance of these coherences is brought about by release of electronic energy during the energy transfer. Our results establish how energy migrates on vibrationally hot chromophores in the reaction centre and they call for a re-examination of claims of quantum energy transfer in photosynthesis.

  10. Fault-tolerant linear optical quantum computing with small-amplitude coherent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, A P; Ralph, T C; Haselgrove, H L

    2008-01-25

    Quantum computing using two coherent states as a qubit basis is a proposed alternative architecture with lower overheads but has been questioned as a practical way of performing quantum computing due to the fragility of diagonal states with large coherent amplitudes. We show that using error correction only small amplitudes (alpha>1.2) are required for fault-tolerant quantum computing. We study fault tolerance under the effects of small amplitudes and loss using a Monte Carlo simulation. The first encoding level resources are orders of magnitude lower than the best single photon scheme.

  11. Quantum manipulation and enhancement of deterministic entanglement between atomic ensemble and light via coherent feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun

    2017-06-01

    A quantum mechanical model of the non-measurement based coherent feedback control (CFC) is applied to deterministic atom-light entanglement with imperfect retrieval efficiency, which is generated based on Raman process. We investigate the influence of different experimental parameters on entanglement property of CFC Raman system. By tailoring the transmissivity of coherent feedback controller, it is possible to manipulate the atom-light entanglement. Particularly, we show that CFC allows atom-light entanglement enhancement under appropriate operating conditions. Our work can provide entanglement source between atomic ensemble and light of high quality for high-fidelity quantum networks and quantum computation based on atomic ensemble.

  12. Direct and Indirect Couplings in Coherent Feedback Control of Linear Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guofeng

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and design direct and indirect couplings for use in coherent feedback control of a class of linear quantum stochastic systems. A general physical model for a nominal linear quantum system coupled directly and indirectly to external systems is presented. Fundamental properties of stability, dissipation, passivity, and gain for this class of linear quantum models are presented and characterized using complex Lyapunov equations and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Coherent $H^\\infty$ and LQG synthesis methods are extended to accommodate direct couplings using multistep optimization. Examples are given to illustrate the results.

  13. Quantum heat transport of a two-qubit system: Interplay between system-bath coherence and qubit-qubit coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Akihito, E-mail: kato@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanimura, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanimura@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    We consider a system consisting of two interacting qubits that are individually coupled to separate heat baths at different temperatures. The quantum effects in heat transport are investigated in a numerically rigorous manner with a hierarchial equations of motion (HEOM) approach for non-perturbative and non-Markovian system-bath coupling cases under non-equilibrium steady-state conditions. For a weak interqubit interaction, the total system is regarded as two individually thermostatted systems, whereas for a strong interqubit interaction, the two-qubit system is regarded as a single system coupled to two baths. The roles of quantum coherence (or entanglement) between the two qubits (q-q coherence) and between the qubit and bath (q-b coherence) are studied through the heat current calculated for various strengths of the system-bath coupling and interqubit coupling for high and low temperatures. The same current is also studied using the time convolutionless (TCL) Redfield equation and using an expression derived from the Fermi golden rule (FGR). We find that the HEOM results exhibit turnover behavior of the heat current as a function of the system-bath coupling strength for all values of the interqubit coupling strength, while the results obtained with the TCL and FGR approaches do not exhibit such behavior, because they do not possess the capability of treating the q-b and q-q coherences. The maximum current is obtained in the case that the q-q coherence and q-b coherence are balanced in such a manner that coherence of the entire heat transport process is realized. We also find that the heat current does not follow Fourier’s law when the temperature difference is very large, due to the non-perturbative system-bath interactions.

  14. Coherent entangled light generated by quantum dots in the presence of nuclear magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, R M; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Farrer, I A; Nicoll, C A; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2011-01-01

    A practical source of high fidelity entangled photons is desirable for quantum information applications and exploring quantum physics. Semiconductor quantum dots have recently been shown to conveniently emit entangled light when driven electrically, however the fidelity was not optimal. Here we show that the fidelity is not limited by decoherence, but by coherent interaction with nuclei. Furthermore we predict that on 100\\mu s timescales, strongly enhanced fidelities could be achieved. This insight could allow tailoring of quantum logic to operate using quantum dots in the fault tolerant regime.

  15. Detecting quantum coherence of Bose gases in optical lattices by scattering light intensity in cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoji; Xu, Xu; Yin, Lan; Liu, W M; Chen, Xuzong

    2010-07-19

    We propose a new method of detecting quantum coherence of a Bose gas trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice by measuring the light intensity from Raman scattering in cavity. After pump and displacement process, the intensity or amplitude of scattering light is different for different quantum states of a Bose gas, such as superfluid and Mott-Insulator states. This method can also be useful to detect quantum states of atoms with two components in an optical lattice.

  16. Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, E; Deléglise, S; Weis, S; Schliesser, A; Kippenberg, T J

    2012-02-01

    Optical laser fields have been widely used to achieve quantum control over the motional and internal degrees of freedom of atoms and ions, molecules and atomic gases. A route to controlling the quantum states of macroscopic mechanical oscillators in a similar fashion is to exploit the parametric coupling between optical and mechanical degrees of freedom through radiation pressure in suitably engineered optical cavities. If the optomechanical coupling is 'quantum coherent'--that is, if the coherent coupling rate exceeds both the optical and the mechanical decoherence rate--quantum states are transferred from the optical field to the mechanical oscillator and vice versa. This transfer allows control of the mechanical oscillator state using the wide range of available quantum optical techniques. So far, however, quantum-coherent coupling of micromechanical oscillators has only been achieved using microwave fields at millikelvin temperatures. Optical experiments have not attained this regime owing to the large mechanical decoherence rates and the difficulty of overcoming optical dissipation. Here we achieve quantum-coherent coupling between optical photons and a micromechanical oscillator. Simultaneously, coupling to the cold photon bath cools the mechanical oscillator to an average occupancy of 1.7 ± 0.1 motional quanta. Excitation with weak classical light pulses reveals the exchange of energy between the optical light field and the micromechanical oscillator in the time domain at the level of less than one quantum on average. This optomechanical system establishes an efficient quantum interface between mechanical oscillators and optical photons, which can provide decoherence-free transport of quantum states through optical fibres. Our results offer a route towards the use of mechanical oscillators as quantum transducers or in microwave-to-optical quantum links.

  17. Open Quantum System Dynamics from a Measurement Perspective: Applications to Coherent Particle Transport and to Quantum~Brownian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleitner, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    We employ the theoretical framework of positive operator valued measures, to study Markovian open quantum systems. In particular, we discuss how a quantum system influences its environment. Using the theory of indirect measurements, we then draw conclusions about the information we could hypothetically obtain about the system by observing the environment. Although the environment is not actually observed, we can use these results to describe the change of the quantum system due to its interaction with the environment. We apply this technique to two different problems. In the first part, we study the coherently driven dynamics of a particle on a rail of quantum dots. This tunnelling between adjacent quantum dots can be controlled externally. We employ an adiabatic scheme similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, to transfer the particle between different quantum dots. We compare two fundamentally different sources of decoherence. In the second part, we study the dynamics of a free quantum particle, which ...

  18. Characterization of conditional state-engineering quantum processes by coherent state quantum process tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Merlin; Slade, Eirion; Karpiński, Michał; Smith, Brian J.

    2015-03-01

    Conditional quantum optical processes enable a wide range of technologies from generation of highly non-classical states to implementation of quantum logic operations. The process fidelity that can be achieved in a realistic implementation depends on a number of system parameters. Here we experimentally examine Fock state filtration, a canonical example of a broad class of conditional quantum operations acting on a single optical field mode. This operation is based upon interference of the mode to be manipulated with an auxiliary single-photon state at a beam splitter, resulting in the entanglement of the two output modes. A conditional projective measurement onto a single photon state at one output mode heralds the success of the process. This operation, which implements a measurement-induced nonlinearity, is capable of suppressing particular photon-number probability amplitudes of an arbitrary quantum state. We employ coherent-state process tomography to determine the precise operation realized in our experiment, which is mathematically represented by a process tensor. To identify the key sources of experimental imperfection, we develop a realistic model of the process and identify three main contributions that significantly hamper its efficacy. The experimentally reconstructed process tensor is compared with the model, yielding a fidelity better than 0.95. This enables us to identify three key challenges to overcome in realizing a filter with optimal performance—namely the single-photon nature of the auxiliary state, high mode overlap of the optical fields involved, and the need for photon-number-resolving detection when heralding. The results show that the filter does indeed exhibit a non-linear response as a function of input photon number and preserves the phase relation between Fock layers of the output state, providing promise for future applications.

  19. The Origin of Complex Quantum Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Philip; Knuth, Kevin H.; Skilling, John

    2009-12-01

    Physics is real. Measurement produces real numbers. Yet quantum mechanics uses complex arithmetic, in which √-1 is necessary but mysteriously relates to nothing else. By applying the same sort of symmetry arguments that Cox [1, 2] used to justify probability calculus, we are now able to explain this puzzle. The dual device/object nature of observation requires us to describe the world in terms of pairs of real numbers about which we never have full knowledge. These pairs combine according to complex arithmetic, using Feynman's rules.

  20. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhedong

    2015-01-01

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in th...

  1. Is string interaction the origin of quantum mechanics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak Bars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available String theory was developed by demanding consistency with quantum mechanics. In this paper we wish to reverse the reasoning. We pretend that open string field theory is a fully consistent definition of the theory – it is at least a self-consistent sector. Then we find in its structure that the rules of quantum mechanics emerge from the non-commutative nature of the basic string joining/splitting interactions. Thus, rather than assuming the quantum commutation rules among the usual canonical variables we derive them from the physical process of string interactions. Morally we could apply such an argument to M-theory to cover quantum mechanics for all physics. If string or M-theory really underlies all physics, it seems that the door has been opened to an explanation of the origins of quantum mechanics from the physical processes point of view.

  2. Is String Interactions the Origin of Quantum Mechanics?

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2014-01-01

    String theory developed by demanding consistency with quantum mechanics. In this paper we wish to reverse the reasoning. We pretend open string field theory is a fully consistent definition of the theory - it is at least a self consistent sector. Then we find in its structure that the rules of quantum mechanics emerge from the non-commutative nature of the basic string joining/splitting interactions, thus deriving rather than assuming the quantum commutation rules among the usual canonical quantum variables for all physical systems derivable from open string field theory. Morally we would apply such an argument to M-theory to cover all physics. If string or M-theory theory really underlies all physics, it seems that the door has been opened to an understanding of the origins of quantum mechanics.

  3. Generation of a macroscopic entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chui-Ping; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    W-type entangled states can be used as quantum channels for, e.g., quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, and quantum key distribution. In this work, we propose a way to generate a macroscopic W-type entangled coherent state using quantum memories in circuit QED. The memories considered here are nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVEs), each located in a different cavity. This proposal does not require initially preparing each NVE in a coherent state instead of a ground state, which should significantly reduce its experimental difficulty. For most of the operation time, each cavity remains in a vacuum state, thus decoherence caused by the cavity decay and the unwanted inter-cavity crosstalk are greatly suppressed. Moreover, only one external-cavity coupler qubit is needed, which simplifies the circuit. PMID:27562055

  4. On the quantum origin of the seeds of cosmic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Alejandro [Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); Centre de Physique Theorique, Universite de Marseille (France); Sahlmann, Hanno [Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); Spinoza Institute, Universiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Sudarsky, Daniel [Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-04-07

    The current understanding of the quantum origin of cosmic structure is discussed critically. We point out that in the existing treatments a transition from a symmetric quantum state to an (essentially classical) non-symmetric state is implicitly assumed, but not specified or analysed in any detail. In facing this issue, we are led to conclude that new physics is required to explain the apparent predictive power of the usual schemes. Furthermore, we show that the novel way of looking at the relevant issues opens new windows from where relevant information might be extracted regarding cosmological issues and perhaps even clues about aspects of quantum gravity.

  5. Phase-Sensitive Coherence and the Classical-Quantum Boundary in Ghost Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of partial coherence has a long and storied history in classical statistical optics. the vast majority of this work addresses fields that are statistically stationary in time, hence their complex envelopes only have phase-insensitive correlations. The quantum optics of squeezed-state generation, however, depends on nonlinear interactions producing baseband field operators with phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive correlations. Utilizing quantum light to enhance imaging has been a topic of considerable current interest, much of it involving biphotons, i.e., streams of entangled-photon pairs. Biphotons have been employed for quantum versions of optical coherence tomography, ghost imaging, holography, and lithography. However, their seemingly quantum features have been mimicked with classical-sate light, questioning wherein lies the classical-quantum boundary. We have shown, for the case of Gaussian-state light, that this boundary is intimately connected to the theory of phase-sensitive partial coherence. Here we present that theory, contrasting it with the familiar case of phase-insensitive partial coherence, and use it to elucidate the classical-quantum boundary of ghost imaging. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that classical phase-sensitive light produces ghost imaging most closely mimicking those obtained in biphotons, and we derived the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of a standoff-sensing ghost imager, taking into account target-induced speckle.

  6. Phase-Sensitive Coherence and the Classical-Quantum Boundary in Ghost Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of partial coherence has a long and storied history in classical statistical optics. the vast majority of this work addresses fields that are statistically stationary in time, hence their complex envelopes only have phase-insensitive correlations. The quantum optics of squeezed-state generation, however, depends on nonlinear interactions producing baseband field operators with phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive correlations. Utilizing quantum light to enhance imaging has been a topic of considerable current interest, much of it involving biphotons, i.e., streams of entangled-photon pairs. Biphotons have been employed for quantum versions of optical coherence tomography, ghost imaging, holography, and lithography. However, their seemingly quantum features have been mimicked with classical-sate light, questioning wherein lies the classical-quantum boundary. We have shown, for the case of Gaussian-state light, that this boundary is intimately connected to the theory of phase-sensitive partial coherence. Here we present that theory, contrasting it with the familiar case of phase-insensitive partial coherence, and use it to elucidate the classical-quantum boundary of ghost imaging. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that classical phase-sensitive light produces ghost imaging most closely mimicking those obtained in biphotons, and we derived the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of a standoff-sensing ghost imager, taking into account target-induced speckle.

  7. Quantum mechanical effects of topological origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, I. H.

    1993-01-01

    Following a brief review of the original Casimir and Aharonov-Bohm effects, some other effects of similar natures are mentioned. A Casimir interaction between AB fluxes is presented. Possible realizations of the Casimir effects for massive charged fields in solid state structures and a new AB effect for photons are suggested.

  8. Coherence-Driven Topological Transition in Quantum Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj K; Mrejen, Michael; Kim, Jeongmin; Wu, Chihhui; Wang, Yuan; Rostovtsev, Yuri V; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-22

    We introduce and theoretically demonstrate a quantum metamaterial made of dense ultracold neutral atoms loaded into an inherently defect-free artificial crystal of light, immune to well-known critical challenges inevitable in conventional solid-state platforms. We demonstrate an all-optical control, on ultrafast time scales, over the photonic topological transition of the isofrequency contour from an open to closed topology at the same frequency. This atomic lattice quantum metamaterial enables a dynamic manipulation of the decay rate branching ratio of a probe quantum emitter by more than an order of magnitude. Our proposal may lead to practically lossless, tunable, and topologically reconfigurable quantum metamaterials, for single or few-photon-level applications as varied as quantum sensing, quantum information processing, and quantum simulations using metamaterials.

  9. Estimating the Coherence of Noise in Quantum Control of a Solid-State Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guanru; Wallman, Joel J.; Buonacorsi, Brandon; Cho, Franklin H.; Park, Daniel K.; Xin, Tao; Lu, Dawei; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-12-01

    To exploit a given physical system for quantum information processing, it is critical to understand the different types of noise affecting quantum control. Distinguishing coherent and incoherent errors is extremely useful as they can be reduced in different ways. Coherent errors are generally easier to reduce at the hardware level, e.g., by improving calibration, whereas some sources of incoherent errors, e.g., T2* processes, can be reduced by engineering robust pulses. In this work, we illustrate how purity benchmarking and randomized benchmarking can be used together to distinguish between coherent and incoherent errors and to quantify the reduction in both of them due to using optimal control pulses and accounting for the transfer function in an electron spin resonance system. We also prove that purity benchmarking provides bounds on the optimal fidelity and diamond norm that can be achieved by correcting the coherent errors through improving calibration.

  10. Quantum Interference between a Single-Photon Fock State and a Coherent State

    CERN Document Server

    Windhager, Armin; Pacher, Christoph; Peev, Momtchil; Poppe, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for all passive and lossless optical four port devices. We show further how the results can be adapted to the case of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition we consider the case for which the single-photon Fock state is replaced with a general input state: a coherent input state displaces each general quantum state at the output port of a beam splitter with the displacement parameter being the amplitude of the coherent state.

  11. Quantum interference between a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhager, A.; Suda, M.; Pacher, C.; Peev, M.; Poppe, A.

    2011-04-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for all passive and lossless optical four port devices. We show further how the results can be adapted to the case of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition we consider the case for which the single-photon Fock state is replaced with a general input state: a coherent input state displaces each general quantum state at the output port of a beam splitter with the displacement parameter being the amplitude of the coherent state.

  12. Vibration-induced coherence enhancement of the performance of a biological quantum heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bin; Chiu, Pin-Yi; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-11-01

    Photosynthesis has been a long-standing research interest due to its fundamental importance. Recently, studies on photosynthesis processes also have inspired attention from a thermodynamical aspect when considering photosynthetic apparatuses as biological quantum heat engines. Quantum coherence is shown to play a crucial role in enhancing the performance of these quantum heat engines. Based on the experimentally reported structure, we propose a quantum heat engine model with a non-Markovian vibrational mode. We show that one can obtain a performance enhancement easily for a wide range of parameters in the presence of the vibrational mode. Our results provide insights into the photosynthetic processes and a design principle mimicking natural organisms.

  13. Vibration-induced coherence enhances the performance of a biological quantum heat engine

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong-Bin; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis has been the long-standing research interest due to its fundamental importance. Recently, studies on photosynthesis processes also inspire attention from thermodynamical aspect when considering photosynthetic apparatuses as biological quantum heat engines. Quantum coherence is shown to play a crucial role in enhancing the performance of these quantum heat engines. Based on the experimentally reported structure, we propose a quantum heat engine model with a non-Markovian vibrational mode. We show that one can obtain a performance enhancement easily for a wide range of parameters in the presence of the vibrational mode. Our results suggest new insights into the photosynthetic processes and a design principle mimicking natural organisms.

  14. All-electrical coherent control of the exciton states in a single quantum dot

    CERN Document Server

    de la Giroday, A Boyer; Pooley, M A; Stevenson, R M; Skold, N; Patel, R B; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity reversible transfer of quantum information from the polarisation of photons into the spin-state of an electron-hole pair in a semiconductor quantum dot. Moreover, spins are electrically manipulated on a sub-nanosecond timescale, allowing us to coherently control their evolution. By varying the area of the electrical pulse, we demonstrate phase-shift and spin-flip gate operations with near-unity fidelities. Our system constitutes a controllable quantum interface between flying and stationary qubits, an enabling technology for quantum logic in the solid-state.

  15. Localization and topology protected quantum coherence at the edge of hot matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Yasaman; Vosk, Ronen; Altman, Ehud; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2015-07-10

    Topological phases are characterized by edge states confined near the boundaries by a bulk energy gap. On raising temperature, these edge states are typically lost due to mobile thermal excitations. However, disorder can localize an isolated many-body system, potentially allowing for a sharply defined topological phase even in a highly excited state. We explicitly demonstrate this in a model of a disordered, one-dimensional magnet with spin one-half edge excitations. Furthermore, we show that the time evolution of a simple, highly excited state reveals quantum coherent edge spins. In particular, we demonstrate the coherent revival of an edge spin over a time scale that grows exponentially with system size. This is in sharp contrast to the general expectation that quantum bits strongly coupled with a hot many-body system will rapidly lose coherence. This result opens new directions in the study of topologically protected quantum dynamics.

  16. Trading coherence and entropy by a quantum Maxwell demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A. V.; Oehri, D.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2016-11-01

    The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a closed system is nondecreasing. Discussing the second law in the quantum world poses different challenges and provides different opportunities, involving fundamental quantum-information-theoretic questions and interesting quantum-engineered devices. In quantum mechanics, systems with an evolution described by a so-called unital quantum channel evolve with a nondecreasing entropy. Here, we seek the opposite, a system described by a nonunital and, furthermore, energy-conserving channel that describes a system whose entropy decreases with time. We propose a setup involving a mesoscopic four-lead scatterer augmented by a microenvironment in the form of a spin that realizes this goal. Within this nonunital and energy-conserving quantum channel, the microenvironment acts with two noncommuting operations on the system in an autonomous way. We find that the process corresponds to a partial exchange or swap between the system and environment quantum states, with the system's entropy decreasing if the environment's state is more pure. This entropy-decreasing process is naturally expressed through the action of a quantum Maxwell demon and we propose a quantum-thermodynamic engine with four qubits that extracts work from a single heat reservoir when provided with a reservoir of pure qubits. The special feature of this engine, which derives from the energy conservation in the nonunital quantum channel, is its separation into two cycles, a working cycle and an entropy cycle, allowing us to run this engine with no local waste heat.

  17. Global coherence of quantum evolutions based on decoherent histories: Theory and application to photosynthetic quantum energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Michele; Giorda, Paolo; Lloyd, Seth

    2016-04-01

    Assessing the role of interference in natural and artificial quantum dynamical processes is a crucial task in quantum information theory. To this aim, an appropriate formalism is provided by the decoherent histories framework. While this approach has been deeply explored from different theoretical perspectives, it still lacks of a comprehensive set of tools able to concisely quantify the amount of coherence developed by a given dynamics. In this paper, we introduce and test different measures of the (average) coherence present in dissipative (Markovian) quantum evolutions, at various time scales and for different levels of environmentally induced decoherence. In order to show the effectiveness of the introduced tools, we apply them to a paradigmatic quantum process where the role of coherence is being hotly debated: exciton transport in photosynthetic complexes. To spot out the essential features that may determine the performance of the transport, we focus on a relevant trimeric subunit of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and we use a simplified (Haken-Strobl) model for the system-bath interaction. Our analysis illustrates how the high efficiency of environmentally assisted transport can be traced back to a quantum recoil avoiding effect on the exciton dynamics, that preserves and sustains the benefits of the initial fast quantum delocalization of the exciton over the network. Indeed, for intermediate levels of decoherence, the bath is seen to selectively kill the negative interference between different exciton pathways, while retaining the initial positive one. The concepts and tools here developed show how the decoherent histories approach can be used to quantify the relation between coherence and efficiency in quantum dynamical processes.

  18. Randomized Dynamical Decoupling Techniques for Coherent Quantum Control

    CERN Document Server

    Viola, L; Viola, Lorenza; Santos, Lea F.

    2006-01-01

    The need for strategies able to accurately manipulate quantum dynamics is ubiquitous in quantum control and quantum information processing. We investigate two scenarios where randomized dynamical decoupling techniques become more advantageous with respect to standard deterministic methods in switching off unwanted dynamical evolution in a closed quantum system: when dealing with decoupling cycles which involve a large number of control actions and/or when seeking long-time quantum information storage. Highly effective hybrid decoupling schemes, which combine deterministic and stochastic features are discussed, as well as the benefits of sequentially implementing a concatenated method, applied at short times, followed by a hybrid protocol, employed at longer times. A quantum register consisting of a chain of spin-1/2 particles interacting via the Heisenberg interaction is used as a model for the analysis throughout.

  19. Coherent Dynamics of Quantum Dots in Photonic-Crystal Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristian Høeg

    deviations. Similar measurements on a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity sow a Rabi splitting on resonance, while time-resolved measurements prove that the system is in the weak coupling regime. Whle tuning the quantum dot through resonance of the high-Q mode we observe a strong and surprisingly...... Successfully model the decay rates with a microscopic model that allows us to for the first time extract the effective phonon density of states, which we can model with bulk phonons. Studies on a quantum dot detuned from a low-Q mode of a photonic-crystal cavity show a high collection efficiency at the first......In this thesis we have performed quantum-electrodynamics experiments on quantum dots embedded in photonic-crystal cavities. We perform a quantitative comparison of the decay dynamics and emission spectra of quantum dots embedded in a micropillar cavity and a photonic-crystal cavity. The light...

  20. Practical limitation for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2004-03-19

    In this Letter, first, we investigate the security of a continuous-variable quantum cryptographic scheme with a postselection process against individual beam splitting attack. It is shown that the scheme can be secure in the presence of the transmission loss owing to the postselection. Second, we provide a loss limit for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states taking into account excess Gaussian noise on quadrature distribution. Since the excess noise is reduced by the loss mechanism, a realistic intercept-resend attack which makes a Gaussian mixture of coherent states gives a loss limit in the presence of any excess Gaussian noise.

  1. Classical geometric phase of gyro-motion is a coherent quantum Berry phase

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongxuan

    2016-01-01

    We show that the geometric phase of the gyro-motion of a classical charged particle in a uniform time-dependent magnetic field described by Newton's equation is a coherent quantum Berry phase for the coherent states of the Schr\\"odinger equation or the Dirac equation. This equivalence is established by constructing coherent states for a particle using the energy eigenstates on the Landau levels and proving that the coherent states can maintain their status of coherent states during the slow varying of the magnetic field. It is discovered that orbital Berry phases of the eigenstates interfere coherently such that a coherent Berry phase for the coherent states can be naturally defined, which is exactly the geometric phase of the classical gyro-motion. This technique works for particles with and without spin. For particles with spin, on each of the eigenstates that makes up the coherent states, the Berry phase consists of two parts that can be identified as those due to the orbital and the spin motion. It is the...

  2. Dressed coherent states in finite quantum systems: A cooperative game theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, A.

    2017-01-01

    A quantum system with variables in Z(d) is considered. Coherent density matrices and coherent projectors of rank n are introduced, and their properties (e.g., the resolution of the identity) are discussed. Cooperative game theory and in particular the Shapley methodology, is used to renormalize coherent states, into a particular type of coherent density matrices (dressed coherent states). The Q-function of a Hermitian operator, is then renormalized into a physical analogue of the Shapley values. Both the Q-function and the Shapley values, are used to study the relocation of a Hamiltonian in phase space as the coupling constant varies, and its effect on the ground state of the system. The formalism is also generalized for any total set of states, for which we have no resolution of the identity. The dressing formalism leads to density matrices that resolve the identity, and makes them practically useful.

  3. Origin of the inverse energy cascade in two-dimensional quantum turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Skaugen, Audun

    2016-01-01

    We unravel the intimate connection between fundamental characteristics of two dimensional turbulence, i.e. the large-scale coherent structures and the inverse energy cascade. We propose a driven, dissipative point vortex model that is able to capture the dynamics of two-dimensional quantum turbulence by the emergent clustering of same-sign vortices, which form a non-equilibrium analogue of Onsager vortex equilibria. The inverse energy cascade developing in a statistically neutral system originates from this clustering of co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices. The Kolmogorov energy spectrum $k^{-5/3}$ is attributed to the scale-free correlations in the vorticity field fluctuations, here measured by the weighted pair correlation function that has a power-law decay as $r^{-4/3}$ on inertial separation lengthscales $r$. This scale-invariant statistics of vorticity, attributed to a conformal symmetry of two-dimensional classical turbulence, draws further analogies between classical and quantum turbulence beyon...

  4. Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode

    CERN Document Server

    Verhagen, E; Weis, S; Schliesser, A; Kippenberg, T J

    2011-01-01

    Quantum control of engineered mechanical oscillators can be achieved by coupling the oscillator to an auxiliary degree of freedom, provided that the coherent rate of energy exchange exceeds the decoherence rate of each of the two sub-systems. We achieve such quantum-coherent coupling between the mechanical and optical modes of a micro-optomechanical system. Simultaneously, the mechanical oscillator is cooled to an average occupancy of n = 1.7 \\pm 0.1 motional quanta. Pulsed optical excitation reveals the exchange of energy between the optical light field and the micromechanical oscillator in the time domain at the level of less than one quantum on average. These results provide a route towards the realization of efficient quantum interfaces between mechanical oscillators and optical fields.

  5. Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari

    2016-06-01

    Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.

  6. The symmetry groups of noncommutative quantum mechanics and coherent state quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, S. Hasibul Hassan; Ali, S. Twareque [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    We explore the group theoretical underpinning of noncommutative quantum mechanics for a system moving on the two-dimensional plane. We show that the pertinent groups for the system are the two-fold central extension of the Galilei group in (2+1)-space-time dimensions and the two-fold extension of the group of translations of R{sup 4}. This latter group is just the standard Weyl-Heisenberg group of standard quantum mechanics with an additional central extension. We also look at a further extension of this group and discuss its significance to noncommutative quantum mechanics. We build unitary irreducible representations of these various groups and construct the associated families of coherent states. A coherent state quantization of the underlying phase space is then carried out, which is shown to lead to exactly the same commutation relations as usually postulated for this model of noncommutative quantum mechanics.

  7. Unified treatment of quantum coherent and incoherent hopping dynamics in electronic energy transfer: reduced hierarchy equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Akihito; Fleming, Graham R

    2009-06-21

    A new quantum dynamic equation for excitation energy transfer is developed which can describe quantum coherent wavelike motion and incoherent hopping in a unified manner. The developed equation reduces to the conventional Redfield theory and Forster theory in their respective limits of validity. In the regime of coherent wavelike motion, the equation predicts several times longer lifetime of electronic coherence between chromophores than does the conventional Redfield equation. Furthermore, we show quantum coherent motion can be observed even when reorganization energy is large in comparison to intersite electronic coupling (the Forster incoherent regime). In the region of small reorganization energy, slow fluctuation sustains longer-lived coherent oscillation, whereas the Markov approximation in the Redfield framework causes infinitely fast fluctuation and then collapses the quantum coherence. In the region of large reorganization energy, sluggish dissipation of reorganization energy increases the time electronic excitation stays above an energy barrier separating chromophores and thus prolongs delocalization over the chromophores.

  8. Apparent diffusion behaviour of intermolecular double-quantum coherence modulated by a distant dipolar field in solution NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Gui-Ping; Cai Cong-Bo; Cai Shu-Hui; Chen Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A modified correlated spectroscopy (COSY) revamped with asymmetric Z-gradient echo detection sequence was designed to investigate the influence of diffusion behaviour on intermolecular double-quantum coherence signal attenuation during the pre-acquisition period. Theoretical formulas were deduced and experimental measurements and simulations were performed. It is found that the diffusion behaviour of intermolecular double-quantum coherence in the pre-acquisition period may be different from that of conventional single-quantum coherence, depending on the relative orientation of diffusion weighting gradients to coherence selection gradients. When the orientation of the diffusion weighting gradients is parallel or anti-parallel to the orientation of the coherence selection gradients, the diffusion is modulated by the distant dipolar field. This study is helpful for understanding the signal properties in intermolecular double-quantum coherence magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. [Hemispheric interactions during a search of original verbal associations: EEG coherence in creative men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O M; Larina, E N

    2005-01-01

    A hemispheric interaction during verbal creative thinking was studied by the analysis of EEG coherence in the band of 4-30 Hz. 18 males and 21 females (right-handed university students) participaited in the experiments. Independently of gender, the performance of Remote Associates Task was accompanied by an increase in coherence in the theta1 and beta2 frequency bands as compared to the states of rest and the letter-fluency and simple associate's tasks. Successful search for original word associates as compared to generation of standard words was accompanied by a local increase in the interhemispheric coherence of the beta2 rhythm mostly in the parietotemporal cortex. In creative men, the increase in the hemispheric interaction efficient for a search for original words was focused in the frontal and temporal loci of the right hemisphere and in the left occipital locus, whereas in creative women the increase in coherence was observed in the left frontal and temporal regions. Creative men differed from non-creative ones by higher inter- and intrahemispheric coherence and were similar to women in the level of hemispheric interaction. The cortical distribution of foci of interhemispheric coherence reactivity indicates that the cortical organization of verbal functions depends on both sex and creativity of men and women.

  10. A Dynamic Programming Approach to Finite-horizon Coherent Quantum LQG Control

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Igor G

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers the coherent quantum Linear Quadratic Gaussian (CQLQG) control problem for time-varying quantum plants governed by linear quantum stochastic differential equations over a bounded time interval. A controller is sought among quantum linear systems satisfying physical realizability (PR) conditions. The latter describe the dynamic equivalence of the system to an open quantum harmonic oscillator and relate its state-space matrices to the free Hamiltonian, coupling and scattering operators of the oscillator. Using the Hamiltonian parameterization of PR controllers, the CQLQG problem is recast into an optimal control problem for a deterministic system governed by a differential Lyapunov equation. The state of this subsidiary system is the symmetric part of the quantum covariance matrix of the plant-controller state vector. The resulting covariance control problem is treated using dynamic programming and Pontryagin's minimum principle. The associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation for the minimu...

  11. The Nature of Quantum States Created by One Photon Absorption: Pulsed Coherent vs. Pulsed Incoherent Light

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Alex C; Brumer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We analyze electronically excited nuclear wave functions and their coherence when subjecting a molecule to the action of natural, pulsed incoherent solar-like light, and to that of ultrashort coherent light assumed to have the same center frequencies and spectral bandwidths. Specifically, we compute the spatio-temporal dependence of the excited wave packets and their electronic coherence for these two types of light sources, on different electronic potential energy surfaces. The resultant excited state wave functions are shown to be qualitatively different, reflecting the light source from which they originated. In addition, electronic coherence is found to decay significantly faster for incoherent light than for coherent ultrafast excitation, for both continuum and bound wave packets. These results confirm that the dynamics observed in studies using ultrashort coherent pulses are not relevant to naturally occurring solar-induced processes such as photosynthesis and vision.

  12. On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Roztocki, Piotr; Cortés, Luis Romero; Sciara, Stefania; Wetzel, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbing; Cino, Alfonso; Chu, Sai T.; Little, Brent E.; Moss, David J.; Caspani, Lucia; Azaña, José; Morandotti, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2). Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.

  13. On-chip generation of high-dimensional entangled quantum states and their coherent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Roztocki, Piotr; Cortés, Luis Romero; Sciara, Stefania; Wetzel, Benjamin; Zhang, Yanbing; Cino, Alfonso; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Moss, David J; Caspani, Lucia; Azaña, José; Morandotti, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Optical quantum states based on entangled photons are essential for solving questions in fundamental physics and are at the heart of quantum information science. Specifically, the realization of high-dimensional states (D-level quantum systems, that is, qudits, with D > 2) and their control are necessary for fundamental investigations of quantum mechanics, for increasing the sensitivity of quantum imaging schemes, for improving the robustness and key rate of quantum communication protocols, for enabling a richer variety of quantum simulations, and for achieving more efficient and error-tolerant quantum computation. Integrated photonics has recently become a leading platform for the compact, cost-efficient, and stable generation and processing of non-classical optical states. However, so far, integrated entangled quantum sources have been limited to qubits (D = 2). Here we demonstrate on-chip generation of entangled qudit states, where the photons are created in a coherent superposition of multiple high-purity frequency modes. In particular, we confirm the realization of a quantum system with at least one hundred dimensions, formed by two entangled qudits with D = 10. Furthermore, using state-of-the-art, yet off-the-shelf telecommunications components, we introduce a coherent manipulation platform with which to control frequency-entangled states, capable of performing deterministic high-dimensional gate operations. We validate this platform by measuring Bell inequality violations and performing quantum state tomography. Our work enables the generation and processing of high-dimensional quantum states in a single spatial mode.

  14. The Origin of our Universe: From Quantum to Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The discovery in the late 1920s that our universe expands fundamentally changed the discussion about its origin. I first review the scientific, historical and philosophical background behind this discovery. A key player in this was Georges Lemaitre who was also a Catholic priest. Respecting meticulously the differences in methodology and language between science and religion he was first to conceive of a physical origin of our universe, based on quantum theory. Today Lemaitre's vision is realised concretely in inflationary cosmology where a phase of rapid expansion generates the seeds for a complex universe starting from a simple natural beginning. A fuzzy quantum origin however gives rise to a multiverse of possible universes. I discuss some of the challenges associated with the development of a truly predictive multiverse cosmology that is falsifiable to observers within one of its histories.

  15. Quantum interferences and their classical limit in laser driven coherent control scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Ignacio, E-mail: ifranco@chem.northwestern.edu [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Spanner, Michael; Brumer, Paul [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2010-05-12

    Graphical abstract: The analogy between Young's double-slit experiment with matter and laser driven coherent control schemes is investigated, and shown to be limited. To do so, a general decomposition of observables in the Heisenberg picture into direct terms and interference contributions is introduced, and formal quantum-classical correspondence arguments in the Heisenberg picture are employed to define classical analogs of quantum interference terms. While the classical interference contributions in the double-slit experiment are shown to be zero, they can be nonzero in laser driven coherent control schemes and lead to laser control in the classical limit. This classical limit is interpreted in terms of nonlinear response theory arguments. - Abstract: The analogy between Young's double-slit experiment with matter and laser driven coherent control schemes is investigated, and shown to be limited. To do so, a general decomposition of observables in the Heisenberg picture into direct terms and interference contributions is introduced, and formal quantum-classical correspondence arguments in the Heisenberg picture are employed to define classical analogs of quantum interference terms. While the classical interference contributions in the double-slit experiment are shown to be zero, they can be nonzero in laser driven coherent control schemes and lead to laser control in the classical limit. This classical limit is interpreted in terms of nonlinear response theory arguments.

  16. Spectrally tunable mollow triplet emission from a coherently excited quantum dot in a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Sven M.; Ates, Serkan; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence of excitonic s-shell emission from a coherently pumped single InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot inside a micropillar cavity has been investigated in dependence on optical pump power and laser detuning, respectively. For strong purely resonant excitation, Mollow triplet spectra...

  17. Charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarenko, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based on results obtained from experiments designed for a consistent study of charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures. New unconventional ways to build elements of electrical circuits (like dielectrophoresis, wedging transfer and bottom-up

  18. Charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarenko, Ksenia Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based on results obtained from experiments designed for a consistent study of charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures. New unconventional ways to build elements of electrical circuits (like dielectrophoresis, wedging transfer and bottom-up f

  19. Coherent versus incoherent dynamics in InAs quantum-dot active wave guides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, W.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    2001-01-01

    Coherent dynamics measured by time-resolved four-wave mixing is compared to incoherent population dynamics measured by differential transmission spectroscopy on the ground-state transition at room temperature of two types of InAs-based quantum dots with different confinement energies. The measure...

  20. Suppression of electron spin-echo envelope modulation peaks in double quantum coherence electron spin resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, Marco; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil

    2004-10-01

    We show the use of the observer blind spots effect for the elimination of electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) peaks in double quantum coherence (DQC) electron spin resonance (ESR). The suppression of ESEEM facilitates the routine and unambiguous extraction of distances from DQC-ESR spectra. This is also the first demonstration of this challenging methodology on commercial instrumentation.

  1. Characterization of collective Gaussian attacks and security of coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth

    2008-11-14

    We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication.

  2. Magnetic Dipoles and Quantum Coherence in Muscle Contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Hatori, K; Matsuno, K; Hatori, Kuniyuki; Honda, Hajime; Matsuno, Koichiro

    2001-01-01

    An actin filament contacting myosin molecules as a functional unit of muscle contraction induces magnetic dipoles along the filament when ATP molecules to be hydrolyzed are available there. The induced magnetic dipoles are coherent over the entire filament, though they are fluctuating altogether as constantly being subject to the ambient thermal agitations.

  3. Coherent-feedback Quantum Control with Cold Atomic Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    Coherent Feedback Control," GRC on Physics Research and Education, Mt. Holyoke College, August 2011 H. Mabuchi, "Design and analysis of autonomous...technique for compensation of tensor coupling effects in polarization spectroscopy of dense Cesium clouds , based on dual-wavelength probing with

  4. Gaussian-modulated coherent-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang-Chun; Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Gui, Ming; Liang, Lin-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD), leaving the detection procedure to the third partner and thus being immune to all detector side-channel attacks, is very promising for the construction of high-security quantum information networks. We propose a scheme to implement MDI-QKD, but with continuous variables instead of discrete ones, i.e., with the source of Gaussian-modulated coherent states, based on the principle of continuous-variable entanglement swapping. This protocol not only can be implemented with current telecom components but also has high key rates compared to its discrete counterpart; thus it will be highly compatible with quantum networks.

  5. Quantum Poincare Section of a Two-Dimensional hamiltonian in a Coherent State Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金迎新; 贺凯芬

    2002-01-01

    We study the quantum behaviour of a quasi-integrable Hamiltonian. The unperturbed Hamiltonian displays degeneracies of energy levels, which become avoided crossings under a nonintegrable perturbation. In this twodimensional system, the quantum Poincaré section plot is constructed in the coherent state representation with the restriction that the centres of the wavepackets are confined at the classical surface of constant energy. It is found that the quantum Poincaré section plot obtained in this way provides an evident counterpart of the classical system.

  6. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-06-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.

  7. Efficient scheme for hybrid teleportation via entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jaewoo; Ginossar, Eran

    2016-06-01

    We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.

  8. Infrared generation in low-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures via quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Belyanin, A A; Kocharovsky, V V; Scully, M O; Capasso, F; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.

    2000-01-01

    A new scheme for infrared generation without population inversion between subbands in quantum-well and quantum-dot lasers is presented and documented by detailed calculations. The scheme is based on the simultaneous generation at three frequencies: optical lasing at the two interband transitions which take place simultaneously, in the same active region, and serve as the coherent drive for the IR field. This mechanism for frequency down-conversion does not rely upon any ad hoc assumptions of long-lived coherences in the semiconductor active medium. And it should work efficiently at room temperature with injection current pumping. For optimized waveguide and cavity parameters, the intrinsic efficiency of the down-conversion process can reach the limiting quantum value corresponding to one infrared photon per one optical photon. Due to the parametric nature of IR generation, the proposed inversionless scheme is especially promising for long-wavelength (far- infrared) operation.

  9. Coherent control and suppressed nuclear feedback of a single quantum dot hole qubit

    CERN Document Server

    De Greve, Kristiaan; Press, David; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Bisping, Dirk; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Worschech, Lukas; Hoefling, Sven; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Future communication and computation technologies that exploit quantum information require robust and well-isolated qubits. Electron spins in III-V semiconductor quantum dots, while promising candidates, see their dynamics limited by undesirable hysteresis and decohering effects of the nuclear spin bath. Replacing electrons with holes should suppress the hyperfine interaction and consequently eliminate strong nuclear effects. Using picosecond optical pulses, we demonstrate coherent control of a single hole qubit and examine both free-induction and spin-echo decay. In moving from electrons to holes, we observe significantly reduced hyperfine interactions, evidenced by the reemergence of hysteresis-free dynamics, while obtaining similar coherence times, limited by non-nuclear mechanisms. These results demonstrate the potential of optically controlled, quantum dot hole qubits.

  10. Role of externally induced coherent superposition in demonstrating quantum nonlocality in a correlated emission laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfa, Sintayehu [Physics Department, Addis Ababa University, PO Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Physics Department, Dilla University, PO Box 419, Dilla (Ethiopia)], E-mail: sint_tesfa@yahoo.com

    2008-12-28

    Analysis of the effects of external pumping on the quantum features, including entanglement, quantum nonlocality and nonclassical photon number correlations, of the cavity radiation of a correlated emission laser is presented. It turns out that the contribution of externally induced coherent superposition in demonstrating quantum nonlocality is significant. Despite the available evidence that entangled states can exhibit nonlocality for certain values of the rate at which the atoms are injected into the cavity and amplitude of the driving radiation, a direct relation between the degree of entanglement and quantum nonlocality cannot be established. However, it seems likely to make a consistent connection between the Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. It is evident that comparison among various nonclassical correlations enhances the understanding of the otherwise intricate quantum theoretical predictions.

  11. Clustered Geometries Exploiting Quantum Coherence Effects for Efficient Energy Transfer in Light Harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Ai, Qing; Jin, Bih-Yaw; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating quantum coherence effects and geometrical factors for efficient energy transfer in photosynthesis has the potential to uncover non-classical design principles for advanced organic materials. We study energy transfer in a linear light-harvesting model to reveal that dimerized geometries with strong electronic coherences within donor and acceptor pairs exhibit significantly improved efficiency, which is in marked contrast to predictions of the classical F\\"orster theory. We reveal that energy tuning due to coherent delocalization of photoexcitations is mainly responsible for the efficiency optimization. This coherence-assisted energy-tuning mechanism also explains the energetics and chlorophyll arrangements in the widely-studied Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex. We argue that a clustered network with rapid energy relaxation among donors and resonant energy transfer from donor to acceptor states provides a basic formula for constructing efficient light-harvesting systems, and the general principles revea...

  12. An efficient biologically-inspired photocell enhanced by quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Creatore, C; Emmott, S; Chin, A W

    2013-01-01

    Artificially reproducing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture of photosynthetic reaction centres that explicitly harnesses the quantum mechanical effects recently discovered in photosynthetic complexes. Quantum interference of photon absorption/emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of realistic parameters, opening a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.

  13. Quantum noise in large-scale coherent nonlinear photonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Santori, Charles; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Tezak, Nikolas; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A semiclassical simulation approach is presented for studying quantum noise in large-scale photonic circuits incorporating an ideal Kerr nonlinearity. A netlist-based circuit solver is used to generate matrices defining a set of stochastic differential equations, in which the resonator field variables represent random samplings of the Wigner quasi-probability distributions. Although the semiclassical approach involves making a large-photon-number approximation, tests on one- and two-resonator circuits indicate satisfactory agreement between the semiclassical and full-quantum simulation results in the parameter regime of interest. The semiclassical model is used to simulate random errors in a large-scale circuit that contains 88 resonators and hundreds of components in total, and functions as a 4-bit ripple counter. The error rate as a function of on-state photon number is examined, and it is observed that the quantum fluctuation amplitudes do not increase as signals propagate through the circuit, an important...

  14. Charge transport and localization in atomically coherent quantum dot solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Kevin; Yang, Jun; Savitzky, Benjamin H.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Wise, Frank; Hanrath, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Epitaxial attachment of quantum dots into ordered superlattices enables the synthesis of quasi-two-dimensional materials that theoretically exhibit features such as Dirac cones and topological states, and have major potential for unprecedented optoelectronic devices. Initial studies found that disorder in these structures causes localization of electrons within a few lattice constants, and highlight the critical need for precise structural characterization and systematic assessment of the effects of disorder on transport. Here we fabricated superlattices with the quantum dots registered to within a single atomic bond length (limited by the polydispersity of the quantum dot building blocks), but missing a fraction (20%) of the epitaxial connections. Calculations of the electronic structure including the measured disorder account for the electron localization inferred from transport measurements. The calculations also show that improvement of the epitaxial connections will lead to completely delocalized electrons and may enable the observation of the remarkable properties predicted for these materials.

  15. Coherent light from E-field induced quantum coupling of exciton states in superlattice-like quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, V. G.; Østergaard, John Erland; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. We focus on the ability to control the electronic coupling in coupled quantum wells with external E-fields leading to a strong modification of the coherent light emission, in particular at a bias where a superlattice-like miniband is formed. More specifically, we investig...... investigate a MBE-grown GaAs sample with a sequence of 15 single quantum wells having a successive increase of 1 monolayer in width ranging from 62 A to 102 A and with AlGaAs barriers of 17 Å....

  16. Quantum coherence spectroscopy to measure dietary fat retention in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Lucas; de Graaf, Robin A; Nabuurs, Christine I; van Ewijk, Petronella A; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Wildberger, Joachim E; Schrauwen, Patrick; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B

    2016-08-18

    The prevalence of fatty liver reaches alarming proportions. Fatty liver increases the risk for insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although extensively studied in a preclinical setting, the lack of noninvasive methodologies hampers our understanding of which pathways promote hepatic fat accumulation in humans. Dietary fat retention is one of the pathways that may lead to fatty liver. The low (1.1%) natural abundance (NA) of carbon-13 ((13)C) allows use of (13)C-enriched lipids for in vivo MR studies. Successful implementation of such methodology, however, is challenging due to low sensitivity of (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C-MRS). Here, we investigated the use of 1-dimensional gradient enhanced heteronuclear single quantum coherence (ge-HSQC) spectroscopy for the in vivo detection of hepatic (1)H-[(13)C]-lipid signals after a single high-fat meal with (13)C-labeled fatty acids in 5 lean and 6 obese subjects. Postprandial retention of orally administered (13)C-labeled fatty acids was significant (P < 0.01). Approximately 1.5% of the tracer was retained in the liver after 6 hours, and retention was similar in both groups (P = 0.92). Thus, a substantial part of the liver fat can originate directly from storage of meal-derived fat. The ge-HSQC can be used to noninvasively reveal the contribution of dietary fat to the development of hepatic steatosis over time.

  17. Quantum Generation Dynamics of Coherent Phonon in Semiconductors: Transient and Nonlinear Fano Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Hino, Ken-Ichi; Hase, Muneaki; Maeshima, Nobuya

    The coherent phonon (CP) generation is one of the representative phenomena induced by ultrashort pulsed laser. In particular, in the initial stage of the CP generation in lightly n-doped Si, the vestige of Fano resonance (FR) manifested in a flash was observed in time-resolved spectroscopy experiments, in which it was speculated that this phenomenon results from the birth of transient polaronic quasiparticles composed of electrons and phonons strongly interacting each other. This study is aimed at constructing a fully-quantum-mechanical model for the CP generation and tracking the origin of the transient FR. We calculate two physical quantities in both of polar and non-polar semiconductors such as GaAs and undoped Si. One is a retarded longitudinal susceptibility which allows one to calculate a transient induced photoemission spectrum. The other is the Fourier-transform of LO-phonon displacement into frequency domain. We have succeeded in showing that the transient FR is exclusively caused in Si in harmony with the experiments, though, not observed in GaAs.

  18. 3D versus 1D quantum confinement in coherently strained CdS/ZnS quantum structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woggon, U.; Gindele, F.; Petri, W.

    1998-01-01

    Monolayer fluctuations in ultrathin, coherently strained CdS/ZnS quantum structures result in a very strong localization of excitons. The deepest localized excitons can be considered as individual, decoupled and three-dimensionally confined. Consequently, fingerprints of zero-dimensionality are f......Monolayer fluctuations in ultrathin, coherently strained CdS/ZnS quantum structures result in a very strong localization of excitons. The deepest localized excitons can be considered as individual, decoupled and three-dimensionally confined. Consequently, fingerprints of zero......-dimensionality are found in the optical spectra like single, ultranarrow luminescence lines in micro-photoluminescence and spectrally broad optical gain in the deep blue spectral range. The exchange splitting is proven and a strong enhancement over the bulk value is observed....

  19. Optical coherence tomography in otolaryngology: original results and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibas, Athanasios G.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.; Cucu, Radu G.; Dobre, George M.; Odell, Edward; Boxer, Aaron B.; O'Connors, Alec F.; Gleeson, Michael J.

    2004-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography is a diagnostic imaging technique allowing two dimensional tomographic imaging of tissue architecture. This is a review article on the use of optical coherence tomography in Otolaryngology including original images from human laryngeal tissue and temporal bones (cochlea) in our laboratory. Tissue specimens from normal larynges were imaged with an 850 nm OCT system. Our results showed good correlation between OCT image s and the corresponding haematoxylin-eosin stained histology sections in the normal larynx. Human temporal bones were also imaged using an 1300 nm OCT system. Limited morphological details were obtained due to the high scattering properties of the bony labyrinth.

  20. Quantum Coherence Quantifiers Based on Rényi α-Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lian-He; Li, Yong-Ming; Luo, Yu; Xi, Zheng-Jun

    2017-06-01

    The resource theories of quantum coherence attract a lot of attention in recent years. Especially, the monotonicity property plays a crucial role here. In this paper we investigate the monotonicity property for the coherence measures induced by the Rényi α-relative entropy, which present in [Phys. Rev. A 94 (2016) 052336]. We show that the Rényi α-relative entropy of coherence does not in general satisfy the monotonicity requirement under the subselection of measurements condition and it also does not satisfy the extension of monotonicity requirement, which presents in [Phys. Rev. A 93 (2016) 032136]. Due to the Rényi α-relative entropy of coherence can act as a coherence monotone quantifier, we examine the trade-off relations between coherence and mixedness. Finally, some properties for the single qubit of Rényi 2-relative entropy of coherence are derived. Supported by by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11271237, 11671244, 61671280, and the Higher School Doctoral Subject Foundation of Ministry of Education of China under Grant No. 20130202110001, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (GK201502004 and 2016CBY003), and the Academic Leaders and Academic Backbones, Shaanxi Normal University under Grant No. 16QNGG013

  1. Theory of coherent dynamic nuclear polarization in quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neder, Izhar; Rudner, Mark Spencer; Halperin, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    We consider the production of dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) in a two-electron double quantum dot, in which the electronic levels are repeatedly swept through a singlet-triplet avoided crossing. Our analysis helps to elucidate the intriguing interplay between electron-nuclear hyperfine...

  2. Fractional revivals of coherence in quantum mechanical oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, J.C.; Capel, H.W.

    2000-01-01

    A case study is made of the delocalisation and revival dynamics of a continuously driven quantum pendulum in integrable and near integrable regimes, utilising the Husimi phase-space distribution function, and an entropy function which measures the degree of localisation. The numerical results can be

  3. Adiabatic generation of arbitrary coherent superpositions of two quantum states: Exact and approximate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanov, Kaloyan N.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2017-07-01

    The common objective of the application of adiabatic techniques in the field of quantum control is to transfer a quantum system from one discrete energy state to another. These techniques feature both high efficiency and insensitivity to variations in the experimental parameters, e.g., variations in the driving field amplitude, duration, frequency, and shape, as well as fluctuations in the environment. Here we explore the potential of adiabatic techniques for creating arbitrary predefined coherent superpositions of two quantum states. We show that an equally weighted coherent superposition can be created by temporal variation of the ratio between the Rabi frequency Ω (t ) and the detuning Δ (t ) from 0 to ∞ (case 1) or vice versa (case 2), as it is readily deduced from the explicit adiabatic solution for the Bloch vector. We infer important differences between cases 1 and 2 in the composition of the created coherent superposition: The latter depends on the dynamical phase of the process in case 2, while it does not depend on this phase in case 1. Furthermore, an arbitrary coherent superposition of unequal weights can be created by using asymptotic ratios of Ω (t )/Δ (t ) different from 0 and ∞ . We supplement the general adiabatic solution with analytic solutions for three exactly soluble models: two trigonometric models and the hyperbolic Demkov-Kunike model. They allow us not only to demonstrate the general predictions in specific cases but also to derive the nonadiabatic corrections to the adiabatic solutions.

  4. Plasmon-polariton emission from a coherently p-excited quantum dot near a metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Munoz, C.; Gonzalez-Tudela, A.; Tejedor, C.

    2012-03-01

    We study the emission of surface plasmon polaritons by the decay of the lowest excited state of a quantum emitter when the system is excited by a laser in resonance with a higher excited state (p-shell excitation). By solving a master equation and by using the quantum-regression theorem, we show how the emission is enhanced by the Purcell effect due to the weak coupling between the emitter and the structured spectral density of plasmon-polariton states of a metal surface. Measurable magnitudes, as the spectrum and the second-order coherence function, are extremely affected by the coherent p-shell excitation. In many cases, such coherent excitation completely masks the physical features of the emission under study. The coexistence between coherent p-shell excitation in the first step of the process and weak coupling in the final step is very important and completely general for any structured reservoir of final states. The advantage of our system is that, just by changing the distance from the quantum emitter to the metal surface, one can access a very rich set of regimes as purely dissipative direct photon emission or emission of plasmon polaritons.

  5. Deterministic Photon Pairs and Coherent Optical Control of a Single Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Harishankar; Predojević, Ana; Huber, Tobias; Kauten, Thomas; Solomon, Glenn S.; Weihs, Gregor

    2013-03-01

    The strong confinement of semiconductor excitons in a quantum dot gives rise to atomlike behavior. The full benefit of such a structure is best observed in resonant excitation where the excited state can be deterministically populated and coherently manipulated. Because of the large refractive index and device geometry it remains challenging to observe resonantly excited emission that is free from laser scattering in III/V self-assembled quantum dots. Here we exploit the biexciton binding energy to create an extremely clean single photon source via two-photon resonant excitation of an InAs/GaAs quantum dot. We observe complete suppression of the excitation laser and multiphoton emissions. Additionally, we perform full coherent control of the ground-biexciton state qubit and observe an extended coherence time using an all-optical echo technique. The deterministic coherent photon pair creation makes this system suitable for the generation of time-bin entanglement and experiments on the interaction of photons from dissimilar sources.

  6. No-Go Theorem for the Characterization of Work Fluctuations in Coherent Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Bäumer, Elisa; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.; Huber, Marcus; Acin, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    An open question of fundamental importance in thermodynamics is how to describe the fluctuations of work for quantum coherent processes. In the standard approach, based on a projective energy measurement both at the beginning and at the end of the process, the first measurement destroys any initial coherence in the energy basis. Here we seek extensions of this approach which can possibly account for initially coherent states. We consider all measurement schemes to estimate work and require that (i) the difference of average energy corresponds to average work for closed quantum systems and that (ii) the work statistics agree with the standard two-measurement scheme for states with no coherence in the energy basis. We first show that such a scheme cannot exist. Next, we consider the possibility of performing collective measurements on several copies of the state and prove that it is still impossible to simultaneously satisfy requirements (i) and (ii). Nevertheless, improvements do appear, and in particular, we develop a measurement scheme that acts simultaneously on two copies of the state and allows us to describe a whole class of coherent transformations.

  7. Quantum logic gates using coherent population trapping states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Vudayagiri

    2011-12-01

    A scheme is proposed for achieving a controlled phase gate using interaction between atomic spin dipoles. Further, the spin states are prepared in coherent population trap states (CPTs), which are robust against perturbations, laser fluctuations etc. We show that one-qubit and two-qubit operations can easily be obtained in this scheme. The scheme is also robust against decoherences due to spontaneous emissions as the CPT states used are dressed states formed out of Zeeman sublevels of ground states of the bare atom. However, certain practical issues are of concern in actually obtaining the scheme, which are also discussed at the end of this paper.

  8. Exciton coherence in clean single InP/InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots emitting in infra-red measured by Fourier spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasakura, H; Kumano, H; Suemune, I [Research Institute for Electron Science (RIES), Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Motohisa, J; Kobayashi, Y; Kouwen, M van; Tomioka, K; Fukui, T [Graduate School of Information Science Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Akopian, N; Zwiller, V, E-mail: hirotaka@eng.hokudai.ac.j [Quantum Transport, Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delf University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    We report optical properties of InP/InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots and single-photon Fourier spectroscopy of an exciton in a single InAsP quantum dot embedded in an InP nanowire. The coherent length of the time-averaged emission originating from the single InAsP QD was measured by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer inserted in the photoluminescence path. Effects of fluctuations in surrounding excess charges trapped in the InP nanowire were investigated by excitation power and energy dependencies.

  9. Exciton coherence in clean single InP/InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots emitting in infra-red measured by Fourier spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We report optical properties of InP/InAsP/InP nanowire quantum dots and single-photon Fourier spectroscopy of an exciton in a single InAsP quantum dot embedded in an InP nanowire. The coherent length of the time-averaged emission originating from the single InAsP QD was measured by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer inserted in the photoluminescence path. Effects of fluctuations in surrounding excess charges trapped in the InP nanowire were investigated by excitation power and energy dependencies.

  10. Generating the Local Oscillator "Locally" in Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution Based on Coherent Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bing; Lougovski, Pavel; Pooser, Raphael; Grice, Warren; Bobrek, Miljko

    2015-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) protocols based on coherent detection have been studied extensively in both theory and experiment. In all the existing implementations of CV-QKD, both the quantum signal and the local oscillator (LO) are generated from the same laser and propagate through the insecure quantum channel. This arrangement may open security loopholes and limit the potential applications of CV-QKD. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a pilot-aided feedforward data recovery scheme that enables reliable coherent detection using a "locally" generated LO. Using two independent commercial laser sources and a spool of 25-km optical fiber, we construct a coherent communication system. The variance of the phase noise introduced by the proposed scheme is measured to be 0.04 (rad2 ), which is small enough to enable secure key distribution. This technology also opens the door for other quantum communication protocols, such as the recently proposed measurement-device-independent CV-QKD, where independent light sources are employed by different users.

  11. Generating single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xue-xiang, E-mail: xuxuexiang@jxnu.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Yuan, Hong-chun [College of Electrical and Optoelectronic Engineering, Changzhou Institute of Technology, Changzhou 213002 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We theoretically generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states (SPCCSs) by means of quantum-optical catalysis based on the beam splitter (BS) or the parametric amplifier (PA). These states are obtained in one of the BS (or PA) output channels if a coherent state and a single-photon Fock state are present in two input ports and a single photon is registered in the other output port. The success probabilities of the detection (also the normalization factors) are discussed, which is different for BS and PA catalysis. In addition, we prove that the generated states catalyzed by BS and PA devices are actually the same quantum states after analyzing photon number distribution of the SPCCSs. The quantum properties of the SPCCSs, such as sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effect, quadrature squeezing effect, and the negativity of the Wigner function are investigated in detail. The results show that the SPCCSs are non-Gaussian states with an abundance of nonclassicality. - Highlights: • We generate single-photon catalyzed coherent states with quantum-optical catalysis. • We prove the equivalent effects of the lossless beam splitter and the non-degenerate parametric amplifier. • Some nonclassical properties of the generated states are investigated in detail.

  12. Model for energy transfer by coherent Fermi pressure fluctuations in quantum soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    A 1-dimensional model for coherent quantum energy transfer through a complex of compressible boxes is investigated by numerical integration of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation. Energy is communicated from one box to the next by the resonant fluctuating Fermi pressure of the electrons in each box pushing on the walls and doing work on adjacent boxes. Parameters are chosen similar to the chain molecules of typical light harvesting complexes. For some parameter choices the system is found to have an instability leading to self-induced coherent energy transfer transparency.

  13. Zeroth order quantum coherences and preparation of pseudopure state in homonuclear dipolar coupling spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Furman, G B

    2006-01-01

    Dynamics of zeroth order quantum coherences and preparation of the pseudopure states in homonuclear systems of dipolar coupling spins is closely examined. It has been shown an extreme important role of the non-diagonal part of zeroth order coherence in construction of the pseudopure state. Simulations of the preparation process of pseudopure states with the real molecular structures (a rectangular (-chloro- -nitrobenzene molecule), a chain (hydroxyapatite molecule), a ring (benzene molecule), and a double ring (cyclopentane molecule)) open the way to experimental testing of the obtained results.

  14. Mesoscopic entangled coherent states implemented with a circuit quantum electrodynamics system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ying-Yan; Jiang Nian-Quan

    2013-01-01

    We show a scheme to generate entangled coherent states in a circuit quantum electrodynamics system,which consists of a nanomechanical resonator,a superconducting Cooper-pair box (CPB),and a superconducting transmission line resonator.In the system,the CPB plays the role of a nonlinear medium and can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage including direct-current and alternating-current components.The scheme provides a powerful tool for preparing the multipartite mesoscopic entangled coherent states.

  15. A simple coherent attack and practical security of differential phase shift quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    The differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol reveals good security against such powerful attacks as unambiguous state discrimination and beam splitting attacks. Its complete security analysis is complex due to high dimensions of the supposed spaces and density operators. In this paper, we consider a particular and conceptually simple coherent attack, available in practical implementations. The main condition for this attack is the length of used coherent state tuples of order 8-12. We show that under this condition, no high level of practical distance between legitimate users can be achieved.

  16. Quantum Interference between a Single-Photon Fock State and a Coherent State

    OpenAIRE

    Windhager, Armin; Suda, Martin; Pacher, Christoph; Peev, Momtchil; Poppe, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the single mode quantum field state at the individual output ports of a beam splitter when a single-photon Fock state and a coherent state are incident on the input ports. The output states turn out to be a statistical mixture between a displaced Fock state and a coherent state. Consequently we are able to find an analytical expression for the corresponding Wigner function. Because of the generality of our calculations the obtained results are valid for al...

  17. Coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the graphene-gold cluster hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaibiao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Chikang

    2015-05-14

    Noble metal nanoparticles can modify the optical properties of graphene. Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the graphene-gold cluster hybrid system by using time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). This plasmon coherent effect is mainly attributed to the electromagnetic field coupling between the graphene and the gold cluster. As a result, the optical response of the hybrid system exhibits a remarkably strong, selectable tuning and polarization dependent plasmon resonance enhanced in wide frequency regions. This investigation provides an improved understanding of the plasmon enhancement effect in a graphene-based photoelectric device.

  18. Quantum coherence, decoherence and entanglement in light harvesting complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenio, Martin; Caruso, Filippo; Chin, Alex; Datta, Animesh; Huelga, Susana

    2009-03-01

    Transport phenomena in networks allow for information and energy to be exchanged between individual constituents of communication systems, networks or light-harvesting complexes. Environmental noise is generally expected to hinder transport. Here we show that transport of excitations across dissipative quantum networks can be enhanced by dephasing noise. We identify two key processes that underly this phenomenon and provide instructive examples of quantum networks for each. We argue that Nature may be routinely exploiting this effect by showing that exciton transport in light harvesting complexes and other networks benefits from noise and is remarkably robust against static disorder. These results point towards the possibility for designing optimized structures for transport, for example in artificial nano-structures, assisted by noise. Furthermore, we demonstrate that quantum entanglement may be present for short times in light-harvesting complexes. We describe how the presence of such entanglement may be verified without the need for full state tomography and with minimal model assumptions. This work is based on M.B. Plenio & S.F. Huelga, New J. Phys. 10, 113019 (2008) and F. Caruso, A. Chin, A. Datta, S.F. Huelga & M.B. Plenio, in preparation

  19. Cavity-photon-switched coherent transient transport in a double quantum waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Nzar Rauf, E-mail: nra1@hi.is; Gudmundsson, Vidar, E-mail: vidar@raunvis.hi.is [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Tang, Chi-Shung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University, 1, Lienda, 36003 Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2014-12-21

    We study a cavity-photon-switched coherent electron transport in a symmetric double quantum waveguide. The waveguide system is weakly connected to two electron reservoirs, but strongly coupled to a single quantized photon cavity mode. A coupling window is placed between the waveguides to allow electron interference or inter-waveguide transport. The transient electron transport in the system is investigated using a quantum master equation. We present a cavity-photon tunable semiconductor quantum waveguide implementation of an inverter quantum gate, in which the output of the waveguide system may be selected via the selection of an appropriate photon number or “photon frequency” of the cavity. In addition, the importance of the photon polarization in the cavity, that is, either parallel or perpendicular to the direction of electron propagation in the waveguide system is demonstrated.

  20. Entanglement, coherence, and redistribution of quantum resources in double spontaneous down-conversion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin

    2017-06-01

    We study the properties of bisqueezed tripartite Gaussian states created by two spontaneous parametric down-conversion processes that share a common idler. We give a complete description of the quantum correlations across all partitions, as well as of the genuine multipartite entanglement, obtaining analytical expressions for most of the quantities of interest. We find that the state contains genuine tripartite entanglement, in addition to the bipartite entanglement among the modes that are directly squeezed. We also investigate the effect of homodyne detection of the photons in the common idler mode, and analyze the final reduced state of the remaining two signal modes. We find that this measurement leads to a conversion of the coherence of the two signal modes into entanglement, a phenomenon that can be regarded as a redistribution of quantum resources between the modes. The applications of these results to quantum optics and circuit quantum electrodynamics platforms are also discussed.

  1. Quantum Equilibrium and the Origin of Absolute Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Dürr, D; Zanghì, N; D\\"urr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Zangh\\'i, Nino

    1992-01-01

    The quantum formalism is a ``measurement'' formalism--a phenomenological formalism describing certain macroscopic regularities. We argue that it can be regarded, and best be understood, as arising from Bohmian mechanics, which is what emerges from Schr\\"odinger's equation for a system of particles when we merely insist that ``particles'' means particles. While distinctly non-Newtonian, Bohmian mechanics is a fully deterministic theory of particles in motion, a motion choreographed by the wave function. We find that a Bohmian universe, though deterministic, evolves in such a manner that an {\\it appearance} of randomness emerges, precisely as described by the quantum formalism and given, for example, by ``$\\rho=|\\psis|^2$.'' A crucial ingredient in our analysis of the origin of this randomness is the notion of the effective wave function of a subsystem, a notion of interest in its own right and of relevance to any discussion of quantum theory. When the quantum formalism is regarded as arising in this way, the p...

  2. Quantum dynamics of tight-binding networks coherently controlled by external fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shuo; SONG Zhi; SUN Chang-pu

    2007-01-01

    With some reviews on the investigations on the schemes for quantum state transfer based on spin systems,we discuss the quantum dynamics of magnetically-controlled networks for Bloch electrons. The networks are constructed by connecting several tight-binding chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. The external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals can be used to control the intrinsic properties of the networks. For several typical networks, rigorous results are shown for some specific values of external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals: a complicated network can be reduced into a virtual network, which is a direct sum of some independent chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. These reductions are due to the fermionic statistics and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. In application, we study the quantum dynamics of wave packet motion of Bloch electrons in such networks. For various geometrical configurations, these networks can function as some optical devices,such as beam splitters, switches and interferometers. When the Bloch electrons as Gaussian wave packets input these devices, various quantum coherence phenomena can be observed, e.g., the perfect quantum state transfer without reflection in a Y-shaped beam, the multi-mode entanglers of electron wave by star-shaped network, magnetically controlled switches, and Bloch electron interferometer with the lattice Aharonov-Bohm effects. With these quantum coherent features, the networks are expected to be used as quantum information processors for the fermion system based on the possible engineered solid state systems, such as the array of quantum dots that can be implemented experimentally.

  3. Observing coherence effects in an overdamped quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Y.-H.; Barontini, G.; Scheucher, M.; Mergenthaler, M.; Goldwin, J.; Hinds, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    It is usually considered that the spectrum of an optical cavity coupled to an atomic medium does not exhibit a normal-mode splitting unless the system satisfies the strong coupling condition, meaning the Rabi frequency of the coherent coupling exceeds the decay rates of atom and cavity excitations. Here we show that this need not be the case, but depends on the way in which the coupled system is probed. Measurements of the reflection of a probe laser from the input mirror of an overdamped cavity reveal an avoided crossing in the spectrum that is not observed when driving the atoms directly and measuring the Purcell-enhanced cavity emission. We understand these observations by noting a formal correspondence with electromagnetically induced transparency of a three-level atom in free space, where our cavity acts as the absorbing medium and the coupled atoms play the role of the control field.

  4. Quantum coherent effects in multi-Zeeman-sublevel atomic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Ya-Bin; Gao Jiang-Rui; Dong You-Er

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental results on electromagnetically induced absorption(EIA)spectra observed in the system which does not satisfy completely the conditions given by Lezama et al[1999 Phys.Rev.A 59 4732].EIA signals on the transitions in the Cs D2 line are able to be observed,where Fg (→)F3=Fg-1 as open systems.Theoretical model of Lezama et al is good for the case Fg(→)=Fg+1,considering spontaneous transfer of atomic coherences or populations this model is not able to explain our experimental results obtained in the case Fg(→)Fe=Fg-1.This paper offers a theoretical model which is able to well explain the case Fg(→)Fe=Fg-1.It also uses this theoretical model to explain the split and shift of EIA peaks,which have been obtained in experiments.

  5. Quantum dual signature scheme based on coherent states with entanglement swapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Li; Shi, Rong-Hua; Shi, Jin-Jing; Lv, Ge-Li; Guo, Ying

    2016-08-01

    A novel quantum dual signature scheme, which combines two signed messages expected to be sent to two diverse receivers Bob and Charlie, is designed by applying entanglement swapping with coherent states. The signatory Alice signs two different messages with unitary operations (corresponding to the secret keys) and applies entanglement swapping to generate a quantum dual signature. The dual signature is firstly sent to the verifier Bob who extracts and verifies the signature of one message and transmits the rest of the dual signature to the verifier Charlie who verifies the signature of the other message. The transmission of the dual signature is realized with quantum teleportation of coherent states. The analysis shows that the security of secret keys and the security criteria of the signature protocol can be greatly guaranteed. An extensional multi-party quantum dual signature scheme which considers the case with more than three participants is also proposed in this paper and this scheme can remain secure. The proposed schemes are completely suited for the quantum communication network including multiple participants and can be applied to the e-commerce system which requires a secure payment among the customer, business and bank. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519) and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012).

  6. Quantum coherent control of ultra short laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU JianYing; ZENG JianHua; LI JunTao

    2008-01-01

    The effective photonic control is one of the key issues in photo-physics. Significant advancement in photonic crystals, quantum optics, ultrafast optics as well as micro-nano-optics gives rise to new op-portunities to manipulate the emission and propagation in optical fields, leading to a number of new and interesting discoveries, e.g., ultrashort light pulse storage and efficient energy conversion. This paper reviews the latest research progress in storage, release and energy conversion for ultrashort laser pulses in periodical arrays of absorbing medium. Techniques to fabricate such devices are also presented.

  7. Non-Gaussianity of quantum states: an experimental test on single-photon added coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Marco; Genoni, Marco G; Ferreyrol, Franck; Blandino, Rémi; Paris, Matteo G A; Grangier, Philippe; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Non Gaussian states and processes are useful resources in quantum information with continuous variables. An experimentally accessible criterion has been proposed to measure the degree of non Gaussianity of quantum states, based on the conditional entropy of the state with a Gaussian reference. Here we adopt such criterion to characterise an important class of non classical states, single-photon added coherent states. Our studies demonstrate the reliability and sensitivity of this measure, and use it to quantify how detrimental is the role of experimental imperfections in our realisation.

  8. Coherent control in room-temperature quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers using shaped pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Karni, Ouri; Eisenstein, Gadi; Ivanov, Vitalii; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability to control quantum coherent Rabi-oscillations in a room-temperature quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) by shaping the light pulses that trigger them. The experiments described here show that when the excitation is resonant with the short wavelength slope of the SOA gain spectrum, a linear frequency chirp affects its ability to trigger Rabi-oscillations within the SOA: A negative chirp inhibits Rabi-oscillations whereas a positive chirp can enhance them, relative to the interaction of a transform limited pulse. The experiments are confirmed by a numerical calculation that models the propagation of the experimentally shaped pulses through the SOA.

  9. Surface acoustic wave modulation of a coherently driven quantum dot in a pillar microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, B.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Lee, J. P.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Mitchell, T. A.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Ford, C. J. B.; Shields, A. J.

    2017-07-01

    We report the efficient coherent photon scattering from a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a pillar microcavity. We show that a surface acoustic wave can periodically modulate the energy levels of the quantum dot but has a negligible effect on the cavity mode. The scattered narrow-band laser is converted into a pulsed single-photon stream, displaying an anti-bunching dip characteristic of single-photon emission. Multiple phonon sidebands are resolved in the emission spectrum, due to the absorption and emission of vibrational quanta in each scattering event.

  10. Coherent quantum transport in normal-metal/d-wave superconductor/normal-metal double tunnel junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Zhengchao; FU; Hao

    2004-01-01

    Taking into account the effects of quantum interference and interface scattering, combining the electron current with hole current contribution to tunnel current,we study the coherent quantum transport in normal-metal/d-wave superconductor/normal-metal (NM/d-wave SC/NM) double tunnel junctions by using extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) approach. It is shown that all quasiparticle transport coefficients and conductance spectrum exhibit oscillating behavior with the energy, in which periodic vanishing of Andreev reflection (AR) above superconducting gap is found.In tunnel limit for the interface scattering strength taken very large, there are a series of bound states of quasiparticles formed in SC.

  11. Criteria for quantum coherent transfer of excitons between chromophores in a polar solvent

    CERN Document Server

    Gilmore, J; Gilmore, Joel; Kenzie, Ross H. Mc

    2004-01-01

    We show that the quantum decoherence of Forster resonant energy transfer between two optically active molecules can be described by a spin-boson model. This allows us to give quantitative criteria, in terms of experimentally measurable system parameters, that are necessary for coherent Bloch oscillations of excitons between the chromophores. Experimental tests of our results should be possible with Flourescent Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) spectroscopy. Although we focus on the case of protein-pigment complexes our results are also relevant to quantum dots and organic molecules in a dielectric medium.

  12. Coherent interaction of a metallic structure with a single quantum emitter: from super absorption to cloaking

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xue-Wen; Agio, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general theoretical platform based on quantized radiation in absorptive and inhomogeneous media for investigating the coherent interaction of light with metallic structures in the immediate vicinity of quantum emitters. In the case of a very small metallic cluster, we demonstrate extreme regimes where a single emitter can either counteract or enhance particle absorption by three orders of magnitude. For larger structures, we show that an emitter can eliminate both scattering and absorption and cloak a plasmonic antenna. We provide physical interpretations of our results and discuss their applications in active metamaterials and quantum plasmonics.

  13. Manipulating coherence resonance in a quantum dot semiconductor laser via electrical pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian; Lingnau, Benjamin; Schöll, Eckehard; Lüdge, Kathy

    2014-06-02

    Excitability and coherence resonance are studied in a semiconductor quantum dot laser under short optical self-feedback. For low pump levels, these are observed close to a homoclinic bifurcation, which is in correspondence with earlier observations in quantum well lasers. However, for high pump levels, we find excitability close to a boundary crisis of a chaotic attractor. We demonstrate that in contrast to the homoclinic bifurcation the crisis and thus the excitable regime is highly sensitive to the pump current. The excitability threshold increases with the pump current, which permits to adjust the sensitivity of the excitable unit to noise as well as to shift the optimal noise strength, at which maximum coherence is observed. The shift adds up to more than one order of magnitude, which strongly facilitates experimental realizations.

  14. Observation of intermolecular double-quantum coherence signal dips in nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Gui-Ping; Cai Cong-Bo; Cai Shu-Hui; Chen Zhong

    2011-01-01

    The correlated spectroscopy revamped by asymmetric Z-gradient echo detection (CRAZED) sequence is modified to investigate intermolecular double-quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance signal dips in highly polarized spin systems.It is found that the occurrence of intermolecular double-quantum coherence signal dips is related to sample geometry,field inhomogeneity and dipolar correlation distance.If the field inhomogeneity is refocused,the signal dip occurs at a fixed position whenever the dipolar correlation distance approaches the sample dimension.However,the position is shifted when the field inhomogeneity exists.Experiments and simulations are performed to validate our theoretic analysis.These signal features may offer a unique way to investigate porous structures and may find applications in biomedicine and material science.

  15. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-01

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  16. Critical Examination of Incoherent Operations and a Physically Consistent Resource Theory of Quantum Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad

    2016-07-15

    Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.

  17. Quantum coherence controls the charge separation in a prototypical artificial light-harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, Carlo Andrea; Falke, Sarah Maria; Spallanzani, Nicola; Rubio, Angel; Molinari, Elisa; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Cerullo, Giulio; Schramm, Heiko; Christoffers, Jens; Lienau, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The efficient conversion of light into electricity or chemical fuels is a fundamental challenge. In artificial photosynthetic and photovoltaic devices, this conversion is generally thought to happen on ultrafast, femto-to-picosecond timescales and to involve an incoherent electron transfer process. In some biological systems, however, there is growing evidence that the coherent motion of electronic wavepackets is an essential primary step, raising questions about the role of quantum coherence in artificial devices. Here we investigate the primary charge-transfer process in a supramolecular triad, a prototypical artificial reaction centre. Combining high time-resolution femtosecond spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory, we provide compelling evidence that the driving mechanism of the photoinduced current generation cycle is a correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds. We highlight the fundamental role of the interface between chromophore and charge acceptor in triggering the coherent wavelike electron-hole splitting.

  18. Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Multipartite Quantum Communication Using Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Guo, Ying

    2017-02-01

    A continuous-variable measurement-device-independent (CV-MDI) multipartite quantum communication protocol is designed to realize multipartite communication based on the GHZ state analysis using Gaussian coherent states. It can remove detector side attack as the multi-mode measurement is blindly done in a suitable Black Box. The entanglement-based CV-MDI multipartite communication scheme and the equivalent prepare-and-measurement scheme are proposed to analyze the security and guide experiment, respectively. The general eavesdropping and coherent attack are considered for the security analysis. Subsequently, all the attacks are ascribed to coherent attack against imperfect links. The asymptotic key rate of the asymmetric configuration is also derived with the numeric simulations illustrating the performance of the proposed protocol.

  19. Pseudospin solitons in the coherent stripe phase of a bilayer quantum Hall system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, C. B.; Côté, R.; Fertig, H. A.

    2006-08-01

    In the Hartree-Fock approximation and at total filling factor ν=4N+1, the ground state of the two-dimensional electron gas in a double quantum well system in a quantizing magnetic field is, in some range of interlayer distances, a coherent striped phase. This stripe phase has one-dimensional coherent channels that support charged excitations in the form of pseudospin solitons. In this work, we compute the transport gap of the coherent striped phase due to the creation of soliton-antisoliton pairs using a supercell microscopic unrestricted Hartree-Fock approach. We study the energy gap as a function of interlayer distance and tunneling amplitude. Our calculations confirm that the soliton-antisoliton excitation energy is lower than the corresponding Hartree-Fock electron-hole pair energy.

  20. Correct Path-Integral Formulation of Quantum Thermal Field Theory in Coherent State Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Jun-Chen; ZHENG Fu-Hou

    2005-01-01

    The path-integral quantization of thermal scalar, vector, and spinor fields is performed newly in the coherent-state representation. In doing this, we choose the thermal electrodynamics and ψ4 theory as examples. By this quantization, correct expressions of the partition functions and the generating functionals for the quantum thermal electrodynamics and ψ4 theory are obtained in the coherent-state representation. These expressions allow us to perform analytical calculations of the partition functions and generating functionals and therefore are useful in practical applications. Especially, the perturbative expansions of the generating functionals are derived specifically by virtue of the stationary-phase method. The generating functionals formulated in the position space are re-derived from the ones given in the coherent-state representation.

  1. Decoherence of quantum excitation of even/odd coherent states in thermal environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammadbeigi A; Tavassoly M K

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the decoherence of quantum excitation (photon-added)even/odd coherent states, $((\\^{a})^m|\\alpha_{\\pm}\\rangle)$, in a thermal environment by investigating the variation of negative part of the Wigner quasidistribution function vs. the rescaled time. For this purpose, at first we obtain the time-dependent Wigner function corresponding to the mentioned states in the framework of standard master equation. Then, the time evolution of the Wigner function associated with photon-added even/odd coherent states, as well as the number of added photons $m$ are analysed. It is shown that, in both states, the negative part of the Wigner function decreases with time. By deriving the threshold value of the rescaled time for single photon-added even/odd coherent states, it is also found that, if the rescaled time exceeds the threshold value, the associated Wigner function becomes positive, i.e., the decoherence occurs completely.

  2. Enhancing quantum entanglement for continuous variables by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Kim, Ho-Joon [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Ji, Se-Wan [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-012 (Korea, Republic of); Nha, Hyunchul [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Institute fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We investigate how the entanglement properties of a two-mode state can be improved by performing a coherent superposition operation ta+ra{sup {dagger}} of photon subtraction and addition, proposed by Lee and Nha [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053812 (2010)], on each mode. We show that the degree of entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type correlation, and the performance of quantum teleportation can be all enhanced for the output state when the coherent operation is applied to a two-mode squeezed state. The effects of the coherent operation are more prominent than those of the mere photon subtraction a and the addition a{sup {dagger}} particularly in the small-squeezing regime, whereas the optimal operation becomes the photon subtraction (case of r=0) in the large-squeezing regime.

  3. Polarization-Dependent Interference of Coherent Scattering from Orthogonal Dipole Moments of a Resonantly Excited Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Disheng; Lander, Gary R.; Solomon, Glenn S.; Flagg, Edward B.

    2017-01-01

    Resonant photoluminescence excitation (RPLE) spectra of a neutral InGaAs quantum dot show unconventional line shapes that depend on the detection polarization. We characterize this phenomenon by performing polarization-dependent RPLE measurements and simulating the measured spectra with a three-level quantum model. The spectra are explained by interference between fields coherently scattered from the two fine structure split exciton states, and the measurements enable extraction of the steady-state coherence between the two exciton states.

  4. Algebraic approach and coherent states for a relativistic quantum particle in cosmic string spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ramírez, M.; Ojeda-Guillén, D.; Mota, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    We study a relativistic quantum particle in cosmic string spacetime in the presence of a magnetic field and a Coulomb-type scalar potential. It is shown that the radial part of this problem possesses the su(1 , 1) symmetry. We obtain the energy spectrum and eigenfunctions of this problem by using two algebraic methods: the Schrödinger factorization and the tilting transformation. Finally, we give the explicit form of the relativistic coherent states for this problem.

  5. Open Quantum System Dynamics from a Measurement Perspective: Applications to Coherent Particle Transport and to Quantum~Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamleitner, Ingo

    2010-09-01

    We employ the theoretical framework of positive operator valued measures, to study Markovian open quantum systems. In particular, we discuss how a quantum system influences its environment. Using the theory of indirect measurements, we then draw conclusions about the information we could hypothetically obtain about the system by observing the environment. Although the environment is not actually observed, we can use these results to describe the change of the quantum system due to its interaction with the environment. We apply this technique to two different problems. In the first part, we study the coherently driven dynamics of a particle on a rail of quantum dots. This tunnelling between adjacent quantum dots can be controlled externally. We employ an adiabatic scheme similar to stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, to transfer the particle between different quantum dots. We compare two fundamentally different sources of decoherence. In the second part, we study the dynamics of a free quantum particle, which experiences random collisions with gas particles. Previous studies on this topic applied scattering theory to momentum eigenstates. We present a supplementary approach, where we develop a rigorous measurement interpretation of the collision process to derive a master equation. Finally, we study the collisional decoherence process in terms of the Wigner function. We restrict ourselves to one spatial dimension. Nevertheless, we find some interesting new insight, including that the previously celebrated quantum contribution to position diffusion is not real, but a consequence of the Markovian approximation. Further, we discover that the leading decoherence process is due to phase averaging, rather than induced by the information transfer between the colliding particles.

  6. A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu

    1996-01-01

    The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.

  7. Quantum optical coherence can survive photon losses: a continuous-variable quantum erasure correcting code

    CERN Document Server

    Lassen, Mikael; Huck, Alexander; Niset, Julien; Leuchs, Gerd; Cerf, Nicolas J; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for enabling fault-tolerant quantum information processing is an efficient quantum error-correcting code (QECC) that robustly protects the involved fragile quantum states from their environment. Just as classical error-correcting codes are indispensible in today's information technologies, it is believed that QECC will play a similarly crucial role in tomorrow's quantum information systems. Here, we report on the first experimental demonstration of a quantum erasure-correcting code that overcomes the devastating effect of photon losses. Whereas {\\it errors} translate, in an information theoretic language, the noise affecting a transmission line, {\\it erasures} correspond to the in-line probabilistic loss of photons. Our quantum code protects a four-mode entangled mesoscopic state of light against erasures, and its associated encoding and decoding operations only require linear optics and Gaussian resources. Since in-line attenuation is generally the strongest limitation to quantum co...

  8. Observation of resonance fluorescence and the Mollow triplet from a coherently driven site-controlled quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, Sebastian; Maier, Sebastian; McCutcheon, Dara;

    2015-01-01

    Resonant excitation of solid state quantum emitters has the potential to deterministically excite a localized exciton while ensuring a maximally coherent emission. In this work, we demonstrate the coherent coupling of an exciton localized in a lithographically positioned, site-controlled semicond...

  9. The Assistance of Molecular Vibrations on Coherent Energy Transfer in Photosynthesis from the View of Quantum Heat Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhedong

    2015-01-01

    Recently the quantum nature in the energy transport in solar cell and light-harvesting complexes have attracted much attention, as being triggered by the experimental observations. We model the light-harvesting complex (i.e., PEB50 dimer) as a quantum heat engine (QHE) and study the effect of the undamped intra-molecule vibrational modes on the coherent energy transfer process and quantum transport. We find that the exciton-vibration interaction has non-trivial contribution to the promotion of quantum yield as well as transport properties of the quantum heat engine at steady state, by enhancing the quantum coherence quantified by entanglement entropy. The perfect quantum yield over 90% has been obtained, with theexciton-vibration coupling. We attribute these improvements to the renormalization of the electronic couplings effectively induced by exciton-vibration interaction and the subsequent delocalization of excitons. Finally we demonstrate that the thermal relaxation and dephasing can help the excitation en...

  10. Ultrafast spectral interferometry of resonant secondary emission from quantum wells: From Rayleigh scattering to coherent emission from biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations of secondary emission from quantum well excitons following ultrafast resonant excitation have demonstrated an intricate interplay of coherent Rayleigh scattering and incoherent luminescence. We have very recently demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and time resolve...... invalidating the use of current theories using ensemble averages to describe our observations. Furthermore, we report here a new and hitherto unknown coherent scattering mechanism involving the two-photon coherence associated with the biexciton transition. The process leaves an exciton behind taking up...

  11. Time-optimal excitation of maximum quantum coherence: Physical limits and pulse sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köcher, S. S.; Heydenreich, T.; Zhang, Y.; Reddy, G. N. M.; Caldarelli, S.; Yuan, H.; Glaser, S. J.

    2016-04-01

    Here we study the optimum efficiency of the excitation of maximum quantum (MaxQ) coherence using analytical and numerical methods based on optimal control theory. The theoretical limit of the achievable MaxQ amplitude and the minimum time to achieve this limit are explored for a set of model systems consisting of up to five coupled spins. In addition to arbitrary pulse shapes, two simple pulse sequence families of practical interest are considered in the optimizations. Compared to conventional approaches, substantial gains were found both in terms of the achieved MaxQ amplitude and in pulse sequence durations. For a model system, theoretically predicted gains of a factor of three compared to the conventional pulse sequence were experimentally demonstrated. Motivated by the numerical results, also two novel analytical transfer schemes were found: Compared to conventional approaches based on non-selective pulses and delays, double-quantum coherence in two-spin systems can be created twice as fast using isotropic mixing and hard spin-selective pulses. Also it is proved that in a chain of three weakly coupled spins with the same coupling constants, triple-quantum coherence can be created in a time-optimal fashion using so-called geodesic pulses.

  12. Dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms coupled with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhiming, E-mail: 465609785@qq.com [School of Economics and Management, Wuyi University, Jiangmen 529020 (China); Situ, Haozhen, E-mail: situhaozhen@gmail.com [College of Mathematics and Informatics, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this article, the dynamics of quantum correlation and coherence for two atoms interacting with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar field in the Minkowski vacuum is investigated. We firstly derive the master equation that describes the system evolution with initial Bell-diagonal state. Then we discuss the system evolution for three cases of different initial states: non-zero correlation separable state, maximally entangled state and zero correlation state. For non-zero correlation initial separable state, quantum correlation and coherence can be protected from vacuum fluctuations during long time evolution when the separation between the two atoms is relatively small. For maximally entangled initial state, quantum correlation and coherence overall decrease with evolution time. However, for the zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence are firstly generated and then drop with evolution time; when separation is sufficiently small, they can survive from vacuum fluctuations. For three cases, quantum correlation and coherence first undergo decline and then fluctuate to relatively stable values with the increasing distance between the two atoms. Specially, for the case of zero correlation initial state, quantum correlation and coherence occur periodically revival at fixed zero points and revival amplitude declines gradually with increasing separation of two atoms.

  13. Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, James A.; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P.; Kais, Sabre

    2013-06-01

    The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models.

  14. Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, James A; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre

    2013-06-01

    The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models.

  15. Long Spin Relaxation and Coherence Times of Electrons In Gated Si/SiGe Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianhua; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.; Lee, C.-H.; Huang, S.-H.; Liu, C. W.

    2012-02-01

    Single electron spin states in semiconductor quantum dots are promising candidate qubits. We report the measurement of 250 μs relaxation (T1) and coherence (T2) times of electron spins in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots at 350 mK. The experiments used conventional X-band (10 GHz) pulsed electron spin resonance (pESR), on a large area (3.5 x 20 mm^2) dual-gate undoped high mobility Si/SiGe heterostructure sample, which was patterned with 2 x 10^8 quantum dots using e-beam lithography. Dots having 150 nm radii with a 700 nm period are induced in a natural Si quantum well by the gates. The measured T1 and T2 at 350 mK are much longer than those of free 2D electrons, for which we measured T1 to be 10 μs and T2 to be 6.5 μs in this gated sample. The results provide direct proof that the effects of a fluctuating Rashba field have been greatly suppressed by confining the electrons in quantum dots. From 0.35 K to 0.8 K, T1 of the electron spins in the quantum dots shows little temperature dependence, while their T2 decreased to about 150 μs at 0.8 K. The measured 350 mK spin coherence time is 10 times longer than previously reported for any silicon 2D electron-based structures, including electron spins confined in ``natural quantum dots'' formed by potential disorder at the Si/SiO2ootnotetextS. Shankar et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 195323 (2010) or Si/SiGe interface, where the decoherence appears to be controlled by spin exchange.

  16. Self-coherent phase reference sharing for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Adrien; Alléaume, Romain

    2017-01-01

    We develop a comprehensive framework to model and optimize the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) with a local local oscillator (LLO), when phase reference sharing and QKD are jointly implemented. We first analyze the limitations of the only existing approach, called LLO-sequential, and show that it requires high modulation dynamics and can only tolerate small phase noise. Our main contribution is to introduce two designs to perform LLO CV-QKD, respectively called LLO-delayline and LLO-displacement, and to study their performance. Both designs rely on a self-coherent approach, in which phase reference information and quantum information are coherently obtained from a single optical wavefront. We show that these designs can lift some limitations of the existing LLO-sequential approach. The LLO-delayline design can in particular tolerate much stronger phase noise and thus appears to be an appealing alternative to LLO-sequential in terms of network integrability. We also investigate, with the LLO-displacement design, how phase reference information and quantum information can be multiplexed within a single optical pulse. By studying the trade-off between phase reference recovery and phase noise induced by displacement, we, however, demonstrate that this design can only tolerate low phase noise. On the other hand, the LLO-displacement design has the advantage of minimal hardware requirements and provides a simple approach to multiplex classical and quantum communications, opening a practical path towards the development of ubiquitous coherent classical-quantum communications systems compatible with next-generation network requirements.

  17. Analytical calculation of the quantum 1/f coherence parameter for HFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Peter H.; Sherif, Taher S.

    2010-03-01

    The ratio s of the coherent magnetic energy term and the incoherent mechanical kinetic energy terms of the drift motion in the hamiltonian of a current carrying system is calculated for the special cases of a HFET or FET. This ratio defines the resulting quantum 1/f noise from the coherent and conventional quantum 1/f effects. In this case of FETs and HFETs of much larger width w>>LDS>t, the kinetic energy Ek of average motion with drift velocity vd per unit length in the direction of the drain-source distance LDS in the channel of thickness t, is still given by Nmvd 2/2, but the magnetic energy Em per unit length in the direction of LDS is roughly proportional with the first power of w only, instead of w2, and can be approximated by Em = π[ln(w/2LDS)]LDS[nevS/c]2/w. Here S=wt is the cross section though which current flows this indicates field-decoherence along the large device width w. This yields a coherence ratio of s ≡ Em/Ek ~ πnrotLDSln(w/2LDS), which shows that only an effective width w=weff about equal to LDS should be used in the calculation of s in this special case; larger widths are subject to de-coherence. This favors lower, mainly conventional, quantum 1/f noise in these devices, in spite of the large values of w. It also explains for the first time why the huge widths are possible with impunity, i.e., without causing the much larger coherent quantum 1/f noise to appear. For non-uniform current distribution across t, and for piezoelectric coupling, improved forms are derived for s. Specifically, the coherence parameter, called s' for the piezo case, is given by s' = (gN'h/m*vs)( vs/u)3F(u/vs)t/12w, where F(u/vs) = (2/3)(u/vs) for small drift velocity u, much smaller than the sound velocity vs in the semiconductor. Here N'=nwt.

  18. Quantum Tunnelling to the Origin and Evolution of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trixler, Frank

    2013-08-01

    Quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon which becomes relevant at the nanoscale and below. It is a paradox from the classical point of view as it enables elementary particles and atoms to permeate an energetic barrier without the need for sufficient energy to overcome it. Tunnelling might seem to be an exotic process only important for special physical effects and applications such as the Tunnel Diode, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (electron tunnelling) or Near-field Optical Microscopy operating in photon tunnelling mode. However, this review demonstrates that tunnelling can do far more, being of vital importance for life: physical and chemical processes which are crucial in theories about the origin and evolution of life can be traced directly back to the effects of quantum tunnelling. These processes include the chemical evolution in stellar interiors and within the cold interstellar medium, prebiotic chemistry in the atmosphere and subsurface of planetary bodies, planetary habitability via insolation and geothermal heat as well as the function of biomolecular nanomachines. This review shows that quantum tunnelling has many highly important implications to the field of molecular and biological evolution, prebiotic chemistry and astrobiology.

  19. Characterization of conditional state-engineering quantum processes by coherent state quantum process tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Merlin; Slade, Eirion; Karpinski, Michal; Smith, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Conditional quantum optical processes enable a wide range of technologies from generation of highly non-classical states to implementation of quantum logic operations. The process fidelity that can be achieved in a realistic implementation depends on a number of system parameters. Here we experimentally examine Fock-state filtration, a canonical example of a broad class of conditional quantum operations acting on a single optical field mode. This operation is based upon interference of the mo...

  20. Nature does not rely on long-lived electronic quantum coherence for photosynthetic energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Hong-Guang; Cogdell, Richard; Ashraf, Khuram; Stevens, Amy L; Thorwart, Michael; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    During the first steps of photosynthesis, the energy of impinging solar photons is transformed into electronic excitation energy of the light-harvesting biomolecular complexes. The subsequent energy transfer to the reaction center is understood in terms of exciton quasiparticles which move on a grid of biomolecular sites on typical time scales less than 100 femtoseconds (fs). Since the early days of quantum mechanics, this energy transfer is described as an incoherent Forster hopping with classical site occupation probabilities, but with quantum mechanically determined rate constants. This orthodox picture has been challenged by ultrafast optical spectroscopy experiments with the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein in which interference oscillatory signals up to 1.5 picoseconds were reported and interpreted as direct evidence of exceptionally long-lived electronic quantum coherence. Here, we show that the optical 2D photon echo spectra of this complex at ambient temperature in aqueous solution do not provide evidenc...

  1. Coherent optical spectroscopy in a biological semiconductor quantum dot-DNA hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate coherent optical spectroscopy of a biological semiconductor quantum dot (QD) coupled to DNA molecules. Coupling with DNAs, the linear optical responses of the peptide QDs will be enhanced significantly in the simultaneous presence of two optical fields. Based on this technique, we propose a scheme to measure the vibrational frequency of DNA and the coupling strength between peptide QD and DNA in all-optical domain. Distinct with metallic quantum dot, biological QD is non-toxic and pollution-free to environment, which will contribute to clinical medicine experiments. This article leads people to know more about the optical behaviors of DNAs-quantum dot system, with the currently popular pump-probe technique. PMID:22340277

  2. High Efficient Quantum Key Distribution by Random Using Classified Signal Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jing-Bo; FANG Xi-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The decoy-state method is a useful method in resisting the attacks on quantum key distribution. However, how to choose the intensities of decoy states and the ratio of the decoy states and the signal state is still an open question. We present a simple formula to analyse the problem. We also give a simple method to derive the bounds of the necessary counting rates and quantum bit error rates for BB84 and SARG04; the latter was previously proposed by Scarani et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004) 057901] We then propose a multi-signal-state method which employs different coherent states either as the decoy state or as the signal state to carry out quantum key distribution. We find our protocol more efficient and feasible.

  3. Coherent optical spectroscopy in a biological semiconductor quantum dot-DNA hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2012-02-16

    We theoretically investigate coherent optical spectroscopy of a biological semiconductor quantum dot (QD) coupled to DNA molecules. Coupling with DNAs, the linear optical responses of the peptide QDs will be enhanced significantly in the simultaneous presence of two optical fields. Based on this technique, we propose a scheme to measure the vibrational frequency of DNA and the coupling strength between peptide QD and DNA in all-optical domain. Distinct with metallic quantum dot, biological QD is non-toxic and pollution-free to environment, which will contribute to clinical medicine experiments. This article leads people to know more about the optical behaviors of DNAs-quantum dot system, with the currently popular pump-probe technique.

  4. Delocalization and Sensitivity of Quantum Wavepacket in Coherently Perturbed Kicked Anderson Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Yamada

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We consider quantum diffusion of the initially localized wavepacket in one-dimensional kicked disordered system with classical coherent perturbation. The wavepacket localizes in the unperturbed kicked Anderson model. However, the wavepacket get delocalized even by coupling with monochromatic perturbation. We call the state "dynamically delocalized state". It is numerically shown that the delocalized wavepacket spread obeying diffusion law, and the perturbation strength dependence of the diffusion rate is given. The sensitivity of the delocalized state is also shown by the time-reversal experiment after random change in phase of the wavepacket. Moreover, it is found that the diffusion strongly depend on the initial phase of the perturbation. We discuss a relation between the "classicalization" of the quantum wave packet and the time-dependence of the initial phase dependence. The complex structure of the initial phase dependence is related to the entropy production in the quantum system.

  5. Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Patrick J; Collins, Robert J; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Digital signatures are frequently used in data transfer to prevent impersonation, repudiation and message tampering. Currently used classical digital signature schemes rely on public key encryption techniques, where the complexity of so-called 'one-way' mathematical functions is used to provide security over sufficiently long timescales. No mathematical proofs are known for the long-term security of such techniques. Quantum digital signatures offer a means of sending a message, which cannot be forged or repudiated, with security verified by information-theoretical limits and quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate an experimental system, which distributes quantum signatures from one sender to two receivers and enables message sending ensured against forging and repudiation. Additionally, we analyse the security of the system in some typical scenarios. Our system is based on the interference of phase-encoded coherent states of light and our implementation utilizes polarization-maintaining optical fibre and photons with a wavelength of 850 nm.

  6. Assistance of molecular vibrations on coherent energy transfer in photosynthesis from the view of a quantum heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin

    2015-04-02

    Recently, the quantum nature in the energy transport in solar cells and light-harvesting complexes has attracted much attention as being triggered by the experimental observations. We model the light-harvesting complex (i.e., PEB50 dimer) as a quantum heat engine (QHE) and study the effect of the undamped intramolecule vibrational modes on the coherent energy-transfer process and quantum transport. We find that the exciton-vibration interaction has nontrivial contribution to the promotion of quantum yield as well as transport properties of the QHE at steady state by enhancing the quantum coherence quantified by entanglement entropy. The perfect quantum yield over 90% has been obtained, with the exciton-vibration coupling. We attribute these improvements to the renormalization of the electronic couplings effectively induced by exciton-vibration interaction and the subsequent delocalization of excitons. Finally, we demonstrate that the thermal relaxation and dephasing can help the excitation energy transfer in the PEB50 dimer.

  7. Super-resolving quantum radar: Coherent-state sources with homodyne detection suffice to beat the diffraction limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Kebei; Lee, Hwang [Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Gerry, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, The City University of New York, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Dowling, Jonathan P., E-mail: jdowling@lsu.edu [Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-21

    There has been much recent interest in quantum metrology for applications to sub-Raleigh ranging and remote sensing such as in quantum radar. For quantum radar, atmospheric absorption and diffraction rapidly degrades any actively transmitted quantum states of light, such as N00N states, so that for this high-loss regime the optimal strategy is to transmit coherent states of light, which suffer no worse loss than the linear Beer's law for classical radar attenuation, and which provide sensitivity at the shot-noise limit in the returned power. We show that coherent radar radiation sources, coupled with a quantum homodyne detection scheme, provide both longitudinal and angular super-resolution much below the Rayleigh diffraction limit, with sensitivity at shot-noise in terms of the detected photon power. Our approach provides a template for the development of a complete super-resolving quantum radar system with currently available technology.

  8. 0.54 {\\mu}m resolution two-photon interference with dispersion cancellation for quantum optical coherence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Okano, Masayuki; Okamoto, Ryo; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Kurimura, Sunao; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information technologies harness the intrinsic nature of quantum theory to beat the limitations of the classical methods for information processing and communication. Recently, the application of quantum features to metrology has attracted much attention. Quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT), which utilizes two-photon interference between entangled photon pairs, is a promising approach to overcome the problem with optical coherence tomography (OCT): As the resolution of OCT becomes higher, degradation of the resolution due to dispersion within the medium becomes more critical. Here we report on the realization of 0.54 $\\mu$m resolution two-photon interference, which surpasses the current record resolution 0.75 $\\mu$m of low-coherence interference for OCT. In addition, the resolution for QOCT showed almost no change against the dispersion of a 1 mm thickness of water inserted in the optical path, whereas the resolution for OCT dramatically degrades. For this experiment, a highly-efficient chirpe...

  9. Certifying quantumness: Benchmarks for the optimal processing of generalized coherent and squeezed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.

  10. Local Probing of Phase Coherence in a Strongly Interacting 2D Quantum Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luick, Niclas; Siegl, Jonas; Hueck, Klaus; Morgener, Kai; Lompe, Thomas; Weimer, Wolf; Moritz, Henning

    2016-05-01

    The dimensionality of a quantum system has a profound impact on its coherence and superfluid properties. In 3D superfluids, bosonic atoms or Cooper pairs condense into a macroscopic wave function exhibiting long-range phase coherence. Meanwhile, 2D superfluids show a strikingly different behavior: True long-range coherence is precluded by thermal fluctuations, nevertheless Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory predicts that 2D systems can still become superfluid. The superfluid state is characterized by an algebraic decay of phase correlations g1(r) ~r - τ / 4 , where the decay exponent τ is directly related to the superfluid density ns according to τ = 4 /(nsλdB2) . I will present local coherence measurements in a strongly interacting 2D gas of diatomic 6 Li molecules. A self-interference technique allows us to locally extract the algebraic decay exponent and to reconstruct the superfluid density. We determine the scaling of the decay exponent with phase space density to provide a benchmark for studies of 2D superfluids in the strongly interacting regime.

  11. Quantum Origin of the Primordial Fluctuation Spectrum and its Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, Gabriel; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The account of the origin of cosmic structure, as provided by the standard inflationary paradigm, is not fully satisfactory, as has been argued in Perez et al 2006. The central point of that work is to point out the need to discuss and explore the physical mechanism that is capable of generating the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of our Universe, starting from an exactly homogeneous and isotropic initial state associated with the early inflationary regime. We review this issue briefly here together with the proposal to address this shortcoming in terms of a dynamical collapse of the vacuum state of the inflaton field. We also briefly indicate how this issues might be connected to other questions being faced in the study of the quantum/gravity interface, and their relevance to the investigations concerning the statistical characterization of the primordial spectrum.

  12. A decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with 4 intensities of coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X B

    2004-01-01

    In order to beat any type of photon-number-splitting attack, we In order to beat any type of photon-number-splitting attack, we propose a protocol for quantum key distributoin (QKD) using 4 different intensities of pulses. They are vacuum and coherent states with mean photon number $\\mu,\\mu'$ and $\\mu_s$. $\\mu_s$ is around 0.55 and this class of pulses are used as the main signal states. The other two classes of coherent states are used for both decoy and signal. We have shown that, given the typical set-up in practice, the key rate from the main signal pulses is more than 77% to 88% of the theoretically allowed maximal rate in the case of overall transmittance of $10^{-4}$ and $10^{-3}$.

  13. Hybrid quantum repeater based on dispersive CQED interactions between matter qubits and bright coherent light

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, T D; Nemoto, K; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Loock, Peter van; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J.; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    We describe a system for long-distance distribution of quantum entanglement, in which coherent light with large average photon number interacts dispersively with single, far-detuned atoms or semiconductor impurities in optical cavities. Entanglement is heralded by homodyne detection using a second bright light pulse for phase reference. The use of bright pulses leads to a high success probability for the generation of entanglement, at the cost of a lower initial fidelity. This fidelity may be boosted by entanglement purification techniques, implemented with the same physical resources. The need for more purification steps is well compensated for by the increased probability of success when compared to heralded entanglement schemes using single photons or weak coherent pulses with realistic detectors. The principle cause of the lower initial fidelity is fiber loss; however, spontaneous decay and cavity losses during the dispersive atom/cavity interactions can also impair performance. We show that these effects...

  14. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF TRANSVERSE RELAXATION TIME OF INTERMOLECULAR MULTIPLE QUANTUM COHERENCES IN NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG SHAO-KUAN; CHEN ZHONG; CHEN ZHI-WEI; ZHONG JIAN-HUI

    2001-01-01

    A one-dimensional NMR method is presented for measuring the transverse relaxation time, T2,n, of intermolecular multiple quantum coherences (IMQCs) of coherence order n in highly polarized spin systems. The pulse sequence proposed in this paper effectively suppresses the effects of radiation damping, molecular diffusion, inhomogeneity of magnetic field, and variations of dipolar correlation distance, all of which may affect quantitation of T2,n. This pulse sequence can be used to measure not only IMQC transverse relaxation time T2,n(n > 1) quickly and directly, but also the conventional transverse relaxation time. Experimental results demonstrate that the quantitative relationship between T2,n(n≥1) and T2 is T2,n≈T2/n. These results will be helpful for understanding the fundamental properties and mechanisms of IMQCs.

  15. Enhancement of coherent acoustic phonons in InGaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Shopan D.; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit

    2015-03-01

    Enhancement of coherent zone folded longitudinal acoustic phonon (ZFLAP) oscillations at terahertz frequencies was demonstrated in InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) by using wavelength degenerate time resolved differential transmission spectroscopy. Screening of the piezoelectric field in InGaN MQWs by photogenerated carriers upon femtosecond pulse excitation gave rise to terahertz ZFLAPs, which were monitored at the Brillouin zone center in the transmission geometry. MQWs composed of 10 pairs InxGa1-xN wells and In0.03Ga0.97N barriers provided coherent phonon frequencies of 0.69-0.80 THz depending on the period of MQWs. Dependences of ZFLAP amplitude on excitation density and wavelength were also investigated. Possibility of achieving phonon cavity, incorporating a MQW placed between two AlN/GaN phonon mirrors designed to exhibit large acoustic gaps at the zone center, was also explored.

  16. Coherence and control of quantum registers based on electronic spin in a nuclear spin bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellaro, P; Jiang, L; Hodges, J S; Lukin, M D

    2009-05-29

    We consider a protocol for the control of few-qubit registers comprising one electronic spin embedded in a nuclear spin bath. We show how to isolate a few proximal nuclear spins from the rest of the bath and use them as building blocks for a potentially scalable quantum information processor. We describe how coherent control techniques based on magnetic resonance methods can be adapted to these solid-state spin systems, to provide not only efficient, high fidelity manipulation but also decoupling from the spin bath. As an example, we analyze feasible performances and practical limitations in the realistic setting of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond.

  17. Coherent control in strongly driven multi-level systems: quantum vs classical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Misha; Bartram, David; Smirnova, Olga

    2012-08-01

    We look at wavepacket dynamics in multi-level systems driven by resonant two-colour fields. We show that control of this dynamics, performed by controlling the relative phase between the driving fields, can be mapped on a problem of molecular alignment and orientation on a plane. Changing the relative phase between the two colours corresponds to changing the angle between aligning and orienting fields. This map offers physically transparent qualitative and quantitative insight into the seemingly complex dynamics, including the analysis of quantum versus classical features of the two-colour coherent control.

  18. Quantum optical coherence tomography using three time-energy entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Burguete, Arturo; Campos, Eernesto

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Optical Coherence Tomography can achieve a greater image resolution compared to its classical counterpart, due to the entanglement of the photon pairs. Following the idea that higher the number of entangled photons, higher the resolution, we study the physical underpinnings that appear when using photon triplets. Unlike the usual Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer used for QOCT, a much simpler implementation in the form of a Michelson interferometer is used in this work. We find that axial resolution can be improved by a factor of four. Additionally, we provide the numerical method to reconstruct the image given the triple coincidence rate.

  19. The Generalized Coherent State ansatz: Application to quantum electron-vibrational dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Raffaele; Gelin, Maxim F.

    2016-12-01

    A new ansatz for molecular vibronic wave functions based on a superposition of time-dependent Generalized Coherent States is developed and analysed. The methodology is specifically tailored to describe the time evolution of the wave function of a system in which several interacting electronic states are coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators. The equations of motion for the wave packet parameters are obtained by using the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. The methodology is used to describe the quantum dynamical behavior of a model polaron system and its scaling and convergence properties are discussed and compared with numerically exact results.

  20. Coherent Coupling of Double Quantum Dots Embedded in a Mesoscopic Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍全; 王顺金

    2003-01-01

    We theoretically study the properties of the ground state of a series-coupled double quantum dot embedded in a mesoscopic ring in the Kondo regime by means of the two-impurity Anderson Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian is solved by means of the slave-boson mean-field theory. It is shown that two dots can be coupled coherently,which is reflected in the appearance of parity effects and the complex current-phase relation in this system. This system might be a possible candidate for future device applications.

  1. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Chen, Aixi, E-mail: aixichen@ecjtu.jx.cn [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device.

  2. Microscopic quantum structure of black hole and vacuum versus quantum statistical origin of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shun-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The Planckon densely piled model of vacuum is proposed. Based on it, the microscopic quantum structure of Schwarzschild black hole and quantum statistical origin of its gravity are studied. It is shown that thermodynamic temperature equilibrium and mechanical acceleration balance make the space-time of the black hole horizon singular and Casimir effect works inside the horizon. This effect makes the inside vacuum have less zero fluctuation energy than the outside vacuum, and a temperature difference as well as gravity as thermal pressure are created. A dual relation between inside and outside regions of the black hole is found. By dual relation, an attractor behaviour of the horizon surface is unveiled. Outside horizon, there exist thermodynamic non-equilibrium and mechanical non-balance which lead to outward centrifugal energy flow and inward gravitation energy flow, their compensation establishes local equilibrium. The lost vacuum energy in negative gravitation potential regions has been removed to the blac...

  3. Fully quantum non-adiabatic dynamics in electronic-nuclear coherent state basis

    CERN Document Server

    Humeniuk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Direct dynamics methods using Gaussian wavepackets have to rely only on local properties, such as gradients and hessians at the center of the wavepacket, so as to be compatible with the usual quantum chemistry methods. Matrix elements of the potential energy surfaces between wavepackets therefore usually have to be approximated. It is shown, that if a modified form of valence bond theory is used instead of the usual MO-based theories, the matrix elements can be obtained exactly. This is so because the molecular Hamiltonian only contains the Coulomb potential, for which matrix elements between different basis functions (consisting of Gaussian nuclear and electronic orbitals) are all well-known. In valence bond theory the self-consistent field calculation can be avoided so that the matrix elements are analytical functions of the nuclear coordinates. A method for simulating non-adiabatic quantum dynamics is sketched, where coherent state trajectories are propagated "on the fly" on adiabatic potential energy surf...

  4. The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiteng; Kais, Sabre

    2015-01-01

    We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on (1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and (2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects o...

  5. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  6. Coherent Interband and Intersubband Dynamics in Terahertz-Driven GaAs Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical absorption spectra and charge density by subjecting a GaAs quantum well to both an intense terahertz (THz)-frequency driving field and an optical pulse within the theory of density matrix. In presence of a strong THz field, the optical transitions in quantum well subbands are altered by the THz field. The alteration has a direct impact on the optical absorption and the charge density. The excitonic peak splitting and THz optical sideband in the absorption spectra show up when changing the THz field intensity and/or frequency. The Autler-Towns splitting is a result from the THz nonlinear dynamics of confined excitons. On the other hand, the carrier charge density is created as wave packets formed by coherent superposition of several eigenstates. The charge density exhibitsquantum beats for short pulses and/or wider wells and is modulated by the THz field.

  7. Quantum test of the equivalence principle for atoms in coherent superposition of internal energy states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, G.; D'Amico, G.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Zych, M.; Brukner, Č.; Tino, G. M.

    2017-06-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) has a central role in the understanding of gravity and space-time. In its weak form, or weak equivalence principle (WEP), it directly implies equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass. Verifying this principle in a regime where the relevant properties of the test body must be described by quantum theory has profound implications. Here we report on a novel WEP test for atoms: a Bragg atom interferometer in a gravity gradiometer configuration compares the free fall of rubidium atoms prepared in two hyperfine states and in their coherent superposition. The use of the superposition state allows testing genuine quantum aspects of EEP with no classical analogue, which have remained completely unexplored so far. In addition, we measure the Eötvös ratio of atoms in two hyperfine levels with relative uncertainty in the low 10-9, improving previous results by almost two orders of magnitude.

  8. Coherent pulse implementations of quantum cryptography protocols resistant to photon number splitting attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Acin, A; Scarani, V; Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    A new class of quantum cryptography (QC) protocols that are robust against the most general photon number splitting attacks in a weak coherent pulse implementation has been recently proposed. In this article we give a quite exhaustive analysis of several eavesdropping attacks on these schemes. The eavesdropper (Eve) is supposed to have unlimited technological power while the honest parties (Alice and Bob) use present day technology, in particular an attenuated laser as an approximation of a single-photon source. They exploit the nonorthogonality of quantum states for decreasing the information accessible to Eve in the multi-photon pulses accidentally produced by the imperfect source. An implementation of some of these protocols using present day technology allow for a secure key distribution up to distances of $\\sim$ 150 km. We also show that strong-pulse implementations, where a strong pulse is included as a reference, allow for key distribution robust against photon number splitting attacks.

  9. Spontaneous Coherence Effects in Quantum Dots and Quantum Wells Placed in Microcavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaputkina N.E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bose-Einstein condensation temperature Tc for a system of coupled quantum dots in a microcavity was estimated in function of the confining potential steepness, the external magnetic field strength, and the barrier layer width for indirect excitons. The effect of the magnetic field on Tc was found to be nonmonotonic over a certain range of the control parameters. The reason is the presence of two competing mechanisms accompanying the increase of the magnetic field: (a increase of the magnetoexciton effective mass and (b increase of the effective confining potential steepness for quantum dots.

  10. Interfacing spin qubits in quantum dots and donors—hot, dense, and coherent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Bluhm, H.; Clarke, J. S.; Dzurak, A. S.; Ishihara, R.; Morello, A.; Reilly, D. J.; Schreiber, L. R.; Veldhorst, M.

    2017-09-01

    Semiconductor spins are one of the few qubit realizations that remain a serious candidate for the implementation of large-scale quantum circuits. Excellent scalability is often argued for spin qubits defined by lithography and controlled via electrical signals, based on the success of conventional semiconductor integrated circuits. However, the wiring and interconnect requirements for quantum circuits are completely different from those for classical circuits, as individual direct current, pulsed and in some cases microwave control signals need to be routed from external sources to every qubit. This is further complicated by the requirement that these spin qubits currently operate at temperatures below 100 mK. Here, we review several strategies that are considered to address this crucial challenge in scaling quantum circuits based on electron spin qubits. Key assets of spin qubits include the potential to operate at 1 to 4 K, the high density of quantum dots or donors combined with possibilities to space them apart as needed, the extremely long-spin coherence times, and the rich options for integration with classical electronics based on the same technology.

  11. Angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine based on coherent dipole-dipole coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan-He; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jin-Can; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule have been widely observed in biological systems and exhibit broad application for molecular structural studies. Quantum delocalization of molecular dipole moments has inspired researchers to explore new avenues to utilize this physical effect for energy harvesting devices. Herein, we propose a simple model of the angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine which seeks to facilitate the conversion of heat to work. Unlike previous studies, the adiabatic processes are accomplished by varying only the directions of the magnetic field. We show that the heat engine continues to generate power when the angle relative to the vector r joining the centres of coupled dipoles departs from the magic angle θm where the static coupling vanishes. A significant improvement in the device performance has to be attributed to the presence of the quantum delocalized levels associated with the coherent dipole-dipole coupling. These results obtained may provide a promising model for the biomimetic design and fabrication of quantum energy generators.

  12. Determining the quantum-coherent to semiclassical transition in atomic-scale quasi-one-dimensional metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bent; Simmons, Michelle Y.

    2016-08-01

    Atomic-scale silicon wires, patterned by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and degenerately doped with phosphorus (P), have attracted significant interest owing to their exceptionally low resistivity and semiclassical Ohmic conduction at temperatures as low as T =4.2 K . Here, we investigate the transition from semiclassical diffusive to quantum-coherent conduction in a 4.6 nm wide wire as we decrease the measurement temperature. By analyzing the temperature dependence of universal conductance fluctuations (UCFs) and one-dimensional (1D) weak localization (WL)—fundamental manifestations of quantum-coherent transport in quasi-1D metals—we show that transport evolves from quantum coherent to semiclassical at T ˜4 K . Remarkably, our study confirms that universal concepts of mesoscopic physics such as UCF and 1D WL retain their validity in quasi-1D metallic conductors down to the atomic scale.

  13. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Chemistry, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2014-06-28

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy

  14. High-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy in unstable fields via intermolecular zero-quantum coherences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meijin; Chen, Xi; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2010-06-21

    Intermolecular zero-quantum coherences (iZQCs) have been utilized to achieve high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) proton spectra under inhomogeneous and/or unstable fields. In this paper, we demonstrated that despite the insensitivity of iZQCs to B(0) variations, the influence of unstable fields on the observable single-quantum coherence signals causes strong t(1) noises in the high-resolution iZQC spectra. Short-time acquisition (STA) and phase spectrum schemes were proposed for noise suppression in in vivo iZQC magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) under temporal B(0) variations. The feasibility of these schemes were verified by localized spectroscopic studies under B(0) variations generated by the Z0 coil current oscillations and by voxel position variations in the presence of field gradients, which simulate the field conditions of MRS in the presence of physiological motions. The phase scheme not only improves the signal-to-noise ratio but also further reduces the linewidth by half.

  15. Analysis of hydrocarbon chain conformation using double quantum coherence /sup 13/C NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillippi, M.A. (Clorox Technical Center, Pleasanton, CA); Wiersema, R.J.; Brainard, J.R.; London, R.E.

    1982-12-15

    The recent development of a double quantum coherence method for the observation of /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C scalar coupling constants without the need for isotopic labeling provides an alternative approach to the hydrocarbon chain conformation problem. The method is particularly suitable for this application since one-, two-, and three-bond carbon-carbon coupling constant values in hydrocarbons are typically of significantly different magnitudes, and observation of coupling constants of selected magnitude may be enhanced by the appropriate choice of pulse intervals. Consequently, J/sub CC/ values, which are dependent on the subtended dihedral angle, can be selectively observed. In order to evaluate the potential of this approach, studies on a 90% octanol-10% benzene-d/sub 6/ solution, with the latter serving for the deuterium lock were carried out. A representative /sup 13/C double quantum coherence spectrum of the region containing the octanol C-7 resonances with pulse intervals chosen to optimize couplings with magnitude close to 4.0 Hz is illustrated.

  16. Scale-estimation of quantum coherent energy transport in multiple-minima systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    A generic and intuitive model for coherent energy transport in multiple minima systems coupled to a quantum mechanical bath is shown. Using a simple spin-boson system, we illustrate how a generic donor-acceptor system can be brought into resonance using a narrow band of vibrational modes, such that the transfer efficiency of an electron-hole pair (exciton) is made arbitrarily high. Coherent transport phenomena in nature are of renewed interest since the discovery that a photon captured by the light-harvesting complex (LHC) in photosynthetic organisms can be conveyed to a chemical reaction centre with near-perfect efficiency. Classical explanations of the transfer use stochastic diffusion to model the hopping motion of a photo-excited exciton. This accounts inadequately for the speed and efficiency of the energy transfer measured in a series of recent landmark experiments. Taking a quantum mechanical perspective can help capture the salient features of the efficient part of that transfer. To show the versatili...

  17. On the Conversion of Triple- to Single-Quantum Coherences in MQMAS NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruski, M.; Wiench, J. W.; Amoureux, J.-P.

    2000-12-01

    A systematic experimental and numerical evaluation of several basic approaches to multiple-quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) NMR is presented for spin-{3}/{2} nuclei. The approaches use identical MQ excitation, via a single RF pulse of high power, and three types of methods for conversion to observable coherence: (a) nutation by strong continuous wave pulse; (b) rotation-induced adiabatic coherence transfer (RIACT), and (c) fast amplitude modulation (FAM-1). The optimization strategies and maximum achievable MQMAS efficiencies of 87Rb in RbNO3 and LiRbSO4 are investigated using several coherence transfer schemes under a wide range of experimental parameters. These parameters include the strength of the RF magnetic field νRF, the sample rotation speed νR, the length of the conversion period, and the modulation frequency in FAM-1. The data provide new insights into the spin dynamics involved in these techniques and the experimental guidelines for achieving the best sensitivity. The RF requirements for maximum efficiency of conversion depend on the method to be used. In general, FAM-1 performs better than the nutation and RIACT methods in terms of efficiency and off-resonance behavior, especially when νRF is small compared to the quadrupole frequency νQ. The experiments performed using nutation, RIACT, and FAM-1 methods yield similar resolution in the isotropic dimension, regardless of νRF.

  18. The manipulation of massive ro-vibronic superpositions using time-frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (TFRCARS) from quantum control to quantum computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zadoyan, R; Lidar, D A; Apkarian, V A

    2001-01-01

    Molecular ro-vibronic coherences, joint energy-time distributions of quantum amplitudes, are selectively prepared, manipulated, and imaged in Time-Frequency-Resolved Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (TFRCARS) measurements using femtosecond laser pulses. The studies are implemented in iodine vapor, with its thermally occupied statistical ro-vibrational density serving as initial state. The evolution of the massive ro-vibronic superpositions, consisting of 1000 eigenstates, is followed through two-dimensional images. The first- and second-order coherences are captured using time-integrated frequency-resolved CARS, while the third-order coherence is captured using time-gated frequency-resolved CARS. The Fourier filtering provided by time integrated detection projects out single ro-vibronic transitions, while time-gated detection allows the projection of arbitrary ro-vibronic superpositions from the coherent third-order polarization. Beside the control and imaging of chemistry, the controlled manipulation of...

  19. Classical Coherence, Life and Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Partha

    2014-07-01

    There have been many claims that quantum mechanics plays a key role in the origin and/or operation of biological organisms, beyond merely providing the basis for the shapes and sizes of biological molecules and their chemical affinities. These range from Schrödinger's suggestion that quantum fluctuations produce mutations, to Hameroff and Penrose's conjecture that quantum coherence in microtubules is linked to consciousness. I review some of these claims in this paper, and discuss the serious problem of decoherence.

  20. Prospect of detection and recognition of single biological molecules using ultrafast coherent dynamics in quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Conventional plasmonic sensors are based on the intrinsic resonances of metallic nanoparticles. In such sensors wavelength shift of such resonances are used to detect biological molecules. Recently we introduced ultra-sensitive timedomain nanosensors based on the way variations in the environmental conditions influence coherent dynamics of hybrid systems consisting of metallic nanoparticles and quantum dots. Such dynamics are generated via interaction of these systems with a laser field, generating quantum coherence and coherent exciton-plasmon coupling. These sensors are based on impact of variations of the refractive index of the environment on such dynamics, generating time-dependent changes in the emission of the QDs. In this paper we study the impact of material properties of the metallic nanoparticles on this process and demonstrate the key role played by the design of the quantum dots. We show that Ag nanoparticles, even in a simple spherical shape, may allow these sensors to operate at room temperature, owing to the special properties of quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle systems that may allow coherent effects utilized in such sensors happen in the presence of the ultrafast polarization dephasing of quantum dots.

  1. Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. I. Reaction operators for radical pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A; Tan, K C; Pawela, Ł; Kurzyński, P; Paterek, T; Kaszlikowski, D

    2016-03-01

    Classical chemical kinetics uses rate-equation models to describe how a reaction proceeds in time. Such models are sufficient for describing state transitions in a reaction where coherences between different states do not arise, in other words, a reaction that contains only incoherent transitions. A prominent example of a reaction containing coherent transitions is the radical-pair model. The kinetics of such reactions is defined by the so-called reaction operator that determines the radical-pair state as a function of intermediate transition rates. We argue that the well-known concept of quantum walks from quantum information theory is a natural and apt framework for describing multisite chemical reactions. By composing Kraus maps that act only on two sites at a time, we show how the quantum-walk formalism can be applied to derive a reaction operator for the standard avian radical-pair reaction. Our reaction operator predicts the same recombination dephasing rate as the conventional Haberkorn model, which is consistent with recent experiments [K. Maeda et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234309 (2013)], in contrast to previous work by Jones and Hore [J. A. Jones and P. J. Hore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 488, 90 (2010)]. The standard radical-pair reaction has conventionally been described by either a normalized density operator incorporating both the radical pair and reaction products or a trace-decreasing density operator that considers only the radical pair. We demonstrate a density operator that is both normalized and refers only to radical-pair states. Generalizations to include additional dephasing processes and an arbitrary number of sites are also discussed.

  2. EDITORIAL: Theory of Quantum Gases and Quantum Coherence: The Cortona BEC Workshop, 29 October-2 November 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzi, Pablo; Chitra, R.; Menotti, Chiara; Minguzz, Anna; Vignolo, Patrizia

    2006-05-01

    Nonlinear, or multiphoton, interaction of intense laser radiation with matter has been a key research subject for about four decades. Every three years, the International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (ICOMP) covers the latest advances in the field. Intense-field physics has seen phenomenal progress over the last decade. What looked like dreams in the mid-nineties have become routine today. Major theoretical, experimental and technological advances in fundamental science and applications of multiphoton processes cover such diverse areas as precision measurements, femtosecond and now attosecond metrology, quantum control of atomic and molecular dynamics, laser machining of solid state materials, laser acceleration of electrons and protons, and medical applications. This special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) contains a collection of articles originating from the Tenth International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (ICOMP 2005) held on 9-14 October 2005 in Orford, Quebec, Canada (general chair Lou DiMauro, Ohio State University, program co-chairs Paul Corkum and Misha Ivanov, National Research Council of Canada). The conference focused on atoms and molecules in strong fields, femtosecond and attosecond processes, propagation of intense pulses, and of course multiphoton processes which lie at the foundation of all these subjects. Articles presented in this issue cover several key areas of intense-field physics. These include strong field ionization of atoms, molecules and inside transparent dielectric materials, methods of generation and characterization of attosecond XUV pulses and pulse trains, and new approaches to using intense laser fields and/or attosecond pulses for studying entangled systems and imaging electronic and nuclear dynamics with sub-Ångstrom spatial and sub-femtosecond temporal resolution. We have tried to group the papers according to these general areas. We would like to use this

  3. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Haendchen, Vitus; Duhme, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State......-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our...... with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components....

  4. Gate fidelity and coherence of an electron spin in an Si/SiGe quantum dot with micromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Erika; Jullien, Thibaut; Scarlino, Pasquale; Ward, Daniel R; Savage, Donald E; Lagally, Max G; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, Susan N; Eriksson, Mark A; Vandersypen, Lieven M K

    2016-10-18

    The gate fidelity and the coherence time of a quantum bit (qubit) are important benchmarks for quantum computation. We construct a qubit using a single electron spin in an Si/SiGe quantum dot and control it electrically via an artificial spin-orbit field from a micromagnet. We measure an average single-qubit gate fidelity of ∼99% using randomized benchmarking, which is consistent with dephasing from the slowly evolving nuclear spins in the substrate. The coherence time measured using dynamical decoupling extends up to ∼400 μs for 128 decoupling pulses, with no sign of saturation. We find evidence that the coherence time is limited by noise in the 10-kHz to 1-MHz range, possibly because charge noise affects the spin via the micromagnet gradient. This work shows that an electron spin in an Si/SiGe quantum dot is a good candidate for quantum information processing as well as for a quantum memory, even without isotopic purification.

  5. Analysis of the secrecy of the running key in quantum encryption channels using coherent states of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.; Hughes, David H.; Malowicki, John; Bedi, Vijit

    2015-05-01

    Free-space optical communication channels offer secure links with low probability of interception and detection. Despite their point-to-point topology, additional security features may be required in privacy-critical applications. Encryption can be achieved at the physical layer by using quantized values of photons, which makes exploitation of such quantum communication links extremely difficult. One example of such technology is keyed communication in quantum noise, a novel quantum modulation protocol that offers ultra-secure communication with competitive performance characteristics. Its utilization relies on specific coherent measurements to decrypt the signal. The process of measurements is complicated by the inherent and irreducible quantum noise of coherent states. This problem is different from traditional laser communication with coherent detection; therefore continuous efforts are being made to improve the measurement techniques. Quantum-based encryption systems that use the phase of the signal as the information carrier impose aggressive requirements on the accuracy of the measurements when an unauthorized party attempts intercepting the data stream. Therefore, analysis of the secrecy of the data becomes extremely important. In this paper, we present the results of a study that had a goal of assessment of potential vulnerability of the running key. Basic results of the laboratory measurements are combined with simulation studies and statistical analysis that can be used for both conceptual improvement of the encryption approach and for quantitative comparison of secrecy of different quantum communication protocols.

  6. The Radical Pair Mechanism and the Avian Chemical Compass: Quantum Coherence and Entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiteng [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kais, Sabre [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Berman, Gennady Petrovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We review the spin radical pair mechanism which is a promising explanation of avian navigation. This mechanism is based on the dependence of product yields on 1) the hyperfine interaction involving electron spins and neighboring nuclear spins and 2) the intensity and orientation of the geomagnetic field. One surprising result is that even at ambient conditions quantum entanglement of electron spins can play an important role in avian magnetoreception. This review describes the general scheme of chemical reactions involving radical pairs generated from singlet and triplet precursors; the spin dynamics of the radical pairs; and the magnetic field dependence of product yields caused by the radical pair mechanism. The main part of the review includes a description of the chemical compass in birds. We review: the general properties of the avian compass; the basic scheme of the radical pair mechanism; the reaction kinetics in cryptochrome; quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass; and the effects of noise. We believe that the quantum avian compass can play an important role in avian navigation and can also provide the foundation for a new generation of sensitive and selective magnetic-sensing nano-devices.

  7. Bright, long-lived and coherent excitons in carbon nanotube quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Matthias S; Glückert, Jan T; Noé, Jonathan; Bourjau, Christian; Dehmel, Raphael; Högele, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes exhibit a wealth of unique physical properties. By virtue of their exceptionally low mass and extreme stiffness they provide ultrahigh-quality mechanical resonances, promise long electron spin coherence times in a nuclear-spin free lattice for quantum information processing and spintronics, and feature unprecedented tunability of optical transitions for optoelectronic applications. Excitons in semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes could facilitate the upconversion of spin, mechanical or hybrid spin-mechanical degrees of freedom to optical frequencies for efficient manipulation and detection. However, successful implementation of such schemes with carbon nanotubes has been impeded by rapid exciton decoherence at non-radiative quenching sites, environmental dephasing and emission intermittence. Here we demonstrate that these limitations may be overcome by exciton localization in suspended carbon nanotubes. For excitons localized in nanotube quantum dots we found narrow optical lines free of spectral wandering, radiative exciton lifetimes and effectively suppressed blinking. Our findings identify the great potential of localized excitons for efficient and spectrally precise interfacing of photons, phonons and spins in novel carbon nanotube-based quantum devices.

  8. On phase-space representations of quantum mechanics using Glauber coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DIÓGENES CAMPOS

    2016-08-01

    A phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics is proposed by constructing two representations (identified as $pq$ and $qp$) in terms of the Glauber coherent states, in which phase-space wave functions (probability amplitudes) play the central role, and position $q$ and momentum $p$ are treated on equal footing. After finding some basic properties of the $pq$ and $qp$ wave functions, the quantum operators in phase-space are represented by differential operators, and the Schrödinger equation is formulated in both pictures. Afterwards, the method is generalized to work with the density operator by converting the quantum Liouville equation into $pq$ and $qp$ equations of motion for two-point functions in phase-space. A coordinate transformation between those points allows one to construct a cell in phase-space, whose central point can be treated as a parameter. In this way, one gets equations of motion describing the evolution of one-point functions in phase-space. Finally, it is shown that some quantities obtained in this paper are related in a natural way with cross-Wigner functions, which are constructed with either the position or the momentum wave functions.

  9. The molecular clock in terms of quantum information processing of coherent states, entanglement and replication of evolutionarily selected decohered isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Grant

    2011-06-01

    Evolutionary pressures have selected quantum uncertainty limits -ΔxΔp ( x ) ≥ 1/2ħ-to operate on metastable amino DNA protons. This introduces a probability of molecular clock arrangement, keto-amino → enol-imine, where product protons are entangled and participate in coupled quantum oscillation at frequencies of ∼ 10(13) s(-1). The ket "seen by" the transcriptase, reading a coherent enol-imine G'-state, is |φ >= α| + + > +β|+- > +γ|-+ > +δ|-->. The transcriptase implements its measurement and generates an output qubit of observable genetic specificity information in an interval Δt ≪ 10(-13) s. These quantum measurements can specify the relative distribution of coherent G'-C' states at time of measurement. The ensuing quantum entanglement between coherent protons and transcriptase units is utilized as a resource to generate proper decoherence and introduce selected time-dependent substitutions, ts, and deletions, td. Topal-Fresco ts are G'202 → T, G'002 → C, *G020(0) → A and *C202(2) → T, whereas td are exhibited at coherent *A-*T sites. Variation in clock 'tic-rate' is a consequence of clock introduction of initiation codons - UUG, CUG, AUG, GUG - and stop codons, UAA, UAG, UGA. Using approximate quantum methods for times t < ∼ 100 y, the probability, P(t), of keto-amino → enolimine arrangement is P ( ρ )(t) = 1/2(γ ( ρ )/ħ)(2) t (2) where γ ( ρ ) is the energy shift. This introduces a quantum Darwinian evolution model which provides insight into biological consequences of coherent states populating human genes, including inherited (CAG)( n ) repeat tracts.

  10. Demonstration of quantum synchronization based on second-order quantum coherence of entangled photons

    CERN Document Server

    Quan, Runai; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Wang, Shaofeng; Xiang, Xiao; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang; Dong, Ruifang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the second-order quantum interference between frequency entangled photons that are generated by parametric down conversion, a quantum strategic algorithm for synchronizing two spatially separated clocks has been recently presented. In the reference frame of a Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, photon correlations are used to define simultaneous events. Once the HOM interferometer is balanced by use of an adjustable optical delay in one arm, arrival times of simultaneously generated photons are recorded by each clock. The clock offset is determined by correlation measurement of the recorded arrival times. Utilizing this algorithm, we demonstrate a proof-of-principle experiment for synchronizing two clocks separated by 4km fiber link. A minimum timing stability of 0.4 ps at averaging time of 16000 s is achieved with an absolute time accuracy of 59.4 ps. The timing stability is verified to be limited by the correlation measurement device and ideally can be better than 10 fs. Such results shine a light...

  11. Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by polarized electron-hole pairs in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A. V., E-mail: alex.andrianov@mail.ioffe.ru; Alekseev, P. S.; Klimko, G. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Shcheglov, V. L.; Sedova, M. A.; Zakhar' in, A. O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The generation of coherent terahertz radiation upon the band-to-band femtosecond laser photoexcitation of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well structures in a transverse electric field at room temperature is investigated. The properties of the observed terahertz radiation suggest that it is generated on account of the excitation of a time-dependent dipole moment as a result of the polarization of nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs in quantum wells by the electric field. The proposed theoretical model taking into account the dynamic screening of the electric field in the quantum wells by nonequilibrium charge carriers describes the properties of the observed terahertz signal.

  12. Mathematical modelling of DNA replication reveals a trade-off between coherence of origin activation and robustness against rereplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Brümmer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes are duplicated from multiple replication origins exactly once per cell cycle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a complex molecular network has been identified that governs the assembly of the replication machinery. Here we develop a mathematical model that links the dynamics of this network to its performance in terms of rate and coherence of origin activation events, number of activated origins, the resulting distribution of replicon sizes and robustness against DNA rereplication. To parameterize the model, we use measured protein expression data and systematically generate kinetic parameter sets by optimizing the coherence of origin firing. While randomly parameterized networks yield unrealistically slow kinetics of replication initiation, networks with optimized parameters account for the experimentally observed distribution of origin firing times. Efficient inhibition of DNA rereplication emerges as a constraint that limits the rate at which replication can be initiated. In addition to the separation between origin licensing and firing, a time delay between the activation of S phase cyclin-dependent kinase (S-Cdk and the initiation of DNA replication is required for preventing rereplication. Our analysis suggests that distributive multisite phosphorylation of the S-Cdk targets Sld2 and Sld3 can generate both a robust time delay and contribute to switch-like, coherent activation of replication origins. The proposed catalytic function of the complex formed by Dpb11, Sld3 and Sld2 strongly enhances coherence and robustness of origin firing. The model rationalizes how experimentally observed inefficient replication from fewer origins is caused by premature activation of S-Cdk, while premature activity of the S-Cdk targets Sld2 and Sld3 results in DNA rereplication. Thus the model demonstrates how kinetic deregulation of the molecular network governing DNA replication may result in genomic instability.

  13. High-dimensional quantum key distribution with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Bao, Wan-Su; Bao, Hai-Ze; Zhou, Chun; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Li, Hong-Wei

    2017-04-01

    High-dimensional quantum key distribution (HD-QKD) can generate more secure bits for one detection event so that it can achieve long distance key distribution with a high secret key capacity. In this Letter, we present a decoy state HD-QKD scheme with the entangled single-photon-added coherent state (ESPACS) source. We present two tight formulas to estimate the single-photon fraction of postselected events and Eve's Holevo information and derive lower bounds on the secret key capacity and the secret key rate of our protocol. We also present finite-key analysis for our protocol by using the Chernoff bound. Our numerical results show that our protocol using one decoy state can perform better than that of previous HD-QKD protocol with the spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using two decoy states. Moreover, when considering finite resources, the advantage is more obvious.

  14. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  15. Phase control of Goos-Hänchen shift via biexciton coherence in a multiple quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Nasehi, Rajab; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-09-01

    The behavior of the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts of the reflected and transmitted probe and signal pulses through a cavity containing four-level GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells with 15 periods of 17.5 nm GaAs wells and 15-nm Al0.3Ga0.7As barriers is theoretically discussed. The biexciton coherence set up by two coupling fields can induce the destructive interference to control the absorption and gain properties of probe field under appropriate conditions. It is realized that for the specific values of the intensities and the relative phase of applied fields, the simultaneous negative or positive GH shift in the transmitted and reflected light beam can be obtained via amplification in a probe light. It is found that by adjusting the controllable parameters, the GH shifts can be switched between the large positive and negative values in the medium. Moreover, the effect of exciton spin relaxation on the GH shift has also been discussed. We find that the exciton spin relaxation can manipulate the behavior of GH shift in the reflected and transmitted probe beam through the cavity. We show that by controlling the incident angles of probe beam and under certain conditions, the GH shifts in the reflected and transmitted probe beams can become either negative or positive corresponding to the superluminal or subluminal light propagation. Our proposed model may supply a new prospect in technological applications for the light amplification in optical sensors working on quantum coherence impacts in solid-state systems.

  16. Qubit quantum-dot sensors: Noise cancellation by coherent backaction, initial slips, and elliptical precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; DiVincenzo, D. P.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the backaction of a sensor quantum dot with strong local Coulomb repulsion on the transient dynamics of a qubit that is probed capacitively. We show that the measurement backaction induced by the noise of electron cotunneling through the sensor is surprisingly mitigated by the recently identified coherent backaction [M. Hell, M. R. Wegewijs, and D. P. DiVincenzo, Phys. Rev. B 89, 195405 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.195405] arising from quantum fluctuations. This indicates that a sensor with quantized states may be switched off better than naively expected. This renormalization effect is missing in semiclassical stochastic fluctuator models and typically also in Born-Markov approaches, which try to avoid the calculation of the nonstationary, nonequilibrium state of the qubit plus sensor. Technically, we integrate out the current-carrying electrodes to obtain kinetic equations for the joint, nonequilibrium detector-qubit dynamics. We show that the sensor current response, level renormalization, cotunneling broadening, and leading non-Markovian corrections always appear together and cannot be turned off individually in an experiment or ignored theoretically. We analyze the backaction on the reduced qubit state—capturing the full non-Markovian effects imposed by the sensor quantum dot on the qubit—by applying a Liouville-space decomposition into quasistationary and rapidly decaying modes. Importantly, the sensor cannot be eliminated completely even in the simplest high-temperature, weak-measurement limit since the qubit state experiences an initial slip depending on the initial preparation of qubit plus sensor quantum dot. The slip persists over many qubit cycles, i.e., also on the time scale of the qubit decoherence induced by the backaction. A quantum-dot sensor can thus not be modeled as usual as a "black box" without accounting for its dynamical variables; it is part of the quantum circuit. We furthermore find that the Bloch vector

  17. Probing the quantum coherence of a nanomechanical resonator using a superconducting qubit: I. Echo scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, A D [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Blencowe, M P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)], E-mail: andrew.armour@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: miles.p.blencowe@dartmouth.edu

    2008-09-15

    We propose a scheme in which the quantum coherence of a nanomechanical resonator can be probed using a superconducting qubit. We consider a mechanical resonator coupled capacitively to a Cooper pair box and assume that the superconducting qubit is tuned to the degeneracy point so that its coherence time is maximized and the electro-mechanical coupling can be approximated by a dispersive Hamiltonian. When the qubit is prepared in a superposition of states, this drives the mechanical resonator progressively into a superposition which in turn leads to apparent decoherence of the qubit. Applying a suitable control pulse to the qubit allows its population to be inverted resulting in a reversal of the resonator dynamics. However, the resonator's interactions with its environment mean that the dynamics is not completely reversible. We show that this irreversibility is largely due to the decoherence of the mechanical resonator and can be inferred from appropriate measurements on the qubit alone. Using estimates for the parameters involved based on a specific realization of the system, we show that it should be possible to carry out this scheme with existing device technology.

  18. Coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in Stone-Wales defected graphene-silver nanowire hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Xu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Defected graphene has a more important practical significance than graphene. Silver nanoparticles can modify the optical properties of defected graphene. We present herein a detailed theoretical analysis about the coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the Stone-Wales (SW) defected graphene-silver nanowire hybrid system by using time-dependent density functional theory. The plasmon coherent effect is mainly attributed to the electromagnetic field coupling between the Stone-Wales defected graphene and silver nanowires. As a result, the optical response of the hybrid system exhibits a remarkable enhancement. Plasmon resonance, which depends on polarization and selectable tuning, is enhanced in wide frequency regions. Moreover, it reveals that the resonance frequency of an optical absorption spectrum depends on the space configuration of the SW defected graphene in the hybrid system. This investigation provides a better understanding of the plasmon enhancement effect used in a graphene-based photoelectric device. The study also offers an effective means of detecting the defects existing in graphene.

  19. Round-robin differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution with heralded pair-coherent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Shengmei

    2017-04-01

    Round-robin differential-phase-shift (RRDPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme provides an effective way to overcome the signal disturbance from the transmission process. However, most RRDPS-QKD schemes use weak coherent pulses (WCPs) as the replacement of the perfect single-photon source. Considering the heralded pair-coherent source (HPCS) can efficiently remove the shortcomings of WCPs, we propose a RRDPS-QKD scheme with HPCS in this paper. Both infinite-intensity decoy-state method and practical three-intensity decoy-state method are adopted to discuss the tight bound of the key rate of the proposed scheme. The results show that HPCS is a better candidate for the replacement of the perfect single-photon source, and both the key rate and the transmission distance are greatly increased in comparison with those results with WCPs when the length of the pulse trains is small. Simultaneously, the performance of the proposed scheme using three-intensity decoy states is close to that result using infinite-intensity decoy states when the length of pulse trains is small.

  20. Integrated InAs/InP quantum-dot coherence comb lasers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenguo; Liu, Jiaren; Poole, Philip J.; Song, Chun-Ying; Webber, John; Mao, Linda; Chang, Shoude; Ding, Heping; Barrios, Pedro J.; Poitras, Daniel; Janz, Siegfried

    2017-02-01

    Current communication networks needs to keep up with the exponential growth of today's internet traffic, and telecommunications industry is looking for radically new integrated photonics components for new generation optical networks. We at National Research Council (NRC) Canada have successfully developed nanostructure InAs/InP quantum dot (QD) coherence comb lasers (CCLs) around 1.55 μm. Unlike uniform semiconductor layers in most telecommunication lasers, in these QD CCLs light is emitted and amplified by millions of semiconductor QDs less than 60 nm in diameter. Each QD acts like an isolated light source acting independently of its neighbours, and each QD emits light at its own unique wavelength. The end result is a QD CCL is more stable and has ultra-low timing jitter. But most importantly, a single QD CCL can simultaneously produce 50 or more separate laser beams at distinct wavelengths over the telecommunications C-band. Utilizing those unique properties we have put considerable effort well to design, grow and fabricate InAs/InP QD gain materials. After our integrated packaging and using electrical feedback-loop control systems, we have successfully demonstrated ultra-low intensity and phase noise, frequency-stabilized integrated QD CCLs with the repetition rates from 10 GHz to 100 GHz and the total output power up to 60 mW at room temperature. We have investigated their relative intensity noises, phase noises, RF beating signals and other performance of both filtered individual channel and the whole CCLs. Those highly phase-coherence comb lasers are the promising candidates for flexible bandwidth terabit coherent optical networks and signal processing applications.