Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field
Bestwick, Andrew; Fox, Eli; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang; Goldhaber-Gordon, David
2015-03-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has recently been of great interest due to its recent experimental realization in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3, a ferromagnetic 3D topological insulator. The presence of ferromagnetic exchange breaks time-reversal symmetry, opening a gap in the surface states, but gives rise to dissipationless chiral conduction at the edge of a magnetized film. Ideally, this leads to vanishing longitudinal resistance and Hall resistance quantized to h /e2 , where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge, but perfect quantization has so far proved elusive. Here, we study the QAHE in the limit of zero applied magnetic field, and measure Hall resistance quantized to within one part per 10,000. Deviation from quantization is due primarily to thermally activated carriers, which can be nearly eliminated through adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This result demonstrates an important step toward dissipationless electron transport in technologically relevant conditions.
Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-05-04
In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.
Cotangent bundle quantization: Entangling of metric and magnetic field
Karasev, M V
2005-01-01
For manifolds $\\M$ of noncompact type endowed with an affine connection (for example, the Levi-Civita connection) and a closed 2-form (magnetic field) we define a Hilbert algebra structure in the space $L^2(\\TB)$ and construct an irreducible representation of this algebra in $L^2(\\M)$. This algebra is automatically extended to polynomial in momenta functions and distributions. Under some natural conditions this algebra is unique. The non-commutative product over $\\TB$ is given by an explicit integral formula. This product is exact (not formal) and is expressed in invariant geometrical terms. Our analysis reveals this product has a front, which is described in terms of geodesic triangles in $\\M$. The quantization of $\\delta$-functions induces a family of symplectic reflections in $\\TB$ and generates a magneto-geodesic connection $\\Gamma$ on $T^*\\M$. This symplectic connection entangles, on the phase space level, the original affine structure on $\\M$ and the magnetic field. In the classical approximation, the $...
Determination of the Density of Energy States in a Quantizing Magnetic Field for Model Kane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Gulyamov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available For nonparabolic dispersion law determined by the density of the energy states in a quantizing magnetic field, the dependence of the density of energy states on temperature in quantizing magnetic fields is studied with the nonquadratic dispersion law. Experimental results obtained for PbTe were analyzed using the suggested model. The continuous spectrum of the energy density of states at low temperature is transformed into discrete Landau levels.
Quantized Conductance in InSb nanowires at zero magnetic field
Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Kouwenhoven, Leo
We present measurements of InSb nanowires in the ballistic transport regime. In 1D materials such as nanowires, electron scattering has an increased chance of back-reflection, obscuring the observation of quantized conductance at low magnetic fields. By improving the contacts to the nanowire as well as its dielectric environment backscattering events are minimized and conductance quantization is observable at zero magnetic field with high device yield. We study the evolution of individual sub-bands in an external magnetic field, observing a degeneracy between the 2nd and 3rd sub-band when the magnetic field is orientated perpendicular to the nanowire axis.
Conductance Quantization at Zero Magnetic Field in InSb Nanowires
Kammhuber, Jakob; Cassidy, Maja C.; Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Pei, Fei; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Nijholt, Bas; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.
2016-06-01
Ballistic electron transport is a key requirement for existence of a topological phase transition in proximitized InSb nanowires. However, measurements of quantized conductance as direct evidence of ballistic transport have so far been obscured due to the increased chance of backscattering in one dimensional nanowires. We show that by improving the nanowire-metal interface as well as the dielectric environment we can consistently achieve conductance quantization at zero magnetic field. Additionally, studying the sub-band evolution in a rotating magnetic field reveals an orbital degeneracy between the second and third sub-bands for perpendicular fields above 1T.
Orbital quantization in the high-magnetic-field state of a charge-density-wave system
Andres, D.; Kartsovnik, M. V.; Grigoriev, P. D.; Biberacher, W.; Müller, H.
2003-11-01
A superposition of the Pauli and orbital couplings of a high magnetic field to charge carriers in a charge-density-wave (CDW) system is proposed to give rise to transitions between subphases with quantized values of the CDW wave vector. By contrast to the purely orbital field-induced density-wave effects which require a strongly imperfect nesting of the Fermi surface, the new transitions can occur even if the Fermi surface is well nested at zero field. We suggest that such transitions are observed in the organic metal α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 under a strongly tilted magnetic field.
Askerov, B. M.; Figarova, S. R.; Mahmudov, M. M.
2006-07-01
The magnetoresistance of layered crystals in a longitudinal quantizing magnetic field by taking into account the spin splitting is theoretically investigated. The general expression for the electrical conductivity of a quasi two-dimensional electron gas at the deformation-potential scattering has been obtained. In the behavior of the specific resistance, peaks have been revealed, and a number and positions of the peaks are dictated by the spin splitting magnitude.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B.(I). GUL(I)YEV; R. F. EM(I)NBEYL(I); A. KORKUT
2007-01-01
The Fermi energy, cyclotron energy and cyclotron effective mass of degenerate electron gas in a size-quantized semiconductor thin film with non-parabolic energy bands are studied. The influences of quantizing magnetic field on these quantities in two-band approximation of the Kane model are investigated. It is shown that the Fermi energy oscillates in a magnetic field. The period and positions of these oscillations are found as a function of film thickness and concentration of electrons. Cyclotron energy and cyclotron effective mass are investigated as a function of film thickness in detail. The results obtained here are compared with experimental data on GaAs quantum wells.
The Casimir effect with quantized charged spinor matter in background magnetic field
Sitenko, Yu A
2014-01-01
We study the influence of a background uniform magnetic field and boundary conditions on the vacuum of a quantized charged spinor matter field confined between two parallel neutral plates; the magnetic field is directed orthogonally to the plates. The admissible set of boundary conditions at the plates is determined by the requirement that the Dirac hamiltonian operator be self-adjoint. It is shown that, in the case of a sufficiently strong magnetic field and a sufficiently large separation of the plates, the Casimir force is repulsive, being independent of the choice of a boundary condition, as well as of the distance between the plates. The detection of this effect seems to be feasible in a foreseen future.
Precise Quantization of the Anomalous Hall Effect near Zero Magnetic Field
Bestwick, A. J.; Fox, E. J.; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2015-05-01
We report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10 000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.
Particle on a torus knot: Constrained dynamics and semi-classical quantization in a magnetic field
Das, Praloy; Pramanik, Souvik; Ghosh, Subir
2016-11-01
Kinematics and dynamics of a particle moving on a torus knot poses an interesting problem as a constrained system. In the first part of the paper we have derived the modified symplectic structure or Dirac brackets of the above model in Dirac's Hamiltonian framework, both in toroidal and Cartesian coordinate systems. This algebra has been used to study the dynamics, in particular small fluctuations in motion around a specific torus. The spatial symmetries of the system have also been studied. In the second part of the paper we have considered the quantum theory of a charge moving in a torus knot in the presence of a uniform magnetic field along the axis of the torus in a semiclassical quantization framework. We exploit the Einstein-Brillouin-Keller (EBK) scheme of quantization that is appropriate for multidimensional systems. Embedding of the knot on a specific torus is inherently two dimensional that gives rise to two quantization conditions. This shows that although the system, after imposing the knot condition reduces to a one dimensional system, even then it has manifested non-planar features which shows up again in the study of fractional angular momentum. Finally we compare the results obtained from EBK (multi-dimensional) and Bohr-Sommerfeld (single dimensional) schemes. The energy levels and fractional spin depend on the torus knot parameters that specifies its non-planar features. Interestingly, we show that there can be non-planar corrections to the planar anyon-like fractional spin.
An introduction to field quantization
Takahashi, Yasushi
1969-01-01
An Introduction to Field Quantization is an introductory discussion of field quantization and problems closely related to it. Field quantization establishes a commutation relation of the field and finds an operator in such a manner that the Heisenberg equation of motion is satisfied. This book contains eight chapters and begins with a review of the quantization of the Schroedinger field and the close relation between quantized field theory and the many-body theory in quantum mechanics. These topics are followed by discussions of the quantization of the radiation field and the field of lattice
Grigoriyn, G V
1995-01-01
The pseudoclassical hamiltonian and action of the $D=2n$ dimensional Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic moment interacting with the external electromagnetic field is found. The Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation of motion for the Pauli-Lubanski vector is deduced. The canonical quantization of $D=2n$ dimensional Dirac spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field is carried out in the gauge which allows to describe simultaneously particles and antiparticles (massive and massless) already at the classical level. Pseudoclassical Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is used to obtain canonical (Newton-Wigner) coordinates and in terms of this variables the theory is quantized. The connection of this quantization with the deGroot and Suttorp's description of Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shaukat, Muzzamal I. [University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (RCET Campus) 54000 (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A. [Department of Physics, Forman Christian College, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2015-03-15
In the present investigation, linear and nonlinear propagation of low frequency (ω≪Ω{sub ci}) electrostatic waves have been studied in a spatially inhomogeneous degenerate plasma with one dimensional electron trapping in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field and finite temperature effects. Using the drift approximation, formation of 1 and 2D drift ion solitary structures have been studied both for fully and partially degenerate plasmas. The theoretical results obtained have been analyzed numerically for the parameters typically found in white dwarfs for illustrative purpose. It is observed that the inclusion of Landau quantization significantly changes the expression of the electron number density of a dense degenerate plasma which affects the linear and nonlinear propagation of drift acoustic solitary waves in such a system. The present work may be beneficial to understand the propagation of drift solitary structures with weak transverse perturbation in a variety of physical situations, such as white dwarfs and laser-induced plasmas, where the quantum effects are expected to dominate.
Quantization of edge currents along magnetic barriers and magnetic guides
Dombrowski, N; Raikov, G D
2010-01-01
We investigate the edge conductance of particles submitted to an Iwatsuka magnetic field, playing the role of a purely magnetic barrier. We also consider magnetic guides generated by generalized Iwatsuka potentials. In both cases we prove quantization of the edge conductance. Next, we consider magnetic perturbations of such magnetic barriers or guides, and prove stability of the quantized value of the edge conductance. Further, we establish a sum rule for edge conductances. Regularization within the context of disordered systems is discussed as well.
Graphene p n junction in a quantizing magnetic field: Conductance at intermediate disorder strength
Fräßdorf, Christian; Trifunovic, Luka; Bogdanoff, Nils; Brouwer, Piet W.
2016-11-01
In a graphene p n junction at high magnetic field, unidirectional "snake states" are formed at the p n interface. In a clean p n junction, each snake state exists in one of the valleys of the graphene band structure, and the conductance of the junction as a whole is determined by microscopic details of the coupling between the snake states at the p n interface and quantum Hall edge states at the sample boundaries [Tworzydło et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 035411 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.035411]. Disorder mixes and couples the snake states. We here report a calculation of the full conductance distribution in the crossover between the clean limit and the strong-disorder limit, in which the conductance distribution is given by random matrix theory [Abanin and Levitov, Science 317, 641 (2007), 10.1126/science.1144672]. Our calculation involves an exact solution of the relevant scaling equation for the scattering matrix, and the results are formulated in terms of parameters describing the microscopic disorder potential in bulk graphene.
Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields in Cavities
Kakazu, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Kazunori
1996-01-01
A quantization procedure for the electromagnetic field in a rectangular cavity with perfect conductor walls is presented, where a decomposition formula of the field plays an essential role. All vector mode functions are obtained by using the decomposition. After expanding the field in terms of the vector mode functions, we get the quantized electromagnetic Hamiltonian.
A physically motivated quantization of the electromagnetic field
Bennett, Robert; Barlow, Thomas M.; Beige, Almut
2016-01-01
The notion that the electromagnetic field is quantized is usually inferred from observations such as the photoelectric effect and the black-body spectrum. However accounts of the quantization of this field are usually mathematically motivated and begin by introducing a vector potential, followed by the imposition of a gauge that allows the manipulation of the solutions of Maxwell’s equations into a form that is amenable for the machinery of canonical quantization. By contrast, here we quantize the electromagnetic field in a less mathematically and more physically motivated way. Starting from a direct description of what one sees in experiments, we show that the usual expressions of the electric and magnetic field observables follow from Heisenberg’s equation of motion. In our treatment, there is no need to invoke the vector potential in a specific gauge and we avoid the commonly used notion of a fictitious cavity that applies boundary conditions to the field.
Quantization of massive Weyl fields in vacuum
Dvornikov, Maxim
2013-01-01
We briefly review the main methods for the description of massive Weyl fields in vacuum. On the classical level we discuss Weyl fields expressed through Grassmann variables as well as having spinors with commuting components. In both approaches we quantize the system. We get the correct anticommutation relations between creation and annihilation operators, which result in the proper form of the total energy of the field. However, the commuting classical Weyl fields require the new method of quantization.
Space-Time Quantization and Nonlocal Field Theory -Relativistic Second Quantization of Matrix Model
Tanaka, S
2000-01-01
We propose relativistic second quantization of matrix model of D particles in a general framework of nonlocal field theory based on Snyder-Yang's quantized space-time. Second-quantized nonlocal field is in general noncommutative with quantized space-time, but conjectured to become commutative with light cone time $X^+$. This conjecture enables us to find second-quantized Hamiltonian of D particle system and Heisenberg's equation of motion of second-quantized {\\bf D} field in close contact with Hamiltonian given in matrix model. We propose Hamilton's principle of Lorentz-invariant action of {\\bf D} field and investigate what conditions or approximations are needed to reproduce the above Heisenberg's equation given in light cone time. Both noncommutativities appearing in position coordinates of D particles in matrix model and in quantized space-time will be eventually unified through second quantization of matrix model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menouar, Salah [Laboratory of Optoelectronics and Compounds (LOC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Ferhat Abbas Setif 1, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Choi, Jeong Ryeol, E-mail: choiardor@hanmail.net [Department of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Yeongsong 15, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-722 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
Quantum characteristics of a charged particle subjected to a singular oscillator potential under an external magnetic field is investigated via SU(1,1) Lie algebraic approach together with the invariant operator and the unitary transformation methods. The system we managed is somewhat complicated since we considered not only the time-variation of the effective mass of the system but also the dependence of the external magnetic field on time in an arbitrary fashion. In this case, the system is a kind of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems which require more delicate treatment when we study it. The complete wave functions are obtained without relying on the methods of perturbation and/or approximation, and the global phases of the system are identified. To promote the understanding of our development, we applied it to a particular case, assuming that the effective mass slowly varies with time under a time-dependent magnetic field.
Relating field theories via stochastic quantization
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne
2010-01-01
This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.
Relating field theories via stochastic quantization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dijkgraaf, Robbert [KdV Institute for Mathematics, University of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Orlando, Domenico [Institute for the Mathematics and Physics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-Ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8568 Chiba (Japan); Reffert, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.reffert@impu.j [Institute for the Mathematics and Physics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-Ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8568 Chiba (Japan)
2010-01-11
This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.
Relating Field Theories via Stochastic Quantization
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Reffert, Susanne
2009-01-01
This note aims to subsume several apparently unrelated models under a common framework. Several examples of well-known quantum field theories are listed which are connected via stochastic quantization. We highlight the fact that the quantization method used to obtain the quantum crystal is a discrete analog of stochastic quantization. This model is of interest for string theory, since the (classical) melting crystal corner is related to the topological A-model. We outline several ideas for interpreting the quantum crystal on the string theory side of the correspondence, exploring interpretations in the Wheeler-De Witt framework and in terms of a non-Lorentz invariant limit of topological M-theory.
Field quantization in inhomogeneous absorptive dielectrics
Suttorp, L.G.; Wubs, Martijn
2004-01-01
The quantization of the electromagnetic field in a three-dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric medium with losses is carried out in the framework of a damped-polariton model with an arbitrary spatial dependence of its parameters. The equations of motion for the canonical variables are solved explicit
Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Rui
2011-01-01
@@ The Hall effect, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the spin Hall effect are fundamental transport processes in solids arising from the Lorentz force and the spin-orbit coupling respectively.The AHE, in which a voltage transverse to the electric current appears even in the absence of an external magnetic field, was first detected in ferromagnetic (FM) metals in 1881 and later found to arise from the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) between the current and magnetic moments.Recent progress on the mechanism of AHE has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall current by adopting the Berry-phase concepts in close analogy to the intrinsic spin Hall effect.Given the experimental discovery of the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects, it is natural to ask whether the AHE can also be quantized.In a quantized anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator, spontaneous magnetic moments and spin-orbit coupling combine to give rise to a topologically non-trivial electronic structure, leading to the quantized Hall effect without any external magnetic field.
Magnetic quantization in multilayer graphenes
Lin, Chiun-Yan; Ou, Yih-Jon; Chiu, Yu-Huang; Lin, Ming-Fa
2015-01-01
Essential properties of multilayer graphenes are diversified by the number of layers and the stacking configurations. For an $N$-layer system, Landau levels are divided into $N$ groups, with each identified by a dominant sublattice associated with the stacking configuration. We focus on the main characteristics of Landau levels, including the degeneracy, wave functions, quantum numbers, onset energies, field-dependent energy spectra, semiconductor-metal transitions, and crossing patterns, which are reflected in the magneto-optical spectroscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, and quantum transport experiments. The Landau levels in AA-stacked graphene are responsible for multiple Dirac cones, while in AB-stacked graphene the Dirac properties depend on the number of graphene layers, and in ABC-stacked graphene the low-lying levels are related to surface states. The Landau-level mixing leads to anticrossings patterns in energy spectra, which are seen for intergroup Landau levels in AB-stacked graphene, while in...
Steinbacher, D
2005-01-01
The summation of all rainbow diagrams in QED in a strong magnetic field leads to a dynamical electron mass on the light-cone. Further contributions to this summation however can cause problems with light-cone singularities. It is shown that these problems are generally avoided by applying the point-splitting regularization to every diagram. The possibility of implementing this procedure into the Lagrangian of the theory is discussed.
Light-Front quantization of field theory
Srivastava, P P
1996-01-01
Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincarè algebra and the LF Spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pahari, S. [Administration Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Nano Scale Device Research Laboratory, Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); De, D. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, BF 142, Sector I, Kolkata 700 064, West Bengal (India); Adhikari, S.M.; Niyogi, A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 70009 (India); Dey, A. [Department of Electronics, Kalyani Government of Engineering College, Kalyani, Nadia (India); Paitya, N. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 70009 (India); Saha, S.C. [Department of Electronics, Mallabhum Institute of Technology, Brajaradhanagar, Gosanipur, Bankura (India); Ghatak, K.P., E-mail: kamakhyaghatak@yahoo.co.i [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 70009 (India); Bose, P.K. [National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India)
2010-09-15
An attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-to-mobility ratio (DMR) under crossed fields' configuration in nonlinear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law by incorporating the crystal field in the Hamiltonian and including the anisotropies of the effective electron mass and the spin-orbit splitting constants within the framework of kp formalisms. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary compounds form a special case of our generalized analysis. The DMR has also been investigated for II-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various appropriate dispersion relations. We have considered n-CdGeAs{sub 2}, n-Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te, n-In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP, p-CdS and stressed n-InSb materials as examples. The DMR also increases with increasing electric field and the natures of oscillations are totally band structure dependent with different numerical values. It has been observed that the DMR exhibits oscillatory dependences with inverse quantizing magnetic field and carrier degeneracy due to the Subhnikov-de Haas effect. An experimental method of determining the DMR for degenerate materials in the present case has been suggested.
Entropic quantization of scalar fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222 (United States)
2015-01-13
Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation.
Stochastic Variational Method as a Quantization Scheme II: Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields
Kodama, T Koide T
2014-01-01
Quantization of electromagnetic fields is investigated in the framework of stochastic variational method (SVM). Differently from the canonical quantization, this method does not require canonical form and quantization can be performed directly from the gauge invariant Lagrangian. The gauge condition is used to choose dynamically independent variables. We verify that, in the Coulomb gauge condition, SVM result is completely equivalent to the traditional result. On the other hand, in the Lorentz gauge condition, SVM quantization can be performed without introducing the indefinite metric. The temporal and longitudinal components of the gauge filed, then, behave as c-number functionals affected by quantum fluctuation through the interaction with charged matter fields. To see further the relation between SVM and the canonical quantization, we quantize the usual gauge Lagrangian with the Fermi term and argue a stochastic process with a negative second order correlation is introduced to reproduce the indefinite metr...
Magnetic anisotropy and quantized spin waves in hematite nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klausen, Stine Nyborg; Lefmann, Kim; Lindgård, Per-Anker
2004-01-01
We report on the observation of high-frequency collective magnetic excitations, (h) over bar omegaapproximate to1.1 meV, in hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanoparticles. The neutron scattering experiments include measurements at temperatures in the range 6-300 K and applied fields up to 7.5 T as well...... the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy, which is strongly related to the suppression of the Morin transition in nanoparticles of hematite. Further, the localization of the signal in both energy and momentum transfer brings evidence for finite-size quantization of spin waves in the system....... as polarization analysis. We give an explanation for the field- and temperature dependence of the excitations, which are found to have strongly elliptical out-of-plane precession. The frequency of the excitations gives information on the magnetic anisotropy constants in the system. We have in this way determined...
On field theory quantization around instantons
Anselmi, D
2009-01-01
With the perspective of looking for experimentally detectable physical applications of the so-called topological embedding, a procedure recently proposed by the author for quantizing a field theory around a non-discrete space of classical minima (instantons, for example), the physical implications are discussed in a ``theoretical'' framework, the ideas are collected in a simple logical scheme and the topological version of the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity is solved in the intermediate situation between type I and type II superconductors.
Phase-space quantization of field theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.
1999-04-20
In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999.
Enhanced quantization particles, fields and gravity
Klauder, John R
2015-01-01
This pioneering book addresses the question: Are the standard procedures of canonical quantization fully satisfactory, or is there more to learn about assigning a proper quantum system to a given classical system? As shown in this book, the answer to this question is: The standard procedures of canonical quantization are not the whole story! This book offers alternative quantization procedures that complete the story of quantization. The initial chapters are designed to present the new procedures in a clear and simple manner for general readers. As is necessary, systems that exhibit acceptable results with conventional quantization lead to the same results when the new procedures are used for them. However, later chapters examine selected models that lead to unacceptable results when quantized conventionally. Fortunately, these same models lead to acceptable results when the new quantization procedures are used.
Path Integrals and Lorentz Violation in Polymer Quantized Scalar Fields
Kajuri, Nirmalya
2014-01-01
We obtain a path integral formulation of polymer quantized scalar field theory, starting from the Hilbert Space framework. This brings the polymer quantized scalar field theory under the ambit of Feynman diagrammatic techniques. The path integral formulation also shows that Lorentz invariance is lost for the Klein-Gordon field.
Path integral quantization of parametrised field theory
Varadarajan, M
2004-01-01
Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrised field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrised field theory in order to analyse issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is non-trivial and is the analog of the Fradkin- Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrised field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of non-standard `Wick rotations' of the standard free scalar field 2 point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field 2 point functions. We illustra...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tress, O.; Penning, F.C.; Teske, E.; Wyder, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, 38 - Grenoble (France). Hochfeldmagnetlabor; Mistura, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Galileo Galilei, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)
1998-06-01
Surface electrons (SE) prepared on helium films of thickness d are supposed to undergo a transition to the polaronic state when the corresponding binding energy {lambda}{sub b}{proportional_to}d{sup -4} is close to or larger than k{sub B}T. Although the polaron has been observed recently, no clear transition was seen so far. In this paper we want to present magnetotransport measurements carried out at rather high temperatures (T>1.2 K) to avoid the Wigner crystallization for a wide range of electron densities (5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}
From topological field theory to deformation quantization and reduction
Cattaneo, Alberto S
2016-01-01
This note describes the functional-integral quantization of two-dimensional topological field theories together with applications to problems in deformation quantization of Poisson manifolds and reduction of certain submanifolds. A brief introduction to smooth graded manifolds and to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism is included.
Electronic Wave Packet in a Quantized Electromagnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程太旺; 薛艳丽; 李晓峰; 吴令安; 傅盘铭
2002-01-01
We study a non-stationary electronic wave packet in a quantized electromagnetic field. Generally, the electron and field become entangled as the electronic wave packet evolves. Here we find that, when the initial photon state is a coherent one, the wavefunction of the system can be factorized if we neglect the transferred photon number. In this case, the quantized-field calculation is equivalent to the semi-classical calculation.
Rarita-Schwinger Quantum Free Field Via Deformation Quantization
Perez, B Carballo
2011-01-01
Rarita-Schwinger (RS) quantum free field is reexamined in the context of deformation quantization. It is found out that the subsidiary condition does not introduce any change either in the Wigner function or in other aspects of the deformation quantization formalism, in relation to the Dirac field case. This happens because the vector structure of the RS field imposes constraints on the space of wave function solutions and not on the operator structure. The RS propagator was also calculated within this formalism.
Quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic operators
Kellendonk, J
2003-01-01
For a magnetic Hamiltonian on a half-plane given as the sum of the Landau operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a random potential, a quantization theorem for the edge currents is proven. This shows that the concept of edge channels also makes sense in presence of disorder. Moreover, gaussian bounds on the heat kernel and its covariant derivatives are obtained.
Magnetic Properties of Quantized Vortices in Neutron $^3P_2$ Superfluids in Neutron Stars
Masuda, Kota
2015-01-01
We discuss quantized vortices in neutron $^3P_2$ superfluids, which are believed to realize in high density neutron matter such as neutron stars. By using the Ginzburg-Landau free energy for $^3P_2$ superfluids, we determine the ground state in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field, and numerically construct $^3P_2$ quantized vortices in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field along the vortex axis (poloidal) or angular direction (toroidal). We find in certain situations the spontaneous magnetization of the vortex core, whose typical magnitude is about $10^{7-8}$ Gauss, but the net magnetic field in a neutron star is negligible because of the ratio of the vortex core size $\\sim 10$fm and the intervortex distance $\\sim 10^{-6}$m in a vortex lattice.
Polymer-Fourier quantization of the scalar field revisited
Garcia-Chung, Angel; Vergara, J. David
2016-10-01
The polymer quantization of the Fourier modes of the real scalar field is studied within algebraic scheme. We replace the positive linear functional of the standard Poincaré invariant quantization by a singular one. This singular positive linear functional is constructed as mimicking the singular limit of the complex structure of the Poincaré invariant Fock quantization. The resulting symmetry group of such polymer quantization is the subgroup SDiff(ℝ4) which is a subgroup of Diff(ℝ4) formed by spatial volume preserving diffeomorphisms. In consequence, this yields an entirely different irreducible representation of the canonical commutation relations, nonunitary equivalent to the standard Fock representation. We also compared the Poincaré invariant Fock vacuum with the polymer Fourier vacuum.
Polymer-Fourier quantization of the scalar field revisited
Garcia-Chung, Angel
2016-01-01
The Polymer Quantization of the Fourier modes of the real scalar field is studied within algebraic scheme. We replace the positive linear functional of the standard Poincar\\'e invariant quantization by a singular one. This singular positive linear functional is constructed as mimicking the singular limit of the complex structure of the Poincar\\'e invariant Fock quantization. The resulting symmetry group of such Polymer Quantization is the subgroup $\\mbox{SDiff}(\\mathbb{R}^4)$ which is a subgroup of $\\mbox{Diff}(\\mathbb{R}^4)$ formed by spatial volume preserving diffeomorphisms. In consequence, this yields an entirely different irreducible representation of the Canonical Commutation Relations, non-unitary equivalent to the standard Fock representation. We also compared the Poincar\\'e invariant Fock vacuum with the Polymer Fourier vacuum.
The periodic magnetized cyinder tube for atom guidance:quantized motion analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李代军; 周博; 胡正峰; 李师群
2003-01-01
We have analysed the transport efficiency of an atomic waveguide constructed from a periodic axially magnetized hollow tube. We took into consideration the quantized motion of the atom inside the magnetic hollow cylinder tube,which is significant for the transportation of cold atoms. We deduced the quantized motion modes of the atomic waves in the tube by the approximation of infinite potential, which is valid for cold atoms and strong magnetization. For the atomic waveguide with weak magnetization, we have calculated the tunnelling effect of the atomic wave. The adiabatic condition for the motion of cold atoms is discussed. A time orbit potential method for solving the "zero magnetic field problem" is proposed.
Light-front Quantized Field Theory Some New Results
Srivastava, P P
1999-01-01
A review is made on some recent studies which support the point of view that the relativistic field theory quantized on the light-front (LF) is more transparent compared to the conventional equal-time one. The discussion may be of relevance in the context of the quantization of gravitation theory. The LF quantization is argued to be equally appropriate as the conventional equal-time one. The description on the LF of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the (tree level) Higgs mechanism, the emergence of the $\\theta$-vacua in the Schwinger model, the absence of such vacua in the Chiral SM, the BRS-BFT quantization of the latter on the LF are among the topics discussed. Comments on the irrelevance, in the quantized theory, of the fact that the hyperplanes $x^{\\pm}=0$ constitute characteristic surfaces of the hyperbolic partial differential equation are also made. The LF theory quantized on, say, the $x^{+}=const.$ hyperplanes seems to already contain in it the information on the equal-$x^{-}$ commutators as wel...
Quantization of the radiation field in an anisotropic dielectric medium
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Wei; Liu Shi-Bing; Yang Wei
2009-01-01
There are both loss and dispersion characteristics for most dielectric media. In quantum theory the loss in medium is generally described by Langevin force in the Langevin noise (LN) scheme by which the quantization of the radiation field in various homogeneous absorbing dielectrics can be successfully actualized. However, it is invalid for the anisotropic dispersion medium. This paper extends the LN theory to an anisotropic dispersion medium and presented the quantization of the radiation field as well as the transformation relation between the homogeneous and anisotropic dispersion media.
Polarization-free Quantization of Linear Field Theories
Lanéry, Suzanne
2016-01-01
It is well-known that there exist infinitely-many inequivalent representations of the canonical (anti)-commutation relations of Quantum Field Theory (QFT). A way out, suggested by Algebraic QFT, is to instead define the quantum theory as encompassing all possible (abstract) states. In the present paper, we describe a quantization scheme for general linear (aka. free) field theories that can be seen as intermediate between traditional Fock quantization and full Algebraic QFT, in the sense that: * it provides a constructive, explicit description of the resulting space of quantum states; * it does not require the choice of a polarization, aka. the splitting of classical solutions into positive vs. negative-frequency modes: in fact, any Fock representation corresponding to a "reasonable" choice of polarization is naturally embedded; * it supports the implementation of a "large enough" class of linear symplectomorphisms of the classical, infinite-dimensional phase space. The proposed quantization (like Algebraic Q...
Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@physik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Sars, Matthias [Humboldt University, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Suijlekom, Walter D. van [Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2013-09-15
We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial–we call it cycle homology–and by graph homology. -- Highlights: •We derive gauge theory Feynman from scalar field theory with 3-valent vertices. •We clarify the role of graph homology and cycle homology. •We use parametric renormalization and the new corolla polynomial.
Quantized Fields in a Nonlinear Dielectric Medium A Microscopic Approach
Hillery, M; Hillery, Mark; Mlodinow, Leonard
1997-01-01
Theories which have been used to describe the quantized electromagnetic field interacting with a nonlinear dielectric medium are either phenomenological or derived by quantizing the macroscopic Maxwell equations. Here we take a different approach and derive a Hamiltonian describing interacting fields from one which contains both field and matter degrees of freedom. The medium is modelled as a collection of two-level atoms, and these interact with the electromagnetic field. The atoms are grouped into effective spins and the Holstein- Primakoff representation of the spin operators is used to expand them in one over the total spin. When the lowest-order term is combined with the free atomic and field Hamiltonians, a theory of noninteracting polaritons results. When higher-order terms are expressed in terms of polariton operators, standard nonlinear optical interactions emerge.
Features of multiphoton-stimulated bremsstrahlung in a quantized field
Burenkov, Ivan A.; Tikhonova, Olga V.
2010-12-01
The process of absorption and emission of external field quanta by a free electron during the scattering on a potential centre is investigated in the case of interaction with a quantized electromagnetic field. The analytical expression for differential cross-sections and probabilities of different multiphoton channels are obtained. We demonstrate that in the case of a non-classical 'squeezed vacuum' initial field state the probability for the electron to absorb a large number of photons appears to be larger by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the classical field and leads to the formation of the high-energy plateau in the electron energy spectrum. The generalization of the Marcuse effect to the case of the quantized field is worked out. The total probability of energy absorption by electron from the non-classical light is analysed.
Features of multiphoton-stimulated bremsstrahlung in a quantized field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burenkov, Ivan A; Tikhonova, Olga V, E-mail: ovtikhonova@mail.r [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)
2010-12-14
The process of absorption and emission of external field quanta by a free electron during the scattering on a potential centre is investigated in the case of interaction with a quantized electromagnetic field. The analytical expression for differential cross-sections and probabilities of different multiphoton channels are obtained. We demonstrate that in the case of a non-classical 'squeezed vacuum' initial field state the probability for the electron to absorb a large number of photons appears to be larger by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the classical field and leads to the formation of the high-energy plateau in the electron energy spectrum. The generalization of the Marcuse effect to the case of the quantized field is worked out. The total probability of energy absorption by electron from the non-classical light is analysed.
The Theory of Quantized Fields. II
Schwinger, J.
1951-01-01
The arguments leading to the formulation of the Action Principle for a general field are presented. In association with the complete reduction of all numerical matrices into symmetrical and anti-symmetrical parts, the general field is decomposed into two sets, which are identified with Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac fields. The spin restriction on the two kinds of fields is inferred from the time reflection invariance requirement. The consistency of the theory is verified in terms of a criterion involving the various generators of infinitesimal transformations. Following a discussion of charged fields, the electromagnetic field is introduced to satisfy the postulate of general gauge invariance. As an aspect of the latter, it is recognized that the electromagnetic field and charged fields are not kinematically independent. After a discussion of the field-strength commutation relations, the independent dynamical variable of the electromagnetic field are exhibited in terms of a special gauge.
Second Quantized Scalar QED in Homogeneous Time-Dependent Electromagnetic Fields
Kim, Sang Pyo
2014-01-01
We formulate the second quantized scalar quantum electrodynamics in homogeneous, time-dependent electromagnetic fields, in which the Hamiltonian for a charged scalar field is an infinite system of decoupled time-dependent oscillators for electric fields but of coupled time-dependent oscillators for magnetic fields. We then employ the quantum invariant method to find various quantum states for the charged field. For time-dependent electric fields, a pair of quantum invariant operators for each oscillator plays the role of the time-dependent annihilation and creation operators, constructs the exact quantum states, and gives the vacuum persistence amplitude as well as the pair-production rate. We also find the quantum invariants for the coupled oscillators for the charged field in time-dependent magnetic fields and advance a perturbation method when the magnetic fields change adiabatically. Finally the quantum state and pair production is discussed when a time-dependent electric field is present in parallel to t...
Radial Quantization for Conformal Field Theories on the Lattice
Brower, Richard C; Neuberger, Herbert
2012-01-01
We consider radial quantization for conformal quantum field theory with a lattice regulator. A Euclidean field theory on $\\mathbb R^D$ is mapped to a cylindrical manifold, $\\mathbb R\\times \\mathbb S^{D-1}$, whose length is logarithmic in scale separation. To test the approach, we apply this to the 3D Ising model and compute $\\eta$ for the first $Z_2$ odd primary operator.
First-Quantized Theory of Expanding Universe from Field Quantization in Mini-Superspace
Ida, Daisuke
2013-01-01
We propose a new quantization scheme, which conceptually resembles the third-quantization scheme, for the spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models in Einstein gravity coupled with a neutral massless scalar field. Our strategy is to specify a semi-Riemannian structure on the mini-superspace and to consider the quantum Klein-Gordon field on the mini-superspace. Then, the Hilbert space of this quantum system becomes inseparable, which causes the creation of infinite number of universes. To overcome this issue, we introduce a vector bundle structure on the Hilbert space and the connection of the vector bundle. Then, we can define a consistent unitary time evolution of the quantum universe in terms of the connection field on the vector bundle. By doing this, we are able to treat the quantum dynamics of a single-universe state. We also find an appropriate observable set constituting the CCR-algebra, and obtain the Schr\\"odinger equation for the wave function of the single-universe state. We show that...
Kort-Kamp, W J M; Dalvit, D A R
2015-01-01
We predict quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-H\\"anchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$, while the Goos- H\\"anchen ones in multiples of $\\alpha^2$. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Nils
2015-01-01
of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...
Magnetic quantization of s p3 bonding in monolayer gray tin
Chen, Szu-Chao; Wu, Chung-Lin; Wu, Jhao-Ying; Lin, Ming-Fa
2016-07-01
A generalized tight-binding model, which is based on the subenvelope functions of the different sublattices, is developed to explore the novel magnetic quantization in monolayer gray tin (tinene). The effects due to the s p3 bonding, the spin-orbital coupling, the magnetic field, and the electric field are simultaneously taken into consideration. The unique magnetoelectronic properties lie in two groups of low-lying Landau levels, with different orbital components, localization centers, state degeneracy, spin configurations, and magnetic- and electric-field dependencies. The first and second groups mainly come from the 5 pz and (5 px,5 py ) orbitals, respectively. Their Landau-level splittings are, respectively, induced by the electric field and spin-orbital interactions. The intragroup anticrossings are only revealed in the former. The unique tinene Landau levels are absent in graphene, silicene, and germanene.
A Third-Quantized Approach to the Large-N Field Models
Maslov, V P
1998-01-01
Large-N field systems are considered from an unusual point of view. The Hamiltonian is presented in a third-quantized form analogously to the second-quantized formulation of the quantum theory of many particles. The semiclassical approximation is applied to the third-quantized Hamiltonian. The advantages of this approach in comparison with 1/N-expansion are discussed.
Quantization of field systems coupled to point-masses
G., J Fernando Barbero; Margalef-Bentabol, Juan; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S
2015-01-01
We study the Fock quantization of a compound classical system consisting of point masses and a field. We start by studying the details of the Hamiltonian formulation of the model by using the geometric constraint algorithm of Gotay, Nester and Hinds. By relying on this Hamiltonian description, we characterize in a precise way the real Hilbert space of classical solutions to the equations of motion and use it to rigorously construct the Fock space of the system. We finally discuss the structure of this space, in particular the impossibility of writing it in a natural way as a tensor product of Hilbert spaces associated with the point masses and the field, respectively.
Field-induced diverse quantizations in monolayer and bilayer black phosphorus
Wu, Jhao-Ying; Chen, Szu-Chao; Gumbs, Godfrey; Lin, Ming-Fa
2017-03-01
This report provides a comprehensive understanding of the magnetic quantization effects in phosphorene with the use of the generalized tight-binding model. Especially for bilayer systems, a composite magnetic and electric field can induce the feature-rich LL spectrum. We demonstrate the existence of two subgroups of Landau levels (LLs) near the Fermi level according to their distinguishable localization centers. The strong competition between the two subgroups induces unusual quantization behaviors, such as multiple anticrossings for the Bz- and Ez-dependent energy spectra. These results are clearly explained by the spatial distributions of subenvelope functions from which two types of LLs are characterized by being either the usual or the perturbed distribution modes. The detailed analysis of the diverse magnetic quantizations is quite important in understanding other physical properties, such as the dispersion relations of magnetoplasmons, magneto-optical selection rules, as well as electron transport properties. The unusual energy spectra are directly revealed by the special features of the density of states, which could be further validated by measurements employing scanning tunneling spectroscopy.
Second Quantization of the Stueckelberg Relativistic Quantum Theory and Associated Gauge Fields
Horwitz, L P
1998-01-01
The gauge compensation fields induced by the differential operators of the Stueckelberg-Schrödinger equation are discussed, as well as the relation between these fields and the standard Maxwell fields. An action is constructed and the second quantization of the fields carried out using a constraint procedure. Some remarks are made on the properties of the second quantized matter fields.
Elements of Geometric Quantization and Applications to Fields and Fluids
Nair, V P
2016-01-01
These lecture notes (from the Second Autumn School in High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory, Yerevan 2014) cover a number of topics related to geometric quantization. Most of the material is presented from a physicist's point of view. The original notes are posted at \\verb+http://theorphyslab-ysu.info/VW_ASW-2014/uploads/ArmeniaLectures.pdf+. The have been revised with some additions and changes, although referencing is still somewhat dated. These notes are posted here as they may be good background material for some recent papers.
Scalar field quantization without divergences in all spacetime dimensions
Klauder, John R.
2011-07-01
Covariant, self-interacting scalar quantum field theories admit solutions for low enough spacetime dimensions, but when additional divergences appear in higher dimensions, the traditional approach leads to results, such as triviality, that are less than satisfactory. Guided by idealized but soluble nonrenormalizable models, a nontraditional proposal for the quantization of covariant scalar field theories is advanced, which achieves a term-by-term, divergence-free, perturbation analysis of interacting models expanded about a suitable pseudofree theory, which differs from a free theory by an O(planck2) counterterm. These positive features are realized within a functional integral formulation by a local, nonclassical, counterterm that effectively transforms parameter changes in the action from generating mutually singular measures, which are the basis for divergences, to equivalent measures, thereby removing all divergences. The use of an alternative model about which to perturb is already supported by properties of the classical theory and is allowed by the inherent ambiguity in the quantization process itself. This procedure not only provides acceptable solutions for models for which no acceptable, faithful solution currently exists, e.g. phiv4n, for spacetime dimensions n >= 4, but offers a new, divergence-free solution for less-singular models as well, e.g. phiv4n, for n = 2, 3. Our analysis implies similar properties for multicomponent scalar models, such as those associated with the Higgs model.
Kaliteevski, M. A.; Gubaydullin, A. R.; Ivanov, K. A.; Mazlin, V. A.
2016-09-01
We have developed a rigorous self-consistent approach for the quantization of electromagnetic field in inhomogeneous structures. The approach is based on utilization of the scattering matrix of the system. Instead of the use of standard periodic Born-Karman boundary conditions, we use the quantization condition implying equating eigenvalues of the scattering matrix (S-matrix) of the system to unity (S-quantization). In the trivial case of uniform medium boundary condition for S-quantization is nothing but periodic boundary condition. S-quantization allows calculating modification of the spontaneous emission rate for arbitrary inhomogeneous structure and direction of the emitted radiation. S-quantization solves the long-standing problem coupled to normalization of the quasi-stationary electromagnetic modes. Examples of application of S-quantization for the calculation of spontaneous emission rate for the cases of Bragg reflector and microcavity are demonstrated.
Second quantized scalar QED in homogeneous time-dependent electromagnetic fields
Kim, Sang Pyo
2014-12-01
We formulate the second quantization of a charged scalar field in homogeneous, time-dependent electromagnetic fields, in which the Hamiltonian is an infinite system of decoupled, time-dependent oscillators for electric fields, but it is another infinite system of coupled, time-dependent oscillators for magnetic fields. We then employ the quantum invariant method to find various quantum states for the charged field. For time-dependent electric fields, a pair of quantum invariant operators for each oscillator with the given momentum plays the role of the time-dependent annihilation and the creation operators, constructs the exact quantum states, and gives the vacuum persistence amplitude as well as the pair-production rate. We also find the quantum invariants for the coupled oscillators for the charged field in time-dependent magnetic fields and advance a perturbation method when the magnetic fields change adiabatically. Finally, the quantum state and the pair production are discussed when a time-dependent electric field is present in parallel to the magnetic field.
Scalar Field Quantization Without Divergences In All Spacetime Dimensions
Klauder, John R
2011-01-01
Covariant, self-interacting scalar quantum field theories admit solutions for low enough spacetime dimensions, but when additional divergences appear in higher dimensions, the traditional approach leads to results, such as triviality, that are less than satisfactory. Guided by idealized but soluble nonrenormalizable models, a nontraditional proposal for the quantization of covariant scalar field theories is advanced, which achieves a term-by-term, divergence-free, perturbation analysis of interacting models expanded about a suitable pseudofree theory, which differs from a free theory by an O(\\hbar^2) counterterm. These positive features are secured within a functional integral formulation by a local, nonclassical, counterterm that effectively transforms parameter changes in the action from generating mutually singular measures, which are the basis for divergences, to equivalent measures, thereby removing all divergences. The use of an alternative model about which to perturb is already supported by properties...
Quantized beam shifts in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-10-08
We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α^{2}. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.
Zakharova, A.; Nilsson, K.; Chao, K. A.; Yen, S. T.
2005-09-01
We investigate spin-dependent interband magnetotunneling processes in strained broken-gap resonant tunneling structures made from InAs, AlSb, and GaSb, which are promising materials for quantum devices. InAs/AlSb/GaSb/InAs/AlSb/GaSb double-barrier structures grown on both InAs and GaSb are considered. Transmission coefficients for interband tunneling processes from individual eigenstates in the InAs emitter as well as current-voltage characteristics were calculated using a six-band k•p model and the scattering matrix method. We predict that due to lattice-mismatch induced strain, the interband tunneling current density for the structure grown on InAs can be one or two orders of magnitude less than that for the structure grown on GaSb. Furthermore, as a consequence of interband magnetotunneling, structures grown on different substrates yield different spin polarization of the tunneling current. It is obtained that the current spin polarization can be greater than 90%. These resonant tunneling structures can be used as spin filters in the rapidly growing field of spintronics.
Improved Faddeev-Jackiw quantization of the electromagnetic field and Lagrange multiplier fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Jin-Long; HUANG Yong-Chang
2008-01-01
We use the improved Faddeev-Jackiw quantization method to quantize the electromagnetic field and its Lagrange multiplier fields.The method's comparison with the usual Faddeev-Jackiw method and the Dirac method is given.We show that this method is equivalent to the Dirac method and also retains all the merits of the usual Faddeev-Jackiw method.Moreover,it is simpler than the usual one if one needs to obtain new secondary constraints.Therefore,the improved Faddeev-Jackiw method is essential.Meanwhile,we find the new meaning of the Lagrange multipliers and explain the Faddeev-Jackiw generalized brackets concerning the Lagrange multipliers.
The Indispensability of Ghost Fields in the Light-Cone Gauge Quantization of Gauge Fields
Nakawaki, Yuji; McCartor, Gary
1999-01-01
We continue McCartor and Robertson's recent demonstration of the indispensability of ghost fields in the light-cone gauge quantization of gauge fields. It is shown that the ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives and in regularizing the most singular component of gauge field propagator. To this end it is sufficient to confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields. Furthermore to circumvent dealing with constrained systems, we construct the temporal gauge c...
Discrete phase space - II: The second quantization of free relativistic wave fields
Das, A
2008-01-01
The Klein-Gordon equation, the Maxwell equation, and the Dirac equation are presented as partial difference equations in the eight-dimensional covariant discrete phase space. These equations are also furnished as difference-differential equations in the arena of discrete phase space and continuous time. The scalar field and electromagnetic fields are quantized with commutation relations. The spin-1/2 field is quantized with anti-commutation relations. Moreover, the total momentum, energy and charge of these free relativisitic quantized fields in the discrete phase space and continuous time are computed exactly. The results agree completely with those computed from the relativisitic fields defned on the space-time continuum.
Entropy for the Quantized Field in the Atom-Field Interaction: Initial Thermal Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Amilca Andrade-Morales
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study the entropy of a quantized field in interaction with a two-level atom (in a pure state when the field is initially in a mixture of two number states. We then generalise the result for a thermal state; i.e., an (infinite statistical mixture of number states. We show that for some specific interaction times, the atom passes its purity to the field and therefore the field entropy decreases from its initial value.
Rotating effects on the Landau quantization for an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, João Pessoa, PB 58051-970 (Brazil)
2016-01-07
Based on the single particle approximation [Dmitriev et al., Phys. Rev. C 50, 2358 (1994) and C.-C. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2611 (1995)], the Landau quantization associated with an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment is introduced, and then, rotating effects on this analogue of the Landau quantization is investigated. It is shown that rotating effects can modify the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the analogue of the Landau levels.
Rotating effects on the Landau quantization for an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment
Fonseca, I C
2016-01-01
Based on the single particle approximation [V. F. Dmitriev {\\it et al}, Phys. Rev. C {\\bf50}, 2358 (1994), C.-C. Chen, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf51}, 2611 (1995)], the Landau quantization associated with an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment is introduced, and then, rotating effects on this analogue of the Landau quantization is investigated. It is shown that rotating effects can modify the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the analogue of the Landau levels.
Rotating effects on the Landau quantization for an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment.
Fonseca, I C; Bakke, K
2016-01-07
Based on the single particle approximation [Dmitriev et al., Phys. Rev. C 50, 2358 (1994) and C.-C. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2611 (1995)], the Landau quantization associated with an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment is introduced, and then, rotating effects on this analogue of the Landau quantization is investigated. It is shown that rotating effects can modify the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the analogue of the Landau levels.
Response of two-band systems to a single-mode quantized field
Shi, Z. C.; Shen, H. Z.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.
2016-03-01
The response of topological insulators (TIs) to an external weakly classical field can be expressed in terms of Kubo formula, which predicts quantized Hall conductivity of the quantum Hall family. The response of TIs to a single-mode quantized field, however, remains unexplored. In this work, we take the quantum nature of the external field into account and define a Hall conductance to characterize the linear response of a two-band system to the quantized field. The theory is then applied to topological insulators. Comparisons with the traditional Hall conductance are presented and discussed.
Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Rui
2011-01-01
The Hall effect, the anomalous Hall effect （AHE） and the spin Hall effect are thndamental transport processes in solids arising from the Lorentz force and the spin-orbit coupling respectively. The AHE, in which a voltage transverse to the electric current appears even in the absence of an external magnetic field, was first detected in ferromagnetic （FM） metals in 1881 and later found to arise from the spin-orbit coupling （SOC） between the current and magnetic moments.
SL(2,C) Gauge Theory of Gravitation and the Quantization of the Gravitational Field
Carmeli, M; Carmeli, Moshe; Malin, Shimon
1998-01-01
A new approach to quantize the gravitational field is presented. It is based on the observation that the quantum character of matter becomes more significant as one gets closer to the big bang. As the metric loses its meaning, it makes sense to consider Schrodinger's three generic types of manifolds - unconnected differentiable, affinely connected, and metrically connected - as a temporal sequence following the big bang. Hence one should quantize the gravitational field on general differentiable manifolds or on affinely connected manifolds. The SL(2,C) gauge theory of gravitation is employed to explore this possibility. Within this framework, the quantization itself may well be canonical.
The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation
Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.
2014-01-01
The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.
Inequivalent quantization in the field of a ferromagnetic wire
Giri, Pulak Ranjan
2007-01-01
We argue that it is possible to bind neutral atom (NA) to the ferromagnetic wire (FW) by inequivalent quantization of the Hamiltonian. We follow the well known von Neumann's method of self-adjoint extensions (SAE) to get this inequivalent quantization, which is characterized by a parameter \\Sigma\\in\\mathbb{R}({mod}2\\pi). There exists a single bound state for the coupling constant \\eta^2\\in[0,1). Although this bound state should not occur due to the existence of classical scale symmetry in the problem. But since quantization procedure breaks this classical symmetry, bound state comes out as a scale in the problem leading to scaling anomaly. We also discuss the strong coupling region \\eta^2< 0, which supports bound state making the problem re-normalizable.
Effective Field Theory of Fractional Quantized Hall Nematics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mulligan, Michael; /MIT, LNS; Nayak, Chetan; /Station Q, UCSB; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-06-06
We present a Landau-Ginzburg theory for a fractional quantized Hall nematic state and the transition to it from an isotropic fractional quantum Hall state. This justifies Lifshitz-Chern-Simons theory - which is shown to be its dual - on a more microscopic basis and enables us to compute a ground state wave function in the symmetry-broken phase. In such a state of matter, the Hall resistance remains quantized while the longitudinal DC resistivity due to thermally-excited quasiparticles is anisotropic. We interpret recent experiments at Landau level filling factor {nu} = 7/3 in terms of our theory.
Consistent quantization of massless fields of any spin and the generalized Maxwell's equations
Gersten, Alexander
2016-01-01
A simplified formalism of first quantized massless fields of any spin is presented. The angular momentum basis for particles of zero mass and finite spin s of the D^(s-1/2,1/2) representation of the Lorentz group is used to describe the wavefunctions. The advantage of the formalism is that by equating to zero the s-1 components of the wave functions, the 2s-1 subsidiary conditions (needed to eliminate the non-forward and non-backward helicities) are automatically satisfied. Probability currents and Lagrangians are derived allowing a first quantized formalism. A simple procedure is derived for connecting the wave functions with potentials and gauge conditions. The spin 1 case is of particular interest and is described with the D^(1/2,1/2) vector representation of the well known self-dual representation of the Maxwell's equations. This representation allows us to generalize Maxwell's equations by adding the E_0 and B_0 components to the electric and magnetic four-vectors. Restrictions on their existence are dis...
BRST quantization of a sixth-order derivative scalar field theory
Kim, Yong-Wan; Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai
2013-01-01
We study a sixth order derivative scalar field model in Minkowski spacetime as a toy model of higher-derivative critical gravity theories. This model is consistently quantized when using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization scheme even though it does not show gauge symmetry manifestly. Imposing a BRST quartet generated by two scalars and ghosts, there remains a non-trivial subspace with positive norm. This might be interpreted as a Minkowskian dual version of the unitary truncati...
The Indispensability of Ghost Fields in the Light-Cone Gauge Quantization of Gauge Fields
Nakawaki, Y; Nakawaki, Yuji; Cartor, Gary Mc
1999-01-01
We continue McCartor and Robertson's recent demonstration of the indispensability of ghost fields in the light-cone gauge quantization of gauge fields. It is shown that the ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives and in regularizing the most singular component of gauge field propagator. To this end it is sufficient to confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields. Furthermore to circumvent dealing with constrained systems, we construct the temporal gauge canonical formulation of the free electromagnetic field in auxiliary coordinates $x^{\\mu}=(x^-,x^+,x^1,x^2)$ where $x^-=x^0 cos{\\theta}-x^3 sin{\\theta}, x^+=x^0 sin{\\theta}+x^3 cos{\\theta}$ and $x^-$ plays the role of time. In so doing we can quantize the fields canonically without any constraints, unambiguously introduce "static ghost fields" as residual gauge degrees of freedom and construct the light-cone gauge solution in the light-cone representation by simply taking the light-cone limit (${\\theta}\\to \\pi/4$). As a by...
The Indispensability of Ghost Fields in the Light-Cone Gauge Quantization of Gauge Fields
Nakawaki, Y.; McCartor, G.
1999-07-01
We continue McCartor and Robertson's recent demonstration of the indispensability of ghost fields in the light-cone gauge quantization of gauge fields. It is shown that the ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives and in regularizing the most singular component of the gauge field propagator. To this end it is sufficient to confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields. Furthermore, to circumvent dealing with constrained systems, we construct the temporal gauge canonical formulation of the free electromagnetic field in auxiliary coordinates xμ=(x-, x+, x1, x2), where x- = x0 cos {θ}-x3 sin θ x+ = x0 sin θ +x3 cos θ and x- plays the role of time. In so doing we can quantize the fields canonically without any constraints, unambiguously introduce ``static ghost fields" as residual gauge degrees of freedom and construct the light-cone gauge solution in the light-cone representation by simply taking the light-cone limit (θ --> (π / 4) ). As a by product we find that, with a suitable choice of vacuum, the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt form of the propagator can be derived in the θ=0 case (the temporal gauge formulation in the equal-time representation).
Hyperon Stars in Strong Magnetic Fields
Gomes, R O; Vasconcellos, C A Z
2013-01-01
We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the properties of hyperon stars. The matter is described by a hadronic model with parametric coupling. The matter is considered to be at zero temperature, charge neutral, beta-equilibrated, containing the baryonic octet, electrons and muons. The charged particles have their orbital motions Landau-quantized in the presence of strong magnetic fields (SMF). Two parametrisations of a chemical potential dependent static magnetic field are considered, reaching $1-2 \\times 10^{18}\\,G$ in the center of the star. Finally, the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equations are solved to obtain the mass-radius relation and population of the stars.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...
Nakawaki, Y
2000-01-01
It is shown that ghost fields are indispensable in deriving well-defined antiderivatives in pure space-like axial gauge quantizations of gauge fields. To avoid inessential complications we confine ourselves to noninteracting abelian fields and incorporate their quantizations as a continuous deformation of those in light-cone gauge. We attain this by constructing an axial gauge formulation in auxiliary coordinates $x^{\\mu}= (x^+,x^-,x^1,x^2)$, where $x^+=x^0{\\rm sin}{\\theta}+x^3{\\rm cos}{\\theta}, x^-=x^0{\\rm cos}{\\theta}-x^3{\\rm sin}{\\theta}$ and $x^+$ and $A_-=A^0{\\rm cos} {\\theta}+A^3{\\rm sin}{\\theta}=0$ are taken as the evolution parameter and the gauge fixing condition, respectively. We introduce $x^-$-independent residual gauge fields as ghost fields and accomodate them to the Hamiltonian formalism by applying McCartor and Robertson's method. As a result, we obtain conserved translational generators $P_{\\mu}$, which retain ghost degrees of freedom integrated over the hyperplane $x^-=$ constant. They enabl...
Stress-energy of a quantized scalar field in static wormhole spacetimes
Taylor, B E; Anderson, P R; Taylor, Brett E.; Hiscock, William A.; Anderson, Paul R.
1997-01-01
Static traversable wormhole solutions of the Einstein equations require ``exotic'' matter which violates the weak energy condition. The vacuum stress-energy of quantized fields has been proposed as the source for this matter. Using the Dewitt-Schwinger approximation, analytic expressions for the stress-energy of a quantized massive scalar field are calculated in five static spherically symmetric Lorentzian wormhole spacetimes. We find that in all cases, for both minimally and conformally coupled scalar fields, the stress-energy does not have the properties needed to support the wormhole geometry.
Quantized photonic spin Hall effect in graphene
Cai, Liang; Liu, Mengxia; Chen, Shizhen; Liu, Yachao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2017-01-01
We examine the photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) in a graphene-substrate system with the presence of an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime, we demonstrate that the in-plane and transverse spin-dependent splittings in the photonic SHE exhibit different quantized behaviors. The quantized SHE can be described as a consequence of a quantized geometric phase (Berry phase), which corresponds to the quantized spin-orbit interaction. Furthermore, an experimental scheme based on quantum weak value amplification is proposed to detect the quantized SHE in the terahertz frequency regime. By incorporating the quantum weak measurement techniques, the quantized photonic SHE holds great promise for detecting quantized Hall conductivity and the Berry phase. These results may bridge the gap between the electronic SHE and photonic SHE in graphene.
Polymer quantization of the free scalar field and its classical limit
Laddha, Alok
2010-01-01
Building on prior work, a generally covariant reformulation of free scalar field theory on the flat Lorentzian cylinder is quantized using Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) type `polymer' representations. This quantization of the {\\em continuum} classical theory yields a quantum theory which lives on a discrete spacetime lattice. We explicitly construct a state in the polymer Hilbert space which reproduces the standard Fock vacuum- two point functions for long wavelength modes of the scalar field. Our construction indicates that the continuum classical theory emerges under coarse graining. All our considerations are free of the "triangulation" ambiguities which plague attempts to define quantum dynamics in LQG. Our work constitutes the first complete LQG type quantization of a generally covariant field theory together with a semi-classical analysis of the true degrees of freedom and thus provides a perfect infinite dimensional toy model to study open issues in LQG, particularly those pertaining to the definition of ...
Conductance quantization in magnetic nanowires electrodeposited in nanopores
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elhoussine, F.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Encinas, A.
2002-01-01
Magnetic nanocontacts have been prepared by a templating method that involves the electrodeposition of Ni within the pores of track-etched polymer membranes. The nanocontacts are made at the extremity of a single Ni nanowire either inside or outside the pores. The method is simple, flexible, and ...... degeneracy. Our fabrication method enables future investigation of ballistic spin transport phenomena in electrodeposited magnetic nanocontacts....
BRST Quantization of a Sixth-Order Derivative Scalar Field Theory
Kim, Yong-Wan; Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai
2013-12-01
We study a sixth-order derivative scalar field model in Minkowski spacetime as a toy model of higher-derivative critical gravity theories. This model is consistently quantized when using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization scheme even though it does not show gauge symmetry manifestly. Imposing a BRST quartet generated by two scalars and ghosts, there remains a nontrivial subspace with positive norm. This might be interpreted as a Minkowskian dual version of the unitary truncation in the logarithmic conformal field theory.
BRST quantization of a sixth-order derivative scalar field theory
Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai
2013-01-01
We study a sixth order derivative scalar field model in Minkowski spacetime as a toy model of higher-derivative critical gravity theories. This model is consistently quantized when using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization scheme even though it does not show gauge symmetry manifestly. Imposing a BRST quartet generated by two scalars and ghosts, there remains a non-trivial subspace with positive norm. This might be interpreted as a Minkowskian dual version of the unitary truncation in the logarithmic conformal field theory.
Hyperon bulk viscosity in strong magnetic fields
Sinha, Monika
2008-01-01
We study bulk viscosity in neutron star matter including $\\Lambda$ hyperons in the presence of quantizing magnetic fields. Relaxation time and bulk viscosity due to both the non-leptonic weak process involving $\\Lambda$ hyperons and the direct Urca (dUrca) process are calculated here. In the presence of a strong magnetic field, bulk viscosity coefficients are enhanced when protons, electrons and muons are populated in their respective zeroth Landau levels compared with the field free cases. The enhancement of bulk viscosity coefficient is larger for the dUrca case.
Reduced Loop Quantization with four Klein-Gordon Scalar Fields as Reference Matter
Giesel, Kristina
2016-01-01
In this paper we perform a reduced phase space quantization of gravity using four Klein-Gordon scalar fields as reference matter as an alternative to the Brown-Kucha\\v{r} dust model in [1] where eight (dust) scalar fields are used. We compare our results to an earlier model by Domagala et. al. [2] where only one Klein-Gordon scalar field was considered as reference matter for the Hamiltonian constraint. As a result we find that the choice of four Klein-Gordon scalar fields as reference matter leads to a reduced dynamical model that cannot be quantized using loop quantum gravity techniques. However, we further discuss a slight generalization of the action for the four Klein-Gordon scalar fields and show that this leads to a model which can be quantized in the framework of loop quantum gravity. Particularly, considering the model by Domagala et. al. [2] and the one introduced in this work we are able to compare Dirac and reduced phase space quantization.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邹旭波; 许晶波; 高孝纯; 符建
2001-01-01
We adopt a dynamical algebraic approach to study the system of a two-level atom moving in a quantized travelling light field and a gravitational field with a multiphoton interaction. The exact solution of the system is obtained and used to discuss the influence of the gravitational field on the collapses and revivals of atomic population, sub-Poissonian statistics.
New aspects of quantization of Jackiw-Pi model: field-antifield formalism and noncommutativity
Nikoofard, Vahid
2016-01-01
The so-callled Jackiw-Pi (JP) model for massive vector fields is a three dimensional, gauge invariant and parity preserving model which was discussed in several contexts. In this paper we have discussed its quantum aspects through the introduction of Planck scale objects, i.e., via noncommutativity and the well known BV quantization. Namely, we have constructed the JP noncommutative space-time version and we have provided the BV quantization of the commutative JP model and we have discussed its features. The noncommutativity has introduced interesting new objects in JP's Planck scale framework. The anomaly issue was discussed.
Challifour, John L.; Timko, Edward J.
2016-06-01
Using a Krein indefinite metric in Fock space, the Hamiltonian for cut-off models of canonically quantized Higgs-Yang-Mills fields interpolating between the Gupta-Bleuler-Feynman and Landau gauges is shown to be essentially maximal accretive and essentially Krein selfadjoint.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menezes, G.; Svaiter, N.F. E-mail: gsm@cbpf.br; nfuxsvai@cbpf.br
2006-04-15
We use the method of stochastic quantization in a topological field theory defined in an Euclidean space, assuming a Langevin equation with a memory kernel. We show that our procedure for the Abelian Chern-Simons theory converges regardless of the nature of the Chern-Simons coefficient. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kheirandish, Fardin; Amooshahi, Majid; Soltani, Morteza [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib Ave., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: fardinkh@phys.ui.ac.ir, E-mail: amooshahi@phys.ui.ac.ir, E-mail: m.soltani@phys.ui.ac.ir
2009-04-14
In this paper, by extending the Lagrangian of the Huttner-Barnett model an electromagnetic field in a nonhomogeneous and anisotropic magnetodielectric medium is quantized canonically. In this model, Maxwell equations in the medium are obtained and solved using the Green function technique. The noise operators are found and the results are compared with the phenomenological method.
Phase space quantization, non-commutativity and the gravitational field
Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios
2014-01-01
In this paper we study the structure of the phase space in non-commutative geometry in the presence of a non-trivial frame. Our basic assumptions are that the underlying space is a symplectic and parallelizable manifold. Furthermore, we assume the validity of the Leibniz rule and the Jacobi identities. We consider non-commutative spaces due to the quantization of the symplectic structure and determine the momentum operators that guarantee a set of canonical commutation relations, appropriately extended to include the non-trivial frame. We stress the important role of left vs. right acting operators and of symplectic duality. This enables us to write down the form of the full phase space algebra on these non-commutative spaces, both in the non-compact and in the compact case. We test our results against the class of 4D and 6D symplectic nilmanifolds, thus presenting a large set of non-trivial examples that realize the general formalism.
Kunze, Kerstin E
2013-01-01
Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the universe, from stars and galaxies upto galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of primordial, cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.
Response of a rotating detector coupled to a polymer quantized field
Jaffino Stargen, D.; Kajuri, Nirmalya; Sriramkumar, L.
2017-09-01
Assuming that high-energy effects may alter the standard dispersion relations governing quantized fields, the influence of such modifications on various phenomena has been studied extensively in the literature. In different contexts, it has generally been found that, while superluminal dispersion relations hardly affect the standard results, subluminal relations can lead to (even substantial) modifications to the conventional results. A polymer quantized scalar field is characterized by a series of modified dispersion relations along with suitable changes to the standard measure of the density of modes. Amongst the modified dispersion relations, one finds that the lowest in the series can behave subluminally over a small domain in wave numbers. In this work, we study the response of a uniformly rotating Unruh-DeWitt detector that is coupled to a polymer quantized scalar field. While certain subluminal dispersion relations can alter the response of the rotating detector considerably, in the case of polymer quantization, due to the specific nature of the dispersion relations, the modification to the transition probability rate of the detector does not prove to be substantial. We discuss the wider implications of the result.
Quantization of massive scalar fields over axis symmetric space-time backgrounds
Piedra, O P F; Oca, Alejandro Cabo Montes de; Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernandez
2007-01-01
The renormalized mean value of the quantum Lagrangian and the Energy-Momentum tensor for scalar fields coupled to an arbitrary gravitational field configuration are analytically evaluated in the Schwinger-DeWitt approximation, up to second order in the inverse mass value. The cylindrical symmetry situation is considered. The results furnish the starting point for investigating iterative solutions of the back-reaction problem related with the quantization of cylindrical scalar field configurations. Due to the homogeneity of the equations of motion of the Klein-Gordon field, the general results are also valid for performing the quantization over either vanishing or non-vanishing mean field configurations. As an application, compact analytical expressions are derived here for the quantum mean Lagrangian and Energy-Momentum tensor in the particular background given by the Black-String space-time.
Berry phases in the three-level atoms driven by quantized light fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mai-Lin Liang; Zong-Cheng Xu; Bing Yuan
2008-03-01
A theoretical analysis of Berry's phases is given for the three-level atoms interacting with external one-mode and two-mode quantized light fields. Three main results are obtained: (i) There is a Berry phase which vanishes in the classical limit or this Berry phase is completely induced by the field quantization; (ii) Berry's phases for the one-mode field and the two-mode field can be equal so long as the photon numbers of the two-mode field are properly chosen; (iii) In the two-mode case, Berry phases of the atom interacting with one mode is affected by the other mode even if the photon number of the other mode is zero.
Magnetic Field Grid Calculator
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...
Edda Lína Gunnarsdóttir 1988
2012-01-01
The Earth's magnetic field is essential for life on Earth, as we know it, to exist. It forms a magnetic shield around the planet, protecting it from high energy particles and radiation from the Sun, which can cause damage to life, power systems, orbiting satellites, astronauts and spacecrafts. This report contains a general overview of the Earth's magnetic field. The different sources that contribute to the total magnetic field are presented and the diverse variations in the field are describ...
Canonical quantization of gauge fields in static space-times with applications to Rindler spaces
Lenz, F; Yazaki, K
2008-01-01
The canonical quantization in Weyl gauge of gauge fields in static space-times is presented. With an appropriate definition of transverse and longitudinal components of gauge fields, the Gauss law constraint is resolved explicitly for scalar and spinor QED and a complete non-perturbative solution is given for the quantized Maxwell-field coupled to external currents. The formalism is applied in investigations of the electromagnetic field in Rindler spaces. The relation of creation and annihilation operators in Minkowski and Rindler spaces is established and initial value problems associated with bremsstrahlung of a uniformly accelerated charge are studied. The peculiar scaling properties of scalar and gauge theories in Rindler spaces are discussed and various quantities such as the photon condensate or the interaction energy of static charges or scalar sources are computed.
Effect of field quantization on Rabi oscillation of equidistant cascade four-level system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mihir Ranjan Nath; Tushar Kanti Dey; Surajit Sen; Gautam Gangopadhyay
2008-01-01
We have exactly solved a model of equidistant cascade four-level system interacting with a single-mode radiation field both semiclassically and quantum mechanically by exploiting its similarity with Jaynes-Cummings model. For the classical field, it is shown that the Rabi oscillation of the system initially in the first level (second level) is similar to that of the system when it is initially in the fourth level (third level). We then proceed to solve the quantized version of the model where the dressed state is constructed using a six-parameter four-dimensional matrix and show that the symmetry exhibited in the Rabi oscillation of the system for the semiclassical model is completely destroyed on the quantization of the cavity field. Finally, we have studied the collapse and revival of the system for the cavity field-mode in a coherent state to discuss the restoration of symmetry and its implication is discussed.
Finite-temperature electromagnetic-field quantization in a medium: The thermofield approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kheirandish, F.; Soltani, M.; Jafari, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jarib Street, 81746-73441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-12-15
Starting from a Lagrangian, an electromagnetic field is quantized in the presence of a medium in thermal equilibrium and also in a medium with time-varying temperature. The vector potential for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases is obtained and vacuum fluctuations of the fields are calculated. As an illustrative example, the finite-temperature decay rate and level shift of an atom in a polarizable medium are calculated in this approach.
Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in spatially flat cosmological spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomar, Laura Castelló [Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cortez, Jerónimo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Blas, Daniel Martín-de; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: laucaste@estumail.ucm.es, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: daniel.martin@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade da Beira Interior, R. Marquês D' Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal)
2012-11-01
We study the Fock quantization of scalar fields in (generically) time dependent scenarios, focusing on the case in which the field propagation occurs in –either a background or effective– spacetime with spatial sections of flat compact topology. The discussion finds important applications in cosmology, like e.g. in the description of test Klein-Gordon fields and scalar perturbations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the observationally favored flat case. Two types of ambiguities in the quantization are analyzed. First, the infinite ambiguity existing in the choice of a Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, understandable as the freedom in the choice of inequivalent vacua for a given field. Besides, in cosmological situations, it is customary to scale the fields by time dependent functions, which absorb part of the evolution arising from the spacetime, which is treated classically. This leads to an additional ambiguity, this time in the choice of a canonical pair of field variables. We show that both types of ambiguities are removed by the requirements of (a) invariance of the vacuum under the symmetries of the three-torus, and (b) unitary implementation of the dynamics in the quantum theory. In this way, one arrives at a unique class of unitarily equivalent Fock quantizations for the system. This result provides considerable robustness to the quantum predictions and renders meaningful the confrontation with observation.
Collapse and revival of a single-Cooper-pair box in a single-mode quantized field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚延荪; 邹健; 邵彬
2003-01-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a single-Cooper-pair box biased by a classical voltage and also irradiated by a single-mode quantized field.We demonstrate that under weak damping of the quantized field,the collapse-revival phenomena can exist in this system,and the oscillations of the collapse and revival depend sensitively on the initial state of the single-mode quantized field and the damping rate κ.We also demonstrate that this system can show the beats phenomena.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhu Kai-Cheng; Li Shao-Xin; Tang Ying; Zheng Xiao-Juan; Tang Hui-Qin
2012-01-01
A new kind of quantum non-Gaussian state with a vortex structure,termed a Bessel-Gaussian vortex state,is constructed,which is an eigenstate of the sum of squared annihilation operators a2 + b2.The Wigner function of the quantum vortex state is derived and exhibits negativity which is an indication of nonclassicality.It is also found that a quantized vortex state is always in entanglement.And a scheme for generating such quantized vortex states is proposed.
Beck, Rainer
2013-01-01
Most of the visible matter in the Universe is ionized, so that cosmic magnetic fields are quite easy to generate and due to the lack of magnetic monopoles hard to destroy. Magnetic fields have been measured in or around practically all celestial objects, either by in-situ measurements of spacecrafts or by the electromagnetic radiation of embedded cosmic rays, gas or dust. The Earth, the Sun, solar planets, stars, pulsars, the Milky Way, nearby galaxies, more distant (radio) galaxies, quasars and even intergalactic space in clusters of galaxies have significant magnetic fields, and even larger volumes of the Universe may be permeated by "dark" magnetic fields. Information on cosmic magnetic fields has increased enormously as the result of the rapid development of observational methods, especially in radio astronomy. In the Milky Way, a wealth of magnetic phenomena was discovered, which are only partly related to objects visible in other spectral ranges. The large-scale structure of the Milky Way's magnetic fie...
Quantization of the minimal and non-minimal vector field in curved space
Toms, David J
2015-01-01
The local momentum space method is used to study the quantized massive vector field (the Proca field) with the possible addition of non-minimal terms. Heat kernel coefficients are calculated and used to evaluate the divergent part of the one-loop effective action. It is shown that the naive expression for the effective action that one would write down based on the minimal coupling case needs modification. We adopt a Faddeev-Jackiw method of quantization and consider the case of an ultrastatic spacetime for simplicity. The operator that arises for non-minimal coupling to the curvature is shown to be non-minimal in the sense of Barvinsky and Vilkovisky. It is shown that when a general non-minimal term is added to the theory the result is not renormalizable with the addition of a local Lagrangian counterterm.
Energy Quantization and Probability Density of Electron in Intense-Field-Atom Interactions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
敖淑艳; 程太旺; 李晓峰; 吴令安; 付盘铭
2003-01-01
We find that, due to the quantum correlation between the electron and the field, the electronic energy becomes quantized also, manifesting the particle aspect of light in the electron-light interaction. The probability amplitude of finding electron with a given energy is given by a generalized Bessel function, which can be represented as a coherent superposition of contributions from a few electronic quantum trajectories. This concept is illustrated by comparing the spectral density of the electron with the laser assisted recombination spectrum.
Group field theory as the 2nd quantization of Loop Quantum Gravity
Oriti, Daniele
2013-01-01
We construct a 2nd quantized reformulation of canonical Loop Quantum Gravity at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the Group Field Theory formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specifi...
The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, Mathias; Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby
2017-01-01
The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter’s planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor ...
Widrow, Lawrence M; Schleicher, Dominik; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Tsagas, Christos G; Treumann, Rudolf A
2011-01-01
We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. We examine mechanisms for the generation of magnetic fields that operate prior during inflation and during subsequent phase transitions such as electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark-hadron phase transition. The implications of strong primordial magnetic fields for the reionization epoch as well as the first generation of stars is discussed in detail. The exotic, early-Universe mechanisms are contrasted with astrophysical processes that generate fields after recombination. For example, a Biermann-type battery can operate in a proto-galaxy during the early stages of structure formation. Moreover, magnetic fields in either an early genera...
Quantization of massive scalar fields over static black string backgrounds
Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernandez
2007-01-01
The renormalized mean value of the corresponding components of the Energy-Momentum tensor for massive scalar fields coupled to an arbitrary gravitational field configuration having cylindrical symmetry are analytically evaluated using the Schwinger-DeWitt approximation, up to second order in the inverse mass value. The general results are employed to explicitly derive compact analytical expressions for the Energy-Momentum tensor in the particular background of the Black-String spacetime. In the case of the Black String considered in this work, we proof that a violation of the weak energy condition occur at the horizon of the space-time for values of the coupling constant, that include as particular cases the most interesting of minimal and conformal coupling.
Anderson Localization with Second Quantized Fields: Quantum Statistical Aspects
Thompson, Clinton; Agarwal, G S
2010-01-01
We report a theoretical study of Anderson localization of nonclassical light with emphasis on the quantum statistical aspects of localized light. We demonstrate, from the variance in mean intensity of localized light, as well as site-to-site correlations, that the localized light carries signatures of quantum statistics of input light. For comparison, we also present results for input light with coherent field statistics and thermal field statistics. Our results show that there is an enhancement in fluctuations of localized light due to the medium's disorder. We also find superbunching of the localized light, which may be useful for enhancing the interaction between radiation and matter. Another important consequence of sub-Poissonian statistics of the incoming light is to quench the total fluctuations at the output. Finally, we compare the effects of Gaussian and Rectangular distributions for the disorder, and show that Gaussian disorder accelerates the localization of light.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph
2017-01-24
An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).
Massless Scalar Field Propagator in a Quantized Space-Time
Elias, V
2006-01-01
We consider in detail the analytic behaviour of the non-interacting massless scalar field two-point function in H.S. Snyder's discretized non-commuting spacetime. The propagator we find is purely real on the Euclidean side of the complex $p^2$ plane and goes like $1/p^2$ as $p^2\\to 0$ from either the Euclidean or Minkowski side. The real part of the propagator goes smoothly to zero as $p^2$ increases to the discretization scale $1/a^2$ and remains zero for $p^2>1/a^2$. This behaviour is consistent with the termination of single-particle propagation on the ultraviolet side of the discretization scale. The imaginary part of the propagator, consistent with a multiparticle-production branch discontinuity, is finite and continuous on the Minkowski side, slowly falling to zero when $1/a^2
D-Theory: Field Quantization by Dimensional Reduction of Discrete Variables
Brower, R; Riederer, S; Wiese, U J
2003-01-01
D-theory is an alternative non-perturbative approach to quantum field theory formulated in terms of discrete quantized variables instead of classical fields. Classical scalar fields are replaced by generalized quantum spins and classical gauge fields are replaced by quantum links. The classical fields of a d-dimensional quantum field theory reappear as low-energy effective degrees of freedom of the discrete variables, provided the (d+1)-dimensional D-theory is massless. When the extent of the extra Euclidean dimension becomes small in units of the correlation length, an ordinary d-dimensional quantum field theory emerges by dimensional reduction. The D-theory formulation of scalar field theories with various global symmetries and of gauge theories with various gauge groups is constructed explicitly and the mechanism of dimensional reduction is investigated.
Description of Atom-Field Interaction via Quantized Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian
Daneshmand, Roohollah; Tavassoly, Mohammad Kazem
2017-01-01
In this paper we outline an approach to the study of atom-field interacting systems, where the Hamiltonian of the field is simply inspired from the quantized Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian. As a simple physical realization of the model, the interaction between a two-level atom with such a single-mode field is studied. The explicit form of the atom-field entangled state associated with the considered system is analytically deduced and the dynamics of a few of its physical properties is numerically evaluated. To achieve the latter purposes, the temporal behavior of the degree of entanglement, atomic population inversion as well as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing of the field are evaluated. Moreover, the effects of the intensity of initial field and the damping parameter within the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian on the above-mentioned criteria are investigated. As is shown, by adjusting the latter evolved parameters one can appropriately tune the discussed physical quantities.
$\\bar{\\psi} \\psi$-condensate in constant magnetic fields
Anguiano-Galicia, M de J; Raya, A
2007-01-01
We solve Dirac equation in the presence of a constant magnetic field in (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensions. Quantizing the fermion field, we calculate $\\bar{\\psi} \\psi$-condensate from first principles for parity conserving and violating Lagrangians for arbitrary field strength. We make comparison with the results already known in the literature for some particular cases and point out the relevance of our work for possible physical applications.
Landau level quantization and superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akera, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; MacDonald, A.H. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Norman, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
1992-07-01
A microscopic calculation of vortex-lattice states in two-dimensional electron systems at strong magnetic fields is made taking fully the Landau level quantization into account within the mean field scheme. Results of the order parameter and the local density of states are presented both in the limit of pairing in a single Landau level and in the semiclassical regime of weaker fields and differences from the Abrikosov vortex state are discussed.
Higher Spin Fermionic Quantum Fields on Curved Spacetimes and their Algebraic Quantization
Muehlhoff, Rainer
2011-01-01
A first order linear differential operator for Fermionic spinor fields of arbitrary half integral spin on globally hyperbolic Lorentzian spacetime manifolds is constructed. The Cauchy problem for the resulting field equation (massive as well as massless) is shown to have unique solutions. On the spinor bundle, a natural Hermitian scalar product is constructed with respect to which the differential operator is of positive-definite type. This leads to a construction of C*-algebra representation of the canonical anti-commutation relations and thus to a quantization of the higher spin system, which does not depend on further choices. Hence, these considerations show that the well-known CAR-algebraic quantization construction by Dimock (1982) for the spin 1/2 Dirac field can naturally be generalized to Fermionic fields of higher spin, which was as yet an open question. This document is equipped with a solid introduction to the formalism of 2-spinors on curved spacetimes in an invariant fashion using abstract index...
Noise-free scattering of the quantized electromagnetic field from a dispersive linear dielectric
Hillery, M; Hillery, Mark; Drummond, Peter D.
2000-01-01
We study the scattering of the quantized electromagnetic field from a linear, dispersive dielectric using the scattering formalism for quantum fields. The medium is modeled as a collection of harmonic oscillators with a number of distinct resonance frequencies. This model corresponds to the Sellmeir expansion, which is widely used to describe experimental data for real dispersive media. The integral equation for the interpolating field in terms of the in field is solved and the solution used to find the out field. The relation between the in and out creation and annihilation operators is found which allows one to calculate the S-matrix for this system. In this model, we find that there are absorption bands, but the input-output relations are completely unitary. No additional quantum noise terms are required.
Covariant Quantization of "Massive" Spin-3/2 Fields in the de Sitter Space
Takook, M V; Babaian, E
2012-01-01
We present a covariant quantization of the free "massive" spin-3/2 fields in four-dimensional de Sitter space-time based on analyticity in the complexified pseudo-Riemannian manifold. The field equation is obtained as an eigenvalue equation of the Casimir operator of the de Sitter group. The solutions are calculated in terms of coordinate-independent de Sitter plane-waves in tube domains and the null curvature limit is discussed. We give the group theoretical content of the field equation. The Wightman two-point function $S^{i \\bar j}_{\\alpha\\alpha'}(x,x')$ is calculated. We introduce the spinor-vector field operator $\\Psi_\\alpha(f)$ and the Hilbert space structure. A coordinate-independent formula for the field operator $\\Psi_\\alpha(x)$ is also presented.
Group field theory as the second quantization of loop quantum gravity
Oriti, Daniele
2016-04-01
We construct a second quantized reformulation of canonical loop quantum gravity (LQG) at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the group field theory (GFT) formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.
On the Irreducible BRST Quantization of Spin-5/2 Gauge Fields
Bizdadea, C; Timneanu, E N
1998-01-01
Spin-5/2 gauge fields are quantized in an irreducible way within both the BRST and BRST-anti-BRST manners. To this end, we transform the reducible generating set into an irreducible one, such that the physical observables corresponding to these two formulations coincide. The gauge-fixing procedure emphasizes on the one hand the differences among our procedure and the results obtained in the literature, and on the other hand the equivalence between our BRST and BRST-anti-BRST approaches.
Group field theory as the 2nd quantization of Loop Quantum Gravity
Oriti, Daniele
2013-01-01
We construct a 2nd quantized reformulation of canonical Loop Quantum Gravity at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the Group Field Theory formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.
Stückelberg Field Shiftting Quantization of Free-Particle on D-Dimensional Sphere
Neves, C
2000-01-01
In this paper we quantize the free-particle on a D-dimensional sphere in an unambiguous way by converting the second-class constraint using St\\"uckelberg field shiftting formalism. Further, we argument that this formalism is equivalent to the BFFT constraint conversion method and show that the energy spectrum is identical to the pure Laplace-Beltrami operator without additional terms arising from the curvature of the sphere. We work out the gauge symmetry generators with results consistent with those obtained through the nonlinear implementation of the gauge symmetry
Criteria for the determination of time dependent scalings in the Fock quantization of scalar fields
Cortez, Jerónimo; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M
2012-01-01
The quantization of scalar fields in nonstationary spacetimes is plagued with ambiguities that undermine the significance of physical predictions. A context in which this kind of ambiguities arises and prevents the derivation of robust results is, e.g., in the quantum analysis of cosmological perturbations. In these situations, typically, a suitable scaling of the field by a time dependent function leads to a description in an auxiliary static background, though the nonstationarity still shows up in a time dependent mass. For such a field description, and assuming the compactness of the spatial sections, we recently proved in three or less spatial dimensions that the criteria of a natural implementation of the spatial isometries and of a unitary time evolution are able to select a unique class of unitarily equivalent vacua, and hence of Fock representations. In this work, we extend our uniqueness result to the consideration of all possible field descriptions that can be reached by a time dependent canonical t...
Xin, Jun-Li; Liang, Jiu-Qing
2012-04-01
We study quantum—classical correspondence in terms of the coherent wave functions of a charged particle in two-dimensional central-scalar potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits. For both closed and open classical orbits, the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level space of angular momentum being greater or less than ħ is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions, which is not necessarily 2π-periodic. The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value, which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model. The well-known quantum mechanical anyon model becomes a special case of the arbitrary quantization, where the classical orbits are 2π-periodic.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xin Jun-Li; Liang Jiu-Qing
2012-01-01
We study quantum-classical correspondence in terms of the coherent wave functions of a charged particle in twodimensional central-scalar potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits.For both closed and open classical orbits,the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level space of angular momentum being greater or less than h is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions,which is not necessarily 2π-periodic.The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value,which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model.The well-known quantum mechanical anyon model becomes a special case of the arbitrary quantization,where the classical orbits are 2π-periodic.
Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses
Bauer, M; Fassbender, J; Hillebrands, B
2000-01-01
We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4 ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization ...
Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in a Bianchi I cosmology with unitary dynamics
Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M
2016-01-01
The Fock quantization of free scalar fields is subject to an infinite ambiguity when it comes to choosing a set of annihilation and creation operators, choice that is equivalent to the determination of a vacuum state. In highly symmetric situations, this ambiguity can be removed by asking vacuum invariance under the symmetries of the system. Similarly, in stationary backgrounds, one can demand time-translation invariance plus positivity of the energy. However, in more general situations, additional criteria are needed. For the case of free (test) fields minimally coupled to a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, it has been proven that the ambiguity is resolved by introducing the criterion of unitary implementability of the quantum dynamics, as an endomorphism in Fock space. This condition determines a specific separation of the time dependence of the field, so that this splits into a very precise background dependence and a genuine quantum evolution. Furthermore, together with the condition of vacuum invaria...
Berdyugina, Svetlana
2015-08-01
Molecules probe cool matter in the Universe and various astrophysical objects. Their ability to sense magnetic fields provides new insights into magnetic properties of these objects. During the past fifteen years we have carried out a theoretical study of molecular magnetic effects such as the Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Hanle effects and their applications for inferring magnetic structures and spatial inhomogeneities on the Sun, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets from molecular spectro-polarimetry (e.g., Berdyugina 2011). Here, we present an overview of this study and compare our theoretical predictions with recent laboratory measurements of magnetic properties of some molecules. We present also a new web-based tool to compute molecular magnetic effects and polarized spectra which is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.
Yang, Miin-Shen; Lin, Karen Chia-Ren; Liu, Hsiu-Chih; Lirng, Jiing-Feng
2007-02-01
In this article, we propose batch-type learning vector quantization (LVQ) segmentation techniques for the magnetic resonance (MR) images. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation is an important technique to differentiate abnormal and normal tissues in MR image data. The proposed LVQ segmentation techniques are compared with the generalized Kohonen's competitive learning (GKCL) methods, which were proposed by Lin et al. [Magn Reson Imaging 21 (2003) 863-870]. Three MRI data sets of real cases are used in this article. The first case is from a 2-year-old girl who was diagnosed with retinoblastoma in her left eye. The second case is from a 55-year-old woman who developed complete left side oculomotor palsy immediately after a motor vehicle accident. The third case is from an 84-year-old man who was diagnosed with Alzheimer disease (AD). Our comparisons are based on sensitivity of algorithm parameters, the quality of MRI segmentation with the contrast-to-noise ratio and the accuracy of the region of interest tissue. Overall, the segmentation results from batch-type LVQ algorithms present good accuracy and quality of the segmentation images, and also flexibility of algorithm parameters in all the comparison consequences. The results support that the proposed batch-type LVQ algorithms are better than the previous GKCL algorithms. Specifically, the proposed fuzzy-soft LVQ algorithm works well in segmenting AD MRI data set to accurately measure the hippocampus volume in AD MR images.
Holographic fermions in external magnetic fields
Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J
2011-01-01
We study the Fermi level structure of 2+1-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. Next we compute compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators....
Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of Dirac fields in 2+1 dimensions
Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M
2016-01-01
We study the Fock quantization of a free Dirac field in 2+1-dimensional backgrounds which are conformally ultrastatic, with a time-dependent conformal factor. As it is typical for field theories, there is an infinite ambiguity in the Fock representation of the canonical anticommutation relations. Different choices may lead to unitarily inequivalent theories that describe different physics. To remove this ambiguity one usually requires that the vacuum be invariant under the unitary transformations that implement the symmetries of the equations of motion. However, in non-stationary backgrounds, where time translation is not a symmetry transformation, the requirement of vacuum invariance is in general not enough to fix completely the Fock representation. We show that this problem is overcome in the considered scenario by demanding, in addition, a unitarily implementable quantum dynamics. The combined imposition of these conditions selects a unique family of equivalent Fock representations. Moreover, one also obt...
Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization
Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M
2016-01-01
We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize ...
Covariant canonical quantization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hippel, G.M. von [University of Regina, Department of Physics, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Wohlfarth, M.N.R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany)
2006-09-15
We present a manifestly covariant quantization procedure based on the de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian formulation of classical field theory. This procedure agrees with conventional canonical quantization only if the parameter space is d=1 dimensional time. In d>1 quantization requires a fundamental length scale, and any bosonic field generates a spinorial wave function, leading to the purely quantum-theoretical emergence of spinors as a byproduct. We provide a probabilistic interpretation of the wave functions for the fields, and we apply the formalism to a number of simple examples. These show that covariant canonical quantization produces both the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equation, while also predicting the existence of discrete towers of identically charged fermions with different masses. Covariant canonical quantization can thus be understood as a ''first'' or pre-quantization within the framework of conventional QFT. (orig.)
1983-01-01
There were 37 (normal) + 3 (special) Radial Field magnets in the ISR to adjust vertically the closed orbit. Gap heights and strengths were 200 mm and .12 Tm in the normal magnets, 220 mm and .18 Tm in the special ones. The core length was 430 mm in both types. Due to their small length as compared to the gap heights the end fringe field errors were very important and had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles. In order to save on cables, as these magnets were located very far from their power supplies, the coils of the normal type magnets were formed by many turns of solid cpper conductor with some interleaved layers of hollow conductor directly cooled by circulating water
Kronberg, Philipp P
2016-01-01
Magnetic fields are important in the Universe and their effects contain the key to many astrophysical phenomena that are otherwise impossible to understand. This book presents an up-to-date overview of this fast-growing topic and its interconnections to plasma processes, astroparticle physics, high energy astrophysics, and cosmic evolution. The phenomenology and impact of magnetic fields are described in diverse astrophysical contexts within the Universe, from galaxies to the filaments and voids of the intergalactic medium, and out to the largest redshifts. The presentation of mathematical formulae is accessible and is designed to add insight into the broad range of topics discussed. Written for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics and related disciplines, this volume will inspire readers to devise new ways of thinking about magnetic fields in space on galaxy scales and beyond.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J. O. Stenflo
2008-03-01
Since the structuring and variability of the Sun and other stars are governed by magnetic fields, much of present-day stellar physics centers around the measurement and understanding of the magnetic fields and their interactions. The Sun, being a prototypical star, plays a unique role in astrophysics, since its proximity allows the fundamental processes to be explored in detail. The PRL anniversary gives us an opportunity to look back at past milestones and try to identify the main unsolved issues that will be addressed in the future.
Hood, Alan W
2011-01-01
This review provides an introduction to the generation and evolution of the Sun's magnetic field, summarising both observational evidence and theoretical models. The eleven year solar cycle, which is well known from a variety of observed quantities, strongly supports the idea of a large-scale solar dynamo. Current theoretical ideas on the location and mechanism of this dynamo are presented. The solar cycle influences the behaviour of the global coronal magnetic field and it is the eruptions of this field that can impact on the Earth's environment. These global coronal variations can be modelled to a surprising degree of accuracy. Recent high resolution observations of the Sun's magnetic field in quiet regions, away from sunspots, show that there is a continual evolution of a small-scale magnetic field, presumably produced by small-scale dynamo action in the solar interior. Sunspots, a natural consequence of the large-scale dynamo, emerge, evolve and disperse over a period of several days. Numerical simulation...
Intrinsic decoherence of entanglement of a single quantized field interacting with a two-level atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
How the mean photon number, the probability of excited state and intrinsic decoherence coefficient influence the time evolution of entanglement is unknown, when a single-mode quantized optic field and a two-level atom coupling system is governed by Milburn equation. The Jaynes-Cummings model is considered. A lower bound of concurrence is proposed to calculate the entanglement. Simulation results indicate that the entanglement of system increases following the increasing of intrinsic decoherence coefficient or the decreasing of the mean photon number. Besides that, the entanglement of system decreases, while the probability of exited state increases from 0 to 0.1, and increases, while the probability of exited state increases from 0.1 to 1.
Supersymmetric gauge theories, quantization of M{sub flat}, and conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teschner, J.; Vartanov, G.S.
2013-02-15
We propose a derivation of the correspondence between certain gauge theories with N=2 supersymmetry and conformal field theory discovered by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa in the spirit of Seiberg-Witten theory. Based on certain results from the literature we argue that the quantum theory of the moduli spaces of flat SL(2,R)-connections represents a nonperturbative ''skeleton'' of the gauge theory, protected by supersymmetry. It follows that instanton partition functions can be characterized as solutions to a Riemann-Hilbert type problem. In order to solve it, we describe the quantization of the moduli spaces of flat connections explicitly in terms of two natural sets of Darboux coordinates. The kernel describing the relation between the two pictures represents the solution to the Riemann Hilbert problem, and is naturally identified with the Liouville conformal blocks.
On exact solutions of the Dirac equation in a homogeneous magnetic field in the Lobachevsky space
Ovsiyuk, E M; Red'kov, V M
2010-01-01
There are constructed exact solutions of the quantum-mechanical Dirac equation for a spin S=1/2 particle in Riemannian space of constant negative curvature, hyperbolic Lobachevsky space, in presence of an external magnetic field, analogue of the homogeneous magnetic field in the Minkowski space. A generalized formula for energy levels, describing quantization of the motion of the particle in magnetic field on the background of the Lobachevsky space geometry, has been obtained.
High field superconducting magnets
Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mihir Ranjan Nath; Surajit Sen; Asoke Kumar Sen; Gautam Gangopadhyay
2008-07-01
We develop a scheme to construct the Hamiltonians of the lambda-, vee- and cascade-type three-level configurations using the generators of (3) group. It turns out that this approach provides a well-defined selection rule to give different Hamiltonians for each configuration. The lambda- and vee-type configurations are exactly solved with different initial conditions while taking the two-mode classical and quantized fields. For the classical field, it is shown that the Rabi oscillation of the lambda model is similar to that of the vee model and the dynamics of the vee model can be recovered from lambda model and vice versa simply by inversion. We then proceed to solve the quantized version of both models by introducing a novel Euler matrix formalism. It is shown that this dynamical symmetry exhibited in the Rabi oscillation of two configurations for the semiclassical models is completely destroyed on quantization of the field modes. The symmetry can be restored within the quantized models when both field modes are in the coherent states with large average photon number which is depicted through the collapse and revival of the Rabi oscillations.
Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in a Bianchi I cosmology with unitary dynamics
Cortez, Jerónimo; Navascués, Beatriz Elizaga; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.
2016-11-01
The Fock quantization of free scalar fields is subject to an infinite ambiguity when it comes to choosing a set of annihilation and creation operators, a choice that is equivalent to the determination of a vacuum state. In highly symmetric situations, this ambiguity can be removed by asking vacuum invariance under the symmetries of the system. Similarly, in stationary backgrounds, one can demand time-translation invariance plus positivity of the energy. However, in more general situations, additional criteria are needed. For the case of free (test) fields minimally coupled to a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, it has been proven that the ambiguity is resolved by introducing the criterion of unitary implementability of the quantum dynamics, as an endomorphism in Fock space. This condition determines a specific separation of the time dependence of the field, so that this splits into a very precise background dependence and a genuine quantum evolution. Furthermore, together with the condition of vacuum invariance under the spatial Killing symmetries, unitarity of the dynamics selects a unique Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, up to unitary equivalence. In this work, we generalize these results to anisotropic spacetimes with shear, which are therefore not conformally symmetric, by considering the case of a free scalar field in a Bianchi I cosmology.
Riemann surface and quantization
Perepelkin, E. E.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Inozemtseva, N. G.
2017-01-01
This paper proposes an approach of the unified consideration of classical and quantum mechanics from the standpoint of the complex analysis effects. It turns out that quantization can be interpreted in terms of the Riemann surface corresponding to the multivalent LnΨ function. A visual interpretation of "trajectories" of the quantum system and of the Feynman's path integral is presented. A magnetic dipole having a magnetic charge that satisfies the Dirac quantization rule was obtained.
Magnetic fields in diffuse media
Pino, Elisabete; Melioli, Claudio
2015-01-01
This volume presents the current knowledge of magnetic fields in diffuse astrophysical media. Starting with an overview of 21st century instrumentation to observe astrophysical magnetic fields, the chapters cover observational techniques, origin of magnetic fields, magnetic turbulence, basic processes in magnetized fluids, the role of magnetic fields for cosmic rays, in the interstellar medium and for star formation. Written by a group of leading experts the book represents an excellent overview of the field. Nonspecialists will find sufficient background to enter the field and be able to appreciate the state of the art.
Surface structure of quark stars with magnetic fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Prashanth Jaikumar
2006-11-01
We investigate the impact of magnetic fields on the electron distribution of the electrosphere of quark stars. For moderately strong magnetic fields of ∼ 1013 G, quantization effects are generally weak due to the large number density of electrons at surface, but can nevertheless affect the photon emission properties of quark stars. We outline the main observational characteristics of quark stars as determined by their surface emission, and briefly discuss their formation in explosive events termed as quark-novae, which may be connected to the -process.
On necessary and sufficient conditions of the BV quantization of a generic Lagrangian field system
Bashkirov, D; Mangiarotti, L; Sardanashvily, G
2005-01-01
We address the problem of extending an original field Lagrangian to ghosts and antifields in order to satisfy the master equation in the framework of the BV quantization of Lagrangian field systems. This extension essentially depends on the degeneracy of an original Lagrangian. A generic Lagrangian system of even and odd fields on an arbitrary smooth manifold is examined in the algebraic terms of the Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex. Its Euler-Lagrange operator obeys the Noether identities which need not be independent, but satisfy the first-stage Noether identities, and so on. We state the necessary and sufficient condition of the existence of the exact antifield Koszul-tate complex with the boundary operator whose nilpotency property provides all the Noether and higher-stage Noether identities of an original Lagrangian system. The Noether inverse second theorem that we prove associates to this Koszul-Tate complex the sequence graded in ghosts whose ascent operator provides the gauge and higher-stage g...
Field-induced Gap and Quantized Charge Pumping in Nano-helix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Tsinghua U., Beijing; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-02-15
We propose several novel physical phenomena based on nano-scale helical wires. Applying a static electric field transverse to the helical wire induces a metal to insulator transition, with the band gap determined by the applied voltage. Similar idea can be applied to 'geometrically' constructing one-dimensional systems with arbitrary external potential. With a quadrupolar electrode configuration, the electric field could rotate in the transverse plane, leading to a quantized dc charge current proportional to the frequency of the rotation. Such a device could be used as a new standard for the high precession measurement of the electric current. The inverse effect implies that passing an electric current through a helical wire in the presence of a transverse static electric field can lead to a mechanical rotation of the helix. This effect can be used to construct nano-scale electro-mechanical motors. Finally, our methodology also enables new ways of controlling and measuring the electronic properties of helical biological molecules such as the DNA.
Magnetism and rotation in relativistic field theory
Mameda, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Arata
2016-09-01
We investigate the analogy between magnetism and rotation in relativistic theory. In nonrelativistic theory, the exact correspondence between magnetism and rotation is established in the presence of an external trapping potential. Based on this, we analyze relativistic rotation under external trapping potentials. A Landau-like quantization is obtained by considering an energy-dependent potential.
Covariant canonical quantization
Von Hippel, G M; Hippel, Georg M. von; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2006-01-01
We present a manifestly covariant quantization procedure based on the de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian formulation of classical field theory. Covariant canonical quantization agrees with conventional canonical quantization only if the parameter space is d=1 dimensional time. In d>1 quantization requires a fundamental length scale, and any bosonic field generates a spinorial wave function, leading to the purely quantum-theoretical emergence of spinors as a byproduct. We provide a probabilistic interpretation of the wave functions for the fields, and apply the formalism to a number of simple examples. These show that covariant canonical quantization produces both the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equation, while also predicting the existence of discrete towers of identically charged fermions with different masses.
Neuberger, Herbert
2016-01-01
Starting with a general discussion, a program is sketched for a quantization based on dilations. This resolving-power quantization is simplest for scalar field theories. The hope is to find a way to relax the requirement of locality so that the necessity to fine tune mass parameters is eliminated while universality is still preserved.
Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete
2017-09-01
Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.
Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi;
2014-01-01
The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensi......) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data.......The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity...... on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p–n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors...
Dirac fields in flat FLRW cosmology: Uniqueness of the Fock quantization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz, E-mail: beatriz.elizaga@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Mercedes, E-mail: m.martin@hef.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Heyendaalseweg 135, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001, Covilhã (Portugal)
2017-01-15
We address the issue of the infinite ambiguity that affects the construction of a Fock quantization of a Dirac field propagating in a cosmological spacetime with flat compact sections. In particular, we discuss a physical criterion that restricts to a unique possibility (up to unitary equivalence) the infinite set of available vacua. We prove that this desired uniqueness is guaranteed, for any possible choice of spin structure on the spatial sections, if we impose two conditions. The first one is that the symmetries of the classical system must be implemented quantum mechanically, so that the vacuum is invariant under the symmetry transformations. The second and more important condition is that the constructed theory must have a quantum dynamics that is implementable as a (non-trivial) unitary operator in Fock space. Actually, this unitarity of the quantum dynamics leads us to identify as explicitly time dependent some very specific contributions of the Dirac field. In doing that, we essentially characterize the part of the dynamics governed by the Dirac equation that is unitarily implementable. The uniqueness of the Fock vacuum is attained then once a physically motivated convention for the concepts of particles and antiparticles is fixed.
Magnetic Field Topology in Jets
Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.
2000-01-01
We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.
Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.
Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo
2015-02-01
A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Xin, Jun-Li
2010-01-01
We study the quantum-classical correspondence in terms of coherent wave functions of a charged particle in two-dimensional central-scalar-potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits. For both closed and open classical orbits, the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level-space of angular momentum being greater or less than $\\hbar$ is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions, which is not necessarily $2\\pi$-periodic. The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value, which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model. The quantum mechanical model of anyon proposed by Wilczek (Phys. Rev. Lette. 48, 1144) becomes a special case of th...
Limits for primordial magnetic fields
Caprini, Chiara
2011-01-01
A possible explanation for the origin of the magnetic fields observed today in matter structures is that they were generated in the primordial universe. After briefly revising the model of a primordial stochastic magnetic field and sketching the main features of its time evolution in the primordial plasma, we illustrate the current upper bounds on the magnetic field amplitude and spectral index from Cosmic Microwave Background observations and gravitational wave production. We conclude that a primordial magnetic field generated by a non-causal process such as inflation with a red spectrum seems to be favoured as a seed for the magnetic fields observed today in structures.
Campanelli, Leonardo
2015-01-01
[Abridged] We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wavenumber $k$ evolves, after inflation, according to the values of $k\\eta_e$, $n_{\\mathbf{k}}$, and $\\Omega_k$, where $\\eta_e$ is the conformal time at the end of inflation, $n_{\\mathbf{k}}$ is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and $\\Omega_k$ is the phase difference between the two Bogolubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that $n_{\\mathbf{k}}^{-1} \\ll |k\\eta_e| \\ll 1$, and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: ($i$) $|\\Omega_k \\mp \\pi| = \\mathcal{O}(1)$, in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum $B_k(\\eta)$ is adiabatic, $a^2B_k(\\eta) = \\mbox{const}$, with $a$ being the expansion parameter; ($ii$) $|\\Omega_k \\mp \\pi| \\ll |k\\eta_e|$,...
SCUPOL Magnetic Field Analysis
Poidevin, Frederick; Kowal, Grzegorz; Pino, Elisabete de Gouveia Dal; Magalhaes, Antonio-Mario
2013-01-01
We present an extensive analysis of the 850 microns polarization maps of the SCUPOL Catalog produced by Matthews et al. (2009), focusing exclusively on the molecular clouds and star-forming regions. For the sufficiently sampled regions, we characterize the depolarization properties and the turbulent-to-mean magnetic field ratio of each region. Similar sets of parameters are calculated from 2D synthetic maps of dust emission polarization produced with 3D MHD numerical simulations scaled to the S106, OMC-2/3, W49 and DR21 molecular clouds polarization maps. For these specific regions the turbulent MHD regimes retrieved from the simulations, as described by the turbulent Alfv\\`en and sonic Mach numbers, are consistent within a factor 1 to 2 with the values of the same turbulent regimes estimated from the analysis of Zeeman measurements data provided by Crutcher (1999). Constraints on the values of the inclination angle of the mean magnetic field with respect to the LOS are also given. The values obtained from th...
Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.
Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.
1983-01-01
Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)
Deformation quantization and Nambu mechanics
Dito, G; Sternheimer, D; Takhtajan, L A; Dito, Giuseppe; Flato, Moshe; Sternheimer, Daniel; Takhtajan, Leon
1996-01-01
Starting from deformation quantization (star-products), the quantization problem of Nambu Mechanics is investigated. After considering some impossibilities and pushing some analogies with field quantization, a solution to the quantization problem is presented in what we call the Zariski quantization of fields (observables, functions, in this case polynomials). This quantization is based on the factorization over {\\Bbb R} of polynomials in several real variables. We quantize the algebra of fields generated by the polynomials by defining a deformation of this algebra which is Abelian, associative and distributive. This procedure is then adapted to derivatives (needed for the Nambu brackets), which ensures the validity of the Fundamental Identity of Nambu Mechanics also at the quantum level. Our construction is in fact more general than the particular case considered here: it can be utilized for quite general defining identities and for much more general star-products.
Reconnection of Magnetic Fields
Birn, J.; Priest, E. R.
2007-01-01
Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1.1 The Sun E. R. Priest; 1.2 Earth's magnetosphere J. Birn; Part II. Basic Theory of MHD Reconnection: 2.1 Classical theory of two-dimensional reconnection T. G. Forbes; 2.2 Fundamental concepts G. Hornig; 2.3 Three-dimensional reconnection in the absence of magnetic null points G. Hornig; 2.4 Three-dimensional reconnection at magnetic null points D. Pontin; 2.5 Three-dimensional flux tube reconnection M. Linton; Part III. Basic Theory of Collisionless Reconnection: 3.1 Fundamentals of collisionless reconnection J. Drake; 3.2 Diffusion region physics M. Hesse; 3.3 Onset of magnetic reconnection P. Pritchett; 3.4 Hall-MHD reconnection A. Bhattacharjee and J. Dorelli; 3.5 Role of current-aligned instabilities J. Büchner and W. Daughton; 3.6 Nonthermal particle acceleration M. Hoshino; Part IV. Reconnection in the Magnetosphere: 4.1 Reconnection at the magnetopause: concepts and models J. G. Dorelli and A. Bhattacharjee; 4.2 Observations of magnetopause reconnection K.-H. Trattner; 4.3 On the stability of the magnetotail K. Schindler; 4.4 Simulations of reconnection in the magnetotail J. Birn; 4.5 Observations of tail reconnection W. Baumjohann and R. Nakamura; 4.6 Remote sensing of reconnection M. Freeman; Part V. Reconnection in the Sun's Atmosphere: 5.1 Coronal heating E. R. Priest; 5.2 Separator reconnection D. Longcope; 5.3 Pinching of coronal fields V. Titov; 5.4 Numerical experiments on coronal heating K. Galsgaard; 5.5 Solar flares K. Kusano; 5.6 Particle acceleration in flares: theory T. Neukirch; 5.7 Fast particles in flares: observations L. Fletcher; 6. Open problems J. Birn and E. R. Priest; Bibliography; Index.
Neutron star in the presence of strong magnetic field
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K K Mohanta; R Mallick; N R Panda; L P Singh; P K Sahu
2014-05-01
Compact stars such as neutron stars (NS) can have either hadronic or exotic states like strange quark or colour superconducting matter. Stars can also have a quark core surrounded by hadronic matter, known as hybrid stars (HS). The HS is likely to have a mixed phase in between the hadron and the quark phases. Observational results suggest huge surface magnetic field in certain NS. Therefore, we study here the effect of strong magnetic field on the respective equation of states (EOS) of matter under extreme conditions. We further study the hadron–quark phase transition in the interiors of NS giving rise to HS in the presence of strong magnetic field. The hadronic matter EOS is described based on RMF theory and we include the effects of strong magnetic fields leading to Landau quantization of the charged particles. For quark phase, we use the simple Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model, assuming density-dependent bag pressure and magnetic field. The magnetic field strength increases from the surface to the centre of the star. We construct the intermediate mixed phase using Glendenning conjecture. The magnetic field softens the EOS of both the matter phases. We finally study, the mass–radius relationship for such types of mixed HS, calculating their maximum mass, and compare them with the recent observations of pulsar PSR J1614-2230, which is about 2 solar mass.
Two-dimensional coupled electron-hole layers in high magnetic fields
Parlangeli, Andrea
2000-01-01
In solids, it is nowadays possible to create structures in which electrons are confined into a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The physics of a 2D electron gas (2DEG) has proved to be very rich, in particular in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The Quantum Hall Effect, i.e. the quantization
Two new integrable cases of two-dimensional quantum mechanics with a magnetic field
Marikhin, V. G.
2016-04-01
Two integrable cases of two-dimensional Schrödinger equation with a magnetic field are proposed. Using the polar coordinates and the symmetrical gauge, we will obtain solutions of these equations through biconfluent and confluent Heun functions. The quantization rules will be derived for both systems under consideration.
Ovsiyuk, E M; Red'kov, V M
2010-01-01
There are constructed exact solutions of the quantum-mechanical Dirac equation for a spin S=1/2 particle in the space of constant positive curvature, spherical Riemann space, in presence of an external magnetic field, analogue of the homogeneous magnetic field in the Minkowski space. A generalized formula for energy levels, describing quantization of the motion of the particle in magnetic field on the background of the Riemann space geometry, is obtained.
Vestibular stimulation by magnetic fields
Ward, Bryan K.; Roberts, Dale C.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Zee, David S.
2015-01-01
Individuals working next to strong static magnetic fields occasionally report disorientation and vertigo. With the increasing strength of magnetic fields used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, these reports have become more common. It was recently learned that humans, mice and zebrafish all demonstrate behaviors consistent with constant peripheral vestibular stimulation while inside a strong, static magnetic field. The proposed mechanism for this effect involves a Lorentz force resulting from the interaction of a strong static magnetic field with naturally occurring ionic currents flowing through the inner ear endolymph into vestibular hair cells. The resulting force within the endolymph is strong enough to displace the lateral semicircular canal cupula, inducing vertigo and the horizontal nystagmus seen in normal mice and in humans. This review explores the evidence for interactions of magnetic fields with the vestibular system. PMID:25735662
Generalized noise terms for the quantized fluctuational electrodynamics
Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka; Oksanen, Jani
2017-03-01
The quantization of optical fields in vacuum has been known for decades, but extending the field quantization to lossy and dispersive media in nonequilibrium conditions has proven to be complicated due to the position-dependent electric and magnetic responses of the media. In fact, consistent position-dependent quantum models for the photon number in resonant structures have only been formulated very recently and only for dielectric media. Here we present a general position-dependent quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that extends the consistent field quantization to describe the photon number also in the presence of magnetic field-matter interactions. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuations provide an additional degree of freedom in media where the magnetic coupling to the field is prominent. Therefore, the field quantization requires an additional independent noise operator that is commuting with the conventional bosonic noise operator describing the polarization current fluctuations in dielectric media. In addition to allowing the detailed description of field fluctuations, our methods provide practical tools for modeling optical energy transfer and the formation of thermal balance in general dielectric and magnetic nanodevices. We use QFED to investigate the magnetic properties of microcavity systems to demonstrate an example geometry in which it is possible to probe fields arising from the electric and magnetic source terms. We show that, as a consequence of the magnetic Purcell effect, the tuning of the position of an emitter layer placed inside a vacuum cavity can make the emissivity of a magnetic emitter to exceed the emissivity of a corresponding electric emitter.
Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adorno, T.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); University of Florida, Department of Physics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shabad, A.E. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-04-15
We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics. (orig.)
Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field
Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E
2014-01-01
We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to a simple example of a spherically-symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space, the pattern of lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics.
Quantization of Emergent Gravity
Yang, Hyun Seok
2013-01-01
Emergent gravity is based on a novel form of the equivalence principle known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma in symplectic geometry stating that the electromagnetic force can always be eliminated by a local coordinate transformation as far as spacetime admits a symplectic structure, in other words, a microscopic spacetime becomes noncommutative (NC). If gravity emerges from U(1) gauge theory on NC spacetime, this picture of emergent gravity suggests a completely new quantization scheme where quantum gravity is defined by quantizing spacetime itself, leading to a dynamical NC spacetime. Therefore the quantization of emergent gravity is radically different from the conventional approach trying to quantize a phase space of metric fields. This approach for quantum gravity allows a background independent formulation where spacetime as well as matter fields is equally emergent from a universal vacuum of quantum gravity.
Quantization of emergent gravity
Yang, Hyun Seok
2015-02-01
Emergent gravity is based on a novel form of the equivalence principle known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma in symplectic geometry stating that the electromagnetic force can always be eliminated by a local coordinate transformation as far as space-time admits a symplectic structure, in other words, a microscopic space-time becomes noncommutative (NC). If gravity emerges from U(1) gauge theory on NC space-time, this picture of emergent gravity suggests a completely new quantization scheme where quantum gravity is defined by quantizing space-time itself, leading to a dynamical NC space-time. Therefore the quantization of emergent gravity is radically different from the conventional approach trying to quantize a phase space of metric fields. This approach for quantum gravity allows a background-independent formulation where space-time and matter fields are equally emergent from a universal vacuum of quantum gravity.
BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armendariz-Picon, Cristian [Physics Department, St. Lawrence University,Canton, NY 13617 (United States); Şengör, Gizem [Department of Physics, Syracuse University,Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)
2016-11-08
BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.
BRST Quantization of Cosmological Perturbations
Armendariz-Picon, Cristian
2016-01-01
BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to the perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas quantization in synchronous gauge, which amounts to Dirac quantization, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.
Width dependent transition of quantized spin-wave modes in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} square nanorings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Chandrima; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Rousseau, Olivier [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otani, YoshiChika [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)
2014-10-28
We investigated optically induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics in square shaped Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanorings with varying ring width. Rich spin-wave spectra are observed whose frequencies showed a strong dependence on the ring width. Micromagnetic simulations showed different types of spin-wave modes, which are quantized upto very high quantization number. In the case of widest ring, the spin-wave mode spectrum shows quantized modes along the applied field direction, which is similar to the mode spectrum of an antidot array. As the ring width decreases, additional quantization in the azimuthal direction appears causing mixed modes. In the narrowest ring, the spin-waves exhibit quantization solely in azimuthal direction. The different quantization is attributed to the variation in the internal field distribution for different ring width as obtained from micromagnetic analysis and supported by magnetic force microscopy.
Abou-Hamad, Edy
2011-09-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Observation of Landau levels in potassium-intercalated graphite under a zero magnetic field
Guo, Donghui; Kondo, Takahiro; Machida, Takahiro; Iwatake, Keigo; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji
2012-01-01
The charge carriers in graphene are massless Dirac fermions and exhibit a relativistic Landau-level quantization in a magnetic field. Recently, it has been reported that, without any external magnetic field, quantized energy levels have been also observed from strained graphene nanobubbles on a platinum surface, which were attributed to the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions in graphene formed by a strain-induced pseudomagnetic field. Here we show the generation of the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions on a partially potassium-intercalated graphite surface without applying external magnetic field. Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions indicate the graphene character in partially potassium-intercalated graphite. The generation of the Landau levels is ascribed to a vector potential induced by the perturbation of nearest-neighbour hopping, which may originate from a strain or a gradient of on-site potentials at the perimeters of potassium-free domains. PMID:22990864
Observation of Landau levels in potassium-intercalated graphite under a zero magnetic field.
Guo, Donghui; Kondo, Takahiro; Machida, Takahiro; Iwatake, Keigo; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji
2012-01-01
The charge carriers in graphene are massless Dirac fermions and exhibit a relativistic Landau-level quantization in a magnetic field. Recently, it has been reported that, without any external magnetic field, quantized energy levels have been also observed from strained graphene nanobubbles on a platinum surface, which were attributed to the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions in graphene formed by a strain-induced pseudomagnetic field. Here we show the generation of the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions on a partially potassium-intercalated graphite surface without applying external magnetic field. Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions indicate the graphene character in partially potassium-intercalated graphite. The generation of the Landau levels is ascribed to a vector potential induced by the perturbation of nearest-neighbour hopping, which may originate from a strain or a gradient of on-site potentials at the perimeters of potassium-free domains.
Third Quantization and Quantum Cosmology.
McGuigan, Michael Deturck
My thesis consists of three separate parts. Part one consists of a study of CP violation in the Kaon decay: K to pi pi gamma . To study the short distance contribution to the matrix element we developed an operator expansion for the effective Hamiltonian. An effective s to dgamma vertex arises through operator mixing. We evaluated several two-loop graphs in order to obtain the coefficient of this operator. We studied the long distance contributions to the matrix element and demonstrated that this was the dominant contribution. This explained why the polarization of the emitted photon is primarily of the magnetic type. Part two of my thesis involves the treatment of string theory at finite temperature. We introduced finite temperature into string theory by compactifying time on a twisted torus of radius beta = 1/kT, the reciprical of the temperature. The twisted torus takes into account the different thermal properties of bosons and fermions. We computed the one-loop vacuum amplitude Lambda(beta) on a twisted torus which is manifestly modular invariant. We found that lnZ(beta) = -betaVLambda (beta) where Z(beta) is the partition function and V the volume of the system. We computed the function sigma(E) which counts the number of multi-string states of total energy E by taking the inverse Laplace transform of Z( beta). We also studied the effect of finite temperature on the effective potentials which determine a string theory's compactification. The third part of my thesis involved the Wheeler DeWitt equation and a new interpretation of quantum cosmology. We examined a proposal by DeWitt for the normalization of solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We avoided negative probability problems with this proposal by reinterpreting the Wheeler-DeWitt wave function as a second quantized field. As the arguments of the Wheeler-DeWitt wave functional are second quantized fields this represented a third quantization. We developed a mode decomposition for the third quantized
Klauder, J R
1998-01-01
Canonical quantization may be approached from several different starting points. The usual approaches involve promotion of c-numbers to q-numbers, or path integral constructs, each of which generally succeeds only in Cartesian coordinates. All quantization schemes that lead to Hilbert space vectors and Weyl operators---even those that eschew Cartesian coordinates---implicitly contain a metric on a flat phase space. This feature is demonstrated by studying the classical and quantum ``aggregations'', namely, the set of all facts and properties resident in all classical and quantum theories, respectively. Metrical quantization is an approach that elevates the flat phase space metric inherent in any canonical quantization to the level of a postulate. Far from being an unwanted structure, the flat phase space metric carries essential physical information. It is shown how the metric, when employed within a continuous-time regularization scheme, gives rise to an unambiguous quantization procedure that automatically ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIAN Yi; XU Jing-Bo
2011-01-01
We investigate the quantum discord dynamics of two effective two-level atoms independently interacting with two quantized field modes through a Raman interaction in the presence of phase decoherence.The influence of the phase decoherence and detuning on the evolution of the quantum discord and entanglement between two atoms is discussed.It is found that the quantum discord is more robust than the entanglement under the phase decoherence,and the amount of discord and entanglement between two atoms can be increased by adjusting the detuning.
Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K.
2017-01-01
The quantum description of an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment in the presence of a time-dependent magnetic field is analysed. It is shown that the time-dependent magnetic field induces an electric field that interacts with the magnetic quadrupole moment of the atom and gives rise to a Landau-type quantization. It is also shown that a time-independent Schrödinger equation can be obtained, i.e., without existing the interaction between the magnetic quadrupole moment of the atom and the time-dependent magnetic field, therefore, the Schrödinger equation can be solved exactly. It is also analysed this system subject to scalar potentials.
Magnetic fields in ring galaxies
Moss, D; Silchenko, O; Sokoloff, D; Horellou, C; Beck, R
2016-01-01
Many galaxies contain magnetic fields supported by galactic dynamo action. However, nothing definitive is known about magnetic fields in ring galaxies. Here we investigate large-scale magnetic fields in a previously unexplored context, namely ring galaxies, and concentrate our efforts on the structures that appear most promising for galactic dynamo action, i.e. outer star-forming rings in visually unbarred galaxies. We use tested methods for modelling $\\alpha-\\Omega$ galactic dynamos, taking into account the available observational information concerning ionized interstellar matter in ring galaxies. Our main result is that dynamo drivers in ring galaxies are strong enough to excite large-scale magnetic fields in the ring galaxies studied. The variety of dynamo driven magnetic configurations in ring galaxies obtained in our modelling is much richer than that found in classical spiral galaxies. In particular, various long-lived transients are possible. An especially interesting case is that of NGC 4513 where th...
Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines
Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.
1978-01-01
This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.
Low Cost Magnetic Field Controller
Malafronte, Alexandre A
2005-01-01
The Physics Institute of the University of São Paulo (IFUSP) is building a continuous wave (cw) racetrack microtron. This machine has several dipole magnets, like the first and second stage recirculators, and a number of smaller ones in the transport line. These magnets must produce very stable magnetic fields to allow the beam to recirculate along very precise orbits and paths. Furthermore, the fields must be reproducible with great accuracy to allow an easier setup of the machine, though the effects of hysteresis tend to jeopardize the reproducibility. If the magnetic field is chosen by setting the current in the coils, temperature effects over the magnet and power supply tend to change the field. This work describes an inexpensive magnetic field controller that allows a direct measure of the magnetic field through an Hall probe. It includes a microcontroller running a feedback algorithm to control the power supply, in order to keep the field stable and reproducible. The controller can also execu...
Relativistic theory of inverse beta-decay of polarized neutron in strong magnetic field
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Shinkevich; A Studenikin
2005-08-01
The relativistic theory of the inverse beta-decay of polarized neutron, + → + -, in strong magnetic field is developed. For the proton wave function we use the exact solution of the Dirac equation in the magnetic filed that enables us to account exactly for effects of the proton momentum quantization in the magnetic field and also for the proton recoil motion. The effect of nucleons anomalous magnetic moments in strong magnetic fields is also discussed. We examine the cross-section for different energies and directions of propagation of the initial neutrino accounting for neutron polarization. It is shown that in the super-strong magnetic field the totally polarized neutron matter is transparent for neutrinos propagating antiparallel to the direction of polarization. The developed relativistic approach can be used for calculations of cross-sections of the other URCA processes in strong magnetic fields.
Resonant magnetic fields from inflation
Byrnes, Christian T; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Urban, Federico R
2012-01-01
We propose a novel scenario to generate primordial magnetic fields during inflation induced by an oscillating coupling of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton. This resonant mechanism has two key advantages over previous proposals. First of all, it generates a narrow band of magnetic fields at any required wavelength, thereby allaying the usual problem of a strongly blue spectrum and its associated backreaction. Secondly, it avoids the need for a strong coupling as the coupling is oscillating rather than growing or decaying exponentially. Despite these major advantages, we find that the backreaction is still far too large during inflation if the generated magnetic fields are required to have a strength of ${\\cal O}(10^{-15}\\, \\Gauss)$ today on observationally interesting scales. We provide a more general no-go argument, proving that this problem will apply to any model in which the magnetic fields are generated on subhorizon scales and freeze after horizon crossing.
Static magnetic fields enhance turbulence
Pothérat, Alban
2015-01-01
More often than not, turbulence occurs under the influence of external fields, mostly rotation and magnetic fields generated either by planets, stellar objects or by an industrial environment. Their effect on the anisotropy and the dissipative behaviour of turbulence is recognised but complex, and it is still difficult to even tell whether they enhance or dampen turbulence. For example, externally imposed magnetic fields suppress free turbulence in electrically conducting fluids (Moffatt 1967), and make it two-dimensional (2D) (Sommeria & Moreau 1982); but their effect on the intensity of forced turbulence, as in pipes, convective flows or otherwise, is not clear. We shall prove that since two-dimensionalisation preferentially affects larger scales, these undergo much less dissipation and sustain intense turbulent fluctuations. When higher magnetic fields are imposed, quasi-2D structures retain more kinetic energy, so that rather than suppressing forced turbulence, external magnetic fields indirectly enha...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faizal, Mir
2013-12-18
In this Letter we will analyze the creation of the multiverse. We will first calculate the wave function for the multiverse using third quantization. Then we will fourth-quantize this theory. We will show that there is no single vacuum state for this theory. Thus, we can end up with a multiverse, even after starting from a vacuum state. This will be used as a possible explanation for the creation of the multiverse. We also analyze the effect of interactions in this fourth-quantized theory.
Anderson, Edward
2016-01-01
We consider here kinematical quantization: a first and often overlooked step in quantization procedures. $\\mathbb{R}$, $\\mathbb{R}_+$ and the interval are considered, as well as direct (Cartesian) products thereof. Some simple minisuperspace models, and mode by mode consideration of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology, have indefinite signature versions of such kinematical quantizations. The examples in the current paper build in particular toward the case of vacuum $\\mathbb{S}^3$ slightly inhomogeneous cosmology's mode configuration space, which is mathematically a finite time interval slab of Minkowski spacetime.
Origin of cosmic magnetic fields
Rees, M. J.
2006-06-01
The first significant cosmic fields, and the seed field for galactic dynamos probably developed after the formation of the first non-linear structures. The history of star formation and the intergalactic medium is controlled, at least in part, by how and when galaxies and their precursors acquired their fields. The amplification of fields behind shocks, and the diffusivity of the magnetic flux, are crucial to the interpretation of radio sources, gamma ray burst afterglows, and other energetic cosmic phenomena. The build-up of magnetic fields is an important aspect of the overall cosmogonic process.
System Identification with Quantized Observations
Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhao, Yanlong
2010-01-01
This book presents recently developed methodologies that utilize quantized information in system identification and explores their potential in extending control capabilities for systems with limited sensor information or networked systems. The results of these methodologies can be applied to signal processing and control design of communication and computer networks, sensor networks, mobile agents, coordinated data fusion, remote sensing, telemedicine, and other fields in which noise-corrupted quantized data need to be processed. Providing a comprehensive coverage of quantized identification,
Terahertz Induced Photoconductivity of 2D Electron System in HEMT at Low Magnetic Field
Chebotarev, Andrey; Chebotareva, Galina
2004-01-01
A few results of our study of two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in low magnetic fields in GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructures by cyclotron resonance (CR) and photoconductivity techniques are presented. We have first discovered "CR-vanishing effect"in 2DES as well-defined crevasse on CR line in low magnetic fields, when Hall resistance is not quantized. "CR-vanishing effect" indicates vanishing longitudinal resistance & conductivity in these magnetic fields. Observed "CR-vanishing effect" demons...
Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.
Stewart, Gay B.
2000-01-01
Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)
1975-01-01
The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.
Robles-Pérez, S J
2012-01-01
The third quantization formalism of quantum cosmology adds simplicity and conceptual insight into the quantum description of the multiverse. Within such a formalism, the existence of squeezed and entangled states raises the question of whether the complementary principle of quantum mechanics has to be extended to the quantum description of the whole space-time manifold. If so, the 'particle' description entails the consideration of a multiverse scenario and the 'wave' description induces us to consider as well correlations and interactions among the universes of the multiverse.
What Are Electric and Magnetic Fields? (EMF)
... take for granted. What are electric and magnetic fields? Electric and magnetic fields (EMF) are invisible lines of ... humans. AC electric power produces electric and magnetic fields that create weak electric currents in humans. Being exposed to some kinds ...
The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation
Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.
2017-02-01
The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of
The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation
Connerney, J. E. P.; Benna, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.;
2017-01-01
The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to approx. 20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 x 10(exp. 6) nT per axis) with a resolution of approx. 0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (+/-1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through
Magnetic-Field Hazards Bibliography.
1985-09-01
produced during pulsed- magnetic-field therapy for non-union of the tibia." Med. Biol. Eng. Comput., Vol. 20, pp. 501-511 (1982). 32. Miller, D. A...Phenum Publishing Co. (1983). 40. Topper, R. F., "Electromagnetic shielding feasibility study," ASD -TDR-63-194 (Armour Research Foundation, Chicago...mammalian cells by strong magnetic fields (1976). 93. Malins, D. C., and Collier, T. K., "Xenobiotic interactions in aquatic organisms-effects on
Remarks on the geometric quantization of Landau levels
Galasso, Andrea; Spera, Mauro
2016-08-01
In this note, we resume the geometric quantization approach to the motion of a charged particle on a plane, subject to a constant magnetic field perpendicular to the latter, by showing directly that it gives rise to a completely integrable system to which we may apply holomorphic geometric quantization. In addition, we present a variant employing a suitable vertical polarization and we also make contact with Bott’s quantization, enforcing the property “quantization commutes with reduction”, which is known to hold under quite general conditions. We also provide an interpretation of translational symmetry breaking in terms of coherent states and index theory. Finally, we give a representation theoretic description of the lowest Landau level via the use of an S1-equivariant Dirac operator.
Homotopy arguments for quantized Hall conductivity
Richter, T
2002-01-01
Using the strong localization bounds obtained by the Aizenman-Molcanov method for a particle in a magnetic field and a disordered potential, we show that the zero-temperature Hall conductivity of a gas of such particles is quantized and constant as long as both Fermi energy and disorder coupling parameter vary in a region of strong localization of the corresponding two-dimensional phase diagram.
Modified Fermi Energy of Electrons in a Superhigh Magnetic Field
Zhu, C; Li, X D; Wang, N; Yuan, J P; Peng, Q H
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the electron Landau-level stability and its influence on the electron Fermi energy, $E_{\\rm F}(e)$, in the circumstance of magnetars, which are powered by magnetic field energy. In a magnetar, the Landau levels of degenerate and relativistic electrons are strongly quantized. A new quantity $g_{n}$, the electron Landau-level stability coefficient is introduced. According to the requirement that $g_{n}$ decreases with increasing the magnetic field intensity $B$, the magnetic-field index $\\beta$ in the expression of $E_{\\rm F}(e)$ must be positive. By introducing the Dirac$-\\delta$ function, we deduce a general formulae for the Fermi energy of degenerate and relativistic electrons, and obtain a particular solution to $E_{\\rm F}(e)$ in a superhigh magnetic field. This solution has a low magnetic-field index of $\\beta=1/6$, compared with the previous one, and works when $\\rho\\geq 10^{7}$~g cm$^{-3}$ and $B_{\\rm cr}\\ll B\\leq 10^{17}$~Gauss. By modifying the phase space of relativistic ...
Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields
Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
2014-02-01
The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity Equation. Among these approaches, image-plane off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope has acquired a prominent role thanks to its quantitative capabilities and broad range of applicability. After a brief overview of the main ideas and methods behind field mapping, we focus on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p-n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors and magnetization topographies in nanoparticles and other magnetic materials) and electron-optical geometries (including multiple biprism, amplitude and mixed-type set-ups). We conclude by highlighting the emerging perspectives of (i) three-dimensional field mapping using electron holographic tomography and (ii) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data.
Laughlin's argument for the quantized thermal Hall effect
Nakai, Ryota; Nomura, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We extend Laughlin's magnetic-flux-threading argument to the quantized thermal Hall effect. A proper analogue of Laughlin's adiabatic magnetic-flux threading process for the case of the thermal Hall effect is given in terms of an external gravitational field. From the perspective of the edge theories of quantum Hall systems, the quantized thermal Hall effect is closely tied to the breakdown of large diffeomorphism invariance, that is, a global gravitational anomaly. In addition, we also give an argument from the bulk perspective in which a free energy, decomposed into its Fourier modes, is adiabatically transferred under an adiabatic process involving external gravitational perturbations.
Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies
Beck, Rainer
2015-12-01
Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and Faraday rotation of the polarization angle are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 \\upmu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 \\upmu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15 \\upmu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium.—Faraday rotation measures of the diffuse polarized radio emission from galaxy disks reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by mean-field dynamos. "Magnetic arms" between gaseous spiral arms may also be products of dynamo action, but need a stable spiral pattern to develop. Helically twisted field loops winding around spiral arms were found in two galaxies so far. Large-scale field reversals, like the one found in the Milky Way, could not yet be detected in external galaxies. In radio halos around edge-on galaxies, ordered magnetic fields with X-shaped patterns are observed. The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, in particular their first occurrence in young galaxies and their dynamical importance during galaxy evolution, will be studied with
Nanometric alternating magnetic field generator.
Espejo, A P; Tejo, F; Vidal-Silva, N; Escrig, J
2017-07-05
In this work we introduce an alternating magnetic field generator in a cylindrical nanostructure. This field appears due to the rotation of a magnetic domain wall located at some position, generating a magnetic region that varies its direction of magnetization alternately, thus inducing an alternating magnetic flux in its vicinity. This phenomenon occurs due to the competition between a spin-polarized current and a magnetic field, which allows to control both the angular velocity and the pinning position of the domain wall. As proof of concept, we study the particular case of a diameter-modulated nanowire with a spin-polarized current along its axis and the demagnetizing field produced by its modulation. This inhomogeneous field allows one to control the angular velocity of the domain wall as a function of its position along the nanowire allowing frequencies in the GHz range to be achieved. This generator could be used in telecommunications for devices in the range of radiofrequencies or, following Faraday's induction law, could also induce an electromotive force and be used as a movable alternate voltage source in future nanodevices.
Holographic description of strongly correlated electrons in external magnetic fields
Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J
2013-01-01
We study the Fermi level structure of (2+1)-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. We compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators. As expecte...
Magnetic Field Generation in Stars
Ferrario, Lilia; Zrake, Jonathan
2015-01-01
Enormous progress has been made on observing stellar magnetism in stars from the main sequence through to compact objects. Recent data have thrown into sharper relief the vexed question of the origin of stellar magnetic fields, which remains one of the main unanswered questions in astrophysics. In this chapter we review recent work in this area of research. In particular, we look at the fossil field hypothesis which links magnetism in compact stars to magnetism in main sequence and pre-main sequence stars and we consider why its feasibility has now been questioned particularly in the context of highly magnetic white dwarfs. We also review the fossil versus dynamo debate in the context of neutron stars and the roles played by key physical processes such as buoyancy, helicity, and superfluid turbulence,in the generation and stability of neutron star fields. Independent information on the internal magnetic field of neutron stars will come from future gravitational wave detections. Thus we maybe at the dawn of a ...
Coherent state quantization of quaternions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muraleetharan, B., E-mail: bbmuraleetharan@jfn.ac.lk, E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Jaffna, Thirunelveli (Sri Lanka); Thirulogasanthar, K., E-mail: bbmuraleetharan@jfn.ac.lk, E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 De Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)
2015-08-15
Parallel to the quantization of the complex plane, using the canonical coherent states of a right quaternionic Hilbert space, quaternion field of quaternionic quantum mechanics is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols, and related quantities are analyzed. Quaternionic version of the harmonic oscillator and Weyl-Heisenberg algebra are also obtained.
Lattice radial quantization by cubature
Neuberger, Herbert
2014-01-01
Basic aspects of a program to put field theories quantized in radial coordinates on the lattice are presented. Only scalar fields are discussed. Simple examples are solved to illustrate the strategy when applied to the 3D Ising model.
Indoor localization using magnetic fields
Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar
Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing
Magnetic Fields in Spiral Galaxies
Beck, Rainer
2015-01-01
Radio synchrotron emission is a powerful tool to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30\\mu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100\\mu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15\\mu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies, and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the interg...
Popov, Aleksey
2013-04-01
The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws
Magnetic fields of neutron stars
Reisenegger, Andreas
2013-01-01
Neutron stars contain the strongest magnetic fields known in the Universe. In this paper, I discuss briefly how these magnetic fields are inferred from observations, as well as the evidence for their time-evolution. I show how these extremely strong fields are actually weak in terms of their effects on the stellar structure, as is also the case for magnetic stars on the upper main sequence and magnetic white dwarfs, which have similar total magnetic fluxes. I propose a scenario in which a stable hydromagnetic equilibrium (containing a poloidal and a toroidal field component) is established soon after the birth of the neutron star, aided by the strong compositional stratification of neutron star matter, and this state is slowly eroded by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic processes such as beta decays and ambipolar diffusion in the core of the star and Hall drift and breaking of the solid in its crust. Over sufficiently long time scales, the fluid in the neutron star core will behave as if it were barotropic, becau...
Magnetic fields during galaxy mergers
Rodenbeck, Kai
2016-01-01
Galaxy mergers are expected to play a central role for the evolution of galaxies, and may have a strong impact on their magnetic fields. We present the first grid-based 3D magneto-hydrodynamical simulations investigating the evolution of magnetic fields during merger events. For this purpose, we employ a simplified model considering the merger event of magnetized gaseous disks in the absence of stellar feedback and without a stellar or dark matter component. We show that our model naturally leads to the production of two peaks in the evolution of the average magnetic field strength within 5 kpc, within 25 kpc and on scales in between 5 and 25 kpc. The latter is consistent with the peak in the magnetic field strength reported by Drzazga et al. (2011) in a merger sequence of observed galaxies. We show that the peak on the galactic scale and in the outer regions is likely due to geometrical effects, as the core of one galaxy enters the outskirts of the other one. In addition, there is a physical enhancement of t...
Zero-energy states of graphene triangular quantum dots in a magnetic field
Güçlü, A. D.; Potasz, P.; Hawrylak, P.
2013-10-01
We present a tight-binding theory of triangular graphene quantum dots (TGQD) with zigzag edge and broken sublattice symmetry in an external magnetic field. The lateral size quantization opens an energy gap, and broken sublattice symmetry results in a shell of degenerate states at the Fermi level. We derive a semianalytical form for zero-energy states in a magnetic field and show that the shell remains degenerate in a magnetic field, in analogy to the zeroth Landau level of bulk graphene. The magnetic field closes the energy gap and leads to the crossing of valence and conduction states with the zero-energy states, modulating the degeneracy of the shell. The closing of the gap with increasing magnetic field is present in all graphene quantum dot structures investigated irrespective of shape and edge termination.
Pressure of Degenerate and Relativistic electrons in a superhigh magnetic field
Gao, Zhi Fu; He, Peng Qiu; Jie, Du Yuan
2013-01-01
Based on our previous work, we deduce a general formula for pressure of degenerate and relativistic electrons,Pe, which is suitable for superhigh magnetic fields, discuss the quantization of Landau levels of electrons, and consider the quantum electrodynam-ic(QED) effects on the equations of states (EOSs) for different matter systems. The main conclusions are as follows:Pe is related to the magnetic field B, matter density ?, and electron fraction Ye ; the stronger the magnetic field, the higher the electron pressure becomes; the high electron pressure could be caused by high Fermi energy of electrons in a superhigh magnetic field; compared with a common radio pulsar, a magnetar could be a more compact oblate spheroid-like deformed neutron star due to the anisotropic total pressure; and an increase in the maximum mass of a magnetar is expected because of the positive contribution of the magnetic field energy to the EOS of the star.
Zero magnetic field type magnetic field sensor. Reijikaigata jikai sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonoda, T.; Ueda, R. (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan))
1990-11-20
It is shown in this paper that a new type of sensor with excellent characteristics can be made by demagnetizing the sensor core toward a zero field state and then detecting an unknown field to be detected by the demagnetizing current. The core operates equivalently in a zero magnetic field so that the detection sensitivity is determined by the coil constant including the number of turns of the solenoid for demagnetization required to offset the field to be detected. Therefore the detection sensitivity does not depend on its configuration and magnetization characteristics and does not depend on the temperature. It is thereby considered that these characteristics can largely reduce such problems at present as the aging deterioration of magnetic materials or the quality control accompanied by manufacturing. In addition, the following points have been clarified: (1) The upper limit of the detectable range does not exist in principle. (2) The accuracy of the detection is 0.02% to the full scale 20kA/m. (3) The magnetization property required to the core used as a sensor is that it has a rectangular B-H loop which is as sharp as possible. 14 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.
Primordial Magnetic Fields and Causality
Durrer, R; Durrer, Ruth; Caprini, Chiara
2003-01-01
In this letter we discuss the implications of causality on a primordial magnetic field. We show that the residual field on large scales is much stronger suppressed than usually assumed and that a helical component is even suppressed even more than the parity even part. We show that due to this strong suppression, even maximal primordial fields generated at the electroweak phase transition can just marginally seed the fields in galaxies and clusters, but they cannot leave any detectable imprint on the cosmic microwave background.
Magnetic fields around black holes
Garofalo, David A. G.
Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our
Holes localized in nanostructures in an external magnetic field: g-factor and mixing of states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Semina, M. A.; Suris, R. A., E-mail: suris@theory.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-06-15
The energy spectrum and wave functions of holes in the valence band in semiconductor nanosystems, including quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, in an external magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The dependence of Zeeman splitting of the hole ground state upon variation in the size-quantization parameters with regard to the complex structure of the valence band and magnetic field-induced mixing of hole states is traced. Analytical formulas for describing the Zeeman effect in the valence band in the limiting cases of a quantum disk, spherically symmetric quantum dot, and quantum wire are presented. It is demonstrated that the g-factor of a hole is extremely sensitive to the hole-state composition (heavy or light hole) and, consequently, to the geometry of the size-quantization potential.
Chiral transition with magnetic fields
Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia; Rojas, Juan Cristobal; Villavicencio, Cristian
2014-01-01
We study the nature of the chiral transition for an effective theory with spontaneous breaking of symmetry, where charged bosons and fermions are subject to the effects of a constant external magnetic field. The problem is studied in terms of the relative intensity of the magnetic field with respect to the mass and the temperature. When the former is the smallest of the scales, we present a suitable method to obtain magnetic and thermal corrections up to ring order at high temperature. By these means, we solve the problem of the instability in the boson sector for these theories, where the squared masses, taken as functions of the order parameter, can vanish and even become negative. The solution is found by considering the screening properties of the plasma, encoded in the resummation of the ring diagrams at high temperature. We also study the case where the magnetic field is the intermediate of the three scales and explore the nature of the chiral transition as we vary the field strength, the coupling const...
Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sushan Konar
2017-09-01
This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes of neutron stars. The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars.
Vortex states in a non-Abelian magnetic field
Nikolić, Predrag
2016-08-01
A type-II superconductor survives in an external magnetic field by admitting an Abrikosov lattice of quantized vortices. This is an imprint of the Aharonov-Bohm effect created by the Abelian U(1) gauge field. The simplest non-Abelian analog of such a gauge field, which belongs to the SU(2) symmetry group, can be found in topological insulators. Here we discover a superconducting ground state with a lattice of SU(2) vortices in a simple two-dimensional model that presents an SU(2) "magnetic" field (invariant under time reversal) to attractively interacting fermions. The model directly captures the correlated topological insulator quantum well, and approximates one channel for instabilities on the Kondo topological insulator surface. Due to its simplicity, the model might become amenable to cold atom simulations in the foreseeable future. The vitality of low-energy vortex states born out of SU(2) magnetic fields is promising for the creation of incompressible vortex liquids with non-Abelian fractional excitations.
Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies
Krause, Marita
2015-03-01
The magnetic field structure in edge-on galaxies observed so far shows a plane-parallel magnetic field component in the disk of the galaxy and an X-shaped field in its halo. The plane-parallel field is thought to be the projected axisymmetric (ASS) disk field as observed in face-on galaxies. Some galaxies addionionally exhibit strong vertical magnetic fields in the halo right above and below the central region of the disk. The mean-field dynamo theory in the disk cannot explain these observed fields without the action of a wind, which also probably plays an important role to keep the vertical scale heights constant in galaxies of different Hubble types and star formation activities, as has been observed in the radio continuum: At λ6 cm the vertical scale heights of the thin disk and the thick disk/halo in a sample of five edge-on galaxies are similar with a mean value of 300 +/- 50 pc for the thin disk and 1.8 +/- 0.2 kpc for the thick disk (a table and references are given in Krause 2011) with our sample including the brightest halo observed so far, NGC 253, with strong star formation, as well as one of the weakest halos, NGC 4565, with weak star formation. If synchrotron emission is the dominant loss process of the relativistic electrons the outer shape of the radio emission should be dumbbell-like as has been observed in several edge-on galaxies like e.g. NGC 253 (Heesen et al. 2009) and NGC 4565. As the synchrotron lifetime t syn at a single frequency is proportional to the total magnetic field strength B t -1.5, a cosmic ray bulk speed (velocity of a galactic wind) can be defined as v CR = h CR /t syn = 2 h z /t syn , where h CR and h z are the scale heights of the cosmic rays and the observed radio emission at this freqnency. Similar observed radio scale heights imply a self regulation mechanism between the galactic wind velocity, the total magnetic field strength and the star formation rate SFR in the disk: v CR ~ B t 1.5 ~ SFR ~ 0.5 (Niklas & Beck 1997).
Primordial Magnetic Fields that Last?
Carroll, S M; Carroll, Sean M.; Field, George B.
1998-01-01
The magnetic fields we observe in galaxies today may have their origins in the very early universe. While a number of mechanisms have been proposed which lead to an appreciable field amplitude at early times, the subsequent evolution of the field is of crucial importance, especially whether the correlation length of the field can grow as large as the size of a protogalaxy. This talk is a report on work in progress, in which we consider the fate of one specific primordial field scenario, driven by pseudoscalar effects near the electroweak phase transition. We argue that such a scenario has a number of attractive features, although it is still uncertain whether a field of appropriate size can survive until late times.
Magnetic Properties of Erbium Gallium Gallate under High Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Xijuan; Cheng Haiying; Yang Cuihong; Wang Wei
2004-01-01
A theoretical investigation on the magnetic properties of rare-earth Er3+ in Er3 Ga5 O12 was reported. The average magnetic moments(M) for applied magnetic field H parallel to the [001 ], [ 100], [ 110], [ 111 ] direction was studied based on the quantum theory. Temperature dependence of the magnetic properties is analyzed for H applied parallel to the [ 100] and [ 111 ] crystallographic directions. The magnetization decreases with increasing temperature,showing good agreement with thermal effect. A strong anisotropy of the magnetization is found under high magnetic field, but when the magnetic field is small, M and H are proportional.
Modeling and analysis of magnetic dipoles in weak magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
The magnetic leakage field distribution resulting from linear defects of a tube sample in the geomagnetic field is modeled according to the magnetic dipole theory.The formula to compute the normal component of the weak magnetic field is deduced based on the spatial distribution of the magnetic dipole.The shape and characteristics of the zero line (an important criterion for magnetic memory testing) of the normal field is analyzed under different longitudinal magnetizations.Results show that the characteristics of the zero line should be considered when the metal magnetic memory testing method is used to find and locate the defect.
Quantized conductance of a suspended graphene nanoconstriction
Tombros, Nikolaos; Junesch, Juliane; Guimarães, Marcos H D; Marun, Ivan J Vera; Jonkman, Harry T; van Wees, Bart J
2011-01-01
A yet unexplored area in graphene electronics is the field of quantum ballistic transport through graphene nanostructures. Recent developments in the preparation of high mobility graphene are expected to lead to the experimental verification and/or discovery of many new quantum mechanical effects in this field. Examples are effects due to specific graphene edges, such as spin polarization at zigzag edges of a graphene nanoribbon and the use of the valley degree of freedom in the field of graphene valleytronics8. As a first step in this direction we present the observation of quantized conductance at integer multiples of 2e^2/h at zero magnetic field and 4.2 K temperature in a high mobility suspended graphene ballistic nanoconstriction. This quantization evolves into the typical quantum Hall effect for graphene at magnetic fields above 60mT. Voltage bias spectroscopy reveals an energy spacing of 8 meV between the first two subbands. A pronounced feature at 0.6 2e^2/h present at a magnetic field as low as ~0.2T...
Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields
Klein, Ulrich
2014-01-01
This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible.In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later c
Pejhan, Hamed
2016-01-01
In a previous work [S. Rahbardehghan et al. in Phys. Lett. B 750, 627 (2015)], we considered a simple brane-world model; a single $4$-dimensional brane embedded in a $5$-dimensional de Sitter (dS) space-time. Then, by including a conformally coupled scalar field in the bulk, we studied the induced Casimir energy-momentum tensor. Technically, the Krein-Gupta-Bleuler (KGB) quantization scheme as a covariant and renormalizable quantum field theory in dS space was used to perform the calculations. In the present paper, we generalize this study to a less idealized, but physically motivated, scenario, namely we consider Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time which behaves asymptotically as a dS space-time. More precisely, we evaluate Casimir energy-momentum tensor for a system with two $D$-dimensional curved branes on background of $D+1$-dimensional FRW space-time with negative spatial curvature and a bulk conformally coupled scalar field that satisfies Dirichlet boundary condition on the branes.
Modified Fermi energy of electrons in a superhigh magnetic field
Zhu, Cui; Gao, Zhi Fu; Li, Xiang Dong; Wang, Na; Yuan, Jian Ping; Peng, Qiu He
2016-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the electron Landau level stability and its influence on the electron Fermi energy, EF(e), in the circumstance of magnetars, which are powered by magnetic field energy. In a magnetar, the Landau levels of degenerate and relativistic electrons are strongly quantized. A new quantity gn, the electron Landau level stability coefficient is introduced. According to the requirement that gn decreases with increasing the magnetic field intensity B, the magnetic field index β in the expression of EF(e) must be positive. By introducing the Dirac-δ function, we deduce a general formulae for the Fermi energy of degenerate and relativistic electrons, and obtain a particular solution to EF(e) in a superhigh magnetic field (SMF). This solution has a low magnetic field index of β = 1/6, compared with the previous one, and works when ρ ≥ 107g cm-3 and Bcr ≪ B ≤ 1017 Gauss. By modifying the phase space of relativistic electrons, a SMF can enhance the electron number density ne, and decrease the maximum of electron Landau level number, which results in a redistribution of electrons. According to Pauli exclusion principle, the degenerate electrons will fill quantum states from the lowest Landau level to the highest Landau level. As B increases, more and more electrons will occupy higher Landau levels, though gn decreases with the Landau level number n. The enhanced ne in a SMF means an increase in the electron Fermi energy and an increase in the electron degeneracy pressure. The results are expected to facilitate the study of the weak-interaction processes inside neutron stars and the magnetic-thermal evolution mechanism for magnetars.
Stress Field of Straight Edge Dislocation in Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhao-long; HU Hai-yun; FAN Tian-you
2007-01-01
To study the changes in mechanical properties of materials within magnetic fields and the motion of dislocations,stress fields of dislocation in magnetic field need to be calculated.The straight edge dislocation is of basic importance in various defects.The stress field of straight edge dislocation in an external static magnetic field is determined by the theory of elasticity and electrodynamics according to the Volterra dislocation model for continuous media.This reduces to the known stress field when the magnet field is zero.The results can be used for further study on the strain energy of dislocations and the interactions between dislocations in magnetic fields.
A Second Quantized Approach to the Rabi Problem
Baldiotti, M. C.; Molina, C.
2017-10-01
In the present work, the Rabi Problem, involving the response of a spin 1/2 particle subjected to a magnetic field, is considered in a second quantized approach. In this concrete physical scenario, we show that the second quantization procedure can be applied directly in a non-covariant theory. The proposed development explicits not only the relation between the full quantum treatment of the problem and the semiclassical Rabi model, but also the connection of these approaches with the Jaynes-Cummings model. The consistency of the method is checked in the semiclassical limit. The treatment is then extended to the matter component of the Rabi problem so that the Schrödinger equation is directly quantized. Considering the spinorial field, the appearance of a negative energy sector implies a specific identification between Schrödinger's and Maxwell's theories. The generalized theory is consistent, strictly quantum and non-relativistic.
Diagnosis of solar chromospheric magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG; Hongqi(张洪起)
2002-01-01
This paper discusses the measurements of the chromospheric magnetic field and the spatial configuration of the field at the lower solar atmosphere inferred by the distribution of the solar photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields. Some questions in the study of the chromospheric magnetic field are also presented.
The HMI Magnetic Field Pipeline
Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Y.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P.; HMI Science Team
2009-05-01
The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will provide frequent full-disk magnetic field data after launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), currently scheduled for fall 2009. 16 megapixel line-of-sight magnetograms (Blos) will be recorded every 45 seconds. A full set of polarized filtergrams needed to determine the vector magnetic field requires 90 seconds. Quick-look data will be available within a few minutes of observation. Quick-look space weather and browse products must have identified users, and the list currently includes full disk magnetograms, feature identification and movies, 12-minute disambiguated vector fields in active region patches, time evolution of AR indices, synoptic synchronic frames, potential and MHD model results, and 1 AU predictions. A more complete set of definitive science data products will be offered about a day later and come in three types. "Pipeline” products, such as full disk vector magnetograms, will be computed for all data on an appropriate cadence. A larger menu of "On Demand” products, such as Non-Linear Force Free Field snapshots of an evolving active region, will be produced whenever a user wants them. Less commonly needed "On Request” products that require significant project resources, such as a high resolution MHD simulation of the global corona, will be created subject to availability of resources. Further information can be found at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center web page, jsoc.stanford.edu
A Vorticity-Magnetic Field Dynamo Instability
1997-01-01
We generalize the mean field magnetic dynamo to include local evolution of the mean vorticity in addition to the mean magnetic field. The coupled equations exhibit a general mean field dynamo instability that enables the transfer of turbulent energy to the magnetic field and vorticity on larger scales. The growth of the vorticity and magnetic field both require helical turbulence which can be supplied by an underlying global rotation. The dynamo coefficients are derived including the backreac...
Weaver, Nik
2001-01-01
With a unique approach and presenting an array of new and intriguing topics, Mathematical Quantization offers a survey of operator algebras and related structures from the point of view that these objects are quantizations of classical mathematical structures. This approach makes possible, with minimal mathematical detail, a unified treatment of a variety of topics.Detailed here for the first time, the fundamental idea of mathematical quantization is that sets are replaced by Hilbert spaces. Building on this idea, and most importantly on the fact that scalar-valued functions on a set correspond to operators on a Hilbert space, one can determine quantum analogs of a variety of classical structures. In particular, because topologies and measure classes on a set can be treated in terms of scalar-valued functions, we can transfer these constructions to the quantum realm, giving rise to C*- and von Neumann algebras.In the first half of the book, the author quickly builds the operator algebra setting. He uses this ...
Magnetic field of a combined plasma trap
Kotenko, V. G.; Moiseenko, V. E.; Ågren, O.
2012-06-01
This paper presents numerical simulations performed on the structure of a magnetic field created by the magnetic system of a combined plasma trap. The magnetic system includes the stellarator-type magnetic system and one of the mirror-type. For the stellarator type magnetic system the numeric model contains a magnetic system of an l=2 torsatron with the coils of an additional toroidal magnetic field. The mirror-type magnetic system element is considered as being single current-carrying turn enveloping the region of existence of closed magnetic surfaces of the torsatron. The calculations indicate the existence of a vast area of the values of the additional magnetic field magnitude and magnetic field of the single turn where, in principle, the implementation of the closed magnetic surface configuration is quite feasible.
ANALYTIC EXPRESSION OF MAGNETIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION OF RECTANGULAR PERMANENT MAGNETS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苟晓凡; 杨勇; 郑晓静
2004-01-01
From the molecular current viewpoint,an analytic expression exactly describing magnetic field distribution of rectangular permanent magnets magnetized sufficiently in one direction was derived from the Biot-Savart's law. This expression is useful not only for the case of one rectangular permanent magnet bulk, but also for that of several rectangular permanent magnet bulks. By using this expression,the relations between magnetic field distribution and the size of rectangular permanent magnets as well as the magnitude of magnetic field and the distance from the point in the space to the top (or bottom) surface of rectangular permanent magnets were discussed in detail. All the calculating results are consistent with experimental ones. For transverse magnetic field which is a main magnetic field of rectangular permanent magnets,in order to describe its distribution,two quantities,one is the uniformity in magnitude and the other is the uniformity in distribution of magnetic field,were defined. Furthermore, the relations between them and the geometric size of the magnet as well as the distance from the surface of permanent magnets were investigated by these formulas. The numerical results show that the geometric size and the distance have a visible influence on the uniformity in magnitude and the uniformity in distribution of the magnetic field.
Field and Thermal Characteristics of Magnetizing Fixture
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2000-01-01
This paper describes field modeling and thermal modeling for magnetizing fixture. As the detailed characteristics of magnetizing fixture can be obtained, the efficient design of magnetizer which produce desired magnet will be possible using our modeling. For field modeling finite-element analysis is used as part of the design and analysis process for magnetizing fixture. The thermal modeling method of magnetizing fixture resistor uses multi-lumped model with equivalent thermal resistance and thermal capacitance.
Magnetic fields for fluid motion.
Weston, Melissa C; Gerner, Matthew D; Fritsch, Ingrid
2010-05-01
Three forces induced by magnetic fields offer unique control of fluid motion and new opportunities in microfluidics. This article describes magnetoconvective phenomena in terms of the theory and controversy, tuning by redox processes at electrodes, early-stage applications in analytical chemistry, mature applications in disciplines far afield, and future directions for micro total analysis systems. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).
Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field
Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan
2011-03-01
After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects,1,2 researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields,3-5 which was given the name "The Moses Effect."5 Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary were produced by superconducting magnets.
Passive Magnetic Shielding in Gradient Fields
Bidinosti, C P
2013-01-01
The effect of passive magnetic shielding on dc magnetic field gradients imposed by both external and internal sources is studied. It is found that for concentric cylindrical or spherical shells of high permeability material, higher order multipoles in the magnetic field are shielded progressively better, by a factor related to the order of the multipole. In regard to the design of internal coil systems for the generation of uniform internal fields, we show how one can take advantage of the coupling of the coils to the innermost magnetic shield to further optimize the uniformity of the field. These results demonstrate quantitatively a phenomenon that was previously well-known qualitatively: that the resultant magnetic field within a passively magnetically shielded region can be much more uniform than the applied magnetic field itself. Furthermore we provide formulae relevant to active magnetic compensation systems which attempt to stabilize the interior fields by sensing and cancelling the exterior fields clos...
Fractal Nature of the Electronic Structure of a Penrose Tiling Lattice in a Magnetic Field
Hatakeyama, Tetsuo; Kamimura, Hiroshi
1989-01-01
The one-electron energy spectrum of a Penrose tiling lattice in a magnetic field is studied with a tight-binding Hamiltonian. We show the following remarkable results characteristic of a Penrose lattice. (1) The density of states in a magnetic field has a central peak with zero width at zero energy. It is shown that the zero-energy states correspond to the ring states in which wavefunction has nonvanishing amplitudes only at the sites circling the origin. (2) The magnetic field dependence of the energy spectrum shows a butterfly shape caused by Landau quantization. (3) The magnetic field dependence of the energy spectrum also shows a fractal nature. In particular it is characterized by two periods whose ratio is equal to the golden mean (1+\\sqrt{5})/2, and two periods comprising a Fibonacci sequence. We have clarified the origin of this fractal behavior of the energy spectrum analytically.
Optical Properties of Graphene in Magnetic and Electric fields
Lin, Chiun-Yan; Huang, Yao-Kung; Lin, Ming-Fa
2016-01-01
Optical properties of graphene are explored by using the generalized tight-binding model. The main features of spectral structures, the form, frequency, number and intensity, are greatly enriched by the complex relationship among the interlayer atomic interactions, the magnetic quantization and the Coulomb potential energy. Absorption spectra have the shoulders, asymmetric peaks and logarithmic peaks, coming from the band-edge states of parabolic dispersions, the constant-energy loops and the saddle points, respectively. The initial forbidden excitation region is only revealed in even-layer AA stacking systems. Optical gaps and special structures can be generated by an electric field. The delta-function-like structures in magneto-optical spectra, which present the single, twin and double peaks, are associated with the symmetric, asymmetric and splitting Landau-level energy spectra, respectively. The single peaks due to the non-tilted Dirac cones exhibit the nearly uniform intensity. The AAB stacking possesses...
On a third S-matrix in the theory of quantized fields on curved spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gottschalk, H. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Hack, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Mathematik
2007-01-15
Wightman functions for interacting quantum fields on curved space times are calculated via the perturbation theory of the Yang-Feldman equations, where the incoming field is a free field in a quasifree representation. We show that these Wightman functions that are obtained as a sum over extended Feynman graphs fulfill the basic axioms of hermiticity, invariance, spectrality (on stationary spacetimes), perturbative positivity and locality (the latter property is shown up to second order in the loop expansion). In the case of non-stationary spacetimes, the outgoing field in general is in a non-quasifree representation of the CCR. This makes it necessary to develop a method to calculate the unitary transformation between a non quasifree representation and a quasifree one. This is carried out using *-calculus on the dual of the Borchers algebra with a combinatorial co-product. Given that preferred quasifree representations for early and late times exist, we thus obtain a complete scattering description using three S-matrices: The first is determined by vacuum expectation values between incoming and outgoing fields. The second is a unitary transformation between the non-quasifree representation for the ''out''-fields and the quasifree representation for the ''in''-field. The last one is the Bogoliubov transformation between the preferred representation at early times (i.e. the ''in''-field representation) and the preferred representation at late times. (orig.)
Magnetic field perturbartions in closed-field-line systems with zero toroidal magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mauel, M; Ryutov, D; Kesner, J
2003-12-02
In some plasma confinement systems (e.g., field-reversed configurations and levitated dipoles) the confinement is provided by a closed-field-line poloidal magnetic field. We consider the influence of the magnetic field perturbations on the structure of the magnetic field in such systems and find that the effect of perturbations is quite different from that in the systems with a substantial toroidal field. In particular, even infinitesimal perturbations can, in principle, lead to large radial excursions of the field lines in FRCs and levitated dipoles. Under such circumstances, particle drifts and particle collisions may give rise to significant neoclassical transport. Introduction of a weak regular toroidal magnetic field reduces radial excursions of the field lines and neoclassical transport.
Bouchard, Vincent; Dauphinee, Tyler
2016-01-01
We study the connection between the Eynard-Orantin topological recursion and quantum curves for the family of genus one spectral curves given by the Weierstrass equation. We construct quantizations of the spectral curve that annihilate the perturbative and non-perturbative wave-functions. In particular, for the non-perturbative wave-function, we prove, up to order hbar^5, that the quantum curve satisfies the properties expected from matrix models. As a side result, we obtain an infinite sequence of identities relating A-cycle integrals of elliptic functions and quasi-modular forms.
There is no "First" Quantization
Zeh, H D
2003-01-01
The appearance of spinor fields as operators or arguments of field functionals in quantum field theory is often regarded as a second quantization, since fermion wave functions were themselves discovered by quantizing mass points (``particles''). I argue that this language, though reflecting the historical development, is misleading. Field amplitudes always represent the true physical variables (in quantum theory the arguments of a fundamental wave functional), including fields which never appear classical, while apparent particles are no more than the result of decoherence in the measuring device, without playing any fundamental role in the theory or its interpretation. A remark on gauge fields is added.
Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lan-Xiang Tian
Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.
Hybrid Shielding for Magnetic Fields
Mullins, David; Royal, Kevin
2017-01-01
Precision symmetry measurements such as the search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron require magnetic shielding rooms to reduce the ambient field to the pT scale. The massive mu-metal sheets and large separation between layers make these shield rooms bulky and expensive. Active field cancellation systems used to reduce the surrounding field are limited in uniformity of cancellation. A novel approach to reducing the space between shield layers and increasing the effectiveness of active cancellation is to combine the two systems into a hybrid system, with active and passive layers interspersed. We demonstrate this idea in a prototype with an active layer sandwiched between two passive layers of shielding.
Manifestations of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Lawrence Rudnick
2011-12-01
Both observations and simulations reveal large inhomogeneities in magnetic field distributions in diffuse plasmas. Incorporating these inhomogeneities into various calculations can significantly change the inferred physical conditions. In extragalactic sources, e.g., these can compromise analyses of spectral ageing, which I will illustrate with some current work on cluster relics. I also briefly re-examine the old issue of how inhomogeneous fields affect particle lifetimes; perhaps not surprisingly, the next generation of radio telescopes are unlikely to find many sources that can extend their lifetimes from putting relativistic electrons into a low-field ‘freezer’. Finally, I preview some new EVLA results on the complex relic in Abell 2256, with implications for the interspersing of its relativistic and thermal plasmas.
Effects of magnetic field on fluidization properties of magnetic pearls
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Maoming Fan; Zhenfu Luo; Yuemin Zhao; Qingru Chen; Daniel Tao; Xiuxiang Tao; Zhenqiang Chen
2007-01-01
An experimental study of the influence of external magnetic field on the fluidization behavior of magnetic pearls was carried out. Magnetic pearls are a magnetic form of iron oxide that mainly consists of Fe2O3 which are recovered from a high-volume power plant fly ash from pulverized coal combustion. Due to its abundance, low price and particular physical and chemical properties, magnetic pearls can be used as a heavy medium for minerals or solid waste dry separation based on density difference. This paper introduces the properties of magnetic pearls and compares the performance of magnetic pearls fluidised bed operation with or without an external magnetic field. Experimental results show that an external magnetic field significantly improves the fluidization performance of magnetic pearls such as uniformity and stability.
Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer
Blackman, Eric G
2014-01-01
Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. H...
Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. G. Ku
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.
Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields
Pérez, A; Masood, S S; Gaitan, R; Rodríguez, S
2002-01-01
In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Yongchang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: ychuang@bjut.edu.cn; Huo Qiuhong [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)
2008-04-24
Using Faddeev-Senjanovic path integral quantization for constrained Hamilton system, we quantize SU(n) N=2 supersymmetric gauge field system with non-Abelian Chern-Simons topological term in 2+1 dimensions. We use consistency of Coulomb gauge condition to naturally deduce a new gauge condition. Furthermore, we obtain the generating functional of Green function in phase space, deduce the angular momentum based on the global canonical Noether theorem at quantum level, obtain the fractional spin of this supersymmetric system, and show that the total angular momentum is the sum of the orbital angular momentum and spin angular momentum of the non-Abelian gauge field. Finally, we obtain the anomalous fractional spin and discover that the fractional spin has the contributions of both the group superscript components and A{sub 0}{sup s}(x) charge.
Magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas
Mason, Rodney J.; Jones, Michael E.; Grossmann, John M.; Ottinger, Paul F.
1988-10-01
Computer simulations demonstrate that the entrainment (or advection) of magnetic field with the flow of cathode-emitted electrons can constitute a dominant mechanism for the magnetic field penetration of erosion switch plasmas. Cross-field drift in the accelerating electric field near the cathode starts the penetration process. Plasma erosion propagates the point for emission and magnetic field injection along the cathode toward the load-for the possibility of rapid switch opening.
Magnetic field reversals and galactic dynamos
2012-01-01
We argue that global magnetic field reversals similar to those observed in the Milky Way occur quite frequently in mean-field galactic dynamo models that have relatively strong, random, seed magnetic fields that are localized in discrete regions. The number of reversals decreases to zero with reduction of the seed strength, efficiency of the galactic dynamo and size of the spots of the seed field. A systematic observational search for magnetic field reversals in a representative sample of spi...
Quantized charged fields with t-electric potential step as external background
Adorno, T C; Gitman, D M
2015-01-01
We give a brief description of the generalized Furry picture with t-electric potential steps and use this basis to present nonperturbative calculations in three exactly solvable cases: Sauter-like (or adiabatic) electric field, T-constant electric field, and exponentially decaying electric field. Here, we provide some important and so far unpublished details. We show how these cases help to gain insight into the universal features of particle creation from vacuum. This survey of exactly solvable cases, presented on the same footing, can be used as introductory material for understanding a recent generalization of the Furry picture with x-electric potential steps [arXiv:1506.01156] and [arXiv:1511.02915].
Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philbin, T G, E-mail: tgp3@st-andrews.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2010-12-15
Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.
Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism
Philbin, T G
2010-01-01
Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetoelectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weinstein, M
2003-11-19
This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, one can quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion; one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We then discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta}{rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest that one can put an experimental bound on how far away a universe with a scale factor very different from our own must be, by looking at its effects on our CMB radiation.
The First-Quantized Theory of Photons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhi-Yong; XIONG Cai-Dong; Keller Ole
2007-01-01
In near-field optics and optical tunnelling theory, photon wave mechanics, I.e. The first-quantized theory of photons, allows us to address the spatial field localization problem in a flexible manner which links smoothly to classical electromagnetics. We develop photon wave mechanics in a rigorous and unified way, based on which field quantization is obtained in a new way.
Effects of strong magnetic fields on the population of hyperon stars
Gomes, R O; Vasconcellos, C A Z
2014-01-01
In this contribution we study the effects of strong magnetic fields on the particle population of neutron stars with hyperon degrees of freedom in their composition. The star matter is described by a multi-component model with parameterized baryon-meson interaction couplings. We study the magnetic effects on the equation of state (EoS) due to the Landau quantization, assuming a density dependent static magnetic field that reaches about $10^{19}\\,G$ in the center of the star. The Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations are solved in order to understand the dependence of the mass-radius relation and hyperon population on the magnetic field intensity assuming different interaction coupling schemes.
Physical processes in the strong magnetic fields of accreting neutron stars
Meszaros, P.
1984-01-01
Analytical formulae are fitted to observational data on physical processes occurring in strong magnetic fields surrounding accreting neutron stars. The propagation of normal modes in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field is discussed in terms of a wave equation in Fourier space, quantum electrodynamic effects, polarization and mode ellipticity. The results are applied to calculating the Thomson scattering, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering cross-sections, which are a function of the frequency, angle and polarization of the magnetic field. Numerical procedures are explored for solving the radiative transfer equations. When applied to modeling X ray pulsars, a problem arises in the necessity to couple the magnetic angle and frequency dependence of the cross-sections with the hydrodynamic equations. The use of time-dependent averaging and approximation techniques is indicated.
Saturation properties of nuclear matter in the presence of strong magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezaei, Z. [Shiraz University, Department of Physics and Biruni Observatory, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, G.H. [Shiraz University, Department of Physics and Biruni Observatory, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for Excellence in Astronomy and Astrophysics (CEAA-RIAAM)-Maragha, P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-05-15
Different saturation properties of cold symmetric nuclear matter in strong magnetic field have been considered. We have seen that for magnetic fields about B>3 x 10{sup 17} G, for both cases with and without nucleon anomalous magnetic moments, the saturation density and saturation energy grow by increasing the magnetic field. It is indicated that the magnetic susceptibility of symmetric nuclear matter becomes negative showing the diamagnetic response especially at B<3 x 10{sup 17} G. We have found that for the nuclear matter, the magnitude of orbital magnetization reaches higher values comparing to the spin magnetization. Our results for the incompressibility show that at high enough magnetic fields, i.e. B>3 x 10{sup 17} G, the softening of the equation of state caused by Landau quantization is overwhelmed by stiffening due to the magnetization of nuclear matter. We have shown that the effects of strong magnetic field on nuclear matter may affect the constraints on the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter obtained by applying the experimental observables. (orig.)
Control of Optical Transitions with Magnetic Fields in Weakly Bound Molecules
McGuyer, B H; Iwata, G Z; Skomorowski, W; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T
2015-01-01
Forbidden optical transitions in weakly bound $^{88}$Sr$_2$ molecules become strongly enabled with moderate applied magnetic fields. We report the control of transition strengths by five orders of magnitude and measurements of highly nonlinear Zeeman shifts, which we explain with an accurate {\\it ab initio} model. Mixed quantization in an optical lattice enables the experimental procedure. Our observation of formerly inaccessible $f$-parity excited states offers a new avenue for improving theoretical models for divalent atom dimers. Furthermore, magnetically enabled transitions may lead to an extremely precise subradiant molecular lattice clock.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghasemian, E. [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavassoly, M.K., E-mail: mktavassoly@yazd.ac.ir [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Photonics Research Group, Engineering Research Center, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Laboratory of Quantum Information Processing, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-09-23
In this paper, we consider a model in which N two-level atoms in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) interact with a single-mode quantized laser field. Our goal is to investigate the quantum dynamics of atoms in the BEC in the presence of interatom interactions. To achieve the purpose, at first, using the collective angular momentum operators, we try to reduce the dynamical Hamiltonian of the system to a well-known Jaynes–Cummings like model (JCM). We also use the Dicke model to construct the state of atomic subsystem, by which the analytical solution of the system may be obtained. Then, we analyze the atomic population inversion, the degree of entanglement between the “atoms in BEC” and the “field” as well as the Mandel parameter. Numerical results show that, the atomic population inversion, atom-field entanglement and quantum statistics of photons are very sensitive to the evolved parameters in the model (and so can be well-adjusted), such as the number of atoms in BEC, the intensity of initial field, the interatom coupling constant and detuning. To investigate the entanglement properties, we pay attention to the entropy and linear entropy. It is shown that, oscillations in the two entropy criteria may be seen, with some maxima of entanglement at some moments of time. Finally, looking for the quantum statistics, we evaluate the Mandel parameter, by which we demonstrate the sub-Poissonian statistics and so the nonclassical characteristics of the field state of system. Collapse-revival phenomenon, which is a distinguishable nonclassical characteristic of the system, can be apparently observed in the atomic population inversion and the Mandel parameter. - Highlights: • N two-level atoms in a BEC interacting with a laser field in the presence of interatom interactions is considered. • The atomic population inversion, degree of entanglement between the “atoms in BEC” and the “field” and the Mandel parameter are investigated. • Collapse
Quantization of Free Scalar Fields in the Presence of Natural Cutoffs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Nozari
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a quantum theory of free scalar fields in (1+1-dimensions based on the deformed Heisenberg algebra x^,p^=iħ1-βp+2β2p2, that admits the existence of both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum, where β is a deformation parameter. We consider both canonical and path integral formalisms of the scenario. Finally a higher dimensional extension is easily performed in the path integral formalism.
Quantization of Free Scalar Fields in the Presence of Natural Cutoffs
Nozari, K.; F. Moafi; Rezaee Balef, F.
2012-01-01
We construct a quantum theory of free scalar fields in (1+1)-dimensions based on the deformed Heisenberg algebra x^,p^=iħ1-βp+2β2p2, that admits the existence of both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum, where β is a deformation parameter. We consider both canonical and path integral formalisms of the scenario. Finally a higher dimensional extension is easily performed in the path integral formalism.
Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis
Harris, Patrick K.
2003-01-01
This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective magnetic dipole moment model. The model is most accurate with the earth s geomagnetic field cancelled in a spherical region bounded by the measurement magnetometers with a minimum radius large enough to enclose the magnetic source. Considerably enhanced spacecraft magnetic testing is offered by using this technique in conjunction with a computer-controlled magnetic field measurement system. Such a system, with real-time magnetic field display capabilities, has been incorporated into other existing magnetic measurement facilities and is also used at remote locations where transport to a magnetics test facility is impractical.
Magnetic Fields from the Electroweak Phase Transition
Törnkvist, O
1998-01-01
I review some of the mechanisms through which primordial magnetic fields may be created in the electroweak phase transition. I show that no magnetic fields are produced initially from two-bubble collisions in a first-order transition. The initial field produced in a three-bubble collision is computed. The evolution of fields at later times is discussed.
Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation
Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I
2014-01-01
Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.
Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field
Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan
2011-01-01
After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…
Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass
Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert
2011-01-01
A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…
Biological Effect of Magnetic Field in Mice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao-Wei ZENG
2005-01-01
Objective: To study the biological effect of magnetic field in mice bodies. Method: With a piece of permanent magnet embeded in mice bodies beside the femoral artery and vein to measure the electrophoretic velocity(um/s). Result: The magnetic field in mice bodies on the experiment group that the electrophoretic velocity is faster more than control and free group.Conclusion:The magnetic field in animal's body can raise the negative electric charges on the surface of erythrocyte to improve the microcirculation, this is the biological effect of magnetic field.
The Magnetic Field Effect on Planetary Nebulae
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A. R. Khesali; K. Kokabi
2006-01-01
In our previous work on the 3-dimensional dynamical structure of planetary nebulae the effect of magnetic field was not considered. Recently Jordan et al. have directly detected magnetic fields in the central stars of some planetary nebulae. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the non-spherical shape of most planetary nebulae is caused by magnetic fields in AGB stars. In this study we focus on the role of initially weak toroidal magnetic fields embedded in a stellar wind in altering the shape of the PN. We found that magnetic pressure is probably influential on the observed shape of most PNe.
Magnetic field concentrator for probing optical magnetic metamaterials.
Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Wróbel, Piotr; Szoplik, Tomasz
2010-12-06
Development of all dielectric and plasmonic metamaterials with a tunable optical frequency magnetic response creates a need for new inspection techniques. We propose a method of measuring magnetic responses of such metamaterials within a wide range of optical frequencies with a single probe. A tapered fiber probe with a radially corrugated metal coating concentrates azimuthally polarized light in the near-field into a subwavelength spot the longitudinal magnetic field component which is much stronger than the perpendicular electric one. The active probe may be used in a future scanning near-field magnetic microscope for studies of magnetic responses of subwavelength elementary cells of metamaterials.
Seligman, Thomas H
2010-01-01
The basic ideas of second quantization and Fock space are extended to density operator states, used in treatments of open many-body systems. This can be done for fermions and bosons. While the former only requires the use of a non-orthogonal basis, the latter requires the introduction of a dual set of spaces. In both cases an operator algebra closely resembling the canonical one is developed and used to define the dual sets of bases. We here concentrated on the bosonic case where the unboundedness of the operators requires the definitions of dual spaces to support the pair of bases. Some applications, mainly to non-equilibrium steady states, will be mentioned.
Seligman, Thomas H.; Prosen, Tomaž
2010-12-01
The basic ideas of second quantization and Fock space are extended to density operator states, used in treatments of open many-body systems. This can be done for fermions and bosons. While the former only requires the use of a non-orthogonal basis, the latter requires the introduction of a dual set of spaces. In both cases an operator algebra closely resembling the canonical one is developed and used to define the dual sets of bases. We here concentrated on the bosonic case where the unboundedness of the operators requires the definitions of dual spaces to support the pair of bases. Some applications, mainly to non-equilibrium steady states, will be mentioned.
Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Garcia-Moral, L.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gomez, G. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Ruiz-Arbol, P. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scodellaro, L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)
2007-04-21
We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nascimento, Daniel R.; DePrince, A. Eugene, E-mail: deprince@chem.fsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4390 (United States)
2015-12-07
We present a combined cavity quantum electrodynamics/ab initio electronic structure approach for simulating plasmon-molecule interactions in the time domain. The simple Jaynes-Cummings-type model Hamiltonian typically utilized in such simulations is replaced with one in which the molecular component of the coupled system is treated in a fully ab initio way, resulting in a computationally efficient description of general plasmon-molecule interactions. Mutual polarization effects are easily incorporated within a standard ground-state Hartree-Fock computation, and time-dependent simulations carry the same formal computational scaling as real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. As a proof of principle, we apply this generalized method to the emergence of a Fano-like resonance in coupled molecule-plasmon systems; this feature is quite sensitive to the nanoparticle-molecule separation and the orientation of the molecule relative to the polarization of the external electric field.
Dimensional Quantization and the Resonance Concept of the Low-Threshold Field Emission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgy Fursey
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We present a brief critical review of modern theoretical interpretations of the low-threshold field emission phenomenon for metallic electrodes covered with carbon structures, taking the latest experiments into consideration, and confirming the continuity of spectrum of resonance states localized on the interface of the metallic body of the cathode and the carbon cover. Our proposal allowed us to interpret the double maxima of the emitted electron’s distribution on full energy. The theoretical interpretation is presented in a previous paper which describes the (1 + 1 model of a periodic 1D continuous interface. The overlapping of the double maxima may be interpreted taking into account a 2D superlattice periodic structure of the metal-vacuum interface, while the energy of emitted electrons lies on the overlapping spectral gaps of the interface 2D periodic lattice.
From Inverse to Delayed Magnetic Catalysis in Strong Magnetic Field
Mao, Shijun
2016-01-01
We study magnetic field effect on chiral phase transition in a Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In comparison with mean field approximation containing quarks only, including mesons as quantum fluctuations in the model leads to a transition from inverse to delayed magnetic catalysis at finite temperature and delays the transition at finite baryon chemical potential. The location of the critical end point depends on the the magnetic field non-monotonously.
Improved Lattice Radial Quantization
Brower, Richard C; Fleming, George T
2014-01-01
Lattice radial quantization was proposed in a recent paper by Brower, Fleming and Neuberger[1] as a nonperturbative method especially suited to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories. The lessons learned from the lattice radial quantization of the 3D Ising model on a longitudinal cylinder with 2D Icosahedral cross-section suggested the need for an improved discretization. We consider here the use of the Finite Element Methods(FEM) to descretize the universally-equivalent $\\phi^4$ Lagrangian on $\\mathbb R \\times \\mathbb S^2$. It is argued that this lattice regularization will approach the exact conformal theory at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the continuum. Numerical tests are underway to support this conjecture.
Dynamic shielding of the magnetic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RAU, M.
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the methods used to control and compensate the direct and alternative magnetic fields. Two frequently used methods in the electromagnetic compatibility of the complex biomagnetism installations were analyzed. The two methods refer to the use of inductive magnetic field sensors (only for alternative fields and of fluxgate magnetometers as active transducers which measures both the direct and alternative components of the magnetic field. The applications of the dynamic control of the magnetic field are: control of the magnetic field of the military ships, control of parasite magnetic field produced by power transformers and the electrical networks, protection of the mass spectrometers, electronic microscopes, SQUID and optical pumping magnetometers for applications in biomagnetism.
Pion-Nucleon Scattering in Kadyshevsky Formalism and Higher Spin Field Quantization
Wagenaar, J W
2009-01-01
This thesis contains two parts. The first part deals with pion-nucleon/meson-baryon scattering in the Kadyshevsky formalism. This formalism is introduced and discussed. Problems may arise when derivative couplings and/or higher spin fields are used, especially when compared to the results in the Feynman formalism: unwanted contact terms pop-up. These terms are cancelled using the Gross and Jackiw or Takahashi and Umezawa method. The final results in both formalisms are therefore equal, causal and covariant. Formal incorporation of pair suppression in the baryon exchange sector is achieved using a method based on the Takahashi and Umezawa method. For the resulting tree level amplitudes, we have shown, to our knowledge for the first time, that they are causal, covariant and n-independent. Moreover, the amplitudes are just a factor 1/2 of the usual Feynman expressions. The amplitudes contain only posititve energy initial and final states, although it should be mentioned that negative energy is present inside an ...
Relativistic diffusion equation from stochastic quantization
Kazinski, P O
2007-01-01
The new scheme of stochastic quantization is proposed. This quantization procedure is equivalent to the deformation of an algebra of observables in the manner of deformation quantization with an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). We apply this method to the models of nonrelativistic and relativistic particles interacting with an electromagnetic field. In the first case we establish the equivalence of such a quantization to the Fokker-Planck equation with a special force. The application of the proposed quantization procedure to the model of a relativistic particle results in a relativistic generalization of the Fokker-Planck equation in the coordinate space, which in the absence of the electromagnetic field reduces to the relativistic diffusion (heat) equation. The stationary probability distribution functions for a stochastically quantized particle diffusing under a barrier and a particle in the potential of a harmonic oscillator are derived.
Field free line magnetic particle imaging
Erbe, Marlitt
2014-01-01
Marlitt Erbe provides a detailed introduction into the young research field of Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) and field free line (FFL) imaging in particular. She derives a mathematical description of magnetic field generation for FFL imaging in MPI. To substantiate the simulation studies on magnetic FFL generation with a proof-of-concept, the author introduces the FFL field demonstrator, which provides the world's first experimentally generated rotated and translated magnetic FFL field complying with the requirements for FFL reconstruction. Furthermore, she proposes a scanner design of consi
Magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils
AUTHOR|(CDS)2087244; Arpaia, Pasquale
This thesis presents a magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils. The requirements, the architecture, the conceptual design, and the prototype for straight magnets were shown. The proposed system is made up of a rotating coil transducer and a train-like system for longitudinal motion and positioning inside magnet bore. The mapper allows a localized measurement of magnetic fields and the variation of the harmonic multipole content in the magnet ends. The proof-of-principle demonstration and the experimental characterization of the rotating-coil transducer specifically conceived for mapping validated the main objective of satisfying the magnetic measurement needs of the next generation of compact accelerators.
Magnetic Fields and Star Formation
Van Loo, S; Falle, S A E G
2012-01-01
Research performed in the 1950s and 1960s by Leon Mestel on the roles of magnetic fields in star formation established the framework within which he and other key figures have conducted subsequent investigations on the subject. This short tribute to Leon contains a brief summary of some, but not all, of his ground breaking contributions in the area. It also mentions of some of the relevant problems that have received attention in the last few years. The coverage is not comprehensive, and the authors have drawn on their own results more and touched more briefly on those of others than they would in a normal review. Theirs is a personal contribution to the issue honouring Leon, one of the truly great gentlemen, wits, and most insightful of astrophysicists.
Spin superconductivity and ac-Josephson effect in Graphene system under strong magnetic field
Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X. C.; Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing, China Collaboration
We study the spin superconductivity in Graphene system under strong magnetic field. From the microscopically Gor'kov method combined with the Aharonov-Casher effect, we derive the effective Landau-Ginzburg free energy and analyze the time evolution of order parameter, which is confirmed to be the off-diagonal long range order. Meanwhile, we compare the ground state of spin superconductivity to the canted-antiferromagnetic state, and demonstrate the equivalence between these two states. Moreover, we give out the pseudo-field flux quantization condition of spin supercurrent, and propose an experimental measurable ac-Josephson effect of spin superconductivity in this system.
Idealization Second Quantization of Composite Particles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Duan-Lu; YU Si-Xia; SUN Chang-Pu
2001-01-01
A practical method is developed to deal with the second quantization of the many-body system containing the composite particles.In our treatment,the modes associated with composite particles are regarded approximately as independent ones compared with those of unbound particles.The field operators of the composite particles thus arise naturally in the second quantization Hamiltonian.To be emphasized,the second quantization Hamiltonian has the regular structures which correspond clearly to different physical processes.``
DC-based magnetic field controller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID); Morgan, John P,. (Idaho Falls, ID)
1994-01-01
A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.
DC-based magnetic field controller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.
1994-05-31
A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.
High magnetic fields science and technology
Miura, Noboru
2003-01-01
This three-volume book provides a comprehensive review of experiments in very strong magnetic fields that can only be generated with very special magnets. The first volume is entirely devoted to the technology of laboratory magnets: permanent, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, both nondestructive and destructive (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and 3 contain reviews of the different areas of research where strong magnetic fields are an essential research tool. These volumes deal primarily with solid-state physics; other research areas covered are biological syst
Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro [Department of Electronic Control Engineering, Hiroshima National College of Maritime Technology, 4272-1, Higashino, Ohsakikamijima-cho, Toyota-gun, Hiroshima 725-0231 (Japan); Kimura, Yosuke [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. Technical Institute System Technology Development Centre 1-1, Kawasaki-cho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: ida@hiroshima-cmt.ac.j [Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6, Etchu-jima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)
2010-06-01
For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.
Magnetic field evolution in tidal disruption events
Bonnerot, Clément; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elena M
2016-01-01
When a star gets tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, its magnetic field is expected to be transmitted to the debris. In this paper, we study this process via smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the disruption and early debris evolution including the stellar magnetic field. As the gas stretches into a stream, we show that the magnetic field evolution is strongly dependent on its orientation with respect to the stretching direction. In particular, an alignment of the field lines with the direction of stretching induces an increase of the magnetic energy. For disruptions happening well within the tidal radius, the star compression causes the magnetic field strength to sharply increase by an order of magnitude at the time of pericentre passage. If the disruption is partial, we find evidence for a dynamo process occurring inside the surviving core due to the formation of vortices. This causes an amplification of the magnetic field strength by a factor of $\\sim 10$. However, this valu...
Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2006-07-01
This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.
Demagnetizing fields in active magnetic regenerators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders
2014-01-01
is in general both a function of the overall shape of the regenerator and its morphology (packed particles, parallel plates etc.) as well as the magnetization of the material. Due to the pronounced temperature dependence of the magnetization near the Curie temperature, the demagnetization field is also......A magnetic material in an externally applied magnetic field will in general experience a spatially varying internal magnetic field due to demagnetizing effects. When the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is evaluated using numerical models the internal field is often assumed...... temperature dependent. We propose a relatively straightforward method to correct sufficiently for the demagnetizing field in AMR models. We discuss how the demagnetizing field behaves in regenerators made of packed spheres under realistic operation conditions....
New knowledge of the Galactic magnetic fields
Han, J L
2009-01-01
The magnetic fields of our Milky Way galaxy are the main agent for cosmic rays to transport. In the last decade, much new knowledge has been gained from measurements of the Galactic magnetic fields. In the Galactic disk, from the RMs of a large number of newly discovered pulsars, the large-scale magnetic fields along the spiral arms have been delineated in a much larger region than ever before, with alternating directions in the arm and interarm regions. The toroidal fields in the Galactic halo were revealed to have opposite directions below and above the Galactic plane, which is an indication of an A0 mode dynamo operating in the halo. The strength of large-scale fields obtained from pulsar RM data has been found to increase exponentially towards the Galactic center. Compared to the steep Kolmogorov spectrum of magnetic energy at small scales, the large-scale magnetic fields show a shallow broken spatial magnetic energy spectrum.
Behaviour of ferrocholesterics under external magnetic fields
Petrescu, Emil; Motoc, Cornelia
2001-08-01
The influence of an external magnetic field on the orientational behaviour of a ferrocholesteric with a positive magnetic anisotropy is investigated. Both the phenomena arising when the field was switched on or switched off are considered. It is found that the field needed for a ferrocholesteric-ferronematic transition BFC↑ is higher when compared to that obtained for the pure cholesteric ( BC↑). A similar result was obtained when estimating the critical field for the homeotropic ferronematic-ferrocholesteric (focal conic) transition, occurring when the magnetic field was decreased or switched off. We found that BFC↓> BC↓. These results are explained when considering that the magnetic moments of the magnetic powder are not oriented parallel to the liquid crystal molecular directors, therefore hindering their orientation under a magnetic field.
Coulomb crystals in the magnetic field
Baiko, D A
2009-01-01
The body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal of ions in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is studied using the rigid electron background approximation. The phonon mode spectra are calculated for a wide range of magnetic field strengths and for several orientations of the field in the crystal. The phonon spectra are used to calculate the phonon contribution to the crystal energy, entropy, specific heat, Debye-Waller factor of ions, and the rms ion displacements from the lattice nodes for a broad range of densities, temperatures, chemical compositions, and magnetic fields. Strong magnetic field dramatically alters the properties of quantum crystals. The phonon specific heat increases by many orders of magnitude. The ion displacements from their equilibrium positions become strongly anisotropic. The results can be relevant for dusty plasmas, ion plasmas in Penning traps, and especially for the crust of magnetars (neutron stars with superstrong magnetic fields $B \\gtrsim 10^{14}$ G). The effect of the magnetic ...
Generating the optimal magnetic field for magnetic refrigeration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders
2016-01-01
remanence distribution for any desired magnetic field. The method is based on the reciprocity theorem, which through the use of virtual magnets can be used to calculate the optimal remanence distribution. Furthermore, we present a method for segmenting a given magnet design that always results...
Trembling motion of relativistic electrons in a magnetic field
Rusin, Tomasz M
2010-01-01
One-electron 3+1 and 2+1 Dirac equations are used to calculate the motion of a relativistic electron in a vacuum in the presence of an external magnetic field. First, calculations are carried on an operator level and exact analytical results are obtained for the electron trajectories which contain both intraband frequency components, identified as the cyclotron motion, as well as interband frequency components, identified as the trembling motion (Zitterbewegung, ZB). Next, time-dependent Heisenberg operators are used for the same problem to compute average values of electron position and velocity employing Gaussian wave packets. It is shown that the presence of a magnetic field and the resulting quantization of the energy spectrum has pronounced effects on the electron Zitterbewegung: it introduces intraband frequency components into the motion, influences all the frequencies and makes the motion stationary (not decaying in time) in case of the 2+1 Dirac equation. Finally, simulations of the 2+1 Dirac equatio...
Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane
Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.
Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields
Soto-Aquino, D.; Rinaldi, C.
2015-11-01
The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given.
Beam Transport in Toroidal Magnetic Field
Joshi, N; Meusel, O; Ratzinger, U
2016-01-01
The concept of a storage ring with toroidal magnetic field was presented in the two previous EPAC conferences. Here we report the first results of experiments performed with beam transport in toroidal magnetic fields and details of the injection system. The beam transport experiments were carried out with 30 degree toroidal segments with an axial magnetic field of 0.6T. The multi turn injection system relies on a transverse injection coil together with an electric kicker system.
Magnetically modified bioсells in constant magnetic field
Abramov, E. G.; Panina, L. K.; Kolikov, V. A.; Bogomolova, E. V.; Snetov, V. N.; Cherepkova, I. A.; Kiselev, A. A.
2017-02-01
Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell' size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Near-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance
Ledbetter, Micah; Theis, Thomas; Blanchard, John; Ring, Hattie; Ganssle, Paul; Appelt, Stephan; Bluemich, Bernhard; Pines, Alex; Budker, Dmitry
2011-01-01
We investigate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in near-zero-field, where the Zeeman interaction can be treated as a perturbation to the electron mediated scalar interaction (J-coupling). This is in stark contrast to the high field case, where heteronuclear J-couplings are normally treated as a small perturbation. We show that the presence of very small magnetic fields results in splitting of the zero-field NMR lines, imparting considerable additional information to the pure zero-field spectr...
Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments
Altarev, I; Lins, T; Marino, M G; Nießen, B; Petzoldt, G; Reisner, M; Stuiber, S; Sturm, M; Singh, J T; Taubenheim, B; Rohrer, H K; Schläpfer, U
2015-01-01
An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a linear improvement in the systematic reach and a 40 % improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.
Magnetic field evolution in tidal disruption events
Bonnerot, Clément; Price, Daniel J.; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elena M.
2017-08-01
When a star gets tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, its magnetic field is expected to pervade its debris. In this paper, we study this process via smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the disruption and early debris evolution including the stellar magnetic field. As the gas stretches into a stream, we show that the magnetic field evolution is strongly dependent on its orientation with respect to the stretching direction. In particular, an alignment of the field lines with the direction of stretching induces an increase of the magnetic energy. For disruptions happening well within the tidal radius, the star compression causes the magnetic field strength to sharply increase by an order of magnitude at the time of pericentre passage. If the disruption is partial, we find evidence for a dynamo process occurring inside the surviving core due to the formation of vortices. This causes an amplification of the magnetic field strength by a factor of ˜10. However, this value represents a lower limit since it increases with numerical resolution. For an initial field strength of 1 G, the magnetic field never becomes dynamically important. Instead, the disruption of a star with a strong 1 MG magnetic field produces a debris stream within which magnetic pressure becomes similar to gas pressure a few tens of hours after disruption. If the remnant of one or multiple partial disruptions is eventually fully disrupted, its magnetic field could be large enough to magnetically power the relativistic jet detected from Swift J1644+57. Magnetized streams could also be significantly thickened by magnetic pressure when it overcomes the confining effect of self-gravity.
Quantization of submanifold embeddings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahns, Dorothea; Zahn, Jochen [Courant Research Centre ' ' Higher Order Structures' ' , Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Rejzner, Katarzyna [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)
2013-07-01
We describe a perturbative quantization of the embedding of d-dimensional submanifolds into n-dimensional Minkowski space, based on suitable generalizations of the Nambu-Goto action. We use tools from perturbative algebraic quantum field theory, quantum field theory on curved spacetimes, and the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. The resulting theory is perturbatively non-renormalizable, but well-defined as an effective theory, i.e., there are no anomalies, for any dimension d,n. In particular there is no critical dimension for the case of string theory (d=2).
Magnetic field screening effect in electroweak model
Bakry, A; Zhang, P M; Zou, L P
2014-01-01
It is shown that in the Weinberg-Salam model a magnetic field screening effect for static magnetic solutions takes place. The origin of that phenomenon is conditioned by features of the electro-weak interaction, namely, there is mutual cancellation of Abelian magnetic fields created by the SU(2) gauge fields and Higgs boson. The effect implies monopole charge screening in finite energy system of monopoles and antimonopoles. We consider another manifestation of the screening effect which leads to an essential energy decrease of magnetic solutions. Applying variational method we have found a magnetic field configuration with a topological azimuthal magnetic flux which minimizes the energy functional and possesses a total energy of order 1 TeV. We suppose that corresponding magnetic bound state exists in the electroweak theory and can be detected in experiment.
Numerical Simulation of Level Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
According to Maxwell electromagnetic field theory and magnetic vector potential integral equation, a mathematical model of LMF (Level Magnetic Field) for EMBR (Electromagnetic brake) was proposed, and the reliable software for LMF calculation was developed. The distribution of magnetic flux density given by numerical simulation shows that the magnetic flux density is greater in the magnet and magnetic leakage is observed in the gap. The magnetic flux density is uniform in horizontal plane and a peak is observed in vertical plane. Furthermore, the effects of electromagnetic and structural parameters on magnetic flux density were discussed. The relationship between magnetic flux, electromagnetic parameters and structural parameters is obtained by dimensional analysis, simulation experiment and least square method.
Rydberg EIT in High Magnetic Field
Ma, Lu; Anderson, David; Miller, Stephanie; Raithel, Georg
2016-05-01
We present progress towards an all-optical approach for measurements of strong magnetic fields using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with Rydberg atoms in an atomic vapor. Rydberg EIT spectroscopy is a promising technique for the development of atom-based, calibration- and drift-free technology for high magnetic field sensing. In this effort, Rydberg EIT is employed to spectroscopically investigate the response of Rydberg atoms exposed to strong magnetic fields, in which Rydberg atoms are in the strong-field regime. In our setup, two neodymium block magnets are used to generate fields of about 0.8 Tesla, which strongly perturb the atoms. Information on the field strength and direction is obtained by a comparison of experimental spectra with calculated spectral maps. Investigations of magnetic-field inhomogeneities and other decoherence sources will be discussed.
Optical fibers with composite magnetic coating for magnetic field sensing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radojevic, V.; Nedeljkovic, D.; Talijan, N. E-mail: ntalijan@elab.tmf.bg.ac.yu; Trifunovic, D.; Aleksic, R
2004-05-01
The investigated system for optical fiber sensor was multi-mode optical fiber with magnetic composite coating. Polymer component of composite coating was poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)-EVA, and the magnetic component was powder of SmCo{sub 5} permanent magnet in form of single domain particles. The influence of the applied external magnetic field on the change of intensity of the light signal propagated through optical fiber was investigated.
Optical fibers with composite magnetic coating for magnetic field sensing
Radojevic, V.; Nedeljkovic, D.; Talijan, N.; Trifunovic, D.; Aleksic, R.
2004-05-01
The investigated system for optical fiber sensor was multi-mode optical fiber with magnetic composite coating. Polymer component of composite coating was poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)-EVA, and the magnetic component was powder of SmCo5 permanent magnet in form of single domain particles. The influence of the applied external magnetic field on the change of intensity of the light signal propagated through optical fiber was investigated.
Arrighi, Pablo; Werner, Reinhard
2009-01-01
Consider a set of physical systems, evolving according to some global dynamics yielding another set of physical systems. Such a global dynamics f may have a causal structure, i.e. each output physical system may depend only on some subset of the input physical system, whom we may call its "neighbours". We can of course write down these dependencies, and hence formalize them in a bipartite graph labeled with the physical systems sitting at each node, with the first (resp. second) set holding the global state of the composite physical system at time t (resp. t'), and the edges between the partition stating which physical systems may influence which. Moreover if f is bijective, then we can quantize just by linear extension, so that it now turns into a unitary operator Q(f) acting upon this set of, now quantum, physical systems. The question we address is: what becomes, then, of the dependency graph? In other words, has Q(f) got the same causal structure as f? The answer to this question turns out to be a surpris...
Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob
2010-01-01
A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T
An Intergalactic Magnetic Field from Quasar Outflows
Furlanetto, S; Furlanetto, Steven; Loeb, Abraham
2001-01-01
Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We find that by a redshift z ~ 3, about 5-80% of the IGM volume is filled by magnetic fields with an energy density > 10% of the mean thermal energy density of a photo-ionized IGM (at ~ 10^4 K). As massive galaxies and X-ray clusters condense out of the magnetized IGM, the adiabatic compression of the magnetic field could result in the fields observed in these systems without a need for further dynamo amplification.
Effect of temperature and magnetic field on two-flavor superconducting quark matter
Mandal, Tanumoy; Jaikumar, Prashanth
2016-10-01
We investigate the effect of turning on temperature for the charge neutral phase of two-flavor color superconducting (2SC) dense quark matter in the presence of constant external magnetic field. Within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, by tuning the diquark coupling strength, we study the interdependent evolution of the quark Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer gap and dynamical mass as functions of temperature and magnetic field. We find that magnetic field B ≳0.02 GeV2 (1 018 G ) leads to anomalous temperature behavior of the gap in the gapless 2SC phase (moderately strong coupling), reminiscent of previous results in the literature found in the limit of weak coupling without magnetic field. The 2SC gap in the strong coupling regime is abruptly quenched at ultrahigh magnetic field due to the mismatched Fermi surfaces of up and down quarks imposed by charge neutrality and oscillation of the gap due to Landau level quantization. The dynamical quark mass also displays strong oscillation and magnetic catalysis at high magnetic field, although the latter effect is tempered by nonzero temperature. We discuss the implications for newly born compact stars with superconducting quark cores.
Effect of temperature and magnetic field on two-flavor superconducting quark matter
Mandal, Tanumoy
2016-01-01
We investigate the effect of turning on temperature for the charge neutral phase of two-flavor color superconducting (2SC) dense quark matter in presence of constant external magnetic field. Within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, by tuning the diquark coupling strength, we study the inter-dependent evolution of the quark BCS gap and dynamical mass as functions of temperature and magnetic field. We find that magnetic field $B\\gtrsim 10^{18}$ G leads to anomalous temperature behavior of the gap in the gapless 2SC phase (moderately strong coupling), reminiscent of previous results in the literature found in the limit of weak coupling without magnetic field. The 2SC gap in the strong coupling regime is abruptly quenched at ultra-high magnetic field due to the mismatched Fermi surfaces of $u$ and $d$ quarks imposed by charge neutrality and oscillation of the gap due to Landau level quantization. The dynamical quark mass also displays strong oscillation and magnetic catalysis at high magnetic field, although th...
MDI Synoptic Charts of Magnetic Field: Interpolation of Polar Fields
Liu, Yang; Hoeksema, J. T.; Zhao, X.; Larson, R. M.
2007-05-01
In this poster, we compare various methods for interpolation of polar field for the MDI synoptic charts of magnetic field. By examining the coronal and heliospheric magnetic field computed from the synoptic charts based on a Potential Field Source Surface model (PFSS), and by comparing the heliospheric current sheets and footpoints of open fields with the observations, we conclude that the coronal and heliospheric fields calculated from the synoptic charts are sensitive to the polar field interpolation, and a time-dependent interpolation method using the observed polar fields is the best among the seven methods investigated.
Efficient magnetic fields for supporting toroidal plasmas
Landreman, Matt
2016-01-01
The magnetic field that supports tokamak and stellarator plasmas must be produced by coils well separated from the plasma. However the larger the separation, the more difficult it is to produce a given magnetic field in the plasma region, so plasma configurations should be chosen that can be supported as efficiently as possible by distant coils. The properties of curl-free magnetic fields allow magnetic field distributions to be ranked in order of their difficulty of production from a distance. Plasma shapes with low curvature and spectral width may be difficult to support, whereas plasma shapes with sharp edges may be efficiently supported by distant coils. Two measures of difficulty, which correctly identify such differences in difficulty, will be examined. These measures, which can be expressed as matrices, relate the externally-produced normal magnetic field on the plasma surface to the either the normal field or current on a distant control surface. A singular value decomposition (SVD) of either matrix y...
The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.
Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David
1989-01-01
Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)
Quantization of Second Order Fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angeles, Rene; Napsuciale, Mauro, E-mail: rene@fisica.ugto.mx, E-mail: mauro@fisica.ugto.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Lomas del Bosque 103, Fraccionamiento Lomas del Campestre, Leon Guanajuato, 37150 (Mexico)
2011-04-01
We review how second order equations for fields arise just by using projectors over Poincare invariant subspaces. We focus in the case of fields describing massive spin 1/2 particles, we propose a particular second order Lagrangian and present preliminary results in its quantization.
The Physics of Attraction and Repulsion: Magnetism and Magnetic Fields
Nakotte, Heinz
2001-11-01
The development of new materials with improved magnetic properties completely changed the modern world in the past decades. Recent progress is predominantly due to a better understanding of magnetism that has gone far beyond compass needles rotating in a magnetic field and bar magnets attracting or repelling each other. New magnetic materials are used to build smaller and smaller read/write heads and hard disks with increased storage capacity, developments that are responsible the revolution in the computer industry. Another example is the field of magnetic levitation that became feasible for commercial applications with the discovery of new superconducting materials, and a prototype train is under development in Japan. In medicine, the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an alternative to other (destructive) radiation techniques.
Assembly of magnetic spheres in strong homogeneous magnetic field
Messina, René; Stanković, Igor
2017-01-01
The assembly in two dimensions of spherical magnets in strong magnetic field is addressed theoretically. It is shown that the attraction and assembly of parallel magnetic chains is the result of a delicate interplay of dipole-dipole interactions and short ranged excluded volume correlations. Minimal energy structures are obtained by numerical optimization procedure as well as analytical considerations. For a small number of constitutive magnets Ntot ≤ 26, a straight chain is found to be the ground state. In the regime of larger Ntot ≥ 27, the magnets form two touching chains with equally long tails at both ends. We succeed to identify the transition from two to three touching chains at Ntot = 129. Overall, this study sheds light on the mechanisms of the recently experimentally observed ribbon formation of superparamagnetic colloids via lateral aggregation of magnetic chains in magnetic field (Darras et al., 2016).
Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Dipankar Bhattacharya
2002-03-01
This paper reviews the current status of the theoretical models of the evolution of the magnetic fields of neutron stars other than magnetars. It appears that the magnetic fields of neutron stars decay significantly only if they are in binary systems. Three major physical models for this, namely spindown-induced flux expulsion, ohmic evolution of crustal field and diamagnetic screening of the field by accreted plasma, are reviewed.
Nonlinear energy dissipation of magnetic nanoparticles in oscillating magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soto-Aquino, D. [ERC Incorporated, Air Force Research Laboratory, 10 E. Saturn Blvd., Edwards AFB, CA 93524 (United States); Rinaldi, C., E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, PO Box 116131, Gainesville, FL 32611-6131 (United States)
2015-11-01
The heating of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions subjected to alternating magnetic fields enables a variety of emerging applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia and triggered drug release. Rosensweig (2002) [25] obtained a model for the heat dissipation rate of a collection of non-interacting particles. However, the assumptions made in this analysis make it rigorously valid only in the limit of small applied magnetic field amplitude and frequency (i.e., values of the Langevin parameter that are much less than unity and frequencies below the inverse relaxation time). In this contribution we approach the problem from an alternative point of view by solving the phenomenological magnetization relaxation equation exactly for the case of arbitrary magnetic field amplitude and frequency and by solving a more accurate magnetization relaxation equation numerically. We also use rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of non-interacting magnetic nanoparticles subjected to an alternating magnetic field to estimate the rate of energy dissipation and compare the results of the phenomenological theories to the particle-scale simulations. The results are summarized in terms of a normalized energy dissipation rate and show that Rosensweig's expression provides an upper bound on the energy dissipation rate achieved at high field frequency and amplitude. Estimates of the predicted dependence of energy dissipation rate, quantified as specific absorption rate (SAR), on magnetic field amplitude and frequency, and particle core and hydrodynamic diameter, are also given. - Highlights: • Rosensweig's model for SAR was extended to high fields. • The MRSh relaxation equation was used to predict SAR at high fields. • Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations were used to predict SAR. • The results of these models were compared. • Predictions of effect of size and field conditions on SAR are presented.
Two-axis magnetic field sensor
Jander, Albrecht (Inventor); Nordman, Catherine A. (Inventor); Qian, Zhenghong (Inventor); Smith, Carl H. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
A ferromagnetic thin-film based magnetic field sensor with first and second sensitive direction sensing structures each having a nonmagnetic intermediate layer with two major surfaces on opposite sides thereof having a magnetization reference layer on one and an anisotropic ferromagnetic material sensing layer on the other having a length in a selected length direction and a smaller width perpendicular thereto and parallel to the relatively fixed magnetization direction. The relatively fixed magnetization direction of said magnetization reference layer in each is oriented in substantially parallel to the substrate but substantially perpendicular to that of the other. An annealing process is used to form the desired magnetization directions.
Magnetic fields and rotation of spiral galaxies
Battaner, E; Florido, E
1998-01-01
We present a simplified model in which we suggest that two important galactic problems -the magnetic field configuration at large scales and the flat rotation curve- may be simultaneously explained. A highly convective disc produces a high turbulent magnetic diffusion in the vertical direction, stablishing a merging of extragalactic and galactic magnetic fields. The outer disc may then adquire a magnetic energy gradient very close to the gradient required to explain the rotation curve, without the hypothesis of galactic dark matter. Our model predicts symmetries of the galactic field in noticeable agreement with the large scale structure of our galaxy.
Rotating artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields
Lembessis, V E; Alshamari, S; Siddig, A; Aldossary, O M
2016-01-01
We consider the creation of artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields created when a two-level atom interacts with an optical Ferris wheel light field.These fields have the spatial structure of the optical Ferris wheel field intensity profile. If this optical field pattern is made to rotate in space then we have the creation of artificial electromagnetic fields which propagate in closed paths. The properties of such fields are presented and discussed
Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars
Viganò, Daniele; Miralles, Juan A; Rea, Nanda
2015-01-01
Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.
Earth magnetism a guided tour through magnetic fields
Campbell, Wallace H
2001-01-01
An introductory guide to global magnetic field properties, Earth Magnetism addresses, in non-technical prose, many of the frequently asked questions about Earth''s magnetic field. Magnetism surrounds and penetrates our Earth in ways basic science courses can rarely address. It affects navigation, communication, and even the growth of crystals. As we observe and experience an 11-year solar maximum, we may witness spectacular satellite-destroying solar storms as they interact with our magnetic field. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field, this book will enrich courses in earth science, atmospheric science, geology, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geophysics. Contains nearly 200 original illustrations and eight pages of full-color plates.* Largely mathematics-free and with a wide breadth of material suitable for general readers* Integrates material from geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial space physics.* Features nearly 200 original illustrations and 4 pages of colour plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hubrig, S.; Gonzalez, J. F.; Ilyin, I.
2012-01-01
Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have fai...
Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation
Shockley, Jeremiah A.
The Earth's magnetic field has been the bedrock of navigation for centuries. The latest research highlights the uniqueness of magnetic field measurements based on position due to large scale variations as well as localized perturbations. These observable changes in the Earth's magnetic field as a function of position provide distinct information which can be used for navigation. This dissertation describes ground vehicle navigation exploiting variation in Earth's magnetic field using a self-contained navigation system consisting of only a magnetometer and magnetic field maps. In order to achieve navigation, effective calibration enables repeatable magnetic field measurements from different vehicles and facilitates mapping of the observable magnetic field as a function of position. A new modified ellipsoid calibration technique for strapdown magnetometers in large vehicles is described, as well as analysis of position measurement generation comparing a multitude of measurement compositions using existing and newly developed likelihood techniques. Finally, navigation solutions are presented using both a position measurement and direct incorporation of the magnetometer measurements via a particle filter to demonstrate road navigation in three different environments. Emphatically, the results affirm that navigation using magnetic field variation in ground vehicles is viable and achieves adequate performance for road level navigation.
Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field
Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro
2011-01-01
We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.
Helical Magnetic Fields in AGN Jets
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Y. J. Chen; G.-Y. Zhao; Z.-Q. Shen
2014-09-01
We establish a simple model to describe the helical magnetic fields in AGN jets projected on the sky plane and the line-of-sight. This kind of profile has been detected in the polarimetric VLBI observation of many blazar objects, suggesting the existence of helical magnetic fields in these sources.
Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils
Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse
2014-01-01
In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…
Magnetic Fields in Stars: Origin and Impact
Langer, N
2013-01-01
Various types of magnetic fields occur in stars: small scale fields, large scale fields, and internal toroidal fields. While the latter may be ubiquitous in stars due to differential rotation, small scale fields (spots) may be associated with envelop convection in all low and high mass stars. The stable large scale fields found in only about 10 per cent of intermediate mass and massive stars may be understood as a consequence of dynamical binary interaction, e.g., the merging of two stars in a binary. We relate these ideas to magnetic fields in white dwarfs and neutron stars, and to their role in core-collapse and thermonuclear supernova explosions.
Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields
Good, Roland H
1971-01-01
Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma
Pair annihilation in superstrong magnetic fields
Daugherty, J. K.; Bussard, R. W.
1980-01-01
The kinematical and dynamical aspects of the annihilation processes in superstrong magnetic fields are studied. The feasibility and potential significance of detecting from magnetic neutron stars are discussed. The discussion proceeds from the derivation of the fully relativistic differential cross sections and annihilation rates for both one- and two-photon emission from a ground-state gas of electrons and positrons in a static, uniform magnetic field.
Mechanics of magnetic fluid column in strong magnetic fields
Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Platonov, V. B.
2017-06-01
Elastic-and magnetic properties of magnetic fluid confined by ponderomotive force in a tube fixed in horizontal position are considered. The system is placed in a strong magnetic field under the influence of external static and dynamic perturbations. An experimental setup has been developed. A theoretical basis of the processes of magnetic colloid elastic deformation has been proposed. The values of the static ponderomotive elasticity coefficient and the elasticity coefficient under dynamic action are experimentally determined. The calculations of the saturation magnetization for two magnetic fluid samples, carried out according to the equation containing the dynamic elasticity coefficient, are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest when studying magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic colloids.
Delayed quarkonium formation in a magnetic field
Suzuki, Kei
2016-01-01
Formation time of heavy quarkonia in a homogeneous magnetic field is analyzed by using a phenomenological ansatz of the vector current correlator. Because the existence of a magnetic field mixes vector quarkonia ($J/\\psi$, $\\psi^\\prime$) and their pseudoscalar partners ($\\eta_c$, $\\eta_c^\\prime$), the properties of the quarkonia can be modified through such a spin mixing. This means that the formation time of quarkonia is also changed by the magnetic field. We show the formation time of vector quarkonia is delayed by an idealized constant magnetic field, where the formation time of the excited state becomes longer than that of the ground state. As a more realistic situation in heavy-ion collisions, effects by a time-dependent magnetic field are also discussed.
Structure of magnetic fields in intracluster cavities
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos Nektarios; Lyutikov, Maxim
2010-01-01
Observations of clusters of galaxies show ubiquitous presence of X-ray cavities, presumably blown by the AGN jets. We consider magnetic field structures of these cavities. Stability requires that they contain both toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields, while realistic configurations should have vanishing magnetic field on the boundary. For axisymmetric configurations embedded in unmagnetized plasma, the continuity of poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components on the surface of the bubble then requires solving the elliptical Grad-Shafranov equation with both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. This leads to a double eigenvalue problem, relating the pressure gradients and the toroidal magnetic field to the radius of the bubble. We have found fully analytical stable solutions. This result is confirmed by numerical simulation. We present synthetic X-ray images and synchrotron emission profiles and evaluate the rotation measure for radiation traversing the bubble.
Probing Magnetic Fields of Early Galaxies
Kohler, Susanna
2017-06-01
How do magnetic fields form and evolve in early galaxies? A new study has provided some clever observations to help us answer this question.The Puzzle of Growing FieldsDynamo theory is the primary model describing how magnetic fields develop in galaxies. In this picture, magnetic fields start out as weak seed fields that are small and unordered. These fields then become ordered and amplified by large-scale rotation and turbulence in galaxy disks and halos, eventually leading to the magnetic fields we observe in galaxies today.Schematic showinghow to indirectly measure protogalactic magnetic fields. The measured polarization of a background quasar is altered by the fields in a foreground protogalaxy. Click for a closer look! [Farnes et al. 2017/Adolf Schaller/STSCI/NRAO/AUI/NSF]To test this model, we need observations of the magnetic fields in young protogalaxies. Unfortunately, we dont have the sensitivity to be able to measure these fields directly but a team of scientists led by Jamie Farnes (Radboud University in the Netherlands) have come up with a creative alternative.The key is to find early protogalaxies that absorb the light of more distant background objects. If a protogalaxy lies between us and a distant quasar, then magnetic fields of the protogalaxy if present will affect the polarization measurements of the background quasar.Observing Galactic Building BlocksTop: Redshift distribution for the background quasars in the authors sample. Bottom: Redshift distribution for the foreground protogalaxies the authors are exploring. [Farnes et al. 2017]Farnes and collaborators examined two types of foreground protogalaxies: Damped Lyman-Alpha Absorbers (DLAs) and Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs). They obtained polarimetric data for a sample of 114 distant quasars with nothing in the foreground (the control sample), 19 quasars with DLAs in the foreground, and 27 quasars with LLSs in the foreground. They then used statistical analysis techniques to draw conclusions about
Formation of magnetically anisotropic composite films at low magnetic fields
Ghazi Zahedi, Maryam; Ennen, Inga; Marchi, Sophie; Barthel, Markus J.; Hütten, Andreas; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina
2017-04-01
We present a straightforward two-step technique for the fabrication of poly (methyl methacrylate) composites with embedded aligned magnetic chains. First, ferromagnetic microwires are realized in a poly (methyl methacrylate) solution by assembling iron nanoparticles in a methyl methacrylate solution under heat in an external magnetic field of 160 mT. The simultaneous thermal polymerization of the monomer throughout the wires is responsible for their permanent linkage and stability. Next, the polymer solution containing the randomly dispersed microwires is casted on a solid substrate in the presence of a low magnetic field (20–40 mT) which induces the final alignment of the microwires into long magnetic chains upon evaporation of the solvent. We prove that the presence of the nanoparticles assembled in the form of microwires is a key factor for the formation of the anisotropic films under low magnetic fields. In fact, such low fields are not capable of driving and assembling dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in the same type of polymer solutions. Hence, this innovative approach can be utilized for the synthesis of magnetically anisotropic nanocomposite films at low magnetic fields.
Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments
Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis
2017-01-01
We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and measurement of the spatial variation of magnetic field components along a line near magnets. We describe the experimental tasks, various difficulties students have throughout, and ways this lab makes even their incorrect predictions better. We suggest that developing lab activities of this nature brings a new dimension to the ways students learn and interact with field concepts.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.
2012-01-01
Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...
Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields
Piccinelli, Gabriella; Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia
2013-01-01
We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales, which rises the possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger proper time method.
ASYMPTOTIC QUANTIZATION OF PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Klaus P(o)tzelberger
2003-01-01
We give a brief introduction to results on the asymptotics of quantization errors.The topics discussed include the quantization dimension,asymptotic distributions of sets of prototypes,asymptotically optimal quantizations,approximations and random quantizations.
Field Mapping System for Solenoid Magnet
Park, K. H.; Jung, Y. K.; Kim, D. E.; Lee, H. G.; Park, S. J.; Chung, C. W.; Kang, B. K.
2007-01-01
A three-dimensional Hall probe mapping system for measuring the solenoid magnet of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun has been developed. It can map the solenoid field either in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinate system with a measurement reproducibility better than 5 × 10-5 T. The system has three axis motors: one for the azimuthal direction and the other two for the x and z direction. This architecture makes the measuring system simple in fabrication. The magnetic center was calculated using the measured axial component of magnetic field Bz in Cartesian coordinate system because the accuracy of magnetic axis measurement could be improved significantly by using Bz, instead of the radial component of magnetic field Br. This paper describes the measurement system and summarizes the measurement results for the solenoid magnetic of PLS photo-cathode RF e-gun.
Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.
Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark
2013-02-07
Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.
Solar Force-free Magnetic Fields
Wiegelmann, Thomas
2012-01-01
The structure and dynamics of the solar corona is dominated by the magnetic field. In most areas in the corona magnetic forces are so dominant that all non-magnetic forces like plasma pressure gradient and gravity can be neglected in the lowest order. This model assumption is called the force-free field assumption, as the Lorentz force vanishes. This can be obtained by either vanishing electric currents (leading to potential fields) or the currents are co-aligned with the magnetic field lines. First we discuss a mathematically simpler approach that the magnetic field and currents are proportional with one global constant, the so-called linear force-free field approximation. In the generic case, however, the relation between magnetic fields and electric currents is nonlinear and analytic solutions have been only found for special cases, like 1D or 2D configurations. For constructing realistic nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field models in 3D, sophisticated numerical computations are required and boundar...
Magnetic monopole field exposed by electrons
Béché, A; Van Tendeloo, G; Verbeeck, J
2013-01-01
Magnetic monopoles have provided a rich field of study, leading to a wide area of research in particle physics, solid state physics, ultra-cold gases, superconductors, cosmology, and gauge theory. So far, no true magnetic monopoles were found experimentally. Using the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the central results of quantum physics, shows however, that an effective monopole field can be produced. Understanding the effects of such a monopole field on its surroundings is crucial to its observation and provides a better grasp of fundamental physical theory. We realize the diffraction of fast electrons at a magnetic monopole field generated by a nanoscopic magnetized ferromagnetic needle. Previous studies have been limited to theoretical semiclassical optical calculations of the motion of electrons in such a monopole field. Solid state systems like the recently studied 'spin ice' provide a constrained system to study similar fields, but make it impossible to separate the monopole from the material. Free space ...
External-field-free magnetic biosensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpwang@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)
2014-03-24
In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.
Interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic Dst variations.
Patel, V. L.; Desai, U. D.
1973-01-01
The interplanetary magnetic field has been shown to influence the ring current field represented by Dst. Explorer 28 hourly magnetic field observations have been used with the hourly Dst values. The moderate geomagnetic storms of 60 gammas and quiet-time fluctuations of 10 to 30 gammas are correlated with the north to south change of the interplanetary field component perpendicular to the ecliptic. This change in the interplanetary field occurs one to three hours earlier than the corresponding change in the Dst field.
Polarized radiation diagnostics of stellar magnetic fields
Mathys, Gautier
The main techniques used to diagnose magnetic fields in stars from polarimetric observations are presented. First, a summary of the physics of spectral line formation in the presence of a magnetic field is given. Departures from the simple case of linear Zeeman effect are briefly considered: partial Paschen-Back effect, contribution of hyperfine structure, and combined Stark and Zeeman effects. Important approximate solutions of the equation of transfer of polarized light in spectral lines are introduced. The procedure for disk-integration of emergent Stokes profiles, which is central to stellar magnetic field studies, is described, with special attention to the treatment of stellar rotation. This formalism is used to discuss the determination of the mean longitudinal magnetic field (through the photographic technique and through Balmer line photopolarimetry). This is done within the specific framework of Ap stars, which, with their unique large-scale organized magnetic fields, are an ideal laboratory for studies of stellar magnetism. Special attention is paid to those Ap stars whose magnetically split line components are resolved in high-dispersion Stokes I spectra, and to the determination of their mean magnetic field modulus. Various techniques of exploitation of the information contained in polarized spectral line profiles are reviewed: the moment technique (in particular, the determination of the crossover and of the mean quadratic field), Zeeman-Doppler imaging, and least-squares deconvolution. The prospects that these methods open for linear polarization studies are sketched. The way in which linear polarization diagnostics complement their Stokes I and V counterparts is emphasized by consideration of the results of broad band linear polarization measurements. Illustrations of the use of various diagnostics to derive properties of the magnetic fields of Ap stars are given. This is used to show the interest of deriving more physically realistic models of the
Scattering in a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David C. Carey
2002-08-19
The fixed target program at Fermilab has come to an end. New projects are in the planning stage. Among them is a muon storage ring. Up to the present, all storage rings in high-energy physics have carried stable particles, namely the electron and proton and their antiparticles. The muon is unstable and decays with a mean lifetime of 2.0 x 10{sup -6} sec. Two types of cooling have been used in the past. One is stochastic cooling where an electrode is used to detect the positions of the particles and send a signal to another position across the ring. Through successive applications of this technique, the phase space is ultimately greatly reduced and beams can be made to collide with a useful event rate. The second type of cooling is electron cooling. Here protons and electrons are made to travel together for a short distance. Equipartition causes transfer of transverse energy of the protons to that of the electrons. Neither of these methods is fast enough to allow acceleration of a sufficient number of muons up to maximum energy before they decay. A new method known as ionization cooling has been proposed.[1] The muons are cooled by passing them through a container of liquid hydrogen. The energy loss reduces both transverse and longitudinal momentum. The longitudinal momentum is restored with RF cavities. The net result is to maintain the longitudinal momentum while cooling the transverse momentum. To minimize the total travel distance of the muons the liquid hydrogen is placed inside the focusing solenoids. The question arises as to whether the presence of the solenoids influences the phase space occupied by the muons. After the muon scatters it has transverse momentum. In a constant longitudinal magnetic field the trajectory wraps around the field lines and coincides in momentum and position with a particle which scatters one cycle later. Here we calculate the change in emittance for both a drift space and a solenoid. We find that the presence of the solenoid does
Compact low field magnetic resonance imaging magnet: Design and optimization
Sciandrone, M.; Placidi, G.; Testa, L.; Sotgiu, A.
2000-03-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed with a very large instrument that allows the patient to be inserted into a region of uniform magnetic field. The field is generated either by an electromagnet (resistive or superconductive) or by a permanent magnet. Electromagnets are designed as air cored solenoids of cylindrical symmetry, with an inner bore of 80-100 cm in diameter. In clinical analysis of peripheral regions of the body (legs, arms, foot, knee, etc.) it would be better to adopt much less expensive magnets leaving the most expensive instruments to applications that require the insertion of the patient in the magnet (head, thorax, abdomen, etc.). These "dedicated" apparati could be smaller and based on resistive magnets that are manufactured and operated at very low cost, particularly if they utilize an iron yoke to reduce power requirements. In order to obtain good field uniformity without the use of a set of shimming coils, we propose both particular construction of a dedicated magnet, using four independently controlled pairs of coils, and an optimization-based strategy for computing, a posteriori, the optimal current values. The optimization phase could be viewed as a low-cost shimming procedure for obtaining the desired magnetic field configuration. Some experimental measurements, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed approach (construction and optimization), have also been reported. In particular, it has been shown that the adoption of the proposed optimization based strategy has allowed the achievement of good uniformity of the magnetic field in about one fourth of the magnet length and about one half of its bore. On the basis of the good experimental results, the dedicated magnet can be used for MRI of peripheral regions of the body and for animal experimentation at very low cost.
Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brzózka, K., E-mail: k.brzozka@uthrad.pl [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)
2016-12-15
Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.
Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars
Chyzy, Krzysztof T; Beck, Rainer; Bomans, Dominik J
2011-01-01
We clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and what is the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100m Effelsberg telescope at 2.64 and 4.85GHz. Magnetic fields in LG dwarfs are three times weaker than in the normal spirals (6muG) are observed only in dwarfs of extreme characteristics while typical LG dwarfs are not suitable objects for efficient supply of magnetic fields to the intergalactic medium.
Magnetic field homogeneity perturbations in finite Halbach dipole magnets.
Turek, Krzysztof; Liszkowski, Piotr
2014-01-01
Halbach hollow cylinder dipole magnets of a low or relatively low aspect ratio attract considerable attention due to their applications, among others, in compact NMR and MRI systems for investigating small objects. However, a complete mathematical framework for the analysis of magnetic fields in these magnets has been developed only for their infinitely long precursors. In such a case the analysis is reduced to two-dimensions (2D). The paper details the analysis of the 3D magnetic field in the Halbach dipole cylinders of a finite length. The analysis is based on three equations in which the components of the magnetic flux density Bx, By and Bz are expanded to infinite power series of the radial coordinate r. The zeroth term in the series corresponds to a homogeneous magnetic field Bc, which is perturbed by the higher order terms due to a finite magnet length. This set of equations is supplemented with an equation for the field profile B(z) along the magnet axis, presented for the first time. It is demonstrated that the geometrical factors in the coefficients of particular powers of r, defined by intricate integrals are the coefficients of the Taylor expansion of the homogeneity profile (B(z)-Bc)/Bc. As a consequence, the components of B can be easily calculated with an arbitrary accuracy. In order to describe perturbations of the field due to segmentation, two additional equations are borrowed from the 2D theory. It is shown that the 2D approach to the perturbations generated by the segmentation can be applied to the 3D Halbach structures unless r is not too close to the inner radius of the cylinder ri. The mathematical framework presented in the paper was verified with great precision by computations of B by a highly accurate integration of the magnetostatic Coulomb law and utilized to analyze the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the magnet with the accuracy better than 1 ppm.
Instability of strong magnetic field and neutrino magnetic dipole moment
Lee, Hyun Kyu
2016-01-01
Vacuum instability of the strong electromagnetic field has been discussed since long time ago. The instability of the strong electric field due to creation of electron pairs is one of the examples, which is known as Schwinger process. What matters are the coupling of particles to the electromagnetic field and the mass of the particle to be produced. The critical electric field for electrons in the minimal coupling is ~ m^2/e . Spin 1/2 neutral particles but with magnetic dipole moments can interact with the electromagnetic field through Pauli coupling. The instability of the particular vacuum under the strong magnetic field can be formulated as the emergence of imaginary parts of the effective potential. In this talk, the development of the imaginary part in the effective potential as a function of the magnetic field strength is discussed for the configurations of the uniform magnetic field and the inhomogeneous magnetic field. Neutrinos are the lightest particle(if not photon or gluon) in the "standard model...
Computation of magnetic fields in hysteretic media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adly, A.A.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Gomez, R.D.; Burke, E.R. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))
1993-11-01
A newly developed vector Preisach-type model of hysteresis is applied to the computation of static magnetic fields in media with hysteresis. Time stepping technique is used to trace the time evolution of local magnetic fields which form the history of magnetizing process. At each time step, the magnetostatic problem is formulated in terms of an integral equation and an efficient iterative algorithm is employed for solving this problem. The technique has been used to simulate some magnetic recording processes. Sample results of these simulations are given in the paper.
Gauge-covariant decomposition and magnetic monopole for G(2) Yang-Mills field
Matsudo, Ryutaro
2016-01-01
We give a gauge-covariant decomposition of the Yang-Mills field with an exceptional gauge group $G(2)$, which extends the field decomposition invented by Cho, Duan-Ge, and Faddeev-Niemi for the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills field. As an application of the decomposition, we derive a new expression of the non-Abelian Stokes theorem for the Wilson loop operator in an arbitrary representation of $G(2)$. The resulting new form is used to define gauge-invariant magnetic monopoles in the $G(2)$ Yang-Mills theory. Moreover, we obtain the quantization condition to be satisfied by the resulting magnetic charge. The method given in this paper is general enough to be applicable to any semi-simple Lie group other than $SU(N)$ and $G(2)$.
Efficient magnetic fields for supporting toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Landreman, Matt, E-mail: mattland@umd.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)
2016-03-15
The magnetic field that supports tokamak and stellarator plasmas must be produced by coils well separated from the plasma. However, the larger the separation, the more difficult it is to produce a given magnetic field in the plasma region, so plasma configurations should be chosen that can be supported as efficiently as possible by distant coils. The efficiency of an externally generated magnetic field is a measure of the field's shaping component magnitude at the plasma compared to the magnitude near the coils; the efficiency of a plasma equilibrium can be measured using the efficiency of the required external shaping field. Counterintuitively, plasma shapes with low curvature and spectral width may have low efficiency, whereas plasma shapes with sharp edges may have high efficiency. Two precise measures of magnetic field efficiency, which correctly identify such differences in difficulty, will be examined. These measures, which can be expressed as matrices, relate the externally produced normal magnetic field on the plasma surface to the either the normal field or current on a distant control surface. A singular value decomposition (SVD) of either matrix yields an efficiency ordered basis for the magnetic field distributions. Calculations are carried out for both tokamak and stellarator cases. For axisymmetric surfaces with circular cross-section, the SVD is calculated analytically, and the range of poloidal and toroidal mode numbers that can be controlled to a given desired level is determined. If formulated properly, these efficiency measures are independent of the coordinates used to parameterize the surfaces.
Quark matter under strong magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peres Menezes, Debora [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Laercio Lopes, Luiz [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Depto de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Campus VIII, Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais, Varginha, MG (Brazil)
2016-02-15
We revisit three of the mathematical formalisms used to describe magnetized quark matter in compact objects within the MIT and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models and then compare their results. The tree formalisms are based on 1) isotropic equations of state, 2) anisotropic equations of state with different parallel and perpendicular pressures and 3) the assumption of a chaotic field approximation that results in a truly isotropic equation of state. We have seen that the magnetization obtained with both models is very different: while the MIT model produces well-behaved curves that are always positive for large magnetic fields, the NJL model yields a magnetization with lots of spikes and negative values. This fact has strong consequences on the results based on the existence of anisotropic equations of state. We have also seen that, while the isotropic formalism results in maximum stellar masses that increase considerably when the magnetic fields increase, maximum masses obtained with the chaotic field approximation never vary more than 5.5%. The effect of the magnetic field on the radii is opposed in the MIT and NJL models: with both formalisms, isotropic and chaotic field approximation, for a fixed mass, the radii increase with the increase of the magnetic field in the MIT bag model and decrease in the NJL, the radii of quark stars described by the NJL model being smaller than the ones described by the MIT model. (orig.)
Alignment of magnetic uniaxial particles in a magnetic field: Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golovnia, O.A., E-mail: golovnya@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, Str. S. Kovalevskoy, 18, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Popov, A.G [Institute of Metal Physics, Str. S. Kovalevskoy, 18, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Sobolev, A.N. [South Ural State University (National Research University), av. Lenina, 76, 454080 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Hadjipanayis, G.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)
2014-09-01
The numerical investigations of the process of alignment of magnetically uniaxial Nd–Fe–B powders in an applied magnetic field were carried out using the discrete element method (DEM). It is shown that magnetic alignment of ensemble of spherical particles provides extremely high degree of alignment, which is achieved in low magnetic fields. A model of formation of anisotropic particles as a combination of spherical particles is suggested. The influence of the shape anisotropy and friction coefficient on the alignment degree was analyzed. The increase in the friction coefficient leads to a decrease in the alignment degree; the simulation results are in qualitative agreement with experimental dependences. It is shown that in magnetic fields higher than 5 T, the calculated field dependences of the alignment degree quantitatively render the experimental data. The increase of about 6% in the alignment degree in the experiments with addition of internal lubricant can be explained by the decrease of 14% in friction coefficient. - Highlights: • We simulate the magnetic alignment of ensemble of Nd–Fe–B spherical uniaxial particles. • Anisotropic particles as a combination of spherical particles are constructed. • Influence of the particle shape anisotropy and friction on the alignment is analyzed. • We compare calculated and experimental data on field dependence of magnetic alignment. • The results render the experimental dependence.
Electric-field guiding of magnetic skyrmions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Upadhyaya, Pramey; Yu, Guoqiang; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.
2015-10-01
We theoretically study equilibrium and dynamic properties of nanosized magnetic skyrmions in thin magnetic films with broken inversion symmetry, where an electric field couples to magnetization via spin-orbit coupling. Based on a symmetry-based phenomenology and micromagnetic simulations we show that this electric-field coupling, via renormalizing the micromagnetic energy, modifies the equilibrium properties of the skyrmion. This change, in turn, results in a significant alteration of the current-induced skyrmion motion. Particularly, the speed and direction of the skyrmion can be manipulated by designing a desired energy landscape electrically, which we describe within Thiele's analytical model and demonstrate in micromagnetic simulations including electric-field-controlled magnetic anisotropy. We additionally use this electric-field control to construct gates for controlling skyrmion motion exhibiting a transistorlike and multiplexerlike function. The proposed electric-field effect can thus provide a low-energy electrical knob to extend the reach of information processing with skyrmions.
Magnetic field in the primitive solar nebula
Levy, E. H.
1978-01-01
Carbonaceous chondrites have apparently been magnetized in their early history in magnetic fields with intensities of 0.1 to 10 G, but the origin of the magnetizing field has remained obscured. It is suggested that the magnetic field recorded in the remanence of carbonaceous chondrites may have been produced by a self-excited hydromagnetic dynamo in the gaseous preplanetary nebula from which the solar system is thought to have formed. Recently computed models for the evolution of the preplanetary nebula, consisting of turbulent and differentially rotating gaseous disks with characteristic radial scales of several AU, are used to demonstrate the feasibility of this hypothesis. The maximum field intensity that might be realized by the dynamo production process is estimated to be as high as 1 to 10 G, taking into account two dynamical mechanisms that limit the strength of the field (the Coriolis force and ambipolar diffusion).
Magnetic field evolution in neutron stars
Castillo, F.; Reisenegger, A.; Valdivia, J. A.
2017-07-01
Neutron stars contain the strongest magnetic fields known in the Universe. Using numerical simulations restricted to axially symmetric geometry, we study the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the interior of an isolated neutron star under the effect of ambipolar diffusion, i.e. the drift of the magnetic field and the charged particles relative to the neutrons. We model the stellar interior as an electrically neutral fluid composed of neutrons, protons and electrons; these species can be converted into each other by weak interactions (beta decays), suffer binary collisions, and be affected by each other's macroscopic electromagnetic fields. We show that, in the restricted case of pure ambipolar diffusion, neglecting weak interactions, the magnetic fields evolves towards a stable MHD equilibria configuration, in the timescales analytically expected.
Magnetic field induced optical vortex beam rotation
Shi, Shuai; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Bao-Sen
2015-01-01
Light with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has drawn a great deal of attention for its important applications in the fields of precise optical measurements and high capacity optical communications. Here we adopt a method to study the rotation of a light beam, which is based on magnetic field induced circular birefringence in warm 87Rb atomic vapor. The dependence of the rotation angle to the intensity of the magnetic field makes it appropriate for weak magnetic field measurement. We derive a detail theoretical description that is in well agreement with the experimental observations. The experiment shows here provides a new method for precise measurement of magnetic field intensity and expands the application of OAM-carrying light.
What is "Relativistic Canonical Quantization"?
Arbatsky, D. A.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this review is to give the most popular description of the scheme of quantization of relativistic fields that was named relativistic canonical quantization (RCQ). I do not give here the full exact account of this scheme. But with the help of this review any physicist, even not a specialist in the relativistic quantum theory, will be able to get a general view of the content of RCQ, of its connection with other known approaches, of its novelty and of its fruitfulness.
Quantum Electrodynamics in a Uniform Magnetic Field
Suzuki, J
2005-01-01
A systematic formalism for quantum electrodynamics in a classical uniform magnetic field is discussed. The first order radiative correction to the ground state energy of an electron is calculated. This then leads to the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron without divergent integrals. Thorough analyses of this problem are given for the weak magnetic field limit. A new expression for the radiative correction to the ground state energy is obtained. This contains only one integral with an additional summation with respect to each Landau level. The importance of this formalism is also addressed in order to deal with quantum electrodynamics in an intense external field.
Magnetic fields from second-order interactions
Osano, Bob
2014-01-01
It is well known that when two types of perturbations interact in cosmological perturbation theory, the interaction may lead to the generation of a third type. In this article we discuss the generation of magnetic fields from such interactions. We determine conditions under which the interaction of a first-order magnetic field with a first-order scalar-or vector-, or tensor-perturbations would lead to the generation of second order magnetic field. The analysis is done in a covariant-index-free approach, but could be done in the standard covariant indexed-approach.
Dissipative charged fluid in a magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Navid Abbasi
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We study the collective excitations in a dissipative charged fluid at zero chemical potential when an external magnetic field is present. While in the absence of magnetic field, four collective excitations appear in the fluid, we find five hydrodynamic modes here. This implies that the magnetic field splits the degeneracy between the transverse shear modes. Using linear response theory, we then compute the retarded response functions. In particular, it turns out that the correlation between charge and the energy fluctuations will no longer vanish, even at zero chemical potential. By use of the response functions, we also derive the relevant Kubo formulas for the transport coefficients.
Magnetic fields from second-order interactions
Osano, Bob
2014-01-01
It is well known that when two types of perturbations interact in cosmological perturbation theory, the interaction may lead to the generation of a third type. In this article we discuss the generation of magnetic fields from such interactions. We determine conditions under which the interaction of a first-order magnetic field with a first-order scalar-or vector-, or tensor-perturbations would lead to the generation of second order magnetic field. The analysis is done in a covariant-index-fre...
The Quantization of Gravity Dynamic Approach
Vergeles, S N
1996-01-01
On the basis of dynamic quantization method we build in this paper a new mathematically correct quantization scheme of gravity. In the frame of this scheme we develop a canonical formalism in tetrad-connection variables in 4-D theory of pure gravity. In this formalism the regularized quantized fields corresponding to the classical tetrad and connection fields are constructed. It is shown, that the regularized fields satisfy to general covariant equations of motion, which have the classical form. In order to solve these equations the iterative procedure is offered.
Magnetic Field Control of Combustion Dynamics
Barmina, I.; Valdmanis, R.; Zake, M.; Kalis, H.; Marinaki, M.; Strautins, U.
2016-08-01
Experimental studies and mathematical modelling of the effects of magnetic field on combustion dynamics at thermo-chemical conversion of biomass are carried out with the aim of providing control of the processes developing in the reaction zone of swirling flame. The joint research of the magnetic field effect on the combustion dynamics includes the estimation of this effect on the formation of the swirling flame dynamics, flame temperature and composition, providing analysis of the magnetic field effects on the flame characteristics. The results of experiments have shown that the magnetic field exerts the influence on the flow velocity components by enhancing a swirl motion in the flame reaction zone with swirl-enhanced mixing of the axial flow of volatiles with cold air swirl, by cooling the flame reaction zone and by limiting the thermo-chemical conversion of volatiles. Mathematical modelling of magnetic field effect on the formation of the flame dynamics confirms that the electromagnetic force, which is induced by the electric current surrounding the flame, leads to field-enhanced increase of flow vorticity by enhancing mixing of the reactants. The magnetic field effect on the flame temperature and rate of reactions leads to conclusion that field-enhanced increase of the flow vorticity results in flame cooling by limiting the chemical conversion of the reactants.
Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars
Istomin, Ya N
2016-01-01
The flow of a matter, accreting onto a magnetized neutron star, is accompanied by an electric current. The closing of the electric current occurs in the crust of a neutron stars in the polar region across the magnetic field. But the conductivity of the crust along the magnetic field greatly exceeds the conductivity across the field, so the current penetrates deep into the crust down up to the super conducting core. The magnetic field, generated by the accretion current, increases greatly with the depth of penetration due to the Hall conductivity of the crust is also much larger than the transverse conductivity. As a result, the current begins to flow mainly in the toroidal direction, creating a strong longitudinal magnetic field, far exceeding an initial dipole field. This field exists only in the narrow polar tube of $r$ width, narrowing with the depth, i.e. with increasing of the crust density $\\rho$, $r\\propto \\rho^{-1/4}$. Accordingly, the magnetic field $B$ in the tube increases with the depth, $B\\propto...
Dispersion of Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds
Hildebrand, Roger H; Dotson, Jessie L; Houde, Martin; Vaillancourt, John E
2008-01-01
We describe a method for determining the dispersion of magnetic field vectors about local mean fields in turbulent molecular clouds. The method is designed to avoid inaccurate estimates of MHD or turbulent dispersion - and hence to avoid inaccurate estimates of field strengths - due to large-scale, non-turbulent field structure when using the well-known method of Chandrasekhar and Fermi. Our method also provides accurate, independent estimates of the turbulent to mean magnetic field strength ratio. We discuss applications to the molecular clouds Orion, M17, and DR21.
Reversals of the Earth's Magnetic Field
Champion, Duene E.
J.A. Jacobs of Cambridge University has written a concise, authoritative, and up-todate text on reversals of the earth's magnetic field. Chapter 1 is a concise summary of the basic attributes of the geomagnetic field and its behavior in different time frames. It explains spherical harmonic analysis of the field and presents the history of acquisition of the data that best represent the recent field. Lastly, it includes a short summary of the origin and electrodynamics of the magnetic field, outlining the current theoretical basis for its generation.
Magnetic field considerations in fusion power plant environs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liemohn, H.B.; Lessor, D.L.; Duane, B.H.
1976-09-01
A summary of magnetic field production mechanisms and effects is given. Discussions are included on the following areas: (1) stray magnetic and electric fields from tokamaks, (2) methods for reducing magnetic fields, (3) economics of magnetic field reductions, (4) forces on magnetizable objects near magnetic confinement fusion reactors, (5) electric field transients in tokamaks, (6) attenuation and decay of electromagnetic fields, and (7) magnetic field transients from tokamak malfunctions.
Experimental evidence for a two-dimensional quantized Hall insulator
Hilke, M.; Shahar, D.; Song, S. H.; Tsui, D. C.; Xie, Y. H.; Monroe, Don
1998-10-01
The general theoretical definition of an insulator is a material in which the conductivity vanishes at the absolute zero of temperature. In classical insulators, such as materials with a band gap, vanishing conductivities lead to diverging resistivities. But other insulators can show more complex behaviour, particularly in the presence of a high magnetic field, where different components of the resistivity tensor can display different behaviours: the magnetoresistance diverges as the temperature approaches absolute zero, but the transverse (Hall) resistance remains finite. Such a system is known as a Hall insulator. Here we report experimental evidence for a quantized Hall insulator in a two-dimensional electron system-confined in a semiconductor quantum well. The Hall resistance is quantized in the quantum unit of resistance h/e2, where h is Planck's constant and e the electronic charge. At low fields, the sample reverts to being a normal Hall insulator.
Magnetic fields in early protostellar disk formation
González-Casanova, Diego F; Lazarian, Alexander
2016-01-01
We consider formation of accretion disks from a realistically turbulent molecular gas using 3D MHD simulations. In particular, we analyze the effect of the fast turbulent reconnection described by the Lazarian & Vishniac (1999) model for the removal of magnetic flux from a disk. With our numerical simulations we demonstrate how the fast reconnection enables protostellar disk formation resolving the so-called "magnetic braking catastrophe". In particular, we provide a detailed study of the dynamics of a 0.5 M$_\\odot$ protostar and the formation of its disk for up to several thousands years. We measure the evolution of the mass, angular momentum, magnetic field, and turbulence around the star. We consider effects of two processes that strongly affect the magnetic transfer of angular momentum, both of which are based on turbulent reconnection: the first, "reconnection diffusion", removes the magnetic flux from the disk, the other involves the change of the magnetic field's topology, but does not change the a...
Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows
Furlanetto, S; Furlanetto, Steven; Loeb, Abraham
2001-01-01
Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function of size and magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We generically find that by a redshift z=3, about 5-20% of the IGM volume is filled by magnetic fields with an energy density >10% of the mean thermal energy density of a photo-ionized IGM (at T=10^4 K). As massive galaxies and X-ray clusters condense out of the magnetized IGM, the adiabatic compression of the magnetic field could result in the field strength observed in these systems without a need for further dynamo amplification. The intergalactic magnetic field could also provide a nonthermal contribution to the pressure of the photo-ionized gas that may account for the claimed discrepancy between the simulated and observed Doppler width distributions of the Ly-al...
The CMS Magnetic Field Map Performance
Klyukhin, VI; Sarycheva, L I; Klyukhin, V I; Ball, A; Gaddi, A; Amapane, N; Gerwig, H; Andreev, V; Cure, B; Mulders, M; Loveless, R; Karimaki, V; Popescu, S; Herve, A
2010-01-01
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive featuresinclude a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6 m diameter by 12.5 m long free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. During two major tests of the CMS magnet the magnetic flux density was measured inside the coil in a cylinder of 3.448 m diameter and 7 m length with a specially designed field-mapping pneumatic machine as well as in 140 discrete regions of the CMS yoke with NMR probes, 3-D Hall sensors and flux-loops. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet has been developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. A volume based representation of the magnetic field is used to provide the CMS simulation and reconstruction software with the magnetic field ...
Compact Electric- And Magnetic-Field Sensor
Winterhalter, Daniel; Smith, Edward
1994-01-01
Compact sensor measures both electric and magnetic fields. Includes both short electric-field dipole and search-coil magnetometer. Three mounted orthogonally providing triaxial measurements of electromagnetic field at frequencies ranging from near 0 to about 10 kHz.
High Field Pulse Magnets with New Materials
Li, L.; Lesch, B.; Cochran, V. G.; Eyssa, Y.; Tozer, S.; Mielke, C. H.; Rickel, D.; van Sciver, S. W.; Schneider-Muntau, H. J.
2004-11-01
High performance pulse magnets using the combination of CuNb conductor and Zylon fiber composite reinforcement with bore sizes of 24, 15 and 10 mm have been designed, manufactured and tested to destruction. The magnets successfully reached the peak fields of 64, 70 and 77.8 T respectively with no destruction. Failures occurred near the end flanges at the layer. The magnet design, manufacturing and testing, and the mode of the failure are described and analyzed.
Light Polarization Using Ferrofluids and Magnetic Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Tufaile
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We are presenting an experimental setup based on polarized light, enabling the visualization of the magnetic field of magnetic assemblies using a Hele-Shaw cell filled with ferrofluids. We have simulated the observed patterns with hypergeometric polynomials.
The magnetic field of zeta Orionis A
Blazère, A; Tkachenko, A; Bouret, J -C; Rivinius, Th
2015-01-01
Zeta Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in zeta Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field.Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract the magnetic information. We confirm that zeta Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component zeta Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a per...
Studies of Solar Vector Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jingxiu
2011-01-01
In this article, we report a few advances in the studies based on the solar vector magnetic field observations which were carried out mainly with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope at the Huairou Solar Observing Station in the 1990s. （1） We developed necessary methodology and concepts in vector magnetogram analysis （Wang et al. 1996）. For the first time, we proposed to use the photospheric free magnetic energy to quantify the major flare productivity of solar active regions （ARs）, and it had been proved to be the best parameter in representing the major flare activity. （2） We revealed that there was always a dominant sense of magnetic shear in a given AR （Wang 1994）, which was taken as the premise of the helicity calculation in ARs; we made the first quantitative estimation of magnetic helicity evolution in ARs （Wang 1996）. （3） We identified the first group of evidence of magnetic reconnection in the lower solar atmosphere with vector magnetic field observations and proposed a two-step reconnection flare model to interpret the observed association of flux cancellation and flares （Wang and Shi 1993）. Efforts to quantify the major flare productivity of super active regions with vector magnetic field observations have been also taken.
High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1975-01-01
The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenological...
Zero modes in finite range magnetic fields
Adam, C; Nash, C
2000-01-01
We find a class of Fermion zero modes of Abelian Dirac operators in three dimensional Euclidean space where the gauge potentials and the related magnetic fields are nonzero only in a finite space region.
Axion production from primordial magnetic fields
Kamada, Kohei; Nakai, Yuichiro
2017-07-01
Production of axionlike particles (ALPs) by primordial magnetic fields may have significant impacts on cosmology. We discuss the production of ALPs in the presence of the primordial magnetic fields. We find a region of the ALP mass and photon coupling which realizes the observed properties of the dark matter with appropriate initial conditions for the magnetic fields. This region may be interesting in light of recent indications for the 3.5 keV lines from galaxy clusters. For a small axion mass, a region of previously allowed parameter spaces is excluded by overproduction of ALPs as a hot/warm dark matter component. Since the abundance of ALPs strongly depends on the initial conditions of primordial magnetic fields, our results provide implications for scenarios of magnetogenesis.
Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field
2006-01-01
Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)
A Topology for the Penumbral Magnetic Fields
Almeida, J Sanchez
2009-01-01
We describe a scenario for the topology of the magnetic field in penumbrae that accounts for recent observations showing upflows, downflows, and reverse magnetic polarities. According to our conjecture, short narrow magnetic loops fill the penumbral photosphere. Flows along these arched field lines are responsible for both the Evershed effect and the convective transport. This scenario seems to be qualitatively consistent with most existing observations, including the dark cores in penumbral filaments reported by Scharmer et al. Each bright filament with dark core would be a system of two paired convective rolls with the dark core tracing the common lane where the plasma sinks down. The magnetic loops would have a hot footpoint in one of the bright filament and a cold footpoint in the dark core. The scenario fits in most of our theoretical prejudices (siphon flows along field lines, presence of overturning convection, drag of field lines by downdrafts, etc). If the conjecture turns out to be correct, the mild...
Local Magnetic Field Role in Star Formation
Koch, Patrick M; Ho, Paul T P; Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M; Chen, Huei-Ru V; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Hua-bai; Li, Zhi-Yun; Liu, Hau-Yu B; Padovani, Marco; Qiu, Keping; Rao, Ramprasad; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Frau, Pau; Chen, How-Huan; Ching, Tao-Chung
2015-01-01
We highlight distinct and systematic observational features of magnetic field morphologies in polarized submm dust continuum. We illustrate this with specific examples and show statistical trends from a sample of 50 star-forming regions.
Revisiting holographic superconductor with Magnetic Fields
Momeni, Davood
2014-01-01
We study the effect of the bulk magnetic field (charge) on scalar condensation using an analytical approach of matching. An AdS-magnetized black hole solution has been used as a probe solution of normal phase of a strongly coupled condensed matter system on boundary. In the zero temperature limit of the black hole and infinite temperature, we show that there exists a critical magnetic field and so, the Meissner's effect presented. We compare this analytical result with our previous variational approach. By studying the different between heat capacities of the normal and superconducting phases near the critical point, we show that this thermodynamic quantity becomes divergent as the Rutgers formula predicted. Mathematical pole of Rutgers formula gives us a maximum for magnetic field which at this value, the system backs to the normal phase. In zero temperature we investigate exact series solutions of the field equations using an appropriate boundary conditions set. We show that conformal dimension is fixed by ...
A Holographic Bound on Cosmic Magnetic Fields
McInnes, Brett
2015-01-01
Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary) times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark-gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields (scaled by the squared temperature) in these circumstances, and that the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetism come close to attaining that bound.
Magnetic Fields in Limb Solar Flares
Lozitsky, V. G.; Lozitska, N. I.; Botygina, O. A.
2013-02-01
Two limb solar flares, of 14 July 2005 and 19 July 2012, of importance X1.2 and M7.7, are analyzed at present work. Magnetic field strength in named flares are investigated by Stokes I±V profiles of Hα and D3 HeI lines. There are direct evidences to the magnetic field inhomogeneity in flares, in particular, non-paralelism of bisectors in I+V and I-V profiles. In some flare places, the local maximums of bisectors splitting were found in both lines. If these bisector splittings are interpreted as Zeeman effect manifestation, the following magnetic field strengths reach up to 2200 G in Hα and 1300 G in D3. According to calculations, the observed peculiarities of line profiles may indicate the existence of optically thick emissive small-scale elements with strong magnetic fields and lowered temperature.
Construction of high magnetic field facilities approved
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
@@ On 25 January, the National Development and Reform Commission gave the green light to a proposal to construct high magnetic field facilities for experimental use. The suggestion was jointly submitted by the Ministry of Education and CAS.
The Magnetic Field of Helmholtz Coils
Berridge, H. J. J.
1975-01-01
Describes the magnetic field of Helmholtz coils qualitatively and then provides the basis for a quantitative expression. Since the mathematical calculations are very involved, a computer program for solving the mathematical expression is presented and explained. (GS)
EIT waves and coronal magnetic field diagnostics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN PengFei
2009-01-01
Magnetic field in the solar lower atmosphere can be measured by the use of the Zeeman and Hanle effects. By contrast, the coronal magnetic field well above the solar surface, which directly controls various eruptive phenomena, can not be precisely measured with the traditional techniques. Several attempts are being made to probe the coronal magnetic field, such as force-free extrapolation based on the photospheric magnetograms, gyroresonance radio emissions, and coronal seismology based on MHD waves in the corona. Compared to the waves trapped in the localized coronal loops, EIT waves are the only global-scale wave phenomenon, and thus are the ideal tool for the coronal global seismology. In this paper, we review the observations and modelings of EIT waves, and illustrate how they can be applied to probe the global magnetic field in the corona.
High-Field Superconducting Magnets Supporting PTOLEMY
Hopkins, Ann; Luo, Audrey; Osherson, Benjamin; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Cohen, Adam
2013-10-01
The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) is an experiment planned to collect data on Big Bang relic neutrinos, which are predicted to be amongst the oldest and smallest particles in the universe. Currently, a proof-of-principle prototype is being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to test key technologies associated with the experiment. A prominent technology in the experiment is the Magnetic Adiabatic Collimation with an Electrostatic Filter (MAC-E filter), which guides tritium betas along magnetic field lines generated by superconducting magnets while deflecting those of lower energies. B field mapping is performed to ensure the magnets produce a minimum field at the midpoint of the configuration of the magnets and to verify accuracy of existing models. Preliminary tests indicate the required rapid decrease in B field strength from the bore of the more powerful 3.35 T magnet, with the field dropping to 0.18 T approximately 0.5 feet from the outermost surface of the magnet.
Magnetic Field Amplification in Young Galaxies
Schober, Jennifer; Klessen, Ralf S
2013-01-01
The Universe at present is highly magnetized, with fields of the order of a few 10^-5 G and coherence lengths larger than 10 kpc in typical galaxies like the Milky Way. We propose that the magnetic field was amplified to this values already during the formation and the early evolution of the galaxies. Turbulence in young galaxies is driven by accretion as well as by supernova (SN) explosions of the first generation of stars. The small-scale dynamo can convert the turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy and amplify very weak primordial magnetic seed fields on short timescales. The amplification takes place in two phases: in the kinematic phase the magnetic field grows exponentially, with the largest growth on the smallest non-resistive scale. In the following non-linear phase the magnetic energy is shifted towards larger scales until the dynamo saturates on the turbulent forcing scale. To describe the amplification of the magnetic field quantitatively we model the microphysics in the interstellar medium ...
Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded
1977-01-01
The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...
Magnetic fields and massive star formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)
2014-09-10
Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.
Core Processes: Earth's eccentric magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Finlay, Chris
2012-01-01
Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause.......Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause....
Orbit stability in billiards in magnetic field
Kovács, Z
1997-01-01
We study the stability properties of orbits in dispersing billiards in a homogeneous magnetic field by using a modified formalism based on the Bunimovich-Sinai curvature (horocycle method). We identify simple periodic orbits that can be stabilized by the magnetic field in the four-disk model and the square-lattice Lorentz gas. The stable orbits can play a key role in determining the transport properties of these models.
Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio
2015-01-01
The 2-dimensional charge transport with parallel (in plane) magnetic field is considered from the physical and mathematical point of view. To this end, we start with the magnetic field parallel to the plane of charge transport, in sharp contrast to the configuration described by the theorems of Aharonov and Casher where the magnetic field is perpendicular. We explicitly show that the specific form of the arising equation enforce the respective field solution to fulfil the Majorana condition. Consequently, as soon any physical system is represented by this equation, the rise of fields with Majorana type behaviour is immediately explained and predicted. In addition, there exists a quantized particular phase that removes the action of the vector potential producing interesting effects. Such new effects are able to explain due the geometrical framework introduced, several phenomenological results recently obtained in the area of spintronics and quantum electronic devices. The quantum ring as spin filter is worked...
Magnetic Field Measurement on a Refined Kicker
Fan, Tai-Ching; Lin, Fu-Yuan
2005-01-01
To prepare for the operation of top-up mode and increase the efficiency of injection at storage ring, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) has upgraded the kicker magnets and power supply. We have built up a new magnetic field measurement system to test the kicker. This system, including a search coil and a coil loop, can map the field and take the first integral of field automatically. We also simulate the trajectory of electron beam by pulsed wire method of field measurement. We analyze the performance of the kicker system in this paper.
Biological systems in high magnetic field
Yamagishi, A.
1990-12-01
Diamagnetic orientation of biological systems have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. Fibrinogen, one of blood proteins, were polymerized in static high magnetic fields up to 8 T. Clotted gels composed of oriented fibrin fibers were obtained even in a field as low as 1 T. Red blood cells (RBC) show full orientation with their plane parallel to the applied field of 4 T. It is confirmed experimentally that the magnetic orientation of RBC is caused by diamagnetic anisotropy. Full orientation is also obtained with blood platelet in a field of 3 T.
Cooling Curve of Strange Star in Strong Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xiao-Qin; LUO Zhi-Quan
2008-01-01
In this paper, firstly, we investigate the neutrino emissivity from quark Urca process in strong magnetic field. Then, we discuss the heat capacity of strange stars in strong magnetic field. Finally, we give the cooling curve in strong magnetic field. In order to make a comparison, we also give the corresponding cooling curve in the case of null magnetic field. It turns out that strange stars cool faster in strong magnetic field than that without magnetic field.
SU(3) Polyakov linear-σ model in an external magnetic field
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Magdy, Niseem
2014-07-01
In the present work, we analyze the effects of an external magnetic field on the chiral critical temperature Tc of strongly interacting matter. In doing this, we can characterize the magnetic properties of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) strongly interacting matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We investigate this in the framework of the SU(3) Polyakov linear sigma model (PLSM). To this end, we implement two approaches representing two systems, in which the Polyakov-loop potential added to PLSM is either renormalized or non-normalized. The effects of Landau quantization on the strongly interacting matter are conjectured to reduce the electromagnetic interactions between quarks. In this case, the color interactions will be dominant and increasing, which in turn can be achieved by increasing the Polyakov-loop fields. Obviously, each of them equips us with a different understanding about the critical temperature under the effect of an external magnetic field. In both systems, we obtain a paramagnetic response. In one system, we find that Tc increases with increasing magnetic field. In the other one, Tc significantly decreases with increasing magnetic field.
Combustion instability mitigation by magnetic fields
Jocher, Agnes; Pitsch, Heinz; Gomez, Thomas; Bonnety, Jérôme; Legros, Guillaume
2017-06-01
The present interdisciplinary study combines electromagnetics and combustion to unveil an original and basic experiment displaying a spontaneous flame instability that is mitigated as the non-premixed sooting flame experiences a magnetic perturbation. This magnetic instability mitigation is reproduced by direct numerical simulations to be further elucidated by a flow stability analysis. A key role in the stabilization process is attributed to the momentum and thermochemistry coupling that the magnetic force, acting mainly on paramagnetic oxygen, contributes to sustain. The spatial local stability analysis based on the numerical simulations shows that the magnetic field tends to reduce the growth rates of small flame perturbations.
Non-Hydrogenic Rydberg Atroms in Magnetic Fields
Dando, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.; Jans, W.; Schweizer, W.
The classical and quantal dynamics of non-hydrogenic Rydberg atoms in magnetic fields are investigated. Previous attempts to infer classical behaviour from quantum properties produced conflicting results: at low scaled energies (ɛ = -0.5) the nearest-neighbour statistics (NNS) were found to be at the chaotic (Wigner) limit while quantum phase-space distributions suggested a high degree of regularity. Here the classical limit is investigated directly by solving the equations of motion of the Diamagnetic Kepler problem (DKP) with an additional non-Coulombic model potential. It is found that typically trajectories are, over a long time-scale, ergodic. However over a shorter time-scale--in between collisions with the core--classical trajectories remain confined on the tori of the DKP. The origin of a well-known resonance in the NNS of hydrogen at ɛ = -0.316 is clarified by the comparison with the non-hydrogenic behaviour. However, the classical model only partially explains the quantum behaviour. The difficulties of quantizing such a system are discussed.
Wuhan pulsed high magnetic field center
Li, Liang; Peng, Tao; Ding, Honfa; Han, Xiaotao; Ding, Tonghai; Chen, Jin; Wang, Junfeng; Xie, Jianfeng; Wang, Shaoliang; Duan, Xianzhong; Wang, Cheng; Herlach, Fritz; Vanacken, Johan; Pan, Yuan
2008-01-01
Wuhan pulsed high magnetic field facility is under development. Magnets of bore sizes from 12 to 34 mm with the peak field in the range of 50 to 80 T have been designed. The pulsed power supplies consists of a 12 MJ, 25 kV capacitor bank and a 100 MVA/100 MJ flywheel pulse generator. A prototype 1 MJ, 25 kV capacitor bank is under construction. Five magnets wound with CuNb wire and copper wire reinforced internally with Zylon fiber composites and externally with stainless steel shells have be...
Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) Hardware Test
Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Reed, Dave; Wang, Chung; Stuckey, Bob; Cox, Dave
1999-01-01
The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Provide insight into water delivery in microgravity and determine optimal germination paper wetting for subsequent seed germination in microgravity; (2) Observe the behavior of water exposed to a strong localized magnetic field in microgravity; and (3) Simulate the flow of fixative (using water) through the hardware. The Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) is a new piece of hardware slated to fly on the Space Shuttle in early 2001. MFA is designed to expose plant tissue to magnets in a microgravity environment, deliver water to the plant tissue, record photographic images of plant tissue, and deliver fixative to the plant tissue.
Wuhan pulsed high magnetic field center
Li, Liang; Peng, Tao; Ding, Honfa; Han, Xiaotao; Ding, Tonghai; Chen, Jin; Wang, Junfeng; Xie, Jianfeng; Wang, Shaoliang; DUAN, Xianzhong; Wang, Cheng; Herlach, Fritz; Vanacken, Johan; Pan, Yuan
2008-01-01
Wuhan pulsed high magnetic field facility is under development. Magnets of bore sizes from 12 to 34 mm with the peak field in the range of 50 to 80 T have been designed. The pulsed power supplies consists of a 12 MJ, 25 kV capacitor bank and a 100 MVA/100 MJ flywheel pulse generator. A prototype 1 MJ, 25 kV capacitor bank is under construction. Five magnets wound with CuNb wire and copper wire reinforced internally with Zylon fiber composites and externally with stainless steel shells have be...
New electric field in asymmetric magnetic reconnection.
Malakit, K; Shay, M A; Cassak, P A; Ruffolo, D
2013-09-27
We present a theory and numerical evidence for the existence of a previously unexplored in-plane electric field in collisionless asymmetric magnetic reconnection. This electric field, dubbed the "Larmor electric field," is associated with finite Larmor radius effects and is distinct from the known Hall electric field. Potentially, it could be an important indicator for the upcoming Magnetospheric Multiscale mission to locate reconnection sites as we expect it to appear on the magnetospheric side, pointing earthward, at the dayside magnetopause reconnection site.
Huang, Hao-Ting; Lai, Mei-Feng; Hou, Yun-Fang; Wei, Zung-Hang
2015-05-13
We investigated the influence of magnetic domain walls and magnetic fields on the thermal conductivity of suspended magnetic nanowires. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires was obtained using steady-state Joule heating to measure the change in resistance caused by spontaneous heating. The results showed that the thermal conductivity coefficients of straight and wavy magnetic nanowires decreased with an increase in the magnetic domain wall number, implying that the scattering between magnons and domain walls hindered the heat transport process. In addition, we proved that the magnetic field considerably reduced the thermal conductivity of a magnetic nanowire. The influence of magnetic domain walls and magnetic fields on the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline magnetic nanowires can be attributed to the scattering of long-wavelength spin waves mediated by intergrain exchange coupling.
Where is magnetic anisotropy field pointing to?
Gutowski, Marek W
2013-01-01
The desired result of magnetic anisotropy investigations is the determination of value(s) of various anisotropy constant(s). This is sometimes difficult, especially when the precise knowledge of saturation magnetization is required, as it happens in ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies. In such cases we usually resort to `trick' and fit our experimental data to the quantity called \\emph{anisotropy field}, which is strictly proportional to the ratio of the searched anisotropy constant and saturation magnetization. Yet, this quantity is scalar, simply a number, and is therefore of little value for modeling or simulations of the magnetostatic or micromagnetic structures. Here we show how to `translate' the values of magnetic anisotropy constants into the complete vector of magnetic anisotropy field. Our derivation is rigorous and covers the most often encountered cases, from uniaxial to cubic anisotropy.
Bootstrapping the Coronal Magnetic Field with STEREO
Aschwanden, Markus J.
2010-05-01
The 3D coronal magnetic field obtained from stereoscopically triangulated loops has been compared with standard photospheric magnetogram extrapolations. We found a large misalignment of 20-40 deg, depending on the complexity of an AR (Sandman et al. 2009; DeRosa et al. 2009). These studies prove that the magnetic field in the photosphere is not force-free and fundamentally cannot reproduce the coronal magnetic field. Bootstrapping with coronal loop 3D geometries are required to improve modeling of the coronal field. Such coronal field bootstrapping methods are currently developed using stereoscopically triangulated loops from STEREO/EUVI and preliminary results show already a significantly reduced misalignment of 10-20 deg.
Critical Magnetic Field Determination of Superconducting Materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canabal, A.; Tajima, T.; /Los Alamos; Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC; Yamamoto, T.; /Tsukuba, Natl. Res. Lab. Metrol.
2011-11-04
Superconducting RF technology is becoming more and more important. With some recent cavity test results showing close to or even higher than the critical magnetic field of 170-180 mT that had been considered a limit, it is very important to develop a way to correctly measure the critical magnetic field (H{sup RF}{sub c}) of superconductors in the RF regime. Using a 11.4 GHz, 50-MW, <1 {mu}s, pulsed power source and a TE013-like mode copper cavity, we have been measuring critical magnetic fields of superconductors for accelerator cavity applications. This device can eliminate both thermal and field emission effects due to a short pulse and no electric field at the sample surface. A model of the system is presented in this paper along with a discussion of preliminary experimental data.
Fast Reconnection of Weak Magnetic Fields
Zweibel, Ellen G.
1998-01-01
Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids.
Growth of Czochralski silicon under magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Yuesheng; LIU Caichi; WANG Haiyun; ZHANG Weilian; YANG Qingxin; LI Yangxian; REN Binyan; LIU Fugui
2004-01-01
Growth of Czochralski (CZ) silicon crystals under the magnetic field induced by a cusp-shaped permanent magnet of NdFeB has been investigated. It is found that the mass transport in silicon melt was controlled by its diffusion while the magnetic intensity at the edge of a crucible was over 0.15 T. In comparison with the growth of conventional CZ silicon without magnetic field, the resistivity homogeneity of the CZ silicon under the magnetic field was improved. Furthermore, the Marangoni convection which has a significant influence on the control of oxygen concentration was observed on the surface of silicon melt. It is suggested that the crystal growth mechanism in magnetic field was similar to that in micro-gravity if a critical value was reached, named the growth of equivalent micro-gravity. The relationship of the equivalent micro-gravity and the magnetic intensity was derived as g=(v0/veff)g0. Finally, the orders of the equivalent micro-gravity corresponding to two crucibles with characteristic sizes were calculated.
Simulating magnetic fields in the Antennae galaxies
Kotarba, H; Naab, T; Johansson, P H; Dolag, K; Lesch, H
2009-01-01
We present self-consistent high-resolution simulations of NGC4038/4039 (the "Antennae galaxies") including star formation, supernova feedback and magnetic fields performed with the N-body/SPH code Gadget, in which hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics are followed with the SPH method. We vary the initial magnetic field in the progenitor disks from 1 nG to 1 muG. At the time of the best match with the central region of the Antennae system the magnetic field has been amplified by compression and shear flows to an equilibrium field of approximately 10 muG, independent of the initial seed field. This simulations are a proof of the principle that galaxy mergers are efficient drivers for the cosmic evolution of magnetic fields. We present a detailed analysis of the magnetic field structure in the central overlap region. Simulated radio and polarization maps are in good morphological and quantitative agreement with the observations. In particular, the two cores with the highest synchrotron intensity and ridges of r...
Magnetic Field Transport in Accretion Disks
Jafari, Amir; Vishniac, Ethan
2017-06-01
The most plausible theories for launching astrophysical jets rely on strong magnetic fields at the inner parts of some accretion disks. An internal dynamo can in principle generate small scale magnetic fields in situ but generating a large scale field in a disk seems a difficult task in the dynamo theories. In fact, as far as numerous numerical experiments indicate, a dynamo-generated field in general would not be coherent enough over the large length scales of order the disk's radius. Instead, a large scale poloidal field dragged in from the environment, and compressed by the accretion, provides a more promising possibility. The difficulty in the latter picture, however, arises from the reconnection of the radial field component across the mid-plane which annihilates the field faster than it is dragged inward by the accretion. We suggest that a combination of different effects, including magnetic buoyancy and turbulent pumping, is responsible for the vertical transport of the field lines toward the surface of the disk. The radial component of the poloidal field vanishes at the mid-plane, which efficiently impedes reconnection, and grows exponentially toward the surface where it can become much larger than the vertical field component. This allows the poloidal field to be efficiently advected to small radii until the allowed bending angle drops to of order unity, and the field can drive a strong outflow.
Superconductivity in Strong Magnetic Field (Greater Than Upper Critical Field)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tessema, G.X.; Gamble, B.K.; Skove, M.J.; Lacerda, A.H.; Mielke, C.H.
1998-08-22
The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, funded by the National Science Foundation and other US federal Agencies, has in recent years built a wide range of magnetic fields, DC 25 to 35 Tesla, short pulse 50 - 60 Tesla, and quasi-continuous 60 Tesla. Future plans are to push the frontiers to 45 Tesla DC and 70 to 100 Tesla pulse. This user facility, is open for national and international users, and creates an excellent tool for materials research (metals, semiconductors, superconductors, biological systems ..., etc). Here we present results of a systematic study of the upper critical field of a novel superconducting material which is considered a promising candidate for the search for superconductivity beyond H{sub c2} as proposed by several new theories. These theories predict that superconductors with low carrier density can reenter the superconducting phase beyond the conventional upper critical field H{sub c2}. This negates the conventional thinking that superconductivity and magnetic fields are antagonistic.
Superfield extended BRST quantization in general coordinates
Geyer, B; Lavrov, P M; Moshin, P Y
2004-01-01
We propose a superfield formalism of Lagrangian BRST-antiBRST quantization of arbitrary gauge theories in general coordinates with the base manifold of fields and antifields desribed in terms of both bosonic and fermionic variables.
Study of marine magnetic field
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Bhattacharya, G.C.
(COB) is again both a basic scientific requirement as well at some places is a requirement under the UNCLOS related Legal Continental Shelf demarcation purpose. In the oceanic areas, the marine magnetic studies are one of the essential tools... oceans increased, more and more deviations from this simplified model, such as propagating ridges and overlapping spreading centers were discovered. These observations enabled the study of new aspects of seafloor spreading process beyond the initial...
Magnetic field amplification in turbulent astrophysical plasmas
Federrath, Christoph
2016-01-01
Magnetic fields play an important role in astrophysical accretion discs, and in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. They drive jets, suppress fragmentation in star-forming clouds and can have a significant impact on the accretion rate of stars. However, the exact amplification mechanisms of cosmic magnetic fields remain relatively poorly understood. Here I start by reviewing recent advances in the numerical and theoretical modelling of the 'turbulent dynamo', which may explain the origin of galactic and inter-galactic magnetic fields. While dynamo action was previously investigated in great detail for incompressible plasmas, I here place particular emphasis on highly compressible astrophysical plasmas, which are characterised by strong density fluctuations and shocks, such as the interstellar medium. I find that dynamo action works not only in subsonic plasmas, but also in highly supersonic, compressible plasmas, as well as for low and high magnetic Prandtl numbers. I further present new numerical simu...
The Magnetic Field of Solar Spicules
Centeno, R; Ramos, A Asensio
2009-01-01
Determining the magnetic field of solar spicules is vital for developing adequate models of these plasma jets, which are thought to play a key role in the thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure of the chromosphere. Here we report on magnetic spicule properties in a very quiet region of the off-limb solar atmosphere, as inferred from new spectropolarimetric observations in the HeI 10830 A triplet. We have used a novel inversion code for Stokes profiles caused by the joint action of atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects (HAZEL) to interpret the observations. Magnetic fields as strong as 40G were unambiguously detected in a very localized area of the slit, which may represent a possible lower value of the field strength of organized network spicules.
QCD thermodynamics and magnetization in nonzero magnetic field
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Ezzelarab, Nada; Shalaby, Asmaa G
2016-01-01
In nonzero magnetic field, the magnetic properties and thermodynamics of the quantum-chromodynamic (QCD) matter is studied in the hadron resonance gas and the Polyakov linear-sigma models and compared with recent lattice calculations. Both models are fairly suited to describe the degrees of freedom in the hadronic phase. The partonic ones are only accessible by the second model. It is found that the QCD matter has paramagnetic properties, which monotonically depend on the temperature and are not affected by the hadron-quark phase-transition. Furthermore, raising the magnetic field strength increases the thermodynamic quantities, especially in the hadronic phase but reduces the critical temperature, i.e. inverse magnetic catalysis.
Zero-differential conductance of two-dimensional electrons in crossed electric and magnetic fields
Bykov, A. A.; Byrnes, Sean; Dietrich, Scott; Vitkalov, Sergey; Marchishin, I. V.; Dmitriev, D. V.
2013-02-01
An electronic state with zero-differential conductance is found in nonlinear response to an electric field E applied to two dimensional Corbino discs of highly mobile carriers placed in quantizing magnetic fields. The state occurs above a critical electric field E>Eth at low temperatures and is accompanied by an abrupt dip in the differential conductance. The proposed model considers a local instability of the electric field E as the origin of the observed phenomenon. Comparison between the observed electronic state and the state with zero differential resistance, occurring in Hall bar geometry, indicates that the nonlinear response of edge states and/or skipping orbits is not essential in the studied samples. The result confirms that quantal heating is the dominant nonlinear mechanism leading to electronic states with both zero differential resistance and conductance.
The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn
Ness, N. F.
1981-01-01
The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn and the characteristics of their magnetospheres, formed by interaction with the solar wind, are discussed. The origins of both magnetic fields are associated with a dynamo process deep in the planetary interior. The Jovian magnetosphere is analogous to that of a pulsar magnetosphere: a massive central body with a rapid rotation and an associated intense magnetic field. Its most distinctive feature is its magnetodisk of concentrated plasma and particle flux, and reduced magnetic field intensity. The magnetopause near the subsolar point has been observed at radial distances ranging over 50 to 100 Jovian radii, implying a relatively compressible obstacle to solar wind flow. The composition of an embedded current sheet within the magnetic tail is believed to be influenced by volcanic eruptions and emissions from Io. Spectral troughs of the Jovian radiation belts have been interpreted as possible ring particles. The Saturnian magnetosphere appears to be more like the earth in its topology. It is mainly characterized by a dipole axis parallel to the rotational axis of the planet and a magnetic field intensity much less than expected.
De Matos, C J; Matos, Clovis J. de; Becker, Robert E.
1999-01-01
It is extraordinarely difficult to detect the extremely weak gravitomagnetic (GM) field of even as large a body as the earth. To detect the GM field, the gravitational analog of an ordinary magnetic field, in a modest terrestrial laboratory should be that much more difficult. Here we show, however, that for certain superconductor configuration and topologies, it should be possible to detect a measurable GM field in the terrestrial laboratory, by using the properties of superconductors imposed by quantum mechanical requirements. In particular, we show that the GM Flux should be quantized in a superconductor with non-vanishing genus, just like the ordinary magnetic flux. And this magnetically induced, quantized GM Flux, for sufficiently high quantum number and favorable geometries, should be distinguishable from the effects produced by an ordinary magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escobar, M.; Meyerovich, A. E., E-mail: Alexander-Meyerovich@uri.edu [University of Rhode Island, Department of Physics (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss transport of particles along random rough surfaces in quantum size effect conditions. As an intriguing application, we analyze gravitationally quantized ultracold neutrons in rough waveguides in conjunction with GRANIT experiments (ILL, Grenoble). We present a theoretical description of these experiments in the biased diffusion approximation for neutron mirrors with both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) roughness. All system parameters collapse into a single constant which determines the depletion times for the gravitational quantum states and the exit neutron count. This constant is determined by a complicated integral of the correlation function (CF) of surface roughness. The reliable identification of this CF is always hindered by the presence of long fluctuation-driven correlation tails in finite-size samples. We report numerical experiments relevant for the identification of roughness of a new GRANIT waveguide and make predictions for ongoing experiments. We also propose a radically new design for the rough waveguide.
Measurements of Photospheric and Chromospheric Magnetic Fields
Lagg, Andreas; Lites, Bruce; Harvey, Jack; Gosain, Sanjay; Centeno, Rebecca
2017-09-01
The Sun is replete with magnetic fields, with sunspots, pores and plage regions being their most prominent representatives on the solar surface. But even far away from these active regions, magnetic fields are ubiquitous. To a large extent, their importance for the thermodynamics in the solar photosphere is determined by the total magnetic flux. Whereas in low-flux quiet Sun regions, magnetic structures are shuffled around by the motion of granules, the high-flux areas like sunspots or pores effectively suppress convection, leading to a temperature decrease of up to 3000 K. The importance of magnetic fields to the conditions in higher atmospheric layers, the chromosphere and corona, is indisputable. Magnetic fields in both active and quiet regions are the main coupling agent between the outer layers of the solar atmosphere, and are therefore not only involved in the structuring of these layers, but also for the transport of energy from the solar surface through the corona to the interplanetary space. Consequently, inference of magnetic fields in the photosphere, and especially in the chromosphere, is crucial to deepen our understanding not only for solar phenomena such as chromospheric and coronal heating, flares or coronal mass ejections, but also for fundamental physical topics like dynamo theory or atomic physics. In this review, we present an overview of significant advances during the last decades in measurement techniques, analysis methods, and the availability of observatories, together with some selected results. We discuss the problems of determining magnetic fields at smallest spatial scales, connected with increasing demands on polarimetric sensitivity and temporal resolution, and highlight some promising future developments for their solution.
Magnetizing a complex plasma without a magnetic field
Kählert, H; Bonitz, M; Löwen, H; Greiner, F; Piel, A
2012-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a concept that mimics the magnetization of the heavy dust particles in a complex plasma while leaving the properties of the light species practically unaffected. It makes use of the frictional coupling between a complex plasma and the neutral gas, which allows to transfer angular momentum from a rotating gas column to a well-controlled rotation of the dust cloud. This induces a Coriolis force that acts exactly as the Lorentz force in a magnetic field. Experimental normal mode measurements for a small dust cluster with four particles show excellent agreement with theoretical predictions for a magnetized plasma.
Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peeraphatdit, Chorthip [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2009-01-01
Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific
Primordial magnetic fields from the string network
Horiguchi, Kouichirou; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Sugiyama, Naoshi
2016-08-01
Cosmic strings are a type of cosmic defect formed by a symmetry-breaking phase transition in the early universe. Individual strings would have gathered to build a network, and their dynamical motion would induce scalar-, vector-, and tensor-type perturbations. In this paper, we focus on the vector mode perturbations arising from the string network based on the one scale model and calculate the time evolution and the power spectrum of the associated magnetic fields. We show that the relative velocity between photon and baryon fluids induced by the string network can generate magnetic fields over a wide range of scales based on standard cosmology. We obtain the magnetic field spectrum before recombination as aB(k,z)~4×10Gμ/1k)3.5 gauss on super-horizon scales, and aB(k,z)~2.4×10Gμ/1k)2.5 gauss on sub-horizon scales in co-moving coordinates. This magnetic field grows up to the end of recombination, and has a final amplitude of approximately B~10Gμ gauss at the k~1 Mpc scale today. This field might serve as a seed for cosmological magnetic fields.
Lightning Magnetic Field Measurements around Langmuir Laboratory
Stock, M.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Aulich, G. D.; Edens, H. E.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.
2010-12-01
In the absence of artificial conductors, underground lightning transients are produced by diffusion of the horizontal surface magnetic field of a return stroke vertically downward into the conducting earth. The changing magnetic flux produces an orthogonal horizontal electric field, generating a dispersive, lossy transverse electromagnetic wave that penetrates a hundred meters or more into the ground according to the skin depth of the medium. In turn, the electric field produces currents that flow toward or away from the channel to ground depending on the stroke polarity. The underground transients can produce large radial horizontal potential gradients depending on the distance from the discharge and depth below the surface. In this study we focus on the surface excitation field. The goal of the work is to compare measurements of surface magnetic field waveforms B(t) at different distances from natural lightning discharges with simple and detailed models of the return stroke fields. In addition to providing input to the diffusion mechanism, the results should aid in further understanding return stroke field generation processes. The observational data are to be obtained using orthogonal sets of straightened Rogowski coils to measure magnetic field waveforms in N-S and E-W directions. The waveforms are sampled at 500 kS/s over 1.024 second time intervals and recorded directly onto secure digital cards. The instrument operates off of battery power for several days or weeks at a time in remote, unattended locations and measures magnetic field strengths of up to several tens of amperes/meter. The observations are being made in conjunction with collocated slow electric field change measurements and under good 3-D lightning mapping array (LMA) and fast electric field change coverage.
Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments
Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis
2017-01-01
We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and…
Galactic magnetic fields and hierarchical galaxy formation
Rodrigues, Luiz Felippe S; Fletcher, Andrew; Baugh, Carlton
2015-01-01
A framework is introduced for coupling the evolution of galactic magnetic fields sustained by the mean-field dynamo with the formation and evolution of galaxies in the cold dark matter cosmology. Estimates of the steady-state strength of the large-scale and turbulence magnetic fields from mean-field and fluctuation dynamo models are used together with galaxy properties predicted by semi-analytic models of galaxy formation for a population of spiral galaxies. We find that the field strength is mostly controlled by the evolving gas content of the galaxies. Thus, because of the differences in the implementation of the star formation law, feedback from supernovae and ram-pressure stripping, each of the galaxy formation models considered predicts a distribution of field strengths with unique features. The most prominent of them is the difference in typical magnetic fields strengths obtained for the satellite and central galaxies populations as well as the typical strength of the large-scale magnetic field in galax...
A deep dynamo generating Mercury's magnetic field.
Christensen, Ulrich R
2006-12-21
Mercury has a global magnetic field of internal origin and it is thought that a dynamo operating in the fluid part of Mercury's large iron core is the most probable cause. However, the low intensity of Mercury's magnetic field--about 1% the strength of the Earth's field--cannot be reconciled with an Earth-like dynamo. With the common assumption that Coriolis and Lorentz forces balance in planetary dynamos, a field thirty times stronger is expected. Here I present a numerical model of a dynamo driven by thermo-compositional convection associated with inner core solidification. The thermal gradient at the core-mantle boundary is subadiabatic, and hence the outer region of the liquid core is stably stratified with the dynamo operating only at depth, where a strong field is generated. Because of the planet's slow rotation the resulting magnetic field is dominated by small-scale components that fluctuate rapidly with time. The dynamo field diffuses through the stable conducting region, where rapidly varying parts are strongly attenuated by the skin effect, while the slowly varying dipole and quadrupole components pass to some degree. The model explains the observed structure and strength of Mercury's surface magnetic field and makes predictions that are testable with space missions both presently flying and planned.
Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments
Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis
2017-01-01
We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and…
Nonperturbative Physics in a Magnetic Field
de la Incera, Vivian
2010-01-01
Non-Perturbative Quantum Field Theory has played an important role in the study of phenomena where a fermion condensate can appear under certain physical conditions. The familiar phenomenon of electric superconductivity, the color superconductivity of very dense quark matter, and the chiral symmetry breaking of low energy effective chiral theories are all examples of that sort. Often one is interested in the behavior of these systems in the presence of an external magnetic field. In this talk I will outline the effects of an external magnetic field on theories with either fermion-fermion or fermion-antifermion condensates.
Opening the cusp. [using magnetic field topology
Crooker, N. U.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Gussenhoven, M. S.
1991-01-01
This paper discusses the magnetic field topology (determined by the superposition of dipole, image, and uniform fields) for mapping the cusp to the ionosphere. The model results are compared to both new and published observations and are then used to map the footprint of a flux transfer event caused by a time variation in the merging rate. It is shown that the cusp geometry distorts the field lines mapped from the magnetopause to yield footprints with dawn and dusk protrusions into the region of closed magnetic flux.
String field theory solution corresponding to constant background magnetic field
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Tomohiko
2016-01-01
Following the method recently proposed by Erler and Maccaferri, we construct solutions to the equation of motion of Witten's cubic string field theory, which describe constant magnetic field background. We study the boundary condition changing operators relevant to such background and calculate the operator product expansions of them. We obtain solutions whose classical action coincide with the Born-Infeld action.
Magnetic fields of young solar twins
Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Hackman, T.; Lehtinen, J.
2016-09-01
Aims: The goal of this work is to study the magnetic fields of six young solar-analogue stars both individually, and collectively, to search for possible magnetic field trends with age. If such trends are found, they can be used to understand magnetism in the context of stellar evolution of solar-like stars and to understand the past of the Sun and the solar system. This is also important for the atmospheric evolution of the inner planets, Earth in particular. Methods: We used Stokes IV data from two different spectropolarimeters, NARVAL and HARPSpol. The least-squares deconvolution multi-line technique was used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We then applied a modern Zeeman-Doppler imaging code in order to reconstruct the magnetic topology of all stars and the brightness distribution of one of our studied stars. Results: Our results show a significant decrease in the magnetic field strength and energy as the stellar age increases from 100 Myr to 250 Myr, while there is no significant age dependence of the mean magnetic field strength for stars with ages 250-650 Myr. The spread in the mean field strength between different stars is comparable to the scatter between different observations of individual stars. The meridional field component is weaker than the radial and azimuthal field components in 15 of the 16 magnetic maps. It turns out that 89-97% of the magnetic field energy is contained in l = 1 - 3. There is also no clear trend with age and distribution of field energy into poloidal/toroidal and axisymmetric/non-axisymmetric components within the sample. The two oldest stars in this study show an octupole component that is twice as strong as the quadrupole component. This is only seen in 1 of the 13 maps of the younger stars. One star, χ1 Ori, displays two field polarity switches during almost 5 yr of observations suggesting a magnetic cycle length of 2, 6, or 8 yr. Based on observations made with the HARPSpol instrument on the ESO 3.6 m
Magnetohydrodynamic experiments on cosmic magnetic fields
Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter
2008-01-01
It is widely known that cosmic magnetic fields, including the fields of planets, stars, and galaxies, are produced by the hydromagnetic dynamo effect in moving electrically conducting fluids. It is less well known that cosmic magnetic fields play also an active role in cosmic structure formation by enabling outward transport of angular momentum in accretion disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Considerable theoretical and computational progress has been made in understanding both processes. In addition to this, the last ten years have seen tremendous efforts in studying both effects in liquid metal experiments. In 1999, magnetic field self-excitation was observed in the large scale liquid sodium facilities in Riga and Karlsruhe. Recently, self-excitation was also obtained in the French "von Karman sodium" (VKS) experiment. An MRI-like mode was found on the background of a turbulent spherical Couette flow at the University of Maryland. Evidence for MRI as the first instability of an hydrodynamica...
Magnetic Field Amplification via Protostellar Disc Dynamos
Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Koldoba, Alexander V; Wasserman, Ira
2015-01-01
We model the generation of a magnetic field in a protostellar disc using an \\alpha-dynamo and perform axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of a T Tauri star. We find that for small values of the dimensionless dynamo parameter $\\alpha_d$ the poloidal field grows exponentially at a rate ${\\sigma} \\propto {\\Omega}_K \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ , before saturating to a value $\\propto \\sqrt{\\alpha_d}$ . The dynamo excites dipole and octupole modes, but quadrupole modes are suppressed, because of the symmetries of the seed field. Initial seed fields too weak to launch MHD outflows are found to grow sufficiently to launch winds with observationally relevant mass fluxes of order $10^{-9} M_{\\odot}/\\rm{yr}$ for T Tauri stars. For large values of $\\alpha_d$ magnetic loops are generated over the entire disc. These quickly come to dominate the disc dynamics and cause the disc to break up due to the magnetic pressure.
A holographic bound on cosmic magnetic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett McInnes
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Magnetic fields large enough to be observable are ubiquitous in astrophysics, even at extremely large length scales. This has led to the suggestion that such fields are seeded at very early (inflationary times, and subsequently amplified by various processes involving, for example, dynamo effects. Many such mechanisms give rise to extremely large magnetic fields at the end of inflationary reheating, and therefore also during the quark–gluon plasma epoch of the early universe. Such plasmas have a well-known holographic description in terms of a thermal asymptotically AdS black hole. We show that holography imposes an upper bound on the intensity of magnetic fields (≈3.6×1018gauss at the hadronization temperature in these circumstances; this is above, but not far above, the values expected in some models of cosmic magnetogenesis.
Measuring vector magnetic fields in solar prominences
Suárez, D Orozco; Bueno, J Trujillo
2012-01-01
We present spectropolarimetric observations in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet of a quiescent, hedgerow solar prominence. The data were taken with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife; Canary Islands; Spain). The observed He I circular and linear polarization signals are dominated by the Zeeman effect and by atomic level polarization and the Hanle effect, respectively. These observables are sensitive to the strength and orientation of the magnetic field vector at each spatial point of the field of view. We determine the magnetic field vector of the prominence by applying the HAZEL inversion code to the observed Stokes profiles. We briefly discuss the retrieved magnetic field vector configuration.
Magnetic fields during high redshift structure formation
Schleicher, Dominik R G; Schober, Jennifer; Schmidt, Wolfram; Bovino, Stefano; Federrath, Christoph; Niemeyer, Jens; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S
2012-01-01
We explore the amplification of magnetic fields in the high-redshift Universe. For this purpose, we perform high-resolution cosmological simulations following the formation of primordial halos with \\sim10^7 M_solar, revealing the presence of turbulent structures and complex morphologies at resolutions of at least 32 cells per Jeans length. Employing a turbulence subgrid-scale model, we quantify the amount of unresolved turbulence and show that the resulting turbulent viscosity has a significant impact on the gas morphology, suppressing the formation of low-mass clumps. We further demonstrate that such turbulence implies the efficient amplification of magnetic fields via the small-scale dynamo. We discuss the properties of the dynamo in the kinematic and non-linear regime, and explore the resulting magnetic field amplification during primordial star formation. We show that field strengths of \\sim10^{-5} G can be expected at number densities of \\sim5 cm^{-3}.
Inference of magnetic fields in inhomogeneous prominences
Milic, Ivan; Atanackovic, Olga
2016-01-01
Most of the quantitative information about the magnetic field vector in solar prominences comes from the analysis of the Hanle effect acting on lines formed by scattering. As these lines can be of non-negligible optical thickness, it is of interest to study the line formation process further. We investigate the multidimensional effects on the interpretation of spectropolarimetric observations, particularly on the inference of the magnetic field vector. We do this by analyzing the differences between multidimensional models, which involve fully self-consistent radiative transfer computations in the presence of spatial inhomogeneities and velocity fields, and those which rely on simple one-dimensional geometry. We study the formation of a prototype line in ad hoc inhomogeneous, isothermal 2D prominence models. We solve the NLTE polarized line formation problem in the presence of a large-scale oriented magnetic field. The resulting polarized line profiles are then interpreted (i.e. inverted) assuming a simple 1D...
Nonrelativistic Fermions in Magnetic Fields a Quantum Field Theory Approach
Espinosa, Olivier R; Lepe, S; Méndez, F
2001-01-01
The statistical mechanics of nonrelativistic fermions in a constant magnetic field is considered from the quantum field theory point of view. The fermionic determinant is computed using a general procedure that contains all possible regularizations. The nonrelativistic grand-potential can be expressed in terms polylogarithm functions, whereas the partition function in 2+1 dimensions and vanishing chemical potential can be compactly written in terms of the Dedekind eta function. The strong and weak magnetic fields limits are easily studied in the latter case by using the duality properties of the Dedekind function.
Vector magnetic field in solar polar region
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓元勇; 汪景秀; 艾国祥
1999-01-01
By means of ’deep integration’ observations of a videomagnetograph the vector magnetic field was first systematically measured near the solar south polar region on April 12, 1997 when the Sun was in the minimal phase between the 22nd and 23rd solar cycle. It was found that the polar magnetic field deviated from the normal of solar surface by about 42.2°±3.2°, a stronger magnetic element may have smaller inclination, and that within the polar cap above heliolatitude of 50°, the unsigned and net flux densities were 7.8×10-4 T and -3.4×10-4 T, respectively, and consequently, the unsigned and net fluxes were about 5.5×1022 and -2.5×1022 Mx. The net magnetic flux, which belongs to the large-scale global magnetic field of the Sun, roughly approaches the order of the interplanetary magnetic field （IMF） measured at distance of 1 AU.
Magnetic fields of young solar twins
Rosén, L; Hackman, T; Lehtinen, J
2016-01-01
The goal of this work is to study the magnetic fields of six young solar-analogue stars both individually, and collectively, to search for possible magnetic field trends with age. If such trends are found, they can be used to understand magnetism in the context of stellar evolution of solar-like stars and, the past of the Sun and the solar system. This is also important for the atmospheric evolution of the inner planets, Earth in particular. We used Stokes IV data from two different spectropolarimeters, NARVAL and HARPSpol. The least-squares deconvolution multi-line technique was used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We then applied a modern Zeeman-Doppler imaging code in order to reconstruct the magnetic topology of all stars and the brightness distribution of one of our studied stars. Our results show a significant decrease in the magnetic field strength and energy as the stellar age increases from 100Myr to 250Myr while there is no significant age dependence of the mean magnetic field str...
Magnetic fields in Local Group dwarf irregulars
Chyży, K. T.; Weżgowiec, M.; Beck, R.; Bomans, D. J.
2011-05-01
Aims: We wish to clarify whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in typically low-mass dwarf galaxies and to assess the role of dwarf galaxies in the magnetization of the Universe. Methods: We performed a search for radio emission and magnetic fields in an unbiased sample of 12 Local Group (LG) irregular and dwarf irregular galaxies with the 100-m Effelsberg telescope at 2.64 GHz. Three galaxies were detected. A higher frequency (4.85 GHz) was used to search for polarized emission in five dwarfs that are the most luminous ones in the infrared domain, of which three were detected. Results: Magnetic fields in LG dwarfs are weak, with a mean value of the total field strength of regulated mainly by the star-formation surface density (with the power-law exponent of 0.30 ± 0.04) or by the gas surface density (with the exponent 0.47 ± 0.09). In addition, we find systematically stronger fields in objects of higher global star-formation rate. The dwarf galaxies follow a similar far-infrared relationship (with a slope of 0.91 ± 0.08) to that determined for high surface brightness spiral galaxies. The magnetic field strength in dwarf galaxies does not correlate with their maximum rotational velocity, indicating that a small-scale rather than a large-scale dynamo process is responsible for producting magnetic fields in dwarfs. If magnetization of the Universe by galactic outflows is coeval with its metal enrichment, we show that more massive objects (such as Lyman break galaxies) can efficiently magnetize the intergalactic medium with a magnetic field strength of about 0.8 nG out to a distance of 160-530 kpc at redshifts 5-3, respectively. Magnetic fields that are several times weaker and shorter magnetization distances are expected for primordial dwarf galaxies. We also predict that most star-forming local dwarfs might have magnetized their surroundings up to a field strength about 0.1 μG within about a 5 kpc distance. Conclusions: Strong magnetic
Near-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance
Ledbetter, Micah; Blanchard, John; Ring, Hattie; Ganssle, Paul; Appelt, Stephan; Bluemich, Bernhard; Pines, Alex; Budker, Dmitry
2011-01-01
We investigate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in near-zero-field, where the Zeeman interaction can be treated as a perturbation to the electron mediated scalar interaction (J-coupling). This is in stark contrast to the high field case, where heteronuclear J-couplings are normally treated as a small perturbation. We show that the presence of very small magnetic fields results in splitting of the zero-field NMR lines, imparting considerable additional information to the pure zero-field spectra. Experimental results are in good agreement with first-order perturbation theory and with full numerical simulation when perturbation theory breaks down. We present simple rules for understanding the splitting patterns in near-zero-field NMR, which can be applied to molecules with non-trivial spectra.
Near-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance.
Ledbetter, M P; Theis, T; Blanchard, J W; Ring, H; Ganssle, P; Appelt, S; Blümich, B; Pines, A; Budker, D
2011-09-02
We investigate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in near zero field, where the Zeeman interaction can be treated as a perturbation to the electron mediated scalar interaction (J coupling). This is in stark contrast to the high-field case, where heteronuclear J couplings are normally treated as a small perturbation. We show that the presence of very small magnetic fields results in splitting of the zero-field NMR lines, imparting considerable additional information to the pure zero-field spectra. Experimental results are in good agreement with first-order perturbation theory and with full numerical simulation when perturbation theory breaks down. We present simple rules for understanding the splitting patterns in near-zero-field NMR, which can be applied to molecules with nontrivial spectra.
Magnetic Fields in the Interstellar Medium
Clark, Susan
2017-01-01
The Milky Way is magnetized. Invisible magnetic fields thread the Galaxy on all scales and play a vital but still poorly understood role in regulating flows of gas in the interstellar medium and the formation of stars. I will present highlights from my thesis work on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas and in accretion disks. At high Galactic latitudes, diffuse neutral hydrogen is organized into an intricate network of slender linear features. I will show that these neutral hydrogen “fibers” are extremely well aligned with the ambient magnetic field as traced by both starlight polarization (Clark et al. 2014) and Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission (Clark et al. 2015). The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. Because the orientation of neutral hydrogen is an independent predictor of the local dust polarization angle, our work provides a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination. Magnetic fields also drive accretion in astrophysical disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I analytically derive the behavior of this instability in the weakly nonlinear regime and show that the saturated state of the instability depends on the geometry of the background magnetic field. The analytical model describes the behavior of the MRI in a Taylor-Couette flow, a set-up used by experimentalists in the ongoing quest to observe MRI in the laboratory (Clark & Oishi 2016a, 2016b).
Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.
Kuznetsov, O.
In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (Δ ≊ HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that intracellular magnetophoresis of
Inference of magnetic fields in inhomogeneous prominences
Milić, I.; Faurobert, M.; Atanacković, O.
2017-01-01
Context. Most of the quantitative information about the magnetic field vector in solar prominences comes from the analysis of the Hanle effect acting on lines formed by scattering. As these lines can be of non-negligible optical thickness, it is of interest to study the line formation process further. Aims: We investigate the multidimensional effects on the interpretation of spectropolarimetric observations, particularly on the inference of the magnetic field vector. We do this by analyzing the differences between multidimensional models, which involve fully self-consistent radiative transfer computations in the presence of spatial inhomogeneities and velocity fields, and those which rely on simple one-dimensional geometry. Methods: We study the formation of a prototype line in ad hoc inhomogeneous, isothermal 2D prominence models. We solve the NLTE polarized line formation problem in the presence of a large-scale oriented magnetic field. The resulting polarized line profiles are then interpreted (i.e. inverted) assuming a simple 1D slab model. Results: We find that differences between input and the inferred magnetic field vector are non-negligible. Namely, we almost universally find that the inferred field is weaker and more horizontal than the input field. Conclusions: Spatial inhomogeneities and radiative transfer have a strong effect on scattering line polarization in the optically thick lines. In real-life situations, ignoring these effects could lead to a serious misinterpretation of spectropolarimetric observations of chromospheric objects such as prominences.
Whistler modes with wave magnetic fields exceeding the ambient field.
Stenzel, R L; Urrutia, J M; Strohmaier, K D
2006-03-10
Whistler-mode wave packets with fields exceeding the ambient dc magnetic field have been excited in a large, high electron-beta plasma. The waves are induced with a loop antenna with dipole moment either along or opposite to the dc field. In the latter case the excited wave packets have the topology of a spheromak but are propagating in the whistler mode along and opposite to the dc magnetic field. Field-reversed configurations with net zero helicity have also been produced. The electron magnetohydrodynamics fields are force free, have wave energy density exceeding the particle energy density, and propagate stably at subelectron thermal velocities through a nearly uniform stationary ion density background.
Dissipation function in a magnetic field (Review)
Gurevich, V. L.
2015-07-01
The dissipation function is introduced to describe the behavior of the system of harmonic oscillations interacting with the environment (thermostat). This is a quadratic function of generalized velocities, which determines the rate of dissipation of the mechanical energy in the system. It was assumed earlier (Landau, Lifshitz) that the dissipation function can be introduced only in the absence of magnetic field. In the present review based on the author's studies, it has been shown how the dissipation function can be introduced in the presence of a magnetic field B. In a magnetic field, both dissipative and nondissipative responses arise as a response to perturbation and are expressed in terms of kinetic coefficients. The matrix of nondissipative coefficients can be obtained to determine an additional term formally including it into the equations of motion, which still satisfy the energy conservation law. Then, the dissipative part of the matrix can be considered in exactly the same way as without magnetic field, i.e., it defines the dissipation loss. As examples, the propagation and absorption of ultrasound in a metal or a semiconductor in a magnetic field have been considered using two methods: (i) the method based on the phenomenological theory using the equations of the theory of elasticity and (ii) the method based on the microscopic approach by analyzing and solving the kinetic equation. Both examples are used to illustrate the approach with the dissipation function.
Magnetic Fields and Massive Star Formation
Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M; Hauyu,; Liu,; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M; Li, Zhi-Yun; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T P; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping; Ching, Tao-Chung; Frau, Pau; Chen, How-Huan; Li, Hua-Bai; Padovani, Marco; Bontemps, Sylvain; Csengeri, Timea; Juarez, Carmen
2014-01-01
Massive stars ($M > 8$ \\msun) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 $\\mu$m obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of $\\lsim$ 0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within $40^\\circ$ of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the ...
Magnetic fields of the outer planets
Connerney, J. E. P.
1993-01-01
It is difficult to imagine a group of planetary dynamos more diverse than those visited by the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft. The magnetic field of Jupiter is large in magnitude and has a dipole axis within 10 deg of its rotation axis, comfortably consistent with the paleomagnetic history of the geodynamo. Saturn's remarkable (zonal harmonic) magnetic field has an axis of symmetry that is indistinguishable from its rotation axis (mush less than 1 deg angular separation); it is also highly antisymmetric with respect to the equator plane. According to one hypothesis, the spin symmetry may arise from the differential rotation of an electrically conducting and stably stratified layer above the dynamo. The magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune are very much alike, and equally unlike those of the other known magnetized planets. These two planets are characterized by a large dipole tilts (59 deg and 47 deg, respectively) and quadrupole moments (Schmidt-normalized quadrupole/dipole ratio approximately equal 1.0). These properties may be characteristic of dynamo generation in the relatively poorly conducting 'ice' interiors of Uranus and Neptune. Characteristics of these planetary magnetic fields are illustrated using contour maps of the field on the planet's surface and discussed in the context of planetary interiors and dynamo generation.
Cosmic Magnetic Fields: Observations and Prospects
Beck, Rainer
2011-01-01
Synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation at radio frequencies of 0.2-10 GHz are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of cosmic magnetic fields. The observational results are reviewed for spiral, barred and flocculent galaxies, the Milky Way, halos and relics of galaxy clusters, and for the intergalactic medium. Polarization observations with the forthcoming large radio telescopes will open a new era in the observation of cosmic magnetic fields and will help to understand their origin. At low frequencies, LOFAR (10-250 MHz) will allow us to map the structure of weak magnetic fields in the outer regions and halos of galaxies and galaxy clusters. Polarization at higher frequencies (1-10 GHz), as observed with the EVLA, ASKAP, MeerKAT, APERTIF and the SKA, will trace magnetic fields in the disks and central regions of nearby galaxies in unprecedented detail. Surveys of Faraday rotation measures of pulsars will map the Milky Way's magnetic field with high precision. All-sky sur...
Magnetic fields in primordial accretion disks
Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.
2016-01-01
Magnetic fields are considered a vital ingredient of contemporary star formation and may have been important during the formation of the first stars in the presence of an efficient amplification mechanism. Initial seed fields are provided via plasma fluctuations and are subsequently amplified by the small-scale dynamo, leading to a strong, tangled magnetic field. We explore how the magnetic field provided by the small-scale dynamo is further amplified via the α-Ω dynamo in a protostellar disk and assess its implications. For this purpose, we consider two characteristic cases, a typical Pop. III star with 10M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, and a supermassive star with 105M⊙ and an accretion rate of 10-1M⊙ yr-1. For the 10M⊙ Pop. III star, we find that coherent magnetic fields can be produced on scales of at least 100 AU, which are sufficient to drive a jet with a luminosity of 100L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-3.7M⊙ yr-1. For the supermassive star, the dynamical timescales in its environment are even shorter, implying smaller orbital timescales and an efficient magnetization out to at least 1000 AU. The jet luminosity corresponds to ~106.0L⊙ and a mass outflow rate of 10-2.1M⊙ yr-1. We expect that the feedback from the supermassive star can have a relevant impact on its host galaxy.
Magnetic Field Strengths in Photodissociation Regions
Balser, Dana S; Jeyakumar, S; Bania, T M; Montet, Benjamin T; Shitanishi, J A
2015-01-01
We measure carbon radio recombination line (RRL) emission at 5.3 GHz toward four HII regions with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to determine the magnetic field strength in the photodissociation region (PDR) that surrounds the ionized gas. Roshi (2007) suggests that the non-thermal line widths of carbon RRLs from PDRs are predominantly due to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) waves, thus allowing the magnetic field strength to be derived. We model the PDR with a simple geometry and perform the non-LTE radiative transfer of the carbon RRL emission to solve for the PDR physical properties. Using the PDR mass density from these models and the carbon RRL non-thermal line width we estimate total magnetic field strengths of B ~ 100-300 micro Gauss in W3 and NGC6334A. Our results for W49 and NGC6334D are less well constrained with total magnetic field strengths between B ~ 200-1000 micro Gauss. HI and OH Zeeman measurements of the line-of-sight magnetic field strength (B_los), taken from the literature, are between a facto...
Magnetic field effect on spoke behaviour
Hnilica, Jaroslav; Slapanska, Marta; Klein, Peter; Vasina, Petr
2016-09-01
The investigations of the non-reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge using high-speed camera imaging, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical probes showed that plasma is not homogeneously distributed over the target surface, but it is concentrated in regions of higher local plasma density called spokes rotating above the erosion racetrack. Magnetic field effect on spoke behaviour was studied by high-speed camera imaging in HiPIMS discharge using 3 inch titanium target. An employed camera enabled us to record two successive images in the same pulse with time delay of 3 μs between them, which allowed us to determine the number of spokes, spoke rotation velocity and spoke rotation frequency. The experimental conditions covered pressure range from 0.15 to 5 Pa, discharge current up to 350 A and magnetic fields of 37, 72 and 91 mT. Increase of the magnetic field influenced the number of spokes observed at the same pressure and at the same discharge current. Moreover, the investigation revealed different characteristic spoke shapes depending on the magnetic field strength - both diffusive and triangular shapes were observed for the same target material. The spoke rotation velocity was independent on the magnetic field strength. This research has been financially supported by the Czech Science Foundation in frame of the project 15-00863S.